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Sample records for chromosomes lacking gene

  1. Lack of global meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, and paucity of tissue-specific gene expression on the Drosophila X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paucity of male-biased genes on the Drosophila X chromosome is a well-established phenomenon, thought to be specifically linked to the role of these genes in reproduction and/or their expression in the meiotic male germline. In particular, meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has been widely considered a driving force behind depletion of spermatocyte-biased X-linked genes in Drosophila by analogy with mammals, even though the existence of global MCSI in Drosophila has not been proven. Results Microarray-based study and qRT-PCR analyses show that the dynamics of gene expression during testis development are very similar between X-linked and autosomal genes, with both showing transcriptional activation concomitant with meiosis. However, the genes showing at least ten-fold expression bias toward testis are significantly underrepresented on the X chromosome. Intriguingly, the genes with similar expression bias toward tissues other than testis, even those not apparently associated with reproduction, are also strongly underrepresented on the X. Bioinformatics analysis shows that while tissue-specific genes often bind silencing-associated factors in embryonic and cultured cells, this trend is less prominent for the X-linked genes. Conclusions Our data show that the global meiotic inactivation of the X chromosome does not occur in Drosophila. Paucity of testis-biased genes on the X appears not to be linked to reproduction or germline-specific events, but rather reflects a general underrepresentation of tissue-biased genes on this chromosome. Our analyses suggest that the activation/repression switch mechanisms that probably orchestrate the highly-biased expression of tissue-specific genes are generally not efficient on the X chromosome. This effect, probably caused by dosage compensation counteracting repression of the X-linked genes, may be the cause of the exodus of highly tissue-biased genes to the autosomes. PMID:21542906

  2. Lack of association between the pseudo deficiency mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene on chromosome 22 with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.L.; Chetty, V.; Kasch, L.

    1994-09-01

    Arylsulfatase-A deficiency causes the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease metachromatic leukodystrophy. In the late-onset variant, schizophrenia-like psychosis is a frequent finding and sometimes given as the initial diagnosis. A mutant allele, pseudo-deficiency, causes deficient enzyme activity but no apparent clinical effect. It occurs at a high frequency and consists of two tightly-linked A{r_arrow}G transitions: one causing the loss of a glycosylation site (PDg); and one causing the loss of a polyadenylation signal (PDa). Since this gene was mapped to chromosome 22q13-qter, a region implicated in a potential linkage with schizophrenia, we hypothesized that this common mutation may be a predisposing genetic factor for schizophrenia. We studied a random sample of schizophrenic patients for possible increase in frequency of the pseudo-deficiency mutations and in multiplex families to verify if the mutations are linked to schizophrenia. Among 50 Caucasian patients identified through out-patient and in-patient clinics, the frequencies for the three alleles PDg + PDa together, PDg or PDa alone were 11%, 5% and 0%, respectively. The corresponding frequencies among 100 Caucasian controls were 7.5%, 6% and 0%, respectively, the differences between the patients and controls being insignificant ({chi}{sup 2}tests: 0.10

  3. Molecular characterization of tiny ring X chromosomes from females with functional X chromosome disomy and lack of cis X inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, M.M.; Torchia, B.S.; Migeon, B.R.

    1995-05-01

    Small ring X chromosomes were first described in mosaic karyotypes of females with the relatively benign phenotype of Turner syndrome. The presence of these rings in association with more severe phenotypes including mental retardation has raised the possibility that they lack sequences necessary for X chromosome inactivation center (XIC) essential for cis X-inactivation. The authors recently showed that ring X chromosomes ascertained because of the severe phenotype do not express XIST, a candidate for the relevant gene, and that they are in fact active chromosomes. They now report studies of the genetic content of 11 of these ring X chromosomes (9 associated with severe phenotypes). The results indicate that these chromosomes contain contiguous segments of DNA and have variable proximal and distal breakpoints and some include mainly long arm or mainly short arm sequences. As expected for ring chromosomes, they lack telomeric sequences. Many of the ring chromosomes lack the XIST locus, consistent with XIST being necessary for cis inactivation. However, the breakpoints in four ring chromosomes that have XIST sequences but do not express XIST suggest that other sequences within the XIC distal to XIST as it is now defined are also needed. 39 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The X chromosome and immune associated genes.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Ilaria; Lleo, Ana; Gershwin, M Eric; Invernizzi, Pietro

    2012-05-01

    The X chromosome is known to contain the largest number of immune-related genes of the whole human genome. For this reason, X chromosome has recently become subject of great interest and attention and numerous studies have been aimed at understanding the role of genes on the X chromosome in triggering and maintaining the autoimmune aggression. Autoimmune diseases are indeed a growing heath burden affecting cumulatively up to 10% of the general population. It is intriguing that most X-linked primary immune deficiencies carry significant autoimmune manifestations, thus illustrating the critical role played by products of single gene located on the X chromosome in the onset, function and homeostasis of the immune system. Again, the plethora of autoimmune stigmata observed in patients with Turner syndrome, a disease due to the lack of one X chromosome or the presence of major X chromosome deletions, indicate that X-linked genes play a unique and major role in autoimmunity. There have been several reports on a role of X chromosome gene dosage through inactivation or duplication in women with autoimmune diseases, for example through a higher rate of circulating cells with a single X chromosome (i.e. with X monosomy). Finally, a challenge for researchers in the coming years will be to dissect the role for the large number of X-linked microRNAs from the perspective of autoimmune disease development. Taken together, X chromosome might well constitute the common trait of the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, other than to explain the female preponderance of these conditions. This review will focus on the available evidence on X chromosome changes and discuss their potential implications and limitations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  6. Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Emerson, J J; Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  7. Lack of segregation of a Marfan-like phenotype associating marfanoie habitus and mitral valve disease with fibrillin gene on chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    VanMaldergen, L.; Hilbert, P.; Gillerot, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Apart from typical Marfan syndrome (MS), several Marfan-like conditions are known. One of those is the MASS syndrome (Mitral involvement, Aortic dilatation, Skin and Skeletal abnormalities) defined by Pyeritz et al. Among these, a dominantly inherited mitral valve prolapse with marfanoid habitus have also been reported. Until now, except for a Marfan-like condition described by Boileau et al., all Marfan families are linked to fib 15. A large Belgian pedigree with 25 affected patients among 62 at risk subjects spanning four generations is described. A syndrome including marfanoid skeletal dysplasia (tall stature, dolichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, pectus carinatum joint dislocation), prolapse and/or myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, but without aortic dilatation of eye involvement was observed. Although the phenotype fulfills Berlin diagnostic criteria for MS, it closely resembles MASS syndrome. Preliminary linkage results show discordance aggregation insertion in the fib 15 gene, as evaluated by intragenic microsatellite fib 15. Since Dietz et al. described a similar patient with fib 15 gene, we suggest that this variant of Marfan syndrome is genetically heterogeneous and caused by mutations, some of which are allelic to classical Marfan syndrome plus a subtype, some of which are not. Linkage studies are under way to further characterize the gene involved in the present family.

  8. Chromosomal destabilization during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J C; Wahl, G M

    1990-01-01

    Acentric extrachromosomal elements, such as submicroscopic autonomously replicating circular molecules (episomes) and double minute chromosomes, are common early, and in some cases initial, intermediates of gene amplification in many drug-resistant and tumor cell lines. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the amplification process, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which such extrachromosomal elements are generated and we traced the fate of these amplification intermediates over time. The model system consists of a Chinese hamster cell line (L46) created by gene transfer in which the initial amplification product was shown previously to be an unstable extrachromosomal element containing an inverted duplication spanning more than 160 kilobases (J. C. Ruiz and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4302-4313, 1988). In this study, we show that these molecules were formed by a process involving chromosomal deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at multiple time points on cells with amplified sequences. These studies reveal that the extrachromosomal molecules rapidly integrate into chromosomes, often near or at telomeres, and once integrated, the amplified sequences are themselves unstable. These data provide a molecular and cytogenetic chronology for gene amplification in this model system; an early event involves deletion to generate extrachromosomal elements, and subsequent integration of these elements precipitates a cascade of chromosome instability. Images PMID:2188107

  9. Roles of the Y chromosome genes in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Kido, Tatsuo; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

    2015-01-01

    Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of various tissues. Deletions or translocation of the sex-determining gene, SRY, from the Y chromosome causes disorders of sex development (previously termed as an intersex condition) with dysgenic gonads. Failure of gonadal development results not only in infertility, but also in increased risks of germ cell tumor (GCT), such as gonadoblastoma and various types of testicular GCT. Recent studies demonstrate that either loss of Y chromosome or ectopic expression of Y chromosome genes is closely associated with various male-biased diseases, including selected somatic cancers. These observations suggest that the Y-linked genes are involved in male health and diseases in more frequently than expected. Although only a small number of protein-coding genes are present in the male-specific region of Y chromosome, the impacts of Y chromosome genes on human diseases are still largely unknown, due to lack of in vivo models and differences between the Y chromosomes of human and rodents. In this review, we highlight the involvement of selected Y chromosome genes in cancer development in men.

  10. Lack of association between Y-chromosomal haplogroups and prostate cancer in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook; Yoo, Tag-Keun; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Eun-Tak; Bae, Yoon-Sun

    2007-01-24

    The Y chromosome has recently been suggested to have an association with prostate cancer risk in human populations. Since this chromosome is haploid and lacks recombination over most of its length, haplotypes constructed from binary markers throughout the chromosome can be used for association studies. To assess the possible Y-chromosomal contribution to prostate cancer risk, we have therefore analyzed 14 Y-chromosomal binary markers in 106 prostate cancer cases and 110 controls from the Korean population. In contrast to previous findings in the Japanese population, no statistically significant difference in the distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup frequencies was observed between the case and control groups of Koreans. Thus, our data imply that the previously reported associations between Y-chromosomal lineages and a predisposition to, or protection against, prostate cancer might be explained by statistical fluctuations, or by genetic effects that are seen only in some environments.

  11. Characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec insertion site in 108 isolates lacking the mecA gene and identified as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by the Xpert MRSA assay.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, M; Blanc, D S

    2014-11-01

    During a 3-year period, 848 patients were detected as carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the Xpert MRSA assay (Cepheid). Among them, 108 patients (12.7 %) were colonized with strains showing methicillin-susceptible phenotypes and absence of the mecA gene, despite being positive with the rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DNA sequences of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) insertion site of these "false-positive" strains was determined by direct sequencing of the genomic DNA. More than half (53.7 %) of the strains had DNA sequences unrelated to either SCC or SCCmec and one-third had DNA sequences related to non-mec SCC. Only 10.2 % of the strains carried sequences related to SCCmec, suggesting that a sequence containing the mecA gene was lost from an SCCmec. These findings differ from the general idea that all methicillin-susceptible S. aureus having positive Xpert MRSA assay results are essentially MRSA that lost the mecA gene.

  12. GeneBreak: detection of recurrent DNA copy number aberration-associated chromosomal breakpoints within genes.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Evert; van Lieshout, Stef; Rausch, Christian; Ylstra, Bauke; van de Wiel, Mark A; Meijer, Gerrit A; Fijneman, Remond J A; Abeln, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Development of cancer is driven by somatic alterations, including numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations. Currently, several computational methods are available and are widely applied to detect numerical copy number aberrations (CNAs) of chromosomal segments in tumor genomes. However, there is lack of computational methods that systematically detect structural chromosomal aberrations by virtue of the genomic location of CNA-associated chromosomal breaks and identify genes that appear non-randomly affected by chromosomal breakpoints across (large) series of tumor samples. 'GeneBreak' is developed to systematically identify genes recurrently affected by the genomic location of chromosomal CNA-associated breaks by a genome-wide approach, which can be applied to DNA copy number data obtained by array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) or by (low-pass) whole genome sequencing (WGS). First, 'GeneBreak' collects the genomic locations of chromosomal CNA-associated breaks that were previously pinpointed by the segmentation algorithm that was applied to obtain CNA profiles. Next, a tailored annotation approach for breakpoint-to-gene mapping is implemented. Finally, dedicated cohort-based statistics is incorporated with correction for covariates that influence the probability to be a breakpoint gene. In addition, multiple testing correction is integrated to reveal recurrent breakpoint events. This easy-to-use algorithm, 'GeneBreak', is implemented in R ( www.cran.r-project.org) and is available from Bioconductor ( www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GeneBreak.html).

  13. Mapping genes to human chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Sarah

    1996-05-01

    For this project, 22 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were fine mapped to regions of human chromosome 19. An EST is a short DNA sequence that occurs once in the genome and corresponds to a single expressed gene. {sup 32}P-radiolabeled probes were made by polymerase chain reaction for each EST and hybridized to filters containing a chromosome 19-specific cosmid library. The location of the ESTs on the chromosome was determined by the location of the ordered cosmid to which the EST hybridized. Of the 22 ESTs that were sublocalized, 6 correspond to known genes, and 16 correspond to anonymous genes. These localized ESTs may serve as potential candidates for disease genes, as well as markers for future physical mapping.

  14. Small marker X chromosomes lack the X inactivation center: implications for karyotype/phenotype correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, D. J.; Brown, C. J.; Schwartz, S.; Duncan, A. M.; Surti, U.; Willard, H. F.

    1994-01-01

    The abnormal phenotype and/or mental retardation seen in persons with small marker X (mar(X)) chromosomes has been hypothesized to be due to the loss of the X inactivation center (XIC) at Xq13.2, resulting in two active copies of genes in the pericentromeric region. In order to define precisely the DNA content of mar(X) chromosomes and to correlate phenotype with karyotype, we studied small mar(X) chromosomes, using FISH with probes in the juxtacentromeric region. One of the probes was a 40-kb genomic cosmid for the XIST gene, which maps to the smallest interval known to contain the XIC and is thought to be involved in X inactivation. Our findings reveal that small mar(X) chromosomes do not include the XIC and therefore cannot be subject to X inactivation, supporting the premise that abnormal dosage of expressed genes in the pericentromeric region of the X generates the aberrant phenotype seen in patients with small mar(X) chromosomes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8023855

  15. Marker chromosomes lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA: A new intriguing class of abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, L.A.; Zinn, A.B.; Stallard, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies have implicated {alpha}-satellite DNA as an integral part of the centromere and important for the normal segregation of chromosomes. We analyzed four supernumerary marker chromosomes in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) could detect neither pancentromeric or chromosome specific {alpha}-satellite DNA. Mosaicism of the markers existed, but each was present in the majority of cells indicating that they segregated normally. FISH with chromosome-specific libraries identified the origins of these markers as chromosomes 13 (1 case) and 15 (3 cases). High resolution analysis, combined with hybridization of a series of cosmid probes, revealed that each marker was a symmetrical duplication of the terminal long arm of the parent chromosome. Telomeric sequences were detected by FISH indicating linear structures. Breakpoint heterogeneity, as defined by cosmid probes, was demonstrated in the three cases involving chromosome 15. No pericentromeric satellite III DNA could be detected on three markers. Studies with anti-centromere antibodies are in progress to assay for centromeric antigens on the markers, as expected at functional centromeric sites. Our results demonstrate that the precise structural identification and heterogeneity of these markers can be easily elucidated using FISH with unique sequence cosmid probes. We conclude from our studies and others in the literature: (1) there is a newly defined class of markers lacking {alpha}-satellite DNA and containing duplications of terminal sequences; (2)neither {alpha}-satellite nor satellite III DNA at levels detectable by FISH is necessary for fidelity in the normal segregation of chromosomes; and (3) these markers were most likely formed by recombination of the long arms during meiosis.

  16. Making the Chromosome-Gene-Protein Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Presents an exercise that demonstrates the chromosome-gene-protein connection using sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disease with a well-characterized molecular basis. Involves connecting changes in DNA to protein outcomes and tying them into the next generation by meiosis and gamete formation with genetic crosses. Motivates students to integrate…

  17. Making the Chromosome-Gene-Protein Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Presents an exercise that demonstrates the chromosome-gene-protein connection using sickle-cell anemia, a genetic disease with a well-characterized molecular basis. Involves connecting changes in DNA to protein outcomes and tying them into the next generation by meiosis and gamete formation with genetic crosses. Motivates students to integrate…

  18. Gene expression homeostasis and chromosome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2014-01-01

    In rapidly growing populations of bacterial cells, including those of the model organism Escherichia coli, genes essential for growth - such as those involved in protein synthesis - are expressed at high levels; this is in contrast to many horizontally-acquired genes, which are maintained at low transcriptional levels.1 This balance in gene expression states between 2 distinct classes of genes is established by a galaxy of transcriptional regulators, including the so-called nucleoid associated proteins (NAP) that contribute to shaping the chromosome.2 Besides these active players in gene regulation, it is not too far-fetched to anticipate that genome organization in terms of how genes are arranged on the chromosome,3 which is the result of long-drawn transactions among genome rearrangement processes and selection, and the manner in which it is structured inside the cell, plays a role in establishing this balance. A recent study from our group has contributed to the literature investigating the interplay between global transcriptional regulators and genome organization in establishing gene expression homeostasis.4 In particular, we address a triangle of functional interactions among genome organization, gene expression homeostasis and horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25997086

  19. Small marker X chromosomes lack the X inactivation center: Implications for karyotype/phenotype correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, D.J.; Brown, C.J.; Schwartz, S.; Willard, H.F. ); Duncan, A.M.V. ); Surti, U. )

    1994-07-01

    The abnormal phenotype and/or mental retardation seen in persons with small marker X (mar(X)) chromsomes has been hypothesized to be due to the loss of the X inactivation center (XIC) at Xq31.2, resulting in two active copies of genes in the pericentromeric region. In order to define precisely the DNA content of mar(X) chromosomes and to correlate phenotype with karyotype, the authors studied small mar(X) chromosomes, using FISH with probes in the juxtacentromeric region. One of the probes was a 40-kb genomic cosmid for the XIST gene, which maps to the smallest interval known to contain the XIC and is though to be involved in X inactivation. The findings reveal that small mar(X) chromosomes do not include the XIC and therefore cannot be subject to X inactivation, supporting the premise that abnormal dosage of expressed genes in the pericentromeric region of the X generates the aberrant phenotype seen in patients with small mar(X) chromosomes. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Little evidence for demasculinization of the Drosophila X chromosome among genes expressed in the male germline.

    PubMed

    Meiklejohn, Colin D; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-01-01

    Male-biased genes-those expressed at higher levels in males than in females-are underrepresented on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Several evolutionary models have been posited to explain this so-called demasculinization of the X. Here, we show that the apparent paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome is attributable to global X-autosome differences in expression in Drosophila testes, owing to a lack of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the male germline, but not to any difference in the density of testis-specific or testis-biased genes on the X chromosome. First, using genome-wide gene expression data from 20 tissues, we find no evidence that genes with testis-specific expression are underrepresented on the X chromosome. Second, using contrasts in gene expression profiles among pairs of tissues, we recover a statistical underrepresentation of testis-biased genes on the X but find that the pattern largely disappears once we account for the lack of dosage compensation in the Drosophila male germline. Third, we find that computationally "demasculinizing" the autosomes is not sufficient to produce an expression profile similar to that of the X chromosome in the testes. Our findings thus show that the lack of sex chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila testes can explain the apparent signal of demasculinization on the X, whereas evolutionary demasculinization of the X cannot explain its overall reduced expression in the testes.

  1. The NEUROD gene maps to human chromosome 2q32 and mouse chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, R.; Dyer-Montgomery, K.; Hernandez, R.; Tapscott, S.J.

    1996-06-15

    The Neurod gene is a basic-helix-loop-helix gene that regulates neurogenesis and is identical to the hamster beta2 gene that was cloned as a regulator of insulin transcription. Here we report the cloning of human NEUROD and mapping of the gene to human chromosome 2q32 and to mouse chromosome 2. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Little Evidence for Demasculinization of the Drosophila X Chromosome among Genes Expressed in the Male Germline

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, Colin D.; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2012-01-01

    Male-biased genes—those expressed at higher levels in males than in females—are underrepresented on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Several evolutionary models have been posited to explain this so-called demasculinization of the X. Here, we show that the apparent paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome is attributable to global X-autosome differences in expression in Drosophila testes, owing to a lack of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the male germline, but not to any difference in the density of testis-specific or testis-biased genes on the X chromosome. First, using genome-wide gene expression data from 20 tissues, we find no evidence that genes with testis-specific expression are underrepresented on the X chromosome. Second, using contrasts in gene expression profiles among pairs of tissues, we recover a statistical underrepresentation of testis-biased genes on the X but find that the pattern largely disappears once we account for the lack of dosage compensation in the Drosophila male germline. Third, we find that computationally “demasculinizing” the autosomes is not sufficient to produce an expression profile similar to that of the X chromosome in the testes. Our findings thus show that the lack of sex chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila testes can explain the apparent signal of demasculinization on the X, whereas evolutionary demasculinization of the X cannot explain its overall reduced expression in the testes. PMID:22975718

  3. Chromosomal localization of the human fibromodulin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Roughley, P.J.; Sztrolovics, R.; Grover, J.

    1994-09-01

    The identification and mapping of genes is a fundamental step in understanding inherited diseases. This study reports the chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding fibromodulin, a collagen-binding proteoglycan which exhibits a wide distribution in connective tissue extracellular matrices. Attempts to localize the gene utilizing a probe covering the published coding region of the human fibromodulin cDNA were unsuccessful. Thus, in order to obtain an alternate probe, the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the cDNA was cloned utilizing the 3{prime}-RACE protocol. Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA with probes covering either the coding sequence or the 3{prime}-untranslated region revealed simple patterns, indicative of a single-copy gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with the 3{prime}-untranslated region probe resulted in hybridization at two chromosomal regions. The majority of signals were observed at 1q32, but some signals were also observed at 9q34.1. The localization of the fibromodulin gene to chromosome 1 was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction analysis of genomic DNA from a panel of somatic cell hybrid lines. In addition to allowing the gene localization, cloning of the 3{prime}-untranslated region demonstrates that the human fibromodulin cDNA possesses an insert of approximately 160 base pairs which is not present in the published bovine sequence. The human sequence also possesses a single polyadenylation signal, yielding a 3 kb mRNA which was observed in Northern blotting experiments. These results now provide the necessary information to evaluate the potential role of fibromodulin in genetic disorders of connective tissues.

  4. Proof of physical exchange of genes on the chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Edward; Kass, Lee B.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-five years ago, a convincing demonstration that the genes were physically aligned along the chromosome was lacking. Harriet Creighton (1909–2004) and Barbara McClintock (1902–1992) [Creighton, H. B. & McClintock, B. (1931) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 17, 492–497] showed by an elegantly simple experiment in 1931 that exchange between genes was accompanied by exchange of cytological, i.e., physical, parts of chromosomes. The work has been acclaimed as one of the great experiments in biology. Creighton's doctoral dissertation under McClintock's mentorship provided the basis for the landmark paper, which was unique in merging cytological with genetic data. A companion paper by McClintock, printed and bound back-to-back with the joint paper, set the essential stage with data on the cytological and genetic features that Creighton applied. Following directly from this work, and leading to today's recognition that the genome is a graspable entity, was the knowledge that the genes could be studied as components of a linear structure, the chromosome. Here, we review the data surrounding the Creighton and McClintock paper and provide a perspective on the significance of their findings. PMID:15867161

  5. Molecular characterization and epidemiology of cefoxitin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae lacking inducible chromosomal ampC genes from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Algeria: description of new sequence type in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

    PubMed

    Gharout-Sait, Alima; Touati, Abdelaziz; Guillard, Thomas; Brasme, Lucien; de Champs, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 922 consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients at Bejaia, Algeria were analyzed for AmpC-type β-lactamases production. The ampC genes and their genetic environment were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Plasmid incompatibility groups were determined by using PCR-based replicon typing. Phylogenetic grouping and multilocus sequence typing were determined for molecular typing of the plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC) isolates. Of the isolates, 15 (1.6%) were identified as AmpC producers including 14 CMY-4-producing isolates and one DHA-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. All AmpC-producing isolates co-expressed the broad-spectrum TEM-1 β-lactamase and three of them co-produced CTX-M and/or SHV-12 ESBL. Phylogenetic grouping and virulence genotyping of the E. coli isolates revealed that most of them belonged to groups D and B1. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of K. pneumoniae isolates identified four different sequence types (STs) with two new sequences: ST1617 and ST1618. Plasmid replicon typing indicates that blaCMY-4 gene was located on broad host range A/C plasmid, while LVPK replicon was associated with blaDHA-1. All isolates carrying blaCMY-4 displayed the transposon-like structures ISEcp1/ΔISEcp1-blaCMY-blc-sugE. Our study showed that CMY-4 was the main pAmpC in the Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Algeria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. The thyroglobulin gene resides on chromosome 8 in man and on chromosome 7 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brocas, H; Szpirer, J; Lebo, R V; Levan, G; Szpirer, C; Cheung, M C; Vassart, G

    1985-01-01

    Human chromosomes were separated by a dual laser FACS sorter and their DNA hybridized with a thyroglobulin gene probe. A strong hybridization signal was obtained with DNA from chromosome 8. A panel of mouse-rat cell hybrids was used to determine the chromosomal localization of the rat thyroglobulin gene by the Southern blotting method. Comparison of the cytogenetic data with the hybridization signals obtained with the rat thyroglobulin probe allowed assignment of this gene to rat chromosome 7. It is concluded that the synteny relationship between the thyroglobulin gene and the c-myc oncogene has been conserved in rat and man.

  7. Chromosomal localization of the human elastin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, B S; Cannizzaro, L; Ornstein-Goldstein, N; Indik, Z K; Yoon, K; May, M; Oliver, L; Boyd, C; Rosenbloom, J

    1985-01-01

    mRNA isolated from fetal human aorta was used to synthesize cDNA that was cloned into the PstI site of pBR322. The recombinant clones were screened with an authentic sheep elastin cDNA, and one human clone that hybridized strongly was isolated and characterized. The 421-base pair (bp) insert of this human clone was sequenced by the dideoxy method, and the DNA sequence showed strong homology to the nontranslated portion of the sheep elastin cDNA. This result unequivocally identified the human clone, designated pcHEL1, as an elastin clone. Plasmid pcHEL1 labeled with [3H] nucleotides was used in in situ hybridization experiments utilizing normal metaphase chromosomes and also with cells carrying a balanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 2: 46,XY,t(1;2)(p36;q31). The results strongly suggest that the elastin gene is localized to the q31----qter region of chromosome 2. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3840328

  8. The genome of Nectria haematococca: contribution of supernumerary chromosomes to gene expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.J.; Rounsley, S.D.; Rodriguez-Carres, M.; Kuo, A.; Wasmann, C.c.; Grimwood, J.; Schmutz, J.; Taga, M.; White, G.J.; Zhuo, S.; Schwartz, D.C.; Freitag, M.; Ma, L.-J.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Henrissat, B.; Cutinho, P.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Straney, D.; Napoli, C.A.; Baker, B.M.; Gribskov, M.; Rep, M.; Kroken, S.; Molnar, I.; Rensing, C.; Kennell, J.C.; Zamora, J.; Farman, M.L.; Selker, E.U.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H.; Pangilinan, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lamers, C.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Geiser, D.M.; Covert, S.F.; Temporini, S.; VanEtten, H.D.

    2009-04-20

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of .50 species known as the"Fusarium solani species complex". Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on .100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on

  9. The Genome of Nectria haematococca: Contribution of Supernumerary Chromosomes to Gene Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Alan; Wasmann, Catherine C.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Taga, Masatoki; White, Gerard J.; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C.; Freitag, Michael; Ma, Li-jun; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Nelson, David R.; Straney, Dave; Napoli, Carolyn A.; Barker, Bridget M.; Gribskov, Michael; Rep, Martijn; Kroken, Scott; Molnár, István; Rensing, Christopher; Kennell, John C.; Zamora, Jorge; Farman, Mark L.; Selker, Eric U.; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lamers, Casey; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Geiser, David M.; Covert, Sarah F.; Temporini, Esteban; VanEtten, Hans D.

    2009-01-01

    The ascomycetous fungus Nectria haematococca, (asexual name Fusarium solani), is a member of a group of >50 species known as the “Fusarium solani species complex”. Members of this complex have diverse biological properties including the ability to cause disease on >100 genera of plants and opportunistic infections in humans. The current research analyzed the most extensively studied member of this complex, N. haematococca mating population VI (MPVI). Several genes controlling the ability of individual isolates of this species to colonize specific habitats are located on supernumerary chromosomes. Optical mapping revealed that the sequenced isolate has 17 chromosomes ranging from 530 kb to 6.52 Mb and that the physical size of the genome, 54.43 Mb, and the number of predicted genes, 15,707, are among the largest reported for ascomycetes. Two classes of genes have contributed to gene expansion: specific genes that are not found in other fungi including its closest sequenced relative, Fusarium graminearum; and genes that commonly occur as single copies in other fungi but are present as multiple copies in N. haematococca MPVI. Some of these additional genes appear to have resulted from gene duplication events, while others may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. The supernumerary nature of three chromosomes, 14, 15, and 17, was confirmed by their absence in pulsed field gel electrophoresis experiments of some isolates and by demonstrating that these isolates lacked chromosome-specific sequences found on the ends of these chromosomes. These supernumerary chromosomes contain more repeat sequences, are enriched in unique and duplicated genes, and have a lower G+C content in comparison to the other chromosomes. Although the origin(s) of the extra genes and the supernumerary chromosomes is not known, the gene expansion and its large genome size are consistent with this species' diverse range of habitats. Furthermore, the presence of unique genes on

  10. Deficit of mitonuclear genes on the human X chromosome predates sex chromosome formation.

    PubMed

    Dean, Rebecca; Zimmer, Fabian; Mank, Judith E

    2015-01-29

    Two taxa studied to date, the therian mammals and Caenorhabditis elegans, display underrepresentations of mitonuclear genes (mt-N genes, nuclear genes whose products are imported to and act within the mitochondria) on their X chromosomes. This pattern has been interpreted as the result of sexual conflict driving mt-N genes off of the X chromosome. However, studies in several other species have failed to detect a convergent biased distribution of sex-linked mt-N genes, leading to questions over the generality of the role of sexual conflict in shaping the distribution of mt-N genes. Here we tested whether mt-N genes moved off of the therian X chromosome following sex chromosome formation, consistent with the role of sexual conflict, or whether the paucity of mt-N genes on the therian X is a chance result of an underrepresentation on the ancestral regions that formed the X chromosome. We used a synteny-based approach to identify the ancestral regions in the platypus and chicken genomes that later formed the therian X chromosome. We then quantified the movement of mt-N genes on and off of the X chromosome and the distribution of mt-N genes on the human X and ancestral X regions. We failed to find an excess of mt-N gene movement off of the X. The bias of mt-N genes on ancestral therian X chromosomes was also not significantly different from the biases on the human X. Together our results suggest that, rather than conflict driving mt-N genes off of the mammalian X, random biases on chromosomes that formed the X chromosome could explain the paucity of mt-N genes in the therian lineage.

  11. Chromosomal Redistribution of Male-Biased Genes in Mammalian Evolution with Two Bursts of Gene Gain on the X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong E.; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Landback, Patrick; Marais, Gabriel A. B.; Long, Manyuan

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated human and mouse protein-coding genes and miRNA genes on the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We found that the X chromosome recently acquired a burst of young male-biased genes, which is consistent with fixation of recessive male-beneficial alleles by sexual antagonism. For genes originating earlier, however, this pattern diminishes and finally reverses with an overrepresentation of the oldest male-biased genes on autosomes. MSCI contributes to this dynamic since it silences X-linked old genes but not X-linked young genes. This demasculinization process seems to be associated with feminization of the X chromosome with more X-linked old genes expressed in ovaries. Moreover, we detected another burst of gene originations after the split of eutherian mammals and opossum, and these genes were quickly incorporated into transcriptional networks of multiple tissues. Preexisting X-linked genes also show significantly higher protein-level evolution during this period compared to autosomal genes, suggesting positive selection accompanied the early evolution of mammalian X chromosomes. These two findings cast new light on the evolutionary history of the mammalian X chromosome in terms of gene gain, sequence, and expressional evolution. PMID:20957185

  12. Chromosomal redistribution of male-biased genes in mammalian evolution with two bursts of gene gain on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; Landback, Patrick; Marais, Gabriel A B; Long, Manyuan

    2010-10-05

    Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated human and mouse protein-coding genes and miRNA genes on the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We found that the X chromosome recently acquired a burst of young male-biased genes, which is consistent with fixation of recessive male-beneficial alleles by sexual antagonism. For genes originating earlier, however, this pattern diminishes and finally reverses with an overrepresentation of the oldest male-biased genes on autosomes. MSCI contributes to this dynamic since it silences X-linked old genes but not X-linked young genes. This demasculinization process seems to be associated with feminization of the X chromosome with more X-linked old genes expressed in ovaries. Moreover, we detected another burst of gene originations after the split of eutherian mammals and opossum, and these genes were quickly incorporated into transcriptional networks of multiple tissues. Preexisting X-linked genes also show significantly higher protein-level evolution during this period compared to autosomal genes, suggesting positive selection accompanied the early evolution of mammalian X chromosomes. These two findings cast new light on the evolutionary history of the mammalian X chromosome in terms of gene gain, sequence, and expressional evolution.

  13. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Sebastián; Panzera, Francisco; Ferrandis, Inés; Galvão, Cleber; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Panzera, Yanina

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome) or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes). This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes) and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences. PMID:23778665

  14. Chromosome-wide mechanisms to decouple gene expression from gene dose during sex-chromosome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Bayly S; Anderson, Erika; Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Bian, Qian; Jorgensen, Erik; Meyer, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromosome number impair fitness by disrupting the balance of gene expression. Here we analyze mechanisms to compensate for changes in gene dose that accompanied the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Using single-copy transgenes integrated throughout the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, we show that expression of all X-linked transgenes is balanced between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. However, proximity of a dosage compensation complex (DCC) binding site (rex site) is neither necessary to repress X-linked transgenes nor sufficient to repress transgenes on autosomes. Thus, X is broadly permissive for dosage compensation, and the DCC acts via a chromosome-wide mechanism to balance transcription between sexes. In contrast, no analogous X-chromosome-wide mechanism balances transcription between X and autosomes: expression of compensated hermaphrodite X-linked transgenes is half that of autosomal transgenes. Furthermore, our results argue against an X-chromosome dosage compensation model contingent upon rex-directed positioning of X relative to the nuclear periphery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17365.001 PMID:27572259

  15. Strong purifying selection at genes escaping X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chungoo; Carrel, Laura; Makova, Kateryna D

    2010-11-01

    To achieve dosage balance of X-linked genes between mammalian males and females, one female X chromosome becomes inactivated. However, approximately 15% of genes on this inactivated chromosome escape X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Here, using a chromosome-wide analysis of primate X-linked orthologs, we test a hypothesis that such genes evolve under a unique selective pressure. We find that escape genes are subject to stronger purifying selection than inactivated genes and that positive selection does not significantly affect the evolution of these genes. The strength of selection does not differ between escape genes with similar versus different expression levels in males versus females. Intriguingly, escape genes possessing Y homologs evolve under the strongest purifying selection. We also found evidence of stronger conservation in gene expression levels in escape than inactivated genes. We hypothesize that divergence in function and expression between X and Y gametologs is driving such strong purifying selection for escape genes.

  16. Compensation of Dosage-Sensitive Genes on the Chicken Z Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Fabian; Harrison, Peter W.; Dessimoz, Christophe; Mank, Judith E.

    2016-01-01

    In many diploid species, sex determination is linked to a pair of sex chromosomes that evolved from a pair of autosomes. In these organisms, the degeneration of the sex-limited Y or W chromosome causes a reduction in gene dose in the heterogametic sex for X- or Z-linked genes. Variations in gene dose are detrimental for large chromosomal regions when they span dosage-sensitive genes, and many organisms were thought to evolve complete mechanisms of dosage compensation to mitigate this. However, the recent realization that a wide variety of organisms lack complete mechanisms of sex chromosome dosage compensation has presented a perplexing question: How do organisms with incomplete dosage compensation avoid deleterious effects of gene dose differences between the sexes? Here we use expression data from the chicken (Gallus gallus) to show that ohnologs, duplicated genes known to be dosage-sensitive, are preferentially dosage-compensated on the chicken Z chromosome. Our results indicate that even in the absence of a complete and chromosome wide dosage compensation mechanism, dosage-sensitive genes are effectively dosage compensated on the Z chromosome. PMID:27044516

  17. Identification of Nicotiana tabacum Linkage Group Corresponding to the Q Chromosome Gene(s) Involved in Hybrid Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Takahiro; Matsuo, Chihiro; Iizuka, Takahiro; Oda, Masayuki; Marubashi, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    Background A linkage map consisting of 24 linkage groups has been constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Nicotiana tabacum. However, chromosomal assignments of all linkage groups have not yet been made. The Q chromosome in N. tabacum encodes a gene or genes triggering hybrid lethality, a phenomenon that causes death of hybrids derived from some crosses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a linkage group corresponding to the Q chromosome using an interspecific cross between an N. tabacum monosomic line lacking the Q chromosome and N. africana. N. ingulba yielded inviable hybrids after crossing with N. tabacum. SSR markers on the identified linkage group were used to analyze hybrid lethality in this cross. The results implied that one or more genes on the Q chromosome are responsible for hybrid lethality in this cross. Furthermore, the gene(s) responsible for hybrid lethality in the cross N. tabacum × N. africana appear to be on the region of the Q chromosome to which SSR markers PT30342 and PT30365 map. Conclusions/Significance Linkage group 11 corresponded to the Q chromosome. We propose a new method to correlate linkage groups with chromosomes in N. tabacum. PMID:22629459

  18. Identification of Nicotiana tabacum linkage group corresponding to the Q chromosome gene(s) involved in hybrid lethality.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Takahiro; Matsuo, Chihiro; Iizuka, Takahiro; Oda, Masayuki; Marubashi, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    A linkage map consisting of 24 linkage groups has been constructed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in Nicotiana tabacum. However, chromosomal assignments of all linkage groups have not yet been made. The Q chromosome in N. tabacum encodes a gene or genes triggering hybrid lethality, a phenomenon that causes death of hybrids derived from some crosses. We identified a linkage group corresponding to the Q chromosome using an interspecific cross between an N. tabacum monosomic line lacking the Q chromosome and N. africana. N. ingulba yielded inviable hybrids after crossing with N. tabacum. SSR markers on the identified linkage group were used to analyze hybrid lethality in this cross. The results implied that one or more genes on the Q chromosome are responsible for hybrid lethality in this cross. Furthermore, the gene(s) responsible for hybrid lethality in the cross N. tabacum × N. africana appear to be on the region of the Q chromosome to which SSR markers PT30342 and PT30365 map. Linkage group 11 corresponded to the Q chromosome. We propose a new method to correlate linkage groups with chromosomes in N. tabacum.

  19. X chromosome regulation of autosomal gene expression in bovine blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yuichiro; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    Although X chromosome inactivation in female mammals evolved to balance the expression of X chromosome and autosomal genes in the two sexes, female embryos pass through developmental stages in which both X chromosomes are active in somatic cells. Bovine blastocysts show higher expression of many X genes in XX than XY embryos, suggesting that X inactivation is not complete. Here we reanalyzed bovine blastocyst microarray expression data from a network perspective with a focus on interactions between X chromosome and autosomal genes. Whereas male to female ratios of expression of autosomal genes were distributed around a mean of 1, X chromosome genes were clearly shifted towards higher expression in females. We generated gene coexpression networks and identified a major module of genes with correlated gene expression that includes female-biased X genes and sexually dimorphic autosomal genes for which the sexual dimorphism is likely driven by the X genes. In this module, expression of X chromosome genes correlates with autosome genes, more than the expression of autosomal genes with each other. Our study identifies correlated patterns of autosomal and X-linked genes that are likely influenced by the sexual imbalance of X gene expression when X inactivation is inefficient. PMID:24817096

  20. X chromosome regulation of autosomal gene expression in bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuichiro; Arnold, Arthur P

    2014-10-01

    Although X chromosome inactivation in female mammals evolved to balance the expression of X chromosome and autosomal genes in the two sexes, female embryos pass through developmental stages in which both X chromosomes are active in somatic cells. Bovine blastocysts show higher expression of many X genes in XX than XY embryos, suggesting that X inactivation is not complete. Here, we reanalyzed bovine blastocyst microarray expression data from a network perspective with a focus on interactions between X chromosome and autosomal genes. Whereas male-to-female ratios of expression of autosomal genes were distributed around a mean of 1, X chromosome genes were clearly shifted towards higher expression in females. We generated gene coexpression networks and identified a major module of genes with correlated gene expression that includes female-biased X genes and sexually dimorphic autosomal genes for which the sexual dimorphism is likely driven by the X genes. In this module, expression of X chromosome genes correlates with autosome genes, more than the expression of autosomal genes with each other. Our study identifies correlated patterns of autosomal and X-linked genes that are likely influenced by the sexual imbalance of X gene expression when X inactivation is inefficient.

  1. Sialidosis and galactosialidosis: chromosomal assignment of two genes associated with neuraminidase-deficiency disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, O.T.; Henry, W.M.; Haley, L.L.; Byers, M.G.; Eddy, R.L.; Shows, T.B.

    1986-03-01

    The inherited human disorders sialidosis and galactosialidosis are the result of deficiencies of glycoprotein-specific ..cap alpha..-neuraminidase (acylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18; sialidase) activity. Two genes were determined to be necessary for expression of neuraminidase by using human-mouse somatic cell hybrids segregating human chromosomes. A panel of mouse RAG-human hybrid cells demonstrated a single-gene requirement for human neuraminidase and allowed assignment of this gene to the (pter ..-->.. q23) region of chromosome 10. A second panel of mouse thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient LM/TK/sup -/-human hybrid cells demonstrated that human neuraminidase activity required both chromosomes 10 and 20 to be present. Analysis of human neuraminidase expression in interspecific hybrid cells or polykaryocytes formed from fusion of mouse RAG or LM/TK/sup -/ cell lines with human sialidosis or galactosialidosis fibroblasts indicated that the RAG cell line complemented the galactosialidosis defect, but the LM/TK/sup -/ cell line did not. This eliminates the requirement for this gene in RAG-human hybrid cells and explains the different chromosome requirements of these two hybrid panels. Fusion of LM/TK/sup -/ cell hybrids lacking chromosome 10 or 20 and neuraminidase-deficient fibroblasts confirmed by complementation analysis that the sialidosis disorder results from a mutation on chromosome 10, presumably encoding the neuraminidase structural gene. Galactosialidosis is caused by a mutation in a second gene required for neuraminidase expression located on chromosome 20.

  2. Assignment of genes to Leishmania infantum chromosomes: karyotype and ploidy.

    PubMed

    Soto, M; Requena, J M; Moreira, D; Alonso, C

    1995-06-01

    The use of various pulsed-field electrophoresis methodologies under different conditions allowed us to determine the Leishmania infantum karyotype. A total of 25 chromosomal bands ranging in size from 375 to 3300 kb were resolved amounting to a minimum genomic DNA mass of about 2.6 x 10(7) pb. By molecular hybridization and on the basis of the karyotype, specific gene sequences could be assigned to particular chromosomes. A bias in the chromosomal distribution of different markers was found since 9 out of the 12 analysed gene markers hybridize with chromosomal bands XIXa and XIXb. We infer that chromosomal bands XIXa and XIXb, differing in about 30 kb, could be representing a pair of homologous chromosomes and that another pair of homologs may be also defined by chromosomal bands XVII and XVIII.

  3. Chromosomal localization of the human diazepam binding inhibitor gene

    SciTech Connect

    DeBernardi, M.A.; Crowe, R.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Shows, T.B.; Eddy, R.L.; Costa, E.

    1988-09-01

    The authors have used in situ chromosome hybridization and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids to map the gene(s) for human diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), an endogenous putative modulator of the /gamma/-aminobutyric acid receptor acting at the allosteric regulatory center of this receptor that includes the benzodiazepine recognition site. In 784 chromosome spreads hybridized with human DBI cDNA, the distribution of 1,476 labeled sites revealed a significant clustering of autoradiographic grains (11.3% of total label) on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2q). Furthermore, 63.5% of the grains found on 2q were located on 2q12-21, suggesting regional mapping of DBI gene(s) to this segment. Secondary hybridization signals were frequently observed on other chromosomes and they were statistically significant mainly for chromosomes 5, 6, 11, and 14. In addition, DNA from 32 human-mouse cell hybrids was digested with BamHI and probed with human DBI cDNA. A 3.5-kilobase band, which probably represents the human DBI gene, was assigned to chromosome 2. Four higher molecular weight bands, also detected in BamHI digests, could not be unequivocally assigned. A chromosome 2 location was excluded for the 27-, 13-, and 10-kilobase bands. These results assign a human DBI gene to chromosome 2 (2q12-21) and indicate that three of the four homologous sequences detected by the human DBI probe are located on three other chromosomes.

  4. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal’s sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. PMID:27356611

  5. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-09-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal's sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function.

  6. Human blood group genes 2004: chromosomal locations and cloning strategies.

    PubMed

    Lögdberg, Lennart; Reid, Marion E; Lamont, Ryan E; Zelinski, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Of the 29 human blood group system genes, 27 have been localized to 14 autosomes and 2 have been assigned to the X chromosome. It is remarkable that 28 of the 29 system genes have now been localized to a single cytogenetic band on a specific chromosome. In this review, we summarize the chromosomal locations and cloning strategies used for those genes encoding blood group systems. We highlight such information about the 3 most recently defined blood group systems (I, GLOB, and GIL). In addition, we provide new information about 2 older blood group systems (SC and RAPH) whose polymorphisms have been defined in cloned genes.

  7. Gene localization by chromosome fractionation: globin genes are on at least two chromosomes and three estrogen-inducible genes are on three chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S H; Stubblefield, E; Payvar, F; Engel, J D; Dodgson, J B; Spector, D; Cordell, B; Schimke, R T; Varmus, H E

    1979-03-01

    Chicken metaphase chromosomes were partially purified by rate zonal centrifugation, and DNA was prepared from each of the fractions of the sucrose gradient. The DNA was digested with various restriction enzymes and subjected to electrophoresis in agarose gels. The DNA was transferred to nitrocellulose filters (as described by Southern), and the filters were hybridized with cDNA probes. Four globin genes alpha A, alpha D, beta, and rho or epsilon are located on at least two chromosomes, and three of the estrogen-inducible genes of the hen oviduct--ovalbumin, ovomucoid, and transferrin--are on three different chromosomes. These experiments also confirm our earlier assignment of the endogenous viral sequence related to Rous-associated virus-0 to a separate (and larger) chromosome than the cellular sequence related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus (cellular sarc), although it now appears that cellular sarc is on a small macrochromosome, rather than on a microchromosome.

  8. Pig lacks functional NLRC4 and NAIP genes.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Chisato; Toki, Daisuke; Shinkai, Hiroki; Takenouchi, Takato; Sato, Mitsuru; Kitani, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Hirohide

    2017-02-01

    The NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognizes flagellin and components of the type III secretion system, plays an important role in the clearance of intracellular bacteria. Here, we examined the genomic sequences carrying two genes encoding key components of the NLRC4 inflammasome-NLR family, CARD-containing 4 (NLRC4), and NLR apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)-in pigs. Pigs have a single locus encoding NLRC4 and NAIP. Comparison of the sequences thus obtained with the corresponding regions in humans revealed the deletion of intermediate exons in both pig genes. In addition, the genomic sequences of both pig genes lacked valid open reading frames encoding functional NLRC4 or NAIP protein. Additional pigs representing multiple breeds and wild boars also lacked the exons that we failed to find through genome sequencing. Furthermore, neither the NLRC4 nor the NAIP gene was expressed in pigs. These findings indicate that pigs lack the NLRC4 inflammasome, an important factor involved in monitoring bacterial proteins and contributing to the clearance of intracellular pathogens. These results also suggest that genetic polymorphisms affecting the molecular functions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and other pattern recognition receptors associated with the recognition of bacteria have a more profound influence on disease resistance in pigs than in other species.

  9. Gene targeting for chromosome engineering applications in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Lyznik, Leszek A; Dress, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    As biotechnology advances, there is an increasing need to develop new technologies that may assist in more precise genetic engineering manipulations. Whether a placement of single genes in the proper chromosomal context, stacking a number of genes in the same chromosomal locus, rearrangement of existing chromosomal elements, or a global reconfiguration of the chromosomal structures is contemplated, the new genetic tools being developed provide technical capabilities to achieve goals that were only theoretical not long ago. We use examples of recent patent literature (issued patents and published patent applications) to illustrate trends in this fast advancing area of genetic technology. If one wants to engage in the development and utilization of such technologies, the complexity of genetic manipulations requires a careful evaluation and navigation across the legal/patent landscape of chromosomal modification/remodeling. While this review is mostly focused on the basic laboratory tools of chromosomal manipulations, their specific applications for biomedical, pharmaceutical, or agricultural purposes may deserve an additional compilation.

  10. Transcription of a protein-coding gene on B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most eukaryotic species represent stable karyotypes with a particular diploid number. B chromosomes are additional to standard karyotypes and may vary in size, number and morphology even between cells of the same individual. For many years it was generally believed that B chromosomes found in some plant, animal and fungi species lacked active genes. Recently, molecular cytogenetic studies showed the presence of additional copies of protein-coding genes on B chromosomes. However, the transcriptional activity of these genes remained elusive. We studied karyotypes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) that possess up to 14 B chromosomes to investigate the presence and expression of genes on supernumerary chromosomes. Results Here, we describe a 2 Mbp region homologous to cattle chromosome 3 and containing TNNI3K (partial), FPGT, LRRIQ3 and a large gene-sparse segment on B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer. The presence of the copy of the autosomal region was demonstrated by B-specific cDNA analysis, PCR assisted mapping, cattle bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone localization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). By comparative analysis of B-specific and non-B chromosomal sequences we discovered some B chromosome-specific mutations in protein-coding genes, which further enabled the detection of a FPGT-TNNI3K transcript expressed from duplicated genes located on B chromosomes in roe deer fibroblasts. Conclusions Discovery of a large autosomal segment in all B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer further corroborates the view of an autosomal origin for these elements. Detection of a B-derived transcript in fibroblasts implies that the protein coding sequences located on Bs are not fully inactivated. The origin, evolution and effect on host of B chromosomal genes seem to be similar to autosomal segmental duplications, which reinforces the view that supernumerary chromosomal elements might play an important role in genome

  11. Constitutional ring chromosomes and tumour suppressor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Tommerup, N; Lothe, R

    1992-01-01

    The types of malignancy reported in carriers of constitutional ring chromosomes r(11), r(13), and r(22) are concordant with the chromosomal assignment of tumour suppressor loci associated with Wilms' tumour, retinoblastoma, and meningioma. It is suggested that the somatic instability of ring chromosomes may play a role in this association and that constitutional ring chromosomes may be a source for mapping of tumour suppressor loci with the potential for covering most or all of the human genome. The hypothesis predicts the presence of a locus on chromosome 10 associated with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, in line with previous cytogenetic findings of rearrangements involving chromosome 10 in thyroid tumours, and a locus on chromosome 22 associated with testicular cancer. Development of neurofibromatoses (NF) that do not fulfil the clinical criteria of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) in carriers with r(22) suggests either the presence of an additional NF locus on chromosome 22 or that ring chromosome mediated predisposition to somatic mutation of a specific tumour suppressor may be associated with atypical development of features usually associated with germline mutations. PMID:1336057

  12. Lack of expression of XIST from a small ring X chromosome containing the XIST locus in a girl with short stature, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Darrell J; McDonald, Helen L; Farrell, Sandra A; Brown, Carolyn J

    2002-01-01

    A 46,X,r(X) karyotype was found in a three and a half year old girl with short stature, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay. The clinical findings were consistent with the phenotype described in a limited number of patients with small ring X chromosomes lacking the XIST locus, a critical player in the process of X chromosome inactivation. Surprisingly, in our patient, fluorescent in situ hybridisation demonstrated that the XIST locus was present on the ring X. However, expression studies showed that there was no XIST transcript in peripheral blood cells, suggesting that the ring X had not been inactivated. This was confirmed by the demonstration that both of the patient's alleles for the androgen receptor gene were unmethylated, and that both of the patient's ZXDA alleles were expressed. The active nature of the ring X would presumably result in overexpression of genes that may account for the developmental delay observed for the patient. Using polymorphic markers along the X chromosome, the ring X was determined to be of paternal origin with one breakpoint in the long arm between DXS8037 and XIST and one in the short arm in Xp11.2 between DXS1126 and DXS991. To attempt to determine why the XIST gene failed to be expressed, the promoter region was sequenced and found to have a base change at the same location as a variant previously associated with nonrandom X chromosome inactivation. This mutation was not seen in over one hundred normal X chromosomes examined; however, it was observed in the paternal grandmother who did not show substantial skewing of X chromosome inactivation.

  13. Brain organization in a reptile lacking sex chromosomes: effects of gonadectomy and exogenous testosterone.

    PubMed

    Crews, D; Coomber, P; Baldwin, R; Azad, N; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    1996-12-01

    In mammals, males and females differ both genetically and hormonally, making it difficult to assess the relative contributions of genetic constitution and fetal environment in the process of sexual differentiation. Many reptiles lack sex chromosomes, relying instead on the temperature of incubation to determine sex. In the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), an incubation temperature of 26 degrees C produces all females, whereas 32.5 degrees C results in mostly males. Incubation temperature is the primary determinant of differences both within and between the sexes in growth, physiology, and sociosexual behavior, as well as the volume and metabolic capacity of specific brain nuclei. To determine if incubation temperature organizes the brain directly rather than via gonadal sex hormones, the gonads of male and female leopard geckos from the two incubation temperatures were removed and, in some instances, animals were given exogenous testosterone. In vertebrates with sex chromosomes, the size of sexually dimorphic nuclei are sensitive to hormone levels in adulthood, but in all species studied to date, these changes are restricted to the male. Therefore, after behavior tests, morphometrics of certain limbic and nonlimbic brain areas were determined. Because nervous system tissue depends on oxidative metabolism for energy production and the level of cytochrome oxidase activity is coupled to the functional level of neuronal activity, cytochrome oxidase histochemistry also was performed on the same brains. Hormonal manipulation had little effect on the volume of the preoptic area or ventromedial hypothalamus in geckos from the all-female incubation temperature, but significantly influenced the volumes of these brain areas in males and females from the male-biased incubation temperature. A similar relationship was found for cytochrome oxidase activity of the anterior hypothalamus, amygdala, dorsal ventricular ridge, and septum. The only sex difference observed was

  14. Modeling Chromosomes in Mouse to Explore the Function of Genes, Genomic Disorders, and Chromosomal Organization

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Véronique; Pereira, Patricia; Duchon, Arnaud; Hérault, Yann

    2006-01-01

    One of the challenges of genomic research after the completion of the human genome project is to assign a function to all the genes and to understand their interactions and organizations. Among the various techniques, the emergence of chromosome engineering tools with the aim to manipulate large genomic regions in the mouse model offers a powerful way to accelerate the discovery of gene functions and provides more mouse models to study normal and pathological developmental processes associated with aneuploidy. The combination of gene targeting in ES cells, recombinase technology, and other techniques makes it possible to generate new chromosomes carrying specific and defined deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations that are accelerating functional analysis. This review presents the current status of chromosome engineering techniques and discusses the different applications as well as the implication of these new techniques in future research to better understand the function of chromosomal organization and structures. PMID:16839184

  15. Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Y.Q. Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G.; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L.; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F.; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E.; Murphy, William J.; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sequenced the MSY (Male-Specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only two percent of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 50 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs, but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism. PMID:25417157

  16. Chromosome banding and gene localizations support extensive conservation of chromosome structure between cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Hediger, R; Ansari, H A; Stranzinger, G F

    1991-01-01

    By using three gene probes, one derived from the porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and two from bovine cytokeratin genes, type I (KRTA) and type II (KRTB), the hypothesis of conservation of genome structure in two members of the family Bovidae was examined. Gene mapping data revealed the MHC to be in chromosome region 23q15----q23 in cattle (BOLA) and 20q15----q23 in sheep (OLA). KRTA was localized to chromosome region 19q25----q29 in cattle and 11q25----q29 in sheep and KRTB to 5q14----q22 in cattle and 3q14----q22 in sheep. The banding patterns of the chromosome arms to which the loci were assigned were identical in both species. Moreover, the resemblances of GTG- or QFQ-banding patterns between the cattle and sheep karyotypes illustrated further chromosome homologies. These studies, based on gene mapping comparisons and comparative cytogenetics, document that within bovid chromosomes, homology of banding patterns corresponds to a homologous genetic structure. Hence, we propose that gene assignments on identified chromosomal segments in one species of the Bovidae can be extrapolated, in general, to other bovid species based on the banding homologies presented here.

  17. Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Soh, Y Q Shirleen; Alföldi, Jessica; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Brown, Laura G; Graves, Tina; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Colin; Koutseva, Natalia; Mueller, Jacob L; Rozen, Steve; Hughes, Jennifer F; Owens, Elaine; Womack, James E; Murphy, William J; Cao, Qing; de Jong, Pieter; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C

    2014-11-06

    We sequenced the MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) of the C57BL/6J strain of the laboratory mouse Mus musculus. In contrast to theories that Y chromosomes are heterochromatic and gene poor, the mouse MSY is 99.9% euchromatic and contains about 700 protein-coding genes. Only 2% of the MSY derives from the ancestral autosomes that gave rise to the mammalian sex chromosomes. Instead, all but 45 of the MSY's genes belong to three acquired, massively amplified gene families that have no homologs on primate MSYs but do have acquired, amplified homologs on the mouse X chromosome. The complete mouse MSY sequence brings to light dramatic forces in sex chromosome evolution: lineage-specific convergent acquisition and amplification of X-Y gene families, possibly fueled by antagonism between acquired X-Y homologs. The mouse MSY sequence presents opportunities for experimental studies of a sex-specific chromosome in its entirety, in a genetically tractable model organism.

  18. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A.; Seldin, M.F.

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Sex-specific embryonic gene expression in species with newly evolved sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lott, Susan E; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Zhou, Qi; Bachtrog, Doris; Eisen, Michael B

    2014-02-01

    Sex chromosome dosage differences between females and males are a significant form of natural genetic variation in many species. Like many species with chromosomal sex determination, Drosophila females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y. Fusions of sex chromosomes with autosomes have occurred along the lineage leading to D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda. The resulting neo-sex chromosomes are gradually evolving the properties of sex chromosomes, and neo-X chromosomes are becoming targets for the molecular mechanisms that compensate for differences in X chromosome dose between sexes. We have previously shown that D. melanogaster possess at least two dosage compensation mechanisms: the well- characterized MSL-mediated dosage compensation active in most somatic tissues, and another system active during early embryogenesis prior to the onset of MSL-mediated dosage compensation. To better understand the developmental constraints on sex chromosome gene expression and evolution, we sequenced mRNA from individual male and female embryos of D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda, from ∼0.5 to 8 hours of development. Autosomal expression levels are highly conserved between these species. But, unlike D. melanogaster, we observe a general lack of dosage compensation in D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda prior to the onset of MSL-mediated dosage compensation. Thus, either there has been a lineage-specific gain or loss in early dosage compensation mechanism(s) or increasing X chromosome dose may strain dosage compensation systems and make them less effective. The extent of female bias on the X chromosomes decreases through developmental time with the establishment of MSL-mediated dosage compensation, but may do so more slowly in D. miranda than D. pseudoobscura. These results also prompt a number of questions about whether species with more sex-linked genes have more sex-specific phenotypes, and how much transcript level variance is tolerable during critical stages

  20. Nuclear pore complex evolution: a trypanosome Mlp analogue functions in chromosomal segregation but lacks transcriptional barrier activity.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jennifer M; Koreny, Ludek; Obado, Samson; Ratushny, Alexander V; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Kelly, Steven; Chait, Brian T; Aitchison, John D; Rout, Michael P; Field, Mark C

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) has dual roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport and chromatin organization. In many eukaryotes the coiled-coil Mlp/Tpr proteins of the NPC nuclear basket have specific functions in interactions with chromatin and defining specialized regions of active transcription, whereas Mlp2 associates with the mitotic spindle/NPC in a cell cycle-dependent manner. We previously identified two putative Mlp-related proteins in African trypanosomes, TbNup110 and TbNup92, the latter of which associates with the spindle. We now provide evidence for independent ancestry for TbNup92/TbNup110 and Mlp/Tpr proteins. However, TbNup92 is required for correct chromosome segregation, with knockout cells exhibiting microaneuploidy and lowered fidelity of telomere segregation. Further, TbNup92 is intimately associated with the mitotic spindle and spindle anchor site but apparently has minimal roles in control of gene transcription, indicating that TbNup92 lacks major barrier activity. TbNup92 therefore acts as a functional analogue of Mlp/Tpr proteins, and, together with the lamina analogue NUP-1, represents a cohort of novel proteins operating at the nuclear periphery of trypanosomes, uncovering complex evolutionary trajectories for the NPC and nuclear lamina.

  1. Nuclear pore complex evolution: a trypanosome Mlp analogue functions in chromosomal segregation but lacks transcriptional barrier activity

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Jennifer M.; Koreny, Ludek; Obado, Samson; Ratushny, Alexander V.; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Kelly, Steven; Chait, Brian T.; Aitchison, John D.; Rout, Michael P.; Field, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) has dual roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport and chromatin organization. In many eukaryotes the coiled-coil Mlp/Tpr proteins of the NPC nuclear basket have specific functions in interactions with chromatin and defining specialized regions of active transcription, whereas Mlp2 associates with the mitotic spindle/NPC in a cell cycle–dependent manner. We previously identified two putative Mlp-related proteins in African trypanosomes, TbNup110 and TbNup92, the latter of which associates with the spindle. We now provide evidence for independent ancestry for TbNup92/TbNup110 and Mlp/Tpr proteins. However, TbNup92 is required for correct chromosome segregation, with knockout cells exhibiting microaneuploidy and lowered fidelity of telomere segregation. Further, TbNup92 is intimately associated with the mitotic spindle and spindle anchor site but apparently has minimal roles in control of gene transcription, indicating that TbNup92 lacks major barrier activity. TbNup92 therefore acts as a functional analogue of Mlp/Tpr proteins, and, together with the lamina analogue NUP-1, represents a cohort of novel proteins operating at the nuclear periphery of trypanosomes, uncovering complex evolutionary trajectories for the NPC and nuclear lamina. PMID:24600046

  2. Gene expression modulation is associated with gene amplification, supernumerary chromosomes and chromosome loss in antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Leprohon, Philippe; Légaré, Danielle; Raymond, Frédéric; Madore, Éric; Hardiman, Gary; Corbeil, Jacques; Ouellette, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Antimonials remain the first line drug against the protozoan parasite Leishmania but their efficacy is threatened by resistance. We carried out a RNA expression profiling analysis comparing an antimony-sensitive and -resistant (Sb2000.1) strain of Leishmania infantum using whole-genome 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Several genes were differentially expressed between the two strains, several of which were found to be physically linked in the genome. MRPA, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene known to be involved in antimony resistance, was overexpressed in the antimony-resistant mutant along with three other tandemly linked genes on chromosome 23. This four gene locus was flanked by 1.4 kb repeated sequences from which an extrachromosomal circular amplicon was generated in the resistant cells. Interestingly, gene expression modulation of entire chromosomes occurred in the antimony-resistant mutant. Southern blots analyses and comparative genomic hybridizations revealed that this was either due to the presence of supernumerary chromosomes or to the loss of one chromosome. Leishmania parasites with haploid chromosomes were viable. Changes in copy number for some of these chromosomes were confirmed in another antimony-resistant strain. Selection of a partial revertant line correlated antimomy resistance levels and the copy number of aneuploid chromosomes, suggesting a putative link between aneuploidy and drug resistance in Leishmania. PMID:19129236

  3. Sequence divergence and chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of human pseudoautosomal genes and their mouse homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Li, X.; Francke, U.

    1994-09-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is an area of sequence identity between the X and Y chromosomes and is important for mediating X-Y pairing during male meiosis. Of the seven genes assigned to the human PAR, none of the mouse homologs have been isolated by a cross-hybridization strategy. Two of these homologs, Csfgmra and II3ra, have been isolated using a functional assay for the gene products. These genes are quite different in sequence from their human homologs, showing only 60-70% sequence similarity. The Csfgmra gene has been found to further differ from its human homolog in being isolated not on the sex chromosomes, but on a mouse autosome (chromosome 19). Using a mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrid mapping panel, we have mapped the II3ra gene to yet another mouse autosome, chromosome 14. Attempts to clone the mouse homolog of the ANT3 locus resulted in the isolation of two related genes, Ant1 and Ant2, but failed to yield the Ant3 gene. Southern blot analysis of the ANT/Ant genes showed the Ant1 and Ant2 sequences to be well-conserved among all of a dozen mammals tested. In contrast, the ANT3 gene only showed hybridization to non-rodent mammals, suggesting it is either greatly divergent or has been deleted in the rodent lineage. Similar experiments with other human pseudoautosomal probes likewise showed a lack of hybridization to rodent sequences. The results show a definite trend of extensive divergence of pseudoautosomal sequences in addition to chromosomal rearrangements involving X;autosome translocations and perhaps gene deletions. Such observations have interesting implications regarding the evolution of this important region of the sex chromosomes.

  4. Ring chromosome 13: lack of distinct syndromes based on different breakpoints on 13q.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, J M; Petersen, M B; Vogel, F; Noer, H; Mikkelsen, M

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical syndromes based on different breakpoints on 13q nor correlate the severity of symptoms with instability of the ring. Images PMID:1433229

  5. DNA methylation in ATRA-treated leukemia cell lines lacking a PML-RAR chromosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Miftakhova, Regina; Sandberg, Tove; Hedblom, Andreas; Nevzorova, Tatyana; Persson, Jenny L; Bredberg, Anders

    2012-11-01

    A deficient retinoic acid signaling has been suggested to be an important cause of the clinical inefficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) therapy in non-promyelocytic (non-PML) forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The general aim of the present work was to explore novel ways to take advantage of the anti-leukemic potential of ATRA, and, specifically, to search for a synergism between ATRA and epigenetic drugs. Because previous reports have found no major influence of ATRA on DNA methylation, we investigated whether ATRA-mediated differentiation of the U937 and HL-60 AML cell lines, both lacking a PML-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) fusion product, is accompanied by early-appearing and weak changes in CpG methylation. We report that in HL-60 cells, by using a highly quantitative analysis of a set of genes found to be abnormally expressed in AML, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified p16 gene promoter molecules (each with 15 CpG sites), exhibited a CpG methylation level of 0-4% in untreated cells, which increased to 4-21% after treatment with ATRA for seven days. In contrast to HL-60 cells, U937 cells exhibited a very high CpG methylation level in p16, and ATRA did not influence the promoter methylation of this gene. In the total CCGG sites of the genome, analysed using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, CpG methylation was significantly lower in ATRA-treated HL-60 (p<0.01) and U937 cells (p<0.05) than in controls. Taken together, our findings show that ATRA can influence DNA methylation, and suggest that future research should investigate whether epigenetic modulation may evoke a clinical effect of ATRA in leukemia.

  6. Drosophila polytene chromosome bands formed by gene introns.

    PubMed

    Zhimulev, I F; Boldyreva, L V; Demakova, O V; Poholkova, G V; Khoroshko, V A; Zykova, T Yu; Lavrov, S A; Belyaeva, E S

    2016-01-01

    Genetic organization of bands and interbands in polytene chromosomes has long remained a puzzle for geneticists. It has been recently demonstrated that interbands typically correspond to the 5'-ends of house-keeping genes, whereas adjacent loose bands tend to be composed of coding sequences of the genes. In the present work, we made one important step further and mapped two large introns of ubiquitously active genes on the polytene chromosome map. We show that alternative promoter regions of these genes map to interbands, whereas introns and coding sequences found between those promoters correspond to loose grey bands. Thus, a gene having its long intron "sandwiched" between to alternative promoters and a common coding sequence may occupy two interbands and one band in the context of polytene chromosomes. Loose, partially decompacted bands appear to host large introns.

  7. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents induces a high level of chromosome damage. Lack of an effect of GST polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Antonella Giachelia, Manuela; Palma, Selena; Appolloni, Massimo; Padua, Luca; Tranfo, Giovanna; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Tirindelli, Donatella; Cozzi, Renata

    2007-08-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AND) resulted in genetic damage, possibly indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. We performed a chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a group of 76 trained nurses occupationally exposed to AND. Furthermore, we analysed whether genetic polymorphisms in four metabolic genes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family involved in antineoplastic drugs detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1) had any effect on the yield of chromosomal aberrations in nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. The exposed group showed a very significant increase of genetic damage (p < 0.0001) potentially indicative of an increased risk of cancer. Unexpectedly, besides the elevated level of chromatid-type aberrations usually related to exposure to chemical agents, we found also severe chromosome damages such as chromosome deletions and dicentric chromosomes, usually related to radiation exposure. No significant association was detected between all GSTs genotypes and chromosome damage. In conclusion, our data show how the occupational exposure to AND is associated to a potential cancer risk, suggesting that current prevention methods do not completely eliminate opportunities for exposure and supporting the need to improve the actual safety practices.

  8. Ribosomal protein gene mapping and human chromosomal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmochi, N.; Goodman, N.; Page, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    In Drosophila, the Minute phenotype (reduced body size, diminished viability and fertility, and short, thin bristles) results from heterozygous deficiencies (deletions) at any one of 50 loci scattered about the genome. A handful of these Minute loci have been molecularly characterized, and all have been found to encode ribosomal proteins. Thus, the Minute phenotype appears to result from reduced protein synthetic capacity in flies with one rather than two copies of a given ribosomal protein (rp) gene. We are pursuing the possibility that similar reductions in protein synthetic capacity--again resulting from rp gene deficiencies--might underlie phenotypes associated with certain chromosomal disorders in humans. We and our colleagues have reported findings consistent with a role for RPS4 deficiency in the etiology of certain features of Turner syndrome, a complex human disorder classically associated with an XO karyotype. We are intrigued by the possibility that deficiencies of other human rp genes might cause phenotypic abnormalities similar to those seen in Turner syndrome--just as deficiencies of any of a number of Drosophila rp genes cause the Minute phenotype. We must first learn the chromosomal map position of each of the estimated 83 human rp genes. The task of mapping the functional (intron-containing) rp genes is complicated by the existence of processed pseudogenes elsewhere in the genome. To date, we have assigned (or confirmed the previous assignment of) 38 rp genes to individual human chromosomes by PCR analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids containing subsets of human chromosomes, with all but four chromosomes carrying at least one rp gene. We have also identified more than 100 large-insert human YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) clones that contain individual rp genes. Such screening of YAC libraries will result in precise positioning of the rp genes on the emerging physical map of the human genome.

  9. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  10. Prospects for the Use of Artificial Chromosomes and Minichromosome-Like Episomes in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luz, Sara; Díaz-Nido, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Artificial chromosomes and minichromosome-like episomes are large DNA molecules capable of containing whole genomic loci, and be maintained as nonintegrating, replicating molecules in proliferating human somatic cells. Authentic human artificial chromosomes are very difficult to engineer because of the difficulties associated with centromere structure, so they are not widely used for gene-therapy applications. However, OriP/EBNA1-based episomes, which they lack true centromeres, can be maintained stably in dividing cells as they bind to mitotic chromosomes and segregate into daughter cells. These episomes are more easily engineered than true human artificial chromosomes and can carry entire genes along with all their regulatory sequences. Thus, these constructs may facilitate the long-term persistence and physiological regulation of the expression of therapeutic genes, which is crucial for some gene therapy applications. In particular, they are promising vectors for gene therapy in inherited diseases that are caused by recessive mutations, for example haemophilia A and Friedreich's ataxia. Interestingly, the episome carrying the frataxin gene (deficient in Friedreich's ataxia) has been demonstrated to rescue the susceptibility to oxidative stress which is typical of fibroblasts from Friedreich's ataxia patients. This provides evidence of their potential to treat genetic diseases linked to recessive mutations through gene therapy. PMID:20862363

  11. Prospects for the use of artificial chromosomes and minichromosome-like episomes in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luz, Sara; Díaz-Nido, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Artificial chromosomes and minichromosome-like episomes are large DNA molecules capable of containing whole genomic loci, and be maintained as nonintegrating, replicating molecules in proliferating human somatic cells. Authentic human artificial chromosomes are very difficult to engineer because of the difficulties associated with centromere structure, so they are not widely used for gene-therapy applications. However, OriP/EBNA1-based episomes, which they lack true centromeres, can be maintained stably in dividing cells as they bind to mitotic chromosomes and segregate into daughter cells. These episomes are more easily engineered than true human artificial chromosomes and can carry entire genes along with all their regulatory sequences. Thus, these constructs may facilitate the long-term persistence and physiological regulation of the expression of therapeutic genes, which is crucial for some gene therapy applications. In particular, they are promising vectors for gene therapy in inherited diseases that are caused by recessive mutations, for example haemophilia A and Friedreich's ataxia. Interestingly, the episome carrying the frataxin gene (deficient in Friedreich's ataxia) has been demonstrated to rescue the susceptibility to oxidative stress which is typical of fibroblasts from Friedreich's ataxia patients. This provides evidence of their potential to treat genetic diseases linked to recessive mutations through gene therapy.

  12. Telomere Attachment, Meiotic Chromosome Condensation, Pairing, and Bouquet Stage Duration Are Modified in Spermatocytes Lacking Axial Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liebe, Bodo; Alsheimer, Manfred; Höög, Christer; Benavente, Ricardo; Scherthan, Harry

    2004-01-01

    During the extended prophase to the meiosis I division, chromosomes assemble axial elements (AE) along replicated sister chromatids whose ends attach to the inner nuclear membrane (NM) via a specialized conical thickening. Here, we show at the EM level that in Sycp3-/- spermatocyte chromosomes lack the AE and the conical end thickening, but still they attach their telomeres to the inner NM with an electron-dense plate that contains T2AG3 repeats. Immunofluorescence detected telomere proteins, SCP2, and the meiosis-specific cohesin STAG3 at the Sycp3-/- telomere. Bouquet stage spermatocytes were approximately threefold enriched, and the number of telomere but not centromere signals was reduced to the haploid in advanced Sycp3-/- spermatocytes, which indicates a special mode of homolog pairing at the mammalian telomere. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with mouse chromosome 8- and 12-specific subsatellite probes uncovered reduced levels of regional homolog pairing, whereas painting of chromosomes 13 revealed partial or complete juxtapositioning of homologs; however, condensation of Sycp3-/- bivalents was defective. Electron microscopic analysis of AE-deficient spermatocytes revealed that transverse filaments formed short structures reminiscent of the synaptonemal complex central region, which likely mediate stable homolog pairing. It appears that the AE is required for chromosome condensation, rapid exit from the bouquet stage, and fine-tuning of homolog pairing. PMID:14657244

  13. Random cloning of genes from mouse chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, M; Figueroa, F; Klein, J

    1987-01-01

    We describe a method for isolating cosmid clones randomly from mouse chromosome 17. A cosmid library was constructed from the mouse-Chinese hamster cell line R4 4-1 that contains a limited amount of mouse DNA (chromosomes 17 and 18 and some other unidentified material) on a Chinese hamster background. The library was screened with the murine repetitive sequence probe pMBA14, which selectively hybridizes with mouse DNA. The mouse-derived cosmid clones thus identified were individually hybridized with DNA from the mouse-Syrian hamster cell line JS17 containing all mouse chromosomes except chromosome 17 on a Syrian hamster background. We deduced that the cosmid clones that contained sequences absent in JS17 were derived from mouse chromosome 17. One of the chromosome 17-derived cosmid clones, 3-4-1 (located proximal to the T122/T66C segment) was found to be highly polymorphic among European wild-mouse populations and may be a useful probe to elucidate the evolution and migration of Mus species. The randomly isolated mouse-derived cosmid clones can also be screened for the presence of functional genes. Using testicular cDNA as a probe, a testis-specific gene was cloned from mouse chromosome 17. Images PMID:3472212

  14. Chromosome locations of human EMX and OTX genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kastury, K.; Druck, T.; Huebner, K.

    1994-07-01

    The authors have determined the chromosomal localization of four human homeobox-containing genes, EMX1, EMX2, OTX1, and OTX2, related to Drosophila genes expressed in the developing head of the fly. Murine homologs of these genes are expressed in specific nested domains in the developing rostral brain of midgestation embryos. DNAs from a panel of 19 rodent-human hybrids, each carrying one or a few human chromosomes such that most human chromosomes regions were presented, were tested for the presence of the four gene loci by filter hybridization to radiolabeled probes. Regional chromosomal localization was determined by similarly testing DNAs from hybrid mapping panels for each of the candidate chromosomes. Finally, fluorescence in situ hybridization of cosmid clones for these loci refined the locations, two of which were in the vicinity of previously mapped orphan homeobox genes and two of which were near each other. OTX2, the earliest and most widely expressed gene, maps to chromosome region 14q21-q22; the OTX1 locus maps to 2p13; EMX2 maps to 10q26.1; and EMX1, the most narrowly and lately expressed, maps to 2p14-p13. Thus, these homeobox-containing genes involved in brain development are not linked to any of the four HOX clusters on 7p15-p14, 17q21-q22, 12q12-q13, and 2q31. However, the OTX1 and EMX1 loci may be closely linked on or near 2p13, prompting speculation that a clustered gene structure could have functional significance, as is presumably the case for the HOX clusters. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  15. The radial arrangement of the human chromosome 7 in the lymphocyte cell nucleus is associated with chromosomal band gene density.

    PubMed

    Federico, Concetta; Cantarella, Catia Daniela; Di Mare, Patrizia; Tosi, Sabrina; Saccone, Salvatore

    2008-08-01

    In the nuclei of human lymphocytes, chromosome territories are distributed according to the average gene density of each chromosome. However, chromosomes are very heterogeneous in size and base composition, and can contain both very gene-dense and very gene-poor regions. Thus, a precise analysis of chromosome organisation in the nuclei should consider also the distribution of DNA belonging to the chromosomal bands in each chromosome. To improve our understanding of the chromatin organisation, we localised chromosome 7 DNA regions, endowed with different gene densities, in the nuclei of human lymphocytes. Our results showed that this chromosome in cell nuclei is arranged radially with the gene-dense/GC-richest regions exposed towards the nuclear interior and the gene-poorest/GC-poorest ones located at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we found that chromatin fibres from the 7p22.3 and the 7q22.1 bands are not confined to the territory of the bulk of this chromosome, protruding towards the inner part of the nucleus. Overall, our work demonstrates the radial arrangement of the territory of chromosome 7 in the lymphocyte nucleus and confirms that human genes occupy specific radial positions, presumably to enhance intra- and inter-chromosomal interaction among loci displaying a similar expression pattern, and/or similar replication timing.

  16. Mapping of the ARIX homeodomain gene to mouse chromosome 7 and human chromosome 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.R.; Smith, L.; Rhodes, J.

    1996-05-01

    The recently described homeodomain protein ARIX is expressed specifically in noradreneric cell types of the sympathetic nervous system, brain, and adrenal medulla. ARIX interacts with regulatory elements of the genes encoding the noradrenergic biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase, suggesting a role for ARIX in expression of the noradrenergic phenotype. In the study described here, the mouse and human ARIX genes are mapped. Using segregation analysis of two panels of mouse backcross DNA, mouse Arix was positioned approximately 50 cM distal to the centromere of chromosome 7, near Hbb. Human ARIX was positioned through analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes to chromosome 7, near Hbb. Human ARIX was positioned through analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes to chromosome 11q13.3-q13.4. These map locations extend and further define regions of conserved synteny between mouse and human genomes and identify a new candidate gene for inherited developmental disorders linked to human 11q13.

  17. In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Frank; Rens, Willem; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; El-Mogharbel, Nisrine; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Jones, Russell C; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2004-12-16

    Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males, or of both sexes, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants and insects but are rare in vertebrates. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine sex and produce balanced gametes has been controversial for decades. Here we demonstrate that platypus have five male-specific chromosomes (Y chromosomes) and five chromosomes present in one copy in males and two copies in females (X chromosomes). These ten chromosomes form a multivalent chain at male meiosis, adopting an alternating pattern to segregate into XXXXX-bearing and YYYYY-bearing sperm. Which, if any, of these sex chromosomes bears one or more sex-determining genes remains unknown. The largest X chromosome, with homology to the human X chromosome, lies at one end of the chain, and a chromosome with homology to the bird Z chromosome lies near the other end. This suggests an evolutionary link between mammal and bird sex chromosome systems, which were previously thought to have evolved independently.

  18. PRC2 represses transcribed genes on the imprinted inactive X chromosome in mice.

    PubMed

    Maclary, Emily; Hinten, Michael; Harris, Clair; Sethuraman, Shriya; Gayen, Srimonta; Kalantry, Sundeep

    2017-05-03

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes histone H3K27me3, which marks many transcriptionally silent genes throughout the mammalian genome. Although H3K27me3 is associated with silenced gene expression broadly, it remains unclear why some but not other PRC2 target genes require PRC2 and H3K27me3 for silencing. Here we define the transcriptional and chromatin features that predict which PRC2 target genes require PRC2/H3K27me3 for silencing by interrogating imprinted mouse X-chromosome inactivation. H3K27me3 is enriched at promoters of silenced genes across the inactive X chromosome. To abrogate PRC2 function, we delete the core PRC2 protein EED in F1 hybrid trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), which undergo imprinted inactivation of the paternally inherited X chromosome. Eed (-/-) TSCs lack H3K27me3 and Xist lncRNA enrichment on the inactive X chromosome. Despite the absence of H3K27me3 and Xist RNA, only a subset of the inactivated X-linked genes is derepressed in Eed (-/-) TSCs. Unexpectedly, in wild-type (WT) TSCs these genes are transcribed and are enriched for active chromatin hallmarks on the inactive-X, including RNA PolII, H3K27ac, and H3K36me3, but not the bivalent mark H3K4me2. By contrast, PRC2 targets that remain repressed in Eed (-/-) TSCs are depleted for active chromatin characteristics in WT TSCs. A comparative analysis of transcriptional and chromatin features of inactive X-linked genes in WT and Eed (-/-) TSCs suggests that PRC2 acts as a brake to prevent induction of transcribed genes on the inactive X chromosome, a mode of PRC2 function that may apply broadly.

  19. Chromosome synapsis defects and sexually dimorphic meiotic progression in mice lacking Spo11.

    PubMed

    Baudat, F; Manova, K; Yuen, J P; Jasin, M; Keeney, S

    2000-11-01

    Spo11, a protein first identified in yeast, is thought to generate the chromosome breaks that initiate meiotic recombination. We now report that disruption of mouse Spo11 leads to severe gonadal abnormalities from defective meiosis. Spermatocytes suffer apoptotic death during early prophase; oocytes reach the diplotene/dictyate stage in nearly normal numbers, but most die soon after birth. Consistent with a conserved function in initiating meiotic recombination, Dmc1/Rad51 focus formation is abolished. Spo11(-/-) meiocytes also display homologous chromosome synapsis defects, similar to fungi but distinct from flies and nematodes. We propose that recombination initiation precedes and is required for normal synapsis in mammals. Our results also support the view that mammalian checkpoint responses to meiotic recombination and/or synapsis defects are sexually dimorphic.

  20. B chromosome contains active genes and impacts the transcription of A chromosomes in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Du, Yan; Zhao, Xin; Jin, Weiwei

    2016-04-16

    The dispensable maize (Zea mays L.) B chromosome is highly heterochromatic and widely believed to be devoid of functional genes. Although low-copy B chromosome causes no obvious phenotype variation, its existence might influence A genome gene expression. Previous studies suggested that B chromosomes are evolved from standard chromosomes; therefore, they might contain genic regions showing homology with A chromosome sequences. Our data suggested that maize B chromosome influences the A-genome transcription with stronger effect associated with an increase in copy number of B chromosome. In total 130 differently expressed genes were detected in comparison between with and without B chromosome lines. These differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in cell metabolism and nucleotide binding. Using Starter + B, we amplified ten B chromosome loci with high sequence similarity to A-genome genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed that at least four ~5 kb-sized genes are located on the B chromosome. In addition, through de novo assembly of the reads not unmapped to maize B73 reference genome together with PCR validation, we found three B-located LTR; in particular, one of them, the 3.2 kb comp75688, is expressed in a B-dosage dependent manner. We found that in the presence of maize B chromosome, the transcription of A genome genes was altered, with more impact by the increase of the B chromosome number. The B-located transcriptionally active genes showed high similarity to their A-genome homologues, and retrotransposons on B chromosome also have partial homologous to A genome sequences. Our data shed more lights on the genome structure and evolution of the maize B chromosome.

  1. The Role of Chromosomal Instability and Epigenetics in Colorectal Cancers Lacking β-Catenin/TCF Regulated Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E.; Kaur, Sippy; Niskakoski, Anni; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    All colorectal cancer cell lines except RKO displayed active β-catenin/TCF regulated transcription. This feature of RKO was noted in familial colon cancers; hence our aim was to dissect its carcinogenic mechanism. MFISH and CGH revealed distinct instability of chromosome structure in RKO. Gene expression microarray of RKO versus 7 colon cancer lines (with active Wnt signaling) and 3 normal specimens revealed 611 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the tested gene loci were susceptible to LOH in primary tumors with various β-catenin localizations as a surrogate marker for β-catenin activation. The immunohistochemistry of selected genes (IFI16, RGS4, MCTP1, DGKI, OBCAM/OPCML, and GLIPR1) confirmed that they were differentially expressed in clinical specimens. Since epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to expression changes, selected target genes were evaluated for promoter methylation in patient specimens from sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML were frequently hypermethylated in both groups, whereas KLK10, EPCAM, and DLC1 displayed subgroup specificity. The overall fraction of hypermethylated genes was higher in tumors with membranous β-catenin. We identified novel genes in colorectal carcinogenesis that might be useful in personalized tumor profiling. Tumors with inactive Wnt signaling are a heterogeneous group displaying interaction of chromosomal instability, Wnt signaling, and epigenetics. PMID:27047543

  2. The Role of Chromosomal Instability and Epigenetics in Colorectal Cancers Lacking β-Catenin/TCF Regulated Transcription.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Wael M; Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E; Kaur, Sippy; Niskakoski, Anni; Knuutila, Sakari; Järvinen, Heikki; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Peltomäki, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    All colorectal cancer cell lines except RKO displayed active β-catenin/TCF regulated transcription. This feature of RKO was noted in familial colon cancers; hence our aim was to dissect its carcinogenic mechanism. MFISH and CGH revealed distinct instability of chromosome structure in RKO. Gene expression microarray of RKO versus 7 colon cancer lines (with active Wnt signaling) and 3 normal specimens revealed 611 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the tested gene loci were susceptible to LOH in primary tumors with various β-catenin localizations as a surrogate marker for β-catenin activation. The immunohistochemistry of selected genes (IFI16, RGS4, MCTP1, DGKI, OBCAM/OPCML, and GLIPR1) confirmed that they were differentially expressed in clinical specimens. Since epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to expression changes, selected target genes were evaluated for promoter methylation in patient specimens from sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML were frequently hypermethylated in both groups, whereas KLK10, EPCAM, and DLC1 displayed subgroup specificity. The overall fraction of hypermethylated genes was higher in tumors with membranous β-catenin. We identified novel genes in colorectal carcinogenesis that might be useful in personalized tumor profiling. Tumors with inactive Wnt signaling are a heterogeneous group displaying interaction of chromosomal instability, Wnt signaling, and epigenetics.

  3. BRCA1-mediated repression of select X chromosome genes

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Amir A; Chandramouli, Gadisetti VR; Aprelikova, Olga; Nuber, Ulrike A; Sotiriou, Christos; Liu, Edison T; Ropers, H Hilger; Yee, Cindy J; Boyd, Jeff; Barrett, J Carl

    2004-01-01

    Recently BRCA1 has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression from the X chromosome. In this study the influence of BRCA1 on expression of X chromosome genes was investigated. Complementary DNA microarrays were used to compare the expression levels of X chromosome genes in 18 BRCA1-associated ovarian cancers to those of the 13 "BRCA1-like" and 14 "BRCA2-like" sporadic tumors (as defined by previously reported expression profiling). Significance was determined using parametric statistics with P < 0.005 as a cutoff. Forty of 178 total X-chromosome transcripts were differentially expressed between the BRCA1-associated tumors and sporadic cancers with a BRCA2-like molecular profile. Thirty of these 40 genes showed higher mean expression in the BRCA1-associated samples including all 11 transcripts that mapped to Xp11. In contrast, four of 178 total X chromosome transcripts showed significant differential expression between BRCA1-associated and sporadic tumors with a BRCA1-like molecular profile. All four mapped to Xp11 and showed higher mean expression in BRCA1-associated tumors. Re-expression of BRCA1 in HCC1937 BRCA1-deficient breast cancer cell resulted in the repression of 21 transcripts. Eleven of the 21 (54.5%) transcripts mapped to Xp11. However, there was no significant overlap between these Xp11 genes and those found to be differentially expressed between BRCA1-associated and sporadic ovarian cancer samples. These results demonstrate that BRCA1 mediates the repression of several X chromosome genes, many of which map to the Xp11 locus. PMID:15383145

  4. Fully efficient chromosome dimer resolution in Escherichia coli cells lacking the integral membrane domain of FtsK

    PubMed Central

    Dubarry, Nelly; Barre, François-Xavier

    2010-01-01

    In bacteria, septum formation frequently initiates before the last steps of chromosome segregation. This is notably the case when chromosome dimers are formed by homologous recombination. Chromosome segregation then requires the activity of a double-stranded DNA transporter anchored at the septum by an integral membrane domain, FtsK. It was proposed that the transmembrane segments of proteins of the FtsK family form pores across lipid bilayers for the transport of DNA. Here, we show that truncated Escherichia coli FtsK proteins lacking all of the FtsK transmembrane segments allow for the efficient resolution of chromosome dimers if they are connected to a septal targeting peptide through a sufficiently long linker. These results indicate that FtsK does not need to transport DNA through a pore formed by its integral membrane domain. We propose therefore that FtsK transports DNA before membrane fusion, at a time when there is still an opening in the constricted septum. PMID:20033058

  5. Postzygotic isolation involves strong mitochondrial and sex-specific effects in Tigriopus californicus, a species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Foley, B R; Rose, C G; Rundle, D E; Leong, W; Edmands, S

    2013-11-01

    Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate only once. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was conducted on reciprocal F2 hybrids between two strongly differentiated populations, using a saturated linkage map spanning all 12 autosomes and the mitochondrion. By comparing sexes, a possible sex ratio distorter was found but no sex chromosomes. Although studies of standard models often find an excess of hybrid male sterility factors, we found no QTL for sterility and multiple QTL for hybrid viability (indicated by non-Mendelian adult ratios) and other characters. Viability problems were found to be stronger in males, but the usual explanations for weaker hybrid males (sex chromosomes, sensitivity of spermatogenesis, sexual selection) cannot fully account for these male viability problems. Instead, higher metabolic rates may amplify deleterious effects in males. Although many studies of standard speciation models find the strongest genetic incompatibilities to be nuclear-nuclear (specifically X chromosome-autosome), we found the strongest deleterious interaction in this system was mito-nuclear. Consistent with the snowball theory of incompatibility accumulation, we found that trigenic interactions in this highly divergent cross were substantially more frequent (>6×) than digenic interactions. This alternative system thus allows important comparisons to studies of the genetics of reproductive isolation in more standard model systems.

  6. Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of the prepronociceptin gene.

    PubMed

    Mollereau, C; Simons, M J; Soularue, P; Liners, F; Vassart, G; Meunier, J C; Parmentier, M

    1996-08-06

    Nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the newly discovered natural agonist of opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor, is a neuropeptide that is endowed with pronociceptive activity in vivo. Nociceptin is derived from a larger precursor, prepronociceptin (PPNOC), whose human, mouse, and rat genes we have now isolated. The PPNOC gene is highly conserved in the three species and displays organizational features that are strikingly similar to those of the genes of preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, and preproopiomelanocortin, the precursors to endogenous opioid peptides, suggesting the four genes belong to the same family-i.e., have a common evolutionary origin. The PPNOC gene encodes a single copy of nociceptin as well as of other peptides whose sequence is strictly conserved across murine and human species; hence it is likely to be neurophysiologically significant. Northern blot analysis shows that the PPNOC gene is predominantly transcribed in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and, albeit weakly, in the ovary, the sole peripheral organ expressing the gene. By using a radiation hybrid cell line panel, the PPNOC gene was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 8 (8p21), between sequence-tagged site markers WI-5833 and WI-1172, in close proximity of the locus encoding the neurofilament light chain NEFL. Analysis of yeast artificial chromosome clones belonging to the WC8.4 contig covering the 8p21 region did not allow to detect the presence of the gene on these yeast artificial chromosomes, suggesting a gap in the coverage within this contig.

  7. Sequence and analysis of the human ABL gene, the BCR gene, and regions involved in the Philadelphia chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, D.; Clifton, S.W.; Crabtree, J.

    1995-05-01

    The complete human BCR gene (152j-141 nt) on chromosome 22 and greater than 80% of the human ABL gene (179-512 nt) on chromosome 9 have been sequenced from mapped cosmid and plasmid clones via a shotgun strategy. Because these two chromosomes are translocated with breakpoints within the BCR and ABL genes in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, knowledge of these sequences also might provide insight into the validity of various theories of chromosomal rearrangements. Comparison of these genes with their cDNA sequences reveal the positions of 23 BCR exons and putative alternative BCR first and second exons, as well as the common ABL exons 2-11, respectively. Additionally, these regions include the alternative ABL first exons 1b and 1a, a new gene 5` to the first ABL exon, and an open reading frame with homology to an EST within the BCR fourth intron. Further analysis reveals an Alu homology of 38.83 and 39.35% for the BCR and ABL genes, respectively, with other repeat elements present to a lesser extent. Four new Philadelphia chromosome translocation breakpoints from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients also were sequenced, and the positions of these and several other previously sequenced breakpoints now have been mapped precisely, although no consistent breakpoint features immediately were apparent. Comparative analysis of genomic sequences encompassing the murine homologues to the human ABL exons 1b and 1a, as well as regions encompassing the ABL exons 2 and 3, reveals that although there is a high degree of homology in their corresponding exons and promoter regions, these two vertebrate species show a striking lack of homology outside these regions. 122 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Resolution of four large chromosomes in penicillin-producing filamentous fungi: the penicillin gene cluster is located on chromosome II (9.6 Mb) in Penicillium notatum and chromosome I (10.4 Mb) in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Fierro, F; Gutiérrez, S; Díez, B; Martín, J F

    1993-12-01

    Four chromosomes were resolved by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in Penicillium notatum (10.8, 9.6, 6.3 and 5.4 Mb in size) and in five different strains of Penicillium chrysogenum (10.4, 9.6, 7.3 and 6.8 Mb in the wild type). Small differences in size were found between the four chromosomes of the five P. chrysogenum strains. The penicillin gene cluster was localized by hybridization with a pcbAB probe to chromosome II of P. notatum and to chromosome I of all P. chrysogenum strains except the deletion mutant P. chrysogenum npe10, which lacks this DNA region. The pyrG gene was localized to chromosome I in P. notatum and to chromosome II in all P. chrysogenum strains except in the mutant AS-P-78 where the probe hybridized to chromosome III. A major chromosomal rearrangement seems to have occurred in this high penicillin producing strain. A fast moving DNA band observed in all gels corresponds to mitochondrial DNA. The total genome size has been calculated as 32.1 Mb in P. notatum and 34.1 Mb for the P. chrysogenum strains.

  9. Imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Tanino, Motohiko; Matoba, Ryo; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-09-15

    Oocytes have unique characteristics compared with other cell types. In mouse and human oocytes, two X chromosomes are maintained in the active state. Previous microarray studies have shown that the balance of the expression state is maintained in haploid oocytes. Here, we investigated transcripts using RNA-sequence technology in mouse and human oocytes. The median expression ratio between X chromosome and autosomal genes (X:A) in immature mouse oocytes increased as the gene expression levels increased, reaching a value of 1. However, the ratio in mature oocytes was under 1 for all expression categories. Moreover, we observed a markedly low ratio resulting from the bimodal expression patterns of X-linked genes. The low X:A expression ratio in mature oocyte was independent of DNA methylation. While mature human oocytes exhibited a slightly low X:A expression ratio, this was the result of the skewed high frequency of lowly expressed X-linked genes rather than the bimodal state. We propose that this imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes is a feature of transcripts in mammalian oocytes lacking X-chromosome inactivation.

  10. Imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes in mammalian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Tanino, Motohiko; Matoba, Ryo; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Oocytes have unique characteristics compared with other cell types. In mouse and human oocytes, two X chromosomes are maintained in the active state. Previous microarray studies have shown that the balance of the expression state is maintained in haploid oocytes. Here, we investigated transcripts using RNA-sequence technology in mouse and human oocytes. The median expression ratio between X chromosome and autosomal genes (X:A) in immature mouse oocytes increased as the gene expression levels increased, reaching a value of 1. However, the ratio in mature oocytes was under 1 for all expression categories. Moreover, we observed a markedly low ratio resulting from the bimodal expression patterns of X–linked genes. The low X:A expression ratio in mature oocyte was independent of DNA methylation. While mature human oocytes exhibited a slightly low X:A expression ratio, this was the result of the skewed high frequency of lowly expressed X-linked genes rather than the bimodal state. We propose that this imbalance between the expression dosages of X-chromosome and autosomal genes is a feature of transcripts in mammalian oocytes lacking X-chromosome inactivation. PMID:26370379

  11. Construction of a genetic map of human chromosome 17 by use of chromosome-mediated gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Weiming; Gorman, P.A.; Rider, S.H.; Hedge, P.J.; Moore, G.; Prichard, C.; Sheer, D.; Solomon, E. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors used somatic-cell hybrids, containing as their only human genetic contribution part or all of chromosome 17, as donors for chromosome-mediated gene transfer. A total of 54 independent transfectant clones were isolated and analyzed by use of probes or isoenzymes for >20 loci located on chromosome 17. By combining the data from this chromosome-mediated gene transfer transfectant panel, conventional somatic-cell hybrids containing well-defined breaks on chromosome 17, and in situ hybridization they propose the following order for these loci; pter-(TP53-RNP2-D17S1)-(MYH2-MYH1)-D17Z1-CRYB1-(ERBA1-GCSF-NGL)-acute promyelocytic leukemia breakpoint-RNU2-HOX2-(NGFR-COLIAI-MPO)-GAA-UMPH-GHC-TK1-GALK-qter. Using chromosome-mediated gene transfer, they have also regionally localized the random probes D17S6 to D17S19 on chromosome 17.

  12. The genomic distribution of sex-biased genes in drosophila serrata: X chromosome demasculinization, feminization, and hyperexpression in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott L; Bonduriansky, Russell; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of genes with sex-biased expression is often nonrandom, and in species with XY sex chromosome systems, it is common to observe a deficit of X-linked male-biased genes and an excess of X-linked female-biased genes. One explanation for this pattern is that sex-specific selection has shaped the gene content of the X. Alternatively, the deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased genes could be an artifact of differences between the sexes in the global expression level of their X chromosome(s), perhaps brought about by a lack of dosage compensation in males and hyperexpression in females. In the montium fruit fly, Drosophila serrata, both these explanations can account for a deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased X-linked genes. Using genome-wide expression data from multiple male and female tissues (n = 176 hybridizations), we found that testis- and accessory gland-specific genes are underrepresented whereas female ovary-specific genes are overrepresented on the X chromosome, suggesting that X-linkage is disfavored for male function genes but favored for female function genes. However, genes with such sex-specific functions did not fully account for the deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased X-linked genes. We did, however, observe sex differences in the global expression level of the X chromosome and autosomes. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other species where a lack of dosage compensation in males is responsible, we found that hyperexpression of X-linked genes in both sexes leads to this imbalance in D. serrata. Our results highlight how common genomic distributions of sex-biased genes, even among closely related species, may arise via quite different evolutionary processes.

  13. The Genomic Distribution of Sex-Biased Genes in Drosophila serrata: X Chromosome Demasculinization, Feminization, and Hyperexpression in Both Sexes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Scott L.; Bonduriansky, Russell; Chenoweth, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of genes with sex-biased expression is often nonrandom, and in species with XY sex chromosome systems, it is common to observe a deficit of X-linked male-biased genes and an excess of X-linked female-biased genes. One explanation for this pattern is that sex-specific selection has shaped the gene content of the X. Alternatively, the deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased genes could be an artifact of differences between the sexes in the global expression level of their X chromosome(s), perhaps brought about by a lack of dosage compensation in males and hyperexpression in females. In the montium fruit fly, Drosophila serrata, both these explanations can account for a deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased X-linked genes. Using genome-wide expression data from multiple male and female tissues (n = 176 hybridizations), we found that testis- and accessory gland-specific genes are underrepresented whereas female ovary-specific genes are overrepresented on the X chromosome, suggesting that X-linkage is disfavored for male function genes but favored for female function genes. However, genes with such sex-specific functions did not fully account for the deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased X-linked genes. We did, however, observe sex differences in the global expression level of the X chromosome and autosomes. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other species where a lack of dosage compensation in males is responsible, we found that hyperexpression of X-linked genes in both sexes leads to this imbalance in D. serrata. Our results highlight how common genomic distributions of sex-biased genes, even among closely related species, may arise via quite different evolutionary processes. PMID:24084777

  14. The mouse X chromosome is enriched for sex-biased genes not subject to selection by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Khil, Pavel P; Smirnova, Natalya A; Romanienko, Peter J; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are subject to sex-specific selective evolutionary forces. One model predicts that genes with sex-biased expression should be enriched on the X chromosome. In agreement with Rice's hypothesis, spermatogonial genes are over-represented on the X chromosome of mice and sex- and reproduction-related genes are over-represented on the human X chromosome. Male-biased genes are under-represented on the X chromosome in worms and flies, however. Here we show that mouse spermatogenesis genes are relatively under-represented on the X chromosome and female-biased genes are enriched on it. We used Spo11(-/-) mice blocked in spermatogenesis early in meiosis to evaluate the temporal pattern of gene expression in sperm development. Genes expressed before the Spo11 block are enriched on the X chromosome, whereas those expressed later in spermatogenesis are depleted. Inactivation of the X chromosome in male meiosis may be a universal driving force for X-chromosome demasculinization.

  15. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  16. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  17. Number of X-chromosome genes influences social behavior and vasopressin gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Quinnies, Kayla M; Eschendroeder, Alex; Didrick, Paula M; Eugster, Erica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior are widespread and often caused by hormonal differences between the sexes. In addition to hormones, the composition and numbers of the sex chromosomes also affect a variety of sex differences. In humans, X-chromosome genes are implicated in neurobehavioral disorders (i.e. fragile-X, autism). To investigate the role of X-chromosome genes in social behavior, we used a mouse model that has atypical sex chromosome configurations resembling Turner (45, XO) and Klinefelter syndromes (47, XXY). We examined a number of behaviors in juvenile mice. Mice with only one copy of most X-chromosome genes, regardless of gonadal sex, were less social in dyadic interaction and social preference tasks. In the elevated plus maze, mice with one X-chromosome spent less time in the distal ends of the open arms as compared to mice with two copies of X-chromosome genes. Using qRTPCR, we noted that amygdala from female mice with one X-chromosome had higher expression levels of vasopressin (Avp) as compared to mice in the other groups. Finally, in plasma from girls with Turner syndrome we detected reduced vasopressin (AVP) concentrations as compared to control patients. These novel findings link sex chromosome genes with social behavior via concentrations of AVP in brain, adding to our understanding of sex differences in neurobehavioral disorders.

  18. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. ); Lampert, F. ); Kaneko, Y. ); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. ); Van Der Schoot, C.E. ); Ludwig, W.D. ); Karpas, A. ); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. )

    1993-09-15

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Lack of support for the presence of an osteoarthritis susceptibility locus on chromosome 6p.

    PubMed

    Meenagh, Gary K; McGibbon, David; Nixon, James; Wright, Gary D; Doherty, Michael; Hughes, Anne E

    2005-07-01

    To replicate, in a Northern Irish population, the previously reported association between a locus on chromosome 6 and hip osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with hip OA were identified from a registry of patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery over an 8-year period at a single large orthopedic unit in Northern Ireland. Patients identified as index cases were contacted by mail and asked to reply only if another family member also had undergone total hip replacement surgery. Using this approach, we identified 288 sibling pairs concordant for primary hip OA. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, and microsatellite markers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently genotyped. No evidence of linkage to this region was demonstrated by either 2-point analysis or multipoint analysis of 17 microsatellites. The reported association between a locus on chromosome 6 and hip OA could not be confirmed in this population. Different methods of ascertainment and phenotyping of OA may contribute to the current inability to replicate genetic associations for hip OA.

  20. Structural characterization and chromosomal location of the mouse macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene and pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozza, M.; Gerard, C.; Kolakowski, L.F. Jr.

    1995-06-10

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, is a cytokine released by T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and the pituitary gland that serves to integrate peripheral and central inflammatory responses. Ubiquitous expression and developmental regulation suggest that MIF may have additional roles outside of the immune system. Here we report the structure and chromosomal location of the mouse Mif gene and the partial characterization of five Mif pseudogenes. The mouse Mif gene spans less than 0.7 kb of chromosomal DNA and is composed of three exons. A comparison between the mouse and the human genes shows a similar gene structure and common regulatory elements in both promoter regions. The mouse Mif gene maps to the middle region of chromosome 10, between Bcr and S100b, which have been mapped to human chromosomes 22q11 and 21q22.3, respectively. The entire sequence of two pseudogenes demonstrates the absence of introns, the presence of the 5{prime} untranslated region of the cDNA, a 3{prime} poly(A) tail, and the lack of sequence similarity with untranscribed regions of the gene. The five pseudogenes are highly homologous to the cDNA, but contain a variable number of mutations that would produce mutated or truncated MIF-like proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of MIF genes and pseudogenes indicate several independent genetic events that can account for multiple genomic integrations. Three of the Mif pseudogenes were also mapped by interspecific backcross to chromosomes 1, 9, and 17. These results suggest that Mif pseudogenes originated by retrotransposition. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Mapping of sex-linked genes onto the genome sequence using various aberrations of the Z chromosome in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Mita, Kazuei; Shimada, Toru

    2008-12-01

    Many strains of Bombyx mori carry chromosomal aberrations, and they are useful resources for integration between phenotypes and genomic sequences. We compared the molecular structures of three kinds of Z chromosomes, i.e., two strains with chromosome deletions and one strain with translocation involving the Z chromosome. Using polymerase chain reaction markers, we showed that: (1) the Z(1) chromosome lacks more than 6Mb, including the proximal end; (2) the Z(Vg) chromosome lacks 1.5Mb in the interstitial portion; and (3) the +(od)p(Sa)+(p)W carries a 0.6-Mb Z-derived fragment surrounding the +(od) gene. The breakpoint junctions of these deletions and a translocation were precisely determined. Through deletion mapping, we narrowed down the regions where distinct oily (od), vestigial (Vg), and muscle dystrophy (Md) are located and identified a candidate gene for od. A retroposon-mediated deletion in BmBLOS2--the Bombyx gene homologous to human "biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1, subunit 2''--was detected in the od mutant. Although the genes responsible for Vg and Md were not definitively identified, we propose the candidate genes on the basis of their locations and phenotypes.

  2. Chromosomal evolution of the PKD1 gene family in primates

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is mostly caused by mutations in the PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1) gene located in 16p13.3. Moreover, there are six pseudogenes of PKD1 that are located proximal to the master gene in 16p13.1. In contrast, no pseudogene could be detected in the mouse genome, only a single copy gene on chromosome 17. The question arises how the human situation originated phylogenetically. To address this question we applied comparative FISH-mapping of a human PKD1-containing genomic BAC clone and a PKD1-cDNA clone to chromosomes of a variety of primate species and the dog as a non-primate outgroup species. Results Comparative FISH with the PKD1-cDNA clone clearly shows that in all primate species studied distinct single signals map in subtelomeric chromosomal positions orthologous to the short arm of human chromosome 16 harbouring the master PKD1 gene. Only in human and African great apes, but not in orangutan, FISH with both BAC and cDNA clones reveals additional signal clusters located proximal of and clearly separated from the PKD1 master genes indicating the chromosomal position of PKD1 pseudogenes in 16p of these species, respectively. Indeed, this is in accordance with sequencing data in human, chimpanzee and orangutan. Apart from the master PKD1 gene, six pseudogenes are identified in both, human and chimpanzee, while only a single-copy gene is present in the whole-genome sequence of orangutan. The phylogenetic reconstruction of the PKD1-tree reveals that all human pseudogenes are closely related to the human PKD1 gene, and all chimpanzee pseudogenes are closely related to the chimpanzee PKD1 gene. However, our statistical analyses provide strong indication that gene conversion events may have occurred within the PKD1 family members of human and chimpanzee, respectively. Conclusion PKD1 must have undergone amplification very recently in hominid evolution. Duplicative transposition of the PKD1 gene and

  3. Studies of Tumor Suppressor Genes via Chromosome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Takahito; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2015-12-30

    The development and progression of malignant tumors likely result from consecutive accumulation of genetic alterations, including dysfunctional tumor suppressor genes. However, the signaling mechanisms that underlie the development of tumors have not yet been completely elucidated. Discovery of novel tumor-related genes plays a crucial role in our understanding of the development and progression of malignant tumors. Chromosome engineering technology based on microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an effective approach for identification of tumor suppressor genes. The studies have revealed at least five tumor suppression effects. The discovery of novel tumor suppressor genes provide greater understanding of the complex signaling pathways that underlie the development and progression of malignant tumors. These advances are being exploited to develop targeted drugs and new biological therapies for cancer.

  4. Lack of Correlation Between Survival and Allele Loss on Chromosome 7q31-32 in Primary Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sztán, Marianna; Besznyák, István; Kovács, Tibor; Tóth, József; Szémel, Irén; Oláh, Edith

    1996-01-01

    High incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH), affecting the 7q31-32 chromosome region in sporadic primary human breast carcinomas suggests the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this region which seems relevant to the development of breast cancer. To further determine the possible role of this region in the pathogenesis of human primary breast cancer and association with survival, LOH analysis was performed on 52 primary breast cancer patients using a set of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Our panel contained twenty biopsy cases of unknown survival, nineteen cases with more than five years survival and fourteen cases with less than two years survival. Corresponding normal and tumor DNAs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The data presented here demonstrate that all patients were informative at least at one locus and 20 (38%) out of 53 cases showed LOH at one or more loci on chromosome 7q31-32. Relatively high incidence of LOH (34%) was detected at the D7S522 microsatellite marker located near to the cMet proto-oncogene while lower frequencies were observed at D7S523 (19%) and D7S495 (17%) loci, supporting the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene at the chromosome 7q31.1 region. Our results suggest that allelic imbalance on 7q may occur at an early stage of breast carcinogenesis, as no correlation was observed between allelic loss and clinico-pathological data.

  5. Genomic positions of co-expressed genes: echoes of chromosome organisation in gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Szczepińska, Teresa; Pawłowski, Krzysztof

    2013-06-13

    The relationships between gene expression and nuclear structure, chromosome territories in particular, are currently being elucidated experimentally. Each chromosome occupies an individual, spatially-limited space with a preferential position relative to the nuclear centre that may be specific to the cell and tissue type. We sought to discover whether patterns in gene expression databases might exist that would mirror prevailing or recurring nuclear structure patterns, chromosome territory interactions in particular. We used human gene expression datasets, both from a tissue expression atlas and from a large set including diverse types of perturbations. We identified groups of positional gene clusters over-represented in gene expression clusters. We show that some pairs of chromosomes and pairs of 10 Mbp long chromosome regions are significantly enriched in the expression clusters. The functions of genes involved in inter-chromosome co-expression relationships are non-random and predominantly related to cell-cell communication and reaction to external stimuli. We suggest that inter-chromosomal gene co-expression can be interpreted in the context of nuclear structure, and that even expression datasets that include very diverse conditions and cell types show consistent relationships.

  6. The great escape: Active genes on inactive sex chromosomes and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Sin, Ho-Su; Namekawa, Satoshi H

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms precisely regulate sex chromosome inactivation as well as genes that escape the silencing process. In male germ cells, DNA damage response factor RNF8 establishes active epigenetic modifications on the silent sex chromosomes during meiosis, and activates escape genes during a state of sex chromosome-wide silencing in postmeiotic spermatids. During the course of evolution, the gene content of escape genes in postmeiotic spermatids recently diverged on the sex chromosomes. This evolutionary feature mirrors the epigenetic processes of sex chromosomes in germ cells. In this article, we describe how epigenetic processes have helped to shape the evolution of sex chromosome-linked genes. Furthermore, we compare features of escape genes on sex chromosomes in male germ cells to escape genes located on the single X chromosome silenced during X-inactivation in females, clarifying the distinct evolutionary implications between male and female escape genes.

  7. Aup1, a novel gene on mouse Chromosome 6 and human Chromosome 2p13

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Wonhee; Weber, J.S.; Meisler, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    We have cloned a novel mouse cDNA, Aup1, encoding a predicted protein of 410 amino acid residues. The 1.5-kb Aup1 transcript is ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues. An evolutionary relationship to the Caenorhabditis elegans predicted protein F44b9.5 is indicated by the 35% identity and 53% conservation of the amino acid sequences. Nineteen related human ESTs spanning 80% of the protein have also been identified, with a predicted amino acid sequence identity of 86% between the human and the mouse proteins. The gene has been mapped to a conserved linkage group on human chromosome 2p13 and mouse Chromosome 6. Aup1 was eliminated as a candidate gene for two closely linked disorders, human LGMD2B and mouse mnd2. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  8. An X chromosome gene regulates hematopoietic stem cell kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Taboada, Monica; Shelton, Grady H.; Catlin, Sandra N.; Guttorp, Peter; Kiklevich, J. Veronika

    1998-01-01

    Females are natural mosaics for X chromosome-linked genes. As X chromosome inactivation occurs randomly, the ratio of parental phenotypes among blood cells is approximately 1:1. Recently, however, ratios of greater than 3:1 have been observed in 38–56% of women over age 60. This could result from a depletion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with aging (and the maintenance of hematopoiesis by a few residual clones) or from myelodysplasia (the dominance of a neoplastic clone). Each possibility has major implications for chemotherapy and for transplantation in elderly patients. We report similar findings in longitudinal studies of female Safari cats and demonstrate that the excessive skewing that develops with aging results from a third mechanism that has no pathologic consequence, hemizygous selection. We show that there is a competitive advantage for all HSCs with a specific X chromosome phenotype and, thus, demonstrate that an X chromosome gene (or genes) regulates HSC replication, differentiation, and/or survival. PMID:9520458

  9. DAZ gene copies: evidence of Y chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Teresa; Fernandes, Susana; Gonçalves, Rita; Sá, Rosália; Costa, Paula; Rosa, Alexandra; Ferrás, Cristina; Sousa, Mário; Brehm, António; Barros, Alberto

    2006-08-01

    The DAZ gene, a contributing factor in infertility, lies on the human Y chromosome's AZFc region, whose deletion is a common cause of spermatogenic failure. Y chromosome binary polymorphisms on the non-recombining Y (NRY) region, believed to be a single occurrence on an evolutionary scale, were typed in a sample of fertile and infertile men with known DAZ backgrounds. The Y single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) with low mutation rates are currently well characterized and permit the construction of a unique phylogeny of haplogroups. DAZ haplotypes were defined using single-nucleotide variant (SNV)/sequence tagged-site (STS) markers to distinguish between the four copies of the gene. The variation of 10 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (STRs) was used to determine the coalescence age of DAZ haplotypes in a comparable time frame similar to that of SNP haplogroups. An association between DAZ haplotypes and Y chromosome haplogroups was found, and our data show that the DAZ gene is not under selective constraints and its evolution depends only on the mutation rate. The same variants were common to fertile and infertile men, although partial DAZ deletions occurred only in infertile men, suggesting that those should only be used as a tool for infertility diagnosis when analysed in combination with haplogroup determinations.

  10. Identification of wheat chromosomal regions containing expressed resistance genes.

    PubMed Central

    Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Erayman, Mustafa; Sandhu, Devinder; Sidhu, Deepak; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to isolate and physically localize expressed resistance (R) genes on wheat chromosomes. Irrespective of the host or pest type, most of the 46 cloned R genes from 12 plant species share a strong sequence similarity, especially for protein domains and motifs. By utilizing this structural similarity to perform modified RNA fingerprinting and data mining, we identified 184 putative expressed R genes of wheat. These include 87 NB/LRR types, 16 receptor-like kinases, and 13 Pto-like kinases. The remaining were seven Hm1 and two Hs1(pro-1) homologs, 17 pathogenicity related, and 42 unique NB/kinases. About 76% of the expressed R-gene candidates were rare transcripts, including 42 novel sequences. Physical mapping of 121 candidate R-gene sequences using 339 deletion lines localized 310 loci to 26 chromosomal regions encompassing approximately 16% of the wheat genome. Five major R-gene clusters that spanned only approximately 3% of the wheat genome but contained approximately 47% of the candidate R genes were observed. Comparative mapping localized 91% (82 of 90) of the phenotypically characterized R genes to 18 regions where 118 of the R-gene sequences mapped. PMID:15020436

  11. Prostate cancer of transition zone origin lacks TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Zuo, Geyan; Cao, Dongdong; Troncoso, Patricia; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have shown a unique chromosomal rearrangement that leads to the fusion of 5'-transmembrane protein serine proteinase-2 (TMPRSS2) with the EST-related gene (ERG) in prostate cancer. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer of different zonal origins. Radical prostatectomy specimens with multifocal prostate cancer were obtained from 30 patients who were treated at our institution. Two separate tumor foci in each specimen, one in the peripheral zone and the other in the transition zone, were selected for gene fusion analysis. The selected peripheral zone tumor foci had a mean Gleason score of 6.8 (range, 6-7) and a mean tumor volume of 1.2 cm(3) (range, 0.1-4.6 cm(3)). The selected transition zone tumor foci had a mean Gleason score of 6.7 (range, 5-8) and a mean tumor volume of 4.0 cm(3) (range, 0.5-9.0 cm(3)). ERG gene rearrangement was not observed in any transition zone tumors; however, it was found in the peripheral zone tumors in 13 cases (43%). In 10 cases, the rearrangement was associated with the deletion of the 5'-end of ERG. In conclusion, we found that TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is associated with the zonal origin of prostate cancer. This gene fusion is prevalent in prostate cancer arising from the peripheral zone, but is lacking in prostate cancer arising from the transition zone.

  12. Identification of Candidate Genes for Dyslexia Susceptibility on Chromosome 18

    PubMed Central

    Scerri, Thomas S.; Paracchini, Silvia; Morris, Andrew; MacPhie, I. Laurence; Talcott, Joel; Stein, John; Smith, Shelley D.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s) conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Linkage analysis: 264 UK families and 155 US families each containing at least one child diagnosed with dyslexia were genotyped with a dense set of microsatellite markers on chromosome 18. Association analysis: Using a discovery sample of 187 UK families, nearly 3000 SNPs were genotyped across the chromosome 18 dyslexia susceptibility candidate region. Following association analysis, the top ranking SNPs were then genotyped in the remaining samples. The linkage analysis revealed a broad signal that spans approximately 40 Mb from 18p11.2 to 18q12.2. Following the association analysis and subsequent replication attempts, we observed consistent association with the same SNPs in three genes; melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R), dymeclin (DYM) and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L). Conclusions Along with already published biological evidence, MC5R, DYM and NEDD4L make attractive candidates for dyslexia susceptibility genes. However, further replication and functional studies are still required. PMID:21060895

  13. Identification of candidate genes for dyslexia susceptibility on chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Scerri, Thomas S; Paracchini, Silvia; Morris, Andrew; MacPhie, I Laurence; Talcott, Joel; Stein, John; Smith, Shelley D; Pennington, Bruce F; Olson, Richard K; DeFries, John C; Monaco, Anthony P; Richardson, Alex J

    2010-10-28

    Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s) conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis. Linkage analysis: 264 UK families and 155 US families each containing at least one child diagnosed with dyslexia were genotyped with a dense set of microsatellite markers on chromosome 18. Association analysis: Using a discovery sample of 187 UK families, nearly 3000 SNPs were genotyped across the chromosome 18 dyslexia susceptibility candidate region. Following association analysis, the top ranking SNPs were then genotyped in the remaining samples. The linkage analysis revealed a broad signal that spans approximately 40 Mb from 18p11.2 to 18q12.2. Following the association analysis and subsequent replication attempts, we observed consistent association with the same SNPs in three genes; melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R), dymeclin (DYM) and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L). Along with already published biological evidence, MC5R, DYM and NEDD4L make attractive candidates for dyslexia susceptibility genes. However, further replication and functional studies are still required.

  14. A family of selfish minicircular chromosomes with jumbled chloroplast gene fragments from a dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Cavalier-Smith, T; Green, B R

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast genes of several dinoflagellate species are located on unigenic DNA minicircular chromosomes. We have now completely sequenced five aberrant minicircular chromosomes from the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. These probably nonfunctional DNA circles lack complete genes, with each being composed of several short fragments of two or three different chloroplast genes and a common conserved region with a tripartite 9G-9A-9G core like the putative replicon origin of functional single-gene circular chloroplast chromosomes. Their sequences imply that all five circles evolved by differential deletions and duplications from common ancestral circles bearing fragments of four genes: psbA, psbC, 16S rRNA, and 23S rRNA. It appears that recombination between separate unigenic chromosomes initially gave intermediate heterodimers, which were subsequently stabilized by deletions that included part or all of one putative replicon origin. We suggest that homologous recombination at the 9G-9A-9G core regions produced a psbA/psbC heterodimer which generated two distinct chimeric circles by differential deletions and duplications. A 23S/16S rRNA heterodimer more likely formed by illegitimate recombination between 16S and 23S rRNA genes. Homologous recombination between the 9G-9A-9G core regions of both heterodimers and additional differential deletions and duplications could then have yielded the other three circles. Near identity of the gene fragments and 9G-9A-9G cores, despite diverging adjacent regions, may be maintained by gene conversion. The conserved organization of the 9G-9A-9G cores alone favors the idea that they are replicon origins and suggests that they may enable the aberrant minicircles to parasitize the chloroplast's replication machinery as selfish circles.

  15. Association testing to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes in trio data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonok; Ghosh, Debashis; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) occurs more often among males than females in a 4:1 ratio. Among theories used to explain the causes of ASD, the X chromosome and the Y chromosome theories attribute ASD to the X-linked mutation and the male-limited gene expressions on the Y chromosome, respectively. Despite the rationale of the theory, studies have failed to attribute the sex-biased ratio to the significant linkage or association on the regions of interest on X chromosome. We further study the gender biased ratio by examining the possible interaction effects between two genes in the sex chromosomes. We propose a logistic regression model with mixed effects to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes. We investigated the power and type I error rates of the approach for a range of minor allele frequencies and varying linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTLs. We also evaluated the robustness of the model to population stratification. We applied the model to a trio-family data set with an ASD affected male child to study gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes.

  16. Assignment of the protein kinase C delta polypeptide gene (PRKCD) to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 14.

    PubMed

    Huppi, K; Siwarski, D; Goodnight, J; Mischak, H

    1994-01-01

    The protein kinase C (pkc) enzymes are a family of serine-threonine protein kinases, each encoded by a distinct and separate gene. The chromosomal locations of human PRKCA, PRKCB, and PRKCG have previously been established. We now report that PRKCD, a novel member of the pkc gene family, maps to human chromosome 3. The chromosomal location of Pkcd has also been determined in the mouse by analysis of recombination frequency in an interspecific panel of backcross mice. We find that the locus encoding pkcd resides proximal to nucleoside phosphorylase (Np-2) and Tcra on mouse chromosome 14 in a region syntenic with human 3p.

  17. Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-04-16

    Sex chromosomes originate from autosomes. The accumulation of sexually antagonistic mutations on protosex chromosomes selects for a loss of recombination and sets in motion the evolutionary processes generating heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination suppression and differentiation are generally viewed as the default path of sex chromosome evolution, and the occurrence of old, homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as those of ratite birds, has remained a mystery. Here, we analyze the genome and transcriptome of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and confirm that most genes on the sex chromosome are shared between the Z and W. Surprisingly, however, levels of gene expression are generally sex-biased for all sex-linked genes relative to autosomes, including those in the pseudoautosomal region, and the male-bias increases after gonad formation. This expression bias suggests that the emu sex chromosomes have become masculinized, even in the absence of ZW differentiation. Thus, birds may have taken different evolutionary solutions to minimize the deleterious effects imposed by sexually antagonistic mutations: some lineages eliminate recombination along the protosex chromosomes to physically restrict sexually antagonistic alleles to one sex, whereas ratites evolved sex-biased expression to confine the product of a sexually antagonistic allele to the sex it benefits. This difference in conflict resolution may explain the preservation of recombining, homomorphic sex chromosomes in other lineages and illustrates the importance of sexually antagonistic mutations driving the evolution of sex chromosomes.

  18. Defining the autism minimum candidate gene region on chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Holli B; Bradford, Y; Folstein, S E; Gardiner, M B; Santangelo, S L; Sutcliffe, J S; Haines, J L

    2003-02-01

    Previous genetic and cytogenetic studies provide evidence that points to one or more autism susceptibility genes residing on chromosome 7q (AUTS1, 115-149 cM on the Marshfield map). However, further localization using linkage analysis has proven difficult. To overcome this problem, we examined the Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism (CLSA) data-set to identify only the families potentially linked to chromosome 7. Out of 94, 47 families were identified and 17 markers were used to generate chromosomal haplotypes. We performed recombination breakpoint analysis to determine if any portion of the chromosome was predominately shared across families. The most commonly shared region spanned a 6 cM interval between D7S501 and D7S2847. Additional markers at 1 cM intervals within this region were genotyped and association and recombination breakpoint analysis was again performed. Although no significant allelic association was found, the recombination breakpoint data points to a shared region between D7S496-D7S2418 (120-123 cM) encompassing about 4.5 Mb of genomic DNA containing over 50 genes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Cloning an expressed gene shared by the human sex chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.M.; Banting, G.S.; Pym, B.; Wolfe, J.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of genes shared by mammalian sex chromosomes has been predicted on both evolutionary and functional grounds. However, the only experimental evidence for such genes in humans is the cell-surface antigen encoded by loci on the X and Y chromosomes (MIC2X and MIC2Y, respectively), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. Using the bacteriophage lambdagt11 expression system in Escherichia coli and immunoscreening techniques, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone whose primary product is recognized by 12E7. Southern blot analysis using somatic cell hybrids containing only the human X or Y chromosomes shows that the sequences reacting with the cDNA clone are localized to the sex chromosomes. In addition, the clone hybridizes to DNAs isolated from mouse cells that have been transfected with human DNA and selected for 12E7 expression on the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The authors conclude that the cDNA clone encodes the 12E7 antigen, which is the primary product of the MIC2 loci. The clone was used to explore sequence homology between MIC2X and MIC2Y; these loci are closely related, if not identical.

  20. Using Chromosomes to Teach Evolution: Conserved Genes and Genes Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Uses diagrams to aid in discussing how the English map of the human chromosomes, published by Offner in 1993, can be used to illustrate some important questions in evolution, as well as give students a glimpse into some of the mechanisms underlying evolutionary change. (ZWH)

  1. Mutability and mutational spectrum of chromosome transmission fidelity genes.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Peter C; Crisp, Matthew J; Basrai, Munira A; Tucker, Cheryl M; Dunham, Maitreya J; Spencer, Forrest A; Hieter, Philip

    2012-06-01

    It has been more than two decades since the original chromosome transmission fidelity (Ctf) screen of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was published. Since that time the spectrum of mutations known to cause Ctf and, more generally, chromosome instability (CIN) has expanded dramatically as a result of systematic screens across yeast mutant arrays. Here we describe a comprehensive summary of the original Ctf genetic screen and the cloning of the remaining complementation groups as efforts to expand our knowledge of the CIN gene repertoire and its mutability in a model eukaryote. At the time of the original screen, it was impossible to predict either the genes and processes that would be overrepresented in a pool of random mutants displaying a Ctf phenotype or what the entire set of genes potentially mutable to Ctf would be. We show that in a collection of 136 randomly selected Ctf mutants, >65% of mutants map to 13 genes, 12 of which are involved in sister chromatid cohesion and/or kinetochore function. Extensive screening of systematic mutant collections has shown that ~350 genes with functions as diverse as RNA processing and proteasomal activity mutate to cause a Ctf phenotype and at least 692 genes are required for faithful chromosome segregation. The enrichment of random Ctf alleles in only 13 of ~350 possible Ctf genes suggests that these genes are more easily mutable to cause genome instability than the others. These observations inform our understanding of recurring CIN mutations in human cancers where presumably random mutations are responsible for initiating the frequently observed CIN phenotype of tumors.

  2. Structure of the mouse IL-10 gene and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M.; Khan, T.A.; Moore, K.W. ); Brannan, C.I.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 7.2-kb segment containing the mouse IL-10 (mIL-10) gene was determined. Comparison to the mIL-10 cDNA sequence revealed the presence of five exons that span [approximately]5.1 kb of genomic DNA. The noncoding regions of the mIL-10 gene contain sequences that have been associated with transcriptional regulation of several cytokine genes. The mIL-10 gene was mapped to mouse chromosome 1 and the human IL-10 gene was also mapped to human chromosome 1. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. A general lack of compensation for gene dosage in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Michael; Weissman, Jonathan S; Kirschner, Marc W

    2010-01-01

    Gene copy number variation has been discovered in humans, between related species, and in different cancer tissues, but it is unclear how much of this genomic-level variation leads to changes in the level of protein abundance. To address this, we eliminated one of the two genomic copies of 730 different genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and asked how often a 50% reduction in gene dosage leads to a 50% reduction in protein level. For at least 80% of genes tested, and under several environmental conditions, it does: protein levels in the heterozygous strain are close to 50% of wild type. For <5% of the genes tested, the protein levels in the heterozygote are maintained at nearly wild-type levels. These experiments show that protein levels are not, in general, directly monitored and adjusted to a desired level. Combined with fitness data, this implies that proteins are expressed at levels higher than necessary for survival. PMID:20461075

  4. Expression and regional assignment of Chinese hamster ESD and rRNA genes associated with translocations giving rise to chromosomes Z1 and Z6 in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Stallings, R L; Adair, G M; Lin, J C; Siciliano, M J

    1984-01-01

    The Chinese hamster genes ADK, NP, ESD, PGM2, PEPS, PEPB, GLO, and GSR, all of which are on Chinese hamster chromosome 1, were assigned to CHO-LA chromosomes by analysis of the segregation of CHO isozymes and chromosomes from interspecific somatic cell hybrids made with CHO cells and mouse C11D cells. One allele of each of these eight loci remained linked on the normal chromosome 1 homolog. For seven loci, the other allele remained linked on chromosome Z1, but ESD was shown to have been translocated to chromosome Z6 (Chinese hamster chromosome 5q +). Ag-NOR staining of CHO chromosomes indicated that the (1;5) translocation was very likely reciprocal, since the Chinese hamster chromosome 5, which gave rise to the CHO Z6, lacks an NOR and the Z1 now has one. These data allowed regional assignment of ESD to the distal portion of Chinese hamster chromosome 1p and provided genetic evidence for the origin of CHO chromosomes Z1 and Z6 from Chinese hamster chromosomes 1 and 5. Induced electrophoretic shift mutations of ESD and positive Ag-NOR staining for the rRNA genes on the Z1 showed that the activities of the genes lying close to the translocation breakpoints were maintained.

  5. Postzygotic isolation involves strong mitochondrial and sex-specific effects in Tigriopus californicus, a species lacking heteromorphic sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Foley, B R; Rose, C G; Rundle, D E; Leong, W; Edmands, S

    2013-01-01

    Detailed studies of the genetics of speciation have focused on a few model systems, particularly Drosophila. The copepod Tigriopus californicus offers an alternative that differs from standard animal models in that it lacks heteromorphic chromosomes (instead, sex determination is polygenic) and has reduced opportunities for sexual conflict, because females mate only once. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was conducted on reciprocal F2 hybrids between two strongly differentiated populations, using a saturated linkage map spanning all 12 autosomes and the mitochondrion. By comparing sexes, a possible sex ratio distorter was found but no sex chromosomes. Although studies of standard models often find an excess of hybrid male sterility factors, we found no QTL for sterility and multiple QTL for hybrid viability (indicated by non-Mendelian adult ratios) and other characters. Viability problems were found to be stronger in males, but the usual explanations for weaker hybrid males (sex chromosomes, sensitivity of spermatogenesis, sexual selection) cannot fully account for these male viability problems. Instead, higher metabolic rates may amplify deleterious effects in males. Although many studies of standard speciation models find the strongest genetic incompatibilities to be nuclear–nuclear (specifically X chromosome–autosome), we found the strongest deleterious interaction in this system was mito–nuclear. Consistent with the snowball theory of incompatibility accumulation, we found that trigenic interactions in this highly divergent cross were substantially more frequent (>6 × ) than digenic interactions. This alternative system thus allows important comparisons to studies of the genetics of reproductive isolation in more standard model systems. PMID:23860232

  6. Marek's disease herpesvirus vaccines integrate into chicken host chromosomes yet lack a virus-host phenotype associated with oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marla C; Cheng, Hans H; Delany, Mary E

    2016-11-04

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotropic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unvaccinated host birds. The causative pathogen, MD virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres. MD occurrence is controlled across the globe by biosecurity, selective breeding for enhanced MD genetic resistance, and widespread vaccination of flocks using attenuated serotype 1 MDV or other serotypes. Despite over 40 years of usage, the specific mechanism(s) of MD vaccine-related immunity and anti-tumor effects are not known. Here we investigated the cytogenetic interactions of commonly used MD vaccine strains of all three serotypes (HVT, SB-1, and Rispens) with the host to determine if all were equally capable of host genome integration. We also studied the dynamic profiles of chromosomal association and integration of the three vaccine strains, a first for MD vaccine research. Our cytogenetic data provide evidence that all three MD vaccine strains tested integrate in the chicken host genome as early as 1 day after vaccination similar to oncogenic strains. However, a specific, transformation-associated virus-host phenotype observed for oncogenic viruses is not established. Our results collectively provide an updated model of MD vaccine-host genome interaction and an improved understanding of the possible mechanisms of vaccinal immunity. Physical integration of the oncogenic MDV genome into host chromosomes along with cessation of viral replication appears to have joint signification in MDV's ability to induce oncogenic transformation. Whereas for MD vaccine serotypes, a sustained viral replication stage and lack of the chromosome-integrated only stage were shared traits during early infection.

  7. Lack of satellite DNA species-specific homogenization and relationship to chromosomal rearrangements in monitor lizards (Varanidae, Squamata).

    PubMed

    Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Suntronpong, Aorarat; Singchat, Worapong; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Phatcharakullawarawat, Rattanin; Muangmai, Narongrit; Peyachoknagul, Surin; Matsubara, Kazumi; Ezaz, Tariq; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2017-08-16

    Satellite DNAs (stDNAs) are highly repeated sequences that constitute large portions of any genome. The evolutionary dynamics of stDNA (e.g. copy number, nucleotide sequence, location) can, therefore, provide an insight into genome organization and evolution. We investigated the evolutionary origin of VSAREP stDNA in 17 monitor lizards (seven Asian, five Australian, and five African) at molecular and cytogenetic level. Results revealed that VSAREP is conserved in the genome of Asian and Australian varanids, but not in African varanids, suggesting that these sequences are either differentiated or lost in the African varanids. Phylogenetic and arrangement network analyses revealed the existence of at least four VSAREP subfamilies. The similarity of each sequence unit within the same VSAREP subfamily from different species was higher than those of other VSAREP subfamilies belonging to the same species. Additionally, all VSAREP subfamilies isolated from the three Australian species (Varanus rosenbergi, V. gouldii, and V. acanthurus) were co-localized near the centromeric or pericentromeric regions of the macrochromosomes, except for chromosomes 3 and 4 in each Australian varanid. However, their chromosomal arrangements were different among species. The VSAREP stDNA family lack homogenized species-specific nucleotide positions in varanid lineage. Most VSAREP sequences were shared among varanids within the four VSAREP subfamilies. This suggests that nucleotide substitutions in each varanid species accumulated more slowly than homogenization rates in each VSAREP subfamily, resulting in non-species-specific evolution of stDNA profiles. Moreover, changes in location of VSAREP stDNA in each Australian varanid suggests a correlation with chromosomal rearrangements, leading to karyotypic differences among these species.

  8. The mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Buenaventura, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The principle goal of our laboratory is the discovery of new genes on human chromosome 19. One of the strategies to achieve this goal is through the use of cDNA clones known as {open_quotes}expressed sequence tags{close_quotes} (ESTs). ESTs, short segments of sequence from a cDNA clone that correspond to the mRNA, occur as unique regions in the genome and, therefore, can be used as markers for specific positions. In collaboration with researchers from Genethon in France, fifteen cDNA clones from a normalized human infant brain cDNA library were tested and determined to map to chromosome 19. A verification procedure is then followed to confirm assignment to chromosome 19. First, primers for each cDNA clone are developed and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA. Next, a {sup 32}P-radiolabeled probe is made by polymerase chain reaction for each clone and then hybridized against filters containing an LLNL chromosome 19-specific cosmid library to find putative locations on the chromosome. The location is then verified by running a polymerase chain reactions from the positive cosmids. With the Browser database at LLNL, additional information about the positive cosmids can be found. Through use of the BLAST database at the National Library of Medicine, homologous sequences to the clones can be found. Among the fifteen cDNA clones received from Genethon, all have been amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Three have turned out as repetitive elements in the genome. Ten have been mapped to specific locations on chromosome 19. Putative locations have been found for the remaining two clones and thus verification testing will proceed.

  9. Positional cloning of disease genes on chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, N.; Bruening, M.; Callen, D.; Gardiner, M.; Lerner, T.

    1996-04-01

    The project seeks to elucidate the molecular basis of an important genetic disease (Batten`s disease) by molecular cloning of the affected gene by utilizing an overlapping clone map of chromosome 16. Batten disease (also known as juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder of childhood characterized by progressive loss of vision, seizures, and psychomoter disturbances. The Batten disease gene was genetically mapped to the chromosome region 16p 12.1 in close linkage with the genetic markers D16S299 and D16S298. Exon amplification of a cosmid containing D16S298 yielded a candidate gene that was disrupted by a 1 kb genomic deletion in all patients containing the most common haplotype for the disease. Two separate deletions and a point mutation altering a splice site in three unrelated families have confirmed the gene as the Batten disease gene. The disease gene encodes a novel 438 amino acid membrane binding protein of unknown function.

  10. Birth and death of genes linked to chromosomal inversion

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Mikihiko; Yahara, Koji; Takahashi, Noriko; Handa, Naofumi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Hattori, Masahira; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2011-01-01

    The birth and death of genes is central to adaptive evolution, yet the underlying genome dynamics remain elusive. The availability of closely related complete genome sequences helps to follow changes in gene contents and clarify their relationship to overall genome organization. Helicobacter pylori, bacteria in our stomach, are known for their extreme genome plasticity through mutation and recombination and will make a good target for such an analysis. In comparing their complete genome sequences, we found that gain and loss of genes (loci) for outer membrane proteins, which mediate host interaction, occurred at breakpoints of chromosomal inversions. Sequence comparison there revealed a unique mechanism of DNA duplication: DNA duplication associated with inversion. In this process, a DNA segment at one chromosomal locus is copied and inserted, in an inverted orientation, into a distant locus on the same chromosome, while the entire region between these two loci is also inverted. Recognition of this and three more inversion modes, which occur through reciprocal recombination between long or short sequence similarity or adjacent to a mobile element, allowed reconstruction of synteny evolution through inversion events in this species. These results will guide the interpretation of extensive DNA sequencing results for understanding long- and short-term genome evolution in various organisms and in cancer cells. PMID:21212362

  11. Mapping of the taurine transporter gene to mouse chromosome 6 and to the short arm of human chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Uhl, G.R.; Gregor, P.

    1995-01-01

    Transport proteins have essential functions in the uptake of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. We have mapped the gene encoding the taurine transporter, Taut, to the central region of mouse chromosome 6. Analysis of a cross segregating the neurological mutant mnd2 excluded Taut as a candidate gene for this closely linked mutation. To map the human taurine transporter gene, TAUT, a sequence-tagged site (STS) corresponding to the 3{prime} untranslated region of the human cDNA was developed. TAUT was assigned to human chromosome 3 by typing this STS on a panel of somatic cell hybrids. Further analysis of a hybrid panel containing defined deletions of chromosome 3 suggested that TAUT maps to 3p21-p25. These data extend a conserved linkage group on mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 3p. Deletion of TAUT might contribute to some phenotypic features of the 3p{sup -} syndrome. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  12. The Superantigen Gene ypm Is Located in an Unstable Chromosomal Locus of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Carnoy, Christophe; Floquet, Stephanie; Marceau, Michael; Sebbane, Florent; Haentjens-Herwegh, Stephanie; Devalckenaere, Annie; Simonet, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis produces YPM (Y. pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen), a superantigenic toxin that exacerbates the virulence of the bacterium in vivo. To date, three alleles of the superantigen gene (ypmA, ypmB, and ypmC) have been described. These genes are not found in all Y. pseudotuberculosis strains and have a low GC content, suggesting their location on mobile genetic elements. To elucidate this question, the genetic environment of the superantigen-encoding genes was characterized and 11 open reading frames (ORFs) were defined. Sequence analysis revealed that the ypm genes were not associated with plasmids, phages, transposons, or pathogenicity islands and that the superantigen genes were always located in the chromosome between ORF3 and ORF4. Nonsuperantigenic strains exhibited the same genetic organization of the locus but lacked the ypm gene between ORF3 and ORF4. A new insertion sequence, designated IS1398, which displays features of the Tn3 family, was characterized downstream of the ypmA and ypmC genes. A 13.3-kb region containing the ypm genes was not found in the genome of Y. pestis (CO92 and KIM 5 strains). We experimentally induced deletion of the ypm gene from a superantigen-expressing Y. pseudotuberculosis: using the association of aph(3′)-IIIa and sacB genes, we demonstrated that when these reporter genes were present in the ypm locus, deletion of these genes was about 250 times more frequent than when they were located in another region of the Y. pseudotuberculosis chromosome. These results indicate that unlike other superantigenic toxin genes, the Yersinia ypm genes are not associated with mobile genetic elements but are inserted in an unstable locus of the genome. PMID:12142419

  13. A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional genomics and gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, William C.; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Larionov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Since their description in the late 1990s, human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. Indeed, HACs avoid the limited cloning capacity, lack of copy number control and insertional mutagenesis due to integration into host chromosomes that plague viral vectors. Nevertheless, until recently, HACs have not been widely recognized because of uncertainties of their structure and the absence of a unique gene acceptor site. The situation changed a few years ago after engineering of HACs with a single loxP gene adopter site and a defined structure. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoidtetO-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. Multiple potential applications of the HAC vectors are discussed, specifically the unique features of two of the most advanced HAC cloning systems. PMID:22907415

  14. A new generation of human artificial chromosomes for functional genomics and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kouprina, Natalay; Earnshaw, William C; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Larionov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Since their description in the late 1990s, human artificial chromosomes (HACs) carrying a functional kinetochore were considered as a promising system for gene delivery and expression with a potential to overcome many problems caused by the use of viral-based gene transfer systems. Indeed, HACs avoid the limited cloning capacity, lack of copy number control and insertional mutagenesis due to integration into host chromosomes that plague viral vectors. Nevertheless, until recently, HACs have not been widely recognized because of uncertainties of their structure and the absence of a unique gene acceptor site. The situation changed a few years ago after engineering of HACs with a single loxP gene adopter site and a defined structure. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in HAC technology and concentrate on details of two of the most advanced HACs, 21HAC generated by truncation of human chromosome 21 and alphoid(tetO)-HAC generated de novo using a synthetic tetO-alphoid DNA array. Multiple potential applications of the HAC vectors are discussed, specifically the unique features of two of the most advanced HAC cloning systems.

  15. Localization of the guanylyl cyclase C gene to mouse chromosome 6 and human chromosome 12p12

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, E.A.; Swenson, E.S.; Giannella, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the localization of the guanylyl cyclase C gene to mouse chromosome 6 and to human chromosome 12p12 using polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This transmembrane receptor is expressed primarily in the intestine and regulates the secretion of chloride. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human thrombospondin gene.

    PubMed

    Wolf, F W; Eddy, R L; Shows, T B; Dixit, V M

    1990-04-01

    Thrombospondin (THBS1) is a large modular glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix and contains a variety of distinct domains, including three repeating subunits (types I, II, and III) that share homology to an assortment of other proteins. Determination of THBS1 gene structure has revealed that the type I repeat modules are encoded by symmetrical exons and that the heparin-binding domain is encoded by a single exon. To further elucidate the higher level organization of THBS1, the gene was localized to the q11-qter region of chromosome 15.

  17. Chromosomal locations of three Bacillus subtilis din genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, K.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Previously isolated DNA damage-inducible (din) genes of Bacillus subtilis have been mapped on the bacterial chromosome by bacteriophage PBS1-mediated transduction. The din genes have been localized to three positions on the B. subtilis map. dinA cotransduction with the hisA locus was 80%, while dinC cotransduction with this marker was about 56%. dinB is unlinked to hisA, but its cotransduction with the dal-1 and purB loci was 84 and 22%, respectively.

  18. Chromosome

    MedlinePlus

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  19. Cloning and chromosomal localization of the three human syntrophin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Feener, C.A.; Anderson, M.D.S.; Selig, S.

    1994-09-01

    Dystrophin, the protein product the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus, is normally found to be associated with a complex of proteins. Among these dystrophin-associated proteins are the syntrophins, a group of 59 kDa membrane-associated proteins. When the syntrophins are purified based upon their association with dystrophin, they have been shown previously to form two distinct groups, the acidic ({alpha}) and basic ({beta}) forms. Based on peptide and rodent cDNA sequences, three separate syntrophin genes have been cloned and characterized from human tissues. The predicted amino acid sequences from these cDNA reveal that these proteins are related but are distinct with respect to charge, as predicted from their biochemistry. The family consists of one acidic ({alpha}-syntrophin, analogous to mouse syntrophin-1) and two basic ({beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin; and {beta}{sub 2}-syntrophin, analogous to mouse syntrophin-2) genes. Each of the three genes are widely expressed in a variety of human tissues, but the relative abundance of the three are unique with respect to each other. {alpha}-syntrophin is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle and heart as a single transcript. {beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin is expressed widely in up to five distinct transcript sizes, and is most abundant in brain. The human chromosomal locations of the three syntrophins are currently being mapped. {beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin maps to chromosome 8q23-24 and {beta}{sub 2}-syntrophin to chromosome 16. The {alpha}-syntrophin gene will be mapped accordingly. Although all three genes are candidates for neuromuscular diseases, the predominant expression of {alpha}-syntrophin in skeletal muscle and heart makes it a strong candidate to be involved in a neuromuscular disease.

  20. Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Thévenin, Annelyse; Ein-Dor, Liat; Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2014-09-01

    Genomes undergo changes in organization as a result of gene duplications, chromosomal rearrangements and local mutations, among other mechanisms. In contrast to prokaryotes, in which genes of a common function are often organized in operons and reside contiguously along the genome, most eukaryotes show much weaker clustering of genes by function, except for few concrete functional groups. We set out to check systematically if there is a relation between gene function and gene organization in the human genome. We test this question for three types of functional groups: pairs of interacting proteins, complexes and pathways. We find a significant concentration of functional groups both in terms of their distance within the same chromosome and in terms of their dispersal over several chromosomes. Moreover, using Hi-C contact map of the tendency of chromosomal segments to appear close in the 3D space of the nucleus, we show that members of the same functional group that reside on distinct chromosomes tend to co-localize in space. The result holds for all three types of functional groups that we tested. Hence, the human genome shows substantial concentration of functional groups within chromosomes and across chromosomes in space.

  1. Mapping of a locus correcting lack of phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cell Ade-D mutants to human chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Barton, J W; Hart, I M; Patterson, D

    1991-02-01

    The human phosphoribosylaminoimidazole (AIR) carboxylase locus has been until this report one of the genes encoding purine biosynthetic enzymes that had not been assigned to an individual human chromosome. Characterization of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant Ade-D showed that the cell line was unable to produce IMP and accumulated AIR. CHO Ade-D cells were fused with normal human lymphocytes utilizing inactivated Sendai virus and the resulting hybrid cell lines were selected for purine prototrophy. Cytogenetic analysis showed a 100% concordance value for chromosome 4. Two of the isolated subclones contained only the long arm of chromosome 4 translocated onto a CHO chromosome, providing evidence for a regional assignment of the Ade-D gene to the long arm of chromosome 4. Two of the subclones containing chromosome 4 were subjected to the BrdU visible light segregation. All of the isolated purine auxotrophic cell lines showed a loss of the q arm of chromosome 4. The localization of the Ade-D locus to the long arm of chromosome 4 may reveal further clustering of the mammalian purine genes since the Ade-A locus has previously been regionally assigned to 4pter-q21.

  2. [The chromosomal genes for black widow spider neurotoxins do not contain introns].

    PubMed

    Danilevich, V N; Grishin, E V

    2000-12-01

    The overlapping fragments of the chromosomal DNA from black widow spider Latrodectus mactans carrying genes for high-molecular-mass protein neurotoxins, alpha- and delta-latroinsectotoxins (alpha-LIT and delta-LIT) and alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LTX), were PCR-amplified and cloned. Restriction analysis of the PCR products showed that the distribution and sizes of the restriction fragments coincided with those deduced from the earlier sequencing of cDNAs of the corresponding genes. It thus followed that the alpha-LIT and delta-LIT genes are intronless. Along with our data on the structure of the alpha-latrocrustotoxin (alpha-LCT), this implies that the lack of introns is a common feature of the black widow spider genes encoding high molecular mass neurotoxins.

  3. Organization and chromosomal localization of the human platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, K; Stenman, G; Honda, H; Sahlin, P; Andersson, A; Miyazono, K; Heldin, C H; Ishikawa, F; Takaku, F

    1991-01-01

    Human platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (hPD-ECGF) is a novel angiogenic factor which stimulates endothelial cell growth in vitro and promotes angiogenesis in vivo. We report here the cloning and sequencing of the gene for hPD-ECGF and its flanking regions. This gene is composed of 10 exons dispersed over a 4.3-kb region. Its promoter lacks a TATA box and a CCAAT box, structures characteristic of eukaryotic promoters. Instead, six copies of potential Sp1-binding sites (GGGCGG or CCGCCC) were clustered just upstream of the transcription start sites. Southern blot analysis using genomic DNAs from several vertebrates suggested that the gene for PD-ECGF is conserved phylogenetically among vertebrates. The gene for hPD-ECGF was localized to chromosome 22 by analysis of a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines. Images PMID:2005900

  4. INDEPENDENT STRATUM FORMATION ON THE AVIAN SEX CHROMOSOMES REVEALS INTER-CHROMOSOMAL GENE CONVERSION AND PREDOMINANCE OF PURIFYING SELECTION ON THE W CHROMOSOME

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

    2014-01-01

    We used a comparative approach spanning three species and 90 million years to study the evolutionary history of the avian sex chromosomes. Using whole transcriptomes, we assembled the largest cross-species dataset of W-linked coding content to date. Our results show that recombination suppression in large portions of the avian sex chromosomes has evolved independently, and that long-term sex chromosome divergence is consistent with repeated and independent inversions spreading progressively to restrict recombination. In contrast, over short-term periods we observe heterogeneous and locus-specific divergence. We also uncover four instances of gene conversion between both highly diverged and recently evolved gametologs, suggesting a complex mosaic of recombination suppression across the sex chromosomes. Lastly, evidence from 16 gametologs reveal that the W chromosome is evolving with a significant contribution of purifying selection, consistent with previous findings that W-linked genes play an important role in encoding sex-specific fitness. PMID:25066800

  5. Chromosomal localization of the human vesicular amine transporter genes

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, D.; Finn, P.; Liu, Y.; Roghani, A.; Edwards, R.H.; Klisak, I.; Kojis, T.; Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S. )

    1993-12-01

    The physiologic and behavioral effects of pharmacologic agents that interfere with the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters into vesicles suggest that vesicular amine transport may contribute to human neuropsychiatric disease. To determine whether an alteration in the genes that encode vesicular amine transport contributes to the inherited component of these disorders, the authors have isolated a human cDNA for the brain transporter and localized the human vesciular amine transporter genes. The human brain synaptic vesicle amine transporter (SVAT) shows unexpected conservation with rat SVAT in the regions that diverge extensively between rat SVAT and the rat adrenal chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT). Using the cloned sequences with a panel of mouse-human hybrids and in situ hybridization for regional localization, the adrenal CGAT gene (or VAT1) maps to human chromosome 8p21.3 and the brain SVAT gene (or VAT2) maps to chromosome 10q25. Both of these sites occur very close to if not within previously described deletions that produce severe but viable phenotypes. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Speciation with gene flow in equids despite extensive chromosomal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Jónsson, Hákon; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Petersen, Lillian; Fumagalli, Matteo; Albrechtsen, Anders; Petersen, Bent; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Lear, Teri; Myka, Jennifer Leigh; Lundquist, Judith; Miller, Donald C.; Alfarhan, Ahmed H.; Alquraishi, Saleh A.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Stagegaard, Julia; Strauss, Günter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Antczak, Douglas F.; Bailey, Ernest; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Horses, asses, and zebras belong to a single genus, Equus, which emerged 4.0–4.5 Mya. Although the equine fossil record represents a textbook example of evolution, the succession of events that gave rise to the diversity of species existing today remains unclear. Here we present six genomes from each living species of asses and zebras. This completes the set of genomes available for all extant species in the genus, which was hitherto represented only by the horse and the domestic donkey. In addition, we used a museum specimen to characterize the genome of the quagga zebra, which was driven to extinction in the early 1900s. We scan the genomes for lineage-specific adaptations and identify 48 genes that have evolved under positive selection and are involved in olfaction, immune response, development, locomotion, and behavior. Our extensive genome dataset reveals a highly dynamic demographic history with synchronous expansions and collapses on different continents during the last 400 ky after major climatic events. We show that the earliest speciation occurred with gene flow in Northern America, and that the ancestor of present-day asses and zebras dispersed into the Old World 2.1–3.4 Mya. Strikingly, we also find evidence for gene flow involving three contemporary equine species despite chromosomal numbers varying from 16 pairs to 31 pairs. These findings challenge the claim that the accumulation of chromosomal rearrangements drive complete reproductive isolation, and promote equids as a fundamental model for understanding the interplay between chromosomal structure, gene flow, and, ultimately, speciation. PMID:25453089

  7. Chromosomal localization of the human homeo box-containing genes, EN1 and EN2.

    PubMed

    Logan, C; Willard, H F; Rommens, J M; Joyner, A L

    1989-02-01

    The human homologs of the mouse homeo box-containing genes, En-1 and En-2, which show homology to the Drosophila engrailed gene, have been isolated. The human EN1 gene was mapped to chromosome 2 by analysis of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids. The human EN2 gene was localized to chromosome 7, 7q32-7qter, by analysis of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids and cell lines carrying portions of chromosome 7.

  8. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosome 3: evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Stallings, R L; Munk, A C; Longmire, J L; Hildebrand, C E; Crawford, B D

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cdr) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cdr variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with a Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster X mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. We speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cdr hamster cell lines. Images PMID:6527691

  9. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Effects of Sex Chromosome Imprinting in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Bernardo; Branco, Alan T.; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Hartl, Daniel L.; Meiklejohn, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Imprinting is well-documented in both plant and animal species. In Drosophila, the Y chromosome is differently modified when transmitted through the male and female germlines. Here, we report genome-wide gene expression effects resulting from reversed parent-of-origin of the X and Y chromosomes. We found that hundreds of genes are differentially expressed between adult male Drosophila melanogaster that differ in the maternal and paternal origin of the sex chromosomes. Many of the differentially regulated genes are expressed specifically in testis and midgut cells, suggesting that sex chromosome imprinting might globally impact gene expression in these tissues. In contrast, we observed much fewer Y-linked parent-of-origin effects on genome-wide gene expression in females carrying a Y chromosome, indicating that gene expression in females is less sensitive to sex chromosome parent-of-origin. Genes whose expression differs between females inheriting a maternal or paternal Y chromosome also show sex chromosome parent-of-origin effects in males, but the direction of the effects on gene expression (overexpression or underexpression) differ between the sexes. We suggest that passage of sex chromosome chromatin through male meiosis may be required for wild-type function in F1 progeny, whereas disruption of Y-chromosome function through passage in the female germline likely arises because the chromosome is not adapted to the female germline environment. PMID:24318925

  10. Organization of the genome and gene expression in a nuclear environment lacking histones and nucleosomes: the amazing dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Moreno Díaz de la Espina, Susana; Alverca, Elsa; Cuadrado, Angeles; Franca, Susana

    2005-03-01

    Dinoflagellates are fascinating protists that have attracted researchers from different fields. The free-living species are major primary producers and the cause of harmful algal blooms sometimes associated with red tides. Dinoflagellates lack histones and nucleosomes and present a unique genome and chromosome organization, being considered the only living knockouts of histones. Their plastids contain genes organized in unigenic minicircles. Basic cell structure, biochemistry and molecular phylogeny place the dinoflagellates firmly among the eukaryotes. They have G1-S-G2-M cell cycles, repetitive sequences, ribosomal genes in tandem, nuclear matrix, snRNAs, and eukaryotic cytoplasm, whereas their nuclear DNA is different, from base composition to chromosome organization. They have a high G + C content, highly methylated and rare bases such as 5-hydroxymethyluracil (HOMeU), no TATA boxes, and form distinct interphasic dinochromosomes with a liquid crystalline organization of DNA, stabilized by metal cations and structural RNA. Without histones and with a protein:DNA mass ratio (1:10) lower than prokaryotes, they need a different way of packing their huge amounts of DNA into a functional chromatin. In spite of the high interest in the dinoflagellate system in genetics, molecular and cellular biology, their analysis until now has been very restricted. We review here the main achievements in the characterization of the genome, nucleus and chromosomes in this diversified phylum. The recent discovery of a eukaryotic structural and functional differentiation in the dinochromosomes and of the organization of gene expression in them, demonstrate that in spite of the secondary loss of histones, that produce a lack of nucleosomal and supranucleosomal chromatin organization, they keep a functional nuclear organization closer to eukaryotes than to prokaryotes.

  11. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  12. Convergent evolution of chicken Z and human X chromosomes by expansion and gene acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bellott, Daniel W; Skaletsky, Helen; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Mardis, Elaine R; Graves, Tina; Kremitzki, Colin; Brown, Laura G; Rozen, Steve; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Page, David C

    2010-07-29

    In birds, as in mammals, one pair of chromosomes differs between the sexes. In birds, males are ZZ and females ZW. In mammals, males are XY and females XX. Like the mammalian XY pair, the avian ZW pair is believed to have evolved from autosomes, with most change occurring in the chromosomes found in only one sex--the W and Y chromosomes. By contrast, the sex chromosomes found in both sexes--the Z and X chromosomes--are assumed to have diverged little from their autosomal progenitors. Here we report findings that challenge this assumption for both the chicken Z chromosome and the human X chromosome. The chicken Z chromosome, which we sequenced essentially to completion, is less gene-dense than chicken autosomes but contains a massive tandem array containing hundreds of duplicated genes expressed in testes. A comprehensive comparison of the chicken Z chromosome with the finished sequence of the human X chromosome demonstrates that each evolved independently from different portions of the ancestral genome. Despite this independence, the chicken Z and human X chromosomes share features that distinguish them from autosomes: the acquisition and amplification of testis-expressed genes, and a low gene density resulting from an expansion of intergenic regions. These features were not present on the autosomes from which the Z and X chromosomes originated but were instead acquired during the evolution of Z and X as sex chromosomes. We conclude that the avian Z and mammalian X chromosomes followed convergent evolutionary trajectories, despite their evolving with opposite (female versus male) systems of heterogamety. More broadly, in birds and mammals, sex chromosome evolution involved not only gene loss in sex-specific chromosomes, but also marked expansion and gene acquisition in sex chromosomes common to males and females.

  13. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mice lacking a functional Kiss1 gene

    PubMed Central

    d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Fagg, Lisa A.; Dixon, John P. C.; Day, Kate; Leitch, Harry G.; Hendrick, Alan G.; Zahn, Dirk; Franceschini, Isabelle; Caraty, Alain; Carlton, Mark B. L.; Aparicio, Samuel A. J. R.; Colledge, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (AXOR12, OT7T175) is central to acquisition of reproductive competency in mammals. Peptide ligands (kisspeptins) for this receptor are encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and administration of exogenous kisspeptins stimulates hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in several species, including humans. To establish that kisspeptins are the authentic agonists of GPR54 in vivo and to determine whether these ligands have additional physiological functions we have generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Kiss1 gene. Kiss1-null mice are viable and healthy with no apparent abnormalities but fail to undergo sexual maturation. Mutant female mice do not progress through the estrous cycle, have thread-like uteri and small ovaries, and do not produce mature Graffian follicles. Mutant males have small testes, and spermatogenesis arrests mainly at the early haploid spermatid stage. Both sexes have low circulating gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) and sex steroid (β-estradiol or testosterone) hormone levels. Migration of GnRH neurons into the hypothalamus appears normal with appropriate axonal connections to the median eminence and total GnRH content. The hypothalamic–pituitary axis is functional in these mice as shown by robust luteinizing hormone secretion after peripheral administration of kisspeptin. The virtually identical phenotype of Gpr54- and Kiss1-null mice provides direct proof that kisspeptins are the true physiological ligand for the GPR54 receptor in vivo. Kiss1 also does not seem to play a vital role in any other physiological processes other than activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and loss of Kiss1 cannot be overcome by compensatory mechanisms. PMID:17563351

  14. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  15. Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, Veronica J.; O'Meally, Denis; Sankovic, Natasha; Delbridge, Margaret L.; Kuroki, Yoko; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Jordan, Kristen S.; Pask, Andrew J.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Fujiyama, Asao; Graves, Jennifer A. Marshall; Waters, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    We report here the isolation and sequencing of 10 Y-specific tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) BAC clones, revealing five hitherto undescribed tammar wallaby Y genes (in addition to the five genes already described) and several pseudogenes. Some genes on the wallaby Y display testis-specific expression, but most have low widespread expression. All have partners on the tammar X, along with homologs on the human X. Nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios for nine of the tammar XY gene pairs indicate that they are each under purifying selection. All 10 were also identified as being on the Y in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii; a distantly related Australian marsupial); however, seven have been lost from the human Y. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the wallaby YX genes, with respective homologs from other vertebrate representatives, revealed that three marsupial Y genes (HCFC1X/Y, MECP2X/Y, and HUWE1X/Y) were members of the ancestral therian pseudoautosomal region (PAR) at the time of the marsupial/eutherian split; three XY pairs (SOX3/SRY, RBMX/Y, and ATRX/Y) were isolated from each other before the marsupial/eutherian split, and the remaining three (RPL10X/Y, PHF6X/Y, and UBA1/UBE1Y) have a more complex evolutionary history. Thus, the small marsupial Y chromosome is surprisingly rich in ancient genes that are retained in at least Australian marsupials and evolved from testis–brain expressed genes on the X. PMID:22128133

  16. A versatile element for gene addition in bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Marion H.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in genetic manipulation of bacterial host metabolic pathways for protein or small molecule production has led to a need to add new genes to a chromosome quickly and easily without leaving behind a selectable marker. The present report describes a vector and four-day procedure that enable site-specific chromosomal insertion of cloned genes in a context insulated from external transcription, usable once in a construction series. The use of rhamnose-inducible transcription from rhaBp allows regulation of the inserted genes independently of the commonly used IPTG and arabinose strategies. Using lacZ as a reporter, we first show that expression from the rhamnose promoter is tightly regulatable, exhibiting very low leakage of background expression compared with background, and moderate rhamnose-induced expression compared with IPTG-induced expression from lacp. Second, the expression of a DNA methyltransferase was used to show that rhamnose regulation yielded on-off expression of this enzyme, such that a resident high-copy plasmid was either fully sensitive or fully resistant to isoschizomer restriction enzyme cleavage. In both cases, growth medium manipulation allows intermediate levels of expression. The vehicle can also be adapted as an ORF-cloning vector. PMID:22123741

  17. [The human genome--chromosome 10 and the collagen genes].

    PubMed

    Brdicka, R

    1995-05-17

    In relation to locuses of the 10th chromosome at present the following are in the focus of interest: tumours of endocrine glands, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MTC) and multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN). It seems that the unifying basis is the oncogene RET, responsible for the development of Hirschsprung's disease HSCR. The authors mentions also metabolically important locuses for choline acetyltransferase (CHAT), uriporphyrinogen synthase (UROS) and methyl guanine methyltransferase (MGMT). A special paragraph is devoted to a list of collagenous genes COL1-COL18 and diseases associated with them.

  18. Intraspecies Transfer of the Chromosomal Acinetobacter baumannii blaNDM-1 Carbapenemase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, Thomas; Wibberg, Daniel; Maus, Irena; Winkler, Anika; Bontron, Séverine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Nordmann, Patrice; Pühler, Alfred; Poirel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The species Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important multidrug-resistant human pathogens. To determine its virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants, the genome of the nosocomial blaNDM-1-positive A. baumannii strain R2090 originating from Egypt was completely sequenced. Genome analysis revealed that strain R2090 is highly related to the community-acquired Australian A. baumannii strain D1279779. The two strains belong to sequence type 267 (ST267). Isolate R2090 harbored the chromosomally integrated transposon Tn125 carrying the carbapenemase gene blaNDM-1 that is not present in the D1279779 genome. To test the transferability of the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene region, the clinical isolate R2090 was mated with the susceptible A. baumannii recipient CIP 70.10, and the carbapenem-resistant derivative R2091 was obtained. Genome sequencing of the R2091 derivative revealed that it had received an approximately 66-kb region comprising the transposon Tn125 embedding the blaNDM-1 gene. This region had integrated into the chromosome of the recipient strain CIP 70.10. From the four known mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer (conjugation, outer membrane vesicle-mediated transfer, transformation, and transduction), conjugation could be ruled out, since strain R2090 lacks any plasmid, and a type IV secretion system is not encoded in its chromosome. However, strain R2090 possesses three putative prophages, two of which were predicted to be complete and therefore functional. Accordingly, it was supposed that the transfer of the resistance gene region from the clinical isolate R2090 to the recipient occurred by general transduction facilitated by one of the prophages present in the R2090 genome. Hence, phage-mediated transduction has to be taken into account for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes within the species A. baumannii. PMID:26953198

  19. Gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern of Capn12, a new member of the calpain large subunit gene family.

    PubMed

    Dear, T N; Meier, N T; Hunn, M; Boehm, T

    2000-09-01

    We report the identification of mouse Capn12, a new member of the calpain large subunit gene family. It possesses potential protease and calcium-binding domains, features typical of the classical calpains. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis demonstrate that during the anagen phase of the hair cycle the cortex of the hair follicle is the major expression site of Capn12. The gene was sequenced in its entirety and consists of 21 exons spanning 13 kb with an exon-intron structure typical of the calpain gene family. The last exon of the mouse Actn4 gene overlaps the 3' end of Capn12 but in the opposite orientation. This overlap between the two genes is conserved in the human genome. Three versions of the Capn12 mRNA transcript were identified. They occur as a result of alternative splicing, and two of these encode a protein lacking the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain. Radiation hybrid mapping localized Capn12 to mouse chromosome 7, closely linked to a marker positioned at 10.4 cM. Refined mapping of Capn5, also previously localized to chromosome 7, indicated that it was not closely linked to Capn12, mapping tightly linked to a marker positioned at 48.5 cM.

  20. A molecular deletion of distal chromosome 4p in two families with a satellited chromosome 4 lacking the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, L L; Lamb, A N; Kirkman, H N; Callanan, N P; Rao, K W

    1992-11-01

    We report two families with a satellited chromosome 4 short arm (4ps). Satellites and stalks normally occur on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes; however, the literature cites several reports of satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes, which presumably result from a translocation with an acrocentric chromosome. This is the first report of 4ps chromosomes. Our families are remarkable in that both unaffected and affected individuals carry the 4ps chromosome. The phenotypes observed in affected individuals, although dissimilar, were sufficient to encourage a search for a deletion of chromosome 4p. By Southern blot analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, a deletion of material mapping approximately 150 kb from chromosome 4pter was discovered. This deletion is notable because it does not result in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and can result in an apparently normal phenotype. We speculate that homology between subterminal repeat sequences on 4p and sequences on the acrocentric short arms may explain the origin of the rearrangement and that position effect may play a role in the expression of the abnormal phenotype.

  1. Human decorin gene: Intron-exon junctions and chromosomal localization

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, U.; Young, M.F.; Fisher, L.W. ); Vogel, W.; Just, W. )

    1993-01-01

    All of the protein-encoding exons and the 3[prime]flanking region of the human decorin gene have been cloned an partially sequenced. The locations of the intron-exon junctions within the coding portion of the gene were identical to those found for the homologous human gene, biglycan. The sizes of the introns in the decorin gene, however, were substantially larger than those of the same introns of the biglycan gene. Portions of introns 1, 2, and 3 as well as exon 1 were not found during our extensive screening process. The 5[prime] end of intron 2 was found to have an AG-rich region followed immediately by a CT-rich region. Furthermore, the 5[prime] end of intron 3 was very rich in thymidine, whereas the 3[prime] end of intron 7 was rich in adenosine. Several cDNA clones constructed from cultured human bone cell mRNA were found to contain a different sequence at the 5[prime] end compared to that previously published for mRNA from a human embryonic fibroblast cell line. We were also unable to find the alternate 3[prime] flanking region of the previously published cDNA sequence. We have mapped the human decorin gene by in situ methods to chromosome 12q2l.3. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Purifying Selection Maintains Dosage-Sensitive Genes during Degeneration of the Threespine Stickleback Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael A.; Kitano, Jun; Peichel, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are subject to unique evolutionary forces that cause suppression of recombination, leading to sequence degeneration and the formation of heteromorphic chromosome pairs (i.e., XY or ZW). Although progress has been made in characterizing the outcomes of these evolutionary processes on vertebrate sex chromosomes, it is still unclear how recombination suppression and sequence divergence typically occur and how gene dosage imbalances are resolved in the heterogametic sex. The threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a powerful model system to explore vertebrate sex chromosome evolution, as it possesses an XY sex chromosome pair at relatively early stages of differentiation. Using a combination of whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, we characterized sequence evolution and gene expression across the sex chromosomes. We uncovered two distinct evolutionary strata that correspond with known structural rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In the oldest stratum, only a handful of genes remain, and these genes are under strong purifying selection. By comparing sex-linked gene expression with expression of autosomal orthologs in an outgroup, we show that dosage compensation has not evolved in threespine sticklebacks through upregulation of the X chromosome in males. Instead, in the oldest stratum, the genes that still possess a Y chromosome allele are enriched for genes predicted to be dosage sensitive in mammals and yeast. Our results suggest that dosage imbalances may have been avoided at haploinsufficient genes by retaining function of the Y chromosome allele through strong purifying selection. PMID:25818858

  3. Structure and chromosomal localization of the genomic locus encoding the Kiz1 LIM-kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, O.; Burkitt, V.; Webb, G.C.

    1996-08-01

    We have cloned and characterized the mouse gene encoding Kiz1/Limk1, a new member of the zinc-finger LIM family that also has a kinase domain. The gene encompasses 25 kb of the mouse genome, and the organization of its 16 exons does not correlate with its functional domains. The promoter region of Kiz1/Limk1 was identified by cloning a 1.06-kb genomic fragment upstream from the first ATG in a promotorless CAT vector. This construct was demonstrated to drive CAT expression in Jurkat cells. The promoter sequence lacks conventional TATA and CAAT motifs but contains consensus binding sequences for several transcriptional regulators implicated in control of transcription in many different cell types, including Sp1, Ets, and E2A. Analysis of the chromosomal localization of KIZ1/LIMK1 indicates that it lies on human chromosome 17 in the region 17q25 and on mouse Chromosome 5, band G2. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Evolution of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals: gene loss coincides with lack of upper jaw incisors in ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Kattina; Krall, Paola; Arias, Rodrigo A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that give rise to genomic variability in extant species is an active area of research within evolutionary biology. With the availability of whole genome sequences, it is possible to quantify different forms of variability such as variation in gene copy number, which has been described as an important source of genetic variability and in consequence of phenotypic variability. Most of the research on this topic has been focused on understanding the biological significance of gene duplication, and less attention has been given to the evolutionary role of gene loss. Gremlin 2 is a member of the DAN gene family and plays a significant role in tooth development by blocking the ligand-signaling pathway of BMP2 and BMP4. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolutionary history of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals, a group that possesses highly divergent teeth morphology. Results from our analyses indicate that gremlin 2 has experienced a mixture of gene loss, gene duplication, and rate acceleration. Although the last common ancestor of cetartiodactyls possessed a single gene copy, pigs and camels are the only cetartiodactyl groups that have retained gremlin 2. According to the phyletic distribution of this gene and synteny analyses, we propose that gremlin 2 was lost in the common ancestor of ruminants and cetaceans between 56.3 and 63.5 million years ago as a product of a chromosomal rearrangement. Our analyses also indicate that the rate of evolution of gremlin 2 has been accelerated in the two groups that have retained this gene. Additionally, the lack of this gene could explain the high diversity of teeth among cetartiodactyl mammals; specifically, the presence of this gene could act as a biological constraint. Thus, our results support the notions that gene loss is a way to increase phenotypic diversity and that gremlin 2 is a dispensable gene, at least in cetartiodactyl mammals. PMID:28149683

  5. Evolution of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals: gene loss coincides with lack of upper jaw incisors in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Opazo, Juan C; Zavala, Kattina; Krall, Paola; Arias, Rodrigo A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that give rise to genomic variability in extant species is an active area of research within evolutionary biology. With the availability of whole genome sequences, it is possible to quantify different forms of variability such as variation in gene copy number, which has been described as an important source of genetic variability and in consequence of phenotypic variability. Most of the research on this topic has been focused on understanding the biological significance of gene duplication, and less attention has been given to the evolutionary role of gene loss. Gremlin 2 is a member of the DAN gene family and plays a significant role in tooth development by blocking the ligand-signaling pathway of BMP2 and BMP4. The goal of this study was to investigate the evolutionary history of gremlin 2 in cetartiodactyl mammals, a group that possesses highly divergent teeth morphology. Results from our analyses indicate that gremlin 2 has experienced a mixture of gene loss, gene duplication, and rate acceleration. Although the last common ancestor of cetartiodactyls possessed a single gene copy, pigs and camels are the only cetartiodactyl groups that have retained gremlin 2. According to the phyletic distribution of this gene and synteny analyses, we propose that gremlin 2 was lost in the common ancestor of ruminants and cetaceans between 56.3 and 63.5 million years ago as a product of a chromosomal rearrangement. Our analyses also indicate that the rate of evolution of gremlin 2 has been accelerated in the two groups that have retained this gene. Additionally, the lack of this gene could explain the high diversity of teeth among cetartiodactyl mammals; specifically, the presence of this gene could act as a biological constraint. Thus, our results support the notions that gene loss is a way to increase phenotypic diversity and that gremlin 2 is a dispensable gene, at least in cetartiodactyl mammals.

  6. Transcript analysis of 250 novel yeast genes from chromosome XIV.

    PubMed

    Planta, R J; Brown, A J; Cadahia, J L; Cerdan, M E; de Jonge, M; Gent, M E; Hayes, A; Kolen, C P; Lombardia, L J; Sefton, M; Oliver, S G; Thevelein, J; Tournu, H; van Delft, Y J; Verbart, D J; Winderickx, J

    1999-03-15

    The European Functional Analysis Network (EUROFAN) is systematically analysing the function of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes revealed by genome sequencing. As part of this effort our consortium has performed a detailed transcript analysis for 250 novel ORFs on chromosome XIV. All transcripts were quantified by Northern analysis under three quasi-steady-state conditions (exponential growth on rich fermentative, rich non-fermentative, and minimal fermentative media) and eight transient conditions (glucose derepression, glucose upshift, stationary phase, nitrogen starvation, osmo-stress, heat-shock, and two control conditions). Transcripts were detected for 82% of the 250 ORFs, and only one ORF did not yield a transcript of the expected length (YNL285w). Transcripts ranged from low (62%), moderate (16%) to high abundance (2%) relative to the ACT1 mRNA. The levels of 73% of the 206 chromosome XIV transcripts detected fluctuated in response to the transient states tested. However, only a small number responded strongly to the transients: eight ORFs were induced upon glucose upshift; five were repressed by glucose; six were induced in response to nitrogen starvation; three were induced in stationary phase; five were induced by osmo-stress; four were induced by heat-shock. These data provide useful clues about the general function of these ORFs and add to our understanding of gene regulation on a genome-wide basis.

  7. Whole chromosome instability caused by Bub1 insufficiency drives tumorigenesis through tumor suppressor gene loss of heterozygosity

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Darren J.; Jin, Fang; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Genetic alterations that promote chromosome missegregation have been proposed to drive tumorigenesis through loss of whole chromosomes containing key tumor suppressor genes. To test this unproven idea, we bred Bub1 mutant mice that inaccurately segregate their chromosomes onto p53+/−, ApcMin/+, Rb+/− or Pten+/− backgrounds. Bub1 insufficiency predisposed p53+/− mice to thymic lymphomas and ApcMin/+ mice to colonic tumors. These tumors consistently lacked the non-mutated tumor suppressor allele, but had gained a copy of the mutant allele. In contrast, Bub1 insufficiency had no impact on tumorigenesis in Rb+/− mice and inhibited prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia formation in Pten+/− mice. Thus, Bub1 insufficiency can drive tumor formation through tumor suppressor gene loss of heterozygosity, but only in restricted genetic and cellular contexts. PMID:19962666

  8. Beyond the Chromosome: The Prevalence of Unique Extra-Chromosomal Bacteriophages with Integrated Virulence Genes in Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Utter, Bryan; Deutsch, Douglas R.; Schuch, Raymond; Winer, Benjamin Y.; Verratti, Kathleen; Bishop-Lilly, Kim; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2014-01-01

    In Staphylococcus aureus, the disease impact of chromosomally integrated prophages on virulence is well described. However, the existence of extra-chromosomal prophages, both plasmidial and episomal, remains obscure. Despite the recent explosion in bacterial and bacteriophage genomic sequencing, studies have failed to specifically focus on extra-chromosomal elements. We selectively enriched and sequenced extra-chromosomal DNA from S. aureus isolates using Roche-454 technology and uncovered evidence for the widespread distribution of multiple extra-chromosomal prophages (ExPΦs) throughout both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains. We completely sequenced one such element comprised of a 43.8 kbp, circular ExPΦ (designated ФBU01) from a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain. Assembly and annotation of ФBU01 revealed a number of putative virulence determinants encoded within a bacteriophage immune evasion cluster (IEC). Our identification of several potential ExPΦs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) also revealed numerous putative virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes. We describe here a previously unidentified level of genetic diversity of stealth extra-chromosomal elements in S. aureus, including phages with a larger presence outside the chromosome that likely play a prominent role in pathogenesis and strain diversity driven by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). PMID:24963913

  9. The effects of chromosome rearrangements on the expression of heterochromatic genes in chromosome 2L of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Wakimoto, B.T.; Hearn, M.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The light (lt) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is located at the base of the left arm of chromosome 2, within or very near centromeric heterochromatin (2Lh). Chromosome rearrangements that move the lt{sup +} gene from its normal proximal position and place the gene in distal euchromatin result in mosaic or variegated expression of the gene. The cytogenetic and genetic properties of 17 lt-variegated rearrangements induced by X radiation are described in this report. The authors show that five of the heterochromatic genes adjacent to lt are subject to inactivation by these rearrangements and that the euchromatic loci in proximal 2L are not detectably affected. The properties of the rearrangements suggest that proximity to heterochromatin is an important regulatory requirement for at least six 2Lh genes. They discuss how the properties of the position effects on heterochromatic genes relate to other proximity-dependent phenomena such as transvection.

  10. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kimberly H; Bonthuis, Paul J; Rissman, Emilie F

    2014-10-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones.

  11. Mouse model systems to study sex chromosome genes and behavior: relevance to humans

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Kimberly H.; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome genes directly influence sex differences in behavior. The discovery of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome (Gubbay et al., 1990; Koopman et al., 1990) substantiated the sex chromosome mechanistic link to sex differences. Moreover, the pronounced connection between X chromosome gene mutations and mental illness produces a strong sex bias in these diseases. Yet, the dominant explanation for sex differences continues to be the gonadal hormones. Here we review progress made on behavioral differences in mouse models that uncouple sex chromosome complement from gonadal sex. We conclude that many social and cognitive behaviors are modified by sex chromosome complement, and discuss the implications for human research. Future directions need to include identification of the genes involved and interactions with these genes and gonadal hormones. PMID:24388960

  12. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the mouse IKBKAP gene.

    PubMed

    Coli, R; Anderson, S L; Volpi, S A; Rubin, B Y

    2001-11-14

    The autosomal recessive disorder familial dysautonomia (FD) has recently been demonstrated to be caused by mutations in the IKBKAP gene, so named because an initial report suggested that it encoded an IkappaB kinase complex associated protein (IKAP). Two mutations in IKBKAP have been reported to cause FD. The major mutation is a T-->C transition in the donor splice site of intron 20 and the minor mutation is a missense mutation in exon 19 that disrupts a consensus serine/threonine kinase phosphorylation site. We have characterized the cDNA sequences of the mouse, rat and rabbit IKBKAP-encoded mRNAs and determined the genomic organization and chromosomal location of mouse IKBKAP. There is significant homology in the amino acid sequence of IKAP across species and the serine/threonine kinase phosphorylation site altered in the minor FD mutation of IKAP is conserved. The mouse and human IKBKAP genes exhibit significant conservation of their genomic organization and the intron 20 donor splice site sequence, altered in the major FD mutation, is conserved in the human and mouse genes. Mouse IKBKAP is located on the central portion of chromosome 4 and maps to a region in which there is conserved linkage homology between the human and mouse genomes. The homologies observed in the human and mouse sequences should allow, through the process of homologous recombination, for the generation of mice that bear the IKBKAP mutations present in individuals with FD. The characterization of such mice should provide significant information regarding the pathophysiology of FD.

  13. Mammalian X chromosome inactivation evolved as a dosage-compensation mechanism for dosage-sensitive genes on the X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Pessia, Eugénie; Makino, Takashi; Bailly-Bechet, Marc; McLysaght, Aoife; Marais, Gabriel A B

    2012-04-03

    How and why female somatic X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) evolved in mammals remains poorly understood. It has been proposed that XCI is a dosage-compensation mechanism that evolved to equalize expression levels of X-linked genes in females (2X) and males (1X), with a prior twofold increase in expression of X-linked genes in both sexes ("Ohno's hypothesis"). Whereas the parity of X chromosome expression between the sexes has been clearly demonstrated, tests for the doubling of expression levels globally along the X chromosome have returned contradictory results. However, changes in gene dosage during sex-chromosome evolution are not expected to impact on all genes equally, and should have greater consequences for dosage-sensitive genes. We show that, for genes encoding components of large protein complexes (≥ 7 members)--a class of genes that is expected to be dosage-sensitive--expression of X-linked genes is similar to that of autosomal genes within the complex. These data support Ohno's hypothesis that XCI acts as a dosage-compensation mechanism, and allow us to refine Ohno's model of XCI evolution. We also explore the contribution of dosage-sensitive genes to X aneuploidy phenotypes in humans, such as Turner (X0) and Klinefelter (XXY) syndromes. X aneuploidy in humans is common and is known to have mild effects because most of the supernumerary X genes are inactivated and not affected by aneuploidy. Only genes escaping XCI experience dosage changes in X-aneuploidy patients. We combined data on dosage sensitivity and XCI to compute a list of candidate genes for X-aneuploidy syndromes.

  14. Differential replication dynamics for large and small Vibrio chromosomes affect gene dosage, expression and location

    PubMed Central

    Dryselius, Rikard; Izutsu, Kaori; Honda, Takeshi; Iida, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    Background Replication of bacterial chromosomes increases copy numbers of genes located near origins of replication relative to genes located near termini. Such differential gene dosage depends on replication rate, doubling time and chromosome size. Although little explored, differential gene dosage may influence both gene expression and location. For vibrios, a diverse family of fast growing gammaproteobacteria, gene dosage may be particularly important as they harbor two chromosomes of different size. Results Here we examined replication dynamics and gene dosage effects for the separate chromosomes of three Vibrio species. We also investigated locations for specific gene types within the genome. The results showed consistently larger gene dosage differences for the large chromosome which also initiated replication long before the small. Accordingly, large chromosome gene expression levels were generally higher and showed an influence from gene dosage. This was reflected by a higher abundance of growth essential and growth contributing genes of which many locate near the origin of replication. In contrast, small chromosome gene expression levels were low and appeared independent of gene dosage. Also, species specific genes are highly abundant and an over-representation of genes involved in transcription could explain its gene dosage independent expression. Conclusion Here we establish a link between replication dynamics and differential gene dosage on one hand and gene expression levels and the location of specific gene types on the other. For vibrios, this relationship appears connected to a polarisation of genetic content between its chromosomes, which may both contribute to and be enhanced by an improved adaptive capacity. PMID:19032792

  15. Chromosomal double-strand breaks induce gene conversion at high frequency in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Taghian, D G; Nickoloff, J A

    1997-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) stimulate chromosomal and extrachromosomal recombination and gene targeting. Transcription also stimulates spontaneous recombination by an unknown mechanism. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-SceI to stimulate recombination between neo direct repeats in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal DNA. One neo allele was controlled by the dexamethasone-inducible mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and inactivated by an insertion containing an I-SceI site at which DSBs were introduced in vivo. The other neo allele lacked a promoter but carried 12 phenotypically silent single-base mutations that create restriction sites (restriction fragment length polymorphisms). This system allowed us to generate detailed conversion tract spectra for recipient alleles transcribed at high or low levels. Transient in vivo expression of I-SceI increased homologous recombination 2,000- to 10,000-fold, yielding recombinants at frequencies as high as 1%. Strikingly, 97% of these products arose by gene conversion. Most products had short, bidirectional conversion tracts, and in all cases, donor neo alleles (i.e., those not suffering a DSB) remained unchanged, indicating that conversion was fully nonreciprocal. DSBs in exogenous DNA are usually repaired by end joining requiring little or no homology or by nonconservative homologous recombination (single-strand annealing). In contrast, we show that chromosomal DSBs are efficiently repaired via conservative homologous recombination, principally gene conversion without associated crossing over. For DSB-induced events, similar recombination frequencies and conversion tract spectra were found under conditions of low and high transcription. Thus, transcription does not further stimulate DSB-induced recombination, nor does it appear to affect the mechanism(s) by which DSBs induce gene conversion. PMID:9343400

  16. Hst3p, a histone deacetylase, promotes maintenance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III lacking efficient replication origins.

    PubMed

    Irene, Carmela; Theis, James F; Gresham, David; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Newlon, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    Long gaps between active replication origins probably occur frequently during chromosome replication, but little is known about how cells cope with them. To address this issue, we deleted replication origins from S. cerevisiae chromosome III to create chromosomes with long interorigin gaps and identified mutations that destabilize them [originless fragment maintenance (Ofm) mutations]. ofm6-1 is an allele of HST3, a sirtuin that deacetylates histone H3K56Ac. Hst3p and Hst4p are closely related, but hst4Δ does not cause an Ofm phenotype. Expressing HST4 under the control of the HST3 promoter suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3Δ, indicating Hst4p, when expressed at the appropriate levels and/or at the correct time, can fully substitute for Hst3p in maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes. H3K56Ac is the Hst3p substrate critical for chromosome maintenance. H3K56Ac-containing nucleosomes are preferentially assembled into chromatin behind replication forks. Deletion of the H3K56 acetylase and downstream chromatin assembly factors suppressed the Ofm phenotype of hst3, indicating that persistence of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin is deleterious for the maintenance of ORIΔ chromosomes, and experiments with synchronous cultures showed that it is replication of H3K56Ac-containing chromatin that causes chromosome loss. This work shows that while normal chromosomes can tolerate hyperacetylation of H3K56Ac, deacetylation of histone H3K56Ac by Hst3p is required for stable maintenance of a chromosome with a long interorigin gap. The Ofm phenotype is the first report of a chromosome instability phenotype of an hst3 single mutant.

  17. Chromosomal localization of the human hexabrachion (tenascin) gene and evidence for recent reduplication within the gene.

    PubMed

    Gulcher, J R; Alexakos, M J; Le Beau, M M; Lemons, R S; Stefansson, K

    1990-04-01

    Using analysis of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids as well as in situ hybridization of hexabrachion cDNA probes to normal human metaphase chromosomes, we have localized the human hexabrachion gene to chromosome 9, bands q32-q34. We also put forward the hypothesis that there has been a recent reduplication of a small segment of the human hexabrachion gene. We support this hypothesis by comparison of codon usage in this segment of the gene to codon usage in the remainder of the gene. This hypothesis is also supported by comparison of the sequence of human hexabrachion to that of the chicken hexabrachion. In addition, the latter comparison shows that the reduplication most likely occurred after the divergence of mammalian and avian species.

  18. Mutation of the rice gene PAIR3 results in lack of bivalent formation in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenya; Li, Xingwang; Chang, Yuxiao; Wen, Ruoyu; Chen, Guoxing; Zhang, Qifa; Wu, Changyin

    2009-07-01

    Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction and important for genetic diversity among individuals. Although a number of genes regulating homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis have been identified in the plant kingdom, their molecular basis remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified a novel gene, PAIR3 (HOMOLOGOUS PAIRING ABERRATION IN RICE MEIOSIS 3), required for homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis in rice. Two independent alleles, designated pair3-1 and pair3-2, were identified in our T-DNA insertional mutant library which could not form bivalents due to failure of homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis at diakinesis, resulting in sterility in both male and female gametes. Suppression of PAIR3 by RNAi produced similar results to the T-DNA insertion lines. PAIR3 encodes a protein that contains putative coiled-coil motifs, but does not have any close homologs in other organisms. PAIR3 is preferentially expressed in reproductive organs, especially in pollen mother cells and the ovule tissues during meiosis. Our results suggest that PAIR3 plays a crucial role in homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis in meiosis.

  19. Identification and chromosomal localizations of signal transduction genes associated with human ovarian cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhu; Shenhua, Xu; Hanzhou, Mou; Linhui, Gu; Chihong, Zhu; Xianglin, Liu

    2012-12-01

    Gene chip technology can be used to identify and localize signal transduction genes associated with metastasis. We used the human genome U133A gene chip to detect differences in gene expression profiles among high (H) and low (L) metastatic human ovarian cancer cell lines (HO-8910PM, HO-8910), and normal ovarian tissues (C), to identify metastasis-associated signal transduction genes and determine their chromosomal localizations. A total of 37 signal transduction genes showed more than twofold differences in expression levels between the H and L metastatic ovarian cancer cell lines; of these, 21 genes were up-regulated [signal log ratio (SLR)≥1], and 16 genes were down-regulated (SLR≤-1). Most genes were located on chromosome 1 (7 genes, 18.9%), followed by chromosome 8 (5 genes, 13.5%), then chromosomes 6, 11, and 17 (3 genes each, 8.1%). A total of 21 of the differentially expressed genes (56.7%) were localized on the short arm of the chromosome (q). The disruption of signal transduction gene expression may be an important factor associated with ovarian cancer metastasis. The affected signal transduction genes were localized to chromosomes 1, 8, 6, 11, and 17.

  20. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, C.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Cohn, V.H.; Zollman, S.; Fournier, R.E.K.; Mohandas, L.T.; Nesbitt, M.; Lugo, T.; Jones, D.T.; Reed, R.R.; Weiner, L.P.; Sparkes, R.S.; Simon, M.I. )

    1988-10-01

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding {alpha}-subunit proteins, two different {beta} subunits, and one {gamma} subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The {beta} subunits were also assigned-GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extend of the G{alpha} gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases and with genes corresponding to G proteins.

  1. Monosomy of chromosome 17 in breast cancer during interpretation of HER2 gene amplification

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Matteo; Nottegar, Alessia; Bogina, Giuseppe; Caliò, Anna; Cima, Luca; Eccher, Albino; Vicentini, Caterina; Marcolini, Lisa; Scarpa, Aldo; Pedron, Serena; Brunello, Eleonora; Knuutila, Sakari; Sapino, Anna; Marchiò, Caterina; Bria, Emilio; Molino, Annamaria; Carbognin, Luisa; Tortora, Giampaolo; Jasani, Bharat; Miller, Keith; Merdol, Ibrahim; Zanatta, Lucia; Laurino, Licia; Wirtanen, Tiina; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Chilosi, Marco; Manfrin, Erminia; Martignoni, Guido; Bonetti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Monosomy of chromosome 17 may affect the assessment of HER2 amplification. Notably, the prevalence ranges from 1% up to 49% due to lack of consensus in recognition. We sought to investigate the impact of monosomy of chromosome 17 to interpretation of HER2 gene status. 201 breast carcinoma were reviewed for HER2 gene amplification and chromosome 17 status. FISH analysis was performed by using double probes (LSI/CEP). Absolute gene copy number was also scored per each probe. HER2 FISH test was repeated on serial tissue sections, ranging in thickness from 3 to 20 µm. Ratio was scored and subsequently corrected by monosomy after gold control test using the aCGH method to overcome false interpretation due to artefactual nuclear truncation. HER2 immunotests was performed on all cases. 26/201 cases were amplified (13%). Single signals per CEP17 were revealed in 7/201 (3.5%) cases. Five out of 7 cases appeared monosomic with aCGH (overall, 5/201, 2.5%) and evidenced single signals in >60% of nuclei after second-look on FISH when matching both techniques. Among 5, one case showed amplification with a pattern 7/1 (HER2/CEP17>2) of copies (3+ at immunotest); three cases revealed single signals per both probes (LSI/CEP=1) and one case revealed a 3:1 ratio; all last 4 cases showed 0/1+ immunoscore. We concluded that: 1) monosomy of chromosome 17 may be observed in 2.5% of breast carcinoma; 2) monosomy of chromosome 17 due to biological reasons rather than nuclear truncation was observed when using the cut-off of 60% of nuclei harboring single signals; 3) the skewing of the ratio due to single centromeric 17 probe may lead to false positive evaluation; 4) breast carcinomas showing a 3:1 ratio (HER2/CEP17) usually show negative 0/1+ immunoscore and <6 gene copy number at FISH. PMID:26328251

  2. Clusters of alpha satellite on human chromosome 21 are dispersed far onto the short arm and lack ancient layers.

    PubMed

    Ziccardi, William; Zhao, Chongjian; Shepelev, Valery; Uralsky, Lev; Alexandrov, Ivan; Andreeva, Tatyana; Rogaev, Evgeny; Bun, Christopher; Miller, Emily; Putonti, Catherine; Doering, Jeffrey

    2016-09-01

    Human alpha satellite (AS) sequence domains that currently function as centromeres are typically flanked by layers of evolutionarily older AS that presumably represent the remnants of earlier primate centromeres. Studies on several human chromosomes reveal that these older AS arrays are arranged in an age gradient, with the oldest arrays farthest from the functional centromere and arrays progressively closer to the centromere being progressively younger. The organization of AS on human chromosome 21 (HC21) has not been well-characterized. We have used newly available HC21 sequence data and an HC21p YAC map to determine the size, organization, and location of the AS arrays, and compared them to AS arrays found on other chromosomes. We find that the majority of the HC21 AS sequences are present on the p-arm of the chromosome and are organized into at least five distinct isolated clusters which are distributed over a larger distance from the functional centromere than that typically seen for AS on other chromosomes. Using both phylogenetic and L1 element age estimations, we found that all of the HC21 AS clusters outside the functional centromere are of a similar relatively recent evolutionary origin. HC21 contains none of the ancient AS layers associated with early primate evolution which is present on other chromosomes, possibly due to the fact that the p-arm of HC21 and the other acrocentric chromosomes underwent substantial reorganization about 20 million years ago.

  3. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2000-08-22

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  4. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  5. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous gene

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.

    2007-03-20

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol.

  6. Recombinant cells that highly express chromosomally-integrated heterologous genes

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, L.O.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, B.E.

    1998-10-13

    Recombinant host cells are obtained that comprise (A) a heterologous, polypeptide-encoding polynucleotide segment, stably integrated into a chromosome, which is under transcriptional control of an endogenous promoter and (B) a mutation that effects increased expression of the heterologous segment, resulting in enhanced production by the host cells of each polypeptide encoded by that segment, relative to production of each polypeptide by the host cells in the absence of the mutation. The increased expression thus achieved is retained in the absence of conditions that select for cells displaying such increased expression. When the integrated segment comprises, for example, ethanol-production genes from an efficient ethanol producer like Zymomonas mobilis, recombinant Escherichia coli and other enteric bacterial cells within the present invention are capable of converting a wide range of biomass-derived sugars efficiently to ethanol. 13 figs.

  7. Transcription-dependent radial distribution of TCF7L2 regulated genes in chromosome territories.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Keyvan; Wangsa, Darawalee; Ponsa, Immaculada; Brown, Markus; Bosch, Anna; Vila-Casadesús, Maria; Karpova, Tatiana S; Calvo, Maria; Castells, Antoni; Miró, Rosa; Ried, Thomas; Camps, Jordi

    2017-03-25

    Human chromosomes occupy distinct territories in the interphase nucleus. Such chromosome territories (CTs) are positioned according to gene density. Gene-rich CTs are generally located in the center of the nucleus, while gene-poor CTs are positioned more towards the nuclear periphery. However, the association between gene expression levels and the radial positioning of genes within the CT is still under debate. In the present study, we performed three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments in the colorectal cancer cell lines DLD-1 and LoVo using whole chromosome painting probes for chromosomes 8 and 11 and BAC clones targeting four genes with different expression levels assessed by gene expression arrays and RT-PCR. Our results confirmed that the two over-expressed genes, MYC on chromosome 8 and CCND1 on chromosome 11, are located significantly further away from the center of the CT compared to under-expressed genes on the same chromosomes, i.e., DLC1 and SCN3B. When CCND1 expression was reduced after silencing the major transcription factor of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, TCF7L2, the gene was repositioned and mostly detected in the interior of the CT. Thus, we suggest a non-random distribution in which over-expressed genes are located more towards the periphery of the respective CTs.

  8. Gender-specific gene expression in post-mortem human brain: localization to sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2004-02-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex-chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences.

  9. Possible involvement of genes on the Q chromosome of Nicotiana tabacum in expression of hybrid lethality and programmed cell death during interspecific hybridization to Nicotiana debneyi.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Takahiro; Kuboyama, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Marubashi, Wataru

    2007-08-01

    Hybrid seedlings from the cross between Nicotiana tabacum, an allotetraploid composed of S and T subgenomes, and N. debneyi die at the cotyledonary stage. This lethality involves programmed cell death (PCD). We carried out reciprocal crosses between the two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis, and N. debneyi to reveal whether only the S subgenome in N. tabacum is related to hybrid lethality. Hybrid seedlings from reciprocal crosses between N. sylvestris and N. debneyi showed lethal characteristics identical to those from the cross between N. tabacum and N. debneyi. Conversely, hybrid seedlings from reciprocal crosses between N. tomentosiformis and N. debneyi were viable. Furthermore, hallmarks of PCD were observed in hybrid seedlings from the cross N. debneyi x N. sylvestris, but not in hybrid seedlings from the cross N. debneyi x N. tomentosiformis. We also carried out crosses between monosomic lines of N. tabacum lacking the Q chromosome and N. debneyi. Using Q-chromosome-specific DNA markers, hybrid seedlings were divided into two groups, hybrids possessing the Q chromosome and hybrids lacking the Q chromosome. Hybrids possessing the Q chromosome died with characteristics of PCD. However, hybrids lacking the Q chromosome were viable and PCD did not occur. From these results, we concluded that the Q chromosome belonging to the S subgenome of N. tabacum encodes gene(s) leading to hybrid lethality in the cross N. tabacum x N. debneyi.

  10. General principles of single-construct chromosomal gene drive.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M; Hay, Bruce A

    2012-07-01

    Gene drive systems are genetic elements capable of spreading into a population even if they confer a fitness cost to their host. We consider a class of drive systems consisting of a chromosomally located, linked cluster of genes, the presence of which renders specific classes of offspring arising from specific parental crosses unviable. Under permissive conditions, a number of these elements are capable of distorting the offspring ratio in their favor. We use a population genetic framework to derive conditions under which these elements spread to fixation in a population or induce a population crash. Many of these systems can be engineered using combinations of toxin and antidote genes, analogous to Medea, which consists of a maternal toxin and zygotic antidote. The majority of toxin-antidote drive systems require a critical frequency to be exceeded before they spread into a population. Of particular interest, a Z-linked Medea construct with a recessive antidote is expected to induce an all-male population crash for release frequencies above 50%. We suggest molecular tools that may be used to build these systems, and discuss their relevance to the control of a variety of insect pest species, including mosquito vectors of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.

  11. Protein-coding genes in B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Domínguez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Cabrero, Josefa; Corral, José María; López-León, María Dolores; Sharbel, Timothy F.; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, parasitic B chromosomes have been considered genetically inert elements. Here we show the presence of ten protein-coding genes in the B chromosome of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Four of these genes (CIP2A, GTPB6, KIF20A, and MTG1) were complete in the B chromosome whereas the six remaining (CKAP2, CAP-G, HYI, MYCB2, SLIT and TOP2A) were truncated. Five of these genes (CIP2A, CKAP2, CAP-G, KIF20A, and MYCB2) were significantly up-regulated in B-carrying individuals, as expected if they were actively transcribed from the B chromosome. This conclusion is supported by three truncated genes (CKAP2, CAP-G and MYCB2) which showed up-regulation only in the regions being present in the B chromosome. Our results indicate that B chromosomes are not so silenced as was hitherto believed. Interestingly, the five active genes in the B chromosome code for functions related with cell division, which is the main arena where B chromosome destiny is played. This suggests that B chromosome evolutionary success can lie on its gene content. PMID:28367986

  12. Protein-coding genes in B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Domínguez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cabrero, Josefa; Corral, José María; López-León, María Dolores; Sharbel, Timothy F; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2017-04-03

    For many years, parasitic B chromosomes have been considered genetically inert elements. Here we show the presence of ten protein-coding genes in the B chromosome of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Four of these genes (CIP2A, GTPB6, KIF20A, and MTG1) were complete in the B chromosome whereas the six remaining (CKAP2, CAP-G, HYI, MYCB2, SLIT and TOP2A) were truncated. Five of these genes (CIP2A, CKAP2, CAP-G, KIF20A, and MYCB2) were significantly up-regulated in B-carrying individuals, as expected if they were actively transcribed from the B chromosome. This conclusion is supported by three truncated genes (CKAP2, CAP-G and MYCB2) which showed up-regulation only in the regions being present in the B chromosome. Our results indicate that B chromosomes are not so silenced as was hitherto believed. Interestingly, the five active genes in the B chromosome code for functions related with cell division, which is the main arena where B chromosome destiny is played. This suggests that B chromosome evolutionary success can lie on its gene content.

  13. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  14. Chromosomal mapping of 18S-28S rRNA genes and 10 cDNA clones of human chromosome 1 in the musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, A; Matsubara, K; Nagase, T; Nomura, N; Seong, J K; Ishikawa, A; Anunciado, R V; Tanaka, K; Yamagata, T; Masangkay, J S; Dang, V B; Namikawa, T; Matsuda, Y

    2001-01-01

    The direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to map 18S-28S ribosomal RNA genes and 10 human cDNA clones on the chromosomes of the musk shrew (Suncus murinus). The chromosomal locations of 18S-28S ribosomal RNA genes were examined in the five laboratory lines and wild animals captured in the Philippines and Vietnam, and the genes were found on chromosomes 5, 6, 9, and 13 with geographic variation. The comparative mapping of 10 cDNA clones of human chromosome 1 demonstrated that human chromosome 1 consisted of at least three segments homologous to Suncus chromosomes (chromosomes 7, 10, and 14). This approach with the direct R-banding FISH method is useful for constructing comparative maps between human and insectivore species and for explicating the process of chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of mammals.

  15. Comparative analysis of a conserved zinc finger gene cluster on human chromosome 19q and mouse chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Shannon, M; Ashworth, L K; Mucenski, M L; Lamerdin, J E; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

    1996-04-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that many of the zinc-finger-containing (ZNF) genes in the human genome are arranged in clusters. However, little is known about the structure or function of the clusters or about their conservation throughout evolution. Here, we report the analysis of a conserved ZNF gene cluster located in human chromosome 19q13.2 and mouse chromosome 7. Our results indicate that the human cluster consists of at least 10 related Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing ZNF genes organized in tandem over a distance of 350-450 kb. Two cDNA clones representing genes in the murine cluster have been studied in detail. The KRAB A domains of these genes are nearly identical and are highly similar to human 19q13.2-derived KRAB sequences, but DNA-binding ZNF domains and other portions of the genes differ considerably. The two murine genes display distinct expression patterns, but are coexpressed in some adult tissues. These studies pave the way for a systematic analysis of the evolution of structure and function of genes within the numerous clustered ZNF families located on human chromosome 19 and elsewhere in the human and mouse genomes.

  16. Lack of imprinting of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Propping, P.; Wolf, H.K.

    1996-04-09

    The term genomic imprinting has been used to refer to the differential expression of genetic material depending on whether it has come from the male or female parent. In humans, the chromosomal region 11p15.5 has been shown to contain 2 imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2). The gene for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), which is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology, is also located in this area. In the present study, we have examined the imprinting status of the DRD4 gene in brain tissue of an epileptic patient who was heterozygous for a 12 bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the DRD4 gene. We show that both alleles are expressed in equivalent amounts. We therefore conclude that the DRD4 gene is not imprinted in the human brain. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Chromosomal locations of the ribosomal dna genes in shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Narul Islam-Faridi; M. Abdul Majik; C. Dana Nelson

    2007-01-01

    A reference karyotype (i.e., chromosome-specific description of a species' chromosomal complement) is a pre-requisite for advanced genetic and genomic studies. The Southern Institute of Forest Genetics has initiated a project to develop reference karyotypes for each of the major southern U.S. pine species, including shortleaf pine, using AT-rich chromosomal...

  18. Overproduction of Three Genes Leads to Camphor Resistance and Chromosome Condensation in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Hu, K. H.; Liu, E.; Dean, K.; Gingras, M.; DeGraff, W.; Trun, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    We isolated and characterized three genes, crcA, cspE and crcB, which when present in high copy confer camphor resistance on a cell and suppress mutations in the chromosomal partition gene mukB. Both phenotypes require the same genes. Unlike chromosomal camphor resistant mutants, high copy number crcA, cspE and crcB do not result in an increase in the ploidy of the cells. The cspE gene has been previously identified as a cold shock-like protein with homologues in all organisms tested. We also demonstrate that camphor causes the nucleoids to decondense in vivo and when the three genes are present in high copy, the chromosomes do not decondense. Our results implicate camphor and mukB mutations as interfering with chromosome condensation and high copy crcA, cspE and crcB as promoting or protecting chromosome folding. PMID:8844142

  19. Two human c-onc genes are located on the long arm of chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, B G; Jhanwar, S C; Chaganti, R S; Hayward, W S

    1982-01-01

    We have used in situ chromosome hybridization techniques to map the human cellular counterparts (c-onc genes) of the transforming genes of two RNA tumor viruses on human meiotic pachytene and somatic metaphase chromosomes. We find that the human c-mos gene is located on chromosome 8 at a position corresponding to band 8q22 on the somatic map. The human c-myc gene is found on chromosome 8 at position 8q24. These regions on the long arm of chromosome 8 have been previously reported to be involved in specific translocations found in the M-2 subset of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias. Burkitt lymphoma, and other forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and a familial abnormality that predisposes to renal cell carcinoma. These results suggest that translocations of the human c-mos or c-myc genes may be causally related to neoplastic transformation. Images PMID:6961456

  20. Physical mapping of the Period gene on meiotic chromosomes of South American grasshoppers (Acridomorpha, Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Souza, T E; Oliveira, D L; Santos, J F; Rieger, T T

    2014-12-19

    The single-copy gene Period was located in five grasshopper species belonging to the Acridomorpha group through permanent in situ hybridization (PISH). The mapping revealed one copy of this gene in the L1 chromosome pair in Ommexecha virens, Xyleus discoideus angulatus, Tropidacris collaris, Schistocerca pallens, and Stiphra robusta. A possible second copy was mapped on the L2 chromosome pair in S. robusta, which should be confirmed by further studies. Except for the latter case, the chromosomal position of the Period gene was highly conserved among the four families studied. The S. robusta karyotype also differs from the others both in chromosome number and morphology. The position conservation of the single-copy gene Period contrasts with the location diversification of multigene families in these species. The localization of single-copy genes by PISH can provide new insights about the genomic content and chromosomal evolution of grasshoppers and others insects.

  1. Gene expression, nucleotide composition and codon usage bias of genes associated with human Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of genomes. We have used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of the genes located in human Y chromosome. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was low. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that approximately half of the codons out of 59 synonymous codons were most frequently used, and possessed a T or G at the third codon position. The codon usage pattern was different in different genes as revealed from correspondence analysis (COA). A significant correlation between effective number of codons (ENC) and various GC contents suggests that both mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern of genes located in human Y chromosome. In addition, Y-linked genes have significant difference in GC contents at the second and third codon positions, expression level, and codon usage pattern of some codons like the SPANX genes in X chromosome.

  2. Novel method to rescue a lethal phenotype through integration of target gene onto the X-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Kazuya; Araki, Kimi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Nishina, Takashi; Komazawa-Sakon, Sachiko; Murai, Shin; Lee, Grace E.; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Suzuki, Chigure; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Notohara, Kenji; Gukovskaya, Anna S.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Baba, Hideo; Ohmuraya, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The loss-of-function mutations of serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene are associated with human chronic pancreatitis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We previously reported that mice lacking Spink3, the murine homologue of human SPINK1, die perinatally due to massive pancreatic acinar cell death, precluding investigation of the effects of SPINK1 deficiency. To circumvent perinatal lethality, we have developed a novel method to integrate human SPINK1 gene on the X chromosome using Cre-loxP technology and thus generated transgenic mice termed “X-SPINK1“. Consistent with the fact that one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated, X-SPINK1 mice exhibit mosaic pattern of SPINK1 expression. Crossing of X-SPINK1 mice with Spink3+/− mice rescued perinatal lethality, but the resulting Spink3−/−;XXSPINK1 mice developed spontaneous pancreatitis characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis. The results show that mice lacking a gene essential for cell survival can be rescued by expressing this gene on the X chromosome. The Spink3−/−;XXSPINK1 mice, in which this method has been applied to partially restore SPINK1 function, present a novel genetic model of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:27845447

  3. Organization of the amplified type I interferon gene cluster and associated chromosome regions in the interphase nucleus of human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zeitz, Michael J; Marella, Narasimharao V; Malyavantham, Kishore S; Goetze, Sandra; Bode, Juergen; Raska, Ivan; Berezney, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The organization of the amplified type I interferon (IFN) gene cluster and surrounding chromosomal regions was studied in the interphase cell nucleus of the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Rather than being arranged in a linear ladder-like array as in mitotic chromosomes, a cluster of approximately 15 foci was detected that was preferentially associated along the periphery of both the cell nucleus and a chromosome territory containing components of chromosomes 4, 8, and 9. Interspersed within the IFN gene foci were corresponding foci derived from amplified centromere 4 and 9 sequences. Other copies of chromosomes 4 and 8 were frequently detected in pairs or higher-order arrays lacking discrete borders between the chromosomes. In contrast, while chromosomes 4 and 8 in normal WI38 human fibroblast and osteoblast cells were occasionally found to associate closely, discrete boundaries were always detected between the two. DNA replication timing of the IFN gene cluster in early- to mid-S phase of WI38 cells was conserved in the amplified IFN gene cluster of MG63. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a approximately 3-fold increase in IFN beta transcripts in MG63 compared with WI38 and RNA/DNA FISH experiments revealed 1-5 foci of IFN beta transcripts per cell with only approximately 5% of the cells showing foci within the highly amplified IFN gene cluster.

  4. Conservation of Gene Order and Content in the Circular Chromosomes of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and Other Rhizobiales

    PubMed Central

    Kuykendall, L. David; Shao, Jonathan Y.; Hartung, John S.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ an insect-vectored, obligate intracellular bacterium associated with citrus-greening disease, also called “HLB," is a member of the Rhizobiales along with nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and facultative intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Comparative analyses of their circular chromosomes identified 514 orthologous genes shared among all five species. Shared among all five species are 50 identical blocks of microsyntenous orthologous genes (MOGs), containing a total of 283 genes. While retaining highly conserved genomic blocks of microsynteny, divergent evolution, horizontal gene transfer and niche specialization have disrupted macrosynteny among the five circular chromosomes compared. Highly conserved microsyntenous gene clusters help define the Rhizobiales, an order previously defined by 16S RNA gene similarity and herein represented by the three families: Bartonellaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhizobiaceae. Genes without orthologs in the other four species help define individual species. The circular chromosomes of each of the five Rhizobiales species examined had genes lacking orthologs in the other four species. For example, 63 proteins are encoded by genes of ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ not shared with other members of the Rhizobiales. Of these 63 proteins, 17 have predicted functions related to DNA replication or RNA transcription, and some of these may have roles related to low genomic GC content. An additional 17 proteins have predicted functions relevant to cellular processes, particularly modifications of the cell surface. Seventeen unshared proteins have specific metabolic functions including a pathway to synthesize cholesterol encoded by a seven-gene operon. The remaining 12 proteins encoded by ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ genes not shared with other Rhizobiales are of bacteriophage origin.

  5. Sex chromosome loss and the pseudoautosomal region genes in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephanie; Stoner, Samuel A.; Zhang, Dong-Er

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations, such as chromosomal translocations, aneuploidy, and amplifications, are frequently detected in hematological malignancies. For many of the common autosomal aberrations, the mechanisms underlying their roles in cancer development have been well-characterized. On the contrary, although loss of a sex chromosome is observed in a broad range of hematological malignancies, how it cooperates in disease development is less understood. Nevertheless, it has been postulated that tumor suppressor genes reside on the sex chromosomes. Although the X and Y sex chromosomes are highly divergent, the pseudoautosomal regions are homologous between both chromosomes. Here, we review what is currently known about the pseudoautosomal region genes in the hematological system. Additionally, we discuss implications for haploinsufficiency of critical pseudoautosomal region sex chromosome genes, driven by sex chromosome loss, in promoting hematological malignancies. Because mechanistic studies on disease development rely heavily on murine models, we also discuss the challenges and caveats of existing models, and propose alternatives for examining the involvement of pseudoautosomal region genes and loss of a sex chromosome in vivo. With the widespread detection of loss of a sex chromosome in different hematological malignances, the elucidation of the role of pseudoautosomal region genes in the development and progression of these diseases would be invaluable to the field. PMID:27655702

  6. Chromosomal localization, genomic structure, and allelic polymorphism of the human CD79a (lg-{alpha}/mb-1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, S.; Gregersen, P.K.; Chiorazzi, N. |; Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The germline DNA sequence of the human CD79a (Ig-{alpha}/mb-1) gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction sequencing of a cosmid clone derived from an arrayed human chromosome 19 library. The CD79a gene was localized to chromosome 19q13.2; this localization places the gene within the CEA-like gene cluster with the following gene order: -CEA-CGM1-CD79a-RPS11-ATP1A3-BGP-CGM9-. The genomic organization of the human CD79a gene resembles the mouse counterpart with five exons interrupted by four introns. Computer analyses suggest the presence of transcription regulatory elements known to be important in the regulation of mouse CD79a (AP-1, EBF, AP-2, MUF2, and SP-1 sites), as well as elements not found in the mouse gene (an NK-kB binding site and a series of E-box motifs). Similar to the mouse gene, the 5{prime} flanking region of human CD79a lacks a TATA box; however, unlike mouse CD79a, a classical octamer motif could not be identified in the human gene. Finally, a new Rsa I restriction fragment length polymorphism was defined in the non-coding regions of the human gene. 64 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Regional localization of the gene for thyroid peroxidase to human chromosome 2p25 and mouse chromosome 12C

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Yuichi; Onogi, Satoshi; Fujita, Teizo

    1995-02-10

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) plays a central role in thyroid gland function. The enzyme catalyzes two important reactions of thyroid hormone synthesis, i.e., the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and phenoxy-ester formation between pairs of iodinated tyrosines to generate the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Previously, we isolated the cDNAs encoding human and mouse TPOs and assigned the human TPO gene to the short arm of chromosome 2 by somatic cell hybrid mapping. By a similar analysis of DNA from somatic cell hybrids, the human TPO gene was mapped to 2pter-p12. The mouse TPO gene was localized to chromosome 12 using a rat TPO cDNA as a probe to hybridize with mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to confirm the localization of human and mouse TPO genes to human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 12 and to assign them regionally to 2p25 and 12C, respectively. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Expression and chromosomal localization of the Requiem gene.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Crean, C D; Klenk, A; Long, H; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Quincey, D; Parente, F; Lespinasse, F; Carle, G F; Gaudray, P; Zhang, C X; Calender, A; Hoeppener, J; Kas, K; Thakker, R V; Farnebo, F; Teh, B T; Larsson, C; Piehl, F; Lagercrantz, J; Khodaei, S; Carson, E; Weber, G

    1998-08-01

    Apoptosis in murine myeloid cell lines requires the expression of the Requiem gene, which encodes a putative zinc finger protein. We detected the protein in both cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular fractions of murine myeloid cells and human K562 leukemia cells, which suggests that the protein might have a function distinct from a transcription factor. This distribution did not alter upon apoptosis induction by IL-3 deprivation. As an approach to investigate its role in development, we determined the spatio-temporal expression pattern in the mouse. Expression was detected in various tissues in earlier gestational age; however, confined to testes, spleen, thymus, and part of the hippocampus in the adult mouse. The expression profile is consistent with a functional role during rapid growth and cell turnover, and in agreement with a regulatory function for hematopoietic cells. The human cDNA clone sequenced showed high homology to its murine counterpart and extended the open reading frame by 20 codons upstream. The gene is located in the proximal region of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 19. In the homologous human region at 11q13, it is located at about 150 kb centromeric from MLK3.

  9. Chromosomal localization of the callipyge gene in sheep (Ovis aries) using bovine DNA markers.

    PubMed Central

    Cockett, N E; Jackson, S P; Shay, T L; Nielsen, D; Moore, S S; Steele, M R; Barendse, W; Green, R D; Georges, M

    1994-01-01

    A mutation causing muscular hypertrophy, with associated leanness and improved feed efficiency, has been recently identified in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Preliminary results indicate that an autosomal dominant gene may be responsible for this economically advantageous trait. We have exploited the conservation in sequence and chromosomal location of DNA markers across Bovidae to map the corresponding callipyge locus to ovine chromosome 18 using a battery of bovine chromosome 21 markers. Chromosomal localization of the ovine callipyge locus is the first step toward positional cloning of the corresponding gene. PMID:8159698

  10. Chromosomal localization of the gene encoding the human DNA helicase RECQL and its mouse homologue

    SciTech Connect

    Puranam, K.L.; Kennington, E.; Blackshear, P.J.

    1995-04-10

    We have determined the chromosomal location of the human and mouse genes encoding the RECQL protein, a putative DNA helicase homologous to the bacterial DNA helicase, RecQ. RECQL was localized to human chromosome 12 by analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA, fine mapping of RECQL by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed its chromosomal location to be 12p11-p12. The corresponding mouse gene, Recql, was mapped to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 6 by analysis of DNA from an interspecific cross. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Ring chromosome 20 syndrome without deletions of the subtelomeric and CHRNA4--KCNQ2 genes loci.

    PubMed

    Elghezal, Hatem; Hannachi, Hanene; Mougou, Soumaya; Kammoun, Hassene; Triki, Chahnez; Saad, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Ring chromosome 20 (r(20)) syndrome is a rare disease characterized by refractory epilepsy, moderate mental retardation and particular electroencephalographic disorder with non-convulsive status epilepticus. Here, we report a new case of r(20) syndrome in a 12 year old female who presented minimal dysmorphism, generalised tonic-clonic and absence seizures refractory to medical therapy and behavioural troubles. Among 20 cytogenetically analysed cells, 14 (70%) exhibited a 46,XX,r(20)(p13q13.3) karyotype and 6 (30%) showed a normal 46,XX caryotype. Interphasic FISH using centromeric probe of chromosome 20 detects the presence of a chromosome 20 monosomy in 7% and a duplicated ring chromosome 20 in 8% of studied cells. Metaphase FISH using chromosome 20 telomeric probes and specific probes of CHRNA4 and KCNQ2 genes detects the absence of any deletion in the ring chromosome 20. Clinical symptoms of r(20) syndrome are attributed to telomeric partial monosomy generated by ring chromosome and causing an haploinsufficiency of two epilepsy genes CHRNA4 and KCNQ2. However, our patient presents the typical epilepsy disorder but no detectable deletion in the ring chromosome 20. We speculate that clinical features of ring chromosome 20 syndrome are caused by low mosaicism of chromosome 20 monosomy caused by the loss of the ring chromosome 20.

  12. The mouse X chromosome is enriched for multicopy testis genes showing postmeiotic expression.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jacob L; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Park, Peter J; Warburton, Peter E; Page, David C; Turner, James M A

    2008-06-01

    According to the prevailing view, mammalian X chromosomes are enriched in spermatogenesis genes expressed before meiosis and deficient in spermatogenesis genes expressed after meiosis. The paucity of postmeiotic genes on the X chromosome has been interpreted as a consequence of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)--the complete silencing of genes on the XY bivalent at meiotic prophase. Recent studies have concluded that MSCI-initiated silencing persists beyond meiosis and that most genes on the X chromosome remain repressed in round spermatids. Here, we report that 33 multicopy gene families, representing approximately 273 mouse X-linked genes, are expressed in the testis and that this expression is predominantly in postmeiotic cells. RNA FISH and microarray analysis show that the maintenance of X chromosome postmeiotic repression is incomplete. Furthermore, X-linked multicopy genes exhibit a similar degree of expression as autosomal genes. Thus, not only is the mouse X chromosome enriched for spermatogenesis genes functioning before meiosis, but in addition, approximately 18% of mouse X-linked genes are expressed in postmeiotic cells.

  13. Mad2, Bub3, and Mps1 regulate chromosome segregation and mitotic synchrony in Giardia intestinalis, a binucleate protist lacking an anaphase-promoting complex

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Juan-Jesus; Cande, W. Zacheus

    2014-01-01

    The binucleate pathogen Giardia intestinalis is a highly divergent eukaryote with a semiopen mitosis, lacking an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and many of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) proteins. However, Giardia has some MCC components (Bub3, Mad2, and Mps1) and proteins from the cohesin system (Smc1 and Smc3). Mad2 localizes to the cytoplasm, but Bub3 and Mps1 are either located on chromosomes or in the cytoplasm, depending on the cell cycle stage. Depletion of Bub3, Mad2, or Mps1 resulted in a lowered mitotic index, errors in chromosome segregation (including lagging chromosomes), and abnormalities in spindle morphology. During interphase, MCC knockdown cells have an abnormal number of nuclei, either one nucleus usually on the left-hand side of the cell or two nuclei with one mislocalized. These results suggest that the minimal set of MCC proteins in Giardia play a major role in regulating many aspects of mitosis, including chromosome segregation, coordination of mitosis between the two nuclei, and subsequent nuclear positioning. The critical importance of MCC proteins in an organism that lacks their canonical target, the APC/C, suggests a broader role for these proteins and hints at new pathways to be discovered. PMID:25057014

  14. Independent stratum formation on the avian sex chromosomes reveals inter-chromosomal gene conversion and predominance of purifying selection on the W chromosome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

    2014-11-01

    We used a comparative approach spanning three species and 90 million years to study the evolutionary history of the avian sex chromosomes. Using whole transcriptomes, we assembled the largest cross-species dataset of W-linked coding content to date. Our results show that recombination suppression in large portions of the avian sex chromosomes has evolved independently, and that long-term sex chromosome divergence is consistent with repeated and independent inversions spreading progressively to restrict recombination. In contrast, over short-term periods we observe heterogeneous and locus-specific divergence. We also uncover four instances of gene conversion between both highly diverged and recently evolved gametologs, suggesting a complex mosaic of recombination suppression across the sex chromosomes. Lastly, evidence from 16 gametologs reveal that the W chromosome is evolving with a significant contribution of purifying selection, consistent with previous findings that W-linked genes play an important role in encoding sex-specific fitness. © 2014 The Authors. Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Orientation and repositioning of chromosomes correlate with cell geometry–dependent gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yejun; Nagarajan, Mallika; Uhler, Caroline; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrix signals from the microenvironment regulate gene expression patterns and cell behavior. Using a combination of experiments and geometric models, we demonstrate correlations between cell geometry, three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosome territories, and gene expression. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed that micropatterned fibroblasts cultured on anisotropic versus isotropic substrates resulted in repositioning of specific chromosomes, which contained genes that were differentially regulated by cell geometries. Experiments combined with ellipsoid packing models revealed that the mechanosensitivity of chromosomes was correlated with their orientation in the nucleus. Transcription inhibition experiments suggested that the intermingling degree was more sensitive to global changes in transcription than to chromosome radial positioning and its orientations. These results suggested that cell geometry modulated 3D chromosome arrangement, and their neighborhoods correlated with gene expression patterns in a predictable manner. This is central to understanding geometric control of genetic programs involved in cellular homeostasis and the associated diseases. PMID:28615317

  16. Chromosomal localization of actin genes in the malaria mosquito Anopheles darlingi

    PubMed Central

    BRIDI, L. C.; SHARAKHOVA, M. V.; SHARAKHOV, I. V.; CORDEIRO, J.; AZEVEDO, G. M.; TADEI, W. P.; RAFAEL, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Physical and genetic maps have been used for chromosomal localization of genes in vectors of infectious diseases. The availability of polytene chromosomes in malaria mosquitoes provides a unique opportunity to precisely map genes of interest. We report physical mapping of two actin genes on polytene chromosomes of the major malaria vector in Amazon Anopheles darlingi. The clones with the actin genes sequences were obtained from a cDNA library constructed from RNA isolated from adult females and males of An. darlingi. Each of the two clones was mapped to a unique site on the chromosomal arm 2L in subdivisions 21A (clone pl05-A04) and 23B (clone pl17-G06). The obtained results together with previous mapping data provide a suitable basis for comparative genomics and for establishing chromosomal homologies among major malaria vectors. PMID:22804344

  17. [Heterologous genes expression on Escherichia coli chromosome lac operon using Red recombination].

    PubMed

    Li, Shanhu; Shi, Qingguo; Huang, Cuifen; Zhou, Jianguang

    2008-04-01

    To achieve efficient and stable expression of heterologous exogenetic protein or antigen in E. coli chromosome, the luciferase report gene was knocked in lacZ site of chromosome lac operon by using Red recombination system and selection-counterselection kan/sacB technology. The quantitative analysis of exogenous gene expression indicated that the target gene could be efficiently expressed at lacZ site of lac operon. The results confirmed the efficient screening and stable expression of heterologous protein or antigen on chromosome by using the recombinant engineering technique. This study demonstrated that the chromosome could be used as a vector for heterologous protein or antigen and the stable expression of exogenous gene on E. coli chromosome had no side effect on the bacterial growth and propagation.

  18. Adaptive evolution of genes duplicated from the Drosophila pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Hilldorfer, Benedict B; Koch, Jessica L; Lockton, Steven; Schaeffer, Stephen W

    2010-08-01

    Drosophila X chromosomes are disproportionate sources of duplicated genes, and these duplications are usually the result of retrotransposition of X-linked genes to the autosomes. The excess duplication is thought to be driven by natural selection for two reasons: X chromosomes are inactivated during spermatogenesis, and the derived copies of retroposed duplications tend to be testis expressed. Therefore, autosomal derived copies of retroposed genes provide a mechanism for their X-linked paralogs to "escape" X inactivation. Once these duplications have fixed, they may then be selected for male-specific functions. Throughout the evolution of the Drosophila genus, autosomes have fused with X chromosomes along multiple lineages giving rise to neo-X chromosomes. There has also been excess duplication from the two independent neo-X chromosomes that have been examined--one that occurred prior to the common ancestor of the willistoni species group and another that occurred along the lineage leading to Drosophila pseudoobscura. To determine what role natural selection plays in the evolution of genes duplicated from the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome, we analyzed DNA sequence divergence between paralogs, polymorphism within each copy, and the expression profiles of these duplicated genes. We found that the derived copies of all duplicated genes have elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism, suggesting that they are under relaxed selective constraints. The derived copies also tend to have testis- or male-biased expression profiles regardless of their chromosome of origin. Genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome appear to be under less constraints than those duplicated from other chromosome arms. We also find more evidence for historical adaptive evolution in genes duplicated from the neo-X chromosome, suggesting that they are under a unique selection regime in which elevated nonsynonymous polymorphism provides a large reservoir of functional variants, some of which are fixed

  19. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS) cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement. PMID:22260333

  20. The CHL 1 (CTF 1) gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for chromosome transmission and normal cell cycle progression in G2/M.

    PubMed Central

    Gerring, S L; Spencer, F; Hieter, P

    1990-01-01

    We have analyzed the CTF1 gene, identified in a screen for mutants with decreased chromosome transmission fidelity and shown to correspond to the previously identified chl1 mutation. Chl1 null mutants exhibited a 200-fold increase in the rate of chromosome III missegregation per cell division, and near wild-type rates of marker homozygosis on this chromosome by mitotic recombination. Analysis of the segregation of a marker chromosome indicated that sister chromatid loss (1:0 segregation) and sister chromatid non-disjunction (2:0 segregation) contributed equally to chromosome missegregation. A genomic clone of CHL1 was isolated and used to map its physical position on chromosome XVI. Nucleotide sequence analysis of CHL1 revealed a 2.6 kb open reading frame with a 99 kd predicted protein sequence that contained two PEST sequences and was 23% identical to the coding region of a nucleotide excision repair gene, RAD3. Domains of homology between these two predicted protein sequences included a helix-turn-helix motif and an ATP binding site containing a helicase consensus. Mutants lacking the CHL1 gene product are viable and display two striking, and perhaps interrelated, phenotypes: extreme chromosome instability and a delay in cell cycle progression in G2/M. This delay is independent of the cell cycle checkpoint that requires the function of the RAD9 gene. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2265610

  1. Comparative and evolutionary studies of mammalian arylsulfatase and sterylsulfatase genes and proteins encoded on the X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Roger S

    2017-06-01

    At least 19 sulfatase genes have been reported on the human genome, including four arylsulfatase (ARS) genes (ARSD; ARSE; ARSF; ARSH) and a sterylsulfatase (STS) gene located together on the X-chromosome. Bioinformatic analyses of mammalian genomes were undertaken using known human STS and ARS amino acid sequences to study the evolution of these genes and proteins encoded on eutherian and marsupial genomes. Several domain regions and key residues were conserved including signal peptides, active site residues, metal (Ca(2+)) and substrate binding sequences, transmembranes and N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analyses describe the relationships and potential origins of these genes during mammalian evolution. Primate ARSH enzymes lacked signal peptide sequences which may influence their biological functions. CpG117 and CpG92 were detected within the 5' region of the human STS and ARSD genes, respectively, and miR-205 within the 3'-UTR for the human STS gene, using bioinformatic methods A proposal is described for a primordial invertebrate STS-like gene serving as an ancestor for unequal cross over events generating the gene complex on the eutherian mammalian X-chromosome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutations reducing replication from R-loops suppress the defects of growth, chromosome segregation and DNA supercoiling in cells lacking topoisomerase I and RNase HI activity.

    PubMed

    Usongo, Valentine; Martel, Makisha; Balleydier, Aurélien; Drolet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    R-loop formation occurs when the nascent RNA hybridizes with the template DNA strand behind the RNA polymerase. R-loops affect a wide range of cellular processes and their use as origins of replication was the first function attributed to them. In Escherichia coli, R-loop formation is promoted by the ATP-dependent negative supercoiling activity of gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and is inhibited by topoisomerase (topo) I (topA) relaxing transcription-induced negative supercoiling. RNase HI (rnhA) degrades the RNA moiety of R-loops. The depletion of RNase HI activity in topA null mutants was previously shown to lead to extensive DNA relaxation, due to DNA gyrase inhibition, and to severe growth and chromosome segregation defects that were partially corrected by overproducing topo III (topB). Here, DNA gyrase assays in crude cell extracts showed that the ATP-dependent activity (supercoiling) of gyrase but not its ATP-independent activity (relaxation) was inhibited in topA null cells lacking RNase HI. To characterize the cellular event(s) triggered by the absence of RNase HI, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the growth defect of topA rnhA null cells. Suppressors affecting genes in replication (holC2::aph and dnaT18::aph) nucleotide metabolism (dcd49::aph), RNA degradation (rne59::aph) and fimbriae synthesis (fimD22::aph) were found to reduce replication from R-loops and to restore supercoiling, thus pointing to a correlation between R-loop-dependent replication in topA rnhA mutants and the inhibition of gyrase activity and growth. Interestingly, the position of fimD on the E. coli chromosome corresponds to the site of one of the five main putative origins of replication from R-loops in rnhA null cells recently identified by next-generation sequencing, thus suggesting that the fimD22::aph mutation inactivated one of these origins. Furthermore, we show that topo III overproduction is unable to complement the growth defect of topA rnhA null mutants at low

  3. Isolation of Breast Tumor Suppressor Genes from Chromosome 11p.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Rosenberg, A.L., Schwartz, G.F., Shiloh, Y., Cavenee, W.K. and Croce, C. Definition and refinement of chromosome 11 regions of loss of heterozygosity...acidsequence. Start and stop codons and the polyadenylation signal are underlined. Figure 4. Hydrophobicity pattern of the deduced aminoacid sequence of...and Croce, kinase. ILK, to human chromosome 11pl5.5-pl5.4 . Genontiics, 42,177-179. C.(1995) Definition and refinement of chromosome 11 regions of

  4. Construction and availability of human chromosome-specific gene libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Fuscoe, J.C.; Van Dilla, M.A.; Deaven, L.L.

    1985-06-14

    This report briefly describes Phase I of the project, the production of complete digest fibraries. Each laboratory is currently in the process of sorting individual human chromosomes from normal human fibroblasts or human X hamster hybrids. The goal of 4 x 10/sup 6/ chromosomes for cloning purposes has been achieved. Each laboratory is also in the process of cloning the chromosomal DNA, after complete digestion with a 6-cutter, into the bacteriophage vector Charon 21A. 3 refs.

  5. Chromosomal localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene to human chromosome 4q13. 1-q21. 1 and mouse chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, U.B.; Dushkin, H.; Beier, D.R.; Chin, W.W. ); Altherr, M.R. )

    1994-04-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor on the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes, where it serves to transduce signals from the extracellular ligand, the hypothalamic factor gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and to modulate the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The authors have localized the GRHR gene to the q13.1-q21.1 region of the human chromosome 4 using mapping panels of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids containing different human chromosomes or different regions of human chromosome 4. Furthermore, using linkage analysis of single-strand conformational polymorphisms, the murine GRHR gene was localized to mouse chromosome 5, linked to the endogenous retroviral marker Pmv-11. This is consistent with the evolutionary conservation of homology between these two regions, as has been previously suggested from comparative mapping of several other loci. The localization of the GRHR gene may be useful in the study of disorders of reproduction. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  6. A rapid and reliable strategy for chromosomal integration of gene(s) with multiple copies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Pengfei; Yang, Fan; Su, Tianyuan; Wang, Qian; Liang, Quanfeng; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Direct optimization of the metabolic pathways on the chromosome requires tools that can fine tune the overexpression of a desired gene or optimize the combination of multiple genes. Although plasmid-dependent overexpression has been used for this task, fundamental issues concerning its genetic stability and operational repeatability have not been addressed. Here, we describe a rapid and reliable strategy for chromosomal integration of gene(s) with multiple copies (CIGMC), which uses the flippase from the yeast 2-μm plasmid. Using green fluorescence protein as a model, we verified that the fluorescent intensity was in accordance with the integration copy number of the target gene. When a narrow-host-range replicon, R6K, was used in the integrative plasmid, the maximum integrated copy number of Escherichia coli reached 15. Applying the CIGMC method to optimize the overexpression of single or multiple genes in amino acid biosynthesis, we successfully improved the product yield and stability of the production. As a flexible strategy, CIGMC can be used in various microorganisms other than E. coli. PMID:25851494

  7. Colocalization of coregulated genes: a steered molecular dynamics study of human chromosome 19.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Marco; Rosa, Angelo; Belcastro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego; Micheletti, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The connection between chromatin nuclear organization and gene activity is vividly illustrated by the observation that transcriptional coregulation of certain genes appears to be directly influenced by their spatial proximity. This fact poses the more general question of whether it is at all feasible that the numerous genes that are coregulated on a given chromosome, especially those at large genomic distances, might become proximate inside the nucleus. This problem is studied here using steered molecular dynamics simulations in order to enforce the colocalization of thousands of knowledge-based gene sequences on a model for the gene-rich human chromosome 19. Remarkably, it is found that most (≈ 88%) gene pairs can be brought simultaneously into contact. This is made possible by the low degree of intra-chromosome entanglement and the large number of cliques in the gene coregulatory network. A clique is a set of genes coregulated all together as a group. The constrained conformations for the model chromosome 19 are further shown to be organized in spatial macrodomains that are similar to those inferred from recent HiC measurements. The findings indicate that gene coregulation and colocalization are largely compatible and that this relationship can be exploited to draft the overall spatial organization of the chromosome in vivo. The more general validity and implications of these findings could be investigated by applying to other eukaryotic chromosomes the general and transferable computational strategy introduced here.

  8. Behavioral and Cerebellar Transmission Deficits in Mice Lacking the Autism-Linked Gene Islet Brain-2

    PubMed Central

    Giza, Joanna; Urbanski, Michael J.; Prestori, Francesca; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Yam, Annie; Friedrich, Victor; Kelley, Kevin; D'Angelo, Egidio; Goldfarb, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Deletion of the human SHANK3 gene near the terminus of chromosome 22q is associated with Phelan-McDermid syndrome and autism spectrum disorders. Nearly all such deletions also span the tightly linked IB2 gene. We show here that IB2 protein is broadly expressed in the brain and is highly enriched within postsynaptic densities. Experimental disruption of the IB2 gene in mice reduces AMPA and enhances NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in cerebellum, changes the morphology of Purkinje cell dendritic arbors, and induces motor and cognitive deficits suggesting an autism phenotype. These findings support a role for human IB2 mutation as a contributing genetic factor in Chr22qter-associated cognitive disorders. PMID:21048139

  9. The Chromosomal Analysis of Teaching: The Search for Promoter Genes

    PubMed Central

    Skeff, Kelley M.

    2007-01-01

    The process of teaching is ubiquitous in medicine, both in the practice of medicine and the promotion of medical science. Yet, until the last 50 years, the process of medical teaching had been neglected. To improve this process, the research group at the Stanford Faculty Development Center for Medical Teachers developed an educational framework to assist teachers to analyze and improve the teaching process. Utilizing empirical data drawn from videotapes of actual clinical teaching and educational literature, we developed a seven-category systematic scheme for the analysis of medical teaching, identifying key areas and behaviors that could enable teachers to enhance their effectiveness. The organizational system of this scheme is similar to that used in natural sciences, such as genetics. Whereas geneticists originally identified chromosomes and ultimately individual and related genes, this classification system identifies major categories and specific teaching behaviors that can enhance teaching effectiveness. Over the past two decades, this organizational framework has provided the basis for a variety of faculty development programs for improving teaching effectiveness. Results of those programs have revealed several positive findings, including the usefulness of the methods for a wide variety of medical teachers in a variety of settings. This research indicates that the development of a framework for analysis has been, as in the natural sciences, an important way to improve the science of the art of teaching. PMID:18528496

  10. The chromosomal analysis of teaching: the search for promoter genes.

    PubMed

    Skeff, Kelley M

    2007-01-01

    The process of teaching is ubiquitous in medicine, both in the practice of medicine and the promotion of medical science. Yet, until the last 50 years, the process of medical teaching had been neglected. To improve this process, the research group at the Stanford Faculty Development Center for Medical Teachers developed an educational framework to assist teachers to analyze and improve the teaching process. Utilizing empirical data drawn from videotapes of actual clinical teaching and educational literature, we developed a seven-category systematic scheme for the analysis of medical teaching, identifying key areas and behaviors that could enable teachers to enhance their effectiveness. The organizational system of this scheme is similar to that used in natural sciences, such as genetics. Whereas geneticists originally identified chromosomes and ultimately individual and related genes, this classification system identifies major categories and specific teaching behaviors that can enhance teaching effectiveness. Over the past two decades, this organizational framework has provided the basis for a variety of faculty development programs for improving teaching effectiveness. Results of those programs have revealed several positive findings, including the usefulness of the methods for a wide variety of medical teachers in a variety of settings. This research indicates that the development of a framework for analysis has been, as in the natural sciences, an important way to improve the science of the art of teaching.

  11. Recent gene-capture on the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Stuart F; Neubig, Kurt M; Payton, Adam C; Quatrano, Ralph S; Cove, David J

    2013-10-01

    Sex chromosomes evolve from ordinary autosomes through the expansion and subsequent degeneration of a region of suppressed recombination that is inherited through one sex. Here we investigate the relative timing of these processes in the UV sex chromosomes of the moss Ceratodon purpureus using molecular population genetic analyses of eight newly discovered sex-linked loci. In this system, recombination is suppressed on both the female-transmitted (U) sex chromosome and the male-transmitted (V) chromosome. Genes on both chromosomes therefore should show the deleterious effects of suppressed recombination and sex-limited transmission, while purifying selection should maintain homologs of genes essential for both sexes on both sex chromosomes. Based on analyses of eight sex-linked loci, we show that the nonrecombining portions of the U and V chromosomes expanded in at least two events (~0.6-1.3 MYA and ~2.8-3.5 MYA), after the divergence of C. purpureus from its dioecious sister species, Trichodon cylindricus and Cheilothela chloropus. Both U- and V-linked copies showed reduced nucleotide diversity and limited population structure, compared to autosomal loci, suggesting that the sex chromosomes experienced more recent selective sweeps that the autosomes. Collectively these results highlight the dynamic nature of gene composition and molecular evolution on nonrecombining portions of the U and V sex chromosomes.

  12. Assignment of xeroderma pigmentosum group C(XPC) gene to chromosome 3p25

    SciTech Connect

    Legerski, R.J.; Liu, P.; Li, L.; Peterson, C.A.; Zhao, Y.; Siciliano, M.J. ); Leach, R.J.; Naylor, S.L. )

    1994-05-01

    The human gene XPC (formerly designated XPCC), which corrects the repair deficiency of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group C cells, was mapped to 3p25. A cDNA probe for Southern blot hybridization and diagnostic PCR analyses of hybrid clone panels informative for human chromosomes in general and portions of chromosome 3 in particular produced the initial results. Fluorescence in situ hybridization utilizing both a yeast artificial chromosome DNA containing the gene and XPC cDNA as probes provided verification and specific regional assignment. A conflicting assignment of XPC to chromosome 5 is discussed in light of inadequacies in the exclusive use of microcell-mediated chromosome transfer for gene mapping. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Mapping of the Tuple1 gene to mouse chromosome 16A-B1

    SciTech Connect

    Mattei, M.G.; Halford, S.; Scambler, P.J.

    1994-10-01

    The human TUPLE1 gene encodes a putative transcriptional regulator and maps to chromosome 22, and therefore may play a role in Di-George syndrome (DGS), relo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), or a related pathology. The murine TUPLE1 gene has also been cloned and shows strong sequence similarity to TUPLE1. Comparative mapping is useful in the study of chromosome evolution and is sometimes able to indicate possible mouse mutations that are potential models of human genetic disorders. As TIPLE1 is a candidate gene for the haploinsufficient phenotype in DGS, we mapped TUPLE1 to mouse chromosome 16A-B1. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Extraordinary Diversity in the Origins of Sex Chromosomes in Anurans Inferred from Comparative Gene Mapping.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Takagi, Chiyo; Igawa, Takeshi; Ueno, Naoto; Sumida, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Sex determination in frogs (anurans) is genetic and includes both male and female heterogamety. However, the origins of the sex chromosomes and their differentiation processes are poorly known. To investigate diversity in the origins of anuran sex chromosomes, we compared the chromosomal locations of sex-linked genes in 4 species: the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), the Western clawed frog (Silurana/X. tropicalis), the Japanese bell-ring frog (Buergeria buergeri), and the Japanese wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa). Comparative mapping data revealed that the sex chromosomes of X. laevis, X. tropicalis and R. rugosa are different chromosome pairs; however, the sex chromosomes of X. tropicalis and B. buergeri are homologous, although this may represent distinct evolutionary origins. We also examined the status of sex chromosomal differentiation in B. buergeri, which possesses heteromorphic ZW sex chromosomes, using comparative genomic hybridization and chromosome painting with DNA probes from the microdissected W chromosome. At least 3 rearrangement events have occurred in the proto-W chromosome: deletion of the nucleolus organizer region and a paracentric inversion followed by amplification of non-W-specific repetitive sequences.

  15. Chromosomal position effect influences the heterologous expression of genes and biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces albus J1074.

    PubMed

    Bilyk, Bohdan; Horbal, Liliya; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2017-01-04

    Efforts to construct the Streptomyces host strain with enhanced yields of heterologous product have focussed mostly on engineering of primary metabolism and/or the deletion of endogenous biosynthetic gene clusters. However, other factors, such as chromosome compactization, have been shown to have a significant influence on gene expression levels in bacteria and fungi. The expression of genes and biosynthetic gene clusters may vary significantly depending on their location within the chromosome. Little is known about the position effect in actinomycetes, which are important producers of various industrially relevant bioactive molecules. To demonstrate an impact of the chromosomal position effect on the heterologous expression of genes and gene clusters in Streptomyces albus J1074, a transposon mutant library with randomly distributed transposon that includes a β-glucuronidase reporter gene was generated. Reporter gene expression levels have been shown to depend on the position on the chromosome. Using a combination of the transposon system and a φC31-based vector, the aranciamycin biosynthetic cluster was introduced randomly into the S. albus genome. The production levels of aranciamycin varied up to eightfold depending on the location of the gene cluster within the chromosome of S. albus J1074. One of the isolated mutant strains with an artificially introduced attachment site produced approximately 50% more aranciamycin than strains with endogenous attBs. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of the reporter gene and aranciamycin biosynthetic cluster in Streptomyces albus J1074 varies up to eightfold depending on its position on the chromosome. The integration of the heterologous cluster into different locations on the chromosome may significantly influence the titre of the produced substance. This knowledge can be used for the more efficient engineering of Actinobacteria via the relocation of the biosynthetic gene clusters and insertion of additional

  16. The human tissue transglutaminase gene maps on chromosome 20q12 by in situ fluorescence hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, V.; Davies, P.J.A. ); Baldini, A. )

    1994-03-15

    A cDNA encoding for the human tissue transglutaminase gene has been used to identify the chromosomal localization of the corresponding structural gene. The precise chromosomal and subregional localizations have been established by using in situ fluorescence mapping with a recombinant [lambda]-Zap phage containing the full cDNA coding sequence. The study showed that the human tissue transglutaminase gene is localized on chromosome 20 and, more precisely, within the band 20q12. To date, this is the third member of the transglutaminase gene family to be mapped. Human factor XIIIa (plasma transglutaminase), human keratinocyte transglutaminase (type I), and human tissue transglutaminase (type II) genes, although codifying for homologous enzymes, are localized on three different chromosomes. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  17. The evolutionary history of human and chimpanzee Y-chromosome gene loss.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H; Tito, Raul Y; Verrelli, Brian C

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that gene gain and loss may contribute significantly to the divergence between humans and chimpanzees. Initial comparisons of the human and chimpanzee Y-chromosomes indicate that chimpanzees have a disproportionate loss of Y-chromosome genes, which may have implications for the adaptive evolution of sex-specific as well as reproductive traits, especially because one of the genes lost in chimpanzees is critically involved in spermatogenesis in humans. Here we have characterized Y-chromosome sequences in gorilla, bonobo, and several chimpanzee subspecies for 7 chimpanzee gene-disruptive mutations. Our analyses show that 6 of these gene-disruptive mutations predate chimpanzee-bonobo divergence at approximately 1.8 MYA, which indicates significant Y-chromosome change in the chimpanzee lineage relatively early in the evolutionary divergence of humans and chimpanzees.

  18. The gene orders on human chromosome 15 and chicken chromosome 10 reveal multiple inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Crooijmans, R P; Dijkhof, R J; Veenendaal, T; van der Poel, J J; Nicholls, R D; Bovenhuis, H; Groenen, M A

    2001-11-01

    Comparative mapping between the human and chicken genomes has revealed a striking conservation of synteny between the genomes of these two species, but the results have been based on low-resolution comparative maps. To address this conserved synteny in much more detail, a high-resolution human-chicken comparative map was constructed from human chromosome 15. Mapping, sequencing, and ordering of specific chicken bacterial artificial chromosomes has improved the comparative map of chromosome 15 (Hsa15) and the homologous regions in chicken with almost 100 new genes and/or expressed sequence tags. A comparison of Hsa15 with chicken identified seven conserved chromosomal segments between the two species. In chicken, these were on chromosome 1 (Gga1; two segments), Gga5 (two segments), and Gga10 (three segments). Although four conserved segments were also observed between Hsa15 and mouse, only one of the underlying rearrangement breakpoints was located at the same position as in chicken, indicating that the rearrangements generating the other three breakpoints occurred after the divergence of the rodent and the primate lineages. A high-resolution comparison of Gga10 with Hsa15 identified 19 conserved blocks, indicating the presence of at least 16 intrachromosomal rearrangement breakpoints in the bird lineage after the separation of birds and mammals. These results improve our knowledge of the evolution and dynamics of the vertebrate genomes and will aid in the clarification of the mechanisms that underlie the differentiation between the vertebrate species.

  19. On the origins of tandemly repeated genes: does histone gene copy number in Drosophila reflect chromosomal location?

    PubMed

    Fitch, D H; Strausbaugh, L D; Barrett, V

    1990-04-01

    Widely regarded beliefs about Drosophila histone gene copy numbers and developmental requirements have been generalized from fairly limited data since studies on histone gene arrangements and copy numbers have been largely confined to a single species, D. melanogaster. Histone gene copy numbers and chromosomal locations were examined in three species: D. melangaster, D. hydei and D. hawaiiensis. Quantitative whole genome blot analysis of DNA from diploid tissues revealed a tenfold variability in histone gene copy numbers for these three species. In situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes showed that the histone DNA (hDNA) chromosomal location is different in all three species. These observations lead us to propose a relationship between histone gene reiteration and chromosomal position.

  20. The dispensable chromosome of Leptosphaeria maculans shelters an effector gene conferring avirulence towards Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Fudal, Isabelle; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Bally, Pascal; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Leflon, Martine; Rouxel, Thierry

    2013-05-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi frequently contain dispensable chromosomes, some of which contribute to host range or pathogenicity. In Leptosphaeria maculans, the stem canker agent of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), the minichromosome was previously suggested to be dispensable, without evidence for any role in pathogenicity. Using genetic and genomic approaches, we investigated the inheritance and molecular determinant of an L. maculans-Brassica rapa incompatible interaction. Single gene control of the resistance was found, while all markers located on the L. maculans minichromosome, absent in the virulent parental isolate, co-segregated with the avirulent phenotype. Only one candidate avirulence gene was identified on the minichromosome, validated by complementation experiments and termed AvrLm11. The minichromosome was frequently lost following meiosis, but the frequency of isolates lacking it remained stable in field populations sampled at a 10-yr time interval, despite a yearly sexual stage in the L. maculans life cycle. This work led to the cloning of a new 'lost in the middle of nowhere' avirulence gene of L. maculans, interacting with a B. rapa resistance gene termed Rlm11 and introgressed into B. napus. It demonstrated the dispensability of the L. maculans minichromosome and suggested that its loss generates a fitness deficit.

  1. High resolution physical mapping of single gene fragments on pachytene chromosome 4 and 7 of Rosa.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2015-07-02

    Rosaceae is a family containing many economically important fruit and ornamental species. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based physical mapping of plant genomes is a valuable tool for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, no studies using high resolution physical mapping have been performed in this family. Previously we proved that physical mapping of single-copy genes as small as 1.1 kb is possible on mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Rosa wichurana using Tyramide-FISH. In this study we aimed to further improve the physical map of Rosa wichurana by applying high resolution FISH to pachytene chromosomes. Using high resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH, 7 genes (1.7-3 kb) were successfully mapped on pachytene chromosomes 4 and 7 of Rosa wichurana. Additionally, by using multicolor Tyramide-FISH three closely located genes were simultaneously visualized on chromosome 7. A detailed map of heterochromatine/euchromatine patterns of chromosome 4 and 7 was developed with indication of the physical position of these 7 genes. Comparison of the gene order between Rosa wichurana and Fragaria vesca revealed a poor collinearity for chromosome 7, but a perfect collinearity for chromosome 4. High resolution physical mapping of short probes on pachytene chromosomes of Rosa wichurana was successfully performed for the first time. Application of Tyramide-FISH on pachytene chromosomes allowed the mapping resolution to be increased up to 20 times compared to mitotic metaphase chromosomes. High resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH might become useful tools for further physical mapping of single-copy genes and for the integration of physical and genetic maps of Rosa wichurana and other members of the Rosaceae.

  2. Refined human artificial chromosome vectors for gene therapy and animal transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Y; Hoshiya, H; Takiguchi, M; Abe, S; Iida, Y; Osaki, M; Katoh, M; Hiratsuka, M; Shirayoshi, Y; Hiramatsu, K; Ueno, E; Kajitani, N; Yoshino, T; Kazuki, K; Ishihara, C; Takehara, S; Tsuji, S; Ejima, F; Toyoda, A; Sakaki, Y; Larionov, V; Kouprina, N; Oshimura, M

    2011-04-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their therapeutic applications. In this study, we refined a HAC vector without endogenous genes from human chromosome 21 in homologous recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. The HAC was physically characterized using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning strategy followed by sequencing of TAR-bacterial artificial chromosome clones. No endogenous genes were remained in the HAC. We demonstrated that any desired gene can be cloned into the HAC using the Cre-loxP system in Chinese hamster ovary cells, or a homologous recombination system in DT40 cells. The HAC can be efficiently transferred to other type of cells including mouse ES cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. The transferred HAC was stably maintained in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, tumor cells containing a HAC carrying the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), were selectively killed by ganciclovir in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this novel HAC vector may be useful not only for gene and cell therapy, but also for animal transgenesis.

  3. Refined human artificial chromosome vectors for gene therapy and animal transgenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Y; Hoshiya, H; Takiguchi, M; Abe, S; Iida, Y; Osaki, M; Katoh, M; Hiratsuka, M; Shirayoshi, Y; Hiramatsu, K; Ueno, E; Kajitani, N; Yoshino, T; Kazuki, K; Ishihara, C; Takehara, S; Tsuji, S; Ejima, F; Toyoda, A; Sakaki, Y; Larionov, V; Kouprina, N; Oshimura, M

    2011-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their therapeutic applications. In this study, we refined a HAC vector without endogenous genes from human chromosome 21 in homologous recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. The HAC was physically characterized using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning strategy followed by sequencing of TAR-bacterial artificial chromosome clones. No endogenous genes were remained in the HAC. We demonstrated that any desired gene can be cloned into the HAC using the Cre-loxP system in Chinese hamster ovary cells, or a homologous recombination system in DT40 cells. The HAC can be efficiently transferred to other type of cells including mouse ES cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. The transferred HAC was stably maintained in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, tumor cells containing a HAC carrying the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), were selectively killed by ganciclovir in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this novel HAC vector may be useful not only for gene and cell therapy, but also for animal transgenesis. PMID:21085194

  4. Suppression of tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells by transfer of human chromosome 17 does not require transferred BRCA1 and p53 genes.

    PubMed

    Theile, M; Hartmann, S; Scherthan, H; Arnold, W; Deppert, W; Frege, R; Glaab, F; Haensch, W; Scherneck, S

    1995-02-02

    A number of candidate tumor suppressor genes located on the human chromosome 17 are thought to have a role to play in the development of breast cancer. In addition to the p53 gene on 17p13.1 and the BRCA1 gene mapped to 17q12-21, other chromosomal regions for tumor suppressor genes have been suggested to exist on 17p13.3 and both the central and the distal parts of 17q, although definitive functional proof of their involvement in breast cancer tumorigenesis is still lacking. In this report we show that microcell transfer of a human chromosome 17 into wild-type p53 breast cancer cells CAL51 results in loss of tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth, changes in cell morphology and a reduction of cell growth rates of the neo-selected microcell hybrids. In the hybrid cells, which express the p53 wild-type protein, only the p- and the distal parts of the q arm of donor chromosome 17 are transferred. Thus, our results provide functional evidence for the presence of one or more tumor suppressor gene(s) on chromosome 17, which are distinct from the p53 and the BRCA1 genes.

  5. From genes to genomes: universal scale-invariant properties of microbial chromosome organisation.

    PubMed

    Audit, Benjamin; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2003-09-19

    The availability of complete genome sequences for a large variety of organisms is a major advance in understanding genome structure and function. One attribute of genome structure is chromosome organisation in terms of gene localisation and orientation. For example, bacterial operons, i.e. clusters of co-oriented genes that form transcription units, enable functionally related genes to be expressed simultaneously. The description of genome organisation was pioneered with the study of the distribution of genes of the Escherichia coli partial genetic map before the full genome sequence was known. Deploying powerful techniques from circular statistics and signal processing, we revisit the issue of gene localisation and orientation using 89 complete microbial chromosomes from the eubacterial and archaeal domains. We demonstrate that there is no characteristic size pertinent to the description of chromosome structure, e.g. there does not exist any single length appropriate to describe gene clustering. Our results show that, for all 89 chromosomes, gene positions and gene orientations share a common form of scale-invariant correlations known as "long-range correlations" that we can reveal for distances from the gene length, up to the chromosome size. This observation indicates that genes tend to assemble and to co-orient over any scale of observation greater than a few kilobases. This unexpected property of chromosome structure can be portrayed as an operon-like organisation at all scales and implies that a complete scale range extending over more than three orders of magnitudes of chromosome segment lengths is necessary to properly describe prokaryotic genome organisation. We propose that this pattern results from the effects of the superhelical context on gene expression coupled with the structure and dynamics of the nucleoid, possibly accommodating the diverse gene expression profiles needed during the different stages of cellular life.

  6. Evolutionary history of the third chromosome gene arrangements of Drosophila pseudoobscura inferred from inversion breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andre G; Detweiler, Don; Schaeffer, Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    The third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura is polymorphic for numerous gene arrangements that form classical clines in North America. The polytene salivary chromosomes isolated from natural populations revealed changes in gene order that allowed the different gene arrangements to be linked together by paracentric inversions representing one of the first cases where genetic data were used to construct a phylogeny. Although the inversion phylogeny can be used to determine the relationships among the gene arrangements, the cytogenetic data are unable to infer the ancestral arrangement or the age of the different chromosome types. These are both important properties if one is to infer the evolutionary forces responsible for the spread and maintenance of the chromosomes. Here, we employ the nucleotide sequences of 18 regions distributed across the third chromosome in 80-100 D. pseudoobscura strains to test whether five gene arrangements are of unique or multiple origin, what the ancestral arrangement was, and what are the ages of the different arrangements. Each strain carried one of six commonly found gene arrangements and the sequences were used to infer their evolutionary relationships. Breakpoint regions in the center of the chromosome supported monophyly of the gene arrangements, whereas regions at the ends of the chromosome gave phylogenies that provided less support for monophyly of the chromosomes either because the individual markers did not have enough phylogenetically informative sites or genetic exchange scrambled information among the gene arrangements. A data set where the genetic markers were concatenated strongly supported a unique origin of the different gene arrangements. The inversion polymorphism of D. pseudoobscura is estimated to be about a million years old. We have also shown that the generated phylogeny is consistent with the cytological phylogeny of this species. In addition, the data presented here support hypothetical as the ancestral

  7. Human Artificial Chromosomes for Gene Delivery and the Development of Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Random integration of conventional gene delivery vectors such as viruses, plasmids, P1 phage-derived artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes and yeast artificial chromosomes can be associated with transgene silencing. Furthermore, integrated viral sequences can activate oncogenes adjacent to the insertion site resulting in cancer. Various human artificial chromosomes (HACs) exhibit several potential characteristics desired for an ideal gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance and the capacity to carry large genomic loci with their regulatory elements, thus allowing the physiological regulation of the introduced gene in a manner similar to that of native chromosomes. HACs have been generated mainly using either a “top-down approach” (engineered chromosomes), or a “bottom-up approach” (de novo artificial chromosomes). The recent emergence of stem cell–based tissue engineering has opened up new avenues for gene and cell therapies. This review describes the lessons learned and prospects identified mainly from studies in the construction of HACs and HAC-mediated gene expression systems in cultured cells, as well as in animals. PMID:21750534

  8. Human artificial chromosomes for gene delivery and the development of animal models.

    PubMed

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2011-09-01

    Random integration of conventional gene delivery vectors such as viruses, plasmids, P1 phage-derived artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes and yeast artificial chromosomes can be associated with transgene silencing. Furthermore, integrated viral sequences can activate oncogenes adjacent to the insertion site resulting in cancer. Various human artificial chromosomes (HACs) exhibit several potential characteristics desired for an ideal gene delivery vector, including stable episomal maintenance and the capacity to carry large genomic loci with their regulatory elements, thus allowing the physiological regulation of the introduced gene in a manner similar to that of native chromosomes. HACs have been generated mainly using either a "top-down approach" (engineered chromosomes), or a "bottom-up approach" (de novo artificial chromosomes). The recent emergence of stem cell-based tissue engineering has opened up new avenues for gene and cell therapies. This review describes the lessons learned and prospects identified mainly from studies in the construction of HACs and HAC-mediated gene expression systems in cultured cells, as well as in animals.

  9. Ribosomal DNA and Stellate gene copy number variation on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lyckegaard, E M; Clark, A G

    1989-03-01

    Multigene families on the Y chromosome face an unusual array of evolutionary forces. Both ribosomal DNA and Stellate, the two families examined here, have multiple copies of similar sequences on the X and Y chromosomes. Although the rate of sequence divergence on the Y chromosome depends on rates of mutation, gene conversion and exchange with the X chromosome, as well as purifying selection, the regulation of gene copy number may also depend on other pleiotropic functions, such as maintenance of chromosome pairing. Gene copy numbers were estimated for a series of 34 Y chromosome replacement lines using densitometric measurements of slot blots of genomic DNA from adult Drosophila melanogaster. Scans of autoradiographs of the same blots probed with the cloned alcohol dehydrogenase gene, a single copy gene, served as internal standards. Copy numbers span a 6-fold range for ribosomal DNA and a 3-fold range for Stellate DNA. Despite this magnitude of variation, there was no association between copy number and segregation variation of the sex chromosomes.

  10. Structure, chromosomal localization, and methylation pattern of the human mb-1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, H.; Sun, L.; Burrows, P.D. ); Barnoski, B.L.; Emanuel, B.S. )

    1994-06-15

    The Ag receptor on B lymphocytes is a multimeric complex that is composed of an Ag-specific component, surface Ig, which is noncovalently associated with at least two other proteins, Ig[alpha] and Ig[beta]. These are the glycoprotein products of the B lineage-restricted mb-1 and B29 genes and are crucial for the cell surface expression and function of the Ag receptor on B lymphocytes. To better understand the regulation of mb-1, the authors have cloned and sequenced a 5.7-kb genomic DNA fragment that contained the human gene. The overall structure of human mb-1 is very similar to that of the murine gene, including the number and approximate size of exons. The promoter region lacks a TAT element, but contains two copies of an early B cell factor-binding motif, which previously has been shown to be important for murine mb-1 expression. Other structural features include two nuclear factor-[kappa]B binding sites at the 5[prime] end of the gene and a long stretch of AG rich-sequence between exons 3 and 4, downstream of an Alu repeat sequence that contains a potential stem-loop structure. The mb-1 gene was localized to chromosome 19q13.2-13.3 by a combination of two methods, PCR amplification of DNA from a somatic cell hybrid-mapping panel and fluorescence in situ hybridization. An examination of the methylation pattern revealed a striking correlation between demethylation in the 5[prime] region of the gene and expression of mb-1. The demethylated Hpall/Mspl sites are adjacent to the nuclear factor-[kappa]B-binding motifs, which suggests a role for this transcription factor in the regulation of human mb-1 gene expression. 59 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Evolutionarily Diverged Regulation of X-chromosomal Genes as a Primal Event in Mouse Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Ayako; Takada, Toyoyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Improper gene regulation is implicated in reproductive isolation, but its genetic and molecular bases are unknown. We previously reported that a mouse inter-subspecific X chromosome substitution strain shows reproductive isolation characterized by male-specific sterility due to disruption of meiotic entry in spermatogenesis. Here, we conducted comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the testicular cells of this strain by microarray. The results clearly revealed gross misregulation of gene expression in the substituted donor X chromosome. Such misregulation occurred prior to detectable spermatogenetic impairment, suggesting that it is a primal event in reproductive isolation. The misregulation of X-linked genes showed asymmetry; more genes were disproportionally downregulated rather than upregulated. Furthermore, this misregulation subsequently resulted in perturbation of global transcriptional regulation of autosomal genes, probably by cascading deleterious effects. Remarkably, this transcriptional misregulation was substantially restored by introduction of chromosome 1 from the same donor strain as the X chromosome. This finding implies that one of regulatory genes acting in trans for X-linked target genes is located on chromosome 1. This study collectively suggests that regulatory incompatibility is a major cause of reproductive isolation in the X chromosome substitution strain. PMID:24743563

  12. Evolutionarily diverged regulation of X-chromosomal genes as a primal event in mouse reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Oka, Ayako; Takada, Toyoyuki; Fujisawa, Hironori; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2014-04-01

    Improper gene regulation is implicated in reproductive isolation, but its genetic and molecular bases are unknown. We previously reported that a mouse inter-subspecific X chromosome substitution strain shows reproductive isolation characterized by male-specific sterility due to disruption of meiotic entry in spermatogenesis. Here, we conducted comprehensive transcriptional profiling of the testicular cells of this strain by microarray. The results clearly revealed gross misregulation of gene expression in the substituted donor X chromosome. Such misregulation occurred prior to detectable spermatogenetic impairment, suggesting that it is a primal event in reproductive isolation. The misregulation of X-linked genes showed asymmetry; more genes were disproportionally downregulated rather than upregulated. Furthermore, this misregulation subsequently resulted in perturbation of global transcriptional regulation of autosomal genes, probably by cascading deleterious effects. Remarkably, this transcriptional misregulation was substantially restored by introduction of chromosome 1 from the same donor strain as the X chromosome. This finding implies that one of regulatory genes acting in trans for X-linked target genes is located on chromosome 1. This study collectively suggests that regulatory incompatibility is a major cause of reproductive isolation in the X chromosome substitution strain.

  13. Emergence of male-biased genes on the chicken Z-chromosome: sex-chromosome contrasts between male and female heterogametic systems.

    PubMed

    Ellegren, Hans

    2011-12-01

    There has been extensive traffic of male-biased genes out of the mammalian and Drosophila X-chromosomes, and there are also reports of an under-representation of male-biased genes on the X. This may reflect an adaptive process driven by natural selection where an autosomal location of male-biased genes is favored since male genes are only exposed to selection one-third of the time when X-linked. However, there are several alternative explanations to "out-of-the-X" gene movement, including mutational bias and a means for X-linked genes to escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis. As a critical test of the hypothesis that genomic relocation of sex-biased genes is an adaptive process, I examined the emergence, and loss, of genes on the chicken Z-chromosome, i.e., a female heterogametic system (males ZZ, females ZW). Here, the analogous prediction would be an emergence of male-biased genes onto, not a loss from, the Z-chromosome because Z is found more often in males than autosomes are. I found that genes expressed in testis but not in ovary are highly over-represented among genes that have emerged on the Z-chromosome during avian evolution. Moreover, genes with male-biased expression are similarly over-represented among new Z-chromosomal genes. Interestingly, genes with female-biased expression have more often moved from than to the Z-chromosome. These observations show that male and female heterogametic organisms display opposing directionalities in the emergence and loss of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes. This is consistent with theoretical models on the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes in which new mutations are at least partly dominant.

  14. Mutations in g protein encoding genes and chromosomal alterations in primary leptomeningeal melanocytic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Küsters-Vandevelde, Heidi V N; van Engen-van Grunsven, Ilse A C H; Coupland, Sarah E; Lake, Sarah L; Rijntjes, Jos; Pfundt, Rolph; Küsters, Benno; Wesseling, Pieter; Blokx, Willeke A M; Groenen, Patricia J T A

    2015-04-01

    Limited data is available on the genetic features of primary leptomeningeal melanocytic neoplasms (LMNs). Similarities with uveal melanoma were recently suggested as both entities harbor oncogenic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11. Whether primary LMNs share additional genetic alterations with uveal melanoma including copy number variations is unknown. Twenty primary LMNs ranging from benign and intermediate-grade melanocytomas to melanomas were tested by direct sequencing for hotspot mutations in the genes GNA11, GNAQ, BRAF, NRAS and HRAS. Furthermore, the lesions were tested for copy number variations of chromosomes frequently present in uveal melanoma (1p, 3, 6 and 8q) by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Genome-wide analyses of copy number alterations of two leptomeningeal melanocytic neoplasms were performed using the OncoScan SNP-array. GNAQ(Q209) mutations were present in eleven LMNs, while two of 20 cases carried a GNA11(Q209) mutation. No BRAF, HRAS or NRAS hotspot mutations were detected. Monosomy 3 and gain of 8q were present in one leptomeningeal melanoma, and one intermediate-grade melanocytoma harbored a gain of chromosome 6. With MLPA, the melanocytomas did not show any further gross chromosomal variations. Our data shows that primary LMNs, like uveal melanoma, harbor oncogenic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 but lack mutations in BRAF, NRAS and HRAS. This finding may help in the differential diagnosis between a primary LMN and a metastasis from a cutaneous melanoma to the central nervous system. Copy number variations in some aggressive LMNs resemble those present in uveal melanoma but their prognostic significance is unclear.

  15. Proximity of thyroglobulin and c-myc genes on human chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Rabin, M; Barker, P E; Ruddle, F H; Brocas, H; Targovnik, H; Vassart, G

    1985-07-01

    The human thyroglobulin structural gene (TG) was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 8 by blot hydridization of a TG cDNA probe to DNA from 21 human X mouse somatic cell hybrids containing overlapping subsets of human chromosomes. In situ hybridization of the TG probe to metaphase chromosomes from a karyotypically normal human lymphoblastoid cell line, JS, localized the TG gene to within the region 8q23----q24.3. Thus, the TG and c-myc genes map to the same chromosome band in normal human cells. In a human colon carcinoma cell line (COLO 320 DM) which contains amplified c-myc, the TG gene is not amplified and hence it lies outside the amplification domain.

  16. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  17. The Ah receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is located on q21 of human chromosome 1 and on mouse chromosome 3 near Cf-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Brooks, B.A.; Heinzmann, C. ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have mapped the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene to a conserved linkage group located on mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. EcoRi-digested DNA from a panel of 17 human x mouse somatic cell hybrids was probed with a cDNA fragment of the human ARNT gene. Six of the 17 independent mouse x human hybrids were positive for human bands. Human chromosome 1 showed complete cosegregation with the gene, whereas discordant segregation was observed for all other human chromosomes. The human gene was localized to 1q21 by using DNA from mouse x human hybrid clones that retain translocations involving human chromosome 1, by segregation analysis in nine informative CEPH families, and by in situ hybridization. The mouse homologue was mapped to mouse chromosome 3 using a panel of 16 hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids. Six of 16 mouse x hamster hybrids were positive for mouse bands, showing complete concordance with mouse chromosome 3. The mouse Arnt gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 3, using linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross. The results indicate that the mouse gene resides about 40 cM from the centromere and about 10 cM proximal to Cf-3, the gene for tissue factor. 41 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    PubMed Central

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  19. Assignment of genes to regions of mouse chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, E M; Washburn, L L

    1978-01-01

    A genetic mapping procedure, called the duplication-deficiency method, is described. This method permits the genetic location of a translocation to be determined within a linkage group without the use of recombination. By utilizing the duplication-deficiency method to define the genetic breakpoints for a series of translocations involving a given chromosome and integrating this information with their cytological breakpoints, obtained by Giemsa banding, a genetic map of the chromosomes is constructed whereby groups of loci are assigned to banded regions. Duplication-deficiency mapping and Giemsa banding analysis of the T(X;7)1Ct and T(7;19)145H translocations together with information from the c25H deletion have permitted mouse chromosome 7 to be divided into six and chromosome 19 into two definable genetic regions. Images PMID:273256

  20. Human enteric defensin genes: Chromosomal map position and a model for possible evolutionary relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bevins, C.L.; Jones, D.E.; Dutra, A.; Schaffzin, J.; Muenke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides isolated from several mammalian species, have a proposed functional role in innate host defense. In humans, certain defensin genes are expressed in phagocytic cells of hematopoietic origin, while others are expressed in Paneth cells, epithelial cells of the small intestine. In this study, we determined the chromosomal localization of the human defensin (HD) genes expressed in Paneth cells, HD-5 and HD-6. Analysis of a panel of human/hamster hybrids localized both HD-5 and HD-6 to chromosome 8. Southern blot analysis of DNA from cell lines that contain either chromosome 8 deletions or duplications further localized these two genes to 8p21-pter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of metaphase chromosomes using an HD-5 probe further supported the regional map assignment. Previous studies had localized the hematopoietic genes to chromosome 8p23, and the current work is consistent with both the enteric and the myeloid defensin genes being located at the same cytogenetic region of chromosome 8. In addition, the evolutionary relationships of this gene family were addressed using dot matrix sequence analysis. From this analysis, a model for the possible evolutionary history of the human defensin genes is proposed. According to this model, an early duplication of a primordial defensin gene yielded the ancestral genes of present day HD-5 and HD-6. The model further suggests that a subsequent unequal meiotic crossover event had generated an additional gene, comprised of a hybrid of sequences from the two parental genes, and that this hybrid gene then served as the ancestor to present day hematopoietic defensin genes. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Mapping of a Breast Carcinoma Tumor Suppressor Gene to Chromosome 11P15.5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    4. Fults, D., Petronio, J., Noblett, B. D., Pedone, C. A. Chromosome 11p15 deletions in human malignant astrocytomas and primitive neuroectodermal ...AD _ GRANT NUMBER DAMDI7-94-J-4175 TITLE: Mapping of a Breast Carcinoma Tumor Suppressor Gene to Chromosome 11P15.5 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Tracey...FUNDING NUMBERS Mapping of a Breast Carcinoma Tumor Suppressor Gene to Chromosome llP15.5 DAMD17-94-J-4175 6. AUTHOR(S) Tracey Moore, Ph.D. 7

  2. Mapping of a Breast Carcinoma Tumor Suppressor Gene to Chromosome 11p15.5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    Noblett, B. D., Pedone, C. A. Chromosome llp 15 deletions in human malignant astrocytomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors . Genomics 14: 799-801...AD GRANT NUMBER: DAMDI7-94-J-4175 TITLE: Mapping of a Breast Carcinoma Tumor Suppressor Gene to Chromosome 11p15.5 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Tracy...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Mapping of a Breast Carcinoma Tumor Suppressor Gene to Chromosome 11p15.5 DAMD17-94-J-4175 6. AUTHOR(S) Tracy Moore, Ph.D. 7

  3. Chromosome localizations of genes for five cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases in man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovich, A.; Francke, U. ); Bolger, G.; Michaeli, T. )

    1994-03-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers that mediate a number of cellular responses to external signals. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases play a role in signal transduction by regulating the cellular concentrations of these messengers. Here, the authors have applied Southern analyses of somatic cell hybrid lines and of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains as well as fluorescence chromosomal in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosomally localize five cAMP-specific nucleotide phosphodiesterase genes in human and mouse. Genes DPDE1, DPDE2, DPDE3, and DPDE4 that share sequence homology with the Drosophila dunce gene were assigned to human chromosomes 19 (DPDE1 and DPDE2), ga12 (DPDE3), and 1p31 (DPDE4) and to mouse chromosomes 8, 9, 13, and 4, respectively. The high-affinity cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase gene (HCP1) was mapped to human chromosome 8q13-q22. Since these genes are potential candidates for involvement in psychiatric or behavioral disorders, knowledge of their chromosomal localizations will facilitate the discovery of their association with disease genes as they are being mapped by linkage studies.

  4. Chromosome mapping of ribosomal genes and histone H4 in the genus Radacridium (Romaleidae)

    PubMed Central

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; de Souza, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two species of Romaleidae grasshoppers, Radacridium mariajoseae and R.nordestinum, were analyzed after CMA3/DA/DAPI sequential staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the location of the 18S and 5S rDNA and histone H4 genes. Both species presented karyotypes composed of 2n = 23, X0 with exclusively acrocentric chromosomes. CMA3+ blocks were detected after CMA3/DA/DAPI staining in only one medium size autosome bivalent and in the X chromosome in R. mariajoseae. On the other hand, all chromosomes, except the L1 bivalent, of R. nordestinum presented CMA3+ blocks. FISH analysis showed that the 18S genes are restricted to the X chromosome in R. mariajoseae, whereas these genes were located in the L2, S9 and S10 autosomes in R. nordestinum. In R. mariajoseae, the 5S rDNA sites were localized in the in L1 and L2 bivalents and in the X chromosome. In R. nordestinum, the 5S genes were located in the L2, L3, M4 and M5 pairs. In both species the histone H4 genes were present in a medium size bivalent. Together, these data evidence a great variability of chromosome markers and show that the 18S and 5S ribosomal genes are dispersed in the Radacridium genome without a significant correlation. PMID:24130439

  5. Chromosome abnormalities, mental retardation and the search for genes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, D H R; Thiagarajah, T; Malloy, P; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2008-10-01

    Genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and linkage and association studies have been successful in identifying several candidate genes. However these genes explain only a very small part of the total population risk and the psychoses appear to be very heterogeneous with several models of genetic inheritance relevant to different groups of patients, including some cases caused by multiple common genetic variants, while others are single gene disorders. Studying chromosomal abnormalities is a useful strategy for identifying genes in illness, and patients with both mental retardation and psychosis form a special group where large chromosomal abnormalities detected by routine cytogenetic analysis are more prevalent than in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder alone, or in the general population. Studying these patients provides valuable opportunities to identify genes contributing to psychoses. This review of the literature on large chromosomal rearrangements in patients with mental retardation and psychotic illness illustrates how schizophrenia and bipolar phenotypes are associated with a large number of different chromosomal disruptions. Recent genome wide association studies have identified an excess of small chromosomal deletions and duplications in schizophrenia, adding further support to the importance of chromosomal structural variation in psychotic illness. The genes GRIK4 and NPAS3, each associated with psychosis in patients with mental retardation are discussed to illustrate the value of rare cytogenetic events as a means to signpost neurobiological pathways of general importance for illness in the wider population.

  6. Adaptation of the Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 gene deletion system for modification of chromosomal loci.

    PubMed

    Gygli, Patrick E; DeVeaux, Linda C

    2014-04-01

    The model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 is an excellent system for the study of archaeal molecular biology. Unlike many other archaea, its only special growth requirement is high levels of sodium chloride and other salts; it requires neither high-temperature incubation nor anaerobic environments. Additionally, there are a number of well-developed post-genomic tools available, including whole-genome microarrays and a ura3-based gene deletion system. While some tools are available for protein expression, a system for measurement and purification of protein expressed from native promoters is lacking. We have adapted the established H. salinarum gene deletion system for this purpose, and have used this to place 8×-histidine tags on either the carboxyl or amino terminus of the protein encoded by the chromosomal rfa3 gene. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used Western blot analysis to determine levels of the Rfa3 protein under different conditions. This system provides another powerful molecular tool for studies of native protein expression and for simple protein purification in H. salinarum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The IPP gene is assigned to human chromosome 1p32-1p22

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Yeh, A.; Huang, R.C.C. ); Jabs, E.W.; Li, Xiang ); Dracopoli, N.C. )

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the isolation and characterization of a novel mouse gene that is promoted by an intracisternal A-particle (IAP) LTR and is expressed in placental tissue (mouse IAP-promoted placenta gene, Ipp). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) studies using inbred strains and recombinant inbred (RI) mice, we have established the linkage between the Ipp gene and several loci on distal mouse chromosome 4. In this publication, we report the partial sequence of a human cDNA clone isolated from a human placental library that has 83% identity to the 3[prime]region of the Ipp cDNA. For human chromosome mapping, two 20-base oligonucleotides within the homologous region were used as primers for polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to chromosome-specific DNAs from two somatic cell hybrid panels and several hybrid cell lines carrying breakpoints on human chromosome 1p. We have assigned this human homolog of the Ipp (IPP) gene to chromosome 1 at 1p32-1p22, based on analysis of PCR products. With this assignment, the homology between mouse chromosome 4 and human chromosome 1 is maintained (5). 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Regulation of gene expression by chromosome 5A during cold hardening in wheat.

    PubMed

    Kocsy, Gábor; Athmer, Benedikt; Perovic, Dragan; Himmelbach, Axel; Szucs, Attila; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Schweizer, Patrick; Galiba, Gábor; Stein, Nils

    2010-04-01

    Cold hardening is necessary to achieve the genetically determined maximum freezing tolerance and to reduce yield losses in winter cereals. The aim of the present study was to determine a set of genes with an important role in this process, by comparing of chromosome 5A substitution lines with different levels of freezing tolerance, since chromosome 5A is a major regulator of this trait. During 21 days of treatment at 2 degrees C, 303 genes were up-regulated, while 222 were down-regulated at most sampling points, and 156 at around half of them (out of the 10,297 unigenes studied). The freezing-tolerant substitution line exhibited 1.5 times as many differentially expressed genes than the sensitive one. The transcription of 78 genes (39 up-regulated) proved to be chromosome 5A-dependent. These genes encoded proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, defence processes and carbohydrate metabolism. Three of the chromosome 5A-related genes, coding for a cold-responsive, a Ca-binding and an embryo and meristem-related protein, were genetically mapped and characterized in further detail. The present experimental system was appropriate for the selection of chromosome 5A-related genes involved in short- and long-term cold acclimation in wheat. By modifying the expression of these genes it may be possible to improve freezing tolerance.

  9. Active and inactive genes localize preferentially in the periphery of chromosome territories

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The intranuclear position of a set of genes was analyzed with respect to the territories occupied by the whole chromosomes in which these genes are localized. Genes and their respective chromosome territories were simultaneously visualized in three-dimensionally preserved nuclei applying dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization. Three coding (DMD, MYH7, and HBB) and two noncoding sequences (D1Z2 and an anonymous sequence) were analyzed in four different cell types, including cells where DMD and MYH7 are actively transcribed. Spatial analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the genes are preferentially located in the periphery of chromosome territories. This positioning was independent from the activity of the genes. In contrast, the non-expressed anonymous fragment was found randomly distributed or localized preferentially in the interior of the corresponding chromosome territory. Furthermore, the distribution of the analyzed genes within the territorial peripheries was found to be highly characteristic for each gene, and, again, independent from its expression. The impact of these findings with regard to the three- dimensional arrangement of the linear DNA string within chromosome territories, as well as with respect to a putative nuclear subcompartment confining gene expression, are discussed. PMID:8947544

  10. Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jennifer F; Skaletsky, Helen; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Graves, Tina A; van Daalen, Saskia K M; Minx, Patrick J; Fulton, Robert S; McGrath, Sean D; Locke, Devin P; Friedman, Cynthia; Trask, Barbara J; Mardis, Elaine R; Warren, Wesley C; Repping, Sjoerd; Rozen, Steve; Wilson, Richard K; Page, David C

    2010-01-28

    The human Y chromosome began to evolve from an autosome hundreds of millions of years ago, acquiring a sex-determining function and undergoing a series of inversions that suppressed crossing over with the X chromosome. Little is known about the recent evolution of the Y chromosome because only the human Y chromosome has been fully sequenced. Prevailing theories hold that Y chromosomes evolve by gene loss, the pace of which slows over time, eventually leading to a paucity of genes, and stasis. These theories have been buttressed by partial sequence data from newly emergent plant and animal Y chromosomes, but they have not been tested in older, highly evolved Y chromosomes such as that of humans. Here we finished sequencing of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, achieving levels of accuracy and completion previously reached for the human MSY. By comparing the MSYs of the two species we show that they differ radically in sequence structure and gene content, indicating rapid evolution during the past 6 million years. The chimpanzee MSY contains twice as many massive palindromes as the human MSY, yet it has lost large fractions of the MSY protein-coding genes and gene families present in the last common ancestor. We suggest that the extraordinary divergence of the chimpanzee and human MSYs was driven by four synergistic factors: the prominent role of the MSY in sperm production, 'genetic hitchhiking' effects in the absence of meiotic crossing over, frequent ectopic recombination within the MSY, and species differences in mating behaviour. Although genetic decay may be the principal dynamic in the evolution of newly emergent Y chromosomes, wholesale renovation is the paramount theme in the continuing evolution of chimpanzee, human and perhaps other older MSYs.

  11. A novel mouse model for Down syndrome that harbor a single copy of human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a limited number of genes from human chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Sakai, Kosuke; Asakawa, Shuichi; Okazaki, Tsuneko; Kudoh, Jun; Ikeno, Masashi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS), also known as Trisomy 21, is the most common chromosome aneuploidy in live-born children and displays a complicated symptom. To date, several kinds of mouse models have been generated to understand the molecular pathology of DS, yet the gene dosage effects and gene(s)-phenotype(s) correlation are not well understood. In this study, we established a novel method to generate a partial trisomy mice using the mouse ES cells that harbor a single copy of human artificial chromosome (HAC), into which a small human DNA segment containing human chromosome 21 genes cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) was recombined. The produced mice were found to maintain the HAC carrying human genes as a mini-chromosome, hence termed as a Trans-Mini-Chromosomal (TMC) mouse, and HAC was transmitted for more than twenty generations independent from endogenous mouse chromosomes. The three human transgenes including cystathionine β-synthase, U2 auxiliary factor and crystalline alpha A were expressed in several mouse tissues with various expression levels relative to mouse endogenous genes. The novel system is applicable to any of human and/or mouse BAC clones. Thus, the TMC mouse carrying a HAC with a limited number of genes would provide a novel tool for studying gene dosage effects involved in the DS molecular pathogenesis and the gene(s)-phenotype(s) correlation.

  12. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong E.; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Krinsky, Benjamin H.; Long, Manyuan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through time, leading to an autosomal excess of male-biased genes. The switch between X-linked and autosomal enrichment of male-biased genes was also present in the distribution of both protein-coding genes on the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome and microRNA genes of D. melanogaster. These observations revealed that the evolution of male-biased genes is more complicated than the previously detected one-step X→A gene traffic and the enrichment of the male-biased genes on autosomes. The pattern we detected suggests that the interaction of various evolutionary forces such as the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), faster-X effect, and sexual antagonism in the male germline might have shaped the chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes on different evolutionary time scales. PMID:20798392

  13. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Long, Manyuan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through time, leading to an autosomal excess of male-biased genes. The switch between X-linked and autosomal enrichment of male-biased genes was also present in the distribution of both protein-coding genes on the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome and microRNA genes of D. melanogaster. These observations revealed that the evolution of male-biased genes is more complicated than the previously detected one-step X→A gene traffic and the enrichment of the male-biased genes on autosomes. The pattern we detected suggests that the interaction of various evolutionary forces such as the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), faster-X effect, and sexual antagonism in the male germline might have shaped the chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes on different evolutionary time scales.

  14. Altered cohesin gene dosage affects Mammalian meiotic chromosome structure and behavior.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda; Owen, Nichole; Stevense, Michelle; Smith, Helen; Nagaoka, So; Hassold, Terry; McKay, Michael; Xu, Huiling; Fu, Jun; Revenkova, Ekaterina; Jessberger, Rolf; Hunt, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies in mice and humans, cohesin loss from chromosomes during the period of protracted meiotic arrest appears to play a major role in chromosome segregation errors during female meiosis. In mice, mutations in meiosis-specific cohesin genes cause meiotic disturbances and infertility. However, the more clinically relevant situation, heterozygosity for mutations in these genes, has not been evaluated. We report here evidence from the mouse that partial loss of gene function for either Smc1b or Rec8 causes perturbations in the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and affects both synapsis and recombination between homologs during meiotic prophase. Importantly, these defects increase the frequency of chromosomally abnormal eggs in the adult female. These findings have important implications for humans: they suggest that women who carry mutations or variants that affect cohesin function have an elevated risk of aneuploid pregnancies and may even be at increased risk of transmitting structural chromosome abnormalities.

  15. A chromosome inversion near the KIT gene and the Tobiano spotting pattern in horses.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S A; Lear, T L; Adelson, D L; Bailey, E

    2007-01-01

    Tobiano is a white spotting pattern in horses caused by a dominant gene, Tobiano(TO). Here, we report TO associated with a large paracentric chromosome inversion on horse chromosome 3. DNA sequences flanking the inversion were identified and a PCR test was developed to detect the inversion. The inversion was only found in horses with the tobiano pattern, including horses with diverse genetic backgrounds, which indicated a common genetic origin thousands of years ago. The inversion does not interrupt any annotated genes, but begins approximately 100 kb downstream of the KIT gene. This inversion may disrupt regulatory sequences for the KIT gene and cause the white spotting pattern.

  16. Location of 45S Ribosomal Genes in Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes of Buthid Scorpions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Viviane Fagundes; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Cella, Doralice Maria; Schneider, Marielle Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Buthid scorpions exhibit a high variability in diploid number within genera and even within species. Cytogenetically, Buthidae differs from other families of Scorpiones based on its low diploid numbers, holocentric chromosomes, and complex chromosomal chains, which form during meiosis. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of the 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes in the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of seven buthid species belonging to the genera Rhopalurus and Tityus with the ultimate goal of elucidating the chromosome organization in these scorpions. The chromosome number ranged from 2n=6 to 2n=28. Despite the high variance in diploid number, all species examined carried their 45S rDNA sites in the terminal region of exactly two chromosomes. Analyses of meiotic cells revealed 45S rDNA clusters in the chromosomal chains of Rhopalurus agamemnon, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, and Tityus martinpaechi, or in bivalent-like configuration in Rhopalurus rochai, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, Tityus fasciolatus, and Tityus paraguayensis. In the species examined, the 45S rDNA sites colocalized with constitutive heterochromatin regions. In light of the high chromosome variability and maintenance of number and terminal position of 45S rDNA sites in buthids, the heterochromatin may act to conserve the integrity of the ribosomal genes.

  17. Investigation of the Relationship of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to the EKN1 Gene on Chromosome 15q21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigg, Karen G.; Couto, Jillian M.; Feng, Yu; Crosbie, Jennifer; Anderson, Barbara; Cate-Carter, Tasha; Tannock, Rosemary; Lovett, Maureen W.; Humphries, Tom; Kennedy, James L.; Ickowicz, Abel; Pathare, Tejaswee; Roberts, Wendy; Malone, Molly; Schachar, Russell; Barr, Cathy L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently a gene, termed EKN1, has been identified because of a chromosomal breakpoint that occurred in this gene. This chromosomal breakpoint was found in 4 family members that had specific reading disabilities (RDs), indicating that disruption of this gene may be contributing to the risk of developing RDs. This gene was further supported as…

  18. Investigation of the Relationship of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to the EKN1 Gene on Chromosome 15q21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigg, Karen G.; Couto, Jillian M.; Feng, Yu; Crosbie, Jennifer; Anderson, Barbara; Cate-Carter, Tasha; Tannock, Rosemary; Lovett, Maureen W.; Humphries, Tom; Kennedy, James L.; Ickowicz, Abel; Pathare, Tejaswee; Roberts, Wendy; Malone, Molly; Schachar, Russell; Barr, Cathy L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently a gene, termed EKN1, has been identified because of a chromosomal breakpoint that occurred in this gene. This chromosomal breakpoint was found in 4 family members that had specific reading disabilities (RDs), indicating that disruption of this gene may be contributing to the risk of developing RDs. This gene was further supported as…

  19. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5.

  20. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed Central

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi,, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum–shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F2 mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5. PMID:22690373

  1. Sex-Biased Gene Expression and Evolution of the X Chromosome in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, Sarah Elizabeth; Kranz, Anna-Lena; Rao, Prashant; Kramer, Maxwell; Dieterich, Christoph; Ercan, Sevinç

    2014-01-01

    Studies of X chromosome evolution in various organisms have indicated that sex-biased genes are nonrandomly distributed between the X and autosomes. Here, to extend these studies to nematodes, we annotated and analyzed X chromosome gene content in four Caenorhabditis species and in Pristionchus pacificus. Our gene expression analyses comparing young adult male and female mRNA-seq data indicate that, in general, nematode X chromosomes are enriched for genes with high female-biased expression and depleted of genes with high male-biased expression. Genes with low sex-biased expression do not show the same trend of X chromosome enrichment and depletion. Combined with the observation that highly sex-biased genes are primarily expressed in the gonad, differential distribution of sex-biased genes reflects differences in evolutionary pressures linked to tissue-specific regulation of X chromosome transcription. Our data also indicate that X dosage imbalance between males (XO) and females (XX) is influential in shaping both expression and gene content of the X chromosome. Predicted upregulation of the single male X to match autosomal transcription (Ohno’s hypothesis) is supported by our observation that overall transcript levels from the X and autosomes are similar for highly expressed genes. However, comparison of differentially located one-to-one orthologs between C. elegans and P. pacificus indicates lower expression of X-linked orthologs, arguing against X upregulation. These contradicting observations may be reconciled if X upregulation is not a global mechanism but instead acts locally on a subset of tissues and X-linked genes that are dosage sensitive. PMID:24793291

  2. Sex-biased gene expression and evolution of the x chromosome in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Sarah Elizabeth; Kranz, Anna-Lena; Rao, Prashant; Kramer, Maxwell; Dieterich, Christoph; Ercan, Sevinç

    2014-07-01

    Studies of X chromosome evolution in various organisms have indicated that sex-biased genes are nonrandomly distributed between the X and autosomes. Here, to extend these studies to nematodes, we annotated and analyzed X chromosome gene content in four Caenorhabditis species and in Pristionchus pacificus. Our gene expression analyses comparing young adult male and female mRNA-seq data indicate that, in general, nematode X chromosomes are enriched for genes with high female-biased expression and depleted of genes with high male-biased expression. Genes with low sex-biased expression do not show the same trend of X chromosome enrichment and depletion. Combined with the observation that highly sex-biased genes are primarily expressed in the gonad, differential distribution of sex-biased genes reflects differences in evolutionary pressures linked to tissue-specific regulation of X chromosome transcription. Our data also indicate that X dosage imbalance between males (XO) and females (XX) is influential in shaping both expression and gene content of the X chromosome. Predicted upregulation of the single male X to match autosomal transcription (Ohno's hypothesis) is supported by our observation that overall transcript levels from the X and autosomes are similar for highly expressed genes. However, comparison of differentially located one-to-one orthologs between C. elegans and P. pacificus indicates lower expression of X-linked orthologs, arguing against X upregulation. These contradicting observations may be reconciled if X upregulation is not a global mechanism but instead acts locally on a subset of tissues and X-linked genes that are dosage sensitive.

  3. Involvement of condensin-directed gene associations in the organization and regulation of chromosome territories during the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Osamu; Corcoran, Christopher J.; Noma, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomes are not randomly disposed in the nucleus but instead occupy discrete sub-nuclear domains, referred to as chromosome territories. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of chromosome territories and how they are regulated during the cell cycle remain largely unknown. Here, we have developed two different chromosome-painting approaches to address how chromosome territories are organized in the fission yeast model organism. We show that condensin frequently associates RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes (tRNA and 5S rRNA) that are present on the same chromosomes, and that the disruption of these associations by condensin mutations significantly compromises the chromosome territory arrangement. We also find that condensin-dependent intra-chromosomal gene associations and chromosome territories are co-regulated during the cell cycle. For example, condensin-directed gene associations occur to the least degree during S phase, with the chromosomal overlap becoming largest. In clear contrast, condensin-directed gene associations become tighter in other cell-cycle phases, especially during mitosis, with the overlap between the different chromosomes being smaller. This study suggests that condensin-driven intra-chromosomal gene associations contribute to the organization and regulation of chromosome territories during the cell cycle. PMID:26704981

  4. Selection against Robertsonian fusions involving housekeeping genes in the house mouse: integrating data from gene expression arrays and chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Farré, Marta; Ponsà, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J

    2010-11-01

    Monobrachial homology resulting from Robertsonian (Rb) fusions is thought to contribute to chromosomal speciation through underdominance. Given the karyotypic diversity characterizing wild house mouse populations [Mus musculus domesticus, (MMU)], variation that results almost exclusively from Rb fusions (diploid numbers range from 22 to 40) and possibly whole arm reciprocal translocations (WARTs), this organism represents an excellent model for testing hypotheses of chromosomal evolution. Previous studies of chromosome size and recombination rates have failed to explain the bias for certain chromosomes to be involved more frequently than others in these rearrangements. Here, we show that the pericentromeric region of one such chromosome, MMU19, which is infrequently encountered as a fusion partner in wild populations, is significantly enriched for housekeeping genes when compared to other chromosomes in the genome. These data suggest that there is selection against breakpoints in the pericentromeric region and provide new insights into factors that constrain chromosomal reorganizations in house mice. Given the anticipated increase in vertebrate whole genome sequences, the examination of gene content and expression profiles of the pericentromeric regions of other mammalian lineages characterized by Rb fusions (i.e., other rodents, bats, and bovids, among others) is both achievable and crucial to developing broadly applicable models of chromosome evolution.

  5. Essential Genes Embody Increased Mutational Robustness to Compensate for the Lack of Backup Genetic Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Osher; Oberhardt, Matthew; Yizhak, Keren; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic robustness is a hallmark of cells, occurring through many mechanisms and at many levels. Essential genes lack the common robustness mechanism of genetic redundancy (i.e., existing alongside other genes with the same function), and thus appear at first glance to leave cells highly vulnerable to genetic or environmental perturbations. Here we explore a hypothesis that cells might protect against essential gene loss through mechanisms that occur at various cellular levels aside from the level of the gene. Using Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as models, we find that essential genes are enriched over non-essential genes for properties we call “coding efficiency” and “coding robustness”, denoting respectively a gene’s efficiency of translation and robustness to non-synonymous mutations. The coding efficiency levels of essential genes are highly positively correlated with their evolutionary conservation levels, suggesting that this feature plays a key role in protecting conserved, evolutionarily important genes. We then extend our hypothesis into the realm of metabolic networks, showing that essential metabolic reactions are encoded by more “robust” genes than non-essential reactions, and that essential metabolites are produced by more reactions than non-essential metabolites. Taken together, these results testify that robustness at the gene-loss level and at the mutation level (and more generally, at two cellular levels that are usually treated separately) are not decoupled, but rather, that cellular vulnerability exposed due to complete gene loss is compensated by increased mutational robustness. Why some genes are backed up primarily against loss and others against mutations still remains an open question. PMID:27997585

  6. Classification of human chromosome 21 gene-expression variations in Down syndrome: impact on disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Aït Yahya-Graison, E; Aubert, J; Dauphinot, L; Rivals, I; Prieur, M; Golfier, G; Rossier, J; Personnaz, L; Creau, N; Bléhaut, H; Robin, S; Delabar, J M; Potier, M-C

    2007-09-01

    Down syndrome caused by chromosome 21 trisomy is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in humans. Disruption of the phenotype is thought to be the result of gene-dosage imbalance. Variations in chromosome 21 gene expression in Down syndrome were analyzed in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients and control individuals. Of the 359 genes and predictions displayed on a specifically designed high-content chromosome 21 microarray, one-third were expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. We performed a mixed-model analysis of variance to find genes that are differentially expressed in Down syndrome independent of sex and interindividual variations. In addition, we identified genes with variations between Down syndrome and control samples that were significantly different from the gene-dosage effect (1.5). Microarray data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that 29% of the expressed chromosome 21 transcripts are overexpressed in Down syndrome and correspond to either genes or open reading frames. Among these, 22% are increased proportional to the gene-dosage effect, and 7% are amplified. The other 71% of expressed sequences are either compensated (56%, with a large proportion of predicted genes and antisense transcripts) or highly variable among individuals (15%). Thus, most of the chromosome 21 transcripts are compensated for the gene-dosage effect. Overexpressed genes are likely to be involved in the Down syndrome phenotype, in contrast to the compensated genes. Highly variable genes could account for phenotypic variations observed in patients. Finally, we show that alternative transcripts belonging to the same gene are similarly regulated in Down syndrome but sense and antisense transcripts are not.

  7. Classification of Human Chromosome 21 Gene-Expression Variations in Down Syndrome: Impact on Disease Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Aït Yahya-Graison, E. ; Aubert, J. ; Dauphinot, L. ; Rivals, I. ; Prieur, M. ; Golfier, G. ; Rossier, J. ; Personnaz, L. ; Créau, N. ; Bléhaut, H. ; Robin, S. ; Delabar, J. M. ; Potier, M.-C. 

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome caused by chromosome 21 trisomy is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation in humans. Disruption of the phenotype is thought to be the result of gene-dosage imbalance. Variations in chromosome 21 gene expression in Down syndrome were analyzed in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients and control individuals. Of the 359 genes and predictions displayed on a specifically designed high-content chromosome 21 microarray, one-third were expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. We performed a mixed-model analysis of variance to find genes that are differentially expressed in Down syndrome independent of sex and interindividual variations. In addition, we identified genes with variations between Down syndrome and control samples that were significantly different from the gene-dosage effect (1.5). Microarray data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that 29% of the expressed chromosome 21 transcripts are overexpressed in Down syndrome and correspond to either genes or open reading frames. Among these, 22% are increased proportional to the gene-dosage effect, and 7% are amplified. The other 71% of expressed sequences are either compensated (56%, with a large proportion of predicted genes and antisense transcripts) or highly variable among individuals (15%). Thus, most of the chromosome 21 transcripts are compensated for the gene-dosage effect. Overexpressed genes are likely to be involved in the Down syndrome phenotype, in contrast to the compensated genes. Highly variable genes could account for phenotypic variations observed in patients. Finally, we show that alternative transcripts belonging to the same gene are similarly regulated in Down syndrome but sense and antisense transcripts are not. PMID:17701894

  8. Chromosome and gene copy number variation allow major structural change between species and strains of Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Matthew B; Hilley, James D; Dickens, Nicholas J; Wilkes, Jon; Bates, Paul A; Depledge, Daniel P; Harris, David; Her, Yerim; Herzyk, Pawel; Imamura, Hideo; Otto, Thomas D; Sanders, Mandy; Seeger, Kathy; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Berriman, Matthew; Smith, Deborah F; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2011-12-01

    Leishmania parasites cause a spectrum of clinical pathology in humans ranging from disfiguring cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis. We have generated a reference genome for Leishmania mexicana and refined the reference genomes for Leishmania major, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania braziliensis. This has allowed the identification of a remarkably low number of genes or paralog groups (2, 14, 19, and 67, respectively) unique to one species. These were found to be conserved in additional isolates of the same species. We have predicted allelic variation and find that in these isolates, L. major and L. infantum have a surprisingly low number of predicted heterozygous SNPs compared with L. braziliensis and L. mexicana. We used short read coverage to infer ploidy and gene copy numbers, identifying large copy number variations between species, with 200 tandem gene arrays in L. major and 132 in L. mexicana. Chromosome copy number also varied significantly between species, with nine supernumerary chromosomes in L. infantum, four in L. mexicana, two in L. braziliensis, and one in L. major. A significant bias against gene arrays on supernumerary chromosomes was shown to exist, indicating that duplication events occur more frequently on disomic chromosomes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that there is little variation in unique gene content across Leishmania species, but large-scale genetic heterogeneity can result through gene amplification on disomic chromosomes and variation in chromosome number. Increased gene copy number due to chromosome amplification may contribute to alterations in gene expression in response to environmental conditions in the host, providing a genetic basis for disease tropism.

  9. Zfy genes are required for efficient meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) in spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vernet, Nadège; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Ellis, Peter J I

    2016-10-13

    During spermatogenesis, germ cells that fail to synapse their chromosomes or fail to undergo meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) are eliminated via apoptosis during mid-pachytene. Previous work showed that Y-linked genes Zfy1 and Zfy2 act as 'executioners' for this checkpoint, and that wrongful expression of either gene during pachytene triggers germ cell death. Here, we show that in mice, Zfy genes are also necessary for efficient MSCI and the sex chromosomes are not correctly silenced in Zfy-deficient spermatocytes. This unexpectedly reveals a triple role for Zfy at the mid-pachytene checkpoint in which Zfy genes first promote MSCI, then monitor its progress (since if MSCI is achieved, Zfy genes will be silenced), and finally execute cells with MSCI failure. This potentially constitutes a negative feedback loop governing this critical checkpoint mechanism.

  10. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: an X chromosome-linked dominant inheritance pattern with a vasopressin type 2 receptor gene that is structurally normal.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, E; Bale, A E; Carson, E; Boson, W L; Nordenskjöld, M; Ritzén, M; Ferreira, P C; Jammal, A; De Marco, L

    1994-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disorder, most commonly transmitted in an X chromosome-linked recessive manner and characterized by the lack of renal response to the action of antidiuretic hormone [Arg8]vasopressin. The vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) has been suggested to be the gene that causes the disease, and its role in disease pathogenesis is supported by mutations within this gene in affected individuals. Using the PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing, we examined the V2R gene in four unrelated kindreds. In addition, linkage analysis with chromosome Xq28 markers was done in one large Brazilian kindred with an apparent unusual X chromosome-linked dominant inheritance pattern. In one family, a mutation in codon 280, causing a Tyr-->Cys substitution in the sixth transmembrane domain of the receptor, was found. In the other three additional families with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the V2R-coding region was normal in sequence. In one large Brazilian kindred displaying an unusual X chromosome-linked dominant mode of inheritance, the disease-related gene was localized to the same region of the X chromosome as the V2R, but no mutations were found, thus raising the possibility that this disease is caused by a gene other than V2R. Images PMID:8078903

  11. Dosage compensation of X-chromosome inactivation center-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos: Non-chromosome-wide initiation of X-chromosome inactivation in blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Oh, Jong-Nam; Park, Chi-Hun; Lee, Dong-Kyung; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-11-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an epigenetic mechanism that occurs in the eutherian embryo development to equalize the dosage of X-linked genes between males and females. This event is regulated by various factors, and the genes located in the X-chromosome inactivation center (XIC), which is known to be an evolutionary conserved region, are associated with XCI; however, a number of studies regarding this epigenetic event and genomic region are primarily performed in mouse models despite its species-specific features. Thus, in this study, the porcine XIC was identified, and we analyzed the expression of XIC-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the porcine XIC is synteny with that of human and the non-coding RNAs were less conserved compared with the protein coding genes in the XIC. Among the XIC-linked genes, the expression levels of CHIC1 and RLIM were decreased from morula to blastocyst development and their dosage was compensated between the male and female blastocysts. Additionally, the CpG sites of CHIC1 were approximately 50% methylated in parthenote blastocysts. Contrary to these genes, XIST and LOC102165544, an uncharacterized non-coding gene, showed dramatically increased expression levels after the morula stage and preferential female expression in blastocysts. Imprinted XIST expression was not observed, and their CpG sites were hypo-methylated in parthenogenic blastocysts. These results demonstrate that the porcine XIC consists of an evolutionary conserved structure with fewer sequences conserved non-coding RNAs. In addition, a few XIC-linked genes would likely achieve dosage compensation, but XCI would not be completed in porcine blastocysts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Helgesen, Emily; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. H-NS has been suggested to contribute to the orderly folding of the Escherichia coli chromosome in the highly compacted nucleoid. In this study, we investigated the positioning and dynamics of the origins, the replisomes, and the SeqA structures trailing the replication forks in cells lacking the H-NS protein. In H-NS mutant cells, foci of SeqA, replisomes, and origins were irregularly positioned in the cell. Further analysis showed that the average distance between the SeqA structures and the replisome was increased by ∼100 nm compared to that in wild-type cells, whereas the colocalization of SeqA-bound sister DNA behind replication forks was not affected. This result may suggest that H-NS contributes to the folding of DNA along adjacent segments. H-NS mutant cells were found to be incapable of adopting the distinct and condensed nucleoid structures characteristic of E. coli cells growing rapidly in rich medium. It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a “slow-growth” type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. IMPORTANCE It is not fully understood how and to what extent nucleoid-associated proteins contribute to chromosome folding and organization during replication and segregation in Escherichia coli. In this work, we find in vivo indications that cells lacking the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS have a lower degree of DNA condensation than wild-type cells. Our work suggests that H-NS is involved in condensing the DNA along adjacent segments on the chromosome and is not likely to tether newly replicated strands of sister DNA. We also find indications that H-NS is required for rapid growth with high DNA content and for the formation of a highly condensed nucleoid structure under such

  13. Chromosome Mapping of Dragline Silk Genes in the Genomes of Widow Spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonghui; Ayoub, Nadia A.; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.

    2010-01-01

    With its incredible strength and toughness, spider dragline silk is widely lauded for its impressive material properties. Dragline silk is composed of two structural proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. While previous studies have characterized the genes that encode the constituent proteins of spider silks, nothing is known about the physical location of these genes. We determined karyotypes and sex chromosome organization for the widow spiders, Latrodectus hesperus and L. geometricus (Araneae, Theridiidae). We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map the genomic locations of the genes for the silk proteins that compose the remarkable spider dragline. These genes included three loci for the MaSp1 protein and the single locus for the MaSp2 protein. In addition, we mapped a MaSp1 pseudogene. All the MaSp1 gene copies and pseudogene localized to a single chromosomal region while MaSp2 was located on a different chromosome of L. hesperus. Using probes derived from L. hesperus, we comparatively mapped all three MaSp1 loci to a single region of a L. geometricus chromosome. As with L. hesperus, MaSp2 was found on a separate L. geometricus chromosome, thus again unlinked to the MaSp1 loci. These results indicate orthology of the corresponding chromosomal regions in the two widow genomes. Moreover, the occurrence of multiple MaSp1 loci in a conserved gene cluster across species suggests that MaSp1 proliferated by tandem duplication in a common ancestor of L. geometricus and L. hesperus. Unequal crossover events during recombination could have given rise to the gene copies and could also maintain sequence similarity among gene copies over time. Further comparative mapping with taxa of increasing divergence from Latrodectus will pinpoint when the MaSp1 duplication events occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of silk gene linkage patterns. PMID:20877726

  14. Accuracy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of single gene and chromosomal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Verlinsky, Y.; Strom, C.; Rechitsky, S.

    1994-09-01

    We have developed a polar body inferred approach for preconception diagnosis of single gene and chromosomal disorders. Preconception PCR or FISH analysis was performed in a total of 310 first polar bodies for the following genetic conditions: cystic fibrosis, hemophilia A, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Tay Sachs disease, retinitis pigmentosa and common chromosomal trisomies. An important advantage of this approach is the avoidance of sperm (DNA) contamination, which is the major problem of PGD. We are currently applying FISH analysis of biopsied blastomeres, in combination with PCR or separately, and have demonstrated a significant improvement of the accuracy of PGD of X-linked disorders at this stage. Our data have also demonstrated feasibility of the application of FISH technique for PGD of chromosomal disorders. It was possible to detect chromosomal non-disjunctions and chromatid malsegregations in the first meiotic division, as well as to evaluate chromosomal mutations originating from the second meiotic nondisjunction.

  15. Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jennifer F.; Skaletsky, Helen; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Graves, Tina A.; van Daalen, Saskia K. M.; Minx, Patrick J.; Fulton, Robert S.; McGrath, Sean D.; Locke, Devin P.; Friedman, Cynthia; Trask, Barbara J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Repping, Sjoerd; Rozen, Steve; Wilson, Richard K.; Page, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The human Y chromosome began to evolve from an autosome hundreds of millions of years ago, acquiring a sex-determining function and undergoing a series of inversions that suppressed crossing over with the X chromosome1,2. Little is known about the Y chromosome’s recent evolution because only the human Y chromosome has been fully sequenced. Prevailing theories hold that Y chromosomes evolve by gene loss, the pace of which slows over time, eventually leading to a paucity of genes, and stasis3,4. These theories have been buttressed by partial sequence data from newly emergent plant and animal Y chromosomes5-8, but they have not been tested in older, highly evolved Y chromosomes like that of humans. We therefore finished sequencing the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, achieving levels of accuracy and completion previously reached for the human MSY. We then compared the MSYs of the two species and found that they differ radically in sequence structure and gene content, implying rapid evolution during the past 6 million years. The chimpanzee MSY harbors twice as many massive palindromes as the human MSY, yet it has lost large fractions of the MSY protein-coding genes and gene families present in the last common ancestor. We suggest that the extraordinary divergence of the chimpanzee and human MSYs was driven by four synergistic factors: the MSY’s prominent role in sperm production, genetic hitchhiking effects in the absence of meiotic crossing over, frequent ectopic recombination within the MSY, and species differences in mating behavior. While genetic decay may be the principal dynamic in the evolution of newly emergent Y chromosomes, wholesale renovation is the paramount theme in the ongoing evolution of chimpanzee, human, and perhaps other older MSYs. PMID:20072128

  16. Chromosomal patterns of gene expression from microarray data: methodology, validation and clinical relevance in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Turkheimer, Federico E; Roncaroli, Federico; Hennuy, Benoit; Herens, Christian; Nguyen, Minh; Martin, Didier; Evrard, Annick; Bours, Vincent; Boniver, Jacques; Deprez, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Background Expression microarrays represent a powerful technique for the simultaneous investigation of thousands of genes. The evidence that genes are not randomly distributed in the genome and that their coordinated expression depends on their position on chromosomes has highlighted the need for mathematical approaches to exploit this dependency for the analysis of expression data-sets. Results We have devised a novel mathematical technique (CHROMOWAVE) based on the Haar wavelet transform and applied it to a dataset obtained with the Affymetrix® HG-U133_Plus_2 array in 27 gliomas. CHROMOWAVE generated multi-chromosomal pattern featuring low expression in chromosomes 1p, 4, 9q, 13, 18, and 19q. This pattern was not only statistically robust but also clinically relevant as it was predictive of favourable outcome. This finding was replicated on a data-set independently acquired by another laboratory. FISH analysis indicated that monosomy 1p and 19q was a frequent feature of tumours displaying the CHROMOWAVE pattern but that allelic loss on chromosomes 4, 9q, 13 and 18 was much less common. Conclusion The ability to detect expression changes of spatially related genes and to map their position on chromosomes makes CHROMOWAVE a valuable screening method for the identification and display of regional gene expression changes of clinical relevance. In this study, FISH data showed that monosomy was frequently associated with diffuse low gene expression on chromosome 1p and 19q but not on chromosomes 4, 9q, 13 and 18. Comparative genomic hybridisation, allelic polymorphism analysis and methylation studies are in progress in order to identify the various mechanisms involved in this multi-chromosomal expression pattern. PMID:17140431

  17. Mapping of the gene for the Mel{sub 1a}-melatonin receptor to human chromosome 4 (MTNR1A) and mouse chromosome 8 (Mtnr1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Slaugenhaupt, S.A. |; Liebert, C.B.; Altherr, M.R.

    1995-05-20

    The pineal hormone melatonin elicits potent circadian and reproductive effects in mammals. The authors report the chromosomal location of the gene for the Mel{sub 1a}-melatonin receptor that likely mediates these circadian and reproductive actions. PCR analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids showed that the receptor gene (MTNR1A) maps to human chromosome 4q35.1. An interspecific backcross analysis revealed that the mouse gene (Mtnr1a) maps to the proximal portion of chromosome 8. These loci may be involved in genetically based circadian and neuroendocrine disorders. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  18. [Chromosomal large fragment deletion induced by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system].

    PubMed

    Cheng, L H; Liu, Y; Niu, T

    2017-05-14

    Objective: Using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology to achieve a number of genes co-deletion on the same chromosome. Methods: CRISPR-Cas9 lentiviral plasmid that could induce deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes located on mouse 11B3 chromosome was constructed via molecular clone. HEK293T cells were transfected to package lentivirus of CRISPR or Cas9 cDNA, then mouse NIH3T3 cells were infected by lentivirus and genomic DNA of these cells was extracted. The deleted fragment was amplified by PCR, TA clone, Sanger sequencing and other techniques were used to confirm the deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes. Results: The CRISPR-Cas9 lentiviral plasmid, which could induce deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes, was successfully constructed. Deletion of target chromosome fragment (Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes) was verified by PCR. The deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes was affirmed by TA clone, Sanger sequencing, and the breakpoint junctions of the CRISPR-Cas9 system mediate cutting events were accurately recombined, insertion mutation did not occur between two cleavage sites at all. Conclusion: Large fragment deletion of Aloxe3-Alox12b-Alox8 cluster genes located on mouse chromosome 11B3 was successfully induced by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system.

  19. Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A. M.; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes. PMID:26385968

  20. Birth of a new gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Vicoso, Beatriz; Russo, Claudia A M; Swenor, Bonnielin; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-06

    Contrary to the pattern seen in mammalian sex chromosomes, where most Y-linked genes have X-linked homologs, the Drosophila X and Y chromosomes appear to be unrelated. Most of the Y-linked genes have autosomal paralogs, so autosome-to-Y transposition must be the main source of Drosophila Y-linked genes. Here we show how these genes were acquired. We found a previously unidentified gene (flagrante delicto Y, FDY) that originated from a recent duplication of the autosomal gene vig2 to the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Four contiguous genes were duplicated along with vig2, but they became pseudogenes through the accumulation of deletions and transposable element insertions, whereas FDY remained functional, acquired testis-specific expression, and now accounts for ∼20% of the vig2-like mRNA in testis. FDY is absent in the closest relatives of D. melanogaster, and DNA sequence divergence indicates that the duplication to the Y chromosome occurred ∼2 million years ago. Thus, FDY provides a snapshot of the early stages of the establishment of a Y-linked gene and demonstrates how the Drosophila Y has been accumulating autosomal genes.

  1. Physical mapping of the elephant X chromosome: conservation of gene order over 105 million years.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Claudia Leticia Rodríguez; Waters, Paul D; Gilbert, Clément; Robinson, Terence J; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2009-01-01

    All therian mammals (eutherians and marsupials) have an XX female/XY male sex chromosome system or some variant of it. The X and Y evolved from a homologous pair of autosomes over the 166 million years since therian mammals diverged from monotremes. Comparing the sex chromosomes of eutherians and marsupials defined an ancient X conserved region that is shared between species of these mammalian clades. However, the eutherian X (and the Y) was augmented by a recent addition (XAR) that is autosomal in marsupials. XAR is part of the X in primates, rodents, and artiodactyls (which belong to the eutherian clade Boreoeutheria), but it is uncertain whether XAR is part of the X chromosome in more distantly related eutherian mammals. Here we report on the gene content and order on the X of the elephant (Loxodonta africana)-a representative of Afrotheria, a basal endemic clade of African mammals-and compare these findings to those of other documented eutherian species. A total of 17 genes were mapped to the elephant X chromosome. Our results support the hypothesis that the eutherian X and Y chromosomes were augmented by the addition of autosomal material prior to eutherian radiation. Not only does the elephant X bear the same suite of genes as other eutherian X chromosomes, but gene order appears to have been maintained across 105 million years of evolution, perhaps reflecting strong constraints posed by the eutherian X inactivation system.

  2. The parental origin of the single X chromosome in Turner syndrome: lack of correlation with parental age or clinical phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, A; Stekol, L; Schatz, D; MacLaren, N K; Scott, M L; Lippe, B

    1991-01-01

    We have used X- and Y-linked RFLPs to determine the origin of the single X chromosome in 25 live-born individuals with Turner syndrome. We determined that 18 individuals retained a maternal X (Xm) and that seven retained the paternal X (Xp). No occult mosaicism was detected. We found no differences in either maternal or paternal ages for the two groups. The ratio of maternal X to paternal X is just over 2:1, which is consistent with the expected proportion of meiotic or mitotic products, with equal loss at each step, given the nonviability of 45,Y. Six phenotypic or physiologic characteristics were assessed: (1) birth weight, (2) height percentile at time of testing, (3) presence of a webbed neck, (4) cardiovascular abnormalities, (5) renal abnormalities, and (6) thyroid autoimmunity. There were no significant differences in birth weights or heights between the girls who retained the maternal X or the paternal X. In addition, no differences between the groups could be appreciated in the incidence of the physical, anatomic, or physiologic parameters assessed. Images Figure 1 PMID:1673045

  3. Microdissection and molecular manipulation of single chromosomes in woody fruit trees with small chromosomes using pomelo (Citrus grandis) as a model. II. Cloning of resistance gene analogs from single chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Huang, D; Wu, W; Lu, L

    2004-05-01

    Amplification of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) is both a useful method for acquiring DNA markers closely linked to disease resistance (R) genes and a potential approach for the rapid cloning of R genes in plants. However, the screening of target sequences from among the numerous amplified RGAs can be very laborious. The amplification of RGAs from specific chromosomes could greatly reduce the number of RGAs to be screened and, consequently, speed up the identification of target RGAs. We have developed two methods for amplifying RGAs from single chromosomes. Method 1 uses products of Sau3A linker adaptor-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR) from a single chromosome as the templates for RGA amplification, while Method 2 directly uses a single chromosomal DNA molecule as the template. Using a pair of degenerate primers designed on the basis of the conserved nucleotide-binding-site motifs in many R genes, RGAs were successfully amplified from single chromosomes of pomelo using both these methods. Sequencing and cluster analysis of RGA clones obtained from single chromosomes revealed the number, type and organization of R-gene clusters on the chromosomes. We suggest that Method 1 is suitable for analyzing chromosomes that are unidentifiable under a microscope, while Method 2 is more appropriate when chromosomes can be clearly identified.

  4. Novel players in X inactivation: insights into Xist-mediated gene silencing and chromosome conformation.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Simão T; Heard, Edith

    2017-03-03

    The nuclear long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Xist ensures X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female placental mammals. Although Xist is one of the most intensively studied lncRNAs, the mechanisms associated with its capacity to trigger chromosome-wide gene silencing, the formation of facultative heterochromatin and an unusual 3D conformation of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) have remained elusive. Now researchers have identified novel functional partners of Xist in a series of breakthrough studies, using unbiased techniques to isolate Xist-bound proteins, as well as forward genetic screens. In addition, important insights into the 3D organization of Xi and its relation to gene expression have been obtained. In this Review, we discuss how this new information is providing a recipe for deciphering XCI mechanisms by which a multitasking RNA can structurally and functionally transform an active chromosome into uniquely organized facultative heterochromatin.

  5. Rapid gene isolation in barley and wheat by mutant chromosome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ghosh, Sreya; Herren, Gerhard; Hurni, Severine; Adamski, Nikolai; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Krattinger, Simon G; Wicker, Thomas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, Beat; Wulff, Brande B H

    2016-10-31

    Identification of causal mutations in barley and wheat is hampered by their large genomes and suppressed recombination. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed MutChromSeq, a complexity reduction approach based on flow sorting and sequencing of mutant chromosomes, to identify induced mutations by comparison to parental chromosomes. We apply MutChromSeq to six mutants each of the barley Eceriferum-q gene and the wheat Pm2 genes. This approach unambiguously identified single candidate genes that were verified by Sanger sequencing of additional mutants. MutChromSeq enables reference-free forward genetics in barley and wheat, thus opening up their pan-genomes to functional genomics.

  6. Inactivation of the Rps4 gene on the mouse X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Zinn, A R; Bressler, S L; Beer-Romero, P; Adler, D A; Chapman, V M; Page, D C; Disteche, C M

    1991-12-01

    The human RPS4X and RPS4Y genes, located on the X and Y chromosomes, appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4. Haploinsufficiency of these genes may contribute to the human phenotype known as Turner syndrome. Although RPS4X maps near the X-inactivation center, the gene is expressed on inactive human X chromosomes. We cloned Rps4, the mouse homolog of RPS4X. Exploiting allelic variation in Rps4, we examined transcription of the gene from active and inactive mouse X chromosomes in vivo, in female mice carrying an X-autosome translocation. We report that mouse Rps4, unlike human RPS4X, is subject to X inactivation. This finding may explain, at least in part, why the phenotypic consequences of X monosomy are less severe in mice than in humans.

  7. Smqnr, a New Chromosome-Carried Quinolone Resistance Gene in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia▿

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Kenichiro; Kikuchi, Ken; Sasaki, Takashi; Takahashi, Namiko; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Ono, Yuka; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    A new chromosome-carried quinolone resistance gene from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Smqnr, was characterized. The gene was present in type strain CCUG 5866 and was also detected in 24 clinical isolates and showed some allelic diversity. The expression of Smqnr in Escherichia coli decreased the susceptibilities of the E. coli isolates to several fluoroquinolones. PMID:18644963

  8. Chromosome engineering for alien gene introgression in wheat: Progress and prospective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for introgression of desirable genes from wild relatives into cultivated wheat. However, it has been a challenge to transfer a small amount of alien chromatin containing the gene of interest from one genome to another non-homologous genome through classic...

  9. Novel method to load multiple genes onto a mammalian artificial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, Vilmos; Udvardy, Andor; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Katona, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs) was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe's disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest.

  10. Novel Method to Load Multiple Genes onto a Mammalian Artificial Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, Vilmos; Udvardy, Andor; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Katona, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs) was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe’s disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest. PMID:24454889

  11. An analysis of the gene complement of a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica: Evolution of lineage-specific genes and giant chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goodstadt, Leo; Heger, Andreas; Webber, Caleb; Ponting, Chris P.

    2007-01-01

    The newly sequenced genome of Monodelphis domestica not only provides the out-group necessary to better understand our own eutherian lineage, but it enables insights into the innovative biology of metatherians. Here, we compare Monodelphis with Homo sequences from alignments of single nucleotides, genes, and whole chromosomes. Using PhyOP, we have established orthologs in Homo for 82% (15,250) of Monodelphis gene predictions. Those with single orthologs in each species exhibited a high median synonymous substitution rate (dS = 1.02), thereby explaining the relative paucity of aligned regions outside of coding sequences. Orthology assignments were used to construct a synteny map that illustrates the considerable fragmentation of Monodelphis and Homo karyotypes since their therian last common ancestor. Fifteen percent of Monodelphis genes are predicted, from their low divergence at synonymous sites, to have been duplicated in the metatherian lineage. The majority of Monodelphis-specific genes possess predicted roles in chemosensation, reproduction, adaptation to specific diets, and immunity. Using alignments of Monodelphis genes to sequences from either Homo or Trichosurus vulpecula (an Australian marsupial), we show that metatherian X chromosomes have elevated silent substitution rates and high G+C contents in comparison with both metatherian autosomes and eutherian chromosomes. Each of these elevations is also a feature of subtelomeric chromosomal regions. We attribute these observations to high rates of female-specific recombination near the chromosomal ends and within the X chromosome, which act to sustain or increase G+C levels by biased gene conversion. In particular, we propose that the higher G+C content of the Monodelphis X chromosome is a direct consequence of its small size relative to the giant autosomes. PMID:17495010

  12. An analysis of the gene complement of a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica: evolution of lineage-specific genes and giant chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Goodstadt, Leo; Heger, Andreas; Webber, Caleb; Ponting, Chris P

    2007-07-01

    The newly sequenced genome of Monodelphis domestica not only provides the out-group necessary to better understand our own eutherian lineage, but it enables insights into the innovative biology of metatherians. Here, we compare Monodelphis with Homo sequences from alignments of single nucleotides, genes, and whole chromosomes. Using PhyOP, we have established orthologs in Homo for 82% (15,250) of Monodelphis gene predictions. Those with single orthologs in each species exhibited a high median synonymous substitution rate (d(S) = 1.02), thereby explaining the relative paucity of aligned regions outside of coding sequences. Orthology assignments were used to construct a synteny map that illustrates the considerable fragmentation of Monodelphis and Homo karyotypes since their therian last common ancestor. Fifteen percent of Monodelphis genes are predicted, from their low divergence at synonymous sites, to have been duplicated in the metatherian lineage. The majority of Monodelphis-specific genes possess predicted roles in chemosensation, reproduction, adaptation to specific diets, and immunity. Using alignments of Monodelphis genes to sequences from either Homo or Trichosurus vulpecula (an Australian marsupial), we show that metatherian X chromosomes have elevated silent substitution rates and high G+C contents in comparison with both metatherian autosomes and eutherian chromosomes. Each of these elevations is also a feature of subtelomeric chromosomal regions. We attribute these observations to high rates of female-specific recombination near the chromosomal ends and within the X chromosome, which act to sustain or increase G+C levels by biased gene conversion. In particular, we propose that the higher G+C content of the Monodelphis X chromosome is a direct consequence of its small size relative to the giant autosomes.

  13. Exogenous phage recombinase-independent inactivation of chromosomal genes in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Mahesh S; Kumar, Pradeep; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2013-11-01

    Characterization of newly identified genes is necessary to understand their functions. Phenotypic characterization of isogenic mutants provides good understanding of the functions of the genes in wild type strains. In the present study, we report the use of linear dsDNA as a substrate for homologous recombination in Yersinia enterocolitica. A double-stranded linear recombinant DNA (LRD) containing an antibiotic resistance gene flanked by homologous regions to the target gene was created. Transformation of this LRD into Y. enterocolitica led to the replacement of targeted loci with antibiotic resistance gene. Using this strategy, two chromosomal genes namely urease C (ureC) and hemophore A (hasA) were disrupted in three strains of Y. enterocolitica. These recombinations were independent of the EPR functions. This is the first report of EPR-independent inactivation of chromosomal genes in Y. enterocolitica strains.

  14. Use of gene fusions to determine the orientation of gene phoA on the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Sarthy, A; Michaelis, S; Beckwith, J

    1981-01-01

    We present genetic evidence which demonstrates that the phoA gene is transcribed in the clockwise direction on the Escherichia coli chromosome, in contrast to an earlier proposal. Our conclusion is based on analysis of various genetic fusions between the lac operon and the phoA gene. PMID:7007316

  15. The TP53 tumour suppressor gene in colorectal carcinomas. I. Genetic alterations on chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Meling, G. I.; Lothe, R. A.; Børresen, A. L.; Graue, C.; Hauge, S.; Clausen, O. P.; Rognum, T. O.

    1993-01-01

    In 231 colorectal carcinomas, allele variation at four restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLP) loci on chromosome 17 have been studied by Southern analysis. Heterozygous loss of the TP53 gene was found in 68% (129/189) of the carcinomas informative on both chromosome arms. In 41% (77/189) of the carcinomas the loss was found only on 17p. Two probes were used to detect alterations on 17p, pBHP53 and pYNZ22. When loss was demonstrated with pYNZ22, pBHP53 also always showed loss (n = 45), whereas when loss was demonstrated with pBHP53, only 45 of 54 (83%) showed loss with pYNZ22. Loss on 17q was found in 34% (64/189) of the carcinomas, and 6% (12/189) had loss on this chromosome arm, only. Loss on 17q was significantly associated with loss on 17p (P < 0.01). These data confirm that the TP53 gene is the target of loss on chromosome arm 17p in colorectal carcinomas, and demonstrate that loss of the TP53 gene is most frequently part of limited, subchromosomal loss. Furthermore, the results do not suggest any additional tumour suppressor gene(s) on chromosome 17 involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 PMID:8094008

  16. An update of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in gene diseases, chromosomal translocation, and aneuploidy screening

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Jung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Tsai, Yi-Yi; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Mei-Ya

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is gradually widely used in prevention of gene diseases and chromosomal abnormalities. Much improvement has been achieved in biopsy technique and molecular diagnosis. Blastocyst biopsy can increase diagnostic accuracy and reduce allele dropout. It is cost-effective and currently plays an important role. Whole genome amplification permits subsequent individual detection of multiple gene loci and screening all 23 pairs of chromosomes. For PGD of chromosomal translocation, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) is traditionally used, but with technical difficulty. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) can detect translocation and 23 pairs of chromosomes that may replace FISH. Single nucleotide polymorphisms array with haplotyping can further distinguish between normal chromosomes and balanced translocation. PGD may shorten time to conceive and reduce miscarriage for patients with chromosomal translocation. PGD has a potential value for mitochondrial diseases. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping has been applied for unknown mutation sites of single gene disease. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) using limited FISH probes in the cleavage-stage embryo did not increase live birth rates for patients with advanced maternal age, unexplained recurrent abortions, and repeated implantation failure. Polar body and blastocyst biopsy may circumvent the problem of mosaicism. PGS using blastocyst biopsy and array CGH is encouraging and merit further studies. Cryopreservation of biopsied blastocysts instead of fresh transfer permits sufficient time for transportation and genetic analysis. Cryopreservation of embryos may avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and possible suboptimal endometrium. PMID:22384431

  17. Molecular genetic approach to human meningioma: loss of genes on chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Seizinger, B.R.; De La Monte, S.; Atkins, L.; Gusella, J.F.; Martuza, R.L.

    1987-08-01

    A molecular genetic approach employing polymorphic DNA markers has been used to investigate the role of chromosomal aberrations in meningioma, one of the most common tumors of the human nervous system. Comparison of the alleles detected by DNA markers in tumor DNA versus DNA from normal tissue revealed chromosomal alterations present in primary surgical specimens. In agreement with cytogenetic studies of cultured meningiomas, the most frequent alteration detected was loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 22. Forty of 51 patients were constitutionally heterozygous for at least one chromosome 22 DNA marker. Seventeen of the 40 constitutionally heterozygotic patients (43%) displayed hemizygosity for the corresponding marker in their meningioma tumor tissues. Loss of heterozygosity was also detected at a significantly lower frequency for markers on several other autosomes. In view of the striking association between acoustic neuroma and meningioma in bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis and the discovery that acoustic neuromas display specific loss of genes on chromosome 22, the authors propose that a common mechanism involving chromosome 22 is operative in the development of both tumor types. Fine-structure mapping to reveal partial deletions in meningiomas may provide the means to clone and characterize a gene (or genes) of importance for tumorigenesis in this and possibly other clinically associated tumors of the human nervous system.

  18. Forced Running Endurance Is Influenced by Gene(s) on Mouse Chromosome 10

    PubMed Central

    Kvedaras, Mindaugas; Minderis, Petras; Fokin, Andrej; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Venckunas, Tomas; Lionikas, Arimantas

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity between laboratory mouse strains provides a model for studying the underlying genetic mechanisms. The A/J strain performs poorly in various endurance exercise models. The aim of the study was to test if endurance capacity and contractility of the fast- and slow-twitch muscles are affected by the genes on mouse chromosome 10. The C57BL/6J (B6) strain and C57BL/6J-Chr 10A/J/NaJ (B6.A10) consomic strain which carries the A/J chromosome 10 on a B6 strain background were compared. The B6.A10 mice compared to B6 were larger in body weight (p < 0.02): 27.2 ± 1.9 vs. 23.8 ± 2.7 and 23.4 ± 1.9 vs. 22.9 ± 2.3 g, for males and females, respectively, and in male soleus weight (p < 0.02): 9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 8.6 ± 0.9 mg. In the forced running test the B6.A10 mice completed only 64% of the B6 covered distance (p < 0.0001). However, there was no difference in voluntary wheel running (p = 0.6) or in fatigability of isolated soleus (p = 0.24) or extensor digitorum longus (EDL, p = 0.7) muscles. We conclude that chromosome 10 of the A/J strain contributes to reduced endurance performance. We also discuss physiological mechanisms and methodological aspects relevant to interpretation of these findings. PMID:28167917

  19. Isolation of Breast Tumor Suppressor Genes from Chromosome 11p

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    vivo. This growth suppression activity requires a functional ILK protein , since expression of wild-type ILK, but not the ankyrin repeat or the catalytic...metastasis suppressor locus on chromosome l1pl5.5 is Integrin-linked kinase (ILK). ILK is a newly identified ankyrin - repeat containing serine/threonine...athymic mice. Conversely, expression of the ankyrin repeat or catalytic domain mutants of ILK failed to suppress the growth of these cells. Growth

  20. Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706 chromosome 6: distribution and abundance of genes and retrotransposable elements.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sander A; Datema, Erwin; Szinay, Dóra; van Staveren, Marjo J; Schijlen, Elio G W M; van Haarst, Jan C; Hesselink, Thamara; Abma-Henkens, Marleen H C; Bai, Yuling; de Jong, Hans; Stiekema, Willem J; Klein Lankhorst, René M; van Ham, Roeland C H J

    2009-06-01

    We studied the physical and genetic organization of chromosome 6 of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Heinz 1706 by combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequence analysis, high-information-content fingerprinting, genetic analysis, and BAC-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping data. The chromosome positions of 81 anchored seed and extension BACs corresponded in most cases with the linear marker order on the high-density EXPEN 2000 linkage map. We assembled 25 BAC contigs and eight singleton BACs spanning 2.0 Mb of the short-arm euchromatin, 1.8 Mb of the pericentromeric heterochromatin and 6.9 Mb of the long-arm euchromatin. Sequence data were combined with their corresponding genetic and pachytene chromosome positions into an integrated map that covers approximately a third of the chromosome 6 euchromatin and a small part of the pericentromeric heterochromatin. We then compared physical length (Mb), genetic (cM) and chromosome distances (microm) for determining gap sizes between contigs, revealing relative hot and cold spots of recombination. Through sequence annotation we identified several clusters of functionally related genes and an uneven distribution of both gene and repeat sequences between heterochromatin and euchromatin domains. Although a greater number of the non-transposon genes were located in the euchromatin, the highly repetitive (22.4%) pericentromeric heterochromatin displayed an unexpectedly high gene content of one gene per 36.7 kb. Surprisingly, the short-arm euchromatin was relatively rich in repeats as well, with a repeat content of 13.4%, yet the ratio of Ty3/Gypsy and Ty1/Copia retrotransposable elements across the chromosome clearly distinguished euchromatin (2:3) from heterochromatin (3:2).

  1. The TGV transgenic vectors for single-copy gene expression from the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    PubMed

    Gumbiner-Russo, L M; Lombardo, M J; Ponder, R G; Rosenberg, S M

    2001-07-25

    Plasmid-based cloning and expression of genes in Escherichia coli can have several problems: plasmid destabilization; toxicity of gene products; inability to achieve complete repression of gene expression; non-physiological overexpression of the cloned gene; titration of regulatory proteins; and the requirement for antibiotic selection. We describe a simple system for cloning and expression of genes in single copy in the E. coli chromosome, using a non-antibiotic selection for transgene insertion. The transgene is inserted into a vector containing homology to the chromosomal region flanking the attachment site for phage lambda. This vector is then linearized and introduced into a recombination-proficient E. coli strain carrying a temperature-sensitive lambda prophage. Selection for replacement of the prophage with the transgene is performed at high temperature. Once in the chromosome, transgenes can be moved into other lysogenic E. coli strains using standard phage-mediated transduction techniques, selecting against a resident prophage. Additional vector constructs provide an arabinose-inducible promoter (P(BAD)), P(BAD) plus a translation-initiation sequence, and optional chloramphenicol-, tetracycline-, or kanamycin-resistance cassettes. These Transgenic E. coli Vectors (TGV) allow drug-free, single-copy expression of genes from the E. coli chromosome, and are useful for genetic studies of gene function.

  2. Long-Range Chromosome Interactions Mediated by Cohesin Shape Circadian Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichi; Guo, Weimin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Meng; Fan, Zenghua; Zhao, Zhihu; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythm is established by the negative feedback loops consisting of a set of clock genes, which lead to the circadian expression of thousands of downstream genes in vivo. As genome-wide transcription is organized under the high-order chromosome structure, it is largely uncharted how circadian gene expression is influenced by chromosome architecture. We focus on the function of chromatin structure proteins cohesin as well as CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) in circadian rhythm. Using circular chromosome conformation capture sequencing, we systematically examined the interacting loci of a Bmal1-bound super-enhancer upstream of a clock gene Nr1d1 in mouse liver. These interactions are largely stable in the circadian cycle and cohesin binding sites are enriched in the interactome. Global analysis showed that cohesin-CTCF co-binding sites tend to insulate the phases of circadian oscillating genes while cohesin-non-CTCF sites are associated with high circadian rhythmicity of transcription. A model integrating the effects of cohesin and CTCF markedly improved the mechanistic understanding of circadian gene expression. Further experiments in cohesin knockout cells demonstrated that cohesin is required at least in part for driving the circadian gene expression by facilitating the enhancer-promoter looping. This study provided a novel insight into the relationship between circadian transcriptome and the high-order chromosome structure. PMID:27135601

  3. Genomic structure of the EWS gene and its relationship to EWSR1, a site of tumor-associated chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Plougastel, B.; Zucman, J.; Peter, M.; Thomas, G.; Delattre, O. )

    1993-12-01

    The EWS gene has been identified based on its location at the chromosome 22 breakpoint of the t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation that characterizes Ewing sarcoma and related neuroectodermal tumors. The EWS gene spans about 40 kb of DNA and is encoded by 17 exons. The nucleotide sequence of the exons is identical to that of the previously described cDNA. The first 7 exons encode the N-terminal domain of EWS, which consists of a repeated degenerated polypeptide of 7 to 12 residues rich in tyrosine, serine, threonine, glycine, and glutamine. Exons 11, 12, and 13 encode the putative RNA binding domain. The three glycine- and arginine-rich motifs of the gene are mainly encoded by exons 8-9, 14, and 16. The DNA sequence in the 5[prime] region of the gene has features of a CpG-rich island and lacks canonical promoter elements, such as TATA and CCAAT consensus sequences. Positions of the chromosome 22 breakpoints were determined for 19 Ewing tumors. They were localized in introns 7 or 8 in 18 cases and in intron 10 in 1 case. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  4. The gene-reduction effect of chromosomal losses detected in gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) that reduces a gene dose and exerts a cell-adverse effect is known to be a parameter for the genetic staging of gastric cancers. This study investigated if the cell-adverse effect induced with the gene reduction was a rate-limiting factor for the LOH events in two distinct histologic types of gastric cancers, the diffuse- and intestinal-types. Methods The pathologic specimens obtained from 145 gastric cancer patients were examined for the level of LOH using 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes (3p, 4p, 5q, 8p, 9p, 13q, 17p and 18q). Results Most of the cancer-associated chromosomes were found to belong to the gene-poor chromosomes and to contain a few stomach-specific genes that were highly expressed. A baseline-level LOH involving one or no chromosome was frequent in diffuse-type gastric cancers. The chromosome 17 containing a relatively high density of genes was commonly lost in intestinal-type cancers but not in diffuse-type cancers. A high-level LOH involving four or more chromosomes tended to be frequent in the gastric cancers with intestinal and mixed differentiation. Disease relapse was common for gastric cancers with high-level LOH through both the hematogenous (38%) and non-hematogenous (36%) routes, and for the baseline-level LOH cases through the non-hematogenous route (67%). Conclusions The cell-adverse effect of gene reduction is more tolerated in intestinal-type gastric cancers than in diffuse-type cancers, and the loss of high-dose genes is associated with hematogenous metastasis. PMID:21092121

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of the contribution of X chromosome genes to platinum sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gamazon, Eric R; Im, Hae Kyung; O'Donnell, Peter H; Ziliak, Dana; Stark, Amy L; Cox, Nancy J; Dolan, M Eileen; Huang, Rong Stephanie

    2011-03-01

    Using a genome-wide gene expression data set generated from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0ST array, we comprehensively surveyed the role of 322 X chromosome gene expression traits on cellular sensitivity to cisplatin and carboplatin. We identified 31 and 17 X chromosome genes whose expression levels are significantly correlated (after multiple testing correction) with sensitivity to carboplatin and cisplatin, respectively, in the combined HapMap CEU (Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe) and YRI (Yoruba in Ibahan, Nigeria) populations (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05). Of those, 14 overlap for both cisplatin and carboplatin. Using an independent gene expression quantification method, the Illumina Sentrix Human-6 Expression BeadChip, measured on the same HapMap cell lines, we found that 4 and 2 of these genes are significantly associated with carboplatin and cisplatin sensitivity, respectively, in both analyses. Two genes, CTPS2 and DLG3, were identified by both genome-wide gene expression analyses as correlated with cellular sensitivity to both platinating agents. The expression of DLG3 gene was also found to correlate with cellular sensitivity to platinating agents in NCI-60 cancer cell lines. In addition, we evaluated whether the expression of X chromosome genes contributed to the observed differences in sensitivity to the platinums between CEU and YRI-derived cell lines. Of the 34 distinct genes significantly correlated with either carboplatin or cisplatin sensitivity, 14 are differentially expressed (defined as P < 0.05) between CEU and YRI. Thus, sex chromosome genes play a role in cellular sensitivity to platinating agents and differences in the expression level of these genes are an important source of variation that should be included in comprehensive pharmacogenomic studies. ©2011 AACR.

  6. Transferring Desirable Genes from Agropyron cristatum 7P Chromosome into Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Pan, Cuili; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 7P disomic addition line Ⅱ-5-1, derived from the distant hybridization between A. cristatum (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP) and the common wheat cv. Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), displays numerous desirable agronomic traits, including enhanced thousand-grain weight, smaller flag leaf, and enhanced tolerance to drought. In order to transfer these traits into common wheat, Ⅱ-5-1 was induced by 60Co-γ ray, leading to the creation of 18 translocation lines and three deletion lines. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that multiple wheat chromosomes were involved in the translocation events, including chromosome 2A, 3A, 5A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 3D and 7D. A. cristatum 7P chromosome was divided into 15 chromosomal bins with fifty-five sequence-tagged site (STS) markers specific to A. cristatum 7P chromosome. Seven and eight chromosomal bins were located on 7PS and 7PL, respectively. The above-mentioned translocation and deletion lines each contained different, yet overlapping 7P chromosomal fragments, covering the entire A. cristatum 7P chromosome. Three translocation lines (7PT-13, 7PT-14 and 7PT-17) and three deletion lines (del-1, del-2 and del-3), which contained the common chromosomal bins 7PS1-3, displayed higher thousand-grain weigh than Fukuho, suggesting that potential genes conferring high thousand-grain weigh might be located on these chromosomal bins. Therefore, wheat-A. cristatum 7P translocation lines with elite traits will be useful as novel germplasms for wheat genetic improvement. PMID:27459347

  7. B cell development in mice that lack one or both immunoglobulin kappa light chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J; Trounstine, M; Kurahara, C; Young, F; Kuo, C C; Xu, Y; Loring, J F; Alt, F W; Huszar, D

    1993-01-01

    We have generated mice that lack the ability to produce immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by targeted deletion of J kappa and C kappa gene segments and the intervening sequences in mouse embryonic stem cells. In wild type mice, approximately 95% of B cells express kappa light chains and only approximately 5% express lambda light chains. Mice heterozygous for the J kappa C kappa deletion have approximately 2-fold more lambda+ B cells than wild-type littermates. Compared with normal mice, homozygous mutants for the J kappa C kappa deletion have about half the number of B cells in both the newly generated and the peripheral B cell compartments, and all of these B cells express lambda light chains in their Ig. Therefore, homozygous mutant mice appear to produce lambda-expressing cells at nearly 10 times the rate observed in normal mice. These findings demonstrate that kappa gene assembly and/or expression is not a prerequisite for lambda gene assembly and expression. Furthermore, there is no detectable rearrangement of 3' kappa RS sequences in lambda+ B cells of the homozygous mutant mice, thus rearrangements of these sequences, per se, is not required for lambda light chain gene assembly. We discuss these findings in the context of their implications for the control of Ig light chain gene rearrangement and potential applications of the mutant animals. Images PMID:8458340

  8. Targeted Introgression of a Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Gene by DNA Marker-Assisted Chromosome Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhixia; Klindworth, Daryl L.; Friesen, Timothy L.; Chao, Shiaoman; Jin, Yue; Cai, Xiwen; Xu, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for transfer of alien genes from wild relatives into modern crops. However, this strategy has not been extensively used for alien gene introgression in most crops due to low efficiency of conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, we report an improved scheme of chromosome engineering for efficient elimination of a large amount of goatgrass (Aegilops speltoides) chromatin surrounding Sr39, a gene that provides resistance to multiple stem rust races, including Ug99 (TTKSK) in wheat. The wheat ph1b mutation, which promotes meiotic pairing between homoeologous chromosomes, was employed to induce recombination between wheat chromosome 2B and goatgrass 2S chromatin using a backcross scheme favorable for inducing and detecting the homoeologous recombinants with small goatgrass chromosome segments. Forty recombinants with Sr39 with reduced surrounding goatgrass chromatin were quickly identified from 1048 backcross progenies through disease screening and molecular marker analysis. Four of the recombinants carrying Sr39 with a minimal amount of goatgrass chromatin (2.87–9.15% of the translocated chromosomes) were verified using genomic in situ hybridization. Approximately 97% of the goatgrass chromatin was eliminated in one of the recombinants, in which a tiny goatgrass chromosome segment containing Sr39 was retained in the wheat genome. Localization of the goatgrass chromatin in the recombinants led to rapid development of three molecular markers tightly linked to Sr39. The new wheat lines and markers provide useful resources for the ongoing global effort to combat Ug99. This study has demonstrated great potential of chromosome engineering in genome manipulation for plant improvement. PMID:21242535

  9. Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling dictates the chromosomal arrangement of bacterial genes.

    PubMed

    Sobetzko, Patrick

    2016-02-29

    Over the recent decade, the central importance of DNA supercoiling in chromosome organization and global gene regulation of bacteria became more and more visible. With a regulon comprising more than 2000 genes in Escherichia coli, DNA supercoiling is among the most influential regulators of gene expression found in bacteria so far. However, the mechanism creating thousands of diverse temporal gene expression patterns coordinated by DNA supercoiling remains unclear. In this study we show that a specific chromosomal arrangement of genes modulates the local levels of DNA supercoiling at gene promoters via transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS) in the model organism E. coli. Our findings provide a consistent explanation for the strong positive coupling of temporal gene expression patterns of neighboring genes. Using comparative genomics we are furthermore able to provide evidence that TCDS is a driving force for the evolution of chromosomal gene arrangement patterns in other Enterobacteriaceae. With the currently available data of promoter supercoiling sensitivity we prove that the same principle is applicable also for the evolutionary distant gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, our findings are fully consistent with recent investigations concerning the regulatory impact of TCDS on gene pairs in eukaryots underpinning the broad applicability of our analysis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling dictates the chromosomal arrangement of bacterial genes

    PubMed Central

    Sobetzko, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent decade, the central importance of DNA supercoiling in chromosome organization and global gene regulation of bacteria became more and more visible. With a regulon comprising more than 2000 genes in Escherichia coli, DNA supercoiling is among the most influential regulators of gene expression found in bacteria so far. However, the mechanism creating thousands of diverse temporal gene expression patterns coordinated by DNA supercoiling remains unclear. In this study we show that a specific chromosomal arrangement of genes modulates the local levels of DNA supercoiling at gene promoters via transcription-coupled DNA supercoiling (TCDS) in the model organism E. coli. Our findings provide a consistent explanation for the strong positive coupling of temporal gene expression patterns of neighboring genes. Using comparative genomics we are furthermore able to provide evidence that TCDS is a driving force for the evolution of chromosomal gene arrangement patterns in other Enterobacteriaceae. With the currently available data of promoter supercoiling sensitivity we prove that the same principle is applicable also for the evolutionary distant gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, our findings are fully consistent with recent investigations concerning the regulatory impact of TCDS on gene pairs in eukaryots underpinning the broad applicability of our analysis. PMID:26783203

  11. Chromosomal organization of the human major histocompatibility complex class I gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, B.H.; Geraghty, D.E.; DeMars, R.; Duvick, L.; Rich, S.S.; Orr, H.T.

    1989-02-01

    17 HLA class I genes have been isolated from the genome of B-lymphoblastoid cell line 721. Sequence analysis and transfection studies indicate that three genes, in addition to those encoding the HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens can direct the synthesis of a class I alpha protein (4, 5, 21). Using gene-specific DNA probes to analyze the presence of restriction fragment-length polymorphisms within a large pedigree and in panel of HLA deletion mutant cell lines, we show here that two of these genes, designated HLA-G and HLA-F, are located on the short arm of chromosome 6 telomeric to the HLA-A locus. The third expressed non-A, -B, and -C class I gene, HLA-E, is located between HLA-A and HLA-C (4). In addition, the remaining 11 class I pseudogenes and gene fragments are localized relative to established markers on chromosome 6p.

  12. Chromosome-Biased Binding and Gene Regulation by the Caenorhabditis elegans DRM Complex

    PubMed Central

    Osato, Naoki; Zhu, Lihua J.; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Harrison, Melissa M.; Horvitz, H. Robert; Walhout, Albertha J. M.; Hagstrom, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    DRM is a conserved transcription factor complex that includes E2F/DP and pRB family proteins and plays important roles in development and cancer. Here we describe new aspects of DRM binding and function revealed through genome-wide analyses of the Caenorhabditis elegans DRM subunit LIN-54. We show that LIN-54 DNA-binding activity recruits DRM to promoters enriched for adjacent putative E2F/DP and LIN-54 binding sites, suggesting that these two DNA–binding moieties together direct DRM to its target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression profiling reveals conserved roles for DRM in regulating genes involved in cell division, development, and reproduction. We find that LIN-54 promotes expression of reproduction genes in the germline, but prevents ectopic activation of germline-specific genes in embryonic soma. Strikingly, C. elegans DRM does not act uniformly throughout the genome: the DRM recruitment motif, DRM binding, and DRM-regulated embryonic genes are all under-represented on the X chromosome. However, germline genes down-regulated in lin-54 mutants are over-represented on the X chromosome. We discuss models for how loss of autosome-bound DRM may enhance germline X chromosome silencing. We propose that autosome-enriched binding of DRM arose in C. elegans as a consequence of germline X chromosome silencing and the evolutionary redistribution of germline-expressed and essential target genes to autosomes. Sex chromosome gene regulation may thus have profound evolutionary effects on genome organization and transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:21589891

  13. Integration of biological data by kernels on graph nodes allows prediction of new genes involved in mitotic chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Hériché, Jean-Karim; Lees, Jon G.; Morilla, Ian; Walter, Thomas; Petrova, Boryana; Roberti, M. Julia; Hossain, M. Julius; Adler, Priit; Fernández, José M.; Krallinger, Martin; Haering, Christian H.; Vilo, Jaak; Valencia, Alfonso; Ranea, Juan A.; Orengo, Christine; Ellenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi)–based screens puts us in the position to identify genes for all functions human cells carry out. However, for many functions, assay complexity and cost make genome-scale knockdown experiments impossible. Methods to predict genes required for cell functions are therefore needed to focus RNAi screens from the whole genome on the most likely candidates. Although different bioinformatics tools for gene function prediction exist, they lack experimental validation and are therefore rarely used by experimentalists. To address this, we developed an effective computational gene selection strategy that represents public data about genes as graphs and then analyzes these graphs using kernels on graph nodes to predict functional relationships. To demonstrate its performance, we predicted human genes required for a poorly understood cellular function—mitotic chromosome condensation—and experimentally validated the top 100 candidates with a focused RNAi screen by automated microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the images demonstrated that the candidates were indeed strongly enriched in condensation genes, including the discovery of several new factors. By combining bioinformatics prediction with experimental validation, our study shows that kernels on graph nodes are powerful tools to integrate public biological data and predict genes involved in cellular functions of interest. PMID:24943848

  14. Unlocking Holocentric Chromosomes: New Perspectives from Comparative and Functional Genomics?

    PubMed Central

    Mandrioli, Mauro; Manicardi, Gian Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The presence of chromosomes with diffuse centromeres (holocentric chromosomes) has been reported in several taxa since more than fifty years, but a full understanding of their origin is still lacking. Comparative and functional genomics are nowadays furnishing new data to better understand holocentric chromosome evolution thus opening new perspectives to analyse karyotype rearrangements in species with holocentric chromosomes in particular evidencing unusual common features, such as the uniform GC content and gene distribution along chromosomes. PMID:23372420

  15. Lack of association between schizophrenia and the CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pirmohamed, M.; Wild, M.J.; Kitteringham, N.R.

    1996-04-09

    Approximately 5-10% of the Caucasian population lack the P450 isoform, CYP2D6. This polymorphism may be of importance in determining individual susceptibility to Parkinson`s disease. In this journal, Daniels et al. recently reported a negative association between the CYP2D6 gene locus and schizophrenia, a disease characterized by dopamine overactivity. It is important to exclude such an association because CYP2D6 is expressed in the brain and it is involved in dopamine catabolism. Between 1992 and 1993, we also performed a study similar to that, and reached the same conclusion. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Lack of Arg972 polymorphism in the IRS1 gene in Parakanã Brazilian Indians.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Chadid, Thiago T; Altemani, Claúdia M; Sales, Teresa S I; Menezes, Raimundo; Soares, Manoel C P; Saad, Sara T O; Saad, Mario J A

    2004-02-01

    Several polymorphisms in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) gene have been reported in the last years. The most common IRS1 variant, a Gly --> Arg substitution at codon 972 (Arg972 IRS1), is more prevalent among subjects who have features of insulin resistance syndrome associated, or not, with type 2 diabetes in European populations. To determine whether the absence of IRS1 polymorphism is a more general characteristic of Paleo-Indian-derived populations, we examined the Arg972 IRS1 polymorphism in Parakanã Indians and found a lack of this polymorphism in the Parakanã population.

  17. Sequencing of rhesus macaque Y chromosome clarifies origins and evolution of the DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) genes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jennifer F.; Skaletsky, Helen; Page, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Y chromosome evolution often emphasize gene loss, but this loss has been counterbalanced by addition of new genes. The DAZ genes, which are critical to human spermatogenesis, were acquired by the Y chromosome in the ancestor of Old World monkeys and apes. We and our colleagues recently sequenced the rhesus macaque Y chromosome, and comparison of this sequence to human and chimpanzee enables us to reconstruct much of the evolutionary history of DAZ. We report that DAZ arrived on the Y chromosome about 36 million years ago via the transposition of at least 1.1 megabases of autosomal DNA. This transposition also brought five additional genes to the Y chromosome, but all five genes were subsequently lost through mutation or deletion. As the only surviving gene, DAZ experienced extensive restructuring, including intragenic amplification and gene duplication, and has been the target of positive selection in the chimpanzee lineage. PMID:23055411

  18. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  19. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  20. Specific gene expression profiles and chromosomal abnormalities are associated with infant disseminated neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma (NB) tumours have the highest incidence of spontaneous remission, especially among the stage 4s NB subgroup affecting infants. Clinical distinction of stage 4s from lethal stage 4 can be difficult, but critical for therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate chromosomal alterations and differential gene expression amongst infant disseminated NB subgroups. Methods Thirty-five NB tumours from patients diagnosed at < 18 months (25 stage 4 and 10 stage 4s), were evaluated by allelic and gene expression analyses. Results All stage 4s patients underwent spontaneous remission, only 48% stage 4 patients survived despite combined modality therapy. Stage 4 tumours were 90% near-diploid/tetraploid, 44% MYCN amplified, 77% had 1p LOH (50% 1p36), 23% 11q and/or 14q LOH (27%) and 47% had 17q gain. Stage 4s were 90% near-triploid, none MYCN amplified and LOH was restricted to 11q. Initial comparison analyses between stage 4s and 4 < 12 months tumours revealed distinct gene expression profiles. A significant portion of genes mapped to chromosome 1 (P < 0.0001), 90% with higher expression in stage 4s, and chromosome 11 (P = 0.0054), 91% with higher expression in stage 4. Less definite expression profiles were observed between stage 4s and 4 < 18m, yet, association with chromosomes 1 (P < 0.0001) and 11 (P = 0.005) was maintained. Distinct gene expression profiles but no significant association with specific chromosomal region localization was observed between stage 4s and stage 4 < 18 months without MYCN amplification. Conclusion Specific chromosomal aberrations are associated with distinct gene expression profiles which characterize spontaneously regressing or aggressive infant NB, providing the biological basis for the distinct clinical behaviour. PMID:19192278

  1. X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, C; Feghali-Bostwick, C A; Lleo, A; Lombardi, S A; De Santis, M; Cavaciocchi, F; Zammataro, L; Mitchell, M M; LaSalle, J M; Medsger Jr, T; Gershwin, M E

    2012-01-01

    Scleroderma (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis, microvasculopathy and autoimmune features. The role of genetics is limited in SSc, as suggested by similar concordance rates in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, while environmental factors may act through epigenetic changes, as demonstrated for specific genes. Further, sex chromosome changes have been reported in SSc and may explain the female preponderance. In the present study we compared the methylation profile of all X chromosome genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monozygotic twins discordant (n = 7) and concordant (n = 1) for SSc. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitations from each discordant twin pair were hybridized to a custom-designed array included 998 sites encompassing promoters of all X chromosome genes and randomly chosen autosomal genes. Biostatistical tools identified sites with an elevated probability to be consistently hypermethylated (n = 18) or hypomethylated (n = 25) in affected twins. Identified genes include transcription factors (ARX, HSFX1, ZBED1, ZNF41) and surface antigens (IL1RAPL2, PGRMC1), and pathway analysis suggests their involvement in cell proliferation (PGK1, SMS, UTP14A, SSR4), apoptosis (MTM1), inflammation (ARAF) and oxidative stress (ENOX2). In conclusion, we propose that X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility. PMID:22861365

  2. An MLL/COMPASS subunit functions in the C. elegans dosage compensation complex to target X chromosomes for transcriptional regulation of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Pferdehirt, Rebecca R.; Kruesi, William S.; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Here we analyze the essential process of X-chromosome dosage compensation (DC) to elucidate mechanisms that control the assembly, genome-wide binding, and function of gene regulatory complexes that act over large chromosomal territories. We demonstrate that a subunit of Caenorhabditis elegans MLL/COMPASS, a gene activation complex, acts within the DC complex (DCC), a condensin complex, to target the DCC to both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites for chromosome-wide reduction of gene expression. The DCC binds to two categories of sites on X: rex (recruitment element on X) sites that recruit the DCC in an autonomous, sequence-dependent manner, and dox (dependent on X) sites that reside primarily in promoters of expressed genes and bind the DCC robustly only when attached to X. We find that DC mutations that abolish rex site binding greatly reduce dox site binding but do not eliminate it. Instead, binding is diminished to the low level observed at autosomal sites in wild-type animals. Changes in DCC binding to these non-rex sites occur throughout development and correlate directly with transcriptional activity of adjacent genes. Moreover, autosomal DCC binding is enhanced by rex site binding in cis in X-autosome fusion chromosomes. Thus, dox and autosomal sites have similar binding potential but are distinguished by linkage to rex sites. We propose a model for DCC binding in which low-level DCC binding at dox sites is dictated by intrinsic properties correlated with high transcriptional activity. Sex-specific DCC recruitment to rex sites then enhances the magnitude of DCC binding to dox sites in cis, which lack high affinity for the DCC on their own. We also show that the DCC balances X-chromosome gene expression between sexes by controlling transcription. PMID:21363964

  3. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Simpson, E M

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei)F1 x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-müllerian hormone) locus; in human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipocortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previously mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting.

  4. X-chromosome epigenetic reprogramming in pluripotent stem cells via noncoding genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel H.; Jeon, Yesu; Anguera, Montserrat C.; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition of the pluripotent state coincides with epigenetic reprogramming of the X-chromosome. Female embryonic stem cells are characterized by the presence of two active X-chromosomes, cell differentiation by inactivation of one of the two Xs, and induced pluripotent stem cells by reactivation of the inactivated X-chromosome in the originating somatic cell. The tight linkage between X- and stem cell reprogramming occurs through pluripotency factors acting on noncoding genes of the X-inactivation center. This review article will discuss the latest advances in our understanding at the molecular level. Mouse embryonic stem cells provide a standard for defining the pluripotent ground state, which is characterized by low levels of the noncoding Xist RNA and the absence of heterochromatin marks on the X-chromosome. Human pluripotent stem cells, however, exhibit X-chromosome epigenetic instability that may have implications for their use in regenerative medicine. XIST RNA and heterochromatin marks on the X-chromosome indicate whether human pluripotent stem cells are developmentally ‘naïve’, with characteristics of the pluripotent ground state. X-chromosome status and determination thereof via noncoding RNA expression thus provide valuable benchmarks of the epigenetic quality of pluripotent stem cells, an important consideration given their enormous potential for stem cell therapy. PMID:21376830

  5. No excess gene movement is detected off the avian or lepidopteran Z chromosome.

    PubMed

    Toups, Melissa A; Pease, James B; Hahn, Matthew W

    2011-01-01

    Most of our knowledge of sex-chromosome evolution comes from male heterogametic (XX/XY) taxa. With the genome sequencing of multiple female heterogametic (ZZ/ZW) taxa, we can now ask whether there are patterns of evolution common to both sex chromosome systems. In all XX/XY systems examined to date, there is an excess of testis-biased retrogenes moving from the X chromosome to the autosomes, which is hypothesized to result from either sexually antagonistic selection or escape from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). We examined RNA-mediated (retrotransposed) and DNA-mediated gene movement in two independently evolved ZZ/ZW systems, birds (chicken and zebra finch) and lepidopterans (silkworm). Even with sexually antagonistic selection likely operating in both taxa and MSCI having been identified in the chicken, we find no evidence for an excess of genes moving from the Z chromosome to the autosomes in either lineage. We detected no excess for either RNA- or DNA-mediated duplicates, across a range of approaches and methods. We offer some potential explanations for this difference between XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex chromosome systems, but further work is needed to distinguish among these hypotheses. Regardless of the root causes, we have identified an additional, potentially inherent, difference between XX/XY and ZZ/ZW systems.

  6. Isoform-Level Gene Expression Profiles of Human Y Chromosome Azoospermia Factor Genes and Their X Chromosome Paralogs in the Testicular Tissue of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Rastegar, Diba; Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Alikhani, Mehdi; Parsamatin, Pouria; Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Mohammad Ahadi, Ali; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita; Piryaei, Abbas; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-09-04

    The human Y chromosome has an inevitable role in male fertility because it contains many genes critical for spermatogenesis and the development of the male gonads. Any genetic variation or epigenetic modification affecting the expression pattern of Y chromosome genes may thus lead to male infertility. In this study, we performed isoform-level gene expression profiling of Y chromosome genes within the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions, their X chromosome counterparts, and few autosomal paralogues in testicular biopsies of 12 men with preserved spermatogenesis and 68 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) (40 Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and 28 premiotic maturation arrest (MA)). This was undertaken using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at the transcript level and Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) at the protein level. We profiled the expression of 41 alternative transcripts encoded by 14 AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc region genes (USP9Y, DDX3Y, XKRY, HSFY1, CYORF15A, CYORF15B, KDM5D, EIF1AY, RPS4Y2, RBMY1A1, PRY, BPY2, DAZ1, and CDY1) as well as their X chromosome homologue transcripts and a few autosomal homologues. Of the 41 transcripts, 18 were significantly down-regulated in men with NOA when compared with those of men with complete spermatogenesis. In contrast, the expression of five transcripts increased significantly in NOA patients. Furthermore, to confirm the qPCR results at the protein level, we performed immunoblotting and IHC experiments (based on 24 commercial and homemade antibodies) that detected 10 AZF-encoded proteins. In addition, their localization in testis cell types and organelles was determined. Interestingly, the two missing proteins, XKRY and CYORF15A, were detected for the first time. Finally, we focused on the expression patterns of the significantly altered genes in 12 MA patients with successful sperm retrieval compared to those of 12 MA patients with failed sperm retrieval to predict the success of sperm retrieval in

  7. Condensin I associates with structural and gene regulatory regions in vertebrate chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hun; Zhang, Tao; Wong, Nicholas C; Davidson, Nadia; Maksimovic, Jovana; Oshlack, Alicia; Earnshaw, William C; Kalitsis, Paul; Hudson, Damien F

    2014-01-01

    The condensin complex is essential for correct packaging and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis in all eukaryotes. To date, the genome wide location and the nature of condensin binding sites has remained elusive in vertebrates. Here we report the genome wide map of condensin I in chicken DT40 cells. Unexpectedly, we find condensin I binds predominately to promoter sequences in mitotic cells. We also find a striking enrichment at both centromeres and telomeres, highlighting the importance of the complex in chromosome segregation. Taken together, the results show condensin I is largely absent from heterochromatic regions. This map of the condensin I binding sites on the chicken genome reveals that patterns of condensin distribution on chromosomes are conserved from prokaryotes, through yeasts to vertebrates. Thus in three kingdoms of life, condensin is enriched on promoters of actively transcribed genes and at loci important for chromosome segregation. PMID:24088984

  8. Construction of a 2.8-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig and cloning of the human methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene from the tumor suppressor region on 9p21

    SciTech Connect

    Olopade, O.I.; Pomykala, H.M.; Hagos, F.

    1995-07-03

    Many human malignant cells lack methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) enzyme activity. The gene (MTAP) encoding this enzyme was previously mapped to the short arm of chromosome 9, band p21-22, a region that is frequently deleted in multiple tumor types. To clone candidate tumor suppressor genes from the deleted region on 9p21-22, we have constructed a long-range physical map of 2.8 megabases for 9p21 by using overlapping yeast artificial chromosome and cosmid clones. This map includes the type I IFN gene cluster, the recently identified candidate tumor suppressor genes CDKN2 (p16{sup INK4A}) and CDKN2B (p15{sup INK4B}), and several CpG islands. In addition, we have identified other transcription units within the yeast artificial chromosome contig. Sequence analysis of a 2.5-kb cDNA clone isolated from a CpG island that maps between the IFN genes and CDKN2 reveals a predicted open reading frame of 283 amino acids followed by 1302 nucleotides of 3{prime} untranslated sequence. This gene is evolutionarily conserved and shows significant amino acid homologies to mouse and human purine nucleoside phosphorylases and to a hypothetical 25.8-kDa protein in the pet gene (coding for cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex) region of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The location, expression pattern, and nucleotide sequences of this gene suggest that it codes for the MTAP enzyme. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ancestral Y-linked genes were maintained by translocation to the X and Y chromosomes fused to an autosomal pair in the Okinawa spiny rat Tokudaia muenninki.

    PubMed

    Murata, Chie; Kuroki, Yoko; Imoto, Issei; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2016-09-01

    Two species of the genus Tokudaia lack the Y chromosome and SRY, but several Y-linked genes have been rescued by translocation or transposition to other chromosomes. Tokudaia muenninki is the only species in the genus that maintains the Y owing to sex chromosome-autosome fusions. According to previous studies, many SRY pseudocopies and other Y-linked genes have evolved by excess duplication in this species. Using RNA-seq and RT-PCR, we found that ZFY, EIF2S3Y, TSPY, UTY, DDX3Y, USP9Y, and RBMY, but not UBA1Y, had high deduced amino acid sequence similarity and similar expression patterns with other rodents, suggesting that these genes were functional. Based on FISH and quantitative real-time PCR, all of the genes except for UTY and DDX3Y were amplified on the X and Y chromosomes with approximately 10-66 copies in the male genome. In a comparative analysis of the 372.4-kb BAC sequence and Y-linked gene transcripts from T. muenninki with the mouse Y genomic sequence, we observed that multiple-copy genes in the ancestral Y genome were nonfunctional, indicating that the gene functions were assumed by amplified copies. We also found a LTR sequence at the distal end of a SRY duplication unit, suggesting that unequal sister chromatid exchange mediated by retrotransposable elements could have been involved in SRY amplification. Our results revealed that the Y-linked genes were rescued from degeneration via translocations to other sex chromosomal regions and amplification events in T. muenninki.

  10. Dopamine pathway imbalance in mice lacking Magel2, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Luck, Chloe; Vitaterna, Martha H; Wevrick, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The etiology of abnormal eating behaviors, including binge-eating disorder, is poorly understood. The neural circuits modulating the activities of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are proposed to be dysfunctional in individuals suffering from eating disorders. Prader-Willi syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes extreme food seeking and binge-eating behaviors together with reduced satiety. One of the genes implicated in Prader-Willi syndrome, Magel2, is highly expressed in the regions of the brain that control appetite. Our objective was to examine behaviors relevant to feeding and the neural circuits controlling feeding in a mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome that lacks expression of the Magel2 gene. We performed behavioral tests related to dopaminergic function, measuring cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion, binge eating, and saccharin-induced anhedonia in Magel2-deficient mice. Next, we analyzed dopaminergic neurons in various brain regions and compared these findings between genotypes. Finally, we examined biochemical markers in the brain under standard diet, high-fat diet, and withdrawal from a high-fat diet conditions. We identified abnormal behaviors and biomarkers reflecting dopaminergic dysfunction in mice lacking Magel2. Our results provide a biological framework for clinical studies of dopaminergic function in children with Prader-Willi syndrome, and may also provide insight into binge-eating disorders that occur in the general population. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Evolution of Chromosomal Clostridium botulinum Type E Neurotoxin Gene Clusters: Evidence Provided by Their Rare Plasmid-Borne Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Peck, Michael W

    2016-03-02

    Analysis of more than 150 Clostridium botulinum Group II type E genomes identified a small fraction (6%) where neurotoxin-encoding genes were located on plasmids. Seven closely related (134-144 kb) neurotoxigenic plasmids of subtypes E1, E3, and E10 were characterized; all carried genes associated with plasmid mobility via conjugation. Each plasmid contained the same 24-kb neurotoxin cluster cassette (six neurotoxin cluster and six flanking genes) that had split a helicase gene, rather than the more common chromosomal rarA. The neurotoxin cluster cassettes had evolved as separate genetic units which had either exited their chromosomal rarA locus in a series of parallel events, inserting into the plasmid-borne helicase gene, or vice versa. A single intact version of the helicase gene was discovered on a nonneurotoxigenic form of this plasmid. The observed low frequency for the plasmid location may reflect one or more of the following: 1) Less efficient recombination mechanism for the helicase gene target, 2) lack of suitable target plasmids, and 3) loss of neurotoxigenic plasmids. Type E1 and E10 plasmids possessed a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus with spacers that recognized C. botulinum Group II plasmids, but not C. botulinum Group I plasmids, demonstrating their long-term separation. Clostridium botulinum Group II type E strains also carry nonneurotoxigenic plasmids closely related to C. botulinum Group II types B and F plasmids. Here, the absence of neurotoxin cassettes may be because recombination requires both a specific mechanism and specific target sequence, which are rarely found together.

  12. Three genes expressing Kunitz domains in the epididymis are related to genes of WFDC-type protease inhibitors and semen coagulum proteins in spite of lacking similarity between their protein products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously identified a locus on human chromosome 20q13.1, encompassing related genes of postulated WFDC-type protease inhibitors and semen coagulum proteins. Three of the genes with WFDC motif also coded for the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor motif. In this report, we have reinvestigated the locus for homologous genes encoding Kunitz motif only. The identified genes have been analyzed with respect to structure, expression and function. Results We identified three novel genes; SPINT3, SPINT4 and SPINT5, and the structure of their transcripts were determined by sequencing of DNA generated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Each gene encodes a Kunitz domain preceded by a typical signal peptide sequence, which indicates that the proteins of 7.6, 8.7, and 9.7 kDa are secreted. Analysis of transcripts in 26 tissues showed that the genes predominantly are expressed in the epididymis. The recombinantly produced proteins could not inhibit the amidolytic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin, thrombin, coagulation factor Xa, elastase, urokinase and prostate specific antigen, whereas similarly made bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) had the same bioactivity as the protein isolated from bovine pancreas. Conclusions The similar organization, chromosomal location and site of expression, suggests that the novel genes are homologous with the genes of WFDC-type protease inhibitors and semen coagulum proteins, despite the lack of similarity in primary structure of their protein products. Their restricted expression to the epididymis suggests that they could be important for male reproduction. The recombinantly produced proteins are presumably bioactive, as demonstrated with similarly made BPTI, but may have a narrower spectrum of inhibition, as indicated by the lacking activity against eight proteases with differing specificity. Another possibility is that they have lost the protease inhibiting properties, which is typical of Kunitz domains, in

  13. Chromosomal protein HMG-14 gene maps to the Down syndrome region of human chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in mouse trisomy 16

    SciTech Connect

    Pash, J.; Popescu, N.; Matocha, M.; Rapoport, S.; Bustin, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The gene for human high-mobility-group (HMG) chromosomal protein HMG-14 is located in region 21q22.3, a region associated with the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, one of the most prevalent human birth defects. The expression of this gene is analyzed in mouse embryos that are trisomic in chromosome 16 and are considered to be an animal model for Down syndrome. RNA blot-hybridization analysis and detailed analysis of HMG-14 protein levels indicate that mouse trisomy 16 embryos have approximately 1.5 times more HMG-14 mRNA and protein than their normal littermates, suggesting a direct gene dosage effect. The HMG-14 gene may be an additional marker for the Down syndrome. Chromosomal protein HMG-14 is a nucleosomal binding protein that may confer distinct properties to the chromatin structure of transcriptionally active genes and therefore may be a contributing factor in the etiology of the syndrome.

  14. Formation of plant metabolic gene clusters within dynamic chromosomal regions

    PubMed Central

    Field, Ben; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Kemen, Ariane; Geisler, Katrin; Quesneville, Hadi; Osbourn, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    In bacteria, genes with related functions often are grouped together in operons and are cotranscribed as a single polycistronic mRNA. In eukaryotes, functionally related genes generally are scattered across the genome. Notable exceptions include gene clusters for catabolic pathways in yeast, synthesis of secondary metabolites in filamentous fungi, and the major histocompatibility complex in animals. Until quite recently it was thought that gene clusters in plants were restricted to tandem duplicates (for example, arrays of leucine-rich repeat disease-resistance genes). However, operon-like clusters of coregulated nonhomologous genes are an emerging theme in plant biology, where they may be involved in the synthesis of certain defense compounds. These clusters are unlikely to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer, and the mechanisms behind their formation are poorly understood. Previously in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) we identified an operon-like gene cluster that is required for the synthesis and modification of the triterpene thalianol. Here we characterize a second operon-like triterpene cluster (the marneral cluster) from A. thaliana, compare the features of these two clusters, and investigate the evolutionary events that have led to cluster formation. We conclude that common mechanisms are likely to underlie the assembly and control of operon-like gene clusters in plants. PMID:21876149

  15. Characterization and chromosomal localization of ELANH2, the gene encoding human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Evans, E; Cooley, J; Remold-O'Donnell, E

    1995-07-20

    Human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (HEI) is a protease inhibitor of the serpin superfamily that rapidly inactivates neutrophil elastase, proteinase-3, and possibly cathepsin-G in vitro and, by regulating these potent proteases, is thought to prevent tissue damage at inflammatory sites. The HEI gene (ELANH2) was characterized by amplifying intron regions using cDNA-specific primers. Intron positions of ELANH2 were found to be homologous to intron positions in the genes for the serpin molecules chicken ovalbumin and human plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PLANH2). Because serpin superfamily genes in general have widely different organizational patterns, the shared organization of these genes strengthens the evidence that they form a subgroup or family, the "ovalbumin-related serpin" ("Ov-serpin") family. By amplifying DNA of a somatic cell hybrid panel, ELANH2 was unambiguously localized to chromosome 6. The use of a panel of radiation and somatic cell hybrids specific for chromosome 6 refined the localization of ELANH2 to the short arm telomeric of D6S89, F13A, and D6S202 at 6p24-pter. Another Ov-serpin gene PI6 (placental thrombin inhibitor) was colocalized to the same region, thus defining an Ov-serpin locus on chromosome 6 in addition to the previously defined PLANH2-containing Ov-serpin locus on chromosome 18.

  16. Localization of genes encoding three distinct flavin-containing monooxygenases to human chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.A.; Fox, M.F.; Povey, S. ); Dolphin, C.T.; Phillips, I.R.; Smith, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction to map the gene encoding human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) form II (N. Lomri, Q. Gu, and J. R. Cashman, 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1685--1689) to chromosome 1. They propose the designation FMO3 for this gene as it is the third FMO gene to be mapped. The two other human FMO genes identified to date, FMO1 and FMO2, are also located on chromosome 1 (C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. Povey, C. N. A. Palmer, D. M. Ziegler, R. Ayesh, R. L. Smith, and 1. R. Phillips, 1991, J. Biol. Chem. 266: 12379--12385; C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. F. Povey, R. L. Smith, and I. R. Phillips, 1992, Biochem. J. 286: 261--267). The localization of FMO1, FMO2, and FMO3 has been refined to the long arm of chromosome 1. Analysis of human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization confirmed the mapping of FMO1 and localized this gene more precisely to 1 q23-q25. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Functional evidence for a second tumor suppressor gene on human chromosome 17.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P; Ellmore, N; Weissman, B E

    1994-01-01

    The development and progression of human tumors often involves inactivation of tumor suppressor gene function. Observations that specific chromosome deletions correlate with distinct groups of cancer suggest that some types of tumors may share common defective tumor suppressor genes. In support of this notion, our initial studies showed that four human carcinoma cell lines belong to the same complementation group for tumorigenic potential. In this investigation, we have extended these studies to six human soft tissue sarcoma cell lines. Our data showed that hybrid cells between a peripheral neuroepithelioma (PNET) cell line and normal human fibroblasts or HeLa cells were nontumorigenic. However, hybrid cells between the PNET cell line and five other soft tissue sarcoma cell lines remained highly tumorigenic, suggesting at least one common genetic defect in the control of tumorigenic potential in these cells. To determine the location of this common tumor suppressor gene, we examined biochemical and molecular polymorphic markers in matched pairs of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic hybrid cells between the PNET cell line and a normal human fibroblast. The data showed that loss of the fibroblast-derived chromosome 17 correlated with the conversion from nontumorigenic to tumorigenic cells. Transfer of two different chromosome 17s containing a mutant form of the p53 gene into the PNET cell line caused suppression of tumorigenic potential, implying the presence of a second tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 17. Images PMID:8264622

  18. A "housekeeping" gene on the X chromosome encodes a protein similar to ubiquitin.

    PubMed Central

    Toniolo, D; Persico, M; Alcalay, M

    1988-01-01

    An X chromosome gene located 40 kilobases downstream from the G6PD gene, at Xq28, was isolated and sequenced. This gene, which we named GdX, spans about 3.5 kilobases of genomic DNA. GdX is a single-copy gene, is conserved in evolution, and has the features of a "housekeeping" gene. At its 5' end, a cluster of CpG dinucleotides is methylated on the inactive X chromosome and unmethylated on the active X chromosome. The GdX gene can code for a 157 amino acid protein, GdX. Residues 1-74 of GdX show 43% identity to ubiquitin, a highly conserved 76 amino acid protein. The COOH-terminal moiety of GdX is characterized in its central part (residues 110-128) by a sequence homologous to the COOH-terminal hormonogenic site of thyroglobulin. The structural organization of the GdX protein suggests the existence of a family of genes, in addition to the ubiquitin gene, that could play specific roles in key cellular processes, possibly through protein-protein recognition. Images PMID:2829204

  19. Comparison of Chromosome 4 gene expression profile between lung telocytes and other local cell types.

    PubMed

    Song, Dongli; Cretoiu, Dragos; Zheng, Minghuan; Qian, Mengjia; Zhang, Miaomiao; Cretoiu, Sanda M; Chen, Luonan; Fang, Hao; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are new cellular entities of mesenchymal origin described almost ubiquitously in human and mammalian organs (www.telocytes.com). Different subtypes of TCs were described, all forming networks in the interstitial space by homo- and heterocellular junctions. Previous studies analysed the gene expression profiles of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 17 and 18 of murine pulmonary TCs. In this study, we analysed by bioinformatics tools the gene expression profiles of chromosome 4 for murine pulmonary TCs and compared it with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblasts (Fbs), alveolar type II cells (ATII), airway basal cells, proximal airway cells, CD8(+) T cells from bronchial lymph nodes (T-BL) and CD8(+) T cells from lungs (T-L). Key functional genes were identified with the aid of the reference library of the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database. Seventeen genes were up-regulated and 56 genes were down-regulated in chromosome 4 of TCs compared with other cells. Four genes (Akap2, Gpr153, Sdc3 and Tbc1d2) were up-regulated between one and fourfold and one gene, Svep1, was overexpressed over fourfold. The main functional networks were identified and analysed, pointing out to a TCs involvement in cellular signalling, regulation of tissue inflammation and cell expansion and movement.

  20. Common subtypes of idiopathic generalized epilepsies: Lack of linkage to D20S19 close to candidate loci (EBN1, EEGV1) on chromosome 20

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, T.; Schmitz, B.; Janz, D.

    1996-02-16

    Hereditary factors play a major role in the etiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). A trait locus (EBN1) for a rare subtype of IGEs, the benign neonatal familial convulsions, and a susceptibility gene (EEGV1) for the common human low-voltage electroencephalogram have been mapped close together with D20S19 to the chromosomal region 20q13.2. Both loci are potential candidates for the susceptibility to IGE spectra with age-related onset beyond the neonatal period. The present study tested the hypothesis that a putative susceptibility locus linked to D20S19 predisposes to spectra of IGEs with age-related onset from childhood to adolescence. Linkage analyses were conducted in 60 families ascertained through IGE patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy or childhood absence epilepsy. Our results provide evidence against linkage of a putative susceptibility gene for four hierarchically broadened IGE spectra with D20S19 assuming tentative single-locus genetic models. The extent of an {open_quotes}exclusion region{close_quotes} (lod scores below -2) varied from 0.5 cM up to 22 cM on either side of D2OSl9 depending on the trait assumed. These results are contrary to the expectation that a susceptibility gene in vicinity to D20S19 confers a common major gene effect to the expression of IGE spectra with age-related onset from childhood to adolescence. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Chromosomal localization of putative tumor-suppressor genes in several human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Jun; Sugimura, Takashi; Terada, Masaaki )

    1991-06-01

    Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis was performed on several different types of human cancers, including carcinoma of the uterine cervix, neuroblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, stomach cancer, and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), to determine the chromosomal loci of putative tumor-suppressor genes in each type of tumor because loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is supposed to unmask the recessive mutation of tumor-suppressor gene in the remaining allele. Chromosomal loci showing frequent LOH differed among these tumors, suggesting that there are several tumor-suppressor genes in the human genome and that critical genes for the development of each type of tumor are different. In some cases LOH was observed in the early stage of tumor such as chromosome 3p loss in carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and in other cases it was observed only in the advanced stage of tumor such as chromosomes 4 and 16q loss in hepatocellular carcinoma. These results suggest that there are two different types of tumor-suppressor genes: one is the gene whose inactivation is responsible for malignant transformation of a normal cell and the other is the gene whose inactivation is responsible for the progression of a tumor cell. In SCLC, LOH at three different chromosomal loci, 3p, 13q, and 17p, was simultaneously observed in nearly 100% of tumors. It was observed even in stage I tumors and an untreated tumor, and it occurred prior to N-myc amplification. These results may imply that at least six genetic alterations are necessary to convert a normal cell into a fully malignant cancer cell in SCLC.

  2. Isolation and chromosomal localization of the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, L.J.; Michel, T.; Weremowicz, S.; Morton, C.C. )

    1994-01-15

    Endothelial NOS activity is a major determinant of vascular tone and blood pressure, and in several important (and sometimes hereditary) disease states, such as hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, the endothelial NO signaling system appears to be abnormal. To explore the relationship of the endothelial NOS activity, the authors isolated the human gene encoding the endothelial NOS. Genomic clones containing the 5[prime] end of this gene were identified in a human genomic library by applying a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach. Identification of the human gene for endothelial NOS (NOS3) was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the first coding exon, which was found to be identical to its cognate cDNA. The NOS3 gene spans at least 20 kb and appears to contain multiple introns. The transcription start site and promoter region of the NOS3 gene were identified by primer extension and ribonuclease protection assays. Sequencing of the putative promoter revealed consensus sequences for the shear stress-response element, as well as cytokine-responsive cis regulatory sequences, both possible important to the roles played by NOS3 in the normal and the diseased cardiovascular system. The authors also mapped the chromosomal location of the NOS3 gene. First, a chromosomal panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids was screened using PCR with oligonucleotide primers derived from the NOS3 genomic clone. The specificity of the amplified PCR product was confirmed by human and hamster genomic DNA controls, as well as by Southern blot analysis, using the NOS3 cDNA as probe. Definitive chromosomal assignment of the NOS3 gene to human chromosome 7 was based upon 0% discordancy; fluorescence in situ hybridization sublocalized the NOS3 gene to 7q36. The identification and characterization of the NOS3 gene may lead to further insights into heritable disease states associated with this gene product. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Karyotype analysis of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reveals a large X chromosome with rRNA and histone gene families.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Jana; Havelka, Jan; Starý, Petr; Koutecký, Petr; Vítková, Magda

    2011-03-01

    The Russsian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a worldwide pest of cereals. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its genome. Here we investigated physical genomic features in RWA by karyotype analysis using differential staining with AgNO(3), CMA(3), and DAPI, by chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H3 and H4 histone genes, and the "arthropod" telomeric sequence (TTAGG)(n) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and by measuring the RWA genome size using flow cytometry. The female karyotype, 2n = 10, is composed of four autosome pairs and a pair of X chromosomes, whereas the male karyotype, 2n = 9, has a single X. The X chromosome is the largest element in the karyotype. All three molecular markers used, i.e., 18S rRNA and both H3 and H4 probes are co-localized at one end of the X chromosome. The FISH probes revealed that the AgNO(3)-positive bridge between two prometaphase X chromosomes of females, which is believed to be responsible for the elimination of one X chromosome in aphid oocytes determined to undergo male development, contains clusters of both histone genes, in addition to an rDNA cluster. Interestingly, RWA lacks the (TTAGG)(n) telomeric sequence in its genome, in contrast to several previously investigated aphid species. Additionally, we compared female and male genome sizes. The female genome size is 2C = 0.86 pg, whereas the male genome size is 2C = 0.70 pg. The difference between the DNA content in the two genders suggests that the RWA X chromosome occupies about 35% of the female haploid genome (1C = 0.43 pg), which makes it one of the largest sex chromosomes in the animal kingdom.

  4. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline

    PubMed Central

    Landeen, Emily L.; Muirhead, Christina A.; Meiklejohn, Colin D.; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower—approximately 3-fold or more—for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution. PMID:27404402

  5. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline.

    PubMed

    Landeen, Emily L; Muirhead, Christina A; Wright, Lori; Meiklejohn, Colin D; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution.

  6. Sources of gene tree discordance on oryza (poaceae) chromosome 3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe new methods for characterizing gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets, which screen for deviations from neutral expectations, summarize variation in statistical support among gene trees, and allow comparison of the patterns of discordance induced by various analysis choices. Usin...

  7. A 76-kb duplicon maps close to the BCR gene on chromosome 22 and the ABL gene on chromosome 9: Possible involvement in the genesis of the Philadelphia chromosome translocation

    PubMed Central

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Storlazzi, Clelia T.; Giugliano, Emilia; Surace, Cecilia; Anelli, Luisa; Rege-Cambrin, Giovanna; Zagaria, Antonella; Velasco, Antonio Jimenez; Heiniger, Anabel; Scaravaglio, Patrizia; Gomez, Antonio Torres; Gomez, Josè Roman; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Banfi, Sandro; Rocchi, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    A patient with a typical form of chronic myeloid leukemia was found to carry a large deletion on the derivative chromosome 9q+ and an unusual BCR-ABL transcript characterized by the insertion, between BCR exon 14 and ABL exon 2, of 126 bp derived from a region located on chromosome 9, 1.4 Mb 5′ to ABL. This sequence was contained in the bacterial artificial chromosome RP11-65J3, which in fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on normal metaphases was found to detect, in addition to the predicted clear signal at 9q34, a faint but distinct signal at 22q11.2, where the BCR gene is located, suggesting the presence of a large region of homology between the two chromosomal regions. Indeed, blast analysis of the RP11-65J3 sequence against the entire human genome revealed the presence of a stretch of homology, about 76 kb long, located approximately 150 kb 3′ to the BCR gene, and containing the 126-bp insertion sequence. Evolutionary studies using fluorescence in situ hybridization identified the region as a duplicon, which transposed from the region orthologous to human 9q34 to chromosome 22 after the divergence of orangutan from the human-chimpanzee-gorilla common ancestor about 14 million years ago. Recent sequence analyses have disclosed an unpredicted extensive segmental duplication of our genome, and the impact of duplicons in triggering genomic disorders is becoming more and more apparent. The discovery of a large duplicon relatively close to the ABL and BCR genes and the finding that the 126-bp insertion is very close to the duplicon at 9q34 open the question of the possible involvement of the duplicon in the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome translocation. PMID:12114534

  8. The gene for human glutaredoxin (GLRX) is localized to human chromosome 5q14

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, C.A.; Holmgren, A.; Bajalica, S.; Lagercrantz, J.

    1996-03-05

    Glutaredoxin is a small protein (12 kDa) catalyzing glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreduction reactions in a coupled system with NADPH, GSH, and glutathione reductase. A cDNA encoding the human glutaredoxin gene (HGMW-approved symbol GLRX) has recently been isolated and cloned from a human fetal spleen cDNA library. The screening of a human fetal spleen cDNA library. The screening of a human genomic library in Charon 4A led to the identification of three genomic clones. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes with one genomic clone as a probe, the human glutaredoxin gene was localized to chromosomal region 5q14. This localization at chromosome 5 was in agreement with the somatic cell hybrid analysis, using DNA from a human-hamster and a human-mouse hybrid panel and using a human glutaredoxin cDNA as a probe. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Localization of the tight junction protein gene TJP1 to human chromosome 15q13, distal to the Prader-Willi/Angelman region, and to mouse chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, T.K.; Chen, X.N.; Korenberg, J.R.

    1995-12-10

    The gene encoding the tight junction (zonula occludens) protein, TJP1, was mapped to human chromosome 15q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a cDNA probe. The Jackson Laboratory backcross DNA panel derived from the cross (C57BL/6JEi X SPRET/Ei) F1 females X SPRET/Ei males was used to map the mouse Tjp1 to chromosome 7 near position 30 on the Chromosome Committee Map, a region with conserved homology to human chromosome 15q13. FISH studies on metaphases from patients with the Prader-Willi (PWS) or the Angelman syndrome (AS) showed that TJP1 maps close but distal to the PWS/AS chromosome region. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  10. The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, M.A.; Arriza, J.L.; Amara, S.G.

    1994-08-01

    The gene for human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT1) was localized to the distal region of human chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosome spreads. Interspecific backcross analysis identified the mouse Eaat1 locus in a region of 5p13 homology on mouse chromosome 15. Markers that are linked with EAAT1 on both human and mouse chromosomes include the receptors for leukemia inhibitory factor, interleukin-7, and prolactin. The Eaat1 locus appears not be linked to the epilepsy mutant stg locus, which is also on chromosome 15. The EAAT1 locus is located in a region of 5p deletions that have been associated with mental retardation and microcephaly. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) hypercellulolytic mutant RUT C30 lacks a 85 kb (29 gene-encoding) region of the wild-type genome

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Verena; Gamauf, Christian; Druzhinina, Irina S; Seiboth, Bernhard; Hartl, Lukas; Kubicek, Christian P

    2008-01-01

    Background The hypercellulolytic mutant Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) RUT C30 is the H. jecorina strain most frequently used for cellulase fermentations and has also often been employed for basic research on cellulase regulation. This strain has been reported to contain a truncated carbon catabolite repressor gene cre1 and is consequently carbon catabolite derepressed. To date this and an additional frame-shift mutation in the glycoprotein-processing β-glucosidase II encoding gene are the only known genetic differences in strain RUT C30. Results In the present paper we show that H. jecorina RUT C30 lacks an 85 kb genomic fragment, and consequently misses additional 29 genes comprising transcription factors, enzymes of the primary metabolism and transport proteins. This loss is already present in the ancestor of RUT C30 – NG 14 – and seems to have occurred in a palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR) typically inducing chromosomal translocations, and is not linked to the cre1 locus. The mutation of the cre1 locus has specifically occurred in RUT C30. Some of the genes that are lacking in RUT C30 could be correlated with pronounced alterations in its phenotype, such as poor growth on α-linked oligo- and polyglucosides (loss of maltose permease), or disturbance of osmotic homeostasis. Conclusion Our data place a general caveat on the use of H. jecorina RUT C30 for further basic research. PMID:18620557

  12. Assignment of the human diacylglycerol kinase 4 (DAGK4) gene to chromosome 4p16.3

    SciTech Connect

    Endele, S.; Zabel, B.; Winterpacht, A.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the localization of the human gene for diacylglycerol kinase 4 (DAGK4) to human chromosome 4p16.3 using an exon amplification scheme. It also discusses the possible implications of the chromosomal location of this gene in certain hereditary malignancies. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Spermatogenesis Drives Rapid Gene Creation and Masculinization of the X Chromosome in Stalk-Eyed Flies (Diopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Narechania, Apurva; DeSalle, Rob; Johns, Philip M.; Reinhardt, Josephine A.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout their evolutionary history, genomes acquire new genetic material that facilitates phenotypic innovation and diversification. Developmental processes associated with reproduction are particularly likely to involve novel genes. Abundant gene creation impacts the evolution of chromosomal gene content and general regulatory mechanisms such as dosage compensation. Numerous studies in model organisms have found complex and, at times contradictory, relationships among these genomic attributes highlighting the need to examine these patterns in other systems characterized by abundant sexual selection. Therefore, we examined the association among novel gene creation, tissue-specific gene expression, and chromosomal gene content within stalk-eyed flies. Flies in this family are characterized by strong sexual selection and the presence of a newly evolved X chromosome. We generated RNA-seq transcriptome data from the testes for three species within the family and from seven additional tissues in the highly dimorphic species, Teleopsis dalmanni. Analysis of dipteran gene orthology reveals dramatic testes-specific gene creation in stalk-eyed flies, involving numerous gene families that are highly conserved in other insect groups. Identification of X-linked genes for the three species indicates that the X chromosome arose prior to the diversification of the family. The most striking feature of this X chromosome is that it is highly masculinized, containing nearly twice as many testes-specific genes as expected based on its size. All the major processes that may drive differential sex chromosome gene content—creation of genes with male-specific expression, development of male-specific expression from pre-existing genes, and movement of genes with male-specific expression—are elevated on the X chromosome of T. dalmanni. This masculinization occurs despite evidence that testes expressed genes do not achieve the same levels of gene expression on the X chromosome as they

  14. Spermatogenesis Drives Rapid Gene Creation and Masculinization of the X Chromosome in Stalk-Eyed Flies (Diopsidae).

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard H; Narechania, Apurva; DeSalle, Rob; Johns, Philip M; Reinhardt, Josephine A; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2016-03-26

    Throughout their evolutionary history, genomes acquire new genetic material that facilitates phenotypic innovation and diversification. Developmental processes associated with reproduction are particularly likely to involve novel genes. Abundant gene creation impacts the evolution of chromosomal gene content and general regulatory mechanisms such as dosage compensation. Numerous studies in model organisms have found complex and, at times contradictory, relationships among these genomic attributes highlighting the need to examine these patterns in other systems characterized by abundant sexual selection. Therefore, we examined the association among novel gene creation, tissue-specific gene expression, and chromosomal gene content within stalk-eyed flies. Flies in this family are characterized by strong sexual selection and the presence of a newly evolved X chromosome. We generated RNA-seq transcriptome data from the testes for three species within the family and from seven additional tissues in the highly dimorphic species,Teleopsis dalmanni Analysis of dipteran gene orthology reveals dramatic testes-specific gene creation in stalk-eyed flies, involving numerous gene families that are highly conserved in other insect groups. Identification of X-linked genes for the three species indicates that the X chromosome arose prior to the diversification of the family. The most striking feature of this X chromosome is that it is highly masculinized, containing nearly twice as many testes-specific genes as expected based on its size. All the major processes that may drive differential sex chromosome gene content-creation of genes with male-specific expression, development of male-specific expression from pre-existing genes, and movement of genes with male-specific expression-are elevated on the X chromosome ofT. dalmanni This masculinization occurs despite evidence that testes expressed genes do not achieve the same levels of gene expression on the X chromosome as they do on

  15. Impaired ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in mice lacking the immediate early gene fos B.

    PubMed

    Malik, Mohammad T; Peng, Ying-Jie; Kline, David D; Adhikary, Gautam; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2005-01-15

    Earlier studies on cell culture models suggested that immediate early genes (IEGs) play an important role in cellular adaptations to hypoxia. Whether IEGs are also necessary for hypoxic adaptations in intact animals is not known. In the present study we examined the potential importance of fos B, an IEG in ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Experiments were performed on wild type and mutant mice lacking the fos B gene. Ventilation was monitored by whole body plethysmography in awake animals. Baseline ventilation under normoxia, and ventilatory response to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia were comparable between wild type and mutant mice. Hypobaric hypoxia (0.4 atm; 3 days) resulted in a significant elevation of baseline ventilation in wild type but not in mutant mice. Wild type mice exposed to hypobaric hypoxia manifested an enhanced hypoxic ventilatory response compared to pre-hypobaric hypoxia. In contrast, hypobaric hypoxia had no effect on the hypoxic ventilatory response in mutant mice. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses, however, were unaffected by hypobaric hypoxia in both groups of mice. These results suggest that the fos B, an immediate early gene, plays an important role in ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in mice.

  16. Conjugative Transfer of Chromosomal Genes between Fluorescent Pseudomonads in the Rhizosphere of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Troxler, J.; Azelvandre, P.; Zala, M.; Defago, G.; Haas, D.

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria released in large numbers for biocontrol or bioremediation purposes might exchange genes with other microorganisms. Two model systems were designed to investigate the likelihood of such an exchange and some factors which govern the conjugative exchange of chromosomal genes between root-colonizing pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of wheat. The first model consisted of the biocontrol strain CHA0 of Pseudomonas fluorescens and transposon-facilitated recombination (Tfr). A conjugative IncP plasmid loaded with transposon Tn5, in a CHA0 derivative carrying a chromosomal Tn5 insertion, promoted chromosome transfer to auxotrophic CHA0 recipients in vitro. A chromosomal marker (pro) was transferred at a frequency of about 10(sup-6) per donor on wheat roots under gnotobiotic conditions, provided that the Tfr donor and recipient populations each contained 10(sup6) to 10(sup7) CFU per g of root. In contrast, no conjugative gene transfer was detected in soil, illustrating that the root surface stimulates conjugation. The second model system was based on the genetically well-characterized strain PAO of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the chromosome mobilizing IncP plasmid R68.45. Although originally isolated from a human wound, strain PAO1 was found to be an excellent root colonizer, even under natural, nonsterile conditions. Matings between an auxotrophic R68.45 donor and auxotrophic recipients produced prototrophic chromosomal recombinants at 10(sup-4) to 10(sup-5) per donor on wheat roots in artificial soil under gnotobiotic conditions and at about 10(sup-6) per donor on wheat roots in natural, nonsterile soil microcosms after 2 weeks of incubation. The frequencies of chromosomal recombinants were as high as or higher than the frequencies of R68.45 transconjugants, reflecting mainly the selective growth advantage of the prototrophic recombinants over the auxotrophic parental strains in the rhizosphere. Although under field conditions the formation of chromosomal

  17. Molecular structure and chromosomal mapping of the human homolog of the agouti gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, H.Y.; Woychik, R.P.; Bultman, S.J. |; Loeffler, C.; Hansmann, I.; Chen, W.J.; Furdon, P.J.; Wilkison, W.; Powell, J.G.; Usala, A.L.

    1994-10-11

    The agouti (a) locus in mouse chromosome 2 normally regulates coat color pigmentation. The mouse agouti gene was recently cloned and shown to encode a distinctive 131-amino acid protein with a consensus signal peptide. Here the authors describe the cloning of the human homolog of the mouse agouti gene using an interspecies DNA-hybridization approach. Sequence analysis revealed that the coding region of the human agouti gene is 85% identical to the mouse gene and has the potential to encode a protein of 132 amino acids with a consensus signal peptide. Chromosomal assignment using somatic-cell-hybrid mapping panels and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that the human agouti gene maps to chromosome band 20q11.2. This result revealed that the human agouti gene is closely linked to several traits, including a locus called MODY (for maturity onset diabetes of the young) and another region that is associated with the development of myeloid leukemia. Initial expression studies with RNA from several adult human tissues showed that the human agouti gene is expressed in adipose tissue and testis.

  18. Therapeutic strategies in male breast cancer: clinical implications of chromosome 17 gene alterations and molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Schroeder, Lars; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Binot, Elke; Büttner, Reinhard; Kuhn, Walther; Rudlowski, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. To date, therapy is mainly based on studies and clinical experiences with breast cancer in women. Only little is known about molecular typing of MBC, particularly with regard to potential biological predictors for adjuvant therapy. In female breast cancer tumors with chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) duplication, HER2 and/or Topoisomerase II alpha (Topo II-α) gene alterations have been suggested to be associated with poor prognosis and increased sensitivity to anthracycline-containing regimens. In a well characterized cohort of 96 primary invasive MBC, we studied CEP17, HER2 and Topo II-α alterations by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), and expression of hormone receptors (HR), HER2 and Ki67 by immunohistochemistry to define molecular subtypes. Tumor characteristics and follow-up data were available and correlated with molecular findings. HER2 amplification and Topo II-α amplification/deletion were exceptionally rare in MBC (6.3% and 3.1%, respectively). CEP17 polysomy were found in 9.4% of tumors. HER2, Topo II-α and CEP17 gene alterations were not correlated to patients outcome. 96.9% of our cases were HR positive. Triple negative tumors were found in only 3.1% of the cases. In nodal negative tumors luminal A subtypes were significantly associated with better overall survival. Our results provide evidence for a predominant male breast cancer phenotype, characterized by HR expression and a lack of HER2/Topo II-α alterations and CEP17 duplicates. Therefore, the impact of anthracycline sensitivity linked to HER2/Topo II-α alterations as found in female breast cancer has low clinical significance for this specific male breast cancer phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence that sex chromosome genes affect sexual differentiation of female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Büdefeld, Tomaz; Spanic, Tanja; Tobet, Stuart A; Majdic, Gregor

    2012-05-01

    Female receptivity including the immobile hormone-dependent lordosis posture is essential for successful reproduction in rodents. It is well documented that lordosis is organized during the perinatal period when the actions of androgens decrease the males' ability to display this behavior in adulthood. Conversely the absence of androgens, and the presence of low levels of prepubertal estrogens, preserve circuitry that regulates this behavior in females. The current study set out to determine whether sex chromosomal genes are involved in the differentiation of this behavior. An agonadal mouse model was used to test this hypothesis. The SF-1 gene (Nr5a1) is required for development of gonads and adrenal glands, and knockout mice are consequently not exposed to endogenous gonadal steroids. Thus contributions of sex chromosome genes can be disassociated from the actions of estrogens. Use of this model reveals a direct genetic contribution from sex chromosomes in the display of lordosis and other female-typical sexual behavior patterns. It is likely that the concentrations of gonadal steroids present during normal male development modify the actions of sex chromosome genes on the potential to display female sexual behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

  1. Human urokinase gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 10.

    PubMed Central

    Tripputi, P; Blasi, F; Verde, P; Cannizzaro, L A; Emanuel, B S; Croce, C M

    1985-01-01

    Urokinase is one of the two plasminogen activators that catalyze the conversion of inactive plasminogen to plasmin. By combining somatic cell genetics, in situ hybridization, and Southern hybridization, we localized the human urokinase gene on the distal third of the long arm (q24-qter) of chromosome 10. Images PMID:2989821

  2. Chromosome engineering of wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr47 in a tetraploid wheat background

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) line DAS15 carries Sr47, a gene conferring resistance to races of stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), including race TTKSK (Ug99). The Ae. speltoides segment harboring Sr47 accounts for most of the T2BL-2SL•2SS chromosome. Our objective was t...

  3. High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

  4. First Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Containing a mecB-Carrying Gene Complex Independent of Transposon Tn6045 in a Macrococcus caseolyticus Isolate from a Canine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Schwendener, Sybille; Thomann, Andreas; Gobeli Brawand, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    A methicillin-resistant mecB-positive Macrococcus caseolyticus (strain KM45013) was isolated from the nares of a dog with rhinitis. It contained a novel 39-kb transposon-defective complete mecB-carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmecKM45013). SCCmecKM45013 contained 49 coding sequences (CDSs), was integrated at the 3′ end of the chromosomal orfX gene, and was delimited at both ends by imperfect direct repeats functioning as integration site sequences (ISSs). SCCmecKM45013 presented two discontinuous regions of homology (SCCmec coverage of 35%) to the chromosomal and transposon Tn6045-associated SCCmec-like element of M. caseolyticus JCSC7096: (i) the mec gene complex (98.8% identity) and (ii) the ccr-carrying segment (91.8% identity). The mec gene complex, located at the right junction of the cassette, also carried the β-lactamase gene blaZm (mecRm-mecIm-mecB-blaZm). SCCmecKM45013 contained two cassette chromosome recombinase genes, ccrAm2 and ccrBm2, which shared 94.3% and 96.6% DNA identity with those of the SCCmec-like element of JCSC7096 but shared less than 52% DNA identity with the staphylococcal ccrAB and ccrC genes. Three distinct extrachromosomal circularized elements (the entire SCCmecKM45013, ΨSCCmecKM45013 lacking the ccr genes, and SCCKM45013 lacking mecB) flanked by one ISS copy, as well as the chromosomal regions remaining after excision, were detected. An unconventional circularized structure carrying the mecB gene complex was associated with two extensive direct repeat regions, which enclosed two open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF46 and ORF51) flanking the chromosomal mecB-carrying gene complex. This study revealed M. caseolyticus as a potential disease-associated bacterium in dogs and also unveiled an SCCmec element carrying mecB not associated with Tn6045 in the genus Macrococcus. PMID:25987634

  5. Localization of the receptor gene for type D simian retroviruses on human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, M A; Williams, B P; McKnight, A; Goodfellow, P N; Weiss, R A

    1990-01-01

    Simian retrovirus (SRV) serotypes 1 to 5 are exogenous type D viruses causing immune suppression in macaque monkeys. These viruses exhibit receptor interference with each other, with two endogenous type D viruses of the langur (PO-1-Lu) and squirrel monkey, and with two type C retroviruses, feline endogenous virus (RD114/CCC) and baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), indicating that each utilizes the same cell surface receptor (M. A. Sommerfelt and R. A. Weiss, Virology 176:58-69, 1990). Vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype particles bearing envelope glycoproteins of RD114, BaEV, and the seven SRV strains were employed to detect receptors expressed in human-rodent somatic cell hybrids segregating human chromosomes. The only human chromosome common to all the susceptible hybrids was chromosome 19. By using hybrids retaining different fragments of chromosome 19, a provisional subchromosomal localization of the receptor gene was made to 19q13.1-13.2. Antibodies previously reported to be specific to a BaEV receptor (L. Thiry, J. Cogniaux-Leclerc, R. Olislager, S. Sprecher-Goldberger, and P. Burkens, J. Virol. 48:697-708, 1983) did not block BaEV, RD114, or SRV pseudotypes or syncytia. Antibodies to known surface markers determined by genes mapped to chromosome 19 did not block virus-receptor interaction. The identity of the receptor remains to be determined. PMID:2173788

  6. Selection on overdominant genes maintains heterozygosity along multiple chromosomes in a clonal lineage of honey bee.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Frances; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between fitness and genome-wide heterozygosity (heterozygosity-fitness correlations, HFCs) have been reported across a wide range of taxa. The genetic basis of these correlations is controversial: do they arise from genome-wide inbreeding ("general effects") or the "local effects" of overdominant loci acting in linkage disequilibrium with neutral loci? In an asexual thelytokous lineage of the Cape honey bee (Apis mellifera capensis), the effects of inbreeding have been homogenized across the population, making this an ideal system in which to detect overdominant loci, and to make inferences about the importance of overdominance on HFCs in general. Here we investigate the pattern of zygosity along two chromosomes in 42 workers from the clonal Cape honey bee population. On chromosome III (which contains the sex-locus, a gene that is homozygous-lethal) and chromosome IV we show that the pattern of zygosity is characterized by loss of heterozygosity in short regions followed by the telomeric restoration of heterozygosity. We infer that at least four selectively overdominant genes maintain heterozygosity on chromosome III and three on chromosome IV via local effects acting on neutral markers in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude that heterozygote advantage and local effects may be more common and evolutionarily significant than is generally appreciated. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Chromosomal localization of glutamate receptor genes: relationship to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders of mice and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gregor, P; Reeves, R H; Jabs, E W; Yang, X; Dackowski, W; Rochelle, J M; Brown, R H; Haines, J L; O'Hara, B F; Uhl, G R

    1993-01-01

    Receptors for the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate may play key roles in neurodegeneration. The mouse Glur-5 gene maps to chromosome 16 between App and Sod-1. The homologous human GLUR5 gene maps to the corresponding region of human chromosome 21, which contains the locus for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This location, and other features, render GLUR5 a possible candidate gene for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In addition, dosage imbalance of GLUR5 may have a role in the trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Further characterization of the murine glutamate receptor family includes mapping of Glur-1 to the same region as neurological mutants spasmodic, shaker-2, tipsy, and vibrator on chromosome 11; Glur-2 near spastic on chromosome 3; Glur-6 near waltzer and Jackson circler on chromosome 10; and Glur-7 near clasper on chromosome 4. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8464923

  8. Strict evolutionary conservation followed rapid gene loss on human and rhesus Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jennifer F.; Skaletsky, Helen; Brown, Laura G.; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Graves, Tina; Fulton, Robert S.; Dugan, Shannon; Ding, Yan; Buhay, Christian J.; Kremitzki, Colin; Wang, Qiaoyan; Shen, Hua; Holder, Michael; Villasana, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Cree, Andrew; Courtney, Laura; Veizer, Joelle; Kotkiewicz, Holland; Cho, Ting-Jan; Koutseva, Natalia; Rozen, Steve; Muzny, Donna M.; Warren, Wesley C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wilson, Richard K.; Page, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200–300 million years1–3. Due to genetic decay, the human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes’ genes4,5. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five “stratification” events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or “stratum”, incorporated that segment into the MSY, and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over2,6. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago (mya), or 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey (OWM) lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome7–10, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the OWM lineage. To explore this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an OWM, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that, during the last 25 million years, MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. Within the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 mya. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1–4) during the past 25 million years, despite major structural differences from the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection. PMID:22367542

  9. A Large Palindrome With Interchromosomal Gene Duplications in the Pericentromeric Region of the D. melanogaster Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Lago, María; Bergman, Casey M.; de Pablos, Beatriz; Tracey, Alan; Whitehead, Siobhan L.; Villasante, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The non-recombining Y chromosome is expected to degenerate over evolutionary time, however, gene gain is a common feature of Y chromosomes of mammals and Drosophila. Here, we report that a large palindrome containing interchromosomal segmental duplications is located in the vicinity of the first amplicon detected in the Y chromosome of D. melanogaster. The recent appearance of such amplicons suggests that duplications to the Y chromosome, followed by the amplification of the segmental duplications, are a mechanism for the continuing evolution of Drosophila Y chromosomes. PMID:21297157

  10. Exceptional conservation of horse-human gene order on X chromosome revealed by high-resolution radiation hybrid mapping.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Lee, Eun-Joon; Kata, Srinivas R; Brinkmeyer, Candice; Mickelson, James R; Skow, Loren C; Womack, James E; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2004-02-24

    Development of a dense map of the horse genome is key to efforts aimed at identifying genes controlling health, reproduction, and performance. We herein report a high-resolution gene map of the horse (Equus caballus) X chromosome (ECAX) generated by developing and typing 116 gene-specific and 12 short tandem repeat markers on the 5,000-rad horse x hamster whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and mapping 29 gene loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The human X chromosome sequence was used as a template to select genes at 1-Mb intervals to develop equine orthologs. Coupled with our previous data, the new map comprises a total of 175 markers (139 genes and 36 short tandem repeats, of which 53 are fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped) distributed on average at approximately 880-kb intervals along the chromosome. This is the densest and most uniformly distributed chromosomal map presently available in any mammalian species other than humans and rodents. Comparison of the horse and human X chromosome maps shows remarkable conservation of gene order along the entire span of the chromosomes, including the location of the centromere. An overview of the status of the horse map in relation to mouse, livestock, and companion animal species is also provided. The map will be instrumental for analysis of X linked health and fertility traits in horses by facilitating identification of targeted chromosomal regions for isolation of polymorphic markers, building bacterial artificial chromosome contigs, or sequencing.

  11. Monochromosomal Hybrids and Chromosome Transfer: A Functional Approach for Gene Identification

    PubMed Central

    KANDPAL, RAJ P; SANDHU, ARBANS K; KAUR, GURPREET; KAUR, GURSURINDER P; ATHWAL, RAGHBIR S

    2017-01-01

    Functional complementation of cellular defects has been a valuable approach for localizing causative genes to specific chromosomes. The complementation strategy was followed by positional cloning and characterization of genes for their biological relevance. We herein describe strategies used for the construction of monochromosomal hybrids and their applications for cloning and characterization of genes related to cell growth, cell senescence and DNA repair. We have cloned RNaseT2, GluR6 (glutamate ionotropic receptor kainate type subunit 2-GRIK2) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type K (PTPRK) genes using these strategies. PMID:28387649

  12. Human artificial chromosome-based gene delivery vectors for biomedicine and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kouprina, Natalay; Tomilin, Alexey N; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C; Larionov, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages over viruses as gene delivery vectors, including stable episomal maintenance in a single copy and the ability to carry large gene inserts. In this review, we summarise recent work on gene transfer into mammalian cells using the HACs. HACs allow therapeutic transgenes to be expressed in target cells under conditions that recapitulate the physiological regulation of endogenous loci. Based on the published data, the HAC vectors have a great potential for gene therapy, regenerative medicine, screening of anticancer drugs and biotechnology.

  13. Resilient emotionality and molecular compensation in mice lacking the oligodendrocyte-specific gene Cnp1.

    PubMed

    Edgar, N M; Touma, C; Palme, R; Sibille, E

    2011-09-20

    Altered oligodendrocyte structure and function is implicated in major psychiatric illnesses, including low cell number and reduced oligodendrocyte-specific gene expression in major depressive disorder (MDD). These features are also observed in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) rodent model of the illness, suggesting that they are consequential to environmental precipitants; however, whether oligodendrocyte changes contribute causally to low emotionality is unknown. Focusing on 2'-3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (Cnp1), a crucial component of axoglial communication dysregulated in the amygdala of MDD subjects and UCMS-exposed mice, we show that altered oligodendrocyte integrity can have an unexpected functional role in affect regulation. Mice lacking Cnp1 (knockout, KO) displayed decreased anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms (i.e., low emotionality) compared with wild-type animals, a phenotypic difference that increased with age (3-9 months). This phenotype was accompanied by increased motor activity, but was evident before neurodegenerative-associated motor coordination deficits (≤ 9-12 months). Notably, Cnp1(KO) mice were less vulnerable to developing a depressive-like syndrome after either UCMS or chronic corticosterone exposure. Cnp1(KO) mice also displayed reduced fear expression during extinction, despite normal amygdala c-Fos induction after acute stress, together implicating dysfunction of an amygdala-related neural network, and consistent with proposed mechanisms for stress resiliency. However, the Cnp1(KO) behavioral phenotype was also accompanied by massive upregulation of oligodendrocyte- and immune-related genes in the basolateral amygdala, suggesting an attempt at functional compensation. Together, we demonstrate that the lack of oligodendrocyte-specific Cnp1 leads to resilient emotionality. However, combined with substantial molecular changes and late-onset neurodegeneration, these results suggest the low Cnp1 seen in MDD may

  14. High-Resolution Chromosome Ideogram Representation of Currently Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Rafi, Syed K.; Manzardo, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, autism-related research has focused on the identification of various genes and disturbed pathways causing the genetically heterogeneous group of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The list of autism-related genes has significantly increased due to better awareness with advances in genetic technology and expanding searchable genomic databases. We compiled a master list of known and clinically relevant autism spectrum disorder genes identified with supporting evidence from peer-reviewed medical literature sources by searching key words related to autism and genetics and from authoritative autism-related public access websites, such as the Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute autism genomic database dedicated to gene discovery and characterization. Our list consists of 792 genes arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with gene symbols placed on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms, thereby enabling clinical and laboratory geneticists and genetic counsellors to access convenient visual images of the location and distribution of ASD genes. Meaningful correlations of the observed phenotype in patients with suspected/confirmed ASD gene(s) at the chromosome region or breakpoint band site can be made to inform diagnosis and gene-based personalized care and provide genetic counselling for families. PMID:25803107

  15. Phenotypic variation across chromosomal hybrid zones of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) indicates reduced gene flow.

    PubMed

    Polly, P David; Polyakov, Andrei V; Ilyashenko, Vadim B; Onischenko, Sergei S; White, Thomas A; Shchipanov, Nikolay A; Bulatova, Nina S; Pavlova, Svetlana V; Borodin, Pavel M; Searle, Jeremy B

    2013-01-01

    Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous.

  16. Single exon-resolution targeted chromosomal microarray analysis of known and candidate intellectual disability genes

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tracy; Zahir, Farah R; Griffith, Malachi; Delaney, Allen; Chai, David; Tsang, Erica; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Marra, Marco; Eydoux, Patrice; Langlois, Sylvie; Hamdan, Fadi F; Michaud, Jacques L; Friedman, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects about 3% of individuals globally, with∼50% idiopathic. We designed an exonic-resolution array targeting all known submicroscopic chromosomal intellectual disability syndrome loci, causative genes for intellectual disability, and potential candidate genes, all genes encoding glutamate receptors and epigenetic regulators. Using this platform, we performed chromosomal microarray analysis on 165 intellectual disability trios (affected child and both normal parents). We identified and independently validated 36 de novo copy-number changes in 32 trios. In all, 67% of the validated events were intragenic, involving only exon 1 (which includes the promoter sequence according to our design), exon 1 and adjacent exons, or one or more exons excluding exon 1. Seventeen of the 36 copy-number variants involve genes known to cause intellectual disability. Eleven of these, including seven intragenic variants, are clearly pathogenic (involving STXBP1, SHANK3 (3 patients), IL1RAPL1, UBE2A, NRXN1, MEF2C, CHD7, 15q24 and 9p24 microdeletion), two are likely pathogenic (PI4KA, DCX), two are unlikely to be pathogenic (GRIK2, FREM2), and two are unclear (ARID1B, 15q22 microdeletion). Twelve individuals with genomic imbalances identified by our array were tested with a clinical microarray, and six had a normal result. We identified de novo copy-number variants within genes not previously implicated in intellectual disability and uncovered pathogenic variation of known intellectual disability genes below the detection limit of standard clinical diagnostic chromosomal microarray analysis. PMID:24253858

  17. Single exon-resolution targeted chromosomal microarray analysis of known and candidate intellectual disability genes.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Tracy; Zahir, Farah R; Griffith, Malachi; Delaney, Allen; Chai, David; Tsang, Erica; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Marra, Marco; Eydoux, Patrice; Langlois, Sylvie; Hamdan, Fadi F; Michaud, Jacques L; Friedman, Jan M

    2014-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects about 3% of individuals globally, with∼50% idiopathic. We designed an exonic-resolution array targeting all known submicroscopic chromosomal intellectual disability syndrome loci, causative genes for intellectual disability, and potential candidate genes, all genes encoding glutamate receptors and epigenetic regulators. Using this platform, we performed chromosomal microarray analysis on 165 intellectual disability trios (affected child and both normal parents). We identified and independently validated 36 de novo copy-number changes in 32 trios. In all, 67% of the validated events were intragenic, involving only exon 1 (which includes the promoter sequence according to our design), exon 1 and adjacent exons, or one or more exons excluding exon 1. Seventeen of the 36 copy-number variants involve genes known to cause intellectual disability. Eleven of these, including seven intragenic variants, are clearly pathogenic (involving STXBP1, SHANK3 (3 patients), IL1RAPL1, UBE2A, NRXN1, MEF2C, CHD7, 15q24 and 9p24 microdeletion), two are likely pathogenic (PI4KA, DCX), two are unlikely to be pathogenic (GRIK2, FREM2), and two are unclear (ARID1B, 15q22 microdeletion). Twelve individuals with genomic imbalances identified by our array were tested with a clinical microarray, and six had a normal result. We identified de novo copy-number variants within genes not previously implicated in intellectual disability and uncovered pathogenic variation of known intellectual disability genes below the detection limit of standard clinical diagnostic chromosomal microarray analysis.

  18. Close proximity of the tdh, trh and ure genes on the chromosome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Park, K S; Suthienkul, O; Kozawa, J; Yamaichi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Honda, T

    1998-09-01

    The distribution and location of the virulence-factor genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, tdh and trh, and the structural gene of urease, ureC, were examined on the genomic DNAs of 115 clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus. The majority of strains (81%) had two copies of tdh on the chromosome, and no copies of trh or ure. Southern hybridization with a tdh probe, after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Notl-digested genomic DNA of each strain revealed only single bands, suggesting that the two copies of the exist on single Notl fragments in each strain. Of the 115 strains, 7% had the tdh, trh and ure genes on chromosomal DNA. The three genes were also detected on single Notl fragments in these strains. More detailed analysis revealed that the three genes were localized within 40 kb. By long and accurate polymerase chain reactions (LA-PCR) the distance between trh and ure was shown to be less than 8.5 kb. These results reveal a close proximity of the tdh, trh and ure genes on the chromosome of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains.

  19. X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome: stop mutations validate the candidate gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hardelin, J P; Levilliers, J; del Castillo, I; Cohen-Salmon, M; Legouis, R; Blanchard, S; Compain, S; Bouloux, P; Kirk, J; Moraine, C

    1992-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome represents the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia. This syndrome is from a defect in the embryonic migratory pathway of gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesizing neurons and olfactory axons. A candidate gene for the X chromosome-linked form of the syndrome was recently isolated by using a positional cloning strategy based on deletion mapping in the Xp22.3 region. With the PCR, two exons of this candidate gene were amplified on the genomic DNAs from 18 unrelated patients affected with the X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome. Three different base transitions--all leading to a stop codon--and one single-base deletion responsible for a frameshift were identified. We thus conclude that the candidate gene is the actual KAL gene responsible for the X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome. Furthermore, unilateral renal aplasia in two unrelated patients carrying a stop mutation indicates that the KAL gene is itself responsible for this Kallmann syndrome-associated anomaly. The gene is, therefore, also involved in kidney organogenesis. Additional neurologic symptoms in Kallmann patients are also discussed. PMID:1518845

  20. Chromosomal Loop Domains Direct the Recombination of Antigen Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lijuan; Frock, Richard L.; Du, Zhou; Meyers, Robin M.; Meng, Fei-long; Schatz, David G.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY RAG initiates antibody V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes by generating “on-target” DNA breaks at matched pairs of bona fide recombination signal sequences (RSSs). We employ bait RAG-generated breaks in endogenous or ectopically-inserted RSS pairs to identify huge numbers of RAG “off-target” breaks. Such breaks occur at the simple CAC motif that defines the RSS cleavage-site and are largely confined within convergent CTCF-binding element (CBE)-flanked loop domains containing bait RSS pairs. Marked orientation-dependence of RAG off-target activity within loops spanning up to 2 megabases implies involvement of linear tracking. In this regard, major RAG off-targets in chromosomal translocations occur as convergent RSS pairs at enhancers within a loop. Finally, deletion of a CBE-based IgH locus element disrupts V(D)J recombination domains and, correspondingly, alters RAG on- and off-target distributions within IgH. Our findings reveal how RAG activity is developmentally focused and implicate mechanisms by which chromatin domains harness biological processes within them. PMID:26593423

  1. Chromosomal Loop Domains Direct the Recombination of Antigen Receptor Genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lijuan; Frock, Richard L; Du, Zhou; Meyers, Robin M; Meng, Fei-long; Schatz, David G; Alt, Frederick W

    2015-11-05

    RAG initiates antibody V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes by generating "on-target" DNA breaks at matched pairs of bona fide recombination signal sequences (RSSs). We employ bait RAG-generated breaks in endogenous or ectopically inserted RSS pairs to identify huge numbers of RAG "off-target" breaks. Such breaks occur at the simple CAC motif that defines the RSS cleavage site and are largely confined within convergent CTCF-binding element (CBE)-flanked loop domains containing bait RSS pairs. Marked orientation dependence of RAG off-target activity within loops spanning up to 2 megabases implies involvement of linear tracking. In this regard, major RAG off-targets in chromosomal translocations occur as convergent RSS pairs at enhancers within a loop. Finally, deletion of a CBE-based IgH locus element disrupts V(D)J recombination domains and, correspondingly, alters RAG on- and off-target distributions within IgH. Our findings reveal how RAG activity is developmentally focused and implicate mechanisms by which chromatin domains harness biological processes within them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide gene expression perturbation induced by loss of C2 chromosome in allotetraploid Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Shao, Yujiao; Pan, Qi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy with loss of entire chromosomes from normal complement disrupts the balanced genome and is tolerable only by polyploidy plants. In this study, the monosomic and nullisomic plants losing one or two copies of C2 chromosome from allotetraploid Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, AACC) were produced and compared for their phenotype and transcriptome. The monosomics gave a plant phenotype very similar to the original donor, but the nullisomics had much smaller stature and also shorter growth period. By the comparative analyses on the global transcript profiles with the euploid donor, genome-wide alterations in gene expression were revealed in two aneuploids, and their majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) resulted from the trans-acting effects of the zero and one copy of C2 chromosome. The higher number of up-regulated genes than down-regulated genes on other chromosomes suggested that the genome responded to the C2 loss via enhancing the expression of certain genes. Particularly, more DEGs were detected in the monosomics than nullisomics, contrasting with their phenotypes. The gene expression of the other chromosomes was differently affected, and several dysregulated domains in which up- or downregulated genes obviously clustered were identifiable. But the mean gene expression (MGE) for homoeologous chromosome A2 reduced with the C2 loss. Some genes and their expressions on C2 were correlated with the phenotype deviations in the aneuploids. These results provided new insights into the transcriptomic perturbation of the allopolyploid genome elicited by the loss of individual chromosome. PMID:26442076

  3. The IL-9 receptor gene (IL9R): Genomic structure, chromosomal localization in the pseudoautosomal region of the long arm of sex chromosomes, and identification of IL9R pseudogenes at 9qter, 10pter, 16pter, 18pter

    SciTech Connect

    Kermouni, A.; Godelaine, D.; Lurquin, C.; Szikora, J.P.

    1995-09-20

    Cosmids containing the human IL-9 receptor (R) gene (IL9R) have been isolated from a genomic library using the IL9R cDNA as a probe. We have shown that the human IL9R gene is composed of 11 exons and 10 introns, stretching over {approx} 17 kb, and is located within the pseudoautosomal region of the Xq and Yq chromosome, in the vicinity of the telomere. Analysis of the 5` flanking region revealed multiple transcription initiation sites as well as potential binding motifs for AP1, AP2, AP3, Sp1, and NF-kB, although this region lacks a TATA box. Using the human IL9R cosmid as a probe to perform fluorescence in situ hybridization, additional signals were identified in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 9q, 10p, 16p, and 18p. IL9R homologs located on chromosomes 9 and 18 were partially characterized, while those located on chromosomes 16 and 10 were completely sequenced. Although they are similiar to the IL9R gene ({approx} 90% identity), none of these copies encodes a functional receptor: none of them contains sequences homologous to the 5` flanking region or exon 1 of the IL9R gene, and the remaining ORFs have been inactivated by various point mutations and deletions. Taken together, our results indicate that the IL9R gene is located at Xq28 and Yq12, in the long arm pseudoautosomal region, and that four IL9R pseudogenes are located on 9q34, 10p15, 16p13.3 and 18p11.3, probably dispersed as the result of translocations during evolution. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Imaging genes, chromosomes, and nuclear structures using laser-scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Stephen G.

    1990-08-01

    For 350 years, the optical microscope has had a powerful symbiotic relationship with biology. Until this century, optical microscopy was the only means of examining cellular structure; in return, biologists have contributed greatly to the evolution of microscope design and technique. Recent advances in the detection and processing of optical images, together with methods for labelling specific biological molecules, have brought about a resurgence in the application of optical microscopy to the biological sciences. One of the areas in which optical microscopy is breaking new ground is in elucidating the large scale organization of chromatin in chromosomes and cell nuclei. Nevertheless, imaging the contents of the cell nucleus is a difficult challenge for light microscopy, for two principal reasons. First, the dimensions of all but the largest nuclear structures (nucleoli, vacuoles) are close to or below the resolving power of far field optics. Second, the native optical contrast properties of many important chromatin structures (eg. chromosome domains, centromere regions) are very weak, or essentially zero. As an extreme example, individual genes probably have nothing to distinguish them other than their sequence of DNA bases, which cannot be directly visualized with any current form of microscopy. Similarly, the interphase nucleus shows no direct visible evidence of focal chromatin domains. Thus, imaging of such entities depends heavily on contrast enhancement methods. The most promising of these is labelling DNA in situ using sequence-specific probes that may be visualized using fluorescent dyes. We have applied this method to detecting individual genes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei, and to imaging a number of DNA-containing structures including chromosome domains, metaphase chromosomes and centromere regions. We have also demonstrated the applicability of in situ fluorescent labelling to detecting numerical and structural abnormalities both in

  5. Localization of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase gene to human chromosome 1q25

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.C.Y.; Chang, W.; Chang, T.Y. ); Noll, W.W.; Nutile-McMenemy, N. ); Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. )

    1994-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters from cholesterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. It is believed that ACAT plays a key role in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. Recently the authors' laboratory succeeded in molecular cloning and functional expression of human macrophage ACAT cDNA. They have now mapped the ACAT gene to chromosome 1, band q25 by using fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and by Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrid panels.

  6. Identification of the genomic locus for the human Rieske Fe-S Protein gene on Chromosome 19q12

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, L.A.

    1994-05-06

    We have identified the chromosomal location of the human Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein (UQCRFS1) gene. Mapping by hybridization to a panel of monochromosomal hybrid cell lines indicated that the gene was either on chromosome 19 or 22. By screening a human chromosome 19 specific genomic cosmid library with an oligonucleotide probe made from the published Rieske cDNA sequence, we identified a corresponding cosmid. Portions of this cosmid were sequenced directly. The exon, exon:intron junction, and flanking sequences verified that this cosmid contains the genomic locus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to localize this cosmid to chromosome band 19q12.

  7. Loss of NFAT5 results in renal atrophy and lack of tonicity-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Antos, Christopher L; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Lin, Fangming; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Bronson, Roderick T; Igarashi, Peter; Rao, Anjana; Olson, Eric N

    2004-02-24

    The transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP, a member of the NFAT/Rel family of transcription factors, has been implicated in diverse cellular responses, including the response to osmotic stress, integrin-dependent cell migration, T cell activation, and the Ras pathway in Drosophila. To clarify the in vivo role of NFAT5, we generated NFAT5-null mice. Homozygous mutants were genetically underrepresented after embryonic day 14.5. Surviving mice manifested a progressive and profound atrophy of the kidney medulla with impaired activation of several osmoprotective genes, including those encoding aldose reductase, Na+/Cl--coupled betaine/gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter, and the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter. The aldose reductase gene is controlled by a tonicity-responsive enhancer, which was refractory to hypertonic stress in fibroblasts lacking NFAT5, establishing this enhancer as a direct transcriptional target of NFAT5. Our findings demonstrate a central role for NFAT5 as a tonicity-responsive transcription factor required for kidney homeostasis and function.

  8. Loss of NFAT5 results in renal atrophy and lack of tonicity-responsive gene expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Antos, Christopher L.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Lin, Fangming; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Igarashi, Peter; Rao, Anjana; Olson, Eric N.

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP, a member of the NFAT/Rel family of transcription factors, has been implicated in diverse cellular responses, including the response to osmotic stress, integrin-dependent cell migration, T cell activation, and the Ras pathway in Drosophila. To clarify the in vivo role of NFAT5, we generated NFAT5-null mice. Homozygous mutants were genetically underrepresented after embryonic day 14.5. Surviving mice manifested a progressive and profound atrophy of the kidney medulla with impaired activation of several osmoprotective genes, including those encoding aldose reductase, Na+/Cl–-coupled betaine/γ-aminobutyric acid transporter, and the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter. The aldose reductase gene is controlled by a tonicity-responsive enhancer, which was refractory to hypertonic stress in fibroblasts lacking NFAT5, establishing this enhancer as a direct transcriptional target of NFAT5. Our findings demonstrate a central role for NFAT5 as a tonicity-responsive transcription factor required for kidney homeostasis and function. PMID:14983020

  9. Polymorphisms in the selenoprotein S gene: lack of association with autoimmune inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Alfonso; Santiago, Jose Luis; Varadé, Jezabel; Márquez, Ana; Lamas, José Ramón; Mendoza, Juan Luis; de la Calle, Hermenegildo; Díaz-Rubio, Manuel; de la Concha, Emilio G; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Urcelay, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Background Selenoprotein S (SelS) protects the functional integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum against the deleterious effects of metabolic stress. SEPS1/SelS polymorphisms have been involved in the increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in macrophages. We aimed at investigating the role of the SEPS1 variants previously associated with higher plasma levels of these cytokines and of the SEPS1 haplotypes in the susceptibility to develop immune-mediated diseases characterized by an inflammatory component. Results Six polymorphisms distributed through the SEPS1 gene (rs11327127, rs28665122, rs4965814, rs12917258, rs4965373 and rs2101171) were genotyped in more than two thousand patients suffering from type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel diseases and 550 healthy controls included in the case-control study. Conclusion Lack of association of SEPS1 polymorphisms or haplotypes precludes a major role of this gene increasing predisposition to these inflammatory diseases. PMID:18625033

  10. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M; Gaspar, John A; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F; Ardestani, Mostafa A; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-02-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1's potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling during muscle organ development.

  11. Characterization of Frog Virus 3 knockout mutants lacking putative virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Andino, Francisco De Jesús; Grayfer, Leon; Chen, Guangchun; Chinchar, V Gregory; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Robert, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    To identify ranavirus virulence genes, we engineered Frog Virus 3 (FV3) knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment domain-containing (CARD) protein (Δ64R-FV3) and a β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase homolog (Δ52L-FV3). Compared to wild type (WT) FV3, infection of Xenopus tadpoles with Δ64R- or Δ52L-FV3 resulted in significantly lower levels of mortality and viral replication. We further characterized these and two earlier KO mutants lacking the immediate-early18kDa protein (FV3-Δ18K) or the truncated viral homolog of eIF-2α (FV3-ΔvIF-2α). All KO mutants replicated as well as WT-FV3 in non-amphibian cell lines, whereas in Xenopus A6 kidney cells replication of ΔvCARD-, ΔvβHSD- and ΔvIF-2α-FV3 was markedly reduced. Furthermore, Δ64R- and ΔvIF-2α-FV3 were more sensitive to interferon than WT and Δ18-FV3. Notably, Δ64R-, Δ18K- and ΔvIF-2α- but not Δ52L-FV3 triggered more apoptosis than WT FV3. These data suggest that vCARD (64R) and vβ-HSD (52L) genes contribute to viral pathogenesis.

  12. Myogenic Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells That Lack a Functional Pax7 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinska, Areta M.; Grabowska, Iwona; Archacka, Karolina; Bem, Joanna; Swierczek, Barbara; Helinska, Anita; Streminska, Wladyslawa; Fogtman, Anna; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Koblowska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Pax7 plays a key role during embryonic myogenesis and sustains the proper function of satellite cells, which serve as adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Overexpression of Pax7 has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the effects of the absence of functional Pax7 in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have not yet been directly tested. Herein, we studied mouse stem cells that lacked a functional Pax7 gene and characterized the differentiation of these stem cells under conditions that promoted the derivation of myoblasts in vitro. We analyzed the expression of myogenic factors, such as myogenic regulatory factors and muscle-specific microRNAs, in wild-type and mutant cells. Finally, we compared the transcriptome of both types of cells and did not find substantial differences in the expression of genes related to the regulation of myogenesis. As a result, we showed that the absence of functional Pax7 does not prevent the in vitro myogenic differentiation of ESCs. PMID:26649785

  13. Chromosomal mapping of the human M6 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Olinsky, S.; Loop, B.T.; DeKosky, A.

    1996-05-01

    M6 is a neuronal membrane glycoprotein that may have an important role in neural development. This molecule was initially defined by a monoclonal antibody that affected the survival of cultured cerebellar neurons and the outgrowth of neurites. The nature of the antigen was discovered by expression cDNA cloning using this monoclonal antibody. Two distinct murine M6 cDNAs (designated M6a and M6b) whose deduced amino acid sequences were remarkably similar to that of the myelin proteolipid protein human cDNA and genomic clones encoding M6a and M6b and have characterized them by restriction mapping, Southern hybridization with cDNA probes, and sequence analysis. We have localized these genes within the human genome by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). The human M6a gene is located at 4q34, and the M6b gene is located at Xp22.2 A number of human neurological disorders have been mapped to the Xp22 region, including Aicardi syndrome (MIM 304050), Rett syndrome (MIM 312750), X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (MIM 302801), and X-linked mental retardation syndromes (MRX1, MIM 309530). This raises the possibility that a defect in the M6b gene is responsible for one of these neurological disorders. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  14. TDP2 suppresses chromosomal translocations induced by DNA topoisomerase II during gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Zagnoli-Vieira, Guido; Ntai, Ioanna; Martínez-Macías, María Isabel; Anderson, Rhona M; Herrero-Ruíz, Andrés; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-08-10

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by abortive topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity are a potential source of genome instability and chromosome translocation. TOP2-induced DNA double-strand breaks are rejoined in part by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2)-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), but whether this process suppresses or promotes TOP2-induced translocations is unclear. Here, we show that TDP2 rejoins DSBs induced during transcription-dependent TOP2 activity in breast cancer cells and at the translocation 'hotspot', MLL. Moreover, we find that TDP2 suppresses chromosome rearrangements induced by TOP2 and reduces TOP2-induced chromosome translocations that arise during gene transcription. Interestingly, however, we implicate TDP2-dependent NHEJ in the formation of a rare subclass of translocations associated previously with therapy-related leukemia and characterized by junction sequences with 4-bp of perfect homology. Collectively, these data highlight the threat posed by TOP2-induced DSBs during transcription and demonstrate the importance of TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining in protecting both gene transcription and genome stability.DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by topoisomerase II (TOP2) are rejoined by TDP2-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) but whether this promotes or suppresses translocations is not clear. Here the authors show that TDP2 suppresses chromosome translocations from DSBs introduced during gene transcription.

  15. Chromosome jumping from D4S10 (G8) toward the Huntington disease gene.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J E; Gilliam, T C; Cole, J L; Drumm, M L; Wasmuth, J J; Gusella, J F; Collins, F S

    1988-01-01

    The gene for Huntington disease (HD) has been localized to the distal portion of the short arm of human chromosome 4 by linkage analysis. Currently, the two closest DNA markers are D4S10 (G8), located approximately equal to 3 centimorgans centromeric to HD, and D4S43 (C4H), positioned 0-1.5 centimorgans from HD. In an effort to move closer to the HD gene, with the eventual goal of identifying the gene itself, we have applied the technique of chromosome jumping to this region. A 200-kilobase jumping library has been constructed, and a jump from D4S10 has been obtained and its approximate distance verified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two restriction fragment length polymorphisms have been identified at the jump locus, which is denoted D4S81. Linkage analysis of previously identified recombinants between D4S10 and HD or D4S10 and D4S43 shows that in two of five events the jump has crossed the recombination points. This unequivocally orients D4S10 and D4S81 on the chromosome, provides additional markers for HD, and suggests that recombination frequency in this region of chromosome 4 may be increased, so that the physical distance from D4S10 to HD may not be as large as originally suspected. Images PMID:2901098

  16. Allelotyping in Wilms tumors identifies a putative third tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Radice, P.; Benedetti, V.D.; Mondini, P.

    1995-06-10

    An analysis of loss of heterozygosity for markers on both the short and the long arm of chromosome 11 was performed in 24 sporadic Wilms tumors. Six cases (25%) showed allelic losses involving the entire chromosome. In one case (4%) the loss was restricted solely to the WT1 gene on band p13. Two cases (8%) displayed allelic losses for WT1 and for markers on band p15.5, where the putative tumor suppressor gene WT2 has been mapped, but retained heterozygosity for markers on the long arm. In three tumors (13%) the loss of heterozygosity involved markers mapped to chromosomal regions p15.5 and q23.3-qter, but did not affect WT1 and markers on q12-q13. Altogether, the proportion of cases showing allelic losses at the distal region of 11q (37%) was comparable to that of cases with LOH affecting the WT1 (37%) or the WT2 (46%) loci, thus suggesting the existence of a third chromosome 11 tumor suppressor gene involved in the pathogenesis of Wilms tumors. 51 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. A unique mosaic Turner syndrome patient with androgen receptor gene derived marker chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Rasime; Özdağ, Nermin; Bundak, Rüveyde; Çirakoğlu, Ayşe; Serakinci, Nedime

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Turner syndrome are generally characterized by having short stature with no secondary sexual characteristics. Some abnormalities, such as webbed neck, renal malformations (>50%) and cardiac defects (10%) are less common. The intelligence of these patients is considered normal. Non-mosaic monosomy X is observed in approximately 45% of postnatal patients with Turner syndrome and the rest of the patients have structural abnormalities or mosaicism involving 46,X,i(Xq), 45,X/46,XX, 45,X and other variants. The phenotype of 45,X/46,X,+mar individuals varies by the genetic continent and degree of the mosaicism. The gene content of the marker chromosome is the most important when correlating the phenotype with the genotype. Here we present an 11-year-old female who was referred for evaluation of her short stature and learning disabilities. Conventional cytogenetic investigation showed a mosaic 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the marker chromosome originated from the X chromosome within the androgen receptor (AR) and X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) genes. Therefore, it is possible that aberrant activation of the marker chromosome, compromising the AR and XIST genes, may modify the Turner syndrome phenotype.

  18. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  19. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  20. Lack of direct evidence for natural selection at the candidate thrifty gene locus, PPARGC1A.

    PubMed

    Cadzow, Murray; Merriman, Tony R; Boocock, James; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa K; Black, Michael A; Visscher, Peter M; Wilcox, Phillip L

    2016-11-15

    The gene PPARGC1A, in particular the Gly482Ser variant (rs8192678), had been proposed to be subject to natural selection, particularly in recent progenitors of extant Polynesian populations. Reasons include high levels of population differentiation and increased frequencies of the derived type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk 482Ser allele, and association with body mass index (BMI) in a small Tongan population. However, no direct statistical tests for selection have been applied. Using a range of Polynesian populations (Tongan, Māori, Samoan) we re-examined evidence for association between Gly482Ser with T2D and BMI as well as gout. Using also Asian, European, and African 1000 Genome Project samples a range of statistical tests for selection (F ST, integrated haplotype score (iHS), cross population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH), Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H) were conducted on the PPARGC1A locus. No statistically significant evidence for association between Gly482Ser and any of BMI, T2D or gout was found. Population differentiation (F ST) was smallest between Asian and Pacific populations (New Zealand Māori ≤ 0.35, Samoan ≤ 0.20). When compared to European (New Zealand Māori ≤ 0.40, Samoan ≤ 0.25) or African populations (New Zealand Māori ≤ 0.80, Samoan ≤ 0.66) this differentiation was larger. We did not find any strong evidence for departure from neutral evolution at this locus when applying any of the other statistical tests for selection. However, using the same analytical methods, we found evidence for selection in specific populations at previously identified loci, indicating that lack of selection was the most likely explanation for the lack of evidence of selection in PPARGC1A. We conclude that there is no compelling evidence for selection at this locus, and that this gene should not be considered a candidate thrifty gene locus in Pacific populations. High levels of population differentiation at this locus and the

  1. Karyotypic diversification in Mytilus mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) inferred from chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mussels of the genus Mytilus present morphologically similar karyotypes that are presumably conserved. The absence of chromosome painting probes in bivalves makes difficult verifying this hypothesis. In this context, we comparatively mapped ribosomal RNA and histone gene families on the chromosomes of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus and M. californianus by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Major rRNA, core and linker histone gene clusters mapped to different chromosome pairs in the four taxa. In contrast, minor rRNA gene clusters showed a different behavior. In all Mytilus two of the 5S rDNA clusters mapped to the same chromosome pair and one of them showed overlapping signals with those corresponding to one of the histone H1 gene clusters. The overlapping signals on mitotic chromosomes became a pattern of alternate 5S rRNA and linker histone gene signals on extended chromatin fibers. Additionally, M. trossulus showed minor and major rDNA clusters on the same chromosome pair. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that at least some of the chromosomes bearing these sequences are orthologous and that chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters could be a good tool to help deciphering some of the many unsolved questions in the systematic classification of Mytilidae. PMID:25023072

  2. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Kramer, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-on-set primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Fine genetic mapping of a gene for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 6p21

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, Yin Y.; Banerjee, P.; Knowles, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The inherited retinal degenerations known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) can be caused by mutations at many different loci and can be inherited as an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked recessive trait. Two forms of autosomal recessive (arRP) have been reported to cosegregate with mutations in the rhodopsin gene and the beta-subunit of rod phosphodiesterase on chromosome 4p. Genetic linkage has been reported on chromosomes 6p and 1q. In a large Dominican family, we reported an arRp gene near the region of the peripherin/RDS gene. Four recombinations were detected between the disease locus and an intragenic marker derived from peripherin/RDS. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A second gene for cerulean cataracts maps to the {beta} crystallin region on chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.; Yount, J.; Lovrien, E.

    1996-08-01

    Cogenital cataracts are one of the most common major eye abnormalities and often lead to blindness in infants. At least a third of all cases are familial. Within this group, highly penetrant, autosomal dominant forms of congenital cataracts (ADCC) are most common. ADCC is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, in which at least eight different loci have been identified for nine clinically distinct forms. Among these, Armitage et al. mapped a gene for cerulean blue cataracts to chromosome 17q24. Bodker et al. described a large family with cerulean blue cataracts, in which the affected daughter of affected first cousins was presumed to be homozygous for the purported gene. We report linkage in this family to the region on chromosome 22q that includes two {beta} crystallin genes (CRYBB2, CRYBB3) and one pseudogene (CRYBB2P1). The affected female in question is homozygous at all markers. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. X chromosome inactivation: new players in the initiation of gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ines; Heard, Edith

    2017-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation process that was adopted by female mammals to balance gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI starts with the upregulation of the non-coding RNA Xist, after which most X-linked genes are silenced and acquire a repressive chromatin state. Even though the chromatin marks of the inactive X have been fairly well described, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of XCI remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent developments that revealed unexpected factors playing a role in XCI and that might be of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for the very first steps of this chromosome-wide gene-silencing event. PMID:28408975

  6. Mapping a gene for adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 3q.

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, M K; Samples, J R; Kramer, P L; Rust, K; Topinka, J R; Yount, J; Koler, R D; Acott, T S

    1997-01-01

    Glaucoma is the third-leading cause of blindness in the world, affecting >13.5 million people. Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common form of glaucoma in the United States. We present a family in which adult-onset POAG is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Twelve affected family members were identified from 44 at-risk individuals. The disease-causing gene was mapped to chromosome 3q21-24, with analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggesting a total inclusion region of 11.1 cM between markers D3S3637 and D3S1744. This is the first report of mapping of an adult-onset POAG gene to chromosome 3q, gene symbol GLC1C. PMID:9012402

  7. Stable chromosomal integration of the entire nitrogen fixation gene cluster from Klebsiella pneumoniae in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, A; Maina, C V; Fink, G R; Szalay, A A

    1981-01-01

    A bacterial plasmid containing the entire nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster (consisting of at least 15 genes) from Klebsiella pneumoniae was used in conjunction with an Escherichia coli-yeast shuttle plasmid containing the yeast his4 gene cluster to cotransform a his4- recipient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of 87 histidine-independent clones screened, 2 contained nif DNA. Restriction and hybridization analyses showed that two copies of the nif plasmid (46 kilobases each) are integrated in tandem in the recipient chromosome by recombination between homologous regions in the transforming plasmids. Chromosomal integration was also verified by tetrad analysis, showing that the nif DNA behaved in meiosis like a Mendelian element. During mitotic growth, one of the two copies of the nif region is frequently lost. The remaining copy of nif is stable, even after 40 generations in nonselective medium. Images PMID:6267596

  8. Marker-free plasmids for gene therapeutic applications--lack of antibiotic resistance gene substantially improves the manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Mairhofer, Jürgen; Cserjan-Puschmann, Monika; Striedner, Gerald; Nöbauer, Katharina; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Grabherr, Reingard

    2010-04-01

    Plasmid DNA is being considered as a promising alternative to traditional protein vaccines or viral delivery methods for gene therapeutic applications. DNA-based products are highly flexible, stable, are easily stored and can be manufactured on a large scale. Although, much safer than viral approaches, issues have been raised with regard to safety due to possible integration of plasmid DNA into cellular DNA or spread of antibiotic resistance genes to intestinal bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, there is interest in methods for the production of plasmid DNA that lacks the antibiotic resistance gene to further improve their safety profile. Here, we report for the first time the gram-scale manufacturing of a minimized plasmid that is devoid of any additional sequence elements on the plasmid backbone, and merely consists of the target expression cassette and the bacterial origin of replication. Three different host/vector combinations were cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation process, comparing the progenitor strain JM108 to modified strains JM108murselect, hosting a plasmid either containing the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase which provides kanamycin resistance, or a marker-free variant of the same plasmid. The metabolic load exerted by expression of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase was monitored by measuring ppGpp- and cAMP-levels. Moreover, we revealed that JM108 is deficient of the Lon protease and thereby refined the genotype of JM108. The main consequences of Lon-deficiency with regard to plasmid DNA production are discussed herein. Additionally, we found that the expression of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, conferring resistance to kanamycin, was very high in plasmid DNA producing processes that actually inclusion bodies were formed. Thereby, a severe metabolic load on the host cell was imposed, detrimental for overall plasmid yield. Hence, deleting the antibiotic resistance gene from the vector backbone is not only beneficial

  9. A gene for Holt-Oram syndrome maps to chromosome 12q24.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, D.; Pelet, A.; Sidi, D.

    1994-09-01

    Originally described in 1960, Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS, MIM:142900) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of unknown origin (1/100,000 live births) characterized by congenital septal heart defects with associated malformations of upper limbs. We have reported on the mapping of a gene causing HOS to the distal long arm of chromosome 12 (12q21-qter) by linkage analysis in 9 multiplex families (Zmax=8.19 at the D12S354 locus). In addition, multipoint linkage analysis provided evidence for mapping of the disease locus to the genetic interval (7cM) defined by loci D12S105 and D12S79. In situ hybridization of YACs containing the flanking loci D12S105 and D12S79 demonstrates that the HOS locus maps to 12q24.1 thus exluding the candidate genes KOX20 and KOX1. We tested three HOS multiplex families with polydactily or without heart defect and showed that they do not map to chromosome 12q (homog-test: {chi}{sup 2}=13.28, p=0.0001). This observation supports the view that genetic heterogeneity holds true for typical HOS only. The mapping of a gene for HOS is, to our knowledge, the first chromosomal localization of a gene responsible for congenital septal defect in human. The characterization of the disease causing gene will hopefully shed light on the molecular mechanisms that govern heart septation and limb development in the early stages of embryogenesis.

  10. Identification of the human {beta}A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): Localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the homologous gene on mouse chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsebos, T.J.M.; Cerosaletti, K.M.; Fournier, R.E.K.

    1995-08-10

    By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine {beta}A2 crystalline gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the human gene (CRYBA2). CRYBA2 was assigned to human chromosome 2 by concordance analysis in human x rodent somatic cell hybrids using the amplified PCR products as probe. Regional localization to 2q34-q36 was established by hybridizing the CRYBA2 probe to microcell and radiation hybrids containing defined fragments of chromosome 2 as the only human contribution. The CRYBA2 probe was also used to localize, by interspecific backcross mapping, the mouse gene (Cryba2) to the central portion of chromosome 1 in a region of known human chromosome 2 homology. Finally, we demonstrate that in both species the {beta}A2 crystallin gene is linked but separable from the {gamma}A crystallin gene. The {beta}A2 crystallin gene is a candidate gene for human and mouse hereditary cataract. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Transmission electron microscopic method for gene mapping on polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Davidson, N

    1981-11-01

    A transmission electron microscope method for gene mapping by in situ hybridization to Drosophila polytene chromosomes has been developed. As electron-opaque labels, we use colloidal gold spheres having a diameter of 25 nm. The spheres are coated with a layer of protein to which Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA is photochemically crosslinked. Poly(dT) tails are added to the 3' OH ends of these DNA strands, and poly(dA) tails are added to the 3' OH ends of a fragmented cloned Drosophila DNA. These probe--dA strands are hybridized in situ to polytene chromosome squashes. Gold spheres are linked to the hybridized probe--dA strands by A.T base pairing. The sphere positions relative to the chromosome bands can be observed by transmission electron microscopy. The method shows low background and high resolution.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations in tire plant workers and interaction with polymorphisms of biotransformation and DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Musak, Ludovit; Soucek, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Halasova, Erika; Polakova, Veronika; Slyskova, Jana; Susova, Simona; Buchancova, Janka; Smerhovsky, Zdenek; Sedikova, Jana; Klimentova, Gabriela; Osina, Oto; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel

    2008-05-10

    We evaluated chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 177 workers exposed to xenobiotics in a tire plant and in 172 controls, in relation to their genetic background. Nine polymorphisms in genes encoding biotransformation enzymes and nine polymorphisms in genes involved in main DNA repair pathways were investigated for possible modulation of chromosomal damage. Chromosomal aberration frequencies were the highest among exposed smokers and the lowest in non-smoking unexposed individuals (2.5+/-1.8% vs. 1.7+/-1.2%, respectively). The differences between groups (ANOVA) were borderline significant (F=2.6, P=0.055). Chromosomal aberrations were higher in subjects with GSTT1-null (2.4+/-1.7%) than in those with GSTT1-plus genotype (1.8+/-1.4%; F=7.2, P=0.008). Considering individual groups, this association was significant in smoking exposed workers (F=4.4, P=0.040). Individuals with low activity EPHX1 genotype exhibited significantly higher chromosomal aberrations (2.3+/-1.6%) in comparison with those bearing medium (1.7+/-1.2%) and high activity genotype (1.5+/-1.2%; F=4.7, P=0.010). Both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberration frequencies were mainly affected by exposure and smoking status. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that frequencies of chromatid-type aberrations were modulated by NBS1 Glu185Gln (OR 4.26, 95%CI 1.38-13.14, P=0.012), and to a moderate extent, by XPD Lys751Gln (OR 0.16, 95%CI 0.02-1.25, P=0.081) polymorphisms. Chromosome-type aberrations were lowest in individuals bearing the EPHX1 genotype conferring the high activity (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.15-0.98, P=0.045). Present results show that exposed individuals in the tire production, who smoke, exhibit higher chromosomal aberrations frequencies, and the extent of chromosomal damage may additionally be modified by relevant polymorphisms.

  13. Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Reinius, Björn; Johansson, Martin M; Radomska, Katarzyna J; Morrow, Edward H; Pandey, Gaurav K; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Sandberg, Rickard; Williams, Robert W; Jazin, Elena

    2012-11-10

    Empirical evaluations of sexually dimorphic expression of genes on the mammalian X-chromosome are needed to understand the evolutionary forces and the gene-regulatory mechanisms controlling this chromosome. We performed a large-scale sex-bias expression analysis of genes on the X-chromosome in six different somatic tissues from mouse. Our results show that the mouse X-chromosome is enriched with female-biased genes and depleted of male-biased genes. This suggests that feminisation as well as de-masculinisation of the X-chromosome has occurred in terms of gene expression in non-reproductive tissues. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the control of female-biased expression on chromosome X, and escape from X-inactivation is a main candidate. We confirmed escape in case of Tmem29 using RNA-FISH analysis. In addition, we identified novel female-biased non-coding transcripts located in the same female-biased cluster as the well-known coding X-inactivation escapee Kdm5c, likely transcribed from the transition-region between active and silenced domains. We also found that previously known escapees only partially explained the overrepresentation of female-biased X-genes, particularly for tissue-specific female-biased genes. Therefore, the gene set we have identified contains tissue-specific escapees and/or genes controlled by other sexually skewed regulatory mechanisms. Analysis of gene age showed that evolutionarily old X-genes (>100 myr, preceding the radiation of placental mammals) are more frequently female-biased than younger genes. Altogether, our results have implications for understanding both gene regulation and gene evolution of mammalian X-chromosomes, and suggest that the final result in terms of the X-gene composition (masculinisation versus feminisation) is a compromise between different evolutionary forces acting on reproductive and somatic tissues.

  14. Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Empirical evaluations of sexually dimorphic expression of genes on the mammalian X-chromosome are needed to understand the evolutionary forces and the gene-regulatory mechanisms controlling this chromosome. We performed a large-scale sex-bias expression analysis of genes on the X-chromosome in six different somatic tissues from mouse. Results Our results show that the mouse X-chromosome is enriched with female-biased genes and depleted of male-biased genes. This suggests that feminisation as well as de-masculinisation of the X-chromosome has occurred in terms of gene expression in non-reproductive tissues. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the control of female-biased expression on chromosome X, and escape from X-inactivation is a main candidate. We confirmed escape in case of Tmem29 using RNA-FISH analysis. In addition, we identified novel female-biased non-coding transcripts located in the same female-biased cluster as the well-known coding X-inactivation escapee Kdm5c, likely transcribed from the transition-region between active and silenced domains. We also found that previously known escapees only partially explained the overrepresentation of female-biased X-genes, particularly for tissue-specific female-biased genes. Therefore, the gene set we have identified contains tissue-specific escapees and/or genes controlled by other sexually skewed regulatory mechanisms. Analysis of gene age showed that evolutionarily old X-genes (>100 myr, preceding the radiation of placental mammals) are more frequently female-biased than younger genes. Conclusion Altogether, our results have implications for understanding both gene regulation and gene evolution of mammalian X-chromosomes, and suggest that the final result in terms of the X-gene composition (masculinisation versus feminisation) is a compromise between different evolutionary forces acting on reproductive and somatic tissues. PMID:23140559

  15. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Austen B; Rafi, Syed K; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-05-05

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  16. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Austen B.; Rafi, Syed K.; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD. PMID:27164088

  17. Chromosomal evolution of rDNA and H3 histone genes in representative Romaleidae grasshoppers from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grasshoppers from the Romaleidae family are well distributed in the Neotropical Region and represent a diversified and multicolored group in which the karyotype is conserved. Few studies have been conducted to understand the evolutionary dynamics of multigene families. Here, we report the chromosomal locations of the 18S and 5S rDNA and H3 histone multigene families in four grasshopper species from the Romaleidae family, revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results The 5S rDNA gene was located in one or two chromosome pairs, depending on the species, and was found in a basal distribution pattern. Its chromosomal location was highly conserved among these species. The 18S rDNA was located in a single medium-sized chromosomal pair in all species analyzed. Its chromosomal location was near the centromere in the proximal or pericentromeric regions. The location of the H3 histone gene was highly conserved, with slight chromosomal location differences among some species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a megameric chromosome carrying both the chromosomal markers 18S rDNA and the H3 histone genes, thereby expanding our understanding of such chromosomes. Conclusions The 5S and 18S rDNA genes and the H3 histone genes showed a conservative pattern in the species that we analyzed. A basal distribution pattern for 5S rDNA was observed with a location on the fourth chromosomal pair, and it was identified as the possible ancestral bearer. The 18S rDNA and H3 histone genes were restricted to a single pair of chromosomes, representing an ancestral pattern. Our results reinforce the known taxonomic relationships between Chromacris and Xestotrachelus, which are two close genera. PMID:24090216

  18. Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function.

    PubMed

    Cannarella, Rossella; Mattina, Teresa; Condorelli, Rosita A; Mongioì, Laura M; Pandini, Giuseppe; La Vignera, Sandro; Calogero, Aldo E

    2017-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. We report two male patients with the smallest 15q26.3 chromosome duplication described so far, and a female patient with ring chromosome 15 syndrome. Patient one, with a 568 kb pure duplication, had overgrowth, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation, obesity, cryptorchidism, borderline low testis volume, severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and gynecomastia. We found a 1.8-fold increase in the IGF1R mRNA and a 1.3-fold increase in the IGF1R protein expression (P < 0.05). Patient two, with a 650 kb impure duplication, showed overgrowth, developmental delay, mild mental retardation, precocious puberty, low testicular volume and severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The IGF1R mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of the control. Patient three, with a 46,XX r(15) (p10q26.2) karyotype, displayed intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation. We found a <0.5-fold decrease in the IGF1R mRNA expression and an undetectable IGF1R activity. After reviewing the previously 96 published cases of chromosome 15q duplication, we found that neurological disorders, congenital cardiac defects, typical facial traits and gonadal abnormalities are the prominent features in patients with chromosome 15q duplication. Interestingly, patients with 15q deletion syndrome display similar features. We speculate that both the increased and decreased IGF1R gene expression may play a role in the etiology of neurological and gonadal disorders. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    PubMed

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  20. Unequal rates of Y chromosome gene divergence during speciation of the family Ursidae.

    PubMed

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2008-07-01

    Evolution of the bear family Ursidae is well investigated in terms of morphological, paleontological, and genetic features. However, several phylogenetic ambiguities occur within the subfamily Ursinae (the family Ursidae excluding the giant panda and spectacled bear), which may correlate with behavioral traits of female philopatry and male-biased dispersal which form the basis of the observed matriarchal population structure in these species. In the process of bear evolution, we investigate the premise that such behavioral traits may be reflected in patterns of variation among genes with different modes of inheritance: matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), patrilineal Y chromosome, biparentally inherited autosomes, and the X chromosome. In the present study, we sequenced 3 Y-linked genes (3,453 bp) and 4 X-linked genes (4,960 bp) and reanalyzed previously published sequences from autosome genes (2,347 bp) in ursid species to investigate differences in evolutionary rates associated with patterns of inheritance. The results describe topological incongruence between sex-linked genes</