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Sample records for chronic angle-closure glaucoma

  1. Biometric Differences between Unilateral Chronic Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma and Fellow Non-Glaucomatous Eyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xinyi; Chen, Shida; Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2017-11-29

    To compare biometric differences between eyes with unilateral chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and fellow non-glaucomatous eyes in the same patient. Clinical data and imaging records of 17 patients with unilateral PACG were retrospectively reviewed. The fellow eyes with primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure suspected (PACS) were grouped in Group 1. The PACG eyes were set as Group 2. The biometric parameters of both eyes were measured by IOL-Master, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and swept source OCT. The iris area in Group 1 was significantly thicker than that in Group 2 (1.590 ± 0.267 versus 1.365 ± 0.352, P = 0.016). Choroidal thickness in the macular region was thicker in Group 1 than in Group 2, with statistical significance at inner temporal grid (282.7 ± 121.1 versus 191.6 ± 90.3, P = 0.036), central field (297.4 ± 130.6 versus 200.1 ± 96.3, P = 0.029), inner nasal grid (283.1 ± 128.3 versus 194.8 ± 91.8, P = 0.040), and average value (265.3 ± 105.6 versus 191.1 ± 87.0, P = 0.049). Group 1 also had thicker peripapillary choroidal thickness at 1 o'clock (141.4 ± 68.4 versus 101.8 ± 39.0, P = 0.025) and 12 o'clock (141.5 ± 82.3 versus 104.5 ± 44.6, P = 0.037) compared to Group 2. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only intraocular pressure was independently associated with PACG and explained 58.3% variance of PACG. In unilateral PACG, there was significant inter-eye difference in anterior and posterior segment parameters. Longitudinal comparisons are required to further understand the differences in pathology of angle closures.

  2. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace M; Thuente, Daniel; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-06-01

    Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months) and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy). Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control.

  3. Interocular asymmetry of the visual field defects in newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma, and chronic angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Shi, Yan; Wang, Xin; Liu, Mugen; Zhang, Chun

    2014-09-01

    To compare the interocular asymmetry of visual field loss in newly diagnosed normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) patients. Visual field results of 117 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive glaucoma patients (42 NTG, 38 POAG, and 37 CACG) were studied retrospectively. The following 3 visual field defect parameters were used to evaluate the interocular asymmetry: (1) global indices; (2) local mean deviations (MDs) of 6 predefined visual field areas; and (3) stage designated by glaucoma staging system 2. The differences of the above parameters between the trial eye (the eye with greater MDs) and the fellow eye in each subject were defined as interocular asymmetry scores. Interocular asymmetry of visual field loss was presented in all the 3 groups (all P<0.05). CACG group had greater total MD interocular asymmetry score compared with the NTG and POAG groups (among groups, P=0.008; NTG vs. CACG, P=0.005; POAG vs. CACG, P=0.009). CACG also presented with significantly higher local MD interocular asymmetry scores at central, inferior, and temporal areas compared with those of the POAG group and at inferior area compared with that of NTG group. No significant difference in either total or local MDs was detected between NTG and POAG (all P>0.05). Interocular asymmetry scores of glaucoma staging system 2 had no significant difference among the 3 groups (P=0.068). All CACG, POAG, and NTG groups presented with interocular asymmetric visual field loss at the time of diagnosis. CACG had greater interocular asymmetry compared with NTG and POAG. No significant interocular asymmetry difference was observed between NTG and POAG.

  4. Ethnic differences in primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Foster, Paul J

    2006-04-01

    Observational studies from different countries have shown that populations of East Asian origin have a higher frequency of primary angle-closure glaucoma compared with those of European or African descent. As half of all cases of glaucoma reside in Asia, and with primary angle-closure glaucoma carrying a higher rate of visual morbidity, primary angle-closure glaucoma poses an important public health problem; however, the inconsistent use of techniques and definitions to detect and diagnose primary angle-closure glaucoma has resulted in difficulties in interpreting the accuracy and comparability of such data. Therefore it is important to review these studies in the light of a consistent classification system. There are increasing reports that support previous findings on the incidence and prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma in different ethnic groups. There have also been further investigations into the mechanism and natural history of primary angle-closure glaucoma in Asian populations. International investigations into primary angle-closure glaucoma have demonstrated reproducible evidence that ethnic variations do exist. Cross-sectional studies in this area have also suggested that differences in anterior chamber depth, together with its association with peripheral anterior synechiae, may be part of the underlying mechanism behind these differences. The ideas generated need to be further explored with longitudinal data of changes in anterior chamber depth and peripheral anterior synechiae in different populations. The detailed mechanisms behind the development of angle-closure and primary angle-closure glaucoma should also be investigated.

  5. Reduced intraocular pressure after cataract surgery in patients with narrow angles and chronic angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Reay H; Zhong, Le; Whitman, Allison L; Lynch, Mary G; Kilgo, Patrick D; Hovis, Kristen L

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of cataract surgery on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with narrow angles and chronic angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) and to determine whether the change in IOP was correlated with the preoperative pressure, axial length (AL), and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Private practice, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Retrospective case series. Charts of patients with narrow angles or chronic ACG who had cataract surgery were reviewed. All eyes had previous laser iridotomies. Data recorded included preoperative and postoperative IOP, AL, and ACD. The preoperative IOP was used to stratify eyes into 4 groups. The charts of 56 patients (83 eyes) were reviewed. The mean reduction IOP in all eyes was 3.28 mm Hg (18%), with 88% having a decrease in IOP. There was a significant correlation between preoperative IOP and the magnitude of IOP reduction (r = 0.68, P < .001). The mean decrease in IOP was 5.3 mm Hg in eyes with a preoperative IOP above 20 mm Hg, 4.6 mm Hg in the over 18 to 20 mm Hg group, 2.5 mm Hg in the over 15 to 18 mm Hg group, and 1.4 mm Hg in the 15 mm Hg or less group. The mean follow-up was 3.0 years ± 2.3 (SD). Cataract surgery reduced IOP in patients with narrow angles and chronic ACG. The magnitude of reduction was highly correlated with preoperative IOP and weakly correlated with ACD. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary angle closure glaucoma in a myopic kinship.

    PubMed

    Hagan, J C; Lederer, C M

    1985-03-01

    Three related myopic individuals with primary angle closure glaucoma are reported. They had true myopia and not pseudomyopia secondary to increased lenticular index of refraction. We believe one of these individuals (-8.62 spherical equivalent) to have the most myopic case of primary angle closure glaucoma reported in the literature. Although myopia is associated with anatomical factors that offer considerable protection from primary angle closure glaucoma, its presence does not eliminate the possibility of this disease. Laser iridectomy was effective in the treatment of these patients.

  7. Bilateral phacomorphic angle-closure glaucoma in a highly myopic patient secondary to isolated spherophakia.

    PubMed

    Sowka, Joseph; Girgis, Nadine

    2010-09-01

    Angle closure most commonly occurs in older hyperopic patients as a result of primary relative pupil block. Less frequently, angle closure occurs in highly myopic patients with conditions other than primary relative pupil block. This report presents the diagnosis, pathophysiologic mechanism, and management of a patient with both high myopia and bilateral advanced phacomorphic angle-closure glaucoma caused by isolated spherophakia. A 40-year-old asymptomatic man with very high myopic astigmatism presented with chronic angle closure and an intraocular pressure of 42 mmHg in both eyes. Additionally there was a nonmyopic fundus and 24-mm axial length, with a clear crystalline lens protruding through the pupillary plane in each eye, confirmed by B-scan ultrasonography. Gonioscopy and A-scan and B-scan ultrasonography identified the pathogenesis of intraocular pressure elevation, angle closure, and high myopia to be lenticular in origin. Initial medical therapy and subsequent laser iridotomy relieved the pupil block angle closure and successfully lowered intraocular pressure. Angle closure can occur in highly myopic eyes. Careful gonioscopy and ultrasonography can lead to the correct diagnosis and tailored management for these eyes. Phacomorphic angle-closure glaucoma from spherophakia is associated with Weill-Marchesani syndrome as well as a few other uncommon syndromes. Isolated pseudophakia is a rarely reported cause of phacomorphic angle closure. Copyright 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Iridotomy to slow progression of angle-closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jimmy T; Rouse, Benjamin; Gazzard, Gus

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The primary objective is to assess the role of iridotomy-compared with observation-in the prevention of visual field loss for individuals who have primary angle closure or primary angle-closure glaucoma in at least one eye. We will also examine the role of iridotomy in the prevention of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in individuals with narrow angles (primary angle-closure suspect) in at least one eye. PMID:27551238

  9. Resident-performed laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle closure, primary angle closure suspects, and primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jason P; Zepeda, Emily M; Ding, Leona; Wen, Joanne C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the power use and complication frequency of resident-performed laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). A retrospective analysis of 196 eyes from 103 patients who underwent neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser iridotomy performed by resident physicians from January 1, 2010 through April 30, 2015 at a university-based county hospital was done. All patients were treated for primary angle closure, primary angle closure suspects, and primary angle closure glaucoma. Data were collected on pre- and post-laser intraocular pressure (IOP), ethnicity, laser parameters and complications. Mean power use and frequency of complications were evaluated. Complications included elevated post-laser IOP at 30-45 minutes (≥8 mmHg), hyphema, aborted procedures, and lasering non-iris structures. The number of repeated LPI procedures, was also recorded. Mean total power used for all residents was 78.2±68.7 mJ per eye. Power use by first-year trainees was significantly higher than second- and third-year trainees (103.5±75.5 mJ versus 73.7±73.8 mJ and 67.2±56.4 mJ, respectively, p =0.011). Complications included hyphema or microhyphema in 17.9% (35/196), IOP spikes in 5.1% (10/196), aborted procedures in 1.1% (3/196) and lasering non-iris structures in 0.5% (1/196). LPI was repeated in 22.4% of cases (44/196) with higher incidence of repeat LPI among non-Caucasian compared to the Caucasian subjects ( p =0.02). Complication rates did not differ with increased training ( p =0.16). Total power used for LPI decreased with increased resident training, while the complication rate did not differ significantly among resident classes. Complication rates were comparable to rates reported in the literature for attending-performed LPIs.

  10. Fish allergy causing angioedema and secondary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Calder, Donovan; Calder, Jennifer

    2013-03-06

    A 56-year-old woman with a history of primary angle-closure glaucoma presented with acute generalised swelling, and facial angioedema following a fish meal. She complained of nausea, vomiting, headache, pain in both eyes and acute loss of vision. Her visual acuity was reduced and intraocular pressures (IOP) were elevated. Gonioscopy revealed complete angle closure in the left eye and complete to partial closure in the right eye. Through existing peripheral iridotomies the anterior capsules were seen pressed up against the iris of both eyes. A diagnosis of angle-closure glaucoma was made, medications were started to reduce the elevated intraocular pressure and systemic antihistamine to counter the allergic reaction. She was hospitalised for further management. A follow-up at 2 years revealed her visual acuities and IOP had remained normal.

  11. Gonioscopy in primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Christina A; Alward, Wallace L M

    2002-06-01

    Primary angle closure is a condition characterized by obstruction to aqueous humor outflow by the peripheral iris, and results in changes in the iridocorneal angle that are visible through gonioscopic examination. Gonioscopy in these eyes, however, can be difficult. This chapter discusses techniques that might help in the examination. These include beginning the examination with the inferior angle, methods to help in looking over the iris, cycloplegia, locating the corneal wedge, indentation, van Herick estimation, examining the other eye, and topical glycerin. Finally, there is a discussion about the pathology associated with the closed angle, with emphasis on the appearance of iris bombé, plateau iris, and the distinction between iris processes and peripheral anterior synechiae.

  12. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    Open-angle glaucoma; Chronic glaucoma; Chronic open-angle glaucoma; Primary open-angle glaucoma; Closed-angle glaucoma; Narrow-angle glaucoma; Angle-closure glaucoma; Acute glaucoma; Secondary glaucoma; Congenital glaucoma; Vision ...

  13. Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma after hyperopic LASIK correction

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Essam A.; Alsaleh, Ahmed A.; Al Turki, Turki; AL Obeidan, Saleh A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is unexpected complication following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). We are reporting a 49-years-old lady that was presented to the emergency department with acute glaucoma in both eyes soon after LASIK correction. Diagnosis was made on detailed clinical history and examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement and gonioscopy. Laser iridotomy in both eyes succeeded in controlling the attack and normalizing the intraocular pressure (IOP) more than 6 months of follow-up. Prophylactic laser iridotomy is essential for narrow angle patients before LASIK surgery if refractive laser surgery is indicated. PMID:23960863

  14. [Acute angle-closure glaucoma after total hip replacement surgery].

    PubMed

    Ujino, H; Morimoto, O; Yukioka, H; Fujimori, M

    1997-06-01

    Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication of surgery. We experienced a case of postoperative acute glaucoma after total hip replacement under general anesthesia. A 49-year-old female without signs or symptoms of glaucoma was premedicated with the intramuscular administration of secobarbital, atropine and ranitidine. Following rapid induction with thiopental and vecuronium, anesthesia was maintained with N2O-O2-sevoflurane. PGE1 was administered intravenously for induced hypotension during the surgery. Hemorrhagic shock with a systolic blood pressure of 60 mmHg continued for 15 min during the surgery. Large amounts of fluid and ephedrine were required for treating this hypotensive episode. Vecuronium was reversed by bolus injection of neostigmine and atropine at the end of surgery. Soon after recovery from anesthesia, she complained of pain and blurred vision in her both eyes. The consulting ophthalmologist made a diagnosis of acute glaucoma due to high intraocular pressure (IOP). Treatment with glycerol and pilocarpine had no effect on the elevated IOP. The laser iridotomy performed on her at 5th and 7th post-operative days improved her vision completely. The post-operative glaucoma may cause serious permanent loss of vision. An early diagnosis of this post-operative complication and its treatment with drugs and surgery should be emphasized.

  15. Undetected angle closure in patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Varma, Devesh K; Simpson, Sarah M; Rai, Amandeep S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the proportion of patients referred to a tertiary glaucoma centre with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) who were found to have angle closure glaucoma. Retrospective chart review. Consecutive new patients referred for glaucoma management to a tertiary centre between July 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed. Patients whose referrals for glaucoma assessment specified angle status as "open" were included. The data collected included glaucoma specialist's angle assessment, diagnosis, and glaucoma severity. The status of those with 180 degrees or more Shaffer angle grading of 0 was classified as "closed." From 1234 glaucoma referrals, 179 cases were specified to have a diagnosis of OAG or when angles were known to be open. Of these, 16 (8.9%) were found on examination by the glaucoma specialist to have angle closure. Pseudoexfoliation was present in 4 of 16 patients (25%) in the missed angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) group and 22 of 108 patients (13.5%) in the remaining OAG group. There was no difference found in demographic or ocular biometric parameters between those with confirmed OAG versus those with missed ACG. Almost 1 in 11 patients referred by ophthalmologists to a tertiary glaucoma centre with a diagnosis of OAG were in fact found to have angle closure. Given the different treatment approaches for ACG versus OAG, this study suggests a need to strengthen angle evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trabecular Meshwork Height in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Versus Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Masis, Marisse; Chen, Rebecca; Porco, Travis; Lin, Shan C

    2017-11-01

    To determine if trabecular meshwork (TM) height differs between primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes. Prospective, cross-sectional clinical study. Adult patients were consecutively recruited from glaucoma clinics at the University of California, San Francisco, from January 2012 to July 2015. Images were obtained from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA). Univariate and multivariate linear mixed models comparing TM height and glaucoma type were performed to assess the relationship between TM height and glaucoma subtype. Mixed-effects regression was used to adjust for the use of both eyes in some subjects. The study included 260 eyes from 161 subjects, composed of 61 men and 100 women. Mean age was 70 years (SD 11.77). There were 199 eyes (123 patients) in the POAG group and 61 eyes (38 patients) in the PACG group. Mean TM heights in the POAG and PACG groups were 812 ± 13 μm and 732 ± 27 μm, respectively, and the difference was significant in univariate analysis (P = .004) and in multivariate analysis (β = -88.7 [24.05-153.5]; P = .008). In this clinic-based population, trabecular meshwork height is shorter in PACG patients compared to POAG patients. This finding may provide insight into the pathophysiology of angle closure and provide assistance in future diagnosis, prevention, and management of the angle-closure spectrum of disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Corneal status in primary angle-closure glaucoma with a history of acute attack.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ju; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lee, Shui-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The corneal status of patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) with a history of acute attack was investigated. This cross-sectional study included 40 eyes of PACG patients with an earlier documented symptomatic acute angle-closure attack (aPACG), 40 uninvolved fellow eyes of aPACG patients (fPACG), 44 eyes of chronic PACG patients without such a history (cPACG), and 50 eyes of age-matched normal participants. All glaucoma patients had patent peripheral iridotomies with adequate intraocular pressure control. The examinations and recorded parameters included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, specular microscopy, central corneal pachymetry, refraction, corneal curvature radius, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and lens thickness measurements, and the presenting intraocular pressure and the duration of acute angle-closure attack for aPACG eyes. The mean endothelial cell density was 2271±80 cells/mm(2) in aPACG, 2458±79 cells/mm(2) in fPACG, 2379±50 cells/mm(2) in cPACG, and 2559±45 cells/mm(2) in controls. The aPACG eyes had significantly lower endothelial cell density compared with normal eyes (P=0.002). There was no significant difference in endothelial cell density of aPACG eyes compared with fPACG or cPACG eyes. Multivariate analysis showed the duration of the acute attack was the only factor independently associated with corneal endothelial density of aPACG eyes. The mean central corneal thickness of aPACG (549±32 μm) did not differ significantly from control eyes (552±27 μm), cPACG (557±32 μm), and fPACG (553±31 μm) (P=0.911, 0.274, and 0.725, respectively). Corneal curvature radius of aPACG eyes was not significantly different from that of the comparison groups (all P>0.05). Corneal endothelial cell density was significantly reduced in aPACG eyes compared with normal eyes. No significant difference in endothelial cell density of aPACG eyes was noted when compared with fPACG or cPACG eyes

  18. Unilateral Angle-Closure Glaucoma with Ciliochoroidal Effusion after the Consumption of Cannabis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion. PMID:25606036

  19. Unilateral angle-closure glaucoma with ciliochoroidal effusion after the consumption of cannabis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Rana; Tiosano, Beatrice; Dbayat, Noora; Gaton, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old male patient, diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma, did not improve despite intensive treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliochoroidal effusion. Due to his past history of drug abuse, a urine test was analyzed and found to be positive for cannabis. After topical cycloplegia and oral steroid therapy, his symptoms improved substantially. The present case highlights the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in evaluating patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and the role of cannabis abuse in the development of ciliochoroidal effusion.

  20. Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure glaucoma in sibilings with weill-marchesani syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ritch, R; Solomon, L D

    1992-01-01

    A patient with Weill-Marchesani syndrome and angle-closure glaucoma had persistent appositional closure after laser iridotomy that was unrelieved by topical application of either miotic or cycloplegic agents. Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty successfully opened the angle. The patient's sister also had Weill-Marchesani syndrome and angle closure unrelieved by laser iridotomy. Angle closure in Weill-Marchesani syndrome and the response to laser iridotomy and treatment with either miotic or cycloplegic agents may be complex and depends on the relative proportion of pupillary block as a mechanism underlying the angle closure, the functional status of the zonular apparatus, and the degree of angle crowding by the peripheral iris in the presence or absence of peripheral anterior synechiae.

  1. Bilateral simultaneous acute angle closure glaucoma precipitated by non-prescription cold and flu medication.

    PubMed

    Rudkin, Adam K; Gray, Tim L; Awadalla, Mona; Craig, Jamie E

    2010-10-01

    We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented to an ED with bifrontal headache, nausea and vomiting and reduced visual acuity. Examination revealed bilateral elevated intraocular pressures, corneal haze, shallow anterior chambers and poorly reactive, mid-dilated pupils. Diagnosis was made of simultaneous bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma. A complete drug history revealed that she had been using an over-the-counter cold and flu remedy whose active ingredients included atropa belladonna, an herb with anticholinergic properties. It is likely that drug-induced dilatation of the individual's pupils precipitated this angle closure emergency. In the report we discuss the risk factors for angle closure glaucoma, and review the local and systemic drugs known to trigger this sight-threatening emergency. © 2010 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Bilateral nanophthalmos, pigmentary retinal dystrophy, and angle closure glaucoma--a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, S; Sachdev, M S; Kumar, H

    1985-01-01

    An unusual case of bilateral nanophthalmos with pigmentary retinal dystrophy and angle closure glaucoma is presented. This is probably the first published report of the established association of all these three entities in the same patient. The aetiological possibilities and clinical significance are discussed. Images PMID:4016062

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of the trabecular meshwork: understanding the pathogenesis of primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Ramanjit; Goyal, Amita; Kaur, Jasbir; Gupta, Viney; Nag, Tapas C

    2012-01-01

    To study ultrastructural changes of the trabecular meshwork in acute and chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes by scanning electron microscopy. Twenty-one trabecular meshwork surgical specimens from consecutive glaucomatous eyes after a trabeculectomy and five postmortem corneoscleral specimens were fixed immediately in Karnovsky solution. The tissues were washed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer saline, post-fixed in 1% osmium tetraoxide, dehydrated in acetone series (30-100%), dried and mounted. Normal trabecular tissue showed well-defined, thin, cylindrical uveal trabecular beams with many large spaces, overlying flatter corneoscleral beams and numerous smaller spaces. In acute PACG eyes, the trabecular meshwork showed grossly swollen, irregular trabecular endothelial cells with intercellular and occasional basal separation with few spaces. Numerous activated macrophages, leucocytes and amorphous debris were present. Chronic PACG eyes had a few, thickened posterior uveal trabecular beams visible. A homogenous deposit covered the anterior uveal trabeculae and spaces. Converging, fan-shaped trabecular beam configuration corresponded to gonioscopic areas of peripheral anterior synechiae. In POAG eyes, anterior uveal trabecular beams were thin and strap-like, while those posteriorly were wide, with a homogenous deposit covering and bridging intertrabecular spaces, especially posteriorly. Underlying corneoscleral trabecular layers and spaces were visualized in some areas. In acute PACG a marked edema of the endothelium probably contributes for the acute and marked intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Chronically raised IOP in chronic PACG and POAG probably results, at least in part, from decreased aqueous outflow secondary to widening and fusion of adjacent trabecular beams, together with the homogenous deposit enmeshing trabecular beams and spaces.

  4. A randomised crossover study comparing bimatoprost and latanoprost in subjects with primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    How, A C S; Kumar, R S; Chen, Y-M; Su, D H; Gao, H; Oen, F T; Ho, C-L; Seah, S K; Aung, T

    2009-06-01

    To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy and side effects of latanoprost 0.005% and bimatoprost 0.03% in subjects with chronic primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). This was an observer-masked randomised crossover study of 60 PACG subjects who received either latanoprost or bimatoprost for 6 weeks, after which they were crossed over to the other medication for another 6 weeks. The IOP-reducing effect of the medications was assessed by the reduction in IOP after 6 weeks of treatment compared with baseline. Fifty-four subjects (80 eyes) completed the study. Latanoprost reduced IOP (mean (SD)) by 8.4 (3.8) mm Hg and bimatoprost by 8.9 (3.9) mm Hg from a baseline of 25.2 (3.6) mm Hg and 25.2 (3.6) mm Hg respectively (p = 0.23). Adverse events were mild in both groups; however there were twice as many reports of an adverse event in the bimatoprost group (81%) compared with the latanoprost group (40%, p<0.01). Ocular irritation was the most frequently reported adverse event in both groups; 22 subjects (37.9%) treated with bimatoprost experienced ocular hyperaemia as compared with 13 subjects (22.4%) treated with latanoprost (p = 0.11). Bimatoprost once daily was similarly effective in reducing IOP compared with latanoprost once daily in subjects with chronic PACG. Both drugs were well tolerated with mild ocular adverse events.

  5. Functional and Structural Changes in a Canine Model of Hereditary Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kecova, Helga; Harper, Matthew M.; Nilaweera, Wijitha; Kuehn, Markus H.; Kardon, Randy H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize functional and structural changes in a canine model of hereditary primary angle-closure glaucoma. Methods. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was evaluated with tonometry in a colony of glaucomatous dogs at 8, 15, 18, 20, and 30 months of age. Retinal function was evaluated using electroretinography (scotopic, photopic, and pattern). Examination of anterior segment structures was performed using gonioscopy and high-frequency ultrasonography (HFU). Results. A gradual rise in IOP was observed with an increase in age: 8 months, 14 mm Hg (median value); 15 months, 15.5 mm Hg; 18 months, 17.5 mm Hg; 20 months, 24 mm Hg; 30 months, 36 mm Hg. Provocative testing with mydriatic agents (tropicamide and atropine 1%) caused significant increases in IOP (35% and 50%, respectively). HFU analysis showed complete collapse of iridocorneal angles by 20 months of age. Scotopic and photopic ERG analysis did not reveal significant deficits, but pattern ERG analysis showed significantly reduced amplitudes in glaucomatous dogs (glaucoma, 3.5 ± 0.4 μV; control, 6.2 ± 0.3 μV; P = 0.004; Student's t-test). Histologic analysis revealed collapse of the iridocorneal angle, posterior bowing of the lamina cribrosa, swelling and loss of large retinal ganglion cells, increased glial reactivity, and increased thickening of the lamina cribrosa. Conclusions. Canine hereditary angle-closure glaucoma is characterized by a progressive increase in intraocular pressure, loss of optic nerve function, and retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:19661222

  6. Segmentation and Quantification for Angle-Closure Glaucoma Assessment in Anterior Segment OCT.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Yanwu; Lin, Stephen; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Frangi, Alejandro F; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2017-09-01

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible visual impairment and can be identified by measuring the anterior chamber angle (ACA) of the eye. The ACA can be viewed clearly through anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), but the imaging characteristics and the shapes and locations of major ocular structures can vary significantly among different AS-OCT modalities, thus complicating image analysis. To address this problem, we propose a data-driven approach for automatic AS-OCT structure segmentation, measurement, and screening. Our technique first estimates initial markers in the eye through label transfer from a hand-labeled exemplar data set, whose images are collected over different patients and AS-OCT modalities. These initial markers are then refined by using a graph-based smoothing method that is guided by AS-OCT structural information. These markers facilitate segmentation of major clinical structures, which are used to recover standard clinical parameters. These parameters can be used not only to support clinicians in making anatomical assessments, but also to serve as features for detecting anterior angle closure in automatic glaucoma screening algorithms. Experiments on Visante AS-OCT and Cirrus high-definition-OCT data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  7. Anterior Segment Morphology in Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma using Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishna, Nagalla

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the configuration of the anterior chamber angle quantitatively and study the morphological changes in the eye with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Materials and methods A total of 185 eyes of 185 PACG patients post-LPI and 126 eyes of 126 normal subjects were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation, A-scan biometry, and UBM. The anterior segment and angle parameters were measured quantitatively and compared in both groups using Student’s t-test. Results The PACG patients had shorter axial length, shallower central anterior chamber depth anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anteriorly located lens when compared with normal subjects. Trabecular iris angle (TIA) was significantly narrow (5.73 ± 7.76°) in patients with PACG when compared with normal subjects (23.75 ± 9.38°). The angle opening distance at 500 pm from scleral spur (AOD 500), trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD), iris-ciliary process distance (ICPD), and iris-zonule distance (IZD) were significantly shorter in patients with PACG than in normal subjects (p < 0.0001). The iris lens angle (ILA), scleral-iris angle (SIA), and scleral-ciliary process angle (SCPA) were significantly narrower in patients with PACG than in normal subjects (p < 0.0001). The iris-lens contact distance (ILCD) was greater in PACG group than in normal (p = 0.001). Plateau iris was seen in 57/185 (30.8%) of the eyes. Anterior positioned ciliary processes were seen in 130/185 eyes (70.3%) of eyes. Conclusion In PACG patients, persistent apposition angle closure is common even after LPI, which could be due to anterior rotation of ciliary body and plateau iris and overcrowding of anterior segment due to shorter axial length and relative anterior lens position. How to cite this article: Mansoori T, Balakrishna N. Anterior Segment Morphology in Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma

  8. Genome-wide association analyses identify three new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; George, Ronnie; Chen, Li-Jia; Do, Tan; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Huang, Chor Kai; Low, Sancy; Tajudin, Liza-Sharmini A; Perera, Shamira A; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Xu, Liang; Jia, Hongyan; Ho, Ching-Lin; Sim, Kar Seng; Wu, Ren-Yi; Tham, Clement C Y; Chew, Paul T K; Su, Daniel H; Oen, Francis T; Sarangapani, Sripriya; Soumittra, Nagaswamy; Osman, Essam A; Wong, Hon-Tym; Tang, Guangxian; Fan, Sujie; Meng, Hailin; Huong, Dao T L; Wang, Hua; Feng, Bo; Baskaran, Mani; Shantha, Balekudaru; Ramprasad, Vedam L; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; Iyengar, Sudha K; How, Alicia C; Lee, Kelvin Y; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Yong, Victor H K; Ting, Serena M L; Li, Yang; Wang, Ya-Xing; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Xueling; Lavanya, Raghavan; Cornes, Belinda K; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Wong, Tina T; Loon, Seng-Chee; Yong, Vernon K Y; Waseem, Naushin; Yaakub, Azhany; Chia, Kee-Seng; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Lam, Dennis S C; Hibberd, Martin L; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Zhang, Mingzhi; Teo, Yik Ying; Tan, Donald T; Jonas, Jost B; Tai, E-Shyong; Saw, Seang-Mei; Hon, Do Nhu; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A; Liu, Jianjun; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Simmons, Cameron P; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Foster, Paul J; Vijaya, Lingam; Wong, Tien-Yin; Pang, Chi-Pui

    2014-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study including 1,854 PACG cases and 9,608 controls across 5 sample collections in Asia. Replication experiments were conducted in 1,917 PACG cases and 8,943 controls collected from a further 6 sample collections. We report significant associations at three new loci: rs11024102 in PLEKHA7 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; P = 5.33 × 10−12), rs3753841 in COL11A1 (per-allele OR = 1.20; P = 9.22 × 10−10) and rs1015213 located between PCMTD1 and ST18 on chromosome 8q (per-allele OR = 1.50; P = 3.29 × 10−9). Our findings, accumulated across these independent worldwide collections, suggest possible mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis of PACG. PMID:22922875

  9. [Angle-closure glaucoma secondary to nonspecific orbital inflammatory: case report].

    PubMed

    Násser, Luciano Sólia; Liendo da Costa, Vera Lucia; Taniguchi, Marcel Papa; Bolanho, Anamaria; Petrilli, Ana Maria Noriega

    2007-01-01

    The nonspecific orbital inflammatory presents several clinical forms. When it evolves the posterior segment of the eye, usually by contiguity, it can lead to serious damage to vision functions. Posterior scleritis causes permanent damage to the vision and rarely progresses to acute glaucoma. E.N., a 24-year-old black man, complained of pain in the left eye (OS) for ten days, with low visual acuity, malaise, nauseas and vomiting. On ophthalmologic examination, he presented proptosis, restricted eye movements and edema on the upper left eyelid. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in OD and counting fingers at 1.5m in OS. The intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg in OD and 34 mmHg in OS. The biomicroscopy presented in OS conjunctival hyperemia cornea with keratic precipitates, shallow anterior chamber with cells and flare 2+. Gonioscopy in OS showed angle-closure of 360 masculine. The ophthalmoscopic examination revealed increased vascular tortuosity and posterior pole edema. Treatment for acute glaucoma was initiated and complementary tests were ordered. Ocular ultrasonography and orbit computerized tomography showed a diffuse thickening of the ocular wall and extrinsic muscles. Other tests were normal. The presumptive diagnosis was acute nonspecific orbital inflammation affecting the ocular bulb posterior segment together with acute glaucoma. He initiated on prednisone 60 mg/day PO. After two weeks of systemic corticotherapy, the patient was asymptomatic, with evident regression of proptosis and scleritis and normal intraocular pressure (11 mmHg in AU). Although not very frequent, acute glaucoma may be present in orbital inflammatory process and should be treated with systemic corticotherapy and topical medication.

  10. Rates of hospital admissions for primary angle closure glaucoma among Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wong, T. Y.; Foster, P.; Seah, S.; Chew, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To estimate the rates of hospital admissions for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore
METHODS—A population-wide hospital discharge database in Singapore was used to identify all hospital admissions with a primary discharge diagnosis of PACG (International Classification of Disease—CM code: 365.2). The Singapore census was used for denominator data.
RESULTS—Between 1993 and 1997 there were 894 hospital admissions for PACG. The mean annual rate of PACG admissions was 11.1 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 10.4, 11.8) among people aged 30 years and over. The annual rate was highest for Chinese (age and sex adjusted rate: 12.2 per 100 000), which was twice that of Malays (6.0 per 100 000) and Indians (6.3 per 100 000). Females had two times higher rates than males in all three races (age adjusted relative risk: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 2.3).
CONCLUSION—Malay and Indian people had identical rates of hospital admissions for PACG, which were only half the rates compared with Chinese.

 PMID:10966951

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies five new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chiea Chuen; Do, Tan; Jia, Hongyan; Nakano, Masakazu; George, Ronnie; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Duvesh, Roopam; Chen, Li Jia; Li, Zheng; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; Qiao, Chunyan; Wong, Hon-Tym; Sakai, Hiroshi; Barbosa de Melo, Mônica; Lee, Mei-Chin; Chan, Anita S; Azhany, Yaakub; Dao, Thi Lam Huong; Ikeda, Yoko; Perez-Grossmann, Rodolfo A; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Day, Alexander C; Jonas, Jost B; Tam, Pancy O S; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ayub, Humaira; Akhtar, Farah; Micheal, Shazia; Chew, Paul T K; Aljasim, Leyla A; Dada, Tanuj; Luu, Tam Thi; Awadalla, Mona S; Kitnarong, Naris; Wanichwecharungruang, Boonsong; Aung, Yee Yee; Mohamed-Noor, Jelinar; Vijayan, Saravanan; Sarangapani, Sripriya; Husain, Rahat; Jap, Aliza; Baskaran, Mani; Goh, David; Su, Daniel H; Wang, Huaizhou; Yong, Vernon K; Yip, Leonard W; Trinh, Tuyet Bach; Makornwattana, Manchima; Nguyen, Thanh Thu; Leuenberger, Edgar U; Park, Ki-Ho; Wiyogo, Widya Artini; Kumar, Rajesh S; Tello, Celso; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Thapa, Suman S; Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Salmon, John F; Sohn, Yong Ho; Fea, Antonio; Ozaki, Mineo; Lai, Jimmy S M; Tantisevi, Visanee; Khaing, Chaw Chaw; Mizoguchi, Takanori; Nakano, Satoko; Kim, Chan-Yun; Tang, Guangxian; Fan, Sujie; Wu, Renyi; Meng, Hailin; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Giang; Tran, Tien Dat; Ueno, Morio; Martinez, Jose Maria; Ramli, Norlina; Aung, Yin Mon; Reyes, Rigo Daniel; Vernon, Stephen A; Fang, Seng Kheong; Xie, Zhicheng; Chen, Xiao Yin; Foo, Jia Nee; Sim, Kar Seng; Wong, Tina T; Quek, Desmond T; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Kavitha, Srinivasan; Krishnadas, Subbiah R; Soumittra, Nagaswamy; Shantha, Balekudaru; Lim, Boon-Ang; Ogle, Jeanne; de Vasconcellos, José P C; Costa, Vital P; Abe, Ricardo Y; de Souza, Bruno B; Sng, Chelvin C; Aquino, Maria C; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Fong, Guillermo Barreto; Tamanaja, Vania Castro; Fujita, Ricardo; Jiang, Yuzhen; Waseem, Naushin; Low, Sancy; Pham, Huan Nguyen; Al-Shahwan, Sami; Craven, E Randy; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Dada, Rrima; Mohanty, Kuldeep; Faiq, Muneeb A; Hewitt, Alex W; Burdon, Kathryn P; Gan, Eng Hui; Prutthipongsit, Anuwat; Patthanathamrongkasem, Thipnapa; Catacutan, Mary Ann T; Felarca, Irene R; Liao, Chona S; Rusmayani, Emma; Istiantoro, Vira Wardhana; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Lavia, Carlo; Rojanapongpun, Prin; Mangkornkanokpong, Lerprat; Chansangpetch, Sunee; Chan, Jonathan C H; Choy, Bonnie N K; Shum, Jennifer W H; Than, Hlaing May; Oo, Khin Thida; Han, Aye Thi; Yong, Victor H; Ng, Xiao-Yu; Goh, Shuang Ru; Chong, Yaan Fun; Hibberd, Martin L; Seielstad, Mark; Png, Eileen; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Bei, Jinxin; Zeng, Yi Xin; Karkey, Abhilasha; Basnyat, Buddha; Pasutto, Francesca; Paoli, Daniela; Frezzotti, Paolo; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Fingert, John H; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Lim, Soon Thye; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Park, Kyu Hyung; Ahn, Jeeyun; Boland, Greet; Snippe, Harm; Stead, Richard; Quino, Raquel; Zaw, Su Nyunt; Lukasik, Urszula; Shetty, Rohit; Zahari, Mimiwati; Bae, Hyoung Won; Oo, Nay Lin; Kubota, Toshiaki; Manassakorn, Anita; Ho, Wing Lau; Dallorto, Laura; Hwang, Young Hoon; Kiire, Christine A; Kuroda, Masako; Djamal, Zeiras Eka; Peregrino, Jovell Ian M; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Hoan, Tung S; Srisamran, Nuttamon; Sandragasu, Thayanithi; Set, Saw Htoo; Doan, Vi Huyen; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Ho, Ching-Lin; Tan, Donald T; Sihota, Ramanjit; Loon, Seng-Chee; Mori, Kazuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hollander, Anneke I den; Qamar, Raheel; Wang, Ya-Xing; Teo, Yik Y; Tai, E-Shyong; Hartleben-Matkin, Curt; Lozano-Giral, David; Saw, Seang Mei; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zenteno, Juan C; Pang, Chi Pui; Bui, Huong T T; Hee, Owen; Craig, Jamie E; Edward, Deepak P; Yonahara, Michiko; Neto, Jamil Miguel; Guevara-Fujita, Maria L; Xu, Liang; Ritch, Robert; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Wong, Tien Y; Al-Obeidan, Saleh; Do, Nhu Hon; Sundaresan, Periasamy; Tham, Clement C; Foster, Paul J; Vijaya, Lingam; Tashiro, Kei; Vithana, Eranga N; Wang, Ningli; Aung, Tin

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by replication in a combined total of 10,503 PACG cases and 29,567 controls drawn from 24 countries across Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. We observed significant evidence of disease association at five new genetic loci upon meta-analysis of all patient collections. These loci are at EPDR1 rs3816415 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, P = 5.94 × 10(-15)), CHAT rs1258267 (OR = 1.22, P = 2.85 × 10(-16)), GLIS3 rs736893 (OR = 1.18, P = 1.43 × 10(-14)), FERMT2 rs7494379 (OR = 1.14, P = 3.43 × 10(-11)), and DPM2-FAM102A rs3739821 (OR = 1.15, P = 8.32 × 10(-12)). We also confirmed significant association at three previously described loci (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each sentinel SNP at PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18), providing new insights into the biology of PACG.

  12. The Seasonality of Acute Attack of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyuan; Xu, Yang; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Dongjing; Zhu, Jingbo; Wu, Huijuan

    2018-03-05

    In this study, the seasonality of acute attack of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) was analysed. This retrospective case series included 283 patients (200 women, 83 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 10.3 years; range, 37-96 years) with acute attack of PACG from a university-based clinic over 4 years. Patients' age and sex, and the date and season of onset of PACG attack, were analysed. Descriptive analysis and von Mises distribution were used for statistical analysis. The highest incidence of acute attack of PACG was observed in those aged 60-69 years (34.6%). Descriptive analysis showed that the incidence was greater in June and July for men, November for women, and November for the entire sample. An angular plot (using von Mises distribution) of the individual dates of onset revealed the estimated peak onset on September 11, November 8, and October 28 for men, women, and both, respectively. Integration of the results from the two analyses revealed the incidence to be higher in the summer and winter for men, and in the winter for women and for the entire sample. More females than males were affected. Monthly and seasonal variations in onset were observed, which might be related to weather changes.

  13. The biometric study in different stages of primary angle-closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y-Y; Chen, Y-Y; Sheu, S-J; Chou, P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the general and ocular biometric characteristics of normal, primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients to better understand the possible relationship between differences in ocular parameters that might predict risk for PACG in PAC patients. Methods One hundred normal, 90 PAC, and 90 PACG eyes were retrospectively reviewed. General characteristics such as age, gender, body height, body weight, blood pressure, pulse, systemic diseases, and education level were recorded. Ocular findings included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refraction, cup to disc ratio, and ocular biometry. Ocular biometry was obtained by A-scan ultrasonography (Digital A/B scan 5500; Sonomed Inc., Lake Success, NY, USA). The parameters recorded were anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), axial length (AXL), lens/axial length factor (LAF), and relative lens position (RLP). Results Although the controls, PAC group, and PACG group were found to be significantly different in age (62.7±9.8; 65.3±7.5; and 66.0±7.4, respectively), there were no gender differences. With regard to ocular parameters, the ACD tended to decrease and the LT and LAF tended to increase from normal to PAC to PACG. The eyes of the PACG group had significantly shallower ACD (P<0.001) and thicker lens (P<0.001) than those of the PAC group. While PAC had similar lens position to the control group, PACG had more anteriorly positioned lens than the PAC group (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis found a significant association between a decrease in ACD and increased risk of PACG (odds ratio (OR)=3.59 for 0.2 mm decrease in ACD) as well as a significant association between an increase in LT and increased risk of PACG (OR=1.30). Conclusions In addition to LT, a shallower ACD owing to a change in RLP may have a role in the progression from PAC to PACG. Owing to the differences of certain biometric characteristics between PAC and PACG, A

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Phacoemulsification Versus Combined Phacotrabeculectomy for Treating Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Poemen P; Li, Emmy Y; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Kwong, Yolanda Y; Tham, Clement C

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of phacoemulsification and combined phacotrabeculectomy for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes with coexisting cataract. Real-life data of 2 previous randomized control trials that involved 51 medically uncontrolled PACG eyes and 72 medically controlled PACG eyes were utilized to calculate the direct cost of treatment. They were followed-up for 2 years. Cost of preoperative assessments, surgical interventions, additional procedures for managing complications and maintenance of filtration, postoperative follow-up, and cost of medications were considered. Cost data of 3 different regions (The United States, People's Republic of China, and Hong Kong) were used for comparison. The corresponding average costs for treating 1 eye with newly diagnosed PACG by phacoemulsification alone and combined phacotrabeculectomy were US$3479 and US$2439 in the United States, US$1051 and US$861 in China, and US$6856 and US$12087 in Hong Kong. Surgical and medications costs were the 2 key contributors. Combined phacotrabeculectomy was more cost-effective for IOP reduction when calculating with the United States and China cost data, but was less cost-effective when calculating with the Hong Kong cost data. The cost-effectiveness was insensitive to the costs of follow-up visit and investigations, the cost of surgical operations, and the cost of postoperative procedures, but sensitive to the cost fluctuation of medications. Furthermore, for the medically uncontrolled PACG group, phacoemulsification alone became more cost-effective when the cost of medication was reduced by >75%. Combined phacotrabeculectomy is a more cost-effective option for lowering IOP in PACG eyes with coexisting cataract, over a 2-year follow-up period.

  15. [Screening method for angle closure and angle closure glaucoma using scanning laser polarimeter GDxVCC and photodynamic gonioscopy in a darkened room. One-year outcomes of systematic peripheral iridotomy].

    PubMed

    Malek-Chehire, N; Renard, G; Dreyfus, J-F; Lebuisson, D A; Pierre-Kahn, V

    2013-12-01

    Angle closure glaucoma, a recognized major world health issue disproportionately affecting women and Asians, is not often considered in our European populations, normotensive subjects, myopic patients, or subjects with a deep anterior chamber. Early diagnosis is worthwhile, as laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is an effective one-step treatment of the causal mechanism. We have performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent an LPI, the indication for which was based on "photodynamic" gonioscopy in a darkened room showing iridotrabecular contact in darkness. Such photodynamic gonioscopy was motivated by the presence of even minute defects in the nerve fiber layer as seen on the GDxVCC or the presence of a Van Herick sign (narrow limbal anterior chamber depth). One hundred and three eyes of 103 patients underwent LPI and a minimum 1-year follow-up (mean follow-up almost 2 years). Mean age was 63.7±11.8 years, and women accounted for 63.1% of cases. The vast majority (78.6%) of patients had neither glaucoma nor ocular hypertension. There were 60.1% hyperopes and 39.9% myopes. Over half (57%) had a deep or a very deep anterior chamber. After LPI, there was immediate deepening of the limbal depth of the anterior chamber in 100% of cases. The aqueous humor that flowed forward was almost always viscous-looking. After 1 year, the IOP was 1.3mm Hg±2.4 lower (P<.001) (t test). All patients who had experienced morning headaches (44% of patients) were relieved of this symptom. GDxVCC after 1 year was clearly improved in 18% of cases, slightly improved in 20%, stable in 50%, slightly worse in 11% of cases, and clearly worse in 1%. Cases treated at an earlier stage had a better improvement in GDxVCC. Our study shows frequent chronic angle closure in our European population even with deep anterior chambers. Absence of a Van Herick sign does not rule out angle closure at night. A photodynamic gonioscopy with the Goldmann three-lens mirror (to avoid unintentional

  16. Angle-closure glaucoma in an urban population in southern India. The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Dandona, L; Dandona, R; Mandal, P; Srinivas, M; John, R K; McCarty, C A; Rao, G N

    2000-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and features of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) in an urban population in southern India. A population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 2522 (85.4% of those eligible) persons of all ages, including 1399 persons 30 years of age or older, from 24 clusters representative of the population of Hyderabad city. The participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination that included logarithm of minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and gonioscopy; pupil dilatation and stereoscopic fundus evaluation was performed if the risk of angle-closure as a result of dilatation was not believed to be imminent. Humphrey threshold 24-2 visual fields (Humphrey Instruments Inc., San Leandro, CA) were performed when indicated by standardized criteria for disc damage or if intraocular pressure (IOP) was 22 mmHg or more. An occludable angle was defined as pigmented posterior trabecular meshwork not visible by gonioscopy in three quarters or more of the angle circumference. Manifest primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) was defined as IOP of 22 mmHg or more or glaucomatous optic disc damage with visual field loss in the presence of an occludable angle. An IOP of 22 mmHg or more or glaucomatous optic disc damage in the presence of an occludable angle secondary to an obvious cause was defined as secondary ACG. Manifest PACG and occludable angles without ACG were present in 12 and 24 participants, respectively, with age- and gender-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.71% (0.34%-1.31%) and 1.41% (0.73%-2.09%) in participants 30 years of age or older, and 1.08% (0.36%-1.80%) and 2.21% (1.15%-3.27%) in participants 40 years of age or older, respectively. With multivariate analysis, the prevalence of these two conditions considered together increased significantly with age (P < 0.001); although not statistically significant, these were more common in females (odds ratio 1

  17. Effectiveness of early lens extraction for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer; Ramsay, Craig; Cooper, David; Foster, Paul J; Friedman, David S; Scotland, Graham; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Cochrane, Claire; Norrie, John

    2016-10-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In early-stage disease, intraocular pressure is raised without visual loss. Because the crystalline lens has a major mechanistic role, lens extraction might be a useful initial treatment. From Jan 8, 2009, to Dec 28, 2011, we enrolled patients from 30 hospital eye services in five countries. Randomisation was done by a web-based application. Patients were assigned to undergo clear-lens extraction or receive standard care with laser peripheral iridotomy and topical medical treatment. Eligible patients were aged 50 years or older, did not have cataracts, and had newly diagnosed primary angle closure with intraocular pressure 30 mm Hg or greater or primary angle-closure glaucoma. The co-primary endpoints were patient-reported health status, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-year gained 36 months after treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN44464607. Of 419 participants enrolled, 155 had primary angle closure and 263 primary angle-closure glaucoma. 208 were assigned to clear-lens extraction and 211 to standard care, of whom 351 (84%) had complete data on health status and 366 (87%) on intraocular pressure. The mean health status score (0·87 [SD 0·12]), assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire, was 0·052 higher (95% CI 0·015-0·088, p=0·005) and mean intraocular pressure (16·6 [SD 3·5] mm Hg) 1·18 mm Hg lower (95% CI -1·99 to -0·38, p=0·004) after clear-lens extraction than after standard care. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £14 284 for initial lens extraction versus standard care. Irreversible loss of vision occurred in one participant who underwent clear-lens extraction and three who received standard care. No patients had serious adverse events. Clear-lens extraction showed greater efficacy and was more cost-effective than

  18. Structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-05-01

    To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Prospective, comparative, observational cases series. Fifty patients with POAG and 56 patients with PACG were examined using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc.) and Humphrey VF analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity in both decibel and 1/Lambert scales, were estimated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R(2)). The correlations were determined globally and for 6 RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. The correlation between RNFL thickness and mean sensitivity (in decibels) was weaker in the PACG group (r(s) = 0.38; P = .004; pseudo R(2) = 0.17) than in the POAG group (r(s) = 0.51; P < .001; pseudo R(2) = .31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = .42). With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (r(s) = 0.62), superonasal (r(s) = 0.56), inferonasal (r(s) = 0.53), and inferotemporal (r(s) = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P < .001), whereas it was significant only in the superotemporal (r(s) = 0.53) and inferotemporal (r(s) = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P < .001). The results were similar when mean sensitivity was expressed as 1/Lambert scale. Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry. Compared with eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure-Function Correlations using Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Design Prospective, comparative, observational cases series Methods Fifty patients with POAG and 56 with PACG were examined using SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) and Humphrey VF analyzer between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity (MS) in both decibel (dB) and 1/Lambert (L) scales, were estimated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R2). The correlations were determined globally and for six RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. Results The correlation between RNFL thickness and MS (in dB) was weaker in the PACG group (rs = 0.38, P = 0.004, pseudo R2 = 0.17) than in the POAG group (rs = 0.51, P <0.001, pseudo R2 = 0.31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = 0.42).With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (rs = 0.62), superonasal (rs = 0.56), inferonasal (rs = 0.53), and inferotemporal (rs = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P <0.001), while it was significant only in the superotemporal (rs = 0.53) and inferotemporal (rs = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P <0.001). The results were similar when MS was expressed as 1/L scale. Conclusions Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using SLP. Compared to eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. PMID:20202618

  20. Meta-analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Latanoprost Monotherapy in Patients With Angle-closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru; Yang, Ke; Zheng, Zhong; Ong, Moh-Lim; Wang, Ning-Li; Zhan, Si-Yan

    2016-03-01

    To systematically evaluate the safety and efficacy of latanoprost monotherapy for the treatment of patients with angle-closure glaucoma. We searched EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Library, Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), and Wang Fang using the search terms "latanoprost" (or its commercial name, Xalatan) and "angle-closure glaucoma." Resulting articles were then screened using preset inclusion criteria. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of research population, research type (blinded or controlled), and withdrawal/loss to follow-up. A total of 17 studies (n=807) were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome measure was intraocular pressure (IOP). Changes in the mean, peak, and trough IOP from baseline were used as effect measures. As I statistic revealed statistical heterogeneity, the random-effects model was applied. With the exception of 2 non-Asian populations from Australia and Peru, all 13 countries included in this study were from Asia. Latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 7.9 mm Hg (32.4%), peak IOP by 7.4 mm Hg (29.8%), and trough IOP by 7.9 mm Hg (32.5%). The most frequent ocular adverse effects were ocular hyperemia, discomfort (including eye irritation, ocular discomfort, foreign body sensation, and itching), and blurred vision with a total incidence rate of 9.4%, 8.7%, and 5.2%, respectively. Systemic adverse effects encompass rhinitis, dizziness, headache, and nonspecific skin pigmentation. Latanoprost is effective at reducing the IOP of patients with angle-closure glaucoma. Adverse reactions associated with latanoprost were mainly ocular in nature.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of a web-based, interactive approach for teaching the management of angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Dana M; Quigley, Harry A; Goldberg, Harry R

    2009-02-01

    To construct a validated Internet-based teaching system that improves diagnostic and therapeutic skills related to glaucoma diagnosis. Nonrandomized clinical trial. Thirty-four glaucoma specialists and 21 ophthalmologists-in-training. An interactive program was designed to improve the recognition of gonioscopic findings and to manage angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) patients, including technical information in performing gonioscopy, ability to recognize angle structures, and treatment choices. The behavior of participants permitted the assessment of degree of improvement related to the interaction. The program content was validated by 5 academic glaucoma subspecialists. Then, 34 fellowship-trained glaucoma specialists and 21 ophthalmology residents accessed the program. Results were evaluated using paired and nonpaired t tests and analysis of variance. Comparison of pretest and posttest scores of residents and glaucoma specialists on measures of gonioscopy recognition and questions related to ACG management. Residents improved their recognition of gonioscopic findings after viewing the program (P<0.0001), scoring significantly worse than glaucoma specialists before interacting with the program (P<0.0001), but scoring at equivalent levels to specialists after viewing the program (P=0.34). The time necessary to improve knowledge by interacting with the program was significantly related to year of residency training (P<0.0001, analysis of variance). The rate of correct answers to management questions related to ACG increased with increasing years of experience in ophthalmology, validating the education methodology (P<0.0001). A web-based teaching approach for diagnosis and management of ACG evaluated the knowledge of ophthalmologists in a manner consistent with their expected expertize. Statistically significant improvements in validated knowledge of ACG were demonstrated for this educational method.

  2. Evaluation of anterior chamber angle under dark and light conditions in angle closure glaucoma: An anterior segment OCT study.

    PubMed

    Masoodi, Habibeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Esmaeili, Alireza; Abolbashari, Fereshteh; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate changes of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angle (ACA) in subjects with angle closure glaucoma using Spectralis AS-OCT (SAS-OCT) under dark and light conditions. Based on dark-room gonioscopy, 24 subjects with open angles and 86 with narrow angles participated in this study. The nasal and temporal angle opening distance at 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), nasal and temporal ACA were measured using SAS-OCT in light and dark conditions. In 2 groups, ACA and AOD500 in nasal and temporal quadrants were significantly greater in light compared to dark (all with p=0.000). The AOD500 and ACA were significantly higher in nasal than temporal in measured conditions for 2 groups except the ACA and AOD500 of normal group measured in light. The difference between nasal and temporal in dark (29.07 ± 65.71 μm for AOD500 and 5.7 ± 4.07° for ACA) was greater than light (24.86 ± 79.85 μm for AOD500 and 2.09 ± 7.21° for ACA) condition. But the difference was only significant for ACA (p=0.000). The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between AOD500 and pupil diameter in temporal and nasal quadrants (both with p=0.000). While temporal AOD500 difference correlated with spherical equivalent, temporal and asal gonioscopy, nasal AOD correlated with IOP, temporal and nasal gonioscopy. Clinically important changes in ACA structure could be detected with SAS-OCT in nasal and temporal quadrants under different illumination intensity. The results could help in improvement of examination condition for better and more accurate assessment of individuals with angle closure glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Socioeconomic Status on the Diagnosis of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yu-Chieh; Hwang, De-Kuang; Chen, Wei-Ta; Lee, Ching-Chih; Liu, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Taiwan. Subjects with glaucoma were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of year 2006, which included one million randomly selected insurants. Individuals who had ≥4 ambulatory visits within one year which had the diagnosis code of POAG (ICD-9-CM 365.11 or 365.12) or PACG (365.23) and concurrent prescription of anti-glaucoma medication or surgery were selected. Individual SES was represented by monthly income calculated from the insurance premium. Neighborhood SES was defined based on neighborhood household income averages. Urbanization level of habitation was categorized into 3 levels. The odds ratio of having POAG or PACG in subjects with different SES was evaluated by using multiple logistic regression analysis. In total, 752 and 561 subjects with POAG and PACG, respectively, who were treated on a regular basis, were identified. The diagnosis of glaucoma was affected by age, gender, frequency of healthcare utilization, individual SES, and urbanization level of habitation. With the adjustment of age, gender, healthcare utilization, neighborhood SES and level of urbanization, subjects with lower income were more likely to be diagnosed as PACG, but less likely as POAG. Subjects with more frequent healthcare utilization were more likely to be diagnosed with glaucoma. Subjects with low SES were more susceptible to PACG, but subjects with high SES were more likely to be diagnosed as POAG. This information is useful for the design and target participant setting in glaucoma education and screening campaign to maximize the efficacy of limited resources in preventing glaucoma blindness.

  4. Variants in Nebulin (NEB) Are Linked to the Development of Familial Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in Basset Hounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahram, Dina F.; Grozdanic, Sinisa D.; Kecova, Helga; Henkes, Arjen; Collin, Rob W. J.; Kuehn, Markus H.

    2015-01-01

    Several dog breeds are susceptible to developing primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), which suggests a genetic basis for the disease. We have identified a four-generation Basset Hound pedigree with characteristic autosomal recessive PACG that closely recapitulates PACG in humans. Our aim is to utilize gene mapping and whole exome sequencing approaches to identify PACG-causing sequence variants in the Basset. Extensive clinical phenotyping of all pedigree members was conducted. SNP-chip genotyping was carried out in 9 affected and 15 unaffected pedigree members. Two-point and multipoint linkage analyses of genome-wide SNP data were performed using Superlink-Online SNP-1.1 and a locus was mapped to chromosome 19q with a maximum LOD score of 3.24. The locus contains 12 Ensemble predicted canine genes and is syntenic to a region on chromosome 2 in the human genome. Using exome-sequencing analysis, a possibly damaging, non-synonymous variant in the gene Nebulin (NEB) was found to segregate with PACG which alters a phylogenetically conserved Lysine residue. The association of this variants with PACG was confirmed in a secondary cohort of unrelated Basset Hounds (p = 3.4 × 10-4, OR = 15.3 for homozygosity). Nebulin, a protein that promotes the contractile function of sarcomeres, was found to be prominently expressed in the ciliary muscles of the anterior segment. Our findings may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie PACG. The phenotypic similarities of disease presentation in dogs and humans may enable the translation of findings made in this study to patients with PACG. PMID:25938837

  5. Variants in Nebulin (NEB) Are Linked to the Development of Familial Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in Basset Hounds.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Dina F; Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Henkes, Arjen; Collin, Rob W J; Kuehn, Markus H

    2015-01-01

    Several dog breeds are susceptible to developing primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), which suggests a genetic basis for the disease. We have identified a four-generation Basset Hound pedigree with characteristic autosomal recessive PACG that closely recapitulates PACG in humans. Our aim is to utilize gene mapping and whole exome sequencing approaches to identify PACG-causing sequence variants in the Basset. Extensive clinical phenotyping of all pedigree members was conducted. SNP-chip genotyping was carried out in 9 affected and 15 unaffected pedigree members. Two-point and multipoint linkage analyses of genome-wide SNP data were performed using Superlink-Online SNP-1.1 and a locus was mapped to chromosome 19q with a maximum LOD score of 3.24. The locus contains 12 Ensemble predicted canine genes and is syntenic to a region on chromosome 2 in the human genome. Using exome-sequencing analysis, a possibly damaging, non-synonymous variant in the gene Nebulin (NEB) was found to segregate with PACG which alters a phylogenetically conserved Lysine residue. The association of this variants with PACG was confirmed in a secondary cohort of unrelated Basset Hounds (p = 3.4 × 10-4, OR = 15.3 for homozygosity). Nebulin, a protein that promotes the contractile function of sarcomeres, was found to be prominently expressed in the ciliary muscles of the anterior segment. Our findings may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie PACG. The phenotypic similarities of disease presentation in dogs and humans may enable the translation of findings made in this study to patients with PACG.

  6. Appositional Closure Identified by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy in Population-Based Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Suspects: The Liwan Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangbin; Foster, Paul J.; Huang, Qunxiao; Zheng, Yingfeng; Huang, Wenyong; Cai, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the characteristics of the iridocorneal angle using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in Chinese people classified gonioscopically as having suspected primary angle-closure (PACS) glaucoma. Methods. PACS were defined as not having visible posterior (usually pigmented) trabecular meshwork in two or more quadrants examined by static gonioscopy. The PACS and 1 of 10 those who did not meet this criterion were identified from a population-based survey. Iridotrabecular meshwork contact (ITC) was identified and further classified into low and high, according to standard UBM images. Those with high ITC were further classified according the configuration of ITC: B-type, with contiguous ITC from the base of the angle, and S-type, with ITC localized to the region of Schwalbe's line. Results. ITC was identified in 78.6% of the superior, 40.2% of the nasal, 59.8% of the inferior, and 25.6% of the temporal quadrants in the PACS (n = 117). These proportions were 43.9%, 15.8%, 29.8%, and 14.0% in the controls (n = 57), respectively. About two thirds of the eyes with ITC were classified as high. In those with high ITC, the number with B- and S-type ITC was very similar. The proportions of any high ITCs increased substantially from 15.4% in those with Shaffer angle grade 4 and 45.0% in grade 3, to 71.0% in grade 2, 70.2% in grade 1, and 86.4% in grade 0. Conclusions. More ITC is identified on UBM imaging than by gonioscopy. Careful consideration should be given to the assessment modality regarded as the reference standard in defining anatomic risk factors for glaucomatous visual loss and the need for treatment. PMID:21357394

  7. Simplifying "target" intraocular pressure for different stages of primary open-angle glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Ramanjit; Angmo, Dewang; Ramaswamy, Deepa; Dada, Tanuj

    2018-04-01

    Lowering of intraocular pressure is currently the only therapeutic measure for Glaucoma management. Many longterm, randomized trials have shown the efficacy of lowering IOP, either by a percentage of baseline, or to a specified level. This has lead to the concept of 'Target" IOP, a range of IOP on therapy, that would stabilize the Glaucoma/prevent further visual field loss, without significantly affecting a patient's quality of life. A clinical staging of Glaucoma by optic nerve head evaluation and perimetric parameters, allows a patient's eye to be categorized as having - mild, moderate or severe Glaucomatous damage. An initial attempt should be made to achieve the following IOP range for both POAG or PACG after an iridotomy. In mild glaucoma the initial target IOP range could be kept as 15-17 mmHg, for moderate glaucoma 12-15 mmHg and in the severe stage of glaucomatous damage 10-12 mmHg. Factoring in baseline IOP, age, vascular perfusion parameters, and change on perimetry or imaging during follow up, this range may be reassessed over 6 months to a year. "Target" IOP requires further lowering when the patient continues to progress or develops a systemic disease such as a TIA. Conversely, in the event of a very elderly or sick patient with stable nerve and visual field over time, the target IOP could be raised and medications reduced. An appropriate use of medications/laser/surgery to achieve such a "Target" IOP range in POAG or PACG can maintain visual fields and quality of life, preventing Glaucoma blindness.

  8. An uncommon case of intermittent Pourfour du Petit Syndrome associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma successfully treated by laser iridotomy.

    PubMed

    Farci, Roberta; Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2017-07-03

    To describe a case of acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to intermittent mydriasis related to Pourfour du Petit Syndrome caused by tracheal deviation. A 70-year-old Caucasian woman visited the Emergency Room of the University Eye Clinic complaining of blurring of vision and difficulty to move superior eyelid in her right eye. Examination revealed reactive mydriasis, and upper lid retraction on the right side. The rest of the ophthalmological examination was normal, and a cranial computed tomography (CT) did not identify any abnormalities. A cervical CT showed the presence of an accentuated lateral right convex deviation of the trachea, attributable to a fibrothorax. A right Pourfour du Petit syndrome was suspected. Although the mydriasis had in the meantime vanished, the patient was admitted to the Neurological Clinic. Five days later she suffered acute pain in her right eye. Ophthalmological examination of the right eye revealed conjunctival hyperemia, marked corneal edema, reduced depth of anterior chamber, permanent mydriasis. As assessed by Goldmann applanation tonometry, intraocular pressure (IOP) was 48 mm Hg. Fundus examination was normal in both eyes. Gonioscopy revealed angle closure in all quadrants. Slit lamp examination of the contralateral eye was normal; IOP was 10 mm Hg. After hypotensive medical therapy, iridotomy with YAG laser was performed. Thereafter, IOP stabilized at 12 mm Hg. This is the first report in the literature of a case of acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to mydriasis related to Pourfour du Petit Syndrome caused by tracheal deviation.

  9. Angle closure in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

  10. Can early postoperative intraocular pressure predict success following mitomycin-C augmented trabeculectomy in primary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rong, S S; Feng, M Y; Wang, N; Meng, H; Thomas, R; Fan, S; Wang, R; Wang, X; Tang, X; Liang, Y B

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the association between early and late postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and determine if early postoperative IOP can predict the surgical outcome. A total of 165 consecutive patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) undergoing primary mitomycin-C-augmented trabeculectomy underwent a comprehensive eye examination before surgery and were followed-up on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, and months 3, 6, 12, and 18. IOPs on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 were stratified into groups A (<10 mm Hg), B (≥10 and <15 mm Hg), C (≥15 and <20 mm Hg), and D (≥20 mm Hg). Differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Multivariable regression was used to exam the predictive ability of early IOP for final outcome. The mean age was 62.5±7.9 years and 41.21% (n=68) were males. Stratified by IOP on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, respectively, mean IOPs at month 18 were different among groups A, B, C, and D (ANOVA, P=0.047, P=0.033, P=0.008, and P<0.001, respectively). Once the IOPs were settled with interventions on day 7 a higher IOP level was associated with decreasing success rate under different outcome definitions, final IOP <15 mm Hg (Fisher's exact P=0.001) and <20 mm Hg (P=0.039) without medication. Multiple regression showed early IOP predicted final IOP independently from baseline variables. A cutoff value of 13.5 mm Hg on day 7 achieved an accuracy of 80.0 and 57.1% in predicting IOP<15 mm Hg without medication and failure after surgery, respectively. The IOP at 18 months following primary antifibrotic-augmented trabeculectomy in PACG patients is associated with and predicted by the postoperative IOPs at 1 month. Control of early IOP to 13.5 or less may provide better outcomes.

  11. Association between coagulation function and patients with primary angle closure glaucoma: a 5-year retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengjie; Gao, Yanting; Shao, Mingxi; Tang, Binghua; Cao, Wenjun; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-11-04

    To evaluate the association between coagulation function and patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). A retrospective, hospital-based, case-control study. Shanghai, China. A total of 1778 subjects were recruited from the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University from January 2010 to December 2015, including patients with PACG (male=296; female=569) and control subjects (male=290; female=623). Sociodemographic data and clinical data were collected. The one-way analysis of variance test was used to compare the levels of laboratory parameters among the mild, moderate and severe PACG groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the independent risk factors for PACG. The nomogram was constructed based on the logistic regression model using the R project for statistical computing (R V.3.3.2). The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the PACG group was approximately 4% shorter (p<0.001) than that of the control group. The prothrombin time (PT) was approximately 2.40% shorter (p<0.001) in patients with PACG compared with the control group. The thrombin time was also approximately 2.14% shorter (p<0.001) in patients with PACG compared with the control group. The level of D-dimer was significantly higher (p=0.042) in patients with PACG. Moreover, the mean platelet volume (MPV) of the PACG group was significantly higher (p=0.013) than that of the control group. A similar trend was observed when coagulation parameters were compared between the PACG and control groups with respect to gender and/or age. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that APTT (OR=1.032, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.026), PT (OR=1.249, 95% CI 1.071 to 1.457) and MPV (OR=1.185, 95% CI 1.081 to 1.299) were independently associated with PACG. Patients with PACG had a shorter coagulation time. Our results suggest that coagulation function is significantly associated with patients with PACG and may play an important role in the onset and development of PACG.

  12. Distinct iris gene expression profiles of primary angle closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma and their interaction with ocular biometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Seet, Li-Fong; Narayanaswamy, Arun; Finger, Sharon N; Htoon, Hla M; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Toh, Li Zhen; Ho, Henrietta; Perera, Shamira A; Wong, Tina T

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in iris gene expression profiles between primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and their interaction with biometric characteristics. Prospective study. Thirty-five subjects with PACG and thirty-three subjects with POAG who required trabeculectomy were enrolled at the Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Iris specimens, obtained by iridectomy, were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of type I collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -B and -C, as well as VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) 1 and 2. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) imaging for biometric parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and lens vault (LV), was also performed pre-operatively. Relative mRNA levels between PACG and POAG irises, biometric measurements, discriminant analyses using genes and biometric parameters. COL1A1, VEGFB, VEGFC and VEGFR2 mRNA expression was higher in PACG compared to POAG irises. LV, ACD and ACV were significantly different between the two subgroups. Discriminant analyses based on gene expression, biometric parameters or a combination of both gene expression and biometrics (LV and ACV), correctly classified 94.1%, 85.3% and 94.1% of the original PACG and POAG cases, respectively. The discriminant function combining genes and biometrics demonstrated the highest accuracy in cross-validated classification of the two glaucoma subtypes. Distinct iris gene expression supports the pathophysiological differences that exist between PACG and POAG. Biometric parameters can combine with iris gene expression to more accurately define PACG from POAG. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. [The prevalence of blindness caused by primary angle closure glaucoma in middle-aged Chinese population: a systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, M L; Wang, Y X

    2017-05-11

    Objective: To evaluate the rate of blindness caused by primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Chinese population of more than 40 years old, and to explore the effectiveness of a prevention and treatment system on PACG. Methods: We searched the databases of Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Springer Link, CNKI and Wanfang Data and collected all the original studies of the prevalence and blindness of angle closure glaucoma in China. The population was limited to over 40 years old. The research site was limited to the community-based, while the published time was not limited. Two researchers completed the literature search, data extraction and methodological quality assessment independently, with same criteria. Meta analysis was performed using R software. Results: Five papers were included in this study finally. A total of 26 437 cases of natural population over the age of 40 were observed, and 306 cases of angle closure glaucoma were found, of which 113 cases had binocular or monocular blindness caused by PACG. The random effect model meta-analysis results showed that the overall blindness rate was 38.3% [95% CI (28.1%, 49.6%)]. In Beijing, where the prevention and treatment system was well established, the blindness rate was far lower than that in the areas where the system was poorly established. Compared with the past, the blindness rate caused by PACG in Beijing decreased sharply. Conclusions: The rate of blindness caused by PACG is still high in the mainland of China. The prevention and treatment system is effective and worth promoting. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 373 - 377) .

  14. The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5·3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle) and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure). If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy) is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care. EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. Methods/Design EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible. The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e.g., trabeculectomy), costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events. A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat). 400 participants (200 in each group) will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0·05, and a mean

  15. The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Cochran, Claire; Ramsay, Craig; Vale, Luke; Foster, Paul; Friedman, David; Quayyum, Zahidul; Lai, Jimmy; Nolan, Winnie; Aung, Tin; Chew, Paul; McPherson, Gladys; McDonald, Alison; Norrie, John

    2011-05-23

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5·3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle) and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure). If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy) is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care.EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible.The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e.g., trabeculectomy), costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events.A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat). 400 participants (200 in each group) will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0·05, and a mean difference in intraocular pressure of

  16. Evaluation of the Association Between Common Genetic Variants Near the ABCA1 Gene and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huaichao; Chen, Yuhong; Ye, Zimeng; Sun, Xinghuai; Shi, Yi; Luo, Qian; Gong, Bo; Shuai, Ping; Yang, Jiyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Kaijiong; Tan, Chang; Li, Yuanfeng; Lin, Ying; Yang, Zhenglin

    2015-10-01

    Recently, three large genome-wide association studies have identified multiple variants associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) near the ABCA1 gene. Considering that POAG and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) share many similar clinical manifestations, the present study was conducted to investigate whether these genetic variants were also associated with PACG in a Han Chinese population. A case-control association study of 1122 cases (PACG/PAC) and 1311 normal, matched controls was undertaken. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the ABCA1 gene, including rs2422493, rs2487042, rs2472496, rs2472493, rs2487032, rs2472459, and rs2472519, were genotyped. Genotype and allele frequencies were assessed using χ² tests. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure was analyzed by computer software. Among the SNPs genotyped, no association was observed between these SNPs and PACG. However, we discovered that two haplotypes, CATTTAC (corrected P = 0.048) and CGCCCGC (corrected P = 0.048), remained significantly associated with PACG/PAC after Bonferroni correction. Subjects with the CATTTAC haplotype have a 1.71-fold increased possibility of having PACG/PAC, whereas subjects with the CGCCCGC haplotype have 0.47-fold decreased possibility of developing PACG. Our findings suggest that the genetic backgrounds of PACG and POAG might be different. However, whether or not ABCA1 plays a role in the development of PACG is still not made certain by this study. Thus, further research is needed to find the role of ABCA1 in the progress of PACG.

  17. Early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma: an economic evaluation based on data from the EAGLE trial

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Mehdi; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Ramsay, Craig; Cooper, David; Cochran, Claire; Norrie, John; Scotland, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cost-effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) compared to standard care. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a multicentre pragmatic two-arm randomised controlled trial. Patients were followed-up for 36 months, and data on health service usage and health state utility were collected and analysed within the trial time horizon. A Markov model was developed to extrapolate the results over a 5-year and 10-year time horizon. Setting 22 hospital eye services in the UK. Population Males and females aged 50 years or over with newly diagnosed PACG or primary angle closure (PAC). Interventions Lens extraction compared to standard care (ie, laser iridotomy followed by medical therapy and glaucoma surgery). Outcome measures Costs of primary and secondary healthcare usage (UK NHS perspective), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for lens extraction versus standard care. Results The mean age of participants was 67.5 (8.42), 57.5% were women, 44.6% had both eyes eligible, 1.4% were of Asian ethnicity and 35.4% had PAC. The mean health service costs were higher in patients randomised to lens extraction: £2467 vs £1486. The mean adjusted QALYs were also higher with early lens extraction: 2.602 vs 2.533. The ICER for lens extraction versus standard care was £14 284 per QALY gained at three years. Modelling suggests that the ICER may drop to £7090 per QALY gained by 5 years and that lens extraction may be cost saving by 10 years. Our results are generally robust to changes in the key input parameters and assumptions. Conclusions We find that lens extraction has a 67–89% chance of being cost-effective at 3 years and that it may be cost saving by 10 years. Trial registration number ISRCTN44464607; Results. PMID:28087548

  18. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Harsha L; Kadambi, Sujatha V; Weinreb, Robert N; Puttaiah, Narendra K; Pradhan, Zia S; Rao, Dhanaraj A S; Kumar, Rajesh S; Webers, Carroll A B; Shetty, Rohit

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and to compare these with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements. In a cross-sectional study, 48 eyes of 33 healthy control subjects, 63 eyes of 39 patients with POAG and 49 eyes of 32 patients with PACG underwent OCTA (RTVue-XR, Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) and RNFL imaging with spectral domain OCT. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density and RNFL parameters were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. AUCs of peripapillary vessel density ranged between 0.48 for the temporal sector and 0.88 for the inferotemporal sector in POAG. The same in PACG ranged between 0.57 and 0.86. Sensitivities at 95% specificity ranged from 13% to 70% in POAG, and from 10% to 67% in PACG. AUCs of peripapillary RNFL thickness ranged between 0.51 for the temporal sector and 0.91 for the inferonasal sector in POAG. The same in PACG ranged between 0.61 and 0.87. Sensitivities at 95% specificity ranged from 8% to 68% in POAG, and from 2% to 67% in PACG. AUCs of all peripapillary vessel density measurements were comparable (p>0.05) to the corresponding RNFL thickness measurements in both POAG and PACG. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density parameters of OCTA, especially the inferotemporal sector measurement, was good in POAG and PACG. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density measurements were comparable to RNFL measurements in both POAG and PACG. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Association of iris crypts with acute primary angle closure.

    PubMed

    Koh, Victor; Chua, Jacqueline; Shi, Yuan; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Lee, Ryan; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Kumar, Rajesh S; Perera, Shamira; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relationship between iris surface features and acute primary angle closure (APAC) in eyes with angle closure. Case-control study involving Asian patients diagnosed with previous APAC, primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) at an eye centre in Singapore between August 2012 and January 2015. Participants underwent ophthalmic examination and digital slit-lamp iris photography. Iris surface features were graded based on crypts, furrows and colour. Fellow eyes of APAC were compared with PACS and PAC/PACG eyes with regard to their iris surface features. Occurrence of APAC. A total of 309 patients (71 APAC, 139 PACS, 47 PAC and 52 PACG) were included (mean age: 67.7±7.2 years and 36.6% male). Compared with PACS, higher crypt grade was significantly associated with lower odds of APAC (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.027, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and pupil diameter). The results remained similar when compared with PAC/PACG group (OR=0.58 for one grade higher in crypt grade; p=0.043). We did not observe any significant associations between iris furrows or colour with presence of APAC. Our study comprising Asian eyes with angle closure suggests that the presence of a higher crypt grading may be protective for APAC. As such, assessing iris surface architecture for crypts could be a new measure for risk stratification of developing APAC in eyes with angle closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Prevention of Blindness: Chronic Glaucoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Kenneth T.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation of present screening procedures for chronic open-angle glaucoma includes suggestions for improvement: greater distribution of screening and education, conversion from monophasic to multiphasic screen, and examination of visual fields, optic nerve, and medical history in addition to the tonometry currently done. (KW)

  1. Contemporary Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Angle-Closure Disease.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, M Reza; Myers, Jonathan S

    2018-05-16

    Primary angle closure disease spectrum varies from a narrow angle to advanced glaucoma. A variety of imaging technologies may assist the clinician in determining the pathophysiology and diagnosis of primary angle closure, but gonioscopy remains a mainstay of clinical evaluation. Laser iridotomy effectively eliminates the pupillary block component of angle closure; however, studies show that in many patients the iridocorneal angle remains narrow from underlying anatomic issues, and increasing lens size often leads to further narrowing over time. Recent studies have further characterized the role of the lens in angle closure disease, and cataract or clear lens extraction is increasingly used earlier in its management. As a first surgical step in angle closure glaucoma, lens extraction alone often effectively controls the pressure with less risk of complications than concurrent or stand alone glaucoma surgery, but may not be sufficient in more advanced or severe disease. We provide a comprehensive review on the primary angle-closure disease nomenclature, imaging, and current laser and surgical management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Qualitative evaluation of the iris and ciliary body by ultrasound biomicroscopy in subjects with angle closure.

    PubMed

    Ku, Judy Y; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Park, Judy; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Kumar, Rajesh S; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2014-12-01

    To qualitatively analyze anterior chamber structures imaged by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in primary angle-closure patients. Subjects diagnosed as primary angle-closure suspect (PACS), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and previous acute primary angle closure (APAC) were recruited prospectively along with a group of normal controls. UBM was performed under standardized dark room conditions and qualitative assessment was carried out using a set of reference photographs of standard UBM images to categorize the various anatomic features related to angle configuration. These included overall and basal iris thicknesses, iris convexity, iris angulation, ciliary body size, and ciliary sulcus. A total of 60 PACS, 114 PACG, 41 APAC, and 33 normal controls were included. Patients were predominantly older Chinese females. After controlling the confounding effect of age and sex, eyes with overall thicker irides [medium odds ratio (OR) 3.58, thick OR 2.84] when compared with thin irides have a significantly higher likelihood of having PACS/PACG/APAC versus controls. Thicker basal iris component (medium OR 4.13, thick OR 3.39) also have higher likelihood of having angle closure when compared with thin basal iris thickness. Subjects with basal iris insertion, mild iris angulation, and large ciliary body have a higher OR of having angle closure. In contrast, the presence/absence of a ciliary sulcus did not influence the likelihood of angle closure. Eyes with thicker overall and basal iris thicknesses are more likely to have angle closure than controls. Other features that increase the likelihood of angle closure include basal iris insertion, mild iris angulation, and large ciliary body.

  3. Detection of primary angle closure using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in Asian eyes.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Winifred P; See, Jovina L; Chew, Paul T K; Friedman, David S; Smith, Scott D; Radhakrishnan, Sunita; Zheng, Ce; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate noncontact anterior segment optical coherence technology (AS-OCT) as a qualitative method of imaging the anterior chamber angle and to determine its ability to detect primary angle closure when compared with gonioscopy in Asian subjects. Prospective observational case series. Two hundred three subjects were recruited from glaucoma clinics in Singapore with diagnoses of primary angle closure, primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or cataract. Both eyes (if eligible) of each patient were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were pseudophakia or previous glaucoma surgery. Images of the nasal, temporal, and inferior angles were obtained with AS-OCT in dark and then light conditions. Gonioscopic angle width was graded using the Spaeth classification for each quadrant in low lighting conditions. Angle closure was defined by AS-OCT as contact between the peripheral iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur and by gonioscopy as a Spaeth grade of 0 degree (posterior trabecular meshwork not visible). Comparison of the 2 methods in detecting angle closure was done by eye and by individual. Sensitivities and specificities of AS-OCT were calculated using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Complete data were available for 342 eyes of 200 patients. Of the patients, 70.9% had a clinical diagnosis of treated or untreated primary angle closure. Angle closure in > or =1 quadrants was detected by AS-OCT in 142 (71%) patients (228 [66.7%] eyes) and by gonioscopy in 99 (49.5%) patients (152 [44.4%] eyes). The inferior angle was closed more frequently than the nasal or temporal quadrants using both AS-OCT and gonioscopy. When performed under dark conditions, AS-OCT identified 98% of those subjects found to have angle closure on gonioscopy (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.2-99.6) and led to the characterization of 44.6% of those found to have open angles on gonioscopy to have angle closure as well. With gonioscopy as the reference standard

  4. Anterior Segment Imaging for Angle Closure.

    PubMed

    Chansangpetch, Sunee; Rojanapongpun, Prin; Lin, Shan C

    2018-04-01

    To summarize the role of anterior segment imaging (AS-imaging) in angle closure diagnosis and management, and the possible advantages over the current standard of gonioscopy. Literature review and perspective. Review of the pertinent publications with interpretation and perspective in relation to the use of AS-imaging in angle closure assessment focusing on anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Several limitations have been encountered with the reference standard of gonioscopy for angle assessment. AS-imaging has been shown to have performance in angle closure detection compared to gonioscopy. Also, imaging has greater reproducibility and serves as better documentation for long-term follow-up than conventional gonioscopy. The qualitative and quantitative information obtained from AS-imaging enables better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of angle closure and provides useful parameters for risk assessment and possible prediction of the response to laser and surgical intervention. The latest technologies-including 3-dimensional imaging-have allowed for the assessment of the angle that simulates the gonioscopic view. These advantages suggest that AS-imaging has a potential to be a reference standard for the diagnosis and monitoring of angle closure disease in the future. Although gonioscopy remains the primary method of angle assessment, AS-imaging has an increasing role in angle closure screening and management. The test should be integrated into clinical practice as an adjunctive tool for angle assessment. It is arguable that AS-imaging should be considered first-line screening for patients at risk for angle closure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of EyeCam and anterior segment optical coherence tomography in detecting angle closure.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Friedman, David S; Tun, Tin A; Perera, Shamira A

    2012-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of EyeCam (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT, Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in detecting angle closure, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Ninety-eight phakic patients, recruited from a glaucoma clinic, underwent gonioscopy by a single examiner, and EyeCam and ASOCT imaging by another examiner. Another observer, masked to gonioscopy findings, graded EyeCam and ASOCT images. For both gonioscopy and EyeCam, a closed angle in a particular quadrant was defined if the posterior trabecular meshwork was not visible. For ASOCT, angle closure was defined by any contact between the iris and angle anterior to the scleral spur. An eye was diagnosed as having angle closure if ≥2 quadrants were closed. Agreement and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. The majority of subjects were Chinese (69/98, 70.4%) with a mean age of 60.6 years. Angle closure was diagnosed in 39/98 (39.8%) eyes with gonioscopy, 40/98 (40.8%) with EyeCam and 56/97 (57.7%) with ASOCT. The agreement (kappa statistic) for angle closure diagnosis for gonioscopy versus EyeCam was 0.89; gonioscopy versus ASOCT and EyeCam versus ASOCT were both 0.56. The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure with EyeCam was 0.978 (95% CI: 0.93-1.0) and 0.847 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92, p < 0.01) for ASOCT. The diagnostic performance of EyeCam was better than ASOCT in detecting angle closure when gonioscopic grading was used as the reference standard. The agreement between the two imaging modalities was moderate. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Outcomes following acute primary angle closure in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Tan, Anna M; Loon, Seng C; Chew, Paul T K

    2009-07-01

    Data regarding development of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) following acute primary angle closure (APAC) is conflicting. This study looks at outcomes after an APAC episode with a secondary aim to identify any risk factors that could predict progression to PACG. This is a retrospective review of the charts of consecutive patients who were diagnosed with APAC from December 2003 to June 2006. All were treated in a standard manner with initial intensive medical therapy or laser iridoplasty followed by early laser peripheral iridotomy within 24 h of presentation. Forty-two eyes of 41 patients were analysed. The mean follow-up period was 27.3 +/- 16.2 months. Nine eyes (21.4%) developed an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) within a mean of 11.9 months (median 5 months) after resolution of APAC. Eight eyes went on to have trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device. At final follow up, the mean IOP of attack eye was 13.3 +/- 2.92 mmHg. None of the eyes, including those that underwent surgery, required topical medication to control IOP. Thirty-eight eyes (90.5%) have BCVA of 6/6 to 6/12. The duration of symptoms before presentation (P = 0.00) and duration taken to abort the acute attack (P = 0.01) were found to be significantly associated with development of PACG. The results of this study suggest that outcomes following successful treatment of APAC may not be as poor as described previously. Early aggressive management of the acute episode may have a role to play in preventing development of PACG after APAC.

  7. Comparing approaches to screening for angle closure in older Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, J; Chang, D S; Jiang, Y; He, M; Foster, P J; Munoz, B; Kashiwagi, K; Friedman, D S

    2012-01-01

    Aims Primary angle-closure glaucoma is expected to account for nearly 50% of bilateral glaucoma blindness by 2020. This study was conducted to assess the performance of the scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) and limbal anterior chamber depth (LACD) as screening methods for angle closure. Methods This study assessed two clinical populations to compare SPAC, LACD, and gonioscopy: the Zhongshan Angle-closure Prevention Trial, from which 370 patients were eligible as closed-angle participants and the Liwan Eye Study, from which 72 patients were selected as open-angle controls. Eligible participants were assessed by SPAC, LACD, and gonioscopy. Results Angle status was defined by gonioscopy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for SPAC was 0.92 (0.89–0.95) whereas AUROC for LACD was 0.94 (0.92–0.97). Using conventional cutoff points, sensitivity/specificity was 93.0%/70.8% for SPAC and 94.1%/87.5% for LACD. Sequential testing using both SPAC and LACD increased the specificity to 94.4% and decreased the sensitivity to 87.0%. Conclusion SPAC has significantly lower specificity than LACD measurement using conventional cutoffs but interpretation of the findings can be performed by modestly trained personnel. PMID:21997356

  8. Biometric parameters in different stages of primary angle closure using low-coherence interferometry.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Shahin; Akbarian, Shadi; Pakravan, Mohammad; Doozandeh, Azadeh; Afrouzifar, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    To compare ocular biometric parameters using low-coherence interferometry among siblings affected with different degrees of primary angle closure (PAC). In this cross-sectional comparative study, a total of 170 eyes of 86 siblings from 47 families underwent low-coherence interferometry (LenStar 900; Haag-Streit, Koeniz, Switzerland) to determine central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), aqueous depth (AD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous depth, and axial length (AL). Regression coefficients were applied to show the trend of the measured variables in different stages of angle closure. To evaluate the discriminative power of the parameters, receiver operating characteristic curves were used. Best cutoff points were selected based on the Youden index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic accuracy were determined for each variable. All biometric parameters changed significantly from normal eyes to PAC suspects, PAC, and PAC glaucoma; there was a significant stepwise decrease in central corneal thickness, ACD, AD, vitreous depth, and AL, and an increase in LT and LT/AL. Anterior chamber depth and AD had the best diagnostic power for detecting angle closure; best levels of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with cutoff values of 3.11 mm for ACD and 2.57 mm for AD. Biometric parameters measured by low-coherence interferometry demonstrated a significant and stepwise change among eyes affected with various degrees of angle closure. Although the current classification scheme for angle closure is based on anatomical features, it has excellent correlation with biometric parameters.

  9. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Tay, Elton Lik Tong; Yong, Vernon Khet Yau; Lim, Boon Ang; Sia, Stelson; Wong, Elizabeth Poh Ying; Yip, Leonard Wei Leon

    2015-01-01

    To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes) were recruited from the study hospital's Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other's analyses of OCT images. Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively (P<0.01). The agreement for angle closure between AS-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59) and k=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07-0.63) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.21 (95% CI: 0.07-0.49) and slight at k=0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.42) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88). The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.45). Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  10. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Elton Lik Tong; Yong, Vernon Khet Yau; Lim, Boon Ang; Sia, Stelson; Wong, Elizabeth Poh Ying; Yip, Leonard Wei Leon

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. METHODS Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes) were recruited from the study hospital's Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other's analyses of OCT images. RESULTS Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively (P<0.01). The agreement for angle closure between AS-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59) and k=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07-0.63) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.21 (95% CI: 0.07-0.49) and slight at k=0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.42) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88). The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.45). CONCLUSION Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively. PMID:25938053

  11. Secondary angle closure caused by air migrating behind the pupil in descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung S; Desai, Neel R; Schmidt, Gregory W; Jun, Albert S; Schein, Oliver D; Stark, Walter J; Eghrari, Allen O; Gottsch, John D

    2009-07-01

    To report secondary angle closure caused by air migrating behind the pupil in the context of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in the early postoperative period after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). A retrospective case series was conducted on 100 consecutive DSEK cases from 90 patients undergoing DSEK because of corneal disease from Fuchs corneal dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, aphakic bullous keratopathy, and iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Preoperative and postoperative slit-lamp examinations and IOP measurements were ascertained for all 100 eyes. Main outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative IOP. Thirteen of 100 eyes developed an IOP rise of greater than 30 mm Hg on the first postoperative day. Six of these 13 patients developed angle closure from air migrating posterior to the iris and causing iridocorneal adhesions. One of these 13 patients developed pupillary block from air anterior to iris. Six of 13 patients developed increased IOP without pupillary block or iridocorneal adhesions and had a history of preexisting primary or secondary glaucoma. A secondary angle closure associated with DSEK is reported with air migrating behind the iris, resulting in extensive iridocorneal adhesions. An acute increase in IOP after DSEK can also be induced by air anterior to the iris causing pupillary block. IOP spikes are much more common in the first few postoperative days after DSEK. Medical treatment can occasionally resolve air posterior to the iris, but if iridocorneal adhesions are extensive and persistent, air removal and angle reformation may be necessary.

  12. Anterior Segment Imaging Predicts Incident Gonioscopic Angle Closure.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Mani; Iyer, Jayant V; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; He, Yingke; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wu, Renyi; Liu, Dianna; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the incidence of gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years in subjects with gonioscopically open angles but varying degrees of angle closure detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT; Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) at baseline. Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-two subjects, mostly Chinese, 50 years of age or older, were recruited, of whom 65 were controls with open angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline, and 277 were cases with baseline open angles on gonioscopy but closed angles (1-4 quadrants) on AS OCT scans. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline (horizontal and vertical single scans) and after 4 years. The examiner performing gonioscopy was masked to the baseline and AS OCT data. Angle closure in a quadrant was defined as nonvisibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork by gonioscopy and visible iridotrabecular contact beyond the scleral spur in AS OCT scans. Gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or 3 quadrants after 4 years. There were no statistically significant differences in age, ethnicity, or gender between cases and controls. None of the control subjects demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years. Forty-eight of the 277 subjects (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8-23; P < 0.0001) with at least 1 quadrant of angle closure on AS OCT at baseline demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or more quadrants, whereas 28 subjects (10.1%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.6; P < 0.004) demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 3 or more quadrants after 4 years. Individuals with more quadrants of angle closure on baseline AS OCT scans had a greater likelihood of gonioscopic angle closure developing after 4 years (P < 0.0001, chi-square test for trend for both definitions of angle closure). Anterior segment OCT imaging at baseline predicts incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among subjects who have gonioscopically open angles and iridotrabecular contact on AS OCT at

  13. The Frequency of Optical Coherence Tomography Testing in Glaucoma at a Single Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Joseph F; Goldberg, Jeffrey L

    2016-03-01

    To determine the frequency of optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations compared with clinical examinations and visual field (VF) tests in patients with 5 types of glaucoma. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted of 5154 patients treated between 2003 and 2010 at a single academic medical center. Patients were classified using billing records as having primary open-angle glaucoma, low-tension open-angle glaucoma (NTG), pigmentary open-angle glaucoma, chronic angle-closure glaucoma, or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Analysis of variance, χ test, and exact χ test were performed to identify associations between glaucoma type and test frequency. Pigmentary open-angle glaucoma and NTG patients had a higher rate of undergoing at least 2 VFs (94.4%, 94.9%), and chronic angle-closure glaucoma patients had a lower rate of undergoing at least 2 OCTs (25.3%) than all other glaucoma types. NTG patients also had the highest rate of undergoing at least 2 OCTs and at least 2 VFs (36.6%). Overall, the rate of clinical examinations (2.68 examinations/y) exceeded the rates of OCTs (1.39 examinations/y), which exceeded the rate of VF tests (1.24 tests/y). There were no differences in OCT frequency between glaucoma types (0.91 to 1.63 OCTs/y). Within each glaucoma diagnosis, patients had clinical examinations more frequently than OCTs and clinical examinations more frequently than VFs. Primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma patients also had OCTs more frequently than VFs. More patients had at least 2 VF tests than at least 2 OCTs (4481 vs. 1679). The relative use of clinical examinations, VF testing, and OCT imaging varies among glaucoma diagnoses.

  14. Setting priorities for comparative effectiveness research on management of primary angle closure: a survey of Asia-Pacific clinicians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsung; Li, Tianjing; Lee, Kinbo J; Friedman, David S; Dickersin, Kay; Puhan, Milo A

    2015-01-01

    To set priorities for new systematic reviews (SRs) and randomized clinical trials on the management of primary angle closure (PAC) using clinical practice guidelines and a survey of Asia-Pacific clinicians. We restated the American Academy of Ophthalmology's Preferred Practice Patterns recommendations for management of PAC into answerable clinical questions. We asked participants at the Asia-Pacific Joint Glaucoma Congress 2010 in Taipei to rate the importance of having an answer to each question for providing effective patient care, using a Likert-type scale and scoring from 0 (not important at all) to 10 (highly important). We identified relevant SRs and mapped the evidence to clinical questions to identify evidence gaps. We generated 42 clinical questions. One hundred seventy-five individuals agreed to participate in the survey, 132 responded (75.4% response rate) and 96 completed the questionnaire (54.9% usable response rate). Questions rated important include laser iridotomy for the prevention of angle closure in primary angle-closure suspects, further therapies in eyes with plateau iris syndrome after laser iridotomy, and evaluation of the fellow eye in acute angle-closure patients for improving prognosis. Up-to-date and conclusive SR evidence was not available for any of the 42 clinical questions. We identified high priority clinical questions on the management of PAC, none of which had reliable SR evidence available. New SRs and randomized clinical trials can be initiated to address these evidence gaps.

  15. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-21

    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Demonstration of angle widening using EyeCam after laser peripheral iridotomy in eyes with angle closure.

    PubMed

    Perera, Shamira A; Quek, Desmond T; Baskaran, Mani; Tun, Tin A; Kumar, Rajesh S; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate EyeCam in detecting changes in angle configuration after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in comparison to gonioscopy, the reference standard. Prospective comparative study. Twenty-four subjects (24 eyes) with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) were recruited. Gonioscopy and EyeCam (Clarity Medical Systems) imaging of all 4 angle quadrants were performed, before and 2 weeks after LPI. Images were graded according to angle structures visible by an observer masked to clinical data or the status of LPI, and were performed in a random order. Angle closure in a quadrant was defined as the inability to visualize the posterior trabecular meshwork. We determined the number of quadrants with closed angles and the mean number of clock hours of angle closure before and after LPI in comparison to gonioscopy. Using EyeCam, all 24 eyes showed at least 1 quadrant of angle widening after LPI. The mean number of clock hours of angle closure decreased significantly, from 8.15 +/- 3.47 clock hours before LPI to 1.75 +/- 2.27 clock hours after LPI (P < .0001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Overall, gonioscopy showed 1.0 +/- 1.41 (95% CI, 0.43-1.57) quadrants opening from closed to open after LPI compared to 2.0 +/- 1.28 (95% CI, 1.49-2.51, P = .009) quadrants with EyeCam. Intra-observer reproducibility of grading the extent of angle closure in clock hours in EyeCam images was moderate to good (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.831). EyeCam may be used to document changes in angle configuration after LPI in eyes with PACG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in Ethiopian glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bedri, A; Alemu, B

    1999-05-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) has variable prevalence rates in the glaucoma population depending on geographic location and racial composition of the population studied. There is no data available on this subject in Ethiopia. To determine the prevalence of PXS among Ethiopian glaucoma clinic population. A prospective study. The Glaucoma Clinic of Menelik-II-Hospital, which is a tertiary eye care centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. All new patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (ocular HPN) seen during the study period from 1st April to 30th September 1996 were included in the study. Our of the 432 new patients of glaucoma or ocular HPN seen during the study, 108 patients (25%) had PXS. The age of PXS cases ranged from 32 years to 86 years (mean 62.3 years). There were 80 males and 28 females. Of the PXS patients, 104 (96.3%) were cases of chronic open angle glaucoma, while angle closure glaucoma and ocular HPN were rare comprising only two patients (1.85%) each. The relatively high prevalence rate of PXS among Ethiopian glaucoma clinic population found in this study stresses the need for further community-based research in order to prevent blindness due to glaucoma associated with PXS.

  18. Incidence of secondary glaucoma in behcet disease.

    PubMed

    Elgin, Ufuk; Berker, Nilufer; Batman, Aygen

    2004-12-01

    To determine the incidence of secondary glaucoma in Behcet disease. A total of 230 eyes of 129 patients with Behcet disease, were examined in uveitis and glaucoma clinics of Ankara Social Security Eye Hospital between January 1997 and September 2002. The data from all patients were investigated both retrospectively and prospectively. The mean age of 129 patients was 34.2 +/- 7.4 years (range, 18 to 55 years). In 22 patients (17%), the disease was diagnosed on the basis of the ocular findings, while in the remaining 107 patients (83%), the period between the diagnosis of Behcet disease and the onset of the ocular symptoms was 23.3 +/- 17 months (range, 1 month to 5.3 years); 122 eyes (53%) had the episodes of acute recurrent iridocyclitis, while 108 eyes (47%) developed chronic posterior uveitis, including vitreitis, retinitis, vasculitis, or optic nerve involvement. Secondary glaucoma was diagnosed in 25 eyes (10.9%); 11 eyes (44%) with steroid or inflammation induced open angle glaucoma, 6 eyes (24%) with partial angle-closure glaucoma and peripheral anterior synechiae, 5 eyes (20%) with angle closure glaucoma, peripheral anterior synechiae, and pupil block and 3 eyes (12%) with neovascular glaucoma. The treatments included YAG-laser iridotomy in 5 eyes, diode-laser cyclodestruction in 3 eyes, primary trabeculectomies with mitomycin-c in 4 eyes, secondary trabeculectomies with mitomycin-c in 2 eyes, Ahmed valve implantations in 2 eyes, and cyclocryotherapy in 3 eyes. We suggest that secondary glaucoma is a common and serious complication of Behcet disease. It develops as a result of multiple factors, generally triggered by recurrent intraocular inflammation. Early recognition and treatment of these factors have vital importance to avoid the visual morbidity.

  19. Expertise on glaucoma patients (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Leydhecker, W.

    1973-02-01

    The difficuities encountered in cases of glaucoma where external factors are brought into relationship with the disease are discussed. The discussion is based on the author's own case collection. Glaucoma simplex seldom requires compensation e.g., when medical treatment had been impossible over several years. Acute angle glaucoma requires compensation when its occurrence can be brought into connection with an exceptionally emotional environmental situation. In chronic angle closure glaucoma an aggravation of the situation brings about an acute increase of I. O. P. or when treatment has been impossible. A glaucoma can occur decades after tears of the ciliary body aftermore » contusions. The diagnosis can be established only through comparative gonioscopy of the two eyes. Even complicated cases can be clarified through exact reconstruction of the course of disease and the findings supported by consultations with the ophthalmologists who treated the cases before. Examples of such cases are shown. Consensual changes of I. O. P. occurred oniy in 0.5% of cases. The question of conditions under which the assumption of a consenual glaucoma can be apparently assumed is discussed. A case of secondary pigmentary glaucoma through x rays is presented. (auth)« less

  20. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve. It is a leading ... no symptoms at first. Without treatment, people with glaucoma will slowly lose their peripheral, or side vision. ...

  1. Methyl-sulfonyl-methane (MSM)-induced acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeremy C; Khine, Kay T; Lee, Jennifer C; Boyer, David S; Francis, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    To report the first case of presumed bilateral acute angle closure (AAC) secondary to ingestion of the dietary supplement, methyl-sulfonyl-methane (MSM). A 35-year-old woman presented with bilateral AAC 1 week after starting multiple dietary supplements, one of which contained MSM. Ultrasound biomicroscopy demonstrated bilateral anterior rotation of the iris-lens diaphragm, ciliary body edema, and choroidal effusion. Four days after discontinuation of the supplements, her angle closure and uveal effusion resolved, and her best-corrected vision recovered to 20/20 bilaterally. Sulfa-based drugs have been reported to cause AAC, choroidal effusion, and ciliary body edema. In our patient, the coincidence of bilateral AAC with choroidal and ciliary body effusion that began 1 week after starting dietary supplements was suspicious for drug-induced AAC. The dietary supplement Basic Detox Nutrients contains MSM, the only constituent in the patient's medication list with a sulfonyl moiety. Given the similarities in chemical structure and clinical presentation, we postulate that MSM induces AAC in a manner similar to mechanisms previously described for other sulfa-based drugs. As MSM continues to be used and studied for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, investigators and marketers will need to be cognizant of its potential to cause AAC and provide proper warning to consumers.

  2. Evaluation of circumferential angle closure using iridotrabecular contact index after laser iridotomy by swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Kyung; Ahn, Dongsub; Kee, Changwon

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the quantitative changes of circumferential angle closure after laser iridotomy (LI) using the iridotrabecular contact (ITC) index by Swept-Source optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this prospective observational study conducted in a hospital setting, 42 eyes of 36 patients (five males, 31 females) who underwent LI were included. The mean age was 65.00 ± 8.13 years old and the diagnosis included primary angle closure (PAC, 21 eyes), PAC suspect (16 eyes) and PAC glaucoma (five eyes). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were obtained pre-LI and at 1 week post-LI. In each image frame, the scleral spur (SS) and the ITC end-point were marked, from which the ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle closure across 360°. Measurements inspected before and after LI included: central anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), lens vault (LV), nasal and temporal angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), trabecular-iris space area (TISA), trabecular-iris angle (TIA) at 500 μm and 750 μm from the SS and intraocular pressure (IOP). The ITC index and IOP decreased significantly after LI from 71.52 ± 26.29 to 35.31 ± 27.19 and from 20.64 ± 12.72 mmHg to 14.02 ± 3.49 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Central ACD (1.94 ± 0.31 mm pre-LI) and LV (1.13 ± 0.32 mm pre-LI) did not show a significant change after LI (all p > 0.05), but ACV increased significantly after LI (p < 0.001). Most of the angle parameters except for nasal TIAs increased significantly after LI (all p < 0.05). The ITC index from patients with shallow anterior chamber angle showed a significant decrease after LI, but part of the angle closure was not relieved after LI. Other mechanisms besides pupillary block may play a role together in causing angle closure. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Rapamycin is neuroprotective in a rat chronic hypertensive glaucoma model.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenru; Li, Zuohong; Jia, Yu; Zhuo, Yehong

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Injury of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) accounts for visual impairment of glaucoma. Here, we report rapamycin protects RGCs from death in experimental glaucoma model and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that treatment with rapamycin dramatically promote RGCs survival in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model. This protective action appears to be attributable to inhibition of neurotoxic mediators release and/or direct suppression of RGC apoptosis. In support of this mechanism, in vitro, rapamycin significantly inhibits the production of NO, TNF-α in BV2 microglials by modulating NF-κB signaling. In experimental animals, treatment with rapamycin also dramatically inhibited the activation of microglials. In primary RGCs, rapamycin was capable of direct suppression the apoptosis of primary RGCs induced by glutamate. Mechanistically, rapamycin-mediated suppression of RGCs apoptosis is by sparing phosphorylation of Akt at a site critical for maintenance of its survival-promoting activity in cell and animal model. These results demonstrate that rapamycin is neuroprotective in experimental glaucoma, possibly via decreasing neurotoxic releasing and suppressing directly apoptosis of RGCs.

  4. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... ojo ¡Ojo con su Visión! Glosario Recursos adicionales de información El glaucoma El glaucoma ¿Cuánto sabe sobre ... un ser querido Ojos sanos Ojos sanos Problemas de visión comunes Enfermedades y condiciones de los ojos ...

  5. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Refractory Glaucoma: Experiences in Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gessesse, Girum W

    2015-07-01

    The management of refractory glaucoma is a challenging task for any glaucoma surgeon. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in refractory glaucomas in South-West Ethiopia. A retrospective review was conducted on the charts of consecutive patients treated with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation at Jimma University Specialized Hospital between August 2012 and August 2014. Success was defined as Intraocular Pressure (IOP) less than 22 mm Hg and greater than 5mm Hg at 6 months, with at least 30% reduction from baseline, without medical therapy (complete success) or either with or without medication (qualified successes). A total of 12 eyes of 11 patients were included. The mean age of patients was 40.7 (SD= 19.0) years; 63.6% of them were males. The main types of glaucoma were pseudoexfoliative (3 eyes), uveitic (2 eyes), chronic angle closure (2 eyes) and Juvenile Open Angle (JOAG) (2 eyes). The mean IOP was reduced from preoperative level (32.75±7.14 mmHg) to (15.75 ±4.35 mmHg) at six postoperative months, (P<0.001); 66.7% eyes had complete successes while 83.3% had qualified success. Intra-operative complications were encountered in 2(16.7%) eyes, while 5/12 (41.7%) eyes had post-operative complications-hypotony (one with choroidal effusion) and progression of cataract in 2 eyes each. Hypertensive phase was diagnosed in 2(16.7%) eyes. The Ahmed glaucoma valve implant appears to be effective and relatively safe for treating complicated glaucomas with success rate comparable with those reported from other studies. Ahmed glaucoma valve, refractory glaucoma, complications, Ethiopia.

  6. Late glaucoma after interstitial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Grant, W M

    1975-01-01

    In a systematic study of 45 patients who had syphilitic interstitial keratitis early in life and, many years later, were discovered to have glaucoma, there was evidence of two different but equally common mechanisms. In one group of patients, a deep-chamber type of glaucoma was superimposed on old inflammatory changes, was characteristically refractory to medical treatment, but did well with filtering surgery. The other group of patients had reversible angle-closure glaucoma associated with anatomically small anterior segments, and typically responded well to iridectomy. The late, refractory, deep-chamber type of glaucoma may involve endothelialization and formation of glass membrane in the angle, as seen in one excised eye. Occurrence of the shallow-chamber, reversible angle-closure type of glaucoma after interstitial keratitis may be coincidental, since no other evidence supports the idea that small anterior segments might be particularly prevalent among patients who have had congenital syphilis or interstitial keratitis.

  7. Corneal indentation in the early management of acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Masselos, Katherine; Bank, Allan; Francis, Ian C; Stapleton, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    To describe in detail corneal indentation (CI) in the management of a series of patients treated for acute angle closure (AAC). Retrospective, consecutive, noncomparative case series. Seven consecutive patients (8 eyes) referred to the authors with the diagnosis of AAC. Patients presented to the Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, or to the private practices of the authors. Seven patients (8 eyes) underwent CI as part of their early management for AAC. Reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP), symptoms of AAC and pain relief. Of the 7 patients, complete data were available for 6. The IOP was significantly reduced (P<0.05) and 3 of 4 patients with severe acute pain reported early resolution of pain after CI. The average reduction in IOP was 20.9 mmHg (range +1 to -45). All patients subsequently underwent definitive management with laser peripheral iridotomies or lensectomy using phacoemulsification. Three patients treated acutely with CI without any medical agents had a mean IOP reduction of 21 mmHg (range, 20-23) after indentation. Corneal indentation is a rapid, portable, and effective method of reducing elevated IOP in the setting of AAC. It can be performed with instrumentation that is readily at hand and allows for rapid pain relief. This reduction in IOP improves corneal clarity and permits further definitive management of the patient with AAC. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  8. Longitudinal changes of angle configuration in primary angle-closure suspects: the Zhongshan Angle-Closure Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S; Foster, Paul J

    2014-09-01

    To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Longitudinal cohort study. Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (P<0.001 for all variables). Between 2 weeks and 18 months after LPI, a significant decrease in angle width was observed over time in treated eyes (P<0.001 for all variables), although the change over the first 5.5 months was not statistically significant for angle width measured under gonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1.3-2.0) in untreated eyes (P<0.001). Angle width of treated eyes

  9. Monsoon and primary acute angle closure in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, T W; Mosavi, S A A; Noor Azimah, A A; Azlan, N Z; Azhany, Y; Liza-Sharmini, A T

    2013-10-01

    Acute angle closure (AAC) without prompt treatment may lead to optic neuropathy. Environmental factor such as climate change may precipitate pupillary block, the possible mechanism of AAC. To determine the association of northeast monsoon and incidence of AAC in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted on AAC patients admitted to two main tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia between January 2001 and December 2011. The cumulative number of rainy day, amount of rain, mean cloud cover and 24 hours mean humidity at the estimated day of attack were obtained from the Department of Meteorology, Malaysia. A total 73 cases of AAC were admitted with mean duration of 4.1SD 2.0 days. More than half have previous history of possibility of AAC. There was higher incidence of AAC during the northeast monsoon (October to March). There was also significant correlation of number of rainy day (r=0.718, p<0.001), amount of rain (r=0.587, p<0.001), cloud cover (r=0.637, p<0.001), mean daily global radiation (r=- 0.596, P<0.001), 24 hours mean temperature (r=-0.298, p=0.015) and 24 hours mean humidity (r=0.508, p<0.001) with cumulative number of admission for AAC for 12 calendar months. Higher incidence of AAC during northeast monsoon suggested the effect of climate as the potential risk factor. Prompt treatment to arrest pupillary block and reduction of the intraocular pressure is important to prevent potential glaucomatous damage. Public awareness of AAC and accessibility to treatment should be part of preparation to face the effect of northeast monsoon.

  10. Comparison of two spectral domain optical coherence tomography devices for angle-closure assessment.

    PubMed

    Quek, Desmond T; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Tun, Tin A; Htoon, Hla M; Baskaran, Mani; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2012-08-03

    To compare two spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) devices for the identification of angle structures and the presence of angle closure. This was a prospective comparative study. Consecutive patients underwent gonioscopy and anterior segment imaging using two SD-OCT devices (iVue and Cirrus). Images were evaluated for the ability to detect angle structures such as Schwalbe's line (SL), trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and scleral spur (SS), and the presence of angle closure. Angle closure was defined as iris contact with the angle wall anterior to the SS on SD-OCT, and nonvisibility of the posterior TM on gonioscopy. Angle closure in an eye was defined as ≥two quadrants of closed angles. AC1 statistic was used to assess the agreement between devices. Of the 69 subjects studied (46.4% male, 84.1% Chinese, mean age 64.0 ± 10.5 years), 40 subjects (40 eyes, 58.0%) had angle closure on gonioscopy. The most identifiable structure on Cirrus SD-OCT was the SS (82.2%) and SL on iVue SD-OCT (74.5%). Angle closure was indeterminable in 14.5% and 50.7% of Cirrus and iVue scans (P < 0.001), respectively. Interdevice agreement for angle closure was moderately strong (AC1 = 0.67), but agreement with gonioscopy was only fair (AC1 = 0.35 and 0.50 for Cirrus and iVue, respectively). It was more difficult to determine angle closure status with iVue compared with Cirrus SD-OCT. There was fair agreement between both devices with gonioscopy for identifying angle closure.

  11. Anterior chamber angle imaging with swept-source optical coherence tomography: measuring peripheral anterior synechia in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Isabel; Mak, Heather; Lai, Gilda; Yu, Marco; Lam, Dennis S C; Leung, Christopher K S

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the use of swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) for measuring the area and degree of peripheral anterior synechia (PAS) involvement in patients with angle-closure glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-three eyes with PAS (detected by indentation gonioscopy) from 20 patients with angle-closure glaucoma (20 eyes had primary angle-closure glaucoma and 3 eyes had angle-closure glaucoma secondary to chronic anterior uveitis [n = 2] and Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome [n = 1]). The anterior chamber angles were evaluated with indentation gonioscopy and imaged by swept-source OCT (Casia OCT, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) in room light and in the dark using the "angle analysis" protocol, which was composed of 128 radial B-scans each with 512 A-scans (16-mm scan length). The area and degree of PAS involvement were measured in each eye after manual detection of the scleral spur and the anterior irido-angle adhesion by 2 masked observers. The interobserver variability of the PAS measurements was calculated. The agreement of PAS assessment by gonioscopy and OCT, the area and the degree of PAS involvement, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of interobserver PAS measurements. The area of PAS (mean ± standard deviation) was 20.8 ± 16.9 mm(2) (range, 3.9-74.9 mm(2)), and the degree of PAS involvement was 186.5 ± 79.9 degrees (range, 42-314 degrees). There was no difference in the area of PAS (P = 0.90) and the degree of PAS involvement (P = 0.95) between images obtained in room light and in the dark. The interobserver ICCs were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.00) for the area of PAS and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97-1.00) for the degree of PAS involvement. There was good agreement of PAS assessment between gonioscopy and OCT images (kappa = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.91). Swept-source OCT allows visualization and reproducible measurements of the area and degree of PAS involvement, providing a new paradigm for evaluation of PAS progression and risk assessment

  12. [Glaucoma and retinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Geerling, G; Zierhut, M; Klink, T

    2010-05-01

    In the therapeutic approach to complex glaucomas different initial situations were considered: pre-existing glaucoma, induction of glaucoma after vitreoretinal surgery and antiglaucomatous procedures. In pre-existing glaucoma and after filtering surgery maintenance of the filtering bleb requires a vitreoretinal approach for conjunctiva preservation with techniques such as pneumatic retinopexy or small gauge vitrectomy. After vitreoretinal surgery an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) is common. Secondary glaucoma may occur after scleral buckling and after vitrectomy with or without gas or silicone oil tamponade as well as after application of steroids. Angle closure glaucoma after scleral buckling develops because of congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body. Vitreous tamponades with expansive or saturated gases may cause angle-closure glaucoma with or without pupillary blockage and may critically shorten ocular perfusion. Postoperative checks, immediate action and a ban on boarding aircraft over the period of intraocular gas tamponade prevent permanent damage to the eye. The majority of secondary glaucomas can effectively be controlled by topical medication and adequate postoperative posture of the patient. Besides the temporary use of systemic antiglaucomatous medication or laser therapy, very rarely in cases of massive swelling or overfill, a direct intervention, such as partial gas or silicone oil removal is required. A prophylactic inferior peripheral iridectomy prevents pupillary blockage in aphakic eyes with intraocular tamponade. In cases of heavy silicone oil use, the peripheral iridectomy is placed in the superior position. Nd:YAG laser application will regulate IOP in cases of occlusion. Secondary glaucoma due to silicone oil emulsification overload is treated by trabecular meshwork aspiration and lavage. In refractory glaucoma repetitive cyclophotocoagulation and drainage implants represent an approved method for long-term IOP regulation

  13. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters in phacomorphic angle closure and mature cataracts.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammadreza; Ramezani, Farshid; Moghimi, Sasan; Tabatabaie, Ali; Abdi, Fatemeh; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2014-10-21

    To describe anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters in phacomorphic angle closure eyes, mature cataract eyes, and their fellow eyes, and identify those parameters that could be used to differentiate phacomorphic angle closure eyes from those with mature cataract and no phacomorphic angle closure. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 33 phacomorphic angle closure subjects and 34 control patients with unilateral mature cataracts were enrolled. All patients underwent AS-OCT imaging and A-scan biometry of both eyes. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber area (ACA), iris thickness, iris curvature, lens vault (LV), and angle parameters, including angle opening distance (AOD750) and trabecular-iris space area (TISA750), were measured in qualified images using customized software and compared among eyes with phacomorphic angle closure, mature cataract eyes, and their fellow eyes. There was no significant difference in axial length among the four groups. Phacomorphic angle closure had the smallest angle (AOD750, TISA750) and anterior chamber parameters (ACD, ACA, anterior chamber width) and the greatest LV among the groups. This pattern was similar when comparing fellow eyes of mature cataract patients and fellow eyes of phacomorphic angle closure. Anterior chamber area less than 18.62 mm(2), ACD less than 2.60 mm, LV greater than 532.0 μm, and AOD750 less than 0.218 mm had the highest odds ratios (ORs) for distinguishing fellow eyes of phacomorphic angle closure versus fellow eyes of mature cataracts, with OR values of 9.90, 8.31, 7.91, and 7.91, respectively. Logistic regression showed that ACA less than 18.62 was the major parameter associated with fellow eyes of phacomorphic angle closure (OR = 10.96, P < 0.001). Anterior chamber depth, ACA, AOD750, and LV are powerful indicators in differentiating phacomorphic angle closure eyes from those with mature cataract and their fellow eyes. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in

  14. Effect of laser peripheral iridotomy on anterior chamber angle anatomy in primary angle closure spectrum eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kansara, Seema; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the change in trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV) after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle closure (PAC) spectrum eyes Patients and Methods Forty-two chronic PAC spectrum eyes from 24 patients were enrolled. Eyes with anterior chamber abnormalities affecting angle measurement were excluded. Intraocular pressure, slit lamp exam, and gonioscopy were recorded at each visit. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) with 3D mode angle analysis scans were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corp., Nagoya, Japan) before and after LPI. Forty-two pre-LPI ASOCT scans and 34 post-LPI ASOCT scans were analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation (ACAI, Houston, TX) software. A mixed-effect model analysis was used to compare the trabecular-iris space area (TISA) changes among 4 quadrants, as well as to identify potential factors affecting TICV. Results There was a significant increase in all average angle parameters after LPI (TISA500, TISA750, TICV500, and TICV750). The magnitude of change in TISA500 in the superior angle was significantly less than the other angles. The changes in TICV500 and TICV750 were not associated with any demographic or ocular characteristics. Conclusion TICV is a useful parameter to quantitatively measure the effectiveness of LPI in the treatment of eyes with PAC spectrum disease. PMID:26066504

  15. Brightness discrimination and contrast sensitivity in chronic glaucoma--a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S L; Allan, D; Dutton, G N; Foulds, W S

    1990-04-01

    The visual acuity, the difference in sensitivity of the two eyes to light (brightness ratio), and contrast sensitivity were assessed in 28 patients with chronic open angle glaucoma and compared with those of 41 normal controls of similar ages and visual acuity. The results obtained were related to the results of Tübingen visual field analysis in patients with glaucoma. Twenty-four of the 28 glaucoma patients (86%) had a significant disparity in brightness ratio between the two eyes. This was found to match the frequency of visual field loss. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the interocular differences in brightness sense and the difference in the degree of visual field loss between the two eyes. Of the glaucoma patients 39% had sum contrast sensitivities outside the normal range for age-matched normal controls. No significant correlation was found between the interocular difference in brightness sense and the visual acuity or the interocular difference in sum contrast sensitivity. It is concluded that, in the presence of a normal visual acuity, the brightness ratio test warrants evaluation as a potential screening test for chronic open angle glaucoma.

  16. Brightness discrimination and contrast sensitivity in chronic glaucoma--a clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, S L; Allan, D; Dutton, G N; Foulds, W S

    1990-01-01

    The visual acuity, the difference in sensitivity of the two eyes to light (brightness ratio), and contrast sensitivity were assessed in 28 patients with chronic open angle glaucoma and compared with those of 41 normal controls of similar ages and visual acuity. The results obtained were related to the results of Tübingen visual field analysis in patients with glaucoma. Twenty-four of the 28 glaucoma patients (86%) had a significant disparity in brightness ratio between the two eyes. This was found to match the frequency of visual field loss. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the interocular differences in brightness sense and the difference in the degree of visual field loss between the two eyes. Of the glaucoma patients 39% had sum contrast sensitivities outside the normal range for age-matched normal controls. No significant correlation was found between the interocular difference in brightness sense and the visual acuity or the interocular difference in sum contrast sensitivity. It is concluded that, in the presence of a normal visual acuity, the brightness ratio test warrants evaluation as a potential screening test for chronic open angle glaucoma. PMID:2186795

  17. Ab interno laser sclerostomy in aphakic patients with glaucoma and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Javitt, J C

    1990-08-15

    Five patients with aphakia, glaucoma, and chronic inflammation were treated with ab interno sclerostomy by using the continuous wave Nd:YAG laser focused through a sapphire probe. After a follow-up period of 24 to 28 months, three of five patients had good intraocular pressure control. The sclerostomy failed in one patient when it was occluded by vitreous. The second failure was attributed to closure of the sclerostomy because of chronic intraocular inflammation.

  18. Gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy in the detection of angle closure in patients with shallow anterior chamber.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shan-shan; Zou, Yan-hong; Li, Qian; Li, Li-na; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xi-pu

    2014-12-01

    To assess the agreement between gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in detecting angle closure in Chinese patients with shallow anterior chamber. An observational comparative study of the two different examination methods was conducted. Patients with normal intraocular pressure and temporal peripheral anterior chamber depth less than a quarter of corneal thickness based on slit lamp examination were included in this study from December 2007 to May 2009 in the outpatient clinic of First Hospital of Tsinghua University. Gonioscopy was performed with a Goldman goniolens in dark room first and followed by full beam light and indentation. If the filtering trabecular meshwork was invisible or any peripheral anterior synechia was found, that quadrant of the angle was considered closed. UBM was first undertaken in a darkened room then repeated with normal room lighting. If iridotrabecular apposition was showed, that quadrant of the angle was considered closed. The status of angle closure of each quadrant with different methods was recorded. 85 eyes of 46 patients were included in this study. The agreement between gonioscopy and UBM was poor (Κ<0.4) with Kappa analysis in both dark and light conditions in each quadrant. The accordance of agreement between gonioscopy and UBM was hardly affected by age or sex, while in dark condition, eyes with deeper anterior chamber (P=0.005) or plateau iris configuration tended to produce different results (P=0.075) in the 2 methods. Gonioscopy and UBM are both indispensable methods for detecting angle closure, neither can completely replace the other.

  19. Combined Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Placement, Intravitreal Fluocinolone Acetonide Implantation and Cataract Extraction for Chronic Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ingrid T; Gupta, Divakar; Slabaugh, Mark A; Vemulakonda, Gurunadh A; Chen, Philip P

    2016-10-01

    To report the outcomes of combined Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) placement, intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant, and cataract extraction procedure in the treatment of chronic noninfectious uveitis. Retrospective case series of patients with chronic noninfectious uveitis who underwent AGV placement, intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implantation, and cataract extraction in a single surgical session performed at 1 institution from January 2009 to November 2014. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medication use. Secondary outcome measures included visual acuity, systemic anti-inflammatory medications, number of uveitis flares, and complications. Fifteen eyes of 10 patients were studied, with a mean age of 40.3±15.7 and mean follow-up duration of 26 months (range, 13 to 39 mo). Before surgery, the IOP was 18.5±7.3 mm Hg and patients were using 1.5±1.5 topical glaucoma medications. At the 12-month follow-up, IOP was 12.8±3.2 mm Hg (P=0.01) and patients were using 0.5±0.8 (P=0.03) topical glaucoma medications. At 36 months of follow-up, late, nonsustained hypotony had occurred in 3 eyes (20%), and 1 eye (6%) had received a second AGV for IOP control. Before treatment, patients had 2.7±1.5 uveitis flares in the year before surgery while on an average of 2.1±0.6 systemic anti-inflammatory medications, which decreased to an average of 0.1±0.3 (P<0.01) flares the year after surgery while on an average of 0.4±1.1 (P<0.01) systemic medications. Combined AGV, intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant, and cataract extraction is effective in controlling IOP and reducing the number of glaucoma medications at 12 months after treatment in patients with chronic uveitis.

  20. Chronic Glaucoma in Dogs: Relationships Between Histologic Lesions and the Gonioscopic Diagnosis of Pectinate Ligament Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bauer, B S; Sandmeyer, L S; Philibert, H; Feng, C X; Grahn, B H

    2016-11-01

    Pectinate ligament dysplasia (PLD) is a common cause of canine glaucoma and the definitive clinical diagnosis is based on gonioscopy. Although the histologic lesions of PLD have been described, it has not been determined whether these changes are specific for PLD or if similar histologic changes can develop as a consequence of secondary glaucoma. The filtration angles of 61 enucleated canine globes with chronic glaucoma were evaluated with light microscopy by 3 examiners who were masked to the clinical history, signalment, and gonioscopic results. A histologic diagnosis of PLD versus non-PLD was determined by each examiner based on previously reported morphologic criteria and compared with the clinical gonioscopic diagnosis. Of the 61 enucleated glaucomatous eyes, 40 were clinically diagnosed with PLD. For all 3 examiners, a histologic diagnosis of PLD corresponded poorly with the clinical diagnosis of PLD (range of kappa score: 0.149-0.269; range of AUC: 0.592-0.621). There was no difference between examiners in their ability to correctly diagnose PLD histologically (P = .978). A fair degree of agreement was noted among examiners in obtaining their suspected histologic diagnosis of PLD (kappa score 0.256). No individual or sets of histologic ICA features were consistent with clinical PLD. The results indicate the histologic ICA changes proposed to be characteristic of PLD are also noted in canine globes affected with chronic secondary glaucoma. Therefore, using routine histologic evaluation, a histologic diagnosis of PLD is not possible in the face of chronic canine glaucoma. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Association of Baseline Anterior Segment Parameters With the Development of Incident Gonioscopic Angle Closure.

    PubMed

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; Aboobakar, Inas F; Baskaran, Mani; Narayanaswamy, Arun; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wu, Renyi; Atalay, Eray; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2017-03-01

    Baseline anterior segment imaging parameters associated with incident gonioscopic angle closure, to our knowledge, are unknown. To identify baseline quantitative anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters associated with the development of incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among participants with gonioscopically open angles at baseline. Three hundred forty-two participants aged 50 years or older were recruited to participate in this prospective, community-based observational study. Participants underwent gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging at baseline and after 4 years. Custom image analysis software was used to quantify anterior chamber parameters from anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. Baseline anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements among participants with gonioscopically open vs closed angles at follow-up. Of the 342 participants, 187 (55%) were women and 297 (87%) were Chinese. The response rate was 62.4%. Forty-nine participants (14.3%) developed gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years. The mean age (SD) at baseline of the 49 participants was 62.9 (8.0) years, 15 (30.6%) were men, and 43 (87.8%) were Chinese. These participants had a smaller baseline angle opening distance at 750 µm (AOD750) (0.15 mm; 95% CI, 0.12-0.18), trabecular iris surface area at 750 µm (0.07 mm2; 95% CI, 0.05-0.08), anterior chamber area (30 mm2; 95% CI, 2.27-3.74), and anterior chamber volume (24.32 mm2; 95% CI, 18.20-30.44) (all P < .001). Baseline iris curvature (-0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.04) and lens vault (LV) measurements (-0.29 mm; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.21) were larger among these participants ( all P < .001). A model consisting of the LV and AOD750 measurements explained 38% of the variance in gonioscopic angle closure occurring at 4 years, with LV accounting for 28% of this variance. For every 0.1 mm increase in LV and 0.1 mm decrease in AOD750, the odds of developing

  2. The Effects of Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation on Anatomical and Functional Parameters in Patients with Primary Angle Closure: A Prospective Study. (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    PubMed

    Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Cutolo, Carlo Alberto

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the clinical, anatomical, and patient-reported outcomes of phacoemulsification (PE) with intraocular lens implantation performed to treat primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Patients were evaluated at baseline and at 6 months after PE. The examination included visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field, optic nerve head, endothelial cell count (ECC), aqueous depth, and ocular biometric parameters. Patient-reported visual function and health status were assessed. Coprimary outcome measures were IOP changes, angle widening, and patient-reported visual function; secondary outcome measures were visual acuity changes, use of IOP-lowering medications, and complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of IOP change. Thirty-nine cases were identified, and postoperative data were analyzed for 59 eyes, 39 with PACG and 20 with PAC. Globally, PE resulted in a mean reduction in IOP of -6.33 mm Hg (95% CI, -8.64 to -4.01, P <.001). Aqueous depth and angle measurements improved ( P <.01), whereas ECC significantly decreased ( P <.001). Both corrected and uncorrected visual acuity improved ( P <.01). The EQ visual analog scale did not change ( P =.16), but VFQ-25 improved ( P <.01). The IOP-lowering effect of PE was greater in the PACG compared to the PAC group ( P =.04). In both groups, preoperative IOP was the most significant predictor of IOP change ( P <.01). No sight-threatening complications were recorded. Our data support the usefulness of PE in lowering the IOP in patients with PAC and PACG. Although PE resulted in several anatomical and patient-reported visual improvements, we observe that a marked decrease in ECC should be carefully weighed before surgery.

  3. Water-drinking test in primary angle-closure suspect before and after laser peripheral iridotomy.

    PubMed

    Waisbourd, Michael; Savant, Shravan V; Sun, Yi; Martinez, Patricia; Myers, Jonathan S

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether performing a laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle-closure suspects had an effect on the intraocular pressure response during the water-drinking test. Prospective study in a hospital setting. Primary angle-closure suspects scheduled for a laser peripheral iridotomy. Primary angle-closure suspects were evaluated before the laser peripheral iridotomy and 2 weeks after. On each visit, subjects underwent the water-drinking test. Intraocular pressure was measured every 15 min within a 1-h period. Intraocular pressure fluctuations during the water drinking test. Twenty patients were enrolled. The mean age was 58.1 years (±10.2 SD), predominantly female (n = 14, 70%). Average intraocular pressure range (maximum-minimum) during the water-drinking test increased significantly from 2.6 ± 1.1 mmHg before the laser peripheral iridotomy to 3.5 ± 1.5 mmHg after (P = 0.04). The mean difference between peak and last intraocular pressure measurements increased after the laser peripheral iridotomy was performed, from 2.5 mmHg (±1.27 SD) to 3.3 mmHg (±1.66 SD), (P = 0.057). There was no change in mean peak intraocular pressure (maximum-baseline) before and after the laser peripheral iridotomy (P = 0.87). Primary angle-closure suspects who underwent the water-drinking test had a slightly more pronounced recovery of intraocular pressure after the laser peripheral iridotomy was performed, which may be attributed to increase in the area of exposed trabecular meshwork following treatment. Differences in intraocular pressure curves before and after laser peripheral iridotomy were minimal, and therefore, the water-drinking test had limited value as a provocative test in this patient population. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Assessment of circumferential angle-closure by the iris-trabecular contact index with swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Mani; Ho, Sue-Wei; Tun, Tin A; How, Alicia C; Perera, Shamira A; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the iris-trabecular contact (ITC) index, a measure of the degree of angle-closure, using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT, CASIA SS-1000, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) in comparison with gonioscopy. Prospective observational study. A total of 108 normal subjects and 32 subjects with angle-closure. The SSOCT 3-dimensional angle scans, which obtain radial scans for the entire circumference of the angle, were performed under dark conditions and analyzed using customized software by a single examiner masked to the subjects' clinical details. The ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle that was closed on SSOCT images. First-order agreement coefficient (AC1) statistics and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses were performed for angle-closure on the basis of the ITC index in comparison with gonioscopy. Angle-closure on gonioscopy was defined as nonvisibility of posterior trabecular meshwork for at least 2 quadrants. Agreement of the ITC index with gonioscopically defined angle-closure was assessed using the AC1 statistic. Study subjects were predominantly Chinese (95.7%) and female (70.7%), with a mean age of 59.2 (standard deviation, 8.9) years. The median ITC index was 15.24% for gonioscopically open-angle eyes (n = 108) and 48.5% for closed-angle eyes (n = 32) (P = 0.0001). The agreement for angle-closure based on ITC index cutoffs (>35% and ≥50%) and gonioscopic angle-closure was 0.699 and 0.718, respectively. The AUC for angle-closure detection using the ITC index was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.89), with an ITC index >35% having a sensitivity of 71.9% and specificity of 84.3%. The ITC index is a summary measure of the circumferential extent of angle-closure as imaged with SSOCT. The index had moderate agreement and good diagnostic performance for angle-closure with gonioscopy as the reference standard. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of

  5. Development of a score and probability estimate for detecting angle closure based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; Haaland, Benjamin A; Perera, Shamira A; Friedman, David S; He, Mingguang; Sakata, Lisandro M; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2014-01-01

    To develop a score along with an estimated probability of disease for detecting angle closure based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) imaging. Cross-sectional study. A total of 2047 subjects 50 years of age and older were recruited from a community polyclinic in Singapore. All subjects underwent standardized ocular examination including gonioscopy and imaging by AS OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec). Customized software (Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program) was used to measure AS OCT parameters. Complete data were available for 1368 subjects. Data from the right eyes were used for analysis. A stepwise logistic regression model with Akaike information criterion was used to generate a score that then was converted to an estimated probability of the presence of gonioscopic angle closure, defined as the inability to visualize the posterior trabecular meshwork for at least 180 degrees on nonindentation gonioscopy. Of the 1368 subjects, 295 (21.6%) had gonioscopic angle closure. The angle closure score was calculated from the shifted linear combination of the AS OCT parameters. The score can be converted to an estimated probability of having angle closure using the relationship: estimated probability = e(score)/(1 + e(score)), where e is the natural exponential. The score performed well in a second independent sample of 178 angle-closure subjects and 301 normal controls, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.94. A score derived from a single AS OCT image, coupled with an estimated probability, provides an objective platform for detection of angle closure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative and Anti-Oxidative Stress Markers in Chronic Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benoist d’Azy, Cédric; Pereira, Bruno; Chiambaretta, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Chronic glaucoma is a multifactorial disease among which oxidative stress may play a major pathophysiological role. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the levels of oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma compared with a control group. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies reporting oxidative and antioxidative stress markers in chronic glaucoma and in healthy controls using the following keywords: “oxidative stress” or “oxidant stress” or “nitrative stress” or “oxidative damage” or “nitrative damage” or “antioxidative stress” or “antioxidant stress” or “antinitrative stress” and “glaucoma”. We stratified our meta-analysis on the type of biomarkers, the type of glaucoma, and the origin of the sample (serum or aqueous humor). We included 22 case-control studies with a total of 2913 patients: 1614 with glaucoma and 1319 healthy controls. We included 12 studies in the meta-analysis on oxidative stress markers and 19 on antioxidative stress markers. We demonstrated an overall increase in oxidative stress markers in glaucoma (effect size = 1.64; 95%CI 1.20–2.09), ranging from an effect size of 1.29 in serum (95%CI 0.84–1.74) to 2.62 in aqueous humor (95%CI 1.60–3.65). Despite a decrease in antioxidative stress marker in serum (effect size = –0.41; 95%CI –0.72 to –0.11), some increased in aqueous humor (superoxide dismutase, effect size = 3.53; 95%CI 1.20–5.85 and glutathione peroxidase, effect size = 6.60; 95%CI 3.88–9.31). The differences in the serum levels of oxidative stress markers between glaucoma patients and controls were significantly higher in primary open angle glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.7; 95%CI 8.78–16.6, P < 0.001), and higher in pseudo-exfoliative glaucoma vs primary angle closed glaucoma (effect size = 12.2; 95%CI 8.96–15.5, P < 0.001). In conclusion, oxidative

  7. [Uveitic Secondary Glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lommatzsch, Claudia; Heinz, Carsten

    2018-05-01

    An intraocular pressure increase with development of glaucomatous damage is a common complication of uveitis. The prevalence has a wide range depending on various factors such as the underlying uveitis type and the duration of the disease. Pathogenetically, a distinction must be made between a secondary angle closure component and the more frequently occurring open-angle glaucoma. In diagnostics, in addition to the clinical optic nerve head assessment, perimetry and tonometry, the use of imaging examination equipment, such as OCT and HRT, are recommended. In the context of uveitic glaucoma, it must be considered in the evaluation, because the glaucoma-typical changes are generally less pronounced or can be concealed by retinal swelling in comparison with other forms of glaucoma. Therapeutically, drug therapy in the form of eye drops continues to be a first-line recommendation, with the use of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or beta-blockers primarily preferred, depending on the contraindications. An operative therapy follows after unsuccessful or inadequate conservative therapy: the adequate surgical technique depends on the respective finding and includes actually techniques such as filtering procedures and glaucoma drainage devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Graft failure: III. Glaucoma escalation after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Emily C; Kwon, Young H

    2008-06-01

    Glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty is a frequently observed post-operative complication and is a risk factor for graft failure. Penetrating keratoplasty performed for aphakic and pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and inflammatory conditions are more likely to cause postoperative glaucoma compared with keratoconus and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy. The intraocular pressure elevation may occur immediately after surgery or in the early to late postoperative period. Early postoperative causes of glaucoma include pre-existing glaucoma, retained viscoelastic, hyphema, inflammation, pupillary block, aqueous misdirection, or suprachoroidal hemorrhage. Late causes include pre-existing glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, ghost cell glaucoma, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, and steroid-induced glaucoma. Determining the cause of IOP elevation can help guide therapeutic intervention. Treatments for refractory glaucoma include topical anti-glaucoma medications such as beta-adrenergic blockers. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, miotic agents, adrenergic agonists, and prostaglandin analogs should be used with caution in the post-keratoplasty patient, because of the possibility of corneal decompensation, cystoid macular edema, or persistent inflammation. Various glaucoma surgical treatments have reported success in post-keratoplasty glaucoma. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C can be successful in controlling IOP without the corneal toxicity noted with 5-fluorouracil. Glaucoma drainage devices have successfully controlled intraocular pressure in postkeratoplasty glaucoma; this is, however, associated with increased risk of graft failure. Placement of the tube through the pars plana may improve graft success compared with implantation within the anterior chamber. In addition, cyclophotocoagulation remains a useful procedure for eyes that have refractory glaucoma despite multiple surgical interventions.

  9. Incidence and Management of Glaucoma in Vogt Koyanagi Harada Disease.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Amit; Balekudaru, Shantha; Venkatramani, Devendra V; George, Amala E; Lingam, Vijaya; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-08-01

    To analyse the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of glaucoma in Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) disease and study the changes in visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP) with treatment. Retrospective chart analysis of 448 eyes of 224 patients of Indian origin diagnosed with VKH disease from January 1990 to December 2013, who had a minimum follow-up of 3 months was performed. Seventy-one eyes (15.8%) developed sustained elevation in IOP. The prevalence of glaucoma at presentation was 15.8% and the cumulative incidence of glaucoma was 11.7%. The mechanisms of glaucoma were open-angle glaucoma in 46 eyes, (64.8%), angle closure in 21 eyes (29.6%), and of combined mechanisms in the remainder (4 eyes, 5.6%). Acute angle-closure crisis developed in 9 eyes (12.6%). Uveal effusion (odds ratio 9.47; confidence interval, 4.08-20.03) and increased number of recurrences (odds ratio 1.31; confidence interval, 1.13-1.53) were found to be significant risk factors for the development of glaucoma. Successful control of IOP was achieved in 64% at 12 months using medical/ laser treatment for glaucoma and was 50 % at 12 months following surgical management. Glaucoma is a frequent complication of uveitis in VKH disease. Presence of uveal effusion and increased number of recurrences of inflammation are significant risk factors.

  10. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project

    PubMed Central

    Waisbourd, Michael; Pruzan, Noelle L.; Johnson, Deiana; Ugorets, Angela; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.; Henderer, Jeffery D.; Hark, Lisa A.; Katz, L. Jay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and the initial treatments received in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project, a community-based initiative aimed at improving the detection, treatment, and follow-up care of individuals at risk for glaucoma. Design Retrospective analysis. Participants A total of 1649 individuals at risk for glaucoma who were examined and treated in 43 community centers located in underserved communities of Philadelphia. Methods Individuals were enrolled if they were African American aged ≥50 years, were any other adult aged ≥60 years, or had a family history of glaucoma. After attending an informational glaucoma workshop, participants underwent a targeted glaucoma examination including an ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and corneal pachymetry; slit-lamp and optic nerve examination; automated visual field testing; and fundus color photography. If indicated, treatments included selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), or IOP-lowering medications. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at the community sites after 4 to 6 weeks or 4 to 6 months, depending on the clinical scenario. Main Outcome Measures Detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and types of treatments administered. Results Of the 1649 individuals enrolled, 645 (39.1%) received a glaucoma-related diagnosis; 20.0% (n = 330) were identified as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) suspects, 9.2% (n = 151) were identified as having narrow angles (or as a primary angle closure/suspect), and 10.0% (n = 164) were diagnosed with glaucoma, including 9.0% (n = 148) with OAG and 1.0% (n = 16) with angle-closure glaucoma. Overall, 39.0% (n = 64 of 164) of those diagnosed with glaucoma were unaware of their diagnosis. A total of 196 patients (11.9%) received glaucoma-related treatment, including 84 (5.1%) who underwent LPI, 13 (0.8%) who underwent SLT

  11. Longitudinal Changes of Angle Configuration in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuzhen; Chang, Dolly S.; Zhu, Haogang; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Aung, Tin; Huang, Shengsong; Chen, Qianyun; Munoz, Beatriz; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine longitudinal changes in angle configuration in the eyes of primary angle-closure suspects (PACS) treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and in untreated fellow eyes. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Participants Primary angle-closure suspects aged 50 to 70 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods Each participant was treated by LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as a control. Angle width was assessed in a masked fashion using gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) before and at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Angle width in degrees was calculated from Shaffer grades assessed under static gonioscopy. Angle configuration was also evaluated using angle opening distance (AOD250, AOD500, AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA500, TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA) measured in AS-OCT images. Results No significant difference was found in baseline measures of angle configuration between treated and untreated eyes. At 2 weeks after LPI, the drainage angle on gonioscopy widened from a mean of 13.5° at baseline to a mean of 25.7° in treated eyes, which was also confirmed by significant increases in all AS-OCT angle width measures (P<0.001 for all variables). Between 2 weeks and 18 months after LPI, a significant decrease in angle width was observed over time in treated eyes (P<0.001 for all variables), although the change over the first 5.5 months was not statistically significant for angle width measured under gonioscopy (P = 0.18), AOD250 (P = 0.167) and ARA (P = 0.83). In untreated eyes, angle width consistently decreased across all follow-up visits after LPI, with a more rapid longitudinal decrease compared with treated eyes (P values for all variables ≤0.003). The annual rate of change in angle width was equivalent to 1.2°/year (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8–1.6) in treated eyes and 1.6°/year (95% CI, 1

  12. Deep Sclerectomy with Goniosynechiolysis Ab Interno for Chronic Glaucoma Associated with Peripheral Anterior Synechiae

    PubMed Central

    Raak, Peter; Ponto, Katharina; Stoffelns, Bernhard; Lorenz, Katrin; Scharioth, Gábor B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report one-year results of phacoemulsification combined with deep sclerectomy and goniosynechiolysis ab interno for chronic glaucoma associated with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed medical charts of 16 patients (20 eyes) treated by one-site combined phacoemulsification and deep sclerectomy with goniosynechiolysis ab interno. PAS were transected by a spatula introduced into the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. To account for the correlation of right and left eyes a linear mixed model with unstructured covariance structure was calculated. Results. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 20.3 ± 5.2 mmHg with 2.4 ± 1.0 medications. One year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 15.3 ± 3.3 mmHg (P = 0.004, paired t-test) with 0.6 ± 1.0 medications. A postoperative IOP of ≤21 mmHg without medication was achieved in 17 of 19 eyes (89.5%) and in 12/19 eyes (63.2%) at 3 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. In the remaining eyes (10.5% at 3 months and 36.8% at 12 months), additional medication led to an IOP ≤21 mmHg or the target pressure. No case required further glaucoma surgery. In one eye, conversion of the surgery to trabeculectomy was necessary due to Descemet's window rupture. Conclusions. With goniosynechiolysis ab interno, effective and safe nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery is possible in presence of PAS. PMID:26199738

  13. [21st century management of glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Shigeo

    2003-12-01

    According to a recent epidemiological study done in Japan, 2 or 3 million Japanese people are thought to be suffering from glaucoma, and 70-80% of them have not been examined or diagnosed by ophthalmologists. Therefore, the problem is how to find these untreated and undiagnosed people. At present, treatment of glaucoma continues to be directed at lowering intraocular pressure to prevent progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, theoretically, there are three stages in the prevention of progression of glaucoma. In the first stage, diagnosis of glaucoma can be done by genetic examination, before occurrence of glaucoma. The MYOCILIN/trabecular meshwork-inducible glucocorticoid response gene and the optineurin gene were identified as the genes that cause open angle glaucoma. Although some Japanese patients have sequence changes in the myocilin gene, there are no apparent specific mutations in Japanese glaucoma patients, in the MYOCILIN/TIGR and optineurin genes. Secondary glaucoma such as steroid glaucoma, induced by allergic diseases, and neovascular glaucoma, induced by retinal circulatory insufficiency, are preventable by improving the causal diseases, diabetes and hypertension. The education of doctors and laymen is important to reduce the occurrence of diabetes, and hypertension to prevent diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vessel occlusion. The second stage in preventing progression of glaucoma is to find the disease as early as possible. In Japan, a physical examination system is in place for everybody over 40 years old, in companies and local districts. Therefore, ocular examination, specially non-mydriatic fundus photographs should be taken in these examinations, and the film should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist, to search for retinal and optic disc abnormalities. Primary open angle glaucoma can be detected through this system in early stages. In primary angle closure glaucoma, instruments for estimating anterior chamber rapidly and accurately

  14. Prevalence of comorbid retinal disease in patients with glaucoma at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Joseph F; Goldberg, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with various retinal diseases and patients who have undergone retinal procedures and surgeries have an increased risk of developing ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Little is known about the epidemiology of comorbid retinal diseases in glaucoma patients. This study evaluated the prevalence of retinal comorbidities in a population of patients with five types of glaucoma. A longitudinal, retrospective study was conducted using International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) billing records from 2003 to 2010 at an academic medical center. Patients were classified as having primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), low tension open-angle glaucoma (NTG), pigmentary open-angle glaucoma, chronic-angle closure glaucoma (CACG), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) if they had at least three clinic visits with the same ICD-9 code. Patients were classified as having a retinal comorbidity if they had two visits with the same code. Variables were analyzed with the independent t-test, χ (2) test, analysis of variance, or Fisher's exact test. A total of 5,154 patients had glaucoma, and 14.8% of these had a retinal comorbidity. The prevalence of comorbid retinal disease was higher in patients with POAG (15.7%) than in those with NTG (10.7%), PXG (10.1%), or pigmentary open-angle glaucoma (3.7%; P<0.05). Two hundred and two patients had diabetic retinopathy, with POAG patients (4.5%) having a higher prevalence than those with CACG (1.4%) or PXG (0.6%; P<0.001). There were 297 patients who had macular degeneration and both POAG (2.0%) and PXG patients (2.9%) had a higher prevalence of nonexudative macular degeneration than those with CACG (0%; P<0.01). Patients with comorbid retinal disease had a higher prevalence of blindness and low vision than those without comorbid retinal disease (1.97% versus 1.02%, P=0.02). The high prevalence of comorbid retinal disease and the nearly twofold increase in blindness and low vision in this population demonstrate the need for

  15. Ocular Hypertension and Chronic Open-Angle Glaucoma in USAF Pilots and Navigators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    nontreat- ment (close observation) of the preglaucoma category and treatment wit; epinephrine only of those classified glaucoma ha* been carried out now...concepts of glaucoma and glaucoma treatment versus the new "contemporary school" approach (differentiating ocular hypertension from glaucoma). This study...acute attack rather than the screening program. Onset ages for the secondary cases ranged from 28 to 53; 5 of these were secondary to uveitis , and

  16. Anterior Chamber Angle Shape Analysis and Classification of Glaucoma in SS-OCT Images.

    PubMed

    Ni Ni, Soe; Tian, J; Marziliano, Pina; Wong, Hong-Tym

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography is a high resolution, rapid, and noninvasive diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma. In this paper, we present a new strategy for the classification of the angle closure glaucoma using morphological shape analysis of the iridocorneal angle. The angle structure configuration is quantified by the following six features: (1) mean of the continuous measurement of the angle opening distance; (2) area of the trapezoidal profile of the iridocorneal angle centered at Schwalbe's line; (3) mean of the iris curvature from the extracted iris image; (4) complex shape descriptor, fractal dimension, to quantify the complexity, or changes of iridocorneal angle; (5) ellipticity moment shape descriptor; and (6) triangularity moment shape descriptor. Then, the fuzzy k nearest neighbor (fkNN) classifier is utilized for classification of angle closure glaucoma. Two hundred and sixty-four swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images from 148 patients were analyzed in this study. From the experimental results, the fkNN reveals the best classification accuracy (99.11 ± 0.76%) and AUC (0.98 ± 0.012) with the combination of fractal dimension and biometric parameters. It showed that the proposed approach has promising potential to become a computer aided diagnostic tool for angle closure glaucoma (ACG) disease.

  17. Measurement of plasma gentamicin concentrations postchemical ciliary body ablation in dogs with chronic glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Amy J; Lanuza, Rick; KuKanich, Butch; Crumley, William C; Pucket, Jonathan D; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Meekins, Jessica M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of gentamicin into the plasma after an intravitreal injection in dogs and to report the success rate of this procedure in lowering the intraocular pressure. Twenty-four client-owned dogs with chronic, end-stage glaucoma. Dogs received a unilateral (22) or bilateral (2) intravitreal injection of 25-40 mg of gentamicin (mean ± SD dose 2.57 ± 1.65 mg/kg and range 0.61-7.50 mg/kg) and 1 mg of dexamethasone per eye. Blood samples were collected at various time points following the intravitreal injection. Plasma concentrations of gentamicin were determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total plasma concentration of gentamicin ranged from 0.21 to 9.71 μg/mL (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 2.03). The mean gentamicin CMAX was 2.29 μg/mL at 2.54 h with a terminal half-life of 9.8 h. The success rate of the chemical ablation procedure was 86.4% (19/22 eyes) in dogs that had at least 1 month of follow-up. Intravitreal injection of gentamicin in eyes with chronic glaucoma resulted in detectable plasma levels in dogs and was successful in lowering the intraocular pressure in 86.4% of the eyes after the first procedure. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Use of gonioscopy in medicare beneficiaries before glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Anne L; Yu, Fei; Evans, Stacy J

    2006-12-01

    The American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Patterns for angle closure and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients recommends performing bilateral gonioscopy upon initial presentation to evaluate the possibility of narrow angle or angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) and then repeating the examination at least every 5 years. This study aims to assess how commonly eye care providers perform gonioscopy before planned glaucoma surgery in OAG, anatomic narrow angle, and ACG in the Medicare population. Data obtained from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing glaucoma surgery in the United States in 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. The proportion of patients with evidence of at least one gonioscopic examination before glaucoma surgery was determined for the period of 1995 to 1999. Demographic and clinical factors potentially influencing the decision to perform gonioscopy were also examined. Overall, gonioscopy is apparently performed in 49% of Medicare beneficiaries during the 4 to 5 years preceding glaucoma surgery. This rate was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in patients with OAG (46%), as compared with anatomic narrow angle (58%) and ACG (57%) patients. Hispanics, elderly (aged 70 to 84), patients undergoing laser iridotomy, and patients receiving care in the New York/New Jersey area all had significantly higher apparent preoperative gonioscopy rates (P < 0.05). Gonioscopy examination before glaucoma surgery in Medicare beneficiaries is underused, undercoded, and/or miscoded, given current recommendations. Underuse is of particular concern in patients undergoing laser iridotomy as it is the diagnostic test of choice in ACG.

  19. Comparing Gonioscopy With Visante and Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography for Anterior Chamber Angle Assessment in Glaucoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cindy X; Mantravadi, Anand; Zangalli, Camila; Ali, Mohsin; Faria, Bruno M; Richman, Jesse; Wizov, Sheryl S; Razeghinejad, M Reza; Moster, Marlene R; Katz, L Jay

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gonioscopy with Visante and Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) for identifying angle structures and the presence of angle closure in patients with glaucoma. A secondary objective was to assess interrater agreement for gonioscopy grading among 3 independent examiners. Gonioscopy grading using Spaeth Classification and determination of angle-closure risk was performed on 1 randomly selected eye for 50 phakic patients. Images of the same eye using both Visante and Cirrus OCT were obtained in both light and dark conditions. Agreement of angle closure among 3 devices and interrater agreement for gonioscopy were determined using Cohen's κ (K) or Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W). Of the 50 patients, 60% were female, 64% were white, and the mean age was 62 years. Angle closure was detected in 18%, 16%, and 48% of quadrants with Visante, Cirrus, and gonioscopy, respectively. The scleral spur was identified in 56% and 50% of quadrants with Visante and Cirrus OCT, respectively. Visante and Cirrus OCT showed moderate agreement in detecting angle closure (K=0.42 light, K=0.53 dark) but slight-to-fair agreement with gonioscopy (Visante K=0.25, Cirrus K=0.15). Gonioscopy demonstrated substantial agreement in angle closure (K=0.65 to 0.68) and angle-closure risk assessment (W=0.83) among 3 examiners. Visante and Cirrus OCT imaging may have limited ability to identify angle closure because of difficulty identifying angle structures. Gonioscopy by well-trained clinicians had remarkably consistent agreement for identifying angle-closure risk.

  20. The Effect of Phacoemulsification on Intraocular Pressure in Glaucoma Patients: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Philip P; Lin, Shan C; Junk, Anna K; Radhakrishnan, Sunita; Singh, Kuldev; Chen, Teresa C

    2015-07-01

    To examine effects of phacoemulsification on longer-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with medically treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; including normal-tension glaucoma), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG), or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), without prior or concurrent incisional glaucoma surgery. PubMed and Cochrane database searches, last conducted in December 2014, yielded 541 unique citations. Panel members reviewed titles and abstracts and selected 86 for further review. The panel reviewed these articles and identified 32 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, for which the panel methodologist assigned a level of evidence based on standardized grading adopted by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. One, 15, and 16 studies were rated as providing level I, II, and III evidence, respectively. All follow-up, IOP, and medication data listed are weighted means. In general, the studies reported on patients using few glaucoma medications (1.5-1.9 before surgery among the different diagnoses). For POAG, 9 studies (total, 461 patients; follow-up, 17 months) showed that phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 13% and glaucoma medications by 12%. For PXG, 5 studies (total, 132 patients; follow-up, 34 months) showed phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 20% and glaucoma medications by 35%. For chronic PACG, 12 studies (total, 495 patients; follow-up, 16 months) showed phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 30% and glaucoma medications by 58%. Patients with acute PACG (4 studies; total, 119 patients; follow-up, 24 months) had a 71% reduction from presenting IOP and rarely required long-term glaucoma medications when phacoemulsification was performed soon after medical reduction of IOP. Trabeculectomy after phacoemulsification was uncommon; the median rate reported within 6 to 24 months of follow-up in patients with controlled POAG, PXG, or PACG was 0% and was 7% in patients with uncontrolled chronic PACG. Phacoemulsification typically results in small

  1. Uveal effusion following acute primary angle-closure: a retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Gang; Li, Jian-Jun; Tian, Hua; Li, Yan-Hong; Gong, Yu-Jing; Su, An-Le; He, Na

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the morphological changes in anterior segment in Chinese patients with uveal effusion (UE) after the attack of acute primary angle-closure (APAC) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and to assess the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS In a retrospective case series, 26 eyes in 26 consecutive patients diagnosed with UE after the treatment of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication for the attack of APAC were enrolled. The unaffected fellow eyes served as controls. The morphological changes were observed by ultrasonography, slit lamp microscopy and gonioscopy. UBM was used to assess the degree and extent of effusion based on the analysis of parameters associated with UE. RESULTS The mean IOP was 9.2 (SD 2.1) mm Hg at the diagnosis of UE after IOP-lowering medication, while 14.1 (SD, 2.6) mm Hg in the fellow eyes (P=0.000). The anterior chamber depth (ACD) (P=0.000), angle opening distance at 500 µm (AOD500) (P<0.01) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) (P<0.05) were decreased significantly, while ciliary body thickness (CBT) (P<0.05) increased significantly in UE eyes. UE grade analysis showed 7 eyes in grade 1, 9 eyes in grade 2, and 10 eyes in grade 3. Quadrant scores were performed of 4 eyes in 1 quadrant, 3 eyes in 3 quadrants, and 19 eyes in 4 quadrants. There was the positive correlation between grade and quadrant score (r=0.644, P=0.000). The effusion on all eyes were recovered after medication, which mean IOP was 13.9 (SD, 2.8) mm Hg. CONCLUSION UE is a frequent complication in Chinese patients after the attack of APAC, partially associated with hypotony. The severity of UE is correlation with height of effusion, extent of detachment, and shallower ACD. PMID:28393032

  2. Biometric Factors Associated With Acute Primary Angle Closure: Comparison of the Affected and Fellow Eye.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Eray; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Baskaran, Mani; Sharma, Sourabh; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2016-10-01

    To compare ocular biometric and anterior segment parameters between the affected and fellow eye in subjects with acute primary angle closure (APAC). We evaluated 76 subjects with unilateral APAC who had undergone bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy before enrollment. Imaging was done using anterior segment optical coherence tomography and a customized software was used to measure the following: angle opening distance (AOD750); trabecular-iris space area (TISA750); iris thickness (IT750); iris curvature (ICURV); iris area (IAREA); anterior chamber depth; area and volume (ACD; ACA and ACV); anterior chamber width (ACW); anterior vault (ACD+LV); lens vault (LV); and pupil diameter (PD). We used A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial length (AL) and lens thickness (LT). Mean differences in ocular biometric and anterior segment parameters were assessed using linear mixed model adjusting for PD. A total of 53 subjects (36 females, 67.9%) with a mean age of 62.7 ± 8.1 years were analyzed after excluding 17 unanalyzable images in at least one eye. Affected eyes had shallower ACD, smaller ACA, ACV, anterior vault, TISA750, AOD750, and ICURV (all P < 0.05). Axial length, ACW, LV, LT, IAREA, and IT750 did not differ between the eyes. In the affected eyes, IT750 was significantly associated AOD750 (P < 0.05); whereas in the fellow eyes, IT750 and AL was predictive of AOD750 (all P < 0.05). Eyes with previous APAC had smaller anterior segment dimensions when compared with their fellow eyes. Iris thickness was the strongest predictor of angle width in both affected and fellow eyes.

  3. Evaluation of blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber angle as a sign of angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Harsha L; Mungale, Sachin C; Kumbar, Tukaram; Parikh, Rajul S; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blotchy pigments in the anterior chamber (AC) angle are considered diagnostic of primary angle closure (PAC). But there are no reports either on the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles or the validity of this sign. Aims: To determine the prevalence of blotchy pigments in AC angles and to evaluate their relationship with glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) in eyes with occludable angles. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Gonioscopy was performed in 1001 eyes of 526 subjects (245 eyes of 148 consecutive, occludable angle subjects and 756 eyes of 378 non-consecutive, open angle subjects), above 35 years of age. Quadrant-wise location of blotchy pigments was documented. Statistical Analysis: Odds of blotchy pigments in occludable angles against that in open angles were evaluated. Relationship of GON with blotchy pigments in occludable angle eyes was evaluated using a multivariate model. Results: Prevalence of blotchy pigments in occludable angles was 28.6% (95% CI, 22.9-34.3) and in open angles was 4.7% (95% CI, 3.2-6.3). Blotchy pigments were more frequently seen in inferior (16%) and superior quadrants (15%) of occludable angles, and inferior quadrant of open angles (4%). Odds of superior quadrant blotchy pigments in occludable angles were 33 times that in open angles. GON was seen in 107 occludable angle eyes. Blotchy pigments were not significantly associated with GON (odds ratio = 0.5; P = 0.1). Conclusions: Blotchy pigments were seen in 28.6% of occludable angle eyes and 4.7% of open angles eyes. Presence of blotchy pigments in the superior quadrant is more common in occludable angles. Presence of GON in occludable angle eyes was not associated with blotchy pigments. PMID:23202393

  4. Comparison of slitlamp optical coherence tomography and scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer to evaluate angle closure in Asian eyes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hon-Tym; Chua, Jocelyn L L; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wong, Melissa H Y; Aung, Han T; Aung, Tin

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of slitlamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT) and Scanning Peripheral Anterior Chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) in detecting angle closure, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. A total of 153 subjects underwent gonioscopy, SL-OCT, and SPAC. The anterior chamber angle (ACA) was classified as closed on gonioscopy if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen; with SL-OCT, closure was determined by contact between the iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur; and with SPAC by a numerical grade of 5 or fewer and/or a categorical grade of suspect or potential. A closed ACA was identified in 51 eyes with gonioscopy, 86 eyes with SL-OCT, and 61 eyes with SPAC (gonioscopy vs SL-OCT, P < .001; gonioscopy vs SPAC, P = .10; SL-OCT vs SPAC, P < .001; McNemar test). Of the 51 eyes with a closed ACA on gonioscopy, SL-OCT detected a closed ACA in 43, whereas SPAC identified 41 (P = .79). An open angle in all 4 quadrants was observed in 102 eyes with gonioscopy, but SL-OCT and SPAC identified 43 and 20 of these eyes, respectively, as having angle closure. The overall sensitivity and specificity for SL-OCT were 84% and 58% vs 80% and 80% for SPAC. Using gonioscopy as the reference, SL-OCT and SPAC showed good sensitivity for detecting eyes at risk of angle closure.

  5. Costs of a community-based glaucoma detection programme: analysis of the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Laura T; Waisbourd, Michael; Hark, Lisa; Sembhi, Harjeet; Lee, Paul; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Steele, Deon; Katz, L Jay

    2018-02-01

    Glaucoma is the foremost cause of irreversible blindness, and more than 50% of cases remain undiagnosed. Our objective was to report the costs of a glaucoma detection programme operationalised through Philadelphia community centres. The analysis was performed using a healthcare system perspective in 2013 US dollars. Costs of examination and educational workshops were captured. Measures were total programme costs, cost/case of glaucoma detected and cost/case of any ocular disease detected (including glaucoma). Diagnoses are reported at the individual level (therefore representing a diagnosis made in one or both eyes). Staff time was captured during site visits to 15 of 43 sites and included time to deliver examinations and workshops, supervision, training and travel. Staff time was converted to costs by applying wage and fringe benefit costs from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Non-staff costs (equipment and mileage) were collected using study logs. Participants with previously diagnosed glaucoma were excluded. 1649 participants were examined. Mean total per-participant examination time was 56 min (SD 4). Mean total examination cost/participant was $139. The cost/case of glaucoma newly identified (open-angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or primary angle closure) was $420 and cost/case for any ocular disease identified was $273. Glaucoma examinations delivered through this programme provided significant health benefit to hard-to-reach communities. On a per-person basis, examinations were fairly low cost, though opportunities exist to improve efficiency. Findings serve as an important benchmark for planning future community-based glaucoma examination programmes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. High Prevalence of Narrow Angles among Chinese-American Glaucoma and Glaucoma Suspect Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Michael I; Pekmezci, Melike; Han, Ying; Sandhu, Simi; Kwok, Shiu Y; Lee, Roland Y; Lin, Shan C

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow angles in a Chinese-American population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion. Patients and Methods Charts from all Chinese-American patients seen in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in the Chinatown district of San Francisco in 2002 were reviewed. One eye from each patient with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion that met inclusion criteria was included (n=108). Data was collected for gender, age, race (self-declared), refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy and vertical cup-to-disk ratio (CDR). Results Sixty percent (n=65) of Chinese-American eyes with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles (Shaffer grade ≤2 in three or more quadrants). Those with narrow angles were significantly older (P=0.004) than their open angle counterparts, but the two groups did not differ in terms of gender, refraction, IOP or CDR (all, P≥0.071). In a multivariate model including age, gender and refraction as predictors of angle grade (open or narrow), only age was a significant predictor of angle grade (P=0.004). Conclusions A large proportion of Chinese-Americans in our study population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles. In multivariate analysis, patients with narrow angles were older than those with open angles but did not differ from them in terms of gender or refraction. Continued evaluation of angle closure glaucoma risk among Chinese-Americans is needed. PMID:19826385

  7. High prevalence of narrow angles among Chinese-American glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    PubMed

    Seider, Michael I; Pekmezci, Melike; Han, Ying; Sandhu, Simi; Kwok, Shiu Y; Lee, Roland Y; Lin, Shan C

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow angles in a Chinese-American population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion. Charts from all Chinese-American patients seen in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in the Chinatown district of San Francisco in 2002 were reviewed. One eye from each patient with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion that met inclusion criteria was included (n=108). Data were collected for sex, age, race (self-declared), refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, and vertical cup-to-disk ratio. Sixty percent (n=65) of Chinese-American eyes with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles (Shaffer grade < or = 2 in 3 or more quadrants). Those with narrow angles were significantly older (P=0.004) than their open angle counterparts, but the 2 groups did not differ in terms of sex, refraction, intraocular pressure, or cup-to-disk ratio (all, P > or = 0.071). In a multivariate model including age, sex, and refraction as predictors of angle grade (open or narrow), only age was a significant predictor of angle grade (P=0.004). A large proportion of Chinese-Americans in our study population with glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion had gonioscopically narrow angles. In multivariate analysis, patients with narrow angles were older than those with open angles but did not differ from them in terms of sex or refraction. Continued evaluation of angle closure glaucoma risk among Chinese-Americans is needed.

  8. Characterization of ocular biometrics and aqueous humor dynamics in primary angle closure suspects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Deng, Yuan; Fang, Li; Liu, Chaoqi; Guo, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Detailed characterizations of ocular biometrics and parameters of aqueous humor dynamics are lacking in primary angle closure suspect (PACS) patients. This study aims to characterize these parameters and compare them with age-matched healthy volunteers.Elderly healthy volunteers (60.6 ± 7.2 years of age, mean ± SD, n = 28) and PACS patients (64.1 ± 11.6 years, n = 30) completed the study. Parameters investigated were axial length (AXL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central cornea thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous flow (Fa), outflow facility (C), episcleral venous pressure (EVP), and uveoscleral outflow (Fu). Comparisons and correlations were made between and within groups.In healthy volunteers, ocular biometric parameters, IOP, and EVP correlated very well between the 2 eyes of each individual, but Fa, C, and Fu were not significantly correlated. Biometric parameters of the PACS group significantly (P < 0.001) differed from those of the healthy controls: AXL (23.31 ± 1.03 mm [PACS] vs 22.39 ± 1.04 mm [Control]; mean ± SD), ACD (2.44 ± 0.33 mm [PACS] vs 1.86 ± 0.25 mm [Control]), ACV (136.0 ± 36.1 μL [PACS] vs 81.4 ± 21.8 μL [Control]), CCT (526.9 ± 37.0 μm [PACS] vs 556.1 ± 28.4 μm [Control]). There was no significant change in IOP, Fa, C, EVP, or Fu between Control and PACS. Furthermore, IOP showed no significant correlations with AXL, ACD, ACV, CCT, or C in both groups.The PACS eyes had a shorter AXL, a shallower ACD, and a smaller ACV, but a thicker CCT. Despite these morphological changes, the PACS eyes did not have any significant changes in IOP, and aqueous humor dynamics parameters. This is consistent with the findings that IOP did not show significant correlations with biometrics, or C.

  9. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  10. Changes in ocular biometry and anterior chamber parameters after pharmacologic mydriasis and peripheral iridotomy in primary angle closure suspects.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Lashkarizadeh, Hamid; Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdanmehr, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pharmacologic mydriasis and Peripheral Iridotomy (PI) on ocular biometry and anterior chamber parameters in primary angle closure suspects. In this prospective interventional case series, 21 primary angle closure suspects were enrolled. Intraocular pressure, refraction, ocular biometry (Lenstar, LS900), and anterior chamber parameters (Pentacam HR) were measured at four occasions: before PI (before and after mydriasis with phenylephrine) and two weeks after PI (before and after mydriasis). The study was conducted on both eyes and only one eye per patient, in random, was included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 60±7 years and 17 (81%) were female. There were no significant differences in intraocular pressure, refraction, keratometry, biometric and anterior chamber parameters between groups, except for anterior chamber volume, which showed increments with PI and mydriasis. The corresponding values for anterior chamber volume were as follows: 88.2±13.7mm(3) before PI, undilated; 106.3±18.8 before PI, dilated; 99.0±14.6 after PI, undilated, and 107.4±16.5 after PI, dilated (P<0.001). This study showed no change in the ocular biometric and anterior chamber parameters including iridocorneal angle after PI and/or pharmacologic mydriasis except for increments in anterior chamber volume. This factor has the potential to be used as a numerical proxy for iris position in evaluating and monitoring patients with primary angle closure suspects after PI. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Glaucoma and clinical characteristics in Vietnamese Americans.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pai-Huei; Manivanh, Richard; Nguyen, Ngoc; Weinreb, Robert N; Lin, Shan C

    2011-08-01

    To assess the proportions of glaucoma types and clinical characteristics in Vietnamese Americans in a single-center, retrospective study. Medical charts of Vietnamese-American patients who visited a single private practice in Northern California from 1998-2007 were reviewed. The main outcome measures included the distribution and characteristics of glaucoma types, and clinical parameters associated with the presence of various glaucomas. Data from 2247 patients aged 18-98 years were reviewed. Glaucoma was determined for 305 patients (13.6%). Among this group, 54.8% had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 26.9% had primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), 13.4% had mixed mechanism glaucoma (MMG), and 4.9% had secondary glaucoma. In the MMG group (41 patients), 27 patients who initially had open angles developed narrow angles and underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) with a mean follow up of 6.4 years from the time of iridotomy. The other 13 patients had glaucoma progression with open angles after LPI. One POAG patient had neovascular glaucoma due to retinal vein occlusion several years later. Compared to the PACG group, the MMG group had significantly lower baseline intraocular pressure (25.0 vs. 20.2 mmHg, p = 0.007) but with no difference in biometry. POAG is the major type of glaucoma in this clinic-based Vietnamese population. However, Vietnamese appear to have a relatively higher proportion of PACG than Caucasians and those of African descent. It is recommended that gonioscopy be part of the regular eye check-up for adult Vietnamese patients.

  12. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  13. Macular thickness after glaucoma filtration surgery.

    PubMed

    Sesar, Antonio; Cavar, Ivan; Sesar, Anita Pusić; Geber, Mia Zorić; Sesar, Irena; Laus, Katia Novak; Vatavuk, Zoran; Mandić, Zdravko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of present study was to analyze early postoperative changes in the macular area using optical coherence tomography (OCT) after uncomplicated glaucoma filtration surgery. This prospective study included 32 patients (34 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma, which underwent trabeculectomy with or without use of mitomycin C. Exclusion criteria were macular edema, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, blurred optical media, secondary glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. All standard clinical examinations were made before surgery, at the 2nd day, 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Tomography of the macula was performed during every examination using Cirrus HD OCT for the analysis of central subfield thickness. Results show that thickening of the macula was slightly higher 1 week and 1 month after operation in comparison with baseline end 2nd day postoperativelly. There was no significant difference in the change of macular thickness in patients who have used topical prostaglandins compared with those who have used other topical medications. Also, there was no difference in macular changes between patients treated with or without mitomycin C. In conclusion, we found a slight subclinical increase in macular thickness after uncomplicated trabeculectomy, for which we considered that was the result in reduction of intraocular pressure after glaucoma surgery. Macular thickening after glaucoma filtering surgery could be a physiological reaction to the stress of the retina caused by a sudden reduction of intraocular pressure and it is the consequence of altered relationship between capillary pressure and interstitial fluid pressure.

  14. Clinical and Anterior Segment Anatomical Features in Primary Angle Closure Subgroups Based on Configurations of Iris Root Insertion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Wook; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Sung, Kyung Rim; Lee, Jong Eun

    2016-06-01

    To compare the clinical and anterior segment anatomical features in primary angle closure sub-groups based on configurations of iris root insertion. Primary angle closure patients were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Anterior chamber depth, iris curvature, iris thickness (IT) at the scleral spur and 500, 750, and 1,500 µm from the scleral spur (IT0, IT500, IT750, and IT1500), lens vault, iris area, angle opening distance (AOD500), angle recess area (ARA750), and trabecular iris space area (TISA750) were measured. Iris root insertion was categorized into a non-basal insertion group (NBG) and basal insertion group (BG). In total, 43 eyes of 39 participants belonged to the NBG and 89 eyes of 53 participants to the BG. The mean age of participants was greater in the NBG than the BG (62.7 ± 5.7 vs. 59.8 ± 7.3 years, p = 0.043), and the baseline intraocular pressure was higher in the BG than the NBG (16.4 ± 4.4 vs. 14.9 ± 3.3 mmHg, p = 0.037). The BG showed a greater IT0 (0.265 ± 0.04 vs. 0.214 ± 0.03 mm, p < 0.001) and iris area (1.59 ± 0.24 vs. 1.52 ± 0.27 mm(2), p = 0.045), lower ARA750 (0.112 ± 0.08 vs. 0.154 ± 0.08 mm(2), p = 0.017) and AOD500 (0.165 ± 0.07 vs. 0.202 ± 0.08 mm, p = 0.014) compared to the NBG. The BG had a narrower anterior chamber angle, thicker peripheral iris, and higher pretreatment intraocular pressure.

  15. Comparison of circumferential peripheral angle closure using iridotrabecular contact index after laser iridotomy versus combined laser iridotomy and iridoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Kyung; Kee, Changwon; Yang, Heon; Huh, Hyoun Do; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Young Min; Park, Jong Moon

    2017-11-01

    To compare the quantitative changes of peripheral angle after laser iridotomy (LI) alone (group A) or combined LI and Iridoplasty (group B) using iridotrabecular contact (ITC) index by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). In this prospective comparative observational study, OCT images were obtained before and after the procedure. In each image frame, scleral spur (SS) and the ITC end point (EP) were marked and ITC index was calculated as a percentage of the angle closure from 360°. Age, gender, diagnosis and initial ITC index in Group B were matched with group A. Changes in ITC index, anterior chamber angle parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were inspected. Thirty-three eyes (20 patients) with shallow anterior chamber were included in each group. Initial ITC index and initial IOP were not significantly different between the two groups (both p > 0.05). However, ITC index and IOP after the procedure were significantly lower in group B than those in group A (ITC index: 31.3 ± 23.2 in group A, 19.0 ± 21.3 in group B, p = 0.011, IOP: p = 0.004). All anterior chamber angle parameters in group B and all parameters in group A except nasal trabecular-iris angles (TIA) were significantly increased after the laser procedure (all p < 0.05). In patients with shallow anterior chamber, combined LI and Iridoplasty may open the peripheral angle better than LI alone. Iridoplasty may be able to additionally relieve the peripheral angle closure caused by other mechanisms than pupillary block. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Application of Bayes' to the prediction of referral decisions made by specialist optometrists in relation to chronic open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gurney, J C; Ansari, E; Harle, D; O'Kane, N; Sagar, R V; Dunne, M C M

    2018-02-09

    To determine the accuracy of a Bayesian learning scheme (Bayes') applied to the prediction of clinical decisions made by specialist optometrists in relation to the referral refinement of chronic open angle glaucoma. This cross-sectional observational study involved collection of data from the worst affected or right eyes of a consecutive sample of cases (n = 1,006) referred into the West Kent Clinical Commissioning Group Community Ophthalmology Team (COT) by high street optometrists. Multilevel classification of each case was based on race, sex, age, family history of chronic open angle glaucoma, reason for referral, Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (intraocular pressure and interocular asymmetry), optic nerve head assessment (vertical size, cup disc ratio and interocular asymmetry), central corneal thickness and visual field analysis (Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification). Randomised stratified tenfold cross-validation was applied to determine the accuracy of Bayes' by comparing its output to the clinical decisions of three COT specialist optometrists; namely, the decision to discharge, follow-up or refer each case. Outcomes of cross-validation, expressed as means and standard deviations, showed that the accuracy of Bayes' was high (95%, 2.0%) but that it falsely discharged (3.4%, 1.6%) or referred (3.1%, 1.5%) some cases. The results indicate that Bayes' has the potential to augment the decisions of specialist optometrists.

  17. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  18. Cost-effectiveness of community screening for glaucoma in rural India: a decision analytical model.

    PubMed

    John, D; Parikh, R

    2018-02-01

    Studies in several countries have demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of population-based screening for glaucoma when targeted at high-risk groups such as older adults and with familial history of disease. This study conducts a cost-effective analysis of a hypothetical community screening and subsequent treatment programme in comparison to opportunistic case finding for glaucoma in rural India. A hypothetical screening programme for both primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure disease was built for a population aged between 40 and 69 years in rural areas of India. A decision analytical model was built to model events, costs and treatment pathways with and without a hypothetical screening programme for glaucoma for a rural-based population aged between 40 and 69 years in India. The treatment pathway included both primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure disease. The data on costs of screening and treatment were provided by an administrator of a tertiary eye hospital in Eastern India. The probabilities for the screening and treatment pathway were derived from published literature and a glaucoma specialist. The glaucoma prevalence rates were adapted from the Chennai Glaucoma Study findings. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio value of ₹7292.30 per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated for a community-screening programme for glaucoma in rural India. The community screening for glaucoma would treat an additional 2872 cases and prevent 2190 person-years of blindness over a 10-year period. Community screening for glaucoma in rural India appears to be cost-effective when judged by a ratio of willingness-to-pay thresholds as per WHO-CHOICE guidelines. For community screening to be cost-effective, adequate resources, such as trained medical personnel and equipment would need to be made available. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical peripheral iridectomy via a clear-cornea phacoemulsification incision for pupillary block following cataract surgery in acute angle closure.

    PubMed

    Fang, Aiwu; Wang, Peijuan; He, Rui; Qu, Jia

    2018-05-18

    To describe a technique of surgical peripheral iridectomy via a clear-cornea tunnel incision to prevent or treat pupillary block following phacoemulsification. Description of technique and retrospective description results in 20 eyes of 20 patients with acute angle closure with coexisting visually significant cataract undergoing phacoemulsification considered at risk of postoperative papillary block as well as two pseudo-phakic eyes with acute postoperative pupillary-block. Following phacoemulsification and insertion of an intraocular lens, a needle with a bent tip was inserted behind the iris through the corneal tunnel incision. A blunt iris repositor was introduced through the paracentesis and placed above the iris to exert posterior pressure and create a puncture. The size of the puncture was enlarged using scissors. For postoperative pupillary block the same technique was carried out through the existing incisions created for phacoemulsification. Peripheral iridectomy was successfully created in all 22 eyes. At a mean follow-up of 18.77 ± 9.72 months, none of the iridectomies closed or required enlargement. Two eyes had mild intraoperative bleeding and one eye a small Descemet's detachment that did not require intervention. No clinically significant complications were observed. Visual acuity and IOP improved or was maintained in all patients. The incidence of pupillary block in our hospital was 0.09% overall, 0.6% in diabetics and 3.5% in those with diabetic retinopathy. This technique of peripheral iridectomy via the cornea tunnel incision can be safely used during phacoemulsification in eyes at high risk of pupillary block or in the treatment of acute postoperative pupillary-block after cataract surgery. The technique is likely to be especially useful in brown iris, or if a laser is not available.

  20. Aqueous Humor Levels of TGF-β2 and TNF-α in Indonesian Eyes With Acute Primary Angle Closure.

    PubMed

    Artini, Widya; Gondhowiardjo, Tjahjono Darminto; Supiandi, Edi S; Tin, Aung

    2012-01-01

    To measure aqueous humor levels of TGF-β2 and TNF-α in Indonesian eyes with acute primary angle closure (APAC) and to investigate their relationship to response to treatment. A prospective observational study. On presentation, aqueous humor samples were taken from APAC eyes by paracentesis. All APAC eyes then underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Two weeks following LPI, trabeculectomy was performed if the intraocular pressure (IOP) was still high. Alternatively, phacoemulsification was performed in cases of normal IOP. Aqueous humor samples were taken again at the time of both surgical procedures. Age-matched cataract patients were included as a control group. Cytokine samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty-three Indonesian APAC subjects were recruited in this study. The mean presenting IOP was 56.4 ± 0.52 mmHg and 53% underwent trabeculectomy. Comparison of the APAC eyes to the control group showed there was a significant difference in the mean levels of TGF-β2 (2007.7 ± 827.2 pg/mL vs 466.1 ± 219.3 pg/mL, p < 0.001) and TNF-α (0.714 ± 0.33 pg/mL vs 0.228 ± 0.16 pg/mL, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the presented TGF-β2 and TNF-α levels between the trabeculectomy and phacoemulsification groups (p:0.391 and p:0.494). Between presentation and surgery in the trabeculectomy subgroup, both cytokine levels appeared to be significantly different (p < 0.035 and p < 0.038). This study showed the aqueous humor levels of TGF-β2 and TNF-α appeared high at presentation but decreased subsequently, with no difference detected between groups with persistently high IOP and those with normalized IOP.

  1. Glaucoma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Glaucoma is a condition of increased fluid pressure inside the eye. The increased pressure causes compression of ... nerve which can eventually lead to nerve damage. Glaucoma can cause partial vision loss, with blindness as ...

  2. Understanding practice patterns of glaucoma sub-specialists in India

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Nikhil S.; Pathak-Ray, Vanita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Vyas, Prateep; George, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To obtain information on the prevailing practice patterns of glaucoma specialists in India. METHODS Glaucoma specialists attending the Annual Conference of the Glaucoma Society of India (GSI) were surveyed. This survey, conducted in 2013, was based on an interactive audience response system. RESULTS The information was obtained from 146 glaucoma specialists. Approximately half (n=83; 57%) had ≥10y of experience in managing glaucoma and were in institutional practice (n=74, 51%). Goldmann applanation tonometry was preferred by 103 (72%) specialists whilst n=25 (17.4%) used non-contact tonometer. Indentation gonioscopy was favoured by two-thirds (n=90, 66%) whereas stereoscopic optic disc examination and visual fields using Humphrey perimeter was performed by a majority of the specialists surveyed (n=115, 86% and n=114; 83% respectively). Nearly three quarter specialists (n=96; 72%) preferred optical coherence tomography for imaging. The primary choice for treatment of angle closure disease and primary open angle glaucoma was laser (iridotomy, n=117; 93%) and medical management (prostaglandin analogue, n=104; 78%), respectively. Approximately only a third of the specialists surveyed (n=37; 28%) were performing both trabeculectomy and implantation of a glaucoma drainage device and about half (n=64; 47%) were not operating on congenital glaucoma at all. CONCLUSION This survey has found conformance with preferred practice patterns in several areas of diagnosis and management of glaucoma, but there was diversity in a few areas. The information is a significant step towards improvement of glaucoma care in India, including planning for future strategies. PMID:29062779

  3. Overexpression of soluble Fas ligand following AAV gene therapy prevents retinal ganglion cell death in chronic and acute murine models of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anitha; Fei, Fei; Jones, Alexander; Busto, Patricia; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Ksander, Bruce R.; Gregory-Ksander, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease resulting in the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and irreversible blindness. Glaucoma-associated RGC cell death depends on the pro-apoptotic and proinflammatory activity of membrane-bound FasL (mFasL). In contrast to mFasL, the natural soluble FasL cleavage product (sFasL) inhibits mFasL-mediated apoptosis and inflammation and is therefore a mFasL antagonist. DBA/2J (D2) mice spontaneously develop glaucoma and predictably RGC destruction is exacerbated by expression of a mutated membrane-only FasL (mFasL) gene that lacks the extracellular cleavage site. Remarkably, one time intraocular adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery of sFasL (AAV2.sFasL) provides complete and sustained neuroprotection in both the chronic D2 and acute microbead-induced models of glaucoma, even in the presence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). This protection correlated with inhibition of glial activation, reduced production of TNFα, and decreased apoptosis of RGCs and loss of axons. These data indicate that cleavage of FasL under homeostatic conditions, and the ensuing release of sFasL, normally limits the neurodestructive activity of FasL. The data further support the notion that sFasL, and not mFasL, contributes to the immune privileged status of the eye. PMID:27849168

  4. Detection of Glaucoma Using Image Processing Techniques: A Critique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Naveen; Chauhan, R P; Dahiya, Nidhi

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to present a summary of different types of image processing methods employed for the detection of glaucoma, a serious eye disease. Glaucoma affects the optic nerve in which retinal ganglion cells become dead, and this leads to loss of vision. The principal cause is the increase in intraocular pressure, which occurs in open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, the two major types affecting the optic nerve. In the early stages of glaucoma, no perceptible symptoms appear. As the disease progresses, vision starts to become hazy, leading to blindness. Therefore, early detection of glaucoma is needed for prevention. Manual analysis of ophthalmic images is fairly time-consuming and accuracy depends on the expertise of the professionals. Automatic analysis of retinal images is an important tool. Automation aids in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of risks associated with the disease. Fundus images obtained from a fundus camera have been used for the analysis. Requisite pre-processing techniques have been applied to the image and, depending upon the technique, various classifiers have been used to detect glaucoma. The techniques mentioned in the present review have certain advantages and disadvantages. Based on this study, one can determine which technique provides an optimum result.

  5. Stage of visual field loss and age at diagnosis in 1988 patients with different glaucomas: implications for glaucoma screening and driving ability.

    PubMed

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Gramer, Eugen

    2018-04-01

    To compare stage of visual field loss (VFL) and age at diagnosis between patients with different types of glaucoma with regard to glaucoma screening and driving ability. In a cross-sectional study of 1988 consecutive patients with different types of glaucoma VFL at diagnosis and age at diagnosis were assessed. Patients with binocular advanced or severe VFL were classified unable, patients with no VFL in one eye and VFL I-V (Aulhorn classification) in the other eye able, all other constellations questionably able to drive. There were significant differences in age at diagnosis between different glaucomas and between patients with different stages of VFL at diagnosis. Age-related assessment of VFL at diagnosis in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) compared to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) showed that NTG is not a disease of the elderly but a disease with late diagnosis at severe VFL. In POAG a solely age-related glaucoma screening, e.g. from the age of 50 years, does not sufficiently lead to diagnosis at an early stage of the disease. In POAG solely based on binocular VFL 11.5% of patients were judged unable, 29.2% questionably able to drive, in NTG 19.6%/43.1%, pigmentary glaucoma 16%/22%, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma 9.1%/16.7%, and in primary angle-closure glaucoma 14.6%/30%. Depending on type of glaucoma more than 50% of patients require counselling regarding safe driving as part of clinical care. A disease-specific, age-related perimetric examination considering additional risk factors like family history of glaucoma is essential for early detection of glaucoma and road safety.

  6. A Population-based survey of the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria: results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Entekume, Gabriel; Rabiu, Mansur; Spry, Paul; Wormald, Richard; Nolan, Winifred; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-12-12

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. There tends to be a lower reporting of glaucoma in Africa compared to other blinding conditions in global burden data. Research findings of glaucoma in Nigeria will significantly increase our understanding of glaucoma in Nigeria, in people of the West African diaspora and similar population groups. We determined the prevalence and types of glaucoma in Nigeria from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment cross-sectional Survey of adults aged ≥40 years. Multistage stratified cluster random sampling with probability-proportional-to-size procedures were used to select a nationally representative sample of 15,027 persons aged ≥40 years. Participants had logMAR visual acuity measurement, FDT visual function testing, autorefraction, A-scan biometry and optic disc assessment. Participants with visual acuity of worse than 6/12 or suspicious optic discs had detailed examination including Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy and fundus photography. Disc images were graded by Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Glaucoma was defined using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria; and classified into primary open-angle or primary angle-closure or secondary glaucoma. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on ISGEO classification. The type of glaucoma was determined by gonioscopy. A total of 13,591 participants in 305 clusters were examined (response rate 90.4 %). Optic disc grading was available for 25,289 (93 %) eyes of 13,081 (96 %) participants. There were 682 participants with glaucoma; a prevalence of 5.02 % (95 % CI 4.60-5.47). Among those with definite primary glaucoma that had gonioscopy (n = 243), open-angle glaucoma was more common (86 %) than angle-closure glaucoma (14 %). 8 % of glaucoma was secondary with the commonest causes being couching (38 %), trauma (21 %) and uveitis (19 %). Only 5.6 % (38/682) of participants with

  7. The pattern of glaucoma in Menelik II Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Melka, Fikru; Alemu, Bayuh

    2006-04-01

    To describe the demographic and clinical profiles glaucoma and evaluate the magnitude of blindness among patients with glaucoma. Cases with glaucoma that were seen at Menelik II hospital Addis Ababa between May 10, 1994 and May 9, 1997 were reviewed Data on relevant demographic and clinical variables were collected and analysed. A total of 1,586 glaucoma patients were seen at the glaucoma clinic during the study period. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The mean age is 51.9 (SD 17.9) years. Those patients above the age of 40 years represented 78% of the total glaucoma population. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest (27.1%) in the age group of 51-60 years. It was bilateral in 806 (51%) of the patients. Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) was the most frequent type documented in 631 (40%) of the patients, followed by Secondary Glaucomas in 605 (38%), Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in 285 (18%), Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG) in 36 (2%), and Congenital Glaucoma in 33 (2%). Six hundred fifty six patients (41%) were blind either in one or both eyes. PACG was found to be potentially a blinding type of glaucoma, in which 53% of the patients suffered from blindness. In the other types, poor public awareness and lack of treatment services were the most important factors that largely precopitated the occurrence of blindness. We recommend that, in addition to improving the diagnostic and therapeutic facilities, intensive work be done to increase public awareness on the nature of the disease, to expand the infrastructure and to develop and rationally deploy the required human resources.

  8. Equine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Michau, Tammy Miller

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative ocular disease leading to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons that form the optic nerve, causing blindness. Knowledge of the pathogenesis and development of equine glaucoma is in its infancy compared with human glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs most commonly secondary to uveitis and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in horses suffering from uveitis. Recognition and clinical diagnosis of glaucoma in the horse is improved with clinician awareness and the availability of handheld tonometers. Therapy for glaucoma is aimed at decreasing aqueous humor production through medical and surgical means. Even with therapy, long-term prognosis for vision is poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Glaucoma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  10. Mutation analysis of seven known glaucoma-associated genes in Chinese patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Miaoling; Guo, Xiangming; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Jia, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2014-05-13

    To evaluate mutations in the MYOC, WDR36, OPTN, OPA1, NTF4, CYP1B1, and LTBP2 genes in a cohort of Chinese patients with primary glaucoma. Genomic DNA was prepared from 683 unrelated patients, including 50 with primary congenital glaucoma, 104 with juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), 186 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and 343 with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Mutations in the seven genes in 257 patients (36 with JOAG, 89 with POAG, and 132 with PACG) were initially analyzed by exome sequencing and then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, Sanger sequencing was used to detect MYOC mutations in the remaining 426 patients. Exome sequencing identified 19 mutations (6 in MYOC, 9 in WDR36, 3 in OPA1, and 1 in OPTN) in 20 of 257 patients, including 4 patients with JOAG, 8 patients with POAG, and 8 patients with PACG. No mutation was detected in the other three genes. In addition, Sanger sequencing detected additional MYOC mutations in 5 of the remaining 426 patients, including 3 patients with JOAG and 2 patients with POAG. Twenty-two mutations in MYOC, WDR36, OPA1, and OPTN were detected in 25 of the 683 patients with primary glaucoma, including nine MYOC mutations in 11 patients, nine WDR36 mutations in 11 patients, three OPA1 mutations in 3 patients, and one OPTN mutation in a patient who also carried a MYOC mutation. Eight mutations in MYOC, WDR36, and OPA1 in 8 of the 343 PACG patients are of uncertain significance and need to be analyzed further. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. The School's Role in Preventing Blindness from Glaucoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penland, Lynn R.; Penland, William R.

    1980-01-01

    While glaucoma generally strikes those over 35 years of age, awareness of glaucoma should be promoted in junior and senior high school and college by incorporating information into a unit on eye health or chronic diseases. (MJB)

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Glaucoma in Citizens of Qatar Aged 40 Years or Older: A Community-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mansouri, Fatma A.; Kanaan, Aida; Gamra, Hamad; Khandekar, Rajiv; Hashim, Shakeel P.; Al Qahtani, Omar; Ahmed, Mohd. Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present the prevalence and determinants of glaucoma among subjects 40 years of age and older in Qatar. Materials and Methods: This community-based survey was held in 2009 at 49 randomly selected clusters. Demographic details and history of glaucoma was collected by the nurses. Ophthalmologists evaluated the optic disc and retina using a digital camera housed in a mobile van. Visual field was tested with an automated perimeter, the intraocular pressure with an applanation tonometer and the angle of the anterior chamber by gonioscopy. A panel of glaucoma experts diagnosed subjects with glaucoma. Results: This survey enrolled 3,149 (97.3%) participants. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged 40 years and older was 1.73% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.69-1.77). Accordingly, 5,641 individuals in this age group in Qatar would have glaucoma. Chronological age of 60 years and older (Odds ratio [OR] 11.1) and the presence of myopia (OR 1.78) were predictors of glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma was diagnosed in 44 (65.7%) individuals with glaucoma. In nine (13.4%) and 15 (20.9%) subjects, angle closure glaucoma and other (post-traumatic, pseudoexfoliation) glaucoma were present. Bilateral blindness (vision <3/60) and severe visual impairment (<6/60) were found in four (6%) and three (4.5%) subjects with glaucoma, respectively. Glaucoma was treated in 36 (54%) subjects. Conclusions: The prevalence of glaucoma among citizens of Qatar aged 40 years and older was 1.71%. Glaucoma was associated with the age of 60 years and older and the presence of myopia. PMID:21731325

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Peripapillary Retina in Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Chronic Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Borrelli, Enrico; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Brescia, Lorenza; Di Antonio, Luca; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    To analyze the retinal radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Twenty-two patients with NTG, 22 patients with unilateral chronic NAION, and 23 age-matched controls were enrolled. Patients underwent OCTA to obtain en face angiograms of the peripapillary region. The main outcome measures were as follows: (1) the whole en face image perfusion density (WPD) and (2) the circumpapillary perfusion density (CPD). Mean ± SD age was 66.3 ± 7.0 years in the NTG group, 68.1 ± 4.3 years in the NAION group, and 63.9 ± 7.0 years in the control group (p > 0.05 for all the comparisons). The visual field mean defect (MD) was worse in patients than in controls (p < 0.0001), but did not differ between NTG and NAION (-9.6 ± 2.6 dB and -8.2 ± 2.6 dB, respectively). The WPD was 0.41 ± 0.04 in the NTG group (p < 0.0001 in comparison with healthy subjects and NAION patients), 0.46 ± 0.04 in the NAION group (p < 0.0001 in comparison with the control group), and 0.56 ± 0.03 in the control group. The CPD was significantly reduced in both NTG (0.48 ± 0.04, p < 0.0001) and NAION eyes (0.52 ± 0.05, p < 0.0001), after comparison to control eyes (0.59 ± 0.03). Moreover, the CPD was significantly lower in NTG than in NAION eyes (p = 0.006). OCTA documented a reduction of the peripapillary perfusion in NTG and unilateral NAION. In presence of similar functional damage, the lower perfusion densities in NTG may indicate greater vascular alterations in chronic compared to acute ischemic optic neuropathies.

  14. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with glaucoma: An analysis of hospital data between 2003 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Fu, Jia-Li; Li, Yu-Li; Li, Ping; Lou, Feng-Lan

    2015-11-01

    To assess demographic and clinical characteristics of glaucoma patients in an Ophthalmologic Hospital of Jinan, China from 2003 to 2012. Medical charts of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and secondary glaucoma (SG) were reviewed. The main outcome measures of patients with glaucoma included basic demographic data (age at presentation, gender, and residence), clinical characteristics (admission date, intraocular pressure, and naked vision), and previous history (injury, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Data from 1458 glaucoma patients were reviewed, of which PACG and SG patients accounted for 45.40% and 47.19%, respectively. The average age of all patients with glaucoma increased from 56.05 years in 2003 to 57.83 years in 2012, and the proportion of patients from rural areas rose from 46.43% to 59.13% during 10-year period. Female gender, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension were associated with PACG. POAG was related to smoking and alcohol consumption. There was positive correlation between SG and history of injury and diabetes mellitus. PACG and SG are the major types of glaucoma. Gender, injury, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption were associated with different types of glaucoma.

  15. Agreement of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Addepalli U.; Jonnadula, Ganesh B.; Garudadri, Chandrasekhar; Rao, Harsha L.; Senthil, Sirisha; Papas, Eric B.; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Khanna, Rohit C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of glaucoma specialists and experienced optometrists in gonioscopy and optic disc assessment. Methods This study was done to validate the diagnostic performance of two experienced optometrists for using their skills of detecting glaucoma using gonioscopy and optic disc assessment in a major epidemiological study, the L V Prasad Eye Institute Glaucoma Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (LVPEI-GLEAMS). Gonioscopic findings for 150 eyes were categorized as 0, 1 and 2 for open angle, primary angle closure suspect (PACS) and primary angle closure (PAC) respectively. Optic disc findings for 200 eyes were categorized as 0, 1 and 2 for normal, suspects and glaucomatous respectively. Weighted kappa (κ) and diagnostic accuracy parameters were calculated. Two optometrists (#1 and #2) participated in the study. Results Agreement between glaucoma specialists and optometrist for interpretation of gonioscopy to discriminate PACS and PAC from open angles and for interpretation of optic disc to discriminate glaucomatous and suspicious discs from normal, the kappa (κ) was 0.92 and 0.84 and 0.90 and 0.89 for optometrists #1 and #2 respectively. Sensitivities and specificities were above 90% for gonioscopy. Optic disc evaluation had specificities greater than 95% to discriminate normal from glaucomatous discs while the sensitivities were 83% and 93% for optometrists #1 and #2 respectively. Conclusion Agreement between optometrists and glaucoma specialists, in diagnostic performance of gonioscopy and optic assessment was excellent with high sensitivity and specificity. Hence, we conclude that the experienced optometrists can detect glaucoma accurately in the LVPEI-GLEAMS.

  16. Glaucoma Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... is mostly caused by a deficiency in the tear glands, and a common preservative in many glaucoma ... for relief is the use of lubricating artificial tears, available as over the counter eye drops, to ...

  17. Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

    PubMed

    Chan, Errol Wei'en; Li, Xiang; Tham, Yih-Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 individuals and 691 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) cases in 72,767 individuals in Asia. Regions in Asia were defined based on United Nations' (UN) classification of macro-geographic regions. PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for population-based glaucoma prevalence studies using standardised criteria published to 31 December 2013. Pooled glaucoma prevalence for individuals aged 40-80 years was calculated using hierarchical Bayesian approaches. Prevalence differences by geographic subregion, subtype and habitation were examined with random effects meta-regression models. Estimates of individuals with glaucoma from 2013 to 2040 were based on the UN World Population Prospects. In 2013, pooled overall glaucoma prevalence was 3.54% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.83 to 6.28). POAG (2.34%, 95% CrI 0.96 to 4.55) predominated over PACG (0.73%, 95% CrI 0.18 to 1.96). With age and gender adjustment, PACG prevalence was higher in East than South East Asia (OR 5.55, 95% CrI 1.52 to 14.73), and POAG prevalence was higher in urban than rural populations (OR 2.11, 95% CrI 1.57 to 2.38). From 2013 to 2040, South Central Asia will record the steepest increase in number of glaucoma individuals from 17.06 million to 32.90 million compared with other Asian subregions. In 2040, South-Central Asia is also projected to overtake East Asia for highest overall glaucoma and POAG burden, while PACG burden remains highest in East Asia. Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Glaucoma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Geimer, Sabina Andersson

    2013-02-01

    This thesis addresses several aspects of glaucoma diagnostics from both a clinical and a screening perspective. New instruments for diagnosing glaucoma have been developed over the past years, but little information is available regarding their performance as screening methods and their usefulness in ordinary clinical practice. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH UNDERLYING THIS THESIS:  The objectives of this research were as follows: to compare the accuracy of results of analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) achieved by computerized imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) and by subjective assessment performed by physicians with different degrees of experience of glaucoma (paper III); to evaluate the effect of a continuous medical education (CME) lecture on subjective assessment of the ONH for diagnosis of glaucoma (paper II); to investigate subjective assessment of perimetric test results by physicians with varying knowledge of glaucoma with a trained artificial neural network (ANN) and to compare the certainty of the classifications (paper IV); and to compare the diagnostic performance of time-domain Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of spectral-domain Cirrus OCT (paper I), frequency doubling technology (FDT) screening perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry with the GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) in a random population-based sample and in patients with glaucoma of varying disease severity.   In evaluation of the ONH, use of the HRT statistical tools, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) was compared with subjective assessment performed by 45 physicians. Optic nerve head images and photographs from 138 healthy and 97 glaucoma subjects were included. The sensitivity of MRA was higher (87-94%) than that of the average physician (62-82%), considerably greater than that of ophthalmologists with subspecialties other than glaucoma (53-77%) and non-significantly better than that of glaucoma

  19. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  20. Ethnicity and Deprivation are Associated With Blindness Among Adults With Primary Glaucoma in Nigeria: Results From the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Wormald, Richard; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Evans, Jennifer R; Gilbert, Clare E

    2016-10-01

    We explored the risk factors for glaucoma blindness among adults aged 40 years and above with primary glaucoma in Nigeria. A total of 13,591 participants aged 40 years and above were examined in the Nigeria Blindness Survey; 682 (5.02%; 95 CI, 4.60%-5.47%) had glaucoma by ISGEO's criteria. This was a case-control study (n=890 eyes of 629 persons): glaucoma blind persons were cases and glaucoma not-blind were controls. Education and occupation were used to determine socioeconomic status scores, which were divided into 3 tertiles (affluent, medium, deprived). We assessed sociodemographic, biophysical, and ocular factors by logistic regression analysis for association with glaucoma blindness. Multinomial regression analysis was also performed with nonglaucoma as the reference category. A total of 119/629 (18.9%; 95% CI, 15.9%-22.4%) persons were blind in both eyes; 510 were controls. There was interethnic variation in odds of blindness; age, male sex, socioeconomic status, prior diagnosis of glaucoma, hypertension, intraocular pressure, and lens opacity were associated with glaucoma blindness. Axial length, mean ocular perfusion pressure, and angle-closure glaucoma were associated with blind glaucoma eyes. In multivariate analysis, Igbo ethnicity (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 1.03-7.57) had higher risk as was being male (OR=4.59; 95% CI, 1.73-12.16) and unmarried (OR=2.50; 95% CI, 1.03-6.07). Deprivation (OR=3.57; 95% CI, 1.46-8.72), prior glaucoma diagnosis (OR=5.89; 95% CI, 1.79-19.40), and intraocular pressure (OR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09) were also independent risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Approximately 1 in 5 people with primary glaucoma were blind. Male sex, ethnicity and deprivation were strongly associated with blindness. Services for glaucoma need to improve in Nigeria, focusing on poor communities and men.

  1. Prevalent practice patterns in glaucoma: Poll of Indian ophthalmologists at a national conference

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Nikhil Shreeram; Pathak-Ray, Vanita; Kaushik, Sushmita; Vyas, Prateep; George, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore and compare the prevailing practice patterns in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma among subspecialists and general ophthalmologists in India. Materials and Methods: This is an interactive audience response system (ARS) based poll of ophthalmologists attending the annual conference of the Glaucoma Society of India in 2013. Results: The information was obtained from 379 ophthalmologists (146 glaucoma specialists, 54 nonglaucoma subspecialists, and 179 general ophthalmologists). The majority of polled ophthalmologists (236; 62%) had 10 or more years of experience in ophthalmology. The glaucoma specialists differed from nonglaucomatologists in their preference for Goldmann applanation tonometer (P < 0.01), four-mirror gonioscope (P < 0.01), Humphrey perimeter (P < 0.01), laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle closure disease (P = 0.03), postiridotomy gonioscopy (P < 0.01), and usage of antifibrotic agents during filtering surgery (P < 0.01). Optical coherence tomography was the most preferred imaging modality and was utilized more often by the subspecialists than general ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists also differed in their choice of antiglaucoma medications. More glaucoma specialists were performing surgery on children with congenital glaucoma (P < 0.01), implanting glaucoma drainage devices (P < 0.01), and using scientific journals to upgrade knowledge (P = 0.03) than the other ophthalmologists. Conclusions: This poll is the first of its kind in India, in its usage of the ARS, and in comparing the practice patterns of care for glaucoma among subspecialists and general ophthalmologists. It has revealed substantial diversity in a few areas among those who did and did not receive specialty training in glaucoma. PMID:27905331

  2. Get Tested for Glaucoma!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Get Tested for Glaucoma! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Taylor ... aoa.org/ When were you finally diagnosed with glaucoma? Not until 1969, after a game of basketball. ...

  3. Glaucoma: Symptoms and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage. The types of glaucoma include the following: Open-angle glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of ... angle formed by the cornea and iris remains open, but the trabecular meshwork is partially blocked. This ...

  4. [The questionnaire survey on glaucoma diagnosis and treatment in China (2016)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Cao, K; Kang, M T; Sun, Y X; Gan, J H; Tian, J X; Ran, A R; Zhang, X; Su, Y D; Li, S N

    2017-02-11

    Objective: To investigate the present situation of diagnosis and treatment for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and awareness of the relevant progress among Chinese ophthalmologists. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, non-randomized sampling survey. Participants were ophthalmologists who attended the 11st Chinese Glaucoma Society Congress during November 11 to 12, 2016. They were invited to fill out a questionnaire. The questionnaire included participants' basic information and their knowledge about glaucoma diagnosis and treatment. The data collected through questionnaire were analyzed with SAS9.4. Results: A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed and 372 valid questionnaires were retrieved, with a response rate of 82. 7%(372/450). ISGEO classification system was adopted by 58.9% (219/372) of the participants as the diagnostic criteria for PACG. Of the respondents, 48.1% (179/372) of the participants believed that "anterior chamber angle closure mechanism-based PACG classification system" was more instructive for treatment, the percentage was higher than ISGEO classification system (42.2%, 157/372). Most (72.3%, 269/372) of the participants knew the 3-minute dark room prone test, but only 27.7%(103/372) of them applied it in clinical practice. A total of 83.4%(310/372) of the participants believed that low cerebrospinal fluid pressure is a risk factor for POAG. In all, 71.8% (267/372) of the participants reported that their institutes had applied compound trabeculectomy with adjustable suture, with 76.9%(286/372) of the participants agreeing that the adjustable suture reduced the rate of complications after trabeculectomy. Conclusions: Currently, both ISGEO classification system and anterior chamber angle closure mechanism-based PACG classification system were adopted in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Low cerebrospinal fluid pressure as new risk factors for POAG has been widely acknowledged and

  5. The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Mani; Foo, Reuben C; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Wu, Renyi; Saw, Seang-Mei; Foster, Paul J; Wong, Tien-Yin; Aung, Tin

    2015-08-01

    Glaucoma represents a major public health challenge in an aging population. The Tanjong Pagar Eye Study reported the prevalence and risk factors of glaucoma in a Singapore Chinese population in 1997, which established the higher rates of blindness in this population. To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for glaucoma among Chinese adults in Singapore and to compare the results with those of the 1997 study. In a population-based survey of 4605 eligible individuals, we selected 3353 Chinese adults 40 years or older from the southwestern part of Singapore. Participants underwent examination at a single tertiary care research institute from February 9, 2009, through December 19, 2011. All participants underwent slitlamp ophthalmic examination, applanation tonometry, measurement of central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, and a dilated fundus examination. Glaucoma as defined by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology guidelines and age-standardized prevalence estimates computed as per the 2010 Singapore Chinese census. Blindness was defined as logMAR visual acuity of 1.00 (Snellen equivalent, 20/200 or worse). Of the 3353 respondents, 134 (4.0%) had glaucoma, including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 57 (1.7%), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in 49 (1.5%), and secondary glaucoma in 28 (0.8%). The age-standardized prevalence (95% CI) of glaucoma was 3.2% (2.7%-3.9%); POAG, 1.4% (1.1%-1.9%); and PACG, 1.2% (0.9%-1.6%). In a multivariate model, POAG was associated with being older and male and having a higher intraocular pressure. Of the 134 participants with glaucoma, 114 (85.1%; 95% CI, 78.1%-90.1%) were not aware of their diagnosis. Prevalence (95% CI) of blindness caused by secondary glaucoma was 14.3% (5.7%-31.5%), followed by 10.2% (4.4%-21.8%) for PACG and 8.8% (3.8%-18.9%) for POAG. We could not identify a difference in the prevalence of glaucoma compared with the 3.2% reported in 1997 (difference, -0

  6. Early Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation after Penetrating Keratoplasty Leads to Better Outcomes in an Asian Population with Preexisting Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Hao; Cheng, Jen-Hao; Liang, Chang-Min; Chen, Jiann-Torng; Chen, Ching-Long; Lu, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) surgery and the optimal interval between penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and AGV implantation in a population of Asian patients with preexisting glaucoma who underwent PKP. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 45 eyes of 45 patients were included in this retrospective chart review. The final intraocular pressures (IOPs), graft survival rate, and changes in visual acuity were assessed to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantations in eyes in which AGV implantation occurred within 1 month of post-PKP IOP elevation (Group 1) and in eyes in which AGV implantation took place more than 1 month after the post-PKP IOP evaluation (Group 2). Factors that were associated with graft failure were analyzed, and the overall patterns of complications were reviewed. By their final follow-up visits, 58% of the patients had been successfully treated for glaucoma. After the operation, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to graft survival (p = 0.98), but significant differences for IOP control (p = 0.049) and the maintenance of visual acuity (VA) (p<0.05) were observed. One year after surgery, the success rates of IOP control in Group 1 and Group 2 were 80% and 46.7%, respectively, and these rates fell to 70% and 37.3%, respectively, by 2 years. Factors that were associated with a high risk of AGV failure were a diagnosis of preexisting angle-closure glaucoma, a history of previous PKP, and a preoperative IOP that was >21 mm Hg. The most common surgical complication, aside from graft failure, was hyphema. Conclusions/Significance Early AGV implantation results in a higher probability of AGV survival and a better VA outcome without increasing the risk of corneal graft failure as a result of post-PKP glaucoma drainage tube implantation. PMID:22629464

  7. Normal-tension glaucoma (Low-tension glaucoma)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is now considered an abnormal physiology in the optic nerve head that interacts with the level of intraocular pressure (IOP), with the degree and rate of damage depending on the IOP and presumably the degree of abnormal physiology. Diagnosis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), defined as glaucoma without a clearly abnormal IOP, depends on recognizing symptoms and signs associated with optic nerve vulnerability, in addition to absence of other explanations for disc abnormality and visual field loss. Among the findings are a halo or crescent of absence of retinal pigment epithelium around the disc, bilateral pre-chiasmal visual field defects, splinter hemorrhages at the disc margin, vascular dysregulation (low blood pressure, cold hands and feet, migraine headache with aura, and the like), or a family history of glaucoma. Possibly relevant, is a history of hemodynamic crisis, arterial obstructive disease, or sleep apnea. Neurological evaluation with imaging is needed only for atypical cases or ones that progress unexpectedly. Management follows the same principle of other chronic glaucomas, to lower the IOP by a substantial amount, enough to prevent disabling visual loss. However, many NTG cases are non-progressive. Therefore, it may often be wisein mild cases to determine whether the case is progressive and the rate of progression before deciding on how aggressivene to be with therapy. Efforts at neuroprotection and improvement in blood flow have not yet been shown effective. PMID:21150042

  8. Novel Automated Approach to Predict the Outcome of Laser Peripheral Iridotomy for Primary Angle Closure Suspect Eyes Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Koh, Victor; Swamidoss, Issac Niwas; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Chew, Paul T; Sng, Chelvin

    2018-04-27

    Develop an algorithm to predict the success of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle closure suspect (PACS), using pre-treatment anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) scans. A total of 116 eyes with PACS underwent LPI and time-domain ASOCT scans (temporal and nasal cuts) were performed before and 1 month after LPI. All the post-treatment scans were classified to one of the following categories: (a) both angles open, (b) one of two angles open and (c) both angles closed. After LPI, success is defined as one or more angles changed from close to open. In this proposed method, the pre and post-LPI ASOCT scans were registered at the corresponding angles based on similarities between the respective local descriptor features and random sample consensus technique was used to identify the largest consensus set of correspondences between the pre and post-LPI ASOCT scans. Subsequently, features such as correlation co-efficient (CC) and structural similarity index (SSIM) were extracted and correlated with the success of LPI. We included 116 eyes and 91 (78.44%) eyes fulfilled the criteria for success after LPI. Using the CC and SSIM index scores from this training set of ASOCT images, our algorithm showed that the success of LPI in eyes with narrow angles can be predicted with 89.7% accuracy, specificity of 95.2% and sensitivity of 36.4% based on pre-LPI ASOCT scans only. Using pre-LPI ASOCT scans, our proposed algorithm showed good accuracy in predicting the success of LPI for PACS eyes. This fully-automated algorithm could aid decision making in offering LPI as a prophylactic treatment for PACS.

  9. [Emphasis on promotion of the adaptive technology is the sky point of improving of treatment and prevention level of glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-li

    2013-11-01

    Promoting the control of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is most important prevention program of blindness in China. PACG has been incorporated into the prevention program of blindness in China based on the population-based screening studies. However, the clinical screening should be strengthened in POAG. The creation of a series of appropriate technologies suitable for glaucoma prevention and management has been achieved in China, especially for PACG. The technologies have been evaluated in the pilot areas and obtained very good results in China. It is recommended to develop new technology suitable for glaucoma management using the following workflow: research, development, and evaluation by large scale hospitals, and then clinical trial in the pilot areas. After a cost-benefit analysis is made, the new technology can be promoted and applied in clinical practice nationwide. We propose to gradually formed a strategical mode of "screening in township hospitals, intervention in county hospitals, and technical support and tackling in provincial hospitals" in order to improve the level of prevention and treatment of glaucoma and reduce the blindness incidence rate caused by glaucoma.

  10. Oral Microbiome Link to Neurodegeneration in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Astafurov, Konstantin; Elhawy, Eman; Ren, Lizhen; Dong, Cecilia Q.; Igboin, Christina; Hyman, Leslie; Griffen, Ann; Mittag, Thomas; Danias, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a progressive optic nerve degenerative disease that often leads to blindness. Local inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathology of glaucoma. Although inflammatory episodes outside the CNS, such as those due to acute systemic infections, have been linked to central neurodegeneration, they do not appear to be relevant to glaucoma. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that chronic subclinical peripheral inflammation contributes to neurodegeneration in glaucoma. Methods Mouthwash specimens from patients with glaucoma and control subjects were analyzed for the amount of bacteria. To determine a possible pathogenic mechanism, low-dose subcutaneous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered in two separate animal models of glaucoma. Glaucomatous neurodegeneration was assessed in the retina and optic nerve two months later. Changes in gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and complement as well as changes in microglial numbers and morphology were analyzed in the retina and optic nerve. The effect of pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with naloxone was determined. Findings Patients with glaucoma had higher bacterial oral counts compared to control subjects (p<0.017). Low-dose LPS administration in glaucoma animal models resulted in enhancement of axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Microglial activation in the optic nerve and retina as well as upregulation of TLR4 signaling and complement system were observed. Pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 partially ameliorated the enhanced damage. Conclusions The above findings suggest that the oral microbiome contributes to glaucoma pathophysiology. A plausible mechanism by which increased bacterial loads can lead to neurodegeneration is provided by experiments in animal models of the disease and involves activation of microglia in the retina and optic nerve, mediated through TLR4 signaling and complement upregulation. The finding that commensal bacteria may play a

  11. The Health Of Patients' Eyes (HOPE) Glaucoma study. The effectiveness of a 'glaucoma personal record' for newly diagnosed glaucoma patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Marina; Fairlamb, Helen; Jonker, Leon

    2015-08-07

    Glaucoma involves progressive optic nerve fibre loss, subsequently leading to irreversible and disabling visual field defects. In Europe, the prevalence of glaucoma is approximately 2.2 % of all people aged over 40 years; this equates to 12 million people. Glaucoma patients require regular lifelong follow-up, contributing to a large financial and resource burden for the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. This study aims to determine whether providing newly diagnosed glaucoma patients with a personalised client-held eye health summary ('glaucoma personal record'), improves patients' knowledge of their glaucoma condition. A potential long-term benefit could be improved self-management and henceforth a slower rate of deterioration. HOPE Glaucoma is a 3-year, prospective, parallel-group, pragmatic, single-centred, randomised controlled trial. An anticipated 122 adults, newly diagnosed with glaucoma (including ocular hypertension, suspected glaucoma and/or chronic open-angle glaucoma) will be recruited from a nurse-led ophthalmology outpatient clinic at a medium-sized NHS Trust. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive standard clinical care (control arm) or standard care plus a glaucoma personal record, detailing the current state of their condition (interventional arm). Participant assessments are designed to test whether provision of a glaucoma personal record 1) improves patient knowledge of glaucoma and 2) contributes to improvements in clinical outcomes, i.e. delay of visual field loss. The primary outcome measure is better client knowledge of glaucoma at the 9-12 month follow-up visit. Secondary outcome measures include the rate of visual field loss and patient-reported outcome measures on visual function (National Eye Institute VFQ - 25) measured at baseline, 9-12 months, 24 months and 36 months. Estimating a 20 % drop-out rate, the study will have 90 % power to detect a mean two-point difference in glaucoma knowledge score between groups at 5

  12. Comparison of gonioscopy and anterior segment ocular coherence tomography in detecting angle closure in different quadrants of the anterior chamber angle.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Lisandro M; Lavanya, Raghavan; Friedman, David S; Aung, Han T; Gao, Hong; Kumar, Rajesh S; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin

    2008-05-01

    To compare the performance of gonioscopy and anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting angle closure in the different quadrants of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). Cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred two consecutive subjects more than 50 years of age with no previous ophthalmic problems recruited from a community clinic in Singapore. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT imaging in the dark. Using gonioscopy, the ACA was graded using the Scheie system by a single examiner masked to AS OCT findings. The ACA in a particular quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen on gonioscopy. A closed ACA on AS OCT imaging was defined by the presence of any contact between the iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur. After excluding eyes with poor image quality, a total of 423 right eyes were included in the analysis. A closed angle in at least 1 quadrant was observed in 59% of the eyes by AS OCT and in 33% of the eyes by gonioscopy (P<0.001), with fair agreement between the two methods (kappa = 0.40). The frequency of closed angles by AS OCT and gonioscopy were 48% versus 29% superiorly, 43% versus 22% inferiorly, 18% versus 14% nasally, and 12% versus 20% temporally, respectively. Of the 119 of 1692 quadrants that were closed on gonioscopy but open on AS OCT, a steep iris profile was present in 61 (51%) of 119 quadrants on AS OCT, and of the 276 of 1692 quadrants that were open on gonioscopy but closed on AS OCT, 196 (71%) of 276 quadrants showed short iridoangle contact on AS OCT. The highest rates of closed angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT images were observed in the superior quadrant. Anterior segment OCT tended to detect more closed ACAs than gonioscopy, particularly in the superior and inferior quadrants. Variations in the iris profile and level of iridoangle contact also may explain some of the differences seen between gonioscopy and AS OCT.

  13. Functional Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in Tears of Patients With Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Prity; Rao, Aparna; Padhy, Debananda; Sarangi, Sarada; Das, Gopinath; Reddy, Mamatha M; Modak, Rahul

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the differential expression of tear matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 in of patients with various forms of glaucoma. Tear samples were collected with a Schirmer's strip from 148 eyes of 113 patients (medically naïve patients with primary open-angle [POAG] or angle closure glaucoma [PACG] and those with pseudoexfoliation syndrome [PXF] or glaucoma [PXG]). These were compared to patients undergoing cataract surgery (controls) for this cross-sectional study. Functional activities of tear MMP-9 and MMP-2 were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Tenon's capsules (n = 15) were harvested from the inferior quadrant in those undergoing cataract surgery and protein expression of MMP-9 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress-induced effects on in vitro activities of MMP-9 in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells were analyzed. The MMP-9 activity in tears was increased significantly in POAG, (n = 27), PACG (n = 24), and PXF (n = 40) eyes compared to controls (n = 35), and was increased significantly in eyes with glaucoma compared to moderate/severe glaucoma (P < 0.001). The MMP-9 expression was significantly lower in PXG (n = 22) eyes. Immunohistochemistry of Tenon's capsule revealed increased expression of MMP-9 in primary glaucoma eyes. Increased MMP-9 activity was seen in in vitro by gelatin zymography and was confirmed by Western and immunofluorescent assay on HTM upon 800 and 1000 μM H2O2-induced stress for 2 to 3 hours with approximately 80% cell death. Increased tear MMP-9 activity in early glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation syndrome suggesting activation of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation can be used as a tear-based predictive biomarker. Decreased expression in advanced stages suggests exhaustion of the degradation response.

  14. Ocular-specific ER stress reduction rescues glaucoma in murine glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zode, Gulab S.; Sharma, Arti B.; Lin, Xiaolei; Searby, Charles C.; Bugge, Kevin; Kim, Gun Hee; Clark, Abbot F.; Sheffield, Val C.

    2014-01-01

    Administration of glucocorticoids induces ocular hypertension in some patients. If untreated, these patients can develop a secondary glaucoma that resembles primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The underlying pathology of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma is not fully understood, due in part to lack of an appropriate animal model. Here, we developed a murine model of glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma that exhibits glaucoma features that are observed in patients. Treatment of WT mice with topical ocular 0.1% dexamethasone led to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), functional and structural loss of retinal ganglion cells, and axonal degeneration, resembling glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma in human patients. Furthermore, dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension was associated with chronic ER stress of the trabecular meshwork (TM). Similar to patients, withdrawal of dexamethasone treatment reduced elevated IOP and ER stress in this animal model. Dexamethasone induced the transcriptional factor CHOP, a marker for chronic ER stress, in the anterior segment tissues, and Chop deletion reduced ER stress in these tissues and prevented dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension. Furthermore, reduction of ER stress in the TM with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate prevented dexamethasone-induced ocular hypertension in WT mice. Our data indicate that ER stress contributes to glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension and suggest that reducing ER stress has potential as a therapeutic strategy for treating glucocorticoid-induced glaucoma. PMID:24691439

  15. Glaucoma Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery Find an Eye Doctor Financial Assistance New Research Results We invest in research to find a cure for glaucoma. The Biomarker ... for a Cure Applying for a Grant Glaucoma Research Foundation Celebrates Public Launch of The Cure is ...

  16. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially higher incidence of ... factor for open angle glaucoma). In fact, a Japanese study found NTG accounted for 92 percent of ...

  17. Glaucoma evolution in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Apreutesei, Nicoleta Anton; Chiselita, D; Motas, O I

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma and diabetes are two chronic diseases with a long suspected pathogenic relationship. Screening for glaucoma in patients with diabetes. A retrospective study on 92 eyes from 46 patients with primitive open angle glaucoma (POAG) (normal and hypertensive) and intraocular hypertension (OHT) receiving medication and/or surgery associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) (type I, type II, mixed) is presented. Participants were divided into two groups as following: 16 eyes with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy changes (group 1) and 76 eyes with glaucoma and without diabetic retinopathy changes (group 2). The following parameters were analysed: ocular pressure (Goldmann aplanotonometry), perimeter development (computerized perimetry) and fundus condition (absence, presence or progression of diabetic retinopathy). In patients with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (8 patients) we found a mean difference between treated intraocular pressure (IOP) and IOP last untreated control of 4.95 mmHg; a depreciation of the MD by 4.18 dB and an average number of glaucoma medications used of 0.889 +/- 1.054. Predominant changes in proliferative diabetic retinopathy were mild. In patients with glaucoma in the absence of diabetic retinopathy, the average difference between untreated IOP and IOP under treatment at the last check-up was 1.63 mmHg, the MD depreciation was by 0.65 dB and the average number of glaucoma medications used was 0.795 +/- 0.978. No statistically significant differences in terms of initial and final pressure were found. No statistically significant differences in the evolution of changes in perimeter between the two groups were observed. The presence of non-proliferating diabetic retinopathy influenced (only marginally statistically) the glaucomatous disease progression. Large comparative prospective studies are needed for the long-term follow up.

  18. Cannabinoids and glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tomida, I; Pertwee, R G; Azuara-Blanco, A

    2004-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. In spite of the diverse therapeutic possibilities, new and better treatments for glaucoma are highly desirable. Cannabinoids effectively lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) and have neuroprotective actions. Thus, they could potentially be useful in the treatment of glaucoma. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with an overview of the latest achievements in research into the potential use of cannabinoids for glaucoma. PMID:15090428

  19. The role of phacoemulsification in glaucoma therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Masis, Marisse; Mineault, Patrick J; Phan, Eileen; Lin, Shan C

    2017-09-06

    Cataract extraction is a safe and effective surgery that has been performed in its modern form for several decades. Many studies have noted that cataract extraction could also have a clinically significant role in the control of comorbid glaucoma. Lens extraction decreases the pressure within the eye, and intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only controllable risk factor in glaucoma proven to be effective. A systematic analysis of current evidence is needed to establish strong practice patterns and identify areas where further research is required. We performed systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical data to estimate the net effect of cataract surgery on IOP. A total of 37 treatment arms from 32 different studies from January 1997 to January 2017 were included. IOP reduction was highly correlated across follow-up periods. For angle-closure glaucoma, results showed an IOP decrease of -6.4 mmHg (95% CI: -9.4 to -3.4) at final follow-up (12 months and longer). For the open-angle glaucoma group, there was an overall IOP change of -2.7 mmHg (95% CI -3.7 to -1.7) from baseline. For pseudoexfoliation glaucoma further research is needed to reach an adequate evidence-based conclusion. The influence of inherent sources of bias, including loss to follow-up, washout and medication use, and lack of a control group, was evaluated numerically. These sources of bias pulled the IOP estimate in opposite directions and are therefore unlikely to affect the main conclusions substantially. Future prospective clinical trials, including other outcomes such as quality of life, clinical severity information, and cost-effectiveness analysis, are needed to determine the role of phacoemulsification alone within the glaucoma treatment algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma-associated LOXL1 variations are not involved in pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kollu Nageswara; Ritch, Robert; Dorairaj, Syril K; Kaur, Inderjeet; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Thomas, Ravi; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2008-07-09

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOXL1 gene have been implicated in exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). We have shown that these SNPs are not associated with the primary glaucomas such as primary open-angle (POAG) glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). To further establish the specificity of LOXL1 SNPs for XFS and XFG, we determined whether these SNPs were involved in pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG). Three SNPs of LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) were screened in a cohort of 78 unrelated and clinically well characterized glaucoma cases comprising of PG (n=44) and PDS (n=34) patients as well as 108 ethnically matched normal controls of Caucasian origin. The criteria for diagnosis of PDS/PG were Krukenberg spindle, hyperpigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, and wide open angle. Transillumination defects were detected by infrared pupillography, and the presence of a Zentmayer ring was considered as a confirmatory sign. All three SNPs were genotyped in cases and controls by resequencing the genomic region of LOXL1 harboring these variants and were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction digestions. Haplotypes were generated from the genotype data, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were done with Haploview software that uses the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The LOXL1 SNPs showed no significant association with PDS or PG. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of the risk alleles of rs1048661 ('G' allele; p=0.309), rs3825942 ('G' allele' p=0.461), and rs2165241 ('T' allele; p=0.432) between PG/PDS cases and controls. Similarly, there was no involvement of the XFS/XFG-associated haplotypes, 'G-G' (p=0.643; [OR=1.08, 95%CI, 0.59-1.97]) and 'T-G' (p=0.266; [OR=1.35, 95%CI, 0.70-2.60]), with the PDS/PG phenotypes. The risk haplotype 'G-G' was observed in ~55% of the normal controls. There was no

  1. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility of community screening for glaucoma in urban India.

    PubMed

    John, Denny; Parikh, Rajul

    2017-07-01

    Population-based screening for glaucoma has been demonstrated to be cost-effective if targeted at high-risk groups such as older adults and those with a family history of glaucoma, and through use of a technician for conducting initial assessment rather than a medical specialist. This study attempts to investigate the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical community screening and subsequent treatment programme for glaucoma in comparison with current practice (i.e. with no screening programme but with some opportunistic case finding) in the urban areas of India. A hypothetical screening programme for both primary open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure disease was built for a population aged between 40 and 69 years in the urban areas of India. Screening and treatment costs were obtained from an administrator of a tertiary eye hospital in India. The probabilities for the screening pathway were derived from published literature and expert opinion. The glaucoma prevalence rates for urban areas were adapted from the Chennai Glaucoma Study findings. A decision-analytical model using TreeAge Pro 2015 was built to model events, costs and treatment pathways. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. The introduction of a community screening programme for glaucoma is likely to be cost-effective, the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) values being 10,668.68 when compared with no screening programme and would treat an additional 4443 cases and prevent 1790 person-years of blindness over a 10-year period in the urban areas of India. Sensitivity analyses revealed that glaucoma prevalence rates across various age groups, screening uptake rate, follow-up compliance after screening, treatment costs and utility values of health states associated with medical and surgical treatment of glaucoma had an impact on the ICER values of the screening programme. In comparison with current practice (i.e. without a screening programme but with some opportunistic case finding

  2. Biomarkers in primary open angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kokotas, Haris; Kroupis, Christos; Chiras, Dimitrios; Grigoriadou, Maria; Lamnissou, Klea; Petersen, Michael B; Kitsos, George

    2012-12-01

    Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is currently defined as a disturbance of the structural or functional integrity of the optic nerve that causes characteristic atrophic changes in the optic nerve, which may lead to specific visual field defects over time. This disturbance usually can be arrested or diminished by adequate lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma can be divided roughly into two main categories, ‘ open angle ’ and ‘ closed angle ’ glaucoma.Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice loss of vision until the disease has progressed significantly. Primary open angle glaucoma(POAG) is described distinctly as a multifactorial optic neuropathy that is chronic and progressive with a characteristic acquired loss of optic nerve fibers. Such loss develops in the presence of open anterior chamber angles, characteristic visual field abnormalities, and IOP that is too high for the healthy eye. It manifests by cupping and atrophy of the optic disc, in the absence of other known causes of glaucomatous disease. Several biological markers have been implicated with the disease. The purpose of this study was to summarize the current knowledge regarding the non-genetic molecular markers which have been predicted to have an association with POAG but have not yet been validated.

  3. Advanced pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to phakic intraocular collamer lens implant.

    PubMed

    Ye, Clara; Patel, Cajal K; Momont, Anna C; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-01

    We report a case of pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to uncomplicated phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL) (Visian ICL™, Staar Inc., Monrovia, CA) implant that resulted in advanced visual field loss. A 50-year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL) placement 8 years earlier. He was incidentally found to have a decline in visual acuity from an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in the left eye. There were signs of pigment dispersion and no evidence of angle closure. Diffuse optic nerve thinning was consistent with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Pigment dispersion was also present in the patient's right eye, but without elevated IOP or visual field defects. The patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications and the phakic ICL in the left eye was removed concurrently with cataract surgery to prevent further visual field loss. Pigment dispersion glaucoma is a serious adverse outcome after phakic ICL implantation and regular post-operative monitoring may prevent advanced visual field loss.

  4. Contact lens assisted imaging with integrated flexible handheld probe for glaucoma diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xun Jie Jeesmond; V. K., Shinoj; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, Tin

    2017-06-01

    Angle closure glaucoma accounts for majority of the bilateral blindness in Asian countries such as Singapore, China, and India. Abnormalities in the optic nerve and aqueous outflow system are the most indicative clinical hallmarks for glaucoma of this clinical subtype. Traditional photographic imaging techniques to assess the drainage angle are contact based, and may expose patients to risk of corneal abrasion and infections. In addition, these procedures require the use of viscous ophthalmic gels as coupling medium to overcome the phenomenon of total internal reflection at the tear-air interface. In this paper, we propose an integrated flexible handheld probe consisting of a micro color CCD video camera and white light LEDs. The handheld probe is able to capture images of the fundus and opposite iridocorneal angle when placed at the central cornea or limbus respectively. Here, we propose the use of hydrogel contact lens as an index matching medium and better protective barrier, as an alternative to conventional ophthalmic gels. The proposed imaging system and methodology has been successfully tested on porcine eye samples, ex vivo. With its high repeatability, reproducibility, and a good safety profile, it is believed that the proposed imaging system and methodology will complement existing imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.

  5. Association of a Polymorphism in the BIRC6 Gene with Pseudoexfoliative Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ayub, Humaira; Micheal, Shazia; Akhtar, Farah; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Bashir, Shaheena; Waheed, Nadia K.; Ali, Mahmood; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Shafique, Sobia; Qamar, Raheel; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2014-01-01

    Recently an association was observed between alleles in genes of the unfolded protein response pathway and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The goal of the current study is to investigate the role of these two genes, protein disulphide isomerase A member 5 (PDIA5) and baculoviral IAP repeat containing 6 (BIRC6), in different forms of glaucoma. 278 patients with POAG, 132 patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and 135 patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11720822 in PDIA5 and 471 POAG, 184 PACG and 218 PEXG patients were genotyped for rs2754511 in BIRC6. Genotyping was done by allelic discrimination PCR, and genotype and allele frequencies were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed using R software to determine the association of these SNPs with glaucoma. The allele and genotype frequencies of rs11720822 in PDIA5 were not associated with POAG, PACG or PEXG. The TT genotype of rs2754511 in BIRC6 was found to be protective for PEXG (p = 0.05, OR 0.42 [0.22–0.81]) in the Pakistani population, but not for POAG or PACG. This study did not confirm a previously reported association of risk alleles in PDIA5 and BIRC6 with POAG, but did demonstrate a protective role of the T allele of rs2754511 in the BIRC6 gene in PEXG. This supports a role for the unfolded protein response pathway and regulation of apoptotic cell death in the pathogenesis of PEXG. PMID:25118708

  6. Gene Therapy Targeting Glaucoma: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuyang; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Gabelt, B’Ann T.; Brandt, Curtis R.; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    In a chronic disease such as glaucoma, a therapy that provides a long lasting local effect, with minimal systemic side effects, while circumventing the issue of patient compliance, is very attractive. The field of gene therapy is growing rapidly and ocular applications are expanding. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of glaucoma is leading to greater specificity in ocular tissue targeting. Improvements in gene delivery techniques, refinement of vector construction methods, and development of better animal models combine to bring this potential therapy closer to reality. PMID:19539835

  7. Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Topcial medical therapy is usually the first-line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment. Peripheral laser iridotomy involves creating an opening in the iris tissue to allow drainage of fluid from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber and vice versa. Equalizing the pressure within the eye may help to alleviate the friction that leads to pigment dispersion and prevent visual field deterioration. However, the effectiveness of peripheral laser iridotomy in reducing the development or progression of pigmentary glaucoma is unknown. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of peripheral laser iridotomy compared with other interventions, including medication, trabeculoplasty, and trabeculectomy, or no treatment, for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and clinical trials websites such as (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 November 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had compared peripheral laser iridotomy versus no treatment or other treatments for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures for systematic reviews. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility

  8. [Music and Glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Plange, N

    2017-02-01

    Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glaucoma Facts and Stats Glossary Symptoms of Open-Angle Glaucoma Types of Glaucoma » See All Articles Where the Money Goes Have a Question? Browse Our Q&A » Or e-mail us: question@ glaucoma.org For medical advice, contact your doctor. Our Newsletter Stay up-to-date ...

  10. Pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma from a neuroinflammatory and neurotoxicity perspective: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Evangelho, Karine; Mogilevskaya, Maria; Losada-Barragan, Monica; Vargas-Sanchez, Jeinny Karina

    2017-12-30

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in humans, affecting 2% of the population. This disorder can be classified into various types including primary, secondary, glaucoma with angle closure and with open angle. The prevalence of distinct types of glaucoma differs for each particular region of the world. One of the most common types of this disease is primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which is a complex inherited disorder characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death, optic nerve head excavation and visual field loss. Nowadays, POAG is considered an optic neuropathy, while intraocular pressure is proposed to play a fundamental role in its pathophysiology and especially in optic disk damage. However, the exact mechanism of optic nerve head damage remains a topic of debate. This literature review aims to bring together the information on the pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma, particularly focusing on neuroinflammatory mechanisms leading to the death of the retinal ganglion cell. A literature search was done on PubMed using key words including primary open-angle glaucoma, retinal ganglion cells, Müller cells, glutamate, glial cells, ischemia, hypoxia, exitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, axotomy and neurotrophic factors. The literature was reviewed to collect the information published about the pathophysiologic mechanisms of RGC death in the POAG, from a neuroinflammatory and neurotoxicity perspective. Proposed mechanisms for glaucomatous damage are a result of pressure in RGC followed by ischemia, hypoxia of the ONH, and consequently death due to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, deprivation of energy and oxygen, increase in levels of inflammatory mediators and alteration of trophic factors flow. These events lead to blockage of anterograde and retrograde axonal transport with ensuing axotomy and eventually blindness. The damage to ganglion cells and eventually glaucomatous injury can occur via various mechanisms including baric trauma

  11. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma.

  12. Educating the glaucoma patient.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, A. R.; Zimmerman, J. F.; Tanner, J.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with open-angle glaucoma and 32 controls were studied at each of 2 medical centres, one in California and one in England. A 12-point questionnaire was answered before, immediately after, and 6 months after viewing a 6 minute video film about glaucoma. The English glaucoma patients and controls showed lower initial knowledge than their American counterparts. Immediately after the film all groups had substantially improved their knowledge by answering 78-88% of the questions correctly. Recall study showed that both American groups had retained more than their British counterparts and that glaucoma patients retained more knowledge of their disease than did controls. The use of an educational video film in an outpatient setting is a simple and economical method of patient education applicable to both American and British subjects with open-angle glaucoma. PMID:6671096

  13. Compliance with eye care in glaucoma patients with comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Guy A; Goldich, Yakov; Bartov, Elisha; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia

    2011-12-01

    Comorbid depression may play an important role in non-compliance with medical treatment among patients with chronic illnesses. Glaucoma is a potentially blinding chronic disease requiring life-long commitment to medical therapy. Failure to adhere to anti-glaucoma treatment may lead to disease progression and visual loss. To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms in glaucoma patients and the association between these symptoms and non-compliance with anti-glaucoma therapy. In this cross-sectional observational study, compliance with pharmacotherapy was assessed with the Morisky Medication Adherence questionnaire (eight items). Screening for depression was performed by means of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale). The association between depression and compliance rates was analyzed. The study group comprised 76 glaucoma patients; 19.7% of the subjects were classified as non-compliant (Morisky cutoff 10) and 21.1% suffered from depression (CES-D cutoff > or = 16). We found a similar level of non-compliance when comparing depressed with non-depressed glaucoma patients. However, a correlation was observed between the level of depression and the level of non-compliance (P = 0.04). Our study revealed a similar rate of depression in glaucoma patients and the general israeli population. The presence of depression was not associated with the presence of non-compliance, yet the level of depression was associated with the level of non-compliance.

  14. Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Screening Can Save Your Sight! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents People with glaucoma see the world through a tunnel. Glaucoma is ...

  15. The direction of research into visual disability and quality of life in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Glen, Fiona C; Crabb, David P; Garway-Heath, David F

    2011-08-04

    Glaucoma will undoubtedly impact on a person's ability to function as they go about their day-to-day life. The purpose of this study is to investigate the amount of published knowledge in quality of life (QoL) and visual disability studies for glaucoma, and make comparisons with similar research in other chronic conditions. A systematic literature search of the Global Health, EMBASE Psychiatry and MEDLINE databases. Title searches for glaucoma and six other example chronic diseases were entered alongside a selection of keywords chosen to capture studies focusing on QoL and everyday task ability. These results were further filtered during a manual search of resulting abstracts. Outcomes were the number of publications per year for each disease, number relating to QoL and type of glaucoma QoL research. Fifteen years ago there were no published studies relating to the impact of glaucoma on QoL but by 2009 this had risen to 1.2% of all glaucoma articles. The number of papers relating to QoL as a proportion of all papers in glaucoma in the past 10 years (0.6%) is smaller than for AMD and some other disabling chronic diseases. Most QoL studies in glaucoma (82%) involve questionnaires. QoL studies in glaucoma are increasing in number but represent a tiny minority of the total publications in glaucoma research. There are fewer QoL articles in glaucoma compared to some other disabling chronic conditions. The majority of QoL articles in glaucoma research use questionnaires; performance-based measures of visual disability may offer an additional method of determining how the disease impacts on QoL.

  16. Glaucoma in juvenile xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Vendal, Zarmeena; Walton, David; Chen, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic skin disorder mainly encountered during infancy. Approximately 10% of cases exhibit ocular manifestations leading to serious complications. Specifically, secondary glaucoma can result in severe and blinding eye disease. We present a case of a two-month-old female with JXG related glaucoma in order to demonstrate the classic presentation and the problems commonly encountered in treating this disease. The natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of the condition are then discussed and the pertinent literature reviewed. JXG should be considered in any case of unilateral glaucoma that presents in infancy.

  17. Early intraocular pressure change after peripheral iridotomy with ultralow fluence pattern scanning laser and Nd:YAG laser in primary angle-closure suspect: Kowloon East Pattern Scanning Laser Study Report No. 3.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeffrey Chi Wang; Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Chan, Orlando Chia Chieh; Li, Kenneth Kai Wang

    2018-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess the early intraocular pressure (IOP) changes of ultralow fluence laser iridotomy using pattern scanning laser followed by neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-gamet (Nd:YAG) laser. This is a prospective interventional study. Thirty-three eyes of 33 adult Chinese primary angle-closure suspect subjects were recruited for prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy. Sequential laser peripheral iridotomy was performed using pattern scanning laser followed by Nd:YAG laser. Visual acuity (VA) and IOP were measured before treatment, at 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after laser. Laser energy used and complications were documented. Corneal endothelial cell count was examined at baseline and 6 months. Patency of the iridotomy was assessed at each follow-up visit. All subjects achieved patent iridotomy in a single session. The mean energy used was 0.335+/-0.088 J for the pattern scanning laser, and 4.767+/-5.780 mJ for the Nd:YAG laser. The total mean energy was 0.339+/-0.089 J. None of the eyes developed a clinically significant IOP spike (≥ 8 mmHg) at 1 h and 1 day after laser use. Only four eyes developed higher IOP at 1 h and all were ≤3 mmHg compared to baseline. The mean IOP was 13.8+/-2.5 mmHg at 1 h and 11.5+/-2.2 mmHg at 1 day, both were significantly lower than baseline (15.8+/-2.1 mmHg) (P < 0.001). Mean VA (logMAR) was similar at 1 h post laser compared to baseline (0.23 vs 0.26). There was also no statistically significant difference in mean VA at other follow-up visits compared to baseline. Peripheral iridotomy closure was encountered in two (6.1%) eyes, one at 1 month and another at 6 months follow-up. There were no complications including hyphema, peripheral anterior synechia formation nor prolonged inflammation throughout the follow-up period. There was no significant loss in corneal endothelial cell counts at 6 months (2255+/-490) compared to baseline (2303+/-386) (P = 0.347). Sequential

  18. Types of Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Groups For more information about area support groups, please click here . NEWSWORTHY Advancing the Understanding for Exfoliation click for info © Copyright 2018 The Glaucoma Foundation. All Rights Reserved. | Site Map Web design by Integra Strategic Technologies

  19. Daily Life with Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

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  1. African Americans and Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Free Booklet You can also find the information in ... are not reflected on our website. Get Our Free Newsletter Subscribe Doctors Order booklets about glaucoma for ...

  2. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    PubMed

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mobility performance in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Turano, K A; Rubin, G S; Quigley, H A

    1999-11-01

    To determine whether glaucoma affects mobility performance and whether there is a relationship between mobility performance and stage of disease as estimated from vision-function measures. The mobility performance of 47 glaucoma subjects was compared with that of 47 normal-vision subjects who were of similar age. Mobility performance was assessed by the time required to complete an established travel path and the number of mobility incidents. The subjective assessment of falling and fear of falling were also compared. Vision function was assessed by measures of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, monocular automated threshold perimetry, and suprathreshold; binocular visual fields were assessed with the Esterman test. The glaucoma subjects walked on average 10% more slowly than did the normal-vision subjects. The number of people who experienced bumps, stumbles, or orientation problems was almost twice as high in the glaucoma group than the normal-vision group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The difference between groups also was not significant with respect to the number of people who reported falling in the past year (38% for the glaucoma group and 30% for the normal-vision group) or a fear of falling (28% for the glaucoma group and 23% for the normal-vision group). The visual fields assessed with a Humphrey 24-2 test were more highly correlated with walking speed in glaucoma than the visual fields scored by the Esterman scale or than visual acuity or contrast sensitivity. Glaucoma is associated with a modest decrease in mobility performance. Walking speed decreases with severity of the disease as estimated by threshold perimetry.

  4. Clinical Metabolomics and Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Breda, João; Himmelreich, Uwe; Ghesquière, Bart; Rocha-Sousa, Amândio; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2018-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. However, there are no biomarkers that accurately help clinicians perform an early diagnosis or detect patients with a high risk of progression. Metabolomics is the study of all metabolites in an organism, and it has the potential to provide a biomarker. This review summarizes the findings of metabolomics in glaucoma patients and explains why this field is promising for new research. We identified published studies that focused on metabolomics and ophthalmology. After providing an overview of metabolomics in ophthalmology, we focused on human glaucoma studies. Five studies have been conducted in glaucoma patients and all compared patients to healthy controls. Using mass spectrometry, significant differences were found in blood plasma in the metabolic pathways that involve palmitoylcarnitine, sphingolipids, vitamin D-related compounds, and steroid precursors. For nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a high glutamine-glutamate/creatine ratio was found in the vitreous and lateral geniculate body; no differences were detected in the optic radiations, and a lower N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was observed in the geniculocalcarine and striate areas. Metabolomics can move glaucoma care towards a personalized approach and provide new knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of glaucoma, which can lead to new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Anti-glaucoma potential of Heliotropium indicum Linn in experimentally-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Owusu-Afriyie, Osei

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used as a traditional remedy for hypertension in Ghana. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-glaucoma potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of H. indicum to manage experimentally-induced glaucoma. The percentage change in intraocular pressure (IOP), after inducing acute glaucoma (15 mLkg(-1) of 5 % dextrose, i.v.), in New Zealand White rabbits pretreated with Heliotropium indicum aqueous extract (HIE) (30-300 mgkg(-1)), acetazolamide (5 mgkg(-1)), and normal saline (10 mLkg(-1)) per os were measured. IOPs were also monitored in chronic glaucoma in rabbits (induced by 1 % prednisolone acetate drops, 12 hourly for 21 days) after treatments with the same doses of HIE, acetazolamide, and normal saline for 2 weeks. The anti-oxidant property of the extract was assessed by assaying for glutathione levels in the aqueous humour. Glutamate concentration in the vitreous humour was also determined using ELISA technique. Histopathological assessment of the ciliary bodies was made. The extract significantly reduced intraocular pressure (p ≤ 0.05-0.001) in acute and chronic glaucoma, preserved glutathione levels and glutamate concentration (p ≤ 0.01-0.001). Histological assessment of the ciliary body showed a decrease in inflammatory infiltration in the extract and acetazolamide-treated group compared with the normal saline-treated group. The aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum has ocular hypotensive, anti-oxidant and possible neuro-protective effects, which therefore underscore its plausible utility as an anti-glaucoma drug with further investigation.

  6. The neurologic evaluation of patients with low-tension glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Corbett, J J; Phelps, C D; Eslinger, P; Montague, P R

    1985-08-01

    One hypothesized cause of low-tension glaucoma is chronic or intermittent ischemia of the optic nerve. Since the optic nerve and brain are both parts of the central nervous system and share a common blood supply, the authors wondered if patients with low-tension glaucoma might also have clinical or radiographic evidence of cerebral atrophy. In this study, 27 patients with low-tension glaucoma were examined using neurobehavioral testing, electroencephalography, computerized tomographic scan, neurological history, and physical examination. In only a small number of patients were these tests abnormal. However, 12 of the 27 patients gave a history of common or classic migraine. This unexpected finding raises the possibility that migraine-related ischemia might be the pathogenic mechanism in some cases of low-tension glaucoma.

  7. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Leer en Español: La marihuana ...

  8. Early diagnosis in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Garway-Heath, David F

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evidence for the clinical application of vision function tests and imaging devices to identify early glaucoma, and sets out a scheme for the appropriate use and interpretation of test results in screening/case-finding and clinic settings. In early glaucoma, signs may be equivocal and the diagnosis is often uncertain. Either structural damage or vision function loss may be the first sign of glaucoma; neither one is consistently apparent before the other. Quantitative tests of visual function and measurements of optic-nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer anatomy are useful to either raise or lower the probability that glaucoma is present. The posttest probability for glaucoma may be calculated from the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio of the diagnostic criterion, and the output of several diagnostic devices may be combined to achieve a final probability. However, clinicians need to understand how these diagnostic devices make their measurements, so that the validity of each test result can be adequately assessed. Only then should the result be used, together with the patient history and clinical examination, to derive a diagnosis.

  9. Glaucoma treatment trends: a review.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Ronan; Saheb, Hady; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing. The aim of the present review is to describe the current medical and surgical treatment trends in the management of open-angle glaucoma. There has been an increase in the availability of glaucoma medications and the use of laser trabeculoplasty over the past decade, with a subsequent decrease in invasive incisional surgery. In addition, a new class of glaucoma procedures, termed microinvasive glaucoma surgery, has emerged, which aims to fill the gap between conservative medical management and more invasive surgery. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glaucoma Suspect: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Chang, Robert T; Singh, Kuldev

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma suspect is a diagnosis reserved for individuals who do not definitively have glaucoma at the present time but have characteristics suggesting that they are at high risk of developing the disease in the future based on a variety of factors. This review provides a practical approach to individuals classified as glaucoma suspects caused by one or more of the following risk factors or indicators of disease: ocular hypertension, optic nerve features suggestive of glaucoma, visual field abnormalities, and other characteristics placing them at greater risk than the average population. In addition to diagnostic considerations, this overview provides information on therapeutic approaches to the glaucoma suspect.

  11. Exciting Directions in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a complex, life-long disease that requires an individualized, multifaceted approach to treatment. Most patients will be started on topical ocular hypotensive eyedrop therapy and over time, multiple classes of drugs will be needed to control their intraocular pressure (IOP). The search for drugs with novel mechanisms of action, to treat those who do not achieve adequate IOP control with, or become refractory to, current therapeutics, is ongoing, as is the search for more efficient, targeted drug delivery methods. Gene transfer and stem cell applications for glaucoma therapeutics are moving forward. Advances in imaging technologies improve our understanding of glaucoma pathophysiology and enable more refined patient evaluation and monitoring, improving patient outcomes. PMID:25433744

  12. [Perspectives in glaucoma surgery].

    PubMed

    Dietlein, T S

    2002-02-01

    Trabeculectomy is still considered to be the gold standard in the surgical treatment of the open-angle glaucomas. The additional application of local antimetabolites has reduced the rate of early filtering bled fibrosis, but increased the rate of essential late-postoperative complications. Growth factor inhibition and photodynamic therapy may be an alternative local treatment to enhance the results in filtering surgery. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery and ab-interno trabecular surgery have several conceptual advantages, e.g. the lack of overfiltration or the untouched conjunctiva in the ab-interno approach. Clinical studies of these and other new procedures including antiglaucomatous retinectomy and subchoroidal shunt systems are currently performed in order to evaluate their potential and limits in the clinical management of glaucoma.

  13. The Impact of Adherence and Instillation Proficiency of Topical Glaucoma Medications on Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Shibeshi, Workineh; T. Giorgis, Abeba; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal

    2017-01-01

    Background The possible sequel of poorly controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) includes treatment failure, unnecessary medication use, and economic burden on patients with glaucoma. Objective To assess the impact of adherence and instillation technique on IOP control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 359 glaucoma patients in Menelik II Hospital from June 1 to July 31, 2015. After conducting a Q-Q analysis, multiple binary logistic analyses, linear regression analyses, and two-tailed paired t-test were conducted to compare IOP in the baseline versus current measurements. Results Intraocular pressure was controlled in 59.6% of the patients and was relatively well controlled during the study period (mean (M) = 17.911 mmHg, standard deviation (S) = 0.323) compared to the baseline (M = 20.866 mmHg, S = 0.383, t (358) = −6.70, p < 0.0001). A unit increase in the administration technique score resulted in a 0.272 mmHg decrease in IOP (p = 0.03). Moreover, primary angle-closure glaucoma (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.347, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.144–0.836) and two medications (AOR = 1.869, 95% CI: 1.259–9.379) were factors affecting IOP. Conclusion Good instillation technique of the medications was correlated with a reduction in IOP. Consequently, regular assessment of the instillation technique and IOP should be done for better management of the disease. PMID:29104803

  14. The Impact of Adherence and Instillation Proficiency of Topical Glaucoma Medications on Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Shibeshi, Workineh; T Giorgis, Abeba; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal

    2017-01-01

    The possible sequel of poorly controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) includes treatment failure, unnecessary medication use, and economic burden on patients with glaucoma. To assess the impact of adherence and instillation technique on IOP control. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 359 glaucoma patients in Menelik II Hospital from June 1 to July 31, 2015. After conducting a Q-Q analysis, multiple binary logistic analyses, linear regression analyses, and two-tailed paired t-test were conducted to compare IOP in the baseline versus current measurements. Intraocular pressure was controlled in 59.6% of the patients and was relatively well controlled during the study period (mean ( M ) = 17.911 mmHg, standard deviation ( S ) = 0.323) compared to the baseline ( M = 20.866 mmHg, S = 0.383, t (358) = -6.70, p < 0.0001). A unit increase in the administration technique score resulted in a 0.272 mmHg decrease in IOP ( p = 0.03). Moreover, primary angle-closure glaucoma (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.347, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.144-0.836) and two medications (AOR = 1.869, 95% CI: 1.259-9.379) were factors affecting IOP. Good instillation technique of the medications was correlated with a reduction in IOP. Consequently, regular assessment of the instillation technique and IOP should be done for better management of the disease.

  15. Glaucoma: Hot Topics in Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Balendra, Shiama I; Shah, Parth Arvind; Jain, Mishank; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Cordeiro, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma comprises a group of neurodegenerative diseases resulting in retinal ganglion cell death within the optic nerve head. It is projected to affect almost 80 million people worldwide by 2020. The condition's asymptomatic nature translates to over half of glaucoma sufferers being unaware of their condition. By the time of diagnosis, irreversible blindness is likely to have occurred. Prime areas of glaucoma research therefore include identification and optimization of risk factors for the disease, accurate and early diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic methods. The goal of this review was to summarize main areas of latest glaucoma research into risk factors of glaucoma, diagnostic tools and treatments. PubMed was used to search for terms including glaucoma risk factors, glaucoma diagnostics, glaucoma treatment, glaucoma drug delivery and glaucoma IOP. The evidence for risk factors of low CSF pressure, IOP, smoking, vascular risk factors and light toxicity is described. Latest diagnostic and monitoring techniques for glaucoma include SD-OCT, DARC and IOP telemetry. Current and emerging medical and surgical treatments in glaucoma are discussed. Rho kinase inhibitors have the potential to both lower IOP and also provide neuroprotection, several of which are in clinical trials. Several other new medical treatments such as calcium channel blockers and neurotrophic agents also have the capacity to provide neuroprotection. Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) devices provide an improved safety profile compared to traditional trabeculectomy; the latest ab interno and ab externo devices are described. Novel drug delivery methods, including punctual plugs and contact lenses, help overcome the challenges with patient adherence. The ultimate goals are to reduce the individual patient risk factors associated with glaucoma, diagnose the condition early and to find treatments that not only reduce IOP but also reverse neurodegeneration of RGCs. The usage of combinations

  16. [Perception of glaucoma and therapeutic adherence: A multicenter observational study].

    PubMed

    Chiche, A; Martin, G; Brasnu de Cenival, E; Rousseau, A; Giocanti, A; Fel, A; Kallel, S; Lombardi, M; Hamard, P; Baudouin, C; Labbe, A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate medication adherence of glaucoma patients through the "Glaucoma treatment compliance assessment tool (GTCAT)" questionnaire and to correlate the results with clinical parameters. This multicenter prospective observational study was performed in the Département hospitalo-universitaire (DHU) Sight Restore, Paris, France. All patients had been followed for chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) for at least 3 years. A French version of the GTCAT questionnaire was administered to patients. The results were correlated with clinical parameters of glaucoma, such as duration of disease, medications used, intraocular pressure (IOP) and mean deviation (MD) of the most recent visual field. Seventy-three patients were included in our study, with 60.9% declaring that they fully adhered to the treatment. There was a correlation between the amount of days missing treatment and difficulties using the eye drops. The main cause of missing the drops was forgetfulness (75%), followed by unavailability of the drop when it was time to take it (37.5%). The impact of glaucoma on quality of life was correlated to the amount of adverse effects of topical medications. The patient's perception of the importance of preserving vision was correlated to the level of confidence in the physician concerning the diagnosis of glaucoma. In glaucoma patients, the use of the GTCAT questionnaire confirmed the complex relationship between the patient, the disease and its treatment, and even his or her relationship with the ophthalmologist. These results emphasized the importance of therapeutic education but also the negative role of side effects of the eye drops on treatment adherence in glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Glaucoma anterior chamber morphometry based on optical Scheimpflug images.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ruiz Simonato; Ambrósio Junior, Renato; Paranhos Junior, Augusto; Sakata, Lisandro Massanori; Ventura, Marcelo Palis

    2010-01-01

    To compare the performance of gonioscopy and noncontact morphometry with anterior chamber tomography (High Resolution Pentacam - HR) using optical Scheimpflug images in the evaluation of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). Transversal study. 112 eyes from 74 subjects evaluated at the Glaucoma Department, Fluminense Federal University, underwent gonioscopy and Pentacam HR. Using gonioscopy, the ACA was graded using the Shaffer Classification (SC) by a single experienced examiner masked to the Pentacam HR findings. Narrow angle was determined in eyes in which the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen in two or more quadrants on non-indentation gonioscopy (SC Grade 2 or less). Pentacam HR images of the nasal and temporal quadrants were evaluated by custom software to automatically obtain anterior chamber measurements, such as: anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Based on gonioscopy results, 74 (60.07%) eyes of patients classified as open-angle (SC 3 and 4) and 38 (33.93%) eyes of patients classified as narrow-angle (SC 1 and 2). Noncontact morphometry with Scheimpflug images revealed a mean ACA of 39.20 ± 5.31 degrees for open-angle and 21.18 ± 7.98 degrees for narrow-angle. The open-angle group showed significant greater ACV and ACD values when compared to narrow-angle group (ACV of 193 ± 36 mm³ vs. 90 ± 25 mm³, respectively, p<0.001; and ACD of 3,09 ± 0,42 mm vs. 1,55 ± 0,64 mm, respectively, p<0.0001.). In screening eyes with open-angle and narrow-angle with the Pentacam ACA of 20º (SC Grade 2) using the ROC curves, the analysis showed 52.6% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity. The Pentacam showed ability in detecting eyes at risk for angle closure analyzing ACV and ACD.

  18. Making Basic Science Studies in Glaucoma More Clinically Relevant: The Need for a Consensus.

    PubMed

    Toris, Carol B; Gelfman, Claire; Whitlock, Andy; Sponsel, William E; Rowe-Rendleman, Cheryl L

    2017-09-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive, and debilitating optic neuropathy that causes retinal damage and visual defects. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of glaucoma remain ill-defined, and there is an indisputable need for contributions from basic science researchers in defining pathways for translational research. However, glaucoma researchers today face significant challenges due to the lack of a map of integrated pathways from bench to bedside and the lack of consensus statements to guide in choosing the right research questions, techniques, and model systems. Here, we present the case for the development of such maps and consensus statements, which are critical for faster development of the most efficacious glaucoma therapy. We underscore that interrogating the preclinical path of both successful and unsuccessful clinical programs is essential to defining future research. One aspect of this is evaluation of available preclinical research tools. To begin this process, we highlight the utility of currently available animal models for glaucoma and emphasize that there is a particular need for models of glaucoma with normal intraocular pressure. In addition, we outline a series of discoveries from cell-based, animal, and translational research that begin to reveal a map of glaucoma from cell biology to physiology to disease pathology. Completion of these maps requires input and consensus from the global glaucoma research community. This article sets the stage by outlining various approaches to such a consensus. Together, these efforts will help accelerate basic science research, leading to discoveries with significant clinical impact for people with glaucoma.

  19. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms ... patients may need to keep taking drugs. Latest Research Researchers are studying the causes of glaucoma, looking ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  1. Surgical management of malignant glaucoma: a retrospective analysis of fifty eight eyes.

    PubMed

    Balekudaru, S; Choudhari, N S; Rewri, P; George, R; Bhende, P S; Bhende, M; Lingam, V; Lingam, G

    2017-06-01

    PurposeTo assess outcomes of surgical management of malignant glaucoma in terms of re-formation of anterior chamberMethodsThis was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for malignant glaucoma between January 1995 and December 2013 at a tertiary care ophthalmic institute, with a minimum follow up of 2 months.ResultsFifty eight eyes of 58 patients were included. Fifty two (89.7%) patients had primary angle closure glaucoma. The majority had undergone glaucoma filtration surgery earlier (n=53, 91.4%). Lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy was performed in 15 (25.9%) eyes (Group 1). Vitrectomy and anterior chamber re-formation was performed in 27 (46.6%) eyes (Group 2). Vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-vitrectomy was performed in 16 (27.6%) eyes (Group 3). Communication between the two segments of eye through anterior hyaloid, lens capsule complex and/or iris was achieved in all groups. The median follow-up (Inter-quartile range) was 30 (71.5) months. Anterior chamber re-formation was achieved in 56 (96.5%) eyes at final visit. The improvement in mean±SD LogMAR visual acuity (1.1±1 to 0.7±0.8) and reduction in number ±SD of anti-glaucoma medications (2.1±1.1 to 1±1.6) between onset and final visit were significant (P=0.02 and <0.01, respectively). The intraocular pressure (mm Hg) at onset and at final visit was 30.7±17.4 and 14±6.2, 32.8±12.6 and 15.3±7.4, and 27.2±14 and 10.9±3 in groups 1-3, respectively (all P<0.01).ConclusionOur anatomical success rate was high. The key element in achieving this outcome was the establishment of a patent communication between the vitreous cavity and the anterior chamber.

  2. Glaucoma and Corneal Transplant Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.; Edward, Deepak P.

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma after corneal transplantation is a leading cause of ocular morbidity after penetrating keratoplasty. The incidence reported is highly variable and a number of etiologic factors have been identified. A number of treatment options are available; surgical intervention for IOP control is associated with a high incidence of graft failure. IOP elevation is less frequently seen following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Descemet's striping-automated endothelial keratoplasty is also associated with postprocedure intraocular pressure elevation and secondary glaucoma and presents unique surgical challenges in patients with preexisting glaucoma surgeries. Glaucoma exists in up to three-quarters of patients who undergo keratoprosthesis surgery and the management if often challenging. The aim of this paper is to highlight the incidence, etiology, and management of glaucoma following different corneal transplant procedures. It also focuses on the challenges in the diagnosis of glaucoma and intraocular pressure monitoring in this group of patients. PMID:22315661

  3. National and subnational prevalence and burden of glaucoma in China: A systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Peige; Wang, Jiawen; Bucan, Kajo; Theodoratou, Evropi; Rudan, Igor; Chan, Kit Yee

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, affects approximately 64.3 million individuals worldwide. In China, demographic ageing is in rapid progress. Yet detailed and up-to-date estimates of the scale of glaucoma are rare. We aimed to quantify and understand the prevalence and burden of glaucoma in China from 1990 to 2015, with projections until 2050. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database (CBM-SinoMed), PubMed, Embase and Medline using comprehensive search strategies to identify all relevant articles that have reported the prevalence of glaucoma in the general Chinese population. We used a multilevel mixed-effect meta-regression to estimate the prevalence rates of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and a random-effects meta-analysis to pool the overall prevalence of secondary glaucoma. United Nations population data were used to estimate and project the number of people with glaucoma from 1990 to 2050. Univariable and multivariable meta-regressions were conducted to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and PACG and relevant demographic and geographic factors. The national burden of POAG and PACG in the years 2000 and 2010 were distributed to six geographic regions accordingly. From 1990 to 2015, the prevalence of all glaucoma ranged from 2.59% (95% CI = 1.96-3.49) to 2.58% (95% CI = 1.94-3.47). For different subtypes of glaucoma, the overall prevalence of POAG ranged from 1.03% (95% CI = 0.67-1.58) in 1990 to 1.02% (95% CI = 0.67-1.57) in 2015, PACG from 1.41% (95% CI = 1.18-1.68) to 1.40% (95% CI = 1.17-1.68). The overall prevalence of secondary glaucoma was 0.15% (95% CI = 0.10-0.23) during this period. The number of people with all glaucoma in China was 5.92 million (95% CI = 4.47-7.97) in 1990, and 13.12 million (95% CI = 9.88-17.68) in 2015

  4. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in pediatric glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Esfandiari, Hamed; Yazdani, Shahin; Doozandeh, Azadeh; Dastborhan, Zahra; Gerami, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Bahareh; Pakravan, Parastou; Yaseri, Mehdi; Hassanpour, Kiana

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in refractory primary congenital glaucoma as well as primary procedure in aphakic glaucoma. In this retrospective study, medical records of patients who underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma and aphakic glaucoma were reviewed. Primary outcome measures were the surgical success defined as intraocular pressure ≤21 mm Hg and decreased ≥20% and no secondary glaucoma surgery. Secondary outcome measures were the number of glaucoma medications, complications, best corrected visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. A total of 62 eyes of refractory primary congenital glaucoma patients (group 1) and 33 eyes of aphakic glaucoma patients (group 2) were included in our study. Mean follow-up was 51 ± 33 months in group 1 and 49 ± 41 months in group 2 (p = 0.82). The cumulative probability of success was 90% in both groups at the first year; however, the success rate was 52.5% in group 1 and 71.5% in group 2 at 5 years' follow-up visit. In group 1, the mean intraocular pressure ± standard deviation was 33.1 ± 8.6 mm Hg at the baseline and decreased to 17.1 ± 5.3 mm Hg at 1 year and 18.5 ± 6.4 at 3 years postoperatively (all p's < 0.001). Corresponding values for group 2 were 28.9 ± 6.1, 15.2 ± 4.6, and 16.0 ± 5.9 mm Hg, respectively (all p's < 0.001). The baseline number of glaucoma medications was 3 ± 0.7 that decreased to 2 ± 0.8 at final follow-up (p = 0.02). Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation has a moderate success rate in the management of refractory primary congenital glaucoma with an increased chance of tube-related complications. The surgical success rate is higher in case of primary Ahmed glaucoma valve implant for aphakic glaucoma with acceptable safety profile.

  6. Trabeculectomy versus Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Christopher C; Salim, Sarwat; Du, Haiming; Netland, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare surgical outcomes in neovascular glaucoma patients who underwent trabeculectomy with mitomycin C versus Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective comparative case series. We reviewed 40 eyes of 39 patients with underlying diagnosis of neovascular glaucoma, divided into two groups: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (N = 20) and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (N = 20). Surgical success was defined as 6 mm Hg ≤ intraocular pressure ≤21 mm Hg, with or without the use of glaucoma medications, with no further glaucoma surgery, and light perception or better vision. Early postoperative hypotony was defined as intraocular pressure <5 mm Hg during the first postoperative week. Results: The average follow-up was 31 months (range 6–87 months) for the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 25 months (6–77 months) for the trabeculectomy group. Although the mean number of postoperative intraocular pressure-lowering medications was significantly higher in the trabeculectomy group compared with the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group at 3 and 6 month time points, there was no statistically significant difference at any other time point. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in postoperative visual acuity and intraocular pressure. Success was 70% and 65% at 1 year and 60% and 55% at 2 years after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and trabeculectomy, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant difference in success between the two groups (P = 0.815). Hyphema was the most common complication in both groups. Conclusion: We found similar results after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C and Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in eyes with neovascular glaucoma. PMID:21468334

  7. Neuroprotection in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Sushil K; Gupta, Viney; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Recent evidence suggests that intraocular pressure (IOP) is only one of the many risk factors for this disease. Current treatment options for this disease have been limited to the reduction of IOP; however, it is clear now that the disease progression continues in many patients despite effective lowering of IOP. In the search for newer modalities in treating this disease, much data have emerged from experimental research the world over, suggesting various pathological processes involved in this disease and newer possible strategies to treat it. This review article looks into the current understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma, the importance of neuroprotection, the various possible pharmacological approaches for neuroprotection and evidence of current available medications. PMID:21150020

  8. Rational Basis For Nutraceuticals In The Treatment Of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombola, Laura; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Russo, Rossella

    2017-11-09

    Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons degeneration and death. The pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG), the most common type, is still largely unknown and it is often associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) although IOP-independent mechanisms play also a role. Neurodegenerative process, including oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation, and an impaired ocular blood flow are examples of mechanisms supposed to contribute to the IOP independent deterioration in OAG. For these reasons glaucoma progress it is not always under the control of currently available drugs. Interestingly, recent studies have suggested a link between dietary factors and glaucoma risk. Particularly, some nutrients have proven capable of lower IOP, increase circulation to the optic nerve, modulate excitotoxicity and promote RGC survival, but the lack of clinical trials limit their current therapeutic use. The finding of appropriate use of nutraceuticals that may be able to modify the risk of glaucoma may provide insight into glaucoma pathogenesis and decrease the need for, and therefore the side effects from, conventional therapies. For these reasons the effects of nutrients with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties are of great interest and nutraceuticals may offer some therapeutic potential. Although a further rigorous evaluation of nutraceuticals in the treatment of glaucoma is needed to determine their safety and efficacy, in this review we summarize the potential of nutritional supplements for limiting retinal damage and improving RGC survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Willingness to Use Mobile Health in Glaucoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Miaomiao; Xu, Jianan; Lin, Jialiu; Wang, Zhonghao; Huang, Wenmin; Huang, Jingjing

    2017-10-01

    Development of mobile health (m-health) in China carries tremendous potential, especially for glaucoma, one of the major chronic ophthalmic diseases afflicting millions of people. However, little research has been undertaken to investigate the willingness of glaucoma patients to use m-health and the factors influencing their decisions. This was a cross-sectional study. A self-administered or face-to-face interview survey was performed on 1,487 patients with glaucoma at the outpatient glaucoma service, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University. Questionnaires captured patients' demographic data, WeChat access, and willingness to receive m-health. The data were analyzed by single factor chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression revealed the motivators and barriers to accept m-health adoption. One thousand ninety-seven valid questionnaires were obtained. Seven hundred twenty-five respondents (66.1%) were willing to participate in m-health programs. 65.4% were younger than 60 years old. 40.9% had travel time from home to hospital of >3 h. 63.6% had more than four follow-up visits for glaucoma. 86.5% experienced trouble events during clinic visits. The overall WeChat usage rate was 61.7%. Age, travel time, number of visits, trouble events in clinic, and WeChat access in patients with glaucoma were related to the willingness to use m-health (p < 0.05). Most patients with glaucoma were willing to participate in m-health programs, which are essential to increasing and improving access to care.

  10. Health coaching for glaucoma care: a pilot study using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Vin, Anita; Schneider, Suzanne; Muir, Kelly W; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to glaucoma medications is essential for successful treatment of the disease but is complex and difficult for many of our patients. Health coaching has been used successfully in the treatment of other chronic diseases. This pilot study explores the use of health coaching for glaucoma care. Methods A mixed methods study design was used to assess the health coaching intervention for glaucoma patients. The health coaching intervention consisted of four to six health coaching sessions with a certified health coach via telephone. Quantitative measures included demographic and health information, adherence to glaucoma medications (using the visual analog adherence scale and medication event monitoring system), and an exit survey rating the experience. Qualitative measures included a precoaching health questionnaire, notes made by the coach during the intervention, and an exit interview with the subjects at the end of the study. Results Four glaucoma patients participated in the study; all derived benefits from the health coaching. Study subjects demonstrated increased glaucoma drop adherence in response to the coaching intervention, in both visual analog scale and medication event monitoring system. Study subjects’ qualitative feedback reflected a perceived improvement in both eye and general health self-care. The subjects stated that they would recommend health coaching to friends or family members. Conclusion Health coaching was helpful to the glaucoma patients in this study; it has the potential to improve glaucoma care and overall health. PMID:26604666

  11. Glaucoma with Descemet's membrane detachment in five horses.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; La Croix, Noelle; Wilkie, David A; Lassaline-Utter, Mary; Brantman, Karen R; Beamer, Gillian L; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2017-05-01

    To describe the clinical and histopathologic features of glaucoma associated with Descemet's membrane (DM) detachment in five horses without prior history of intraocular surgery. Three Appaloosa horses and two Thoroughbreds were included in this study. The affected horses ranged in age from 16 to 27 years and presented with severe diffuse corneal edema. Five eyes were enucleated due to intraocular hypertension and/or chronic corneal ulceration. The enucleated globes were evaluated by the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin (COPLOW). Each globe was routinely processed for histopathology and analyzed by light microscopy. A histologic diagnosis of glaucoma was reached by demonstrating a loss of optic nerve axonal tissue by measuring neurofilament-immunopositive axons with automated image analysis software. All five horses presented with unilateral severe diffuse corneal edema that had developed between 2 and 16 weeks prior to enucleation. Intraocular pressures for the affected eyes were between 9 and 87 mmHg prior to enucleation. Descemet's membrane detachment was identified histopathologically in all five globes (5/5, 100%). All five eyes had an avascular spindle cell proliferation filling the space between the displaced peripheral DM and the corneal stroma. Neurofilament immunostaining revealed axonal loss consistent with glaucoma. Equine glaucoma may be associated with Descemet's membrane detachment. This detachment and glaucoma is a possible differential diagnosis for severe equine corneal edema. In this case series, an eye with a DM detachment had a poor prognosis for retention. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. The molecular basis of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Almasieh, Mohammadali; Wilson, Ariel M; Morquette, Barbara; Cueva Vargas, Jorge Luis; Di Polo, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in visual field loss and irreversible blindness. A crucial element in the pathophysiology of all forms of glaucoma is the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a population of CNS neurons with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. Strategies that delay or halt RGC loss have been recognized as potentially beneficial to preserve vision in glaucoma; however, the success of these approaches depends on an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that lead to RGC dysfunction and death. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in valuable information regarding the molecular basis of RGC death stemming from animal models of acute and chronic optic nerve injury as well as experimental glaucoma. The emerging landscape is complex and points at a variety of molecular signals - acting alone or in cooperation - to promote RGC death. These include: axonal transport failure, neurotrophic factor deprivation, toxic pro-neurotrophins, activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxic damage, oxidative stress, misbehaving reactive glia and loss of synaptic connectivity. Collectively, this body of work has considerably updated and expanded our view of how RGCs might die in glaucoma and has revealed novel, potential targets for neuroprotection. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Retinal fundus images for glaucoma analysis: the RIGA dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroa, Ahmed; Alodhayb, Sami; Osman, Essameldin; Ramadan, Eslam; Hummadi, Mohammed; Dlaim, Mohammed; Alkatee, Muhannad; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2018-03-01

    Glaucoma neuropathy is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Current models of chronic care will not be able to close the gap of growing prevalence of glaucoma and challenges for access to healthcare services. Teleophthalmology is being developed to close this gap. In order to develop automated techniques for glaucoma detection which can be used in tele-ophthalmology we have developed a large retinal fundus dataset. A de-identified dataset of retinal fundus images for glaucoma analysis (RIGA) was derived from three sources for a total of 750 images. The optic cup and disc boundaries for each image was marked and annotated manually by six experienced ophthalmologists and included the cup to disc (CDR) estimates. Six parameters were extracted and assessed (the disc area and centroid, cup area and centroid, horizontal and vertical cup to disc ratios) among the ophthalmologists. The inter-observer annotations were compared by calculating the standard deviation (SD) for every image between the six ophthalmologists in order to determine if the outliers amongst the six and was used to filter the corresponding images. The data set will be made available to the research community in order to crowd source other analysis from other research groups in order to develop, validate and implement analysis algorithms appropriate for tele-glaucoma assessment. The RIGA dataset can be freely accessed online through University of Michigan, Deep Blue website (doi:10.7302/Z23R0R29).

  14. Central corneal thickness in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sng, Chelvin C A; Ang, Marcus; Barton, Keith

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of central corneal thickness (CCT) in the clinical management of a glaucoma patient. The prognostic value of CCT is well recognized in patients with ocular hypertension. However, its predictive value in other glaucoma suspects and patients with established glaucoma is less certain. Tonometry artefacts can result from variations in CCT. However, an adequately validated correction algorithm for Goldmann applanation tonometry measurements does not exist. Newer methods of tonometry are potentially less influenced by CCT but are limited in their clinical use. There may also be biological and genetic associations between corneal thickness and glaucoma. Demographics, environmental factors, glaucoma treatment and the measurement device used have a significant influence on CCT, and should be considered when interpreting the effect of cornea thickness in patients with glaucoma. New measurements of the biomechanical properties of the cornea are likely to be better approximations of the globe biomechanics than CCT, but these require further evaluation. The clinical significance of CCT is well recognized in the context of glaucoma diagnosis and management, though the extent of its importance remains debatable. Corneal biomechanical properties may be more significantly associated with glaucoma than CCT.

  15. Refractory open-angle glaucoma after neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser lysis of vitreous floaters.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Lisa A; Khine, Kay T; Chopra, Vikas; Fazio, Doreen T; Francis, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    To illustrate 3 cases of chronic open-angle glaucoma secondary to the neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser vitreolysis procedure for symptomatic vitreous floaters. Observational case series. Location of the study was the Doheny Eye Institute. Three eyes of 2 patients who developed chronic open-angle glaucoma after Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters presenting with very high intraocular pressure (IOP >40 mm Hg) were selected. The time from the laser treatment to the onset of elevated pressure ranges from 1 week to 8 months. There was no associated inflammation, steroid use, or other identifiable cause of chronic IOP elevation. All eyes were treated initially with glaucoma medication, followed by selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and eventually glaucoma surgery (Trabectome) in 2 eyes for disease management. In all eyes, intraocular pressures were eventually stabilized within a normal pressure range from 18 to 38 months following Nd:YAG vitreolysis. At the latest follow-up post surgery, all eyes had intraocular pressures of 22 mm Hg or less with or without medications. Secondary open-angle glaucoma is a complication of Nd:YAG vitreolysis for symptomatic floaters that may present with an increase in intraocular pressure immediately, or many months after the surgery. Furthermore this complication may be permanent and require chronic medical therapy or glaucoma surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Angela C.; Liu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the principal cause of irreversible blindness in the world. The disease leads to progressive optic nerve degeneration with a gradual loss of retinal ganglion cells. Neurodegeneration in glaucoma extends beyond the eye into the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex, and the disease even shares some characteristics with other central nervous system degenerative disorders. Glaucoma destroys neurons through oxidative stress, impairment in axonal transport, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity. Autophagy may promote or inhibit disease progression. Currently, lowering intraocular pressure is the only way proven to delay glaucoma advancement. However, many new therapies are being developed, including antioxidants, adenosine receptor antagonists, Rho-pathway inhibitors, stem cell therapy, and neurotrophic factors. These therapies focus on neuroprotection, and they may eventually halt glaucoma progression or reverse the process of the disease itself. PMID:27505018

  17. Advanced glaucoma: management pearls.

    PubMed

    Gessesse, Girum W; Damji, Karim F

    2013-01-01

    A significant proportion of glaucoma patients present late, particularly in the developing world, and unfortunately, in an advanced stage of the disease. They are at imminent danger of losing remaining vision, and may also be afflicted with various socioeconomic and health challenges. The encounter with such a patient is typically characterized by anxiety/fear and sometimes hopelessness from the patient's perspective. The physician may also feel that they are in a difficult position managing the patient's disease. When dealing with such cases, we suggest a holistic, individualized approach taking into account the 'biopsychosociospiritual' (BPSS) profile of each patient. The BPSS model takes into account relevant ocular as well as systemic biology (factors such as the mechanism of glaucoma, level of intraocular pressure [IOP], rate of progression, life expectancy, general health), psychological considerations (e.g., fear, depression), socio-economic factors and spiritual/cultural values and beliefs before being able to decide with the patient and their care partner(s) what treatment goals should be and how they can best be approached. Treatment for advanced glaucoma can be highly effective, and patients and their care partners should be informed that aggressive IOP lowering to the low teens or even single digits offers the best chance of protecting remaining vision. This can be achieved safely and effectively in most cases with trabeculectomy (including an antimetabolite), and in some cases with medical and/or laser therapy. Vision rehabilitation and psychosocial support should also be considered in order to optimize remaining vision, replace fear with hope as appropriate, and thus improve the overall quality of life.

  18. Watch Out for Glaucoma | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Watch Out for Glaucoma Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents A ... used to check eye pressure for signs of glaucoma. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma is a group ...

  19. Evaluation of a glaucoma patient

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ravi; Loibl, Klaus; Parikh, Rajul

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of glaucoma is usually made clinically and requires a comprehensive eye examination, including slit lamp, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy and dilated stereoscopic evaluation of the optic disc and retina. Automated perimetry is obtained if glaucoma is suspected. This establishes the presence of functional damage and provides a baseline for follow-up. Imaging techniques are not essential for the diagnosis but may have a role to play in the follow-up. We recommend a comprehensive eye examination for every clinic patient with the objective of detecting all potentially sight-threatening diseases, including glaucoma. PMID:21150033

  20. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in glaucoma: a report by the american academy of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott D; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C; Chen, Philip P; Chen, Teresa C; Francis, Brian A; Jampel, Henry D

    2013-10-01

    To assess the published literature pertaining to the association between anterior segment imaging and gonioscopy and to determine whether such imaging aids in the diagnosis of primary angle closure (PAC). Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on July 6, 2011. The searches yielded 371 unique citations. Members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel reviewed the titles and abstracts of these articles and selected 134 of possible clinical significance for further review. The panel reviewed the full text of these articles and identified 79 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, for which the panel methodologist assigned a level of evidence based on a standardized grading scheme adopted by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Three, 70, and 6 studies were rated as providing level I, II, and III evidence, respectively. Quantitative and qualitative parameters defined from ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT), Scheimpflug photography, and the scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) demonstrate a strong association with the results of gonioscopy. There is substantial variability in the type of information obtained from each imaging method. Imaging of structures posterior to the iris is possible only with UBM. Direct imaging of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) is possible using UBM and OCT. The ability to acquire OCT images in a completely dark environment allows greater sensitivity in detecting eyes with appositional angle closure. Noncontact imaging using OCT, Scheimpflug photography, or SPAC makes these methods more attractive for large-scale PAC screening than contact imaging using UBM. Although there is evidence suggesting that anterior segment imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of PAC, none of these imaging methods provides sufficient information about the ACA anatomy to be considered a substitute for

  1. Glaucoma risk index: automated glaucoma detection from color fundus images.

    PubMed

    Bock, Rüdiger; Meier, Jörg; Nyúl, László G; Hornegger, Joachim; Michelson, Georg

    2010-06-01

    Glaucoma as a neurodegeneration of the optic nerve is one of the most common causes of blindness. Because revitalization of the degenerated nerve fibers of the optic nerve is impossible early detection of the disease is essential. This can be supported by a robust and automated mass-screening. We propose a novel automated glaucoma detection system that operates on inexpensive to acquire and widely used digital color fundus images. After a glaucoma specific preprocessing, different generic feature types are compressed by an appearance-based dimension reduction technique. Subsequently, a probabilistic two-stage classification scheme combines these features types to extract the novel Glaucoma Risk Index (GRI) that shows a reasonable glaucoma detection performance. On a sample set of 575 fundus images a classification accuracy of 80% has been achieved in a 5-fold cross-validation setup. The GRI gains a competitive area under ROC (AUC) of 88% compared to the established topography-based glaucoma probability score of scanning laser tomography with AUC of 87%. The proposed color fundus image-based GRI achieves a competitive and reliable detection performance on a low-priced modality by the statistical analysis of entire images of the optic nerve head. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Implants for draining neovascular glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Molteno, A C; Van Rooyen, M M; Bartholomew, R S

    1977-01-01

    The implant design, surgical technique, and pharmacological methods of controlling bleb fibrosis, used to treat neovascular glaucoma, are described, together with the results of 14 operations performed on 12 eyes. Images PMID:843508

  3. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far. PMID:25494244

  4. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  5. New Tool to Predict Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Where the Money Goes Have ...

  6. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane alters tissue response to implanted Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    PubMed

    DeCroos, Francis Char; Ahmad, Sameer; Kondo, Yuji; Chow, Jessica; Mordes, Daniel; Lee, Maria Regina; Asrani, Sanjay; Allingham, R Rand; Olbrich, Kevin C; Klitzman, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    Long-term intraocular pressure control by glaucoma drainage implants is compromised by the formation of an avascular fibrous capsule that surrounds the glaucoma implant and increases aqueous outflow resistance. It is possible to alter this fibrotic tissue reaction and produce a more vascularized and potentially more permeable capsule around implanted devices by enclosing them in a porous membrane. Ahmed glaucoma implants modified with an outer 5-microm pore size membrane (termed porous retrofitted implant with modified enclosure or PRIME-Ahmed) and unmodified glaucoma implants were implanted into paired rabbit eyes. After 6 weeks, the devices were explanted and subject to histological analysis. A tissue response containing minimal vascularization, negligible immune response, and a thick fibrous capsule surrounded the unmodified Ahmed glaucoma implant. In comparison, the tissue response around the PRIME-Ahmed demonstrated a thinner fibrous capsule (46.4 +/- 10.8 microm for PRIME-Ahmed versus 94.9 +/- 21.2 microm for control, p < 0.001) and was highly vascularized near the tissue-material interface. A prominent chronic inflammatory response was noted as well. Encapsulating the aqueous outflow pathway with a porous membrane produces a more vascular tissue response and thinner fibrous capsule compared with a standard glaucoma implant plate. Enhanced vascularity and a thinner fibrous capsule may reduce aqueous outflow resistance and improve long-term glaucoma implant performance.

  7. Ultrasound Cyclo Plasty in Eyes with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Sebastiani, Stefano; Campos, Emilio C

    2018-01-26

    Glaucoma is a chronic disease caused by the progressive degeneration of the optical nerve fibers, resulting in decreased visual field that can lead to severe visual impairment, and eventually blindness. This manuscript describes a simple, surgeon-friendly, non-incisional technique, named Ultrasound Cyclo Plasty (UCP), for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. The technique determines a selective coagulation necrosis of the ciliary body; in addition, the stimulation of supra-choroidal and trans-scleral portions of the uveo-scleral outflow pathway has been recently proposed. UCP shows several technical improvements in ultrasound technology compared to previous techniques, providing more precise focusing on the target zone. The procedure is performed in the operating room under peribulbar anesthesia. Briefly, the coupling cone is put in contact with the eye and the ring probe, that contains six piezoelectric transducers which produce the ultrasound beams, is inserted inside it. Their proper centering over the ocular surface represents a crucial step for the correct targeting of the ciliary body. Sterile balanced salt solution is used to fill the empty spaces to ensure ultrasound acoustic propagation. Surgical treatment consists in the sequential automatic activation of each of the six transducers, for a total duration of less than 3 min. The patient leaves the hospital 1 h after the procedure with the treated eye patched. In the present study, 10 patients with open-angle glaucoma were followed-up during at least 12 months after the procedure. IOP was reduced at each interval compared to pre-operative, as well as the number of hypotensive medications. Twenty percent of patients did not respond to the treatment, and needed subsequent surgery to better control IOP. Treatment tolerability was good, with no cases of hypotony or phthisis. The UCP procedure is simpler, faster, safer, and less invasive than traditional cyclodestructive procedures with

  8. Low Vision Aids in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Anjani

    2012-01-01

    A large number of glaucoma patients suffer from vision impairments that qualify as low vision. Additional difficulties associated with low vision include problems with glare, lighting, and contrast, which can make daily activities extremely challenging. This article elaborates on how low vision aids can help with various tasks that visually impaired glaucoma patients need to do each day, to take care of themselves and to lead an independent life. PMID:27990068

  9. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Structural endpoints for glaucoma studies].

    PubMed

    Popa-Cherechenau, A; Schmidl, D; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2018-03-06

    Structural endpoints have been discussed as surrogate endpoints for the approval of neuroprotective drugs in glaucoma. Is the evidence strong enough to establish structural endpoints as surrogate endpoints? Review of current understanding between structure and function in glaucoma. The introduction of optical coherence tomography has revolutionized imaging in glaucoma patients. Clinically either the nerve fiber layer thickness can be measured along a circle centered in the optic nerve head or the ganglion cell layer thickness can be assessed in the macular region, the latter being quantified in combination with other inner retinal layers. On a microscopic level there is a strong correlation between structural and functional loss but this relation can only partially be described with currently available clinical methods. This is particularly true for longitudinal course of the disease in glaucoma patients. Novel imaging techniques that are not yet used clinically may have the potential to increase our understanding between structure and function in glaucoma but further research in this field is required. The current evidence does not allow the establishment of structural endpoints as surrogate endpoints for phase 3 studies in glaucoma. Neuroprotective drugs have to be approved on the basis of visual field data because this is the patient-relevant endpoint. Structural endpoints can, however, play an important role in phase 2 and proof of concept studies.

  11. [Postoperative Follow-Up of Glaucoma Drainage Devices].

    PubMed

    Dietlein, T S; Neugebauer, A; Fricke, J; Lappas, A; Rosentreter, A

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing trend towards using glaucoma drainage implants. The postoperative management of such devices depends on their technical characteristics and specific complications. The Baerveldt glaucoma implant with its larger surface area has been shown to lower mean intraocular pressure more effectively than the Ahmed-FP7 implant. As a non-valve implant, however, it has been associated with a higher rate of severe complications, particularly ocular hypotension. Moreover, glaucoma implants may induce diplopia if they interfere with extraocular muscles. Topical treatment with antibiotics and steroids is necessary in cases of intraocular inflammation. In refractory cases, the tube may even have to be removed. Surgical reposition of the tube may be indicated when it is severely dislocated. Increased intraocular pressure is primarily treated by pressure-lowering medications during postoperative follow-up. If topical glaucoma medication is insufficient to control increases in intraocular pressure due to encapsulation, a second implant may be considered or the capsule surrounding the implant may be excised to reduce outflow resistance or additional cyclodestructive procedures can be performed. Chronic hypotension may be treated with tube ligation or occlusion. Severe corneal oedema may require lamellar keratoplasty. Conjunctival erosions with tube exposure or tube retractions also require surgical correction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Ability of bottle cap color to facilitate accurate glaucoma patient-physician communication regarding medication identity

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Pujan; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Friedman, David S.; Kahook, Malik Y.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of patient-physician communication regarding topical ophthalmic medication use based on bottle cap color, particularly amongst individuals who may have acquired color vision deficiency from glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional, clinical study. Participants Patients ≥ 18 years old with primary open-angle, primary angle-closure, pseudoexfoliation, or pigment dispersion glaucoma, bilateral visual acuity of 20/400 or better, and no concurrent conditions that may affect color vision. Methods One hundred patients provided color descriptions of 11 distinct medication bottle caps. Patient-produced color descriptors were then presented to three physicians. Each physician matched each color descriptor to the medication they thought the descriptor was describing. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of patient-physician agreement, occurring when all three physicians accurately matched the patient-produced color descriptor to the correct medication. Multivariate regression models evaluated whether patient-physician agreement decreased with degree of better-eye visual field (VF) damage, color descriptor heterogeneity, and/or color vision deficiency, as determined by Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) score and the Lanthony D15 testing index (D15 CCI). Results Subjects had a mean age of 69 (±11) years, with mean VF mean deviation of −4.7 (±6.0) and −10.9 (±8.4) dB in the better- and worse-seeing eyes, respectively. Patients produced 102 unique color descriptors to describe the colors of the 11 tested bottle caps. Among individual patients, the mean number of medications demonstrating patient-physician agreement was 6.1/11 (55.5%). Agreement was less than 15% for 4 medications (prednisolone acetate [generic], betaxolol HCl [Betoptic], brinzolamide/brimonidine [Simbrinza], and latanoprost [Xalatan]). Lower HRR scores and higher D15 CCI (both indicating worse color vision) were associated with greater VF damage (p<0.001). Extent of color vision deficiency

  13. Ophthalmologists' practice patterns and challenges in achieving optimal management for glaucoma in Nigeria: results from a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Kyari, Fatima; Nolan, Winifred; Gilbert, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the study Glaucoma, a chronic non-communicable disease, and leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide is a public health problem in Nigeria, with a prevalence of 5.02% in people aged ≥40 years. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to assess Nigerian ophthalmologists’ practice patterns and their constraints in managing glaucoma. Study design Ophthalmologists were sent a semistructured questionnaire on how they manage glaucoma, their training in glaucoma care, where they practice, their access to equipment for diagnosis and treatment, whether they use protocols and the challenges they face in managing patients with glaucoma. Results 153/250 ophthalmologists in 80 centres completed questionnaires. Although 79% felt their training was excellent or good, 46% needed more training in glaucoma diagnosis and surgery. All had ophthalmoscopes, 93% had access to applanation tonometers, 81% to visual field analysers and 29% to laser machines (in 19 centres). 3 ophthalmologists had only ophthalmoscopes and schiøtz tonometers. For 85%, a glaucomatous optic disc was the most important feature that would prompt glaucoma work-up. Only 56% routinely performed gonioscopy and 61% used slit-lamp stereoscopic biomicroscopy for disc assessment. Trabeculectomy (with/without antimetabolites) was the only glaucoma surgery performed with one mention of canaloplasty. Poor compliance with medical treatment (78%) and low acceptance of surgery (71%) were their greatest challenges. Conclusions This study indicates that a systems-oriented approach is required to enhance ophthalmologist's capability for glaucoma care. Strategies to improve glaucoma management include strengthening poorly equipped centres including provision of lasers and training, and improving patients’ awareness and education on glaucoma. PMID:27729348

  14. Ophthalmologists' practice patterns and challenges in achieving optimal management for glaucoma in Nigeria: results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Kyari, Fatima; Nolan, Winifred; Gilbert, Clare

    2016-10-11

    Glaucoma, a chronic non-communicable disease, and leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide is a public health problem in Nigeria, with a prevalence of 5.02% in people aged ≥40 years. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to assess Nigerian ophthalmologists' practice patterns and their constraints in managing glaucoma. Ophthalmologists were sent a semistructured questionnaire on how they manage glaucoma, their training in glaucoma care, where they practice, their access to equipment for diagnosis and treatment, whether they use protocols and the challenges they face in managing patients with glaucoma. 153/250 ophthalmologists in 80 centres completed questionnaires. Although 79% felt their training was excellent or good, 46% needed more training in glaucoma diagnosis and surgery. All had ophthalmoscopes, 93% had access to applanation tonometers, 81% to visual field analysers and 29% to laser machines (in 19 centres). 3 ophthalmologists had only ophthalmoscopes and schiøtz tonometers. For 85%, a glaucomatous optic disc was the most important feature that would prompt glaucoma work-up. Only 56% routinely performed gonioscopy and 61% used slit-lamp stereoscopic biomicroscopy for disc assessment. Trabeculectomy (with/without antimetabolites) was the only glaucoma surgery performed with one mention of canaloplasty. Poor compliance with medical treatment (78%) and low acceptance of surgery (71%) were their greatest challenges. This study indicates that a systems-oriented approach is required to enhance ophthalmologist's capability for glaucoma care. Strategies to improve glaucoma management include strengthening poorly equipped centres including provision of lasers and training, and improving patients' awareness and education on glaucoma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Novel surgical procedures in glaucoma: advances in penetrating glaucoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Filippopoulos, Theodoros; Rhee, Douglas J

    2008-03-01

    Despite late modifications and enhancements, traditional penetrating glaucoma surgery is not without complications and is reserved for patients in whom pharmacologic treatment and/or laser trabeculoplasty do not suffice to control the intraocular pressure. This article critically reviews recent advances in penetrating glaucoma surgery with particular attention paid to two novel surgical approaches: ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome and implantation of the Ex-PRESS shunt. Ab interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome) achieves a sustained 30% reduction in intraocular pressure by focally ablating and cauterizing the trabecular meshwork/inner wall of Schlemm's canal. It has a remarkable safety profile with respect to early hypotonous or infectious complications as it does not generate a bleb, but it can be associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may necessitate additional glaucoma surgery. The Ex-PRESS shunt is more commonly implanted under a partial thickness scleral flap, and appears to have similar efficacy to standard trabeculectomy offering some advantages with respect to the rate of early complications related to hypotony. Penetrating glaucoma surgery will continue to evolve. As prospective randomized clinical trials become available, we will determine the exact role of these surgical techniques in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium.

  16. Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Díaz, E; Montero-Rodríguez, M; Mencía-Gutiérrez, E; Fernández-González, M C; Pérez-Blázquez, E

    2001-01-01

    To report a case of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in a patient with an Ahmed glaucoma valve. A nine-year-old boy with bilateral congenital glaucoma, with an Ahmed glaucoma valve implanted in the left eye, had recurrent conjunctival dehiscence and endophthalmitis. Vitreous cultures demonstrated the presence of Propionibacterium acnes. This is the first reported case of Propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis in an Ahmed glaucoma valve and the second one in a glaucoma drainage device. We strongly recommend using a patch graft to prevent and treat tube exposure. Conjunctival grafts may be useful to close the conjunctiva when there is marked scarring to prevent patch exposure and melting or extrusion.

  17. Challenges In Early Glaucoma Detection.

    PubMed

    Dervisevic, Edita; Pavljasevic, Suzana; Dervisevic, Almir; Kasumovic, Sanja Sefic

    2016-06-01

    Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy which is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, the excavation of the optic nerve head, associated with defects in the visual field. It is not a disease, but the final result of united and yet completely unidentified cellular and subcellular processes and effects of many factors responsible for changes in retinal ganglion cells leading to their accelerated apoptosis. This is a prospective-retrospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial that included 150 patients, 97 were female and 53 male. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 80 years. The highest degree of myopia in category of tilted optic discs had patients with large disc (4.05 + -0.65). Values of the degree of myopia have linearly declined in relation to the size of the oblique disc. The analysis of the results revealed that the subjects who had a higher degree of myopia associated with glaucoma had frequent parapapillar atrophy of alpha and beta zones. The highest percentage of subjects with parapapillar changes were in the group of patients who had other than glaucoma and myopia (62%), then in the group of patients with glaucoma only (56%). Previous studies on the relationship between myopia and open-angle glaucoma are based on the results of observational studies. However, according to recent findings, based on the available studies, the systematic approach to estimate the association between myopia and glaucoma does not exist. Disc Damage Likelihood Scale (DDLS) is a new system for assessing glaucomatous damage of the optic disc which strongly correlates with the degree of visual field loss.

  18. Quality of Life in Glaucoma: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Luciano; Riva, Ivano; Gerardi, Chiara; Oddone, Francesco; Floriano, Irene; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2016-06-01

    The ultimate goal of glaucoma management is the preservation of patients' visual function and quality of life (QoL). The disease itself as well as the medical or surgical treatment can have an enormous impact on a patient's QoL. Even the mere diagnosis of a chronic, irreversible, potentially blinding disorder can adversely affect the patient's sense of well-being and QoL by eliciting significant anxiety. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma rarely present with visual symptoms, at least early in the course of the disease. A better understanding of patient-reported QoL can improve patient-physician interaction and enhance treatment adherence by customizing treatment options based on individual patient profile, thus optimizing long-term prognosis. These aspects are summarized and critically appraised in this article.

  19. Glaucoma drops control intraocular pressure and protect optic nerves in a rat model of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J C; Nylander, K B; Lauer, A K; Cepurna, W O; Johnson, E

    1998-03-01

    To determine whether chronic topical glaucoma therapy can control intraocular pressure (IOP) and protect nerve fibers in a rat model of pressure-induced optic nerve damage. Sixteen adult Brown Norway rats were-administered unilateral episcleral vein injections of hypertonic saline to produce scarring of the aqueous humor outflow pathways. Twice daily applications of either artificial tears (n = 6), 0.5% betaxolol (n = 5), or 0.5% apraclonidine (n = 5) were delivered to both eyes, and awake pressures were monitored with a TonoPen XL tonometer for 17 days before the rats were killed. For animals administered artificial tears, the mean IOP of the experimental eyes was 39 +/- 2 mm Hg compared with 29 +/- 1 mm Hg for the control eyes. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Mean IOPs in the experimental eyes of animals administered betaxolol and apraclonidine were 29 +/- 7 and 29 +/- 4 mm Hg, respectively, whereas the mean IOP in the control eyes was 28 +/- 1 mm Hg for both groups. There was no statistically significant difference among these values. The mean IOP for the experimental eyes in the betaxolol and apraclonidine groups was lower than that in animals administered artificial tears (P = 0.003). Quantitative histologic analysis of optic nerve damage in experimental eyes showed that four of the six animals administered artificial tears had damage involving 100% of the neural area. This degree of damage appeared in only 3 of 10 animals administered glaucoma therapy. Optic nerve protection was closely correlated with IOP history because damage was limited to less than 10% of the cross-sectional area in all animals in which the maximal IOP was less than or equal to 39 mm Hg, more than 2 SD below the mean value for eyes administered artificial tears. Topical glaucoma therapy in this model can prevent IOP elevation and protect optic nerve fibers.

  20. Ibopamine challenge testing differentiates glaucoma suspect, stable glaucoma and progressive glaucoma cases.

    PubMed

    Landers, John; Ullrich, Katja; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-12-01

    An ibopamine challenge is a novel technique for assessing glaucoma using ibopamine, a topical drug which temporarily increases aqueous production. We aimed to determine whether change in intraocular pressure (IOP) and/or optic cup volume (OCV) during the test differentiated between glaucoma patients at different stages of disease; namely, glaucoma suspects (GS), glaucoma patients who are stable (SG) and glaucoma patients who have demonstrated rapid progression (PG). Non-randomized clinical trial evaluating a diagnostic test. Sixty-one patients were recruited through glaucoma clinics at the Flinders Medical Centre (24 GS, 24 SG and 13 PG). Patients underwent IOP measurement and OCV assessment using optical coherence tomography. Two drops of ibopamine 2% solution were instilled into the study eye of each patient. After 45 min, IOP and OCV were reassessed. Changes from baseline were compared between groups. Change in IOP and OCV after ibopamine challenge. Following the ibopamine challenge, IOP increased by 1.8 mmHg for GS patients, 4.5 mmHg for SG patients (P = 0.003) and 8.1 mmHg for PG patients (P < 0.0001). OCV increased by 0.2% for GS patients, 0.6% for SG patients and 5.5% for PG patients. This was not significantly different between GS patients and SG patients; however, it was significantly different between GS patients and PG patients (P < 0.0001), and between SG and PG patients (P = 0.001). GS patients may be differentiated from those with SG or PG by their IOP response, and SG may be differentiated from PG patients by their change in OCV following an ibopamine challenge. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Follow-up of the original cohort with the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant.

    PubMed

    Topouzis, F; Coleman, A L; Choplin, N; Bethlem, M M; Hill, R; Yu, F; Panek, W C; Wilson, M R

    1999-08-01

    To study the long-term results of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant in patients with complicated glaucoma in whom short-term results have been reported. In this multicenter study, we analyzed the long-term outcome of a cohort of 60 eyes from 60 patients in whom the Ahmed glaucoma valve was implanted. Failure was characterized by at least one of the following: intraocular pressure greater than 21 mm Hg at both of the last two visits less than 6 mm Hg at both of the last two visits, loss of light perception, additional glaucoma surgery, devastating complications, and removal or replacement of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. Devastating complications included chronic hypotony, retinal detachment, malignant glaucoma, endophthalmitis, and phthisis bulbi; we also report results that add corneal complications (corneal decompensation or edema, corneal graft failure) as defining a devastating complication. The mean follow-up time for the 60 eyes was 30.5 months (range, 2.1 to 63.5). When corneal complications were included in the definition of failure, 26 eyes (43%) were considered failures. Cumulative probabilities of success at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 76%, 68%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. When corneal complications were excluded from the definition of failure, 13 eyes (21.5%) were considered failures. Cumulative probabilities of success at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 87%, 82%, 76%, and 76%, respectively. Most of the failures after 12 months of postoperative follow-up were because of corneal complications. The long-term performance of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant is comparable to other drainage devices. More than 12 months after the implantation of the Ahmed glaucoma valve implant, the most frequent adverse outcome was corneal decompensation or corneal graft failure. These corneal problems may be secondary to the type of eyes that have drainage devices or to the drainage device itself. Further investigation is needed to identify the reasons that corneal problems

  2. Aqueous shunt implantation in glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Barton, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Aqueous shunts or glaucoma drainage devices are increasingly utilized in the management of refractory glaucoma. The general design of the most commonly-used shunts is based on the principles of the Molteno implant: ie. a permanent sclerostomy (tube), a predetermined bleb area (plate) and diversion of aqueous humour to the equatorial region and away from the limbal subconjunctival space. These three factors make aqueous shunts more resistant to scarring as compared to trabeculectomy. The two most commonly used shunts are the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, which contains a flow-restrictor, and the non-valved Baervedlt Glaucoma Implant. While the valved implants have a lower tendency to hypotony and related complications, the non-valved implants with larger, more-biocompatible end plate design, achieve lower intraocular pressures with less encapsulation. Non-valved implants require additional suturing techniques to prevent early hypotony and a number of these methods will be described. Although serious shunt-related infection is rare, corneal decompensation and diplopia are small but significant risks. PMID:29034151

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisha, Fatmire; Hoffmann, Esther M.; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and optic nerve head cupping are key diagnostic features of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The higher resolution of the recently introduced SD-OCT offers enhanced visualization and improved segmentation of the retinal layers, providing a higher accuracy in identification of subtle changes of the optic disc and RNFL thinning associated with glaucoma.

  4. [Perimetric changes in advanced glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of various perimetric aspects in advanced glaucoma stages correlated to morpho-functional changes. MATHERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective clinical trial over a 10 months time period that included patients with advanced glaucoma stages, for which there have been recorded several computerised visual field tests (central 24-2 strategy, 10-2 strategy with either III or V--Goldman stimulus spot size) along with other morpho-funtional ocular paramaters: VA, lOP optic disk analysis. We included in our study 56 eyes from 45 patients. In most cases 89% it was an open angle glaucoma (either primary or secondary) Mean visual acuity was 0.45 +/- 0.28. Regarding the perimetric deficit 83% had advanced deficit, 9% moderate and 8% early visual changes. As perimetric type of defect we found a majority with general reduction of sensitivity (33 eyes) + ring shape scotoma. In 6 eyes (10.7%) having left only a central isle of vision we performed the central 10-2 strategy with III or V Goldmann stimulus spot size. Statistic analysis showed scarce correlation between the visual acuity and the quantitative perimetric parameters (MD and PSD), and variance analysis found present a multiple correlation parameter p = 0.07 that proves there is no liniary correspondence between the morpho-functional parameters: VA-MD(PSD) and C/D ratio. In advanced glaucoma stages, the perimetric changes are mostly severe. Perimetric evaluation is essential in these stages and needs to be individualised.

  5. Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Serife; Cebeci, Zafer; Kabaalioglu, Melis; Ciloglu, Serife; Kir, Nur; Izgi, Belgin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate peripapillary retinoschisis and its effect on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in glaucomatous eyes. Methods. Circumpapillary RNFL (cpRNFL) B-scan images of 940 glaucoma patients (Group 1) and 801 glaucoma-suspect patients (Group 2) obtained by SD-OCT were reviewed. The structural and clinical characteristics of the retinoschisis were investigated. The RNFL thickness measurements taken at the time of retinoschisis diagnosis and at the follow-up visits were also compared. Results. Twenty-nine retinoschisis areas were found in 26 of the 940 glaucoma patients (3.1%) in Group 1 and seven areas were found in 801 patients (0.87%) in Group 2. In glaucomatous eyes, the retinoschisis was attached to the optic disc and overlapped with the RNFL defect. At the time of retinoschisis, the RNFL thickness was statistically greater in the inferior temporal quadrant when compared with the follow-up scans (p < 0.001). No macular involvement or retinal detachment was observed. Conclusion. The present study investigated 33 peripapillary retinoschisis patients. Increase in RNFL thickness measurements was observed at the time of retinoschisis. It is important to examine the cpRNFL B-scan images of glaucoma patients so that the RNFL thickness is not overestimated. PMID:27069674

  6. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment in patients with refractory glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Vagge, A; Gizzi, C; Bagnis, A; Sebastiani, S; Del Noce, C; Fresina, M; Traverso, C E; Campos, E C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound coagulation of the ciliary body in refractory glaucoma. This prospective multicenter interventional study was conducted in two Italian university-affiliated glaucoma centers: St. Orsola-Malpighi Teaching Hospital (Bologna, Italy) and University Eye Clinic of Genoa (Genoa, Italy). The main inclusion criterion was the diagnosis of glaucoma with a baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 21 mmHg while on maximum topical and systemic medical hypotensive treatment. The EyeOP1 device (Eye Tech Care, Rillieux-la-Pape, France), which was employed in the study, uses miniaturized transducers to produce high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Treatment consisted of the sequential activation of each transducer lasting 4 s (group 1), 6 s (group 2) or 8 s (group 3). Hypotensive medications were interrupted after surgery and then prescribed only if postoperative IOP was ≥ 21 mmHg during follow-up visits. Patients were assessed before and 1, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 180 days after the procedure. Primary outcomes were the mean IOP reduction in the overall population and in groups 1, 2 and 3, and the rates of complete success, qualified success and failure. Thirty eyes (16 open-angle, 10 angle-closure and 4 neovascular glaucoma) of 30 patients were included. The mean preoperative IOP was 30.1 ± 10.5 mmHg. Twenty-nine patients completed the entire study follow-up; one patient exited from the study 3 months after HIFU and underwent trabeculectomy. At days 1 and 180, the mean IOP was significantly reduced (18.4 ± 7.2 and 20.2 ± 6.2 mmHg, respectively; all p < 0.0001). Group 3 patients (8-s ultrasound exposure time) showed a greater IOP reduction than the other two groups (-16.2 ± 8.3 for group 3 vs. -8.8 ± 6.6 for group 2 and -3.7 ± 6.5 for group 1; p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Qualified and complete success was achieved in 23.3 and 46.7% of patients, respectively; treatment

  7. Proposing new indicators for glaucoma healthcare service.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan Bo; Zhang, Ye; Musch, David C; Congdon, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is the first leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide with increasing importance in public health. Indicators of glaucoma care quality as well as efficiency would benefit public health assessments, but are lacking. We propose three such indicators. First, the glaucoma coverage rate (GCR), which is the number of people known to have glaucoma divided by the total number of people with glaucoma as estimated from population-based studies multiplied by 100%. Second, the glaucoma detection rate (GDR), which is number of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients in one year divided by the population in a defined area in millions. Third, the glaucoma follow-up adherence rate (GFAR), calculated as the number of patients with glaucoma who visit eye care provider(s) at least once a year over the total number of patients with glaucoma in given eye care provider(s) in a specific period. Regularly tracking and reporting these three indicators may help to improve the healthcare system performance at national or regional levels.

  8. Clinical management outcomes of childhood glaucoma suspects.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Matthew B; Osigian, Carla J; Cavuoto, Kara M; Chang, Ta C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the outcomes of childhood glaucoma suspects. Retrospective case series. Records of childhood glaucoma suspects were identified using financial claims data; medical history, baseline biometric and exam findings were recorded. Conversion from suspect to glaucoma was determined based on the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network criteria. The study adheres to the tenets of the Declarations of Helsinki. 214 subjects were enrolled, with median age at initial presentation of 6.37 years (interquartertile range: Q1 = 2.46, Q3 = 8.90). 22 (10.2%) subjects developed glaucoma, 64 (29.9%) had ocular hypertension but no glaucoma, 9 (4.2%) had high-risk condition or syndrome without either ocular hypertension or glaucoma after a mean follow up of 39 +/- 34 months. Neither a family history of glaucoma nor patient gender was significantly different between the groups. 40.2% of subjects (86 of 214) had two or more episodes of intraocular pressure (IOP) > 21 mmHg, among which 25.6% (22 of 86) developed glaucoma after a mean duration of 32.8 +/- 33.5 months. Up to 25% of children with 2 or more episodes of elevated IOP may develop glaucoma. In 50% of suspects who converted to glaucoma, elevated IOP was not present at the initial evaluation. There is no significant difference in gender, family history, or baseline central corneal thickness between suspects who developed glaucoma compared to the rest. While suspects who converted to glaucoma had higher average, maximum and minimum IOP measurements, there is no clear cutoff between the groups.

  9. Palmitoylethanolamide, a Natural Retinoprotectant: Its Putative Relevance for the Treatment of Glaucoma and Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M.; Costagliola, Ciro; Fakhry, Josiane; Kopsky, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy is a threat to the eyesight, and glaucoma and diabetes are the main causes for the damage of retinal cells. Recent insights pointed out a common pathogenetic pathway for both disorders, based on chronic inflammation. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous cell protective lipid. Since its discovery in 1957 as a biologically active component in foods and in many living organisms, around 500 scientific papers have been published on PEA's anti-inflammatory and neuron-protective properties. PEA has been evaluated for glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and uveitis, pathological states based on chronic inflammation, respiratory disorders, and various pain syndromes in a number of clinical trials since the 70s of 20th century. PEA is available as a food supplement (PeaPure) and as diet food for medical purposes in Italy (Normast, PeaVera, and Visimast). These products are notified in Italy for the nutritional support in glaucoma and neuroinflammation. PEA has been tested in at least 9 double blind placebo controlled studies, among which two studies were in glaucoma, and found to be safe and effective up to 1.8 g/day, with excellent tolerability. PEA therefore holds a promise in the treatment of a number of retinopathies. We discuss PEA as a putative anti-inflammatory and retinoprotectant compound in the treatment of retinopathies, especially related to glaucoma and diabetes. PMID:26664738

  10. Vection in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tarita-Nistor, Luminita; Hadavi, Shahriar; Steinbach, Martin J; Markowitz, Samuel N; González, Esther G

    2014-05-01

    Large moving scenes can induce a sensation of self-motion in stationary observers. This illusion is called "vection." Glaucoma progressively affects the functioning of peripheral vision, which plays an important role in inducing vection. It is still not known whether vection can be induced in these patients and, if it can, whether the interaction between visual and vestibular inputs is solved appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate vection responses in patients with mild to moderate open-angle glaucoma. Fifteen patients with mild to moderate glaucoma and 15 age-matched controls were exposed to a random-dot pattern at a short viewing distance and in a dark room. The pattern was projected on a large screen and rotated clockwise with an angular speed of 45 degrees per second to induce a sensation of self-rotation. Vection latency, vection duration, and objective and subjective measures of tilt were obtained in three viewing conditions (binocular, and monocular with each eye). Each condition lasted 2 minutes. Patients with glaucoma had longer vection latencies (p = 0.005) than, but the same vection duration as, age-matched controls. Viewing condition did not affect vection responses for either group. The control group estimated the tilt angle as being significantly larger than the actual maximum tilt angle measured with the tilt sensor (p = 0.038). There was no relationship between vection measures and visual field sensitivity for the glaucoma group. These findings suggest that, despite an altered visual input that delays vection, the neural responses involved in canceling the illusion of self-motion remain intact in patients with mild peripheral visual field loss.

  11. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A

    2015-11-18

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations are often not followed by primary eye-care providers, both ophthalmologists and optometrists. There is a pressing need to improve both the accessibility and quality of glaucoma care for African Americans. Telemedicine may be an effective solution for improving management and diagnosis of glaucoma because it depends on ocular imaging and tests that can be electronically transmitted to remote reading centers where tertiary care specialists can examine the results. We describe the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community project (EQUALITY), set to evaluate a teleglaucoma program deployed in retail-based primary eye care practices serving communities with a large percentage of African Americans. We conducted an observational, 1-year prospective study based in two Walmart Vision Centers in Alabama staffed by primary care optometrists. EQUALITY focuses on new or existing adult patients who are at-risk for glaucoma or already diagnosed with glaucoma. Patients receive dilated comprehensive examinations and diagnostic testing for glaucoma, followed by the optometrist's diagnosis and a preliminary management plan. Results are transmitted to a glaucoma reading center where ophthalmologists who completed fellowship training in glaucoma review results and provide feedback to the optometrist, who manages the care of the patient. Patients also receive eye health education about glaucoma and comprehensive eye care. Research questions include diagnostic and management agreement

  12. The Non-Human Primate Experimental Glaucoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current strengths and weaknesses of the non-human primate (NHP) experimental glaucoma (EG) model through sections devoted to its history, methods, important findings, alternative optic neuropathy models and future directions. NHP EG has become well established for studying human glaucoma in part because the NHP optic nerve head (ONH) shares a close anatomic association with the human ONH and because it provides the only means of systematically studying the very earliest visual system responses to chronic IOP elevation, i.e. the conversion from ocular hypertension to glaucomatous damage. However, NHPs are impractical for studies that require large animal numbers, demonstrate spontaneous glaucoma only rarely, do not currently provide a model of the neuropathy at normal levels of IOP, and cannot easily be genetically manipulated, except through tissue-specific, viral vectors. The goal of this summary is to direct NHP EG and non-NHP EG investigators to the previous, current and future accomplishment of clinically relevant knowledge in this model. PMID:26070984

  13. View How Glaucoma May Affect Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s Disease Research Program Macular Degeneration Research Program National Glaucoma Research Program Molecular Neurodegeneration ... Foundation BrightFocus Foundation 22512 Gateway Center Drive Clarksburg, MD ...

  14. NOVELTIES IN MEDICAL TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA

    PubMed Central

    Cornel, Ştefan; Mihaela, Timaru Cristina; Adriana, Iliescu Daniela; Mehdi, Batras; Algerino, De Simone

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the current medical treatment and the new and better alternatives for patients with glaucoma. Glaucoma refers to a group of related eye disorders that have in common an optic neuropathy associated with visual function loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Glaucoma can damage vision gradually so it may not be noticed until the disease is at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis and treatment can minimize or prevent optic nerve damage and limit glaucoma-related vision loss. Nowadays, research continues for the improvement of current medical treatment. PMID:26978866

  15. OCT for glaucoma diagnosis, screening and detection of glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Bussel, Igor I; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2014-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a commonly used imaging modality in the evaluation of glaucomatous damage. The commercially available spectral domain (SD)-OCT offers benefits in glaucoma assessment over the earlier generation of time domain-OCT due to increased axial resolution, faster scanning speeds and has been reported to have improved reproducibility but similar diagnostic accuracy. The capabilities of SD-OCT are rapidly advancing with 3D imaging, reproducible registration, and advanced segmentation algorithms of macular and optic nerve head regions. A review of the evidence to date suggests that retinal nerve fibre layer remains the dominant parameter for glaucoma diagnosis and detection of progression while initial studies of macular and optic nerve head parameters have shown promising results. SD-OCT still currently lacks the diagnostic performance for glaucoma screening. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The impact of glaucoma on quality of life in Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Fisseha A; Zeraye, Banchamelak; Assefa, Yared; Legesse, Kbrom; Azale, Telake; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-12-13

    Glaucoma is a chronic disease characterized by irreversible optic nerve damage and visual field loss that leads to visual impairment and blindness; ultimately limiting personal independence and compromising overall quality of life of affected individuals. There is paucity of information on how glaucoma affects the quality of life of patients in low and middle-income countries where resources for both diagnosis and treatment of such conditions are limited. In this study we investigate the impact of glaucoma on quality of life in Ethiopian patients. The quality of life of 307 glaucoma patients and 76 normal controls that were frequency matched to the age and sex profiles of the cases was assessed using Amharic version of Glaucoma Quality of Life -15 questionnaire. Linear regression models and the t-test were employed to compare significant differences in GQL-15 scores and to generate mean and mean differences between cases and controls respectively. The mean GQL-15 score in the glaucoma cases was substantially higher (indicating poorer quality of life) than the controls [cases 46.3 (95% CI, 28.8-63.8) and controls 18.6 (95% CI, 15.2-22.0), p < 0.0001]. Cases with normal visual acuity and mild glaucoma had significantly higher scores than the controls. Poorer quality of life was associated with age ≥ 71 years old 51.1 (95%CI, 26.2-75.9), rural residence 55.7 (95%CI, 49.9-61.5), monthly income of <400 Birr (53.1; 95%CI, 50.5-55.6), diagnosis time 1-5 years (49.6; 95%CI, 41.2-57.9), severe visual impairment (70.5; 95%CI, 58.1-82.8), and advanced glaucoma (50.9; 95%CI, 43.6-58.3). These glaucoma patients, including those with normal visual acuity and early disease, had poorer quality of life compared to normal controls. Older age, rural residence, low income and more advanced disease were significantly associated with poorer quality of life. There is a need to increase awareness of the impact of glaucoma among clinicians, patients and their families, for a

  17. Ability of Bottle Cap Color to Facilitate Accurate Patient-Physician Communication Regarding Medication Identity in Patients with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dave, Pujan; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Friedman, David S; Kahook, Malik Y; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of patient-physician communication regarding topical ophthalmic medication use based on bottle cap color, particularly among individuals who may have acquired color vision deficiency from glaucoma. Cross-sectional, clinical study. Patients aged ≥18 years with primary open-angle, primary angle-closure, pseudoexfoliation, or pigment dispersion glaucoma, bilateral visual acuity of ≥20/400, and no concurrent conditions that may affect color vision. A total of 100 patients provided color descriptions of 11 distinct medication bottle caps. Color descriptors were then presented to 3 physicians. Physicians matched each color descriptor to the medication they thought the descriptor was describing. Frequency of patient-physician agreement, occurring when all 3 physicians accurately matched the color descriptor to the correct medication. Multivariate regression models evaluated whether patient-physician agreement decreased with degree of better-eye visual field (VF) damage, color descriptor heterogeneity, or color vision deficiency, as determined by the Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) score and Lanthony D15 color confusion index (D15 CCI). Subjects had a mean age of 69 (±11) years, with VF mean deviation of -4.7 (±6.0) and -10.9 (±8.4) decibels (dB) in the better- and worse-seeing eyes, respectively. Patients produced 102 unique color descriptors to describe the colors of the 11 bottle caps. Among individual patients, the mean number of medications demonstrating agreement was 6.1/11 (55.5%). Agreement was less than 15% for 4 medications (prednisolone acetate [generic], betaxolol HCl [Betoptic; Alcon Laboratories Inc., Fort Worth, TX], brinzolamide/brimonidine [Simbrinza; Alcon Laboratories Inc.], and latanoprost [Xalatan; Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY]). Lower HRR scores and higher D15 CCI (both indicating worse color vision) were associated with greater VF damage (P < 0.001). Extent of color vision deficiency and color descriptor heterogeneity

  18. Venous thromboembolism does not share familial susceptibility with retinal vascular occlusion or glaucoma: a nationwide family study.

    PubMed

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-11-01

    Inherited hypercoagulable states (i.e. thrombophilia) have been suggested to be involved in retinal vascular occlusion but results are divergent. Vascular micronutrition and ischemia have been hypothesised to be involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. This nationwide study determines the importance of family history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as a risk factor for retinal vein occlusion (RVO), retinal artery occlusion (RAO), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). A total of 6,007,042 Swedish individuals were studied. Data from the Swedish Multigeneration Register for subjects aged 0-78 years old for the period 1997-2010 were linked to the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and the Hospital Outpatient Register. Main exposure measure was family history of VTE in first-degree relatives (parents and/or siblings). Main outcomes were hazard ratios (HRs) for RVO, RAO, POAG, and PACG. During follow-up 9036 individuals developed RVO, 2137 individuals developed RAO, 29,176 individuals developed POAG and 1498 individuals developed PACG. There was no association between family history of VTE and risk of RVO (HR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.98-1.10), RAO (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.89-1.13), POAG (HR = 0.96, 95 % CI 0.93-0.99), and PACG (HR = 0.92, 95 % CI 0.80-1.06) in the crude age and sex adjusted model. The results were similar in the fully adjusted model: RVO (HR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.99-1.11), RAO (HR = 1.01, 95 % CI 0.89-1.13), POAG (HR = 0.97, 95 % CI 0.94-1.00), and PACG (HR = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.79-1.05). Family history of VTE is not a risk factor for RVO, RAO, POAG and PACG. Thus, it is unlikely that strong and common genetic variants associated with VTE are of importance for these disorders.

  19. [Ahmed valve in glaucoma surgery].

    PubMed

    Bikbov, M M; Khusnitdinov, I I

    This is a review on Ahmed valve application in glaucoma surgery. It contains, in particular, data on the Ahmed valve efficiency, results of experimental and histological studies of filtering bleb encapsulation, examines the use of antimetabolites and anti-VEGF agents, and discusses implantation techniques. The current appraisal of antimetabolites delivery systems integrated into the Ahmed valve is presented. Various complications encountered in practice and preventive measures are also covered.

  20. A new classification of glaucomas

    PubMed Central

    Bordeianu, Constantin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To suggest a new glaucoma classification that is pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical. Methods After discussing the logical pathway used in criteria selection, the paper presents the new classification and compares it with the classification currently in use, that is, the one issued by the European Glaucoma Society in 2008. Results The paper proves that the new classification is clear (being based on a coherent and consistently followed set of criteria), is comprehensive (framing all forms of glaucoma), and helps in understanding the sickness understanding (in that it uses a logical framing system). The great advantage is that it facilitates therapeutic decision making in that it offers direct therapeutic suggestions and avoids errors leading to disasters. Moreover, the scheme remains open to any new development. Conclusion The suggested classification is a pathogenic, etiologic, and clinical classification that fulfills the conditions of an ideal classification. The suggested classification is the first classification in which the main criterion is consistently used for the first 5 to 7 crossings until its differentiation capabilities are exhausted. Then, secondary criteria (etiologic and clinical) pick up the relay until each form finds its logical place in the scheme. In order to avoid unclear aspects, the genetic criterion is no longer used, being replaced by age, one of the clinical criteria. The suggested classification brings only benefits to all categories of ophthalmologists: the beginners will have a tool to better understand the sickness and to ease their decision making, whereas the experienced doctors will have their practice simplified. For all doctors, errors leading to therapeutic disasters will be less likely to happen. Finally, researchers will have the object of their work gathered in the group of glaucoma with unknown or uncertain pathogenesis, whereas the results of their work will easily find a logical place in the scheme, as the

  1. Malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Varma, Devesh K; Belovay, Graham W; Tam, Diamond Y; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2014-11-01

    To report a series of eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery. Private academic practice, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrospective case series. Eyes that developed malignant glaucoma after cataract surgery were treated with medical therapy. This was followed by laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, anterior chamber reformation and intraocular lens (IOL) pushback, and finally with surgical iridozonulohyaloidovitrectomy if all other measures were unsuccessful. Refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) by anterior segment optical coherence tomography were analyzed before treatment and after treatment. The study evaluated 20 eyes of 18 female patients aged 44 to 86 years. Preoperatively, the mean refraction was +3.11 diopters (D) ± 2.89 (SD), the mean axial length was 21.30 ± 1.40 mm, and all eyes had narrow or closed angles. Malignant glaucoma was diagnosed a mean of 5.8 ± 7.1 weeks postoperatively. At diagnosis, the mean refraction was -2.15 ± 2.95 D; the mean ACD, 2.49 ± 0.72 mm; and the mean IOP, 28.3 ± 10.8 mm Hg on a mean of 1.3 ± 1.6 medications. Two eyes responded to cycloplegia, 7 to laser iridozonulohyaloidotomy, and 6 to anterior chamber reformation-IOL pushback; 5 eyes required vitrectomy. Posttreatment, the mean refraction was -0.56 ± 1.07 D; the mean ACD, 3.30 ± 0.50 mm; and the mean IOP, 14.4 ± 4.60 mm Hg on a mean of 1.2 ± 1.4 medications. Cycloplegia was discontinued in 17 eyes. Malignant glaucoma can occur after phacoemulsification and presents with myopic surprise, anterior chamber shallowing and, possibly, elevated IOP. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The prevalence of glaucoma in patients undergoing surgery for eyelid entropion or ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Shani; Rabina, Gilad; Kurtz, Shimon; Leibovitch, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and design The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of known glaucoma in patients undergoing ectropion or entropion surgical repair. In this study, retrospective review of case series was performed. Participants All patients who underwent ectropion or entropion surgery in a tertiary medical center between 2007 and 2014 were included. The etiology of eyelid malpositioning was involutional or cicatricial. Methods The medical files of the study participants were reviewed for the presence and type of glaucoma, medical treatment, duration of treatment, and the amount of drops per day. These data were compared to a matched control group of 101 patients who underwent blepharoplasty for dermatochalasis in the same department during the same period. Main outcome measure In this study, the prevalence of glaucoma in individuals with ectropion or entropion was the main outcome measure. Results A total of 227 patients (57% men, mean age: 79.2 years) who underwent ectropion or entropion surgery comprised the study group and 101 patients who underwent upper blepharoplasty for dermatochalasis comprised the control group. Compared to four patients in the control group (4%, P=0.01), 30 of the study patients (13.2%) had coexisting glaucoma. Of 30 glaucomatous patients, 25 had primary open-angle glaucoma for a mean duration of 10.3 years. The glaucomatous patients were treated with an average of 2.7 antiglaucoma medications. Conclusion An increased prevalence of known glaucoma in patients undergoing ectropion or entropion repair surgery was found. This observation may indicate that the chronic usage of topical anti-glaucoma eyedrops may lead to an increased risk of developing eyelid malpositions, especially in elderly patients. PMID:27785003

  3. Composite fibrous glaucoma drainage implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapstova, A.; Horakova, J.; Shynkarenko, A.; Lukas, D.

    2017-10-01

    Glaucoma is a frequent reason of loss vision. It is usually caused by increased intraocular pressure leading to damage of optic nerve head. This work deals with the development of fibrous structure suitable for glaucoma drainage implants (GDI). Commercially produced metallic glaucoma implants are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. However, these implants may cause adverse events such as damage to adjacent tissue, fibrosis, hypotony or many others [1]. The aim of this study is to reduce undesirable properties of currently produced drains and improve their properties by creating of the composite fibrous drain for achieve a normal intraocular pressure. Two types of electrospinning technologies were used for the production of very small tubular implants. First type was focused for production of outer part of tubular drain and the second type of electrospinning method made the inner part of shape follows the connections of both parts. Complete implant had a special properties suitable for drainage of fluid. Morphological parameters, liquid transport tests and in-vitro cell adhesion tests were detected.

  4. Juxtacanalicular tissue in pigmentary and primary open angle glaucoma. The hydrodynamic role of pigment and other constituents.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C G; Johnson, M; Alvarado, J A

    1992-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that obstruction of the juxtacanalicular tissues, by melanin granules in pigmentary glaucoma and by other impermeable material in primary open angle glaucoma, leads to the development of a chronic glaucomatous condition. The distribution and concentration of melanin and other impermeable materials in the juxtacanalicular tissues and elsewhere in the trabecular meshwork was determined in 13 specimens. Six specimens were from patients with pigmentary glaucoma, two from patients with pigment dispersion syndrome, and three from patients with primary open angle glaucoma, as well as two from normal subjects. The effect of these materials on flow resistance was estimated using two hydrodynamic models. In model A, the electron-lucent spaces of the juxtacanalicular tissue were assumed to be open spaces, while in model B, these spaces and spaces filled with ground substance were assumed to be gel filled. In pigmentary glaucoma, 3.5% of the pigment was found in the juxtacanalicular tissue, while 96.5% was found in the corneoscleral and uveoscleral tissues. Permeabilities calculated according to model A were much higher than those expected from estimates of outflow facility in all groups, in agreement with the previous report of Ethier et al. The gel-filled spaces available for fluid flow, as determined by model B, showed no statistically demonstrable differences (pigmentary glaucoma, 32.9%; primary open angle glaucoma, 36.6%; pigment dispersion syndrome, 43.4%; normal, 44.1%). Furthermore, the amount of pigment present in the juxtacanalicular tissue was determined to have a negligible influence on permeability. Thus, the development of the chronic glaucomatous condition cannot be directly attributed to pigment accumulation in the juxtacanalicular tissue in pigmentary glaucoma.

  5. Modifiable factors in the management of glaucoma: a systematic review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Idan; Achiron, Asaf; Man, Vitaly; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia

    2017-04-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy affecting millions of people worldwide and represents a major public health issue. Environmental factors, behaviors, and diet are intimately related to patient health and may play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma. This study aims to review the literature, focusing on the last three years, regarding modifiable lifestyle interventions in the management of primary open angle glaucoma. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between January 2013 and July 2016 on the topic of lifestyle interventions in primary open angle glaucoma. Sleeping with the head elevated and avoiding the worst eye-dependent side during sleep may slightly lower intraocular pressure and reduce visual field loss. Some food supplements and moderate aerobic exercise may also reduce intraocular pressure up to 2.0 and 3.0 mmHg, respectively. Frequency of coffee intake may be associated with disease progression. Potential negative effects are associated with weight-lifting and yoga exercises. Certain lifestyle habits could influence glaucoma progression, yet no specific interventions are currently supported by robust evidence. Awareness of the possible influences of certain habits should help guide clinical advice and is important to help patients avoid adverse outcomes and take an active role in the management of their disease.

  6. Glaucoma –state of the art and perspectives on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik-Gryciuk, Anna; Skup, Małgorzata; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by progressive damage to the optic nerve, death of retinal ganglion cells and ultimately visual field loss. It is one of the leading causes of irreversible loss of vision worldwide. The most important trigger of glaucomatous damage is elevated eye pressure, and the current standard approach in glaucoma therapy is reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). However, despite the use of effective medications or surgical treatment leading to lowering of IOP, progression of glaucomatous changes and loss of vision among patients with glaucoma is common. Therefore, it is critical to prevent vision loss through additional treatment. To implement such treatment(s), it is imperative to identify pathophysiological changes in glaucoma and develop therapeutic methods taking into account neuroprotection. Currently, there is no method of neuroprotection with long-term proven effectiveness in the treatment of glaucoma. Among the most promising molecules shown to protect the retina and optic nerve are neurotrophic factors. Thus, the current focus is on the development of safe and non-invasive methods for the long-term elevation of the intraocular level of neurotrophins through advanced gene therapy and topical eye treatment and on the search for selective agonists of neurotrophin receptors affording more efficient neuroprotection. PMID:26684267

  7. GDF15 is elevated in mice following retinal ganglion cell death and in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Norimitsu; Siegfried, Carla J.; Lin, Jonathan B.; Shui, Ying-Bo; Sein, Julia; Pita-Thomas, Wolfgang; Sene, Abdoulaye; Santeford, Andrea; Gordon, Mae; Lamb, Rachel; Dong, Zhenyu; Kelly, Shannon C.; Cavalli, Valeria; Yoshino, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Physicians often use surrogate endpoints to monitor the progression of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. These approaches are limited in their ability to quantify disease severity and progression due to inherent subjectivity, unreliability, and limitations of normative databases. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify specific molecular markers that predict or measure glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is associated with retinal ganglion cell death. Gdf15 expression in the retina is specifically increased after acute injury to retinal ganglion cell axons and in a murine chronic glaucoma model. We also demonstrate that the ganglion cell layer may be one of the sources of secreted GDF15 and that GDF15 diffuses to and can be detected in aqueous humor (AH). In validating these findings in human patients with glaucoma, we find not only that GDF15 is increased in AH of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), but also that elevated GDF15 levels are significantly associated with worse functional outcomes in glaucoma patients, as measured by visual field testing. Thus, GDF15 maybe a reliable metric of glaucomatous neurodegeneration, although further prospective validation studies will be necessary to determine if GDF15 can be used in clinical practice. PMID:28469085

  8. Design, Fabrication, and In Vitro Testing of an Anti-biofouling Glaucoma Micro-shunt.

    PubMed

    Harake, Ryan S; Ding, Yuzhe; Brown, J David; Pan, Tingrui

    2015-10-01

    Glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Chronic elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a prime risk factor for glaucoma, can be treated by aqueous shunts, implantable devices, which reduce IOP in glaucoma patients by providing alternative aqueous outflow pathways. Although initially effective at delaying glaucoma progression, contemporary aqueous shunts often lead to numerous complications and only 50% of implanted devices remain functional after 5 years. In this work, we introduce a novel micro-device which provides an innovative platform for IOP reduction in glaucoma patients. The device design features an array of parallel micro-channels to provide precision aqueous outflow resistance control. Additionally, the device's microfluidic channels are composed of a unique combination of polyethylene glycol materials in order to provide enhanced biocompatibility and resistance to problematic channel clogging from biofouling of aqueous proteins. The microfabrication process employed to produce the devices results in additional advantages such as enhanced device uniformity and increased manufacturing throughput. Surface characterization experimental results show the device's surfaces exhibit significantly less non-specific protein adsorption compared to traditional implant materials. Results of in vitro flow experiments verify the device's ability to provide aqueous resistance control, continuous long-term stability through 10-day protein flow testing, and safety from risk of infection due to bacterial ingression.

  9. The Role of Magnesium in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Şafak; Sül, Sabahattin; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Aydın, Bahri; Dileköz, Ergin

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is characterized by chronic optic neuropathy resulting in progressive vision loss. Not only is glaucoma considered as a condition of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), but also other risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Vascular dysregulation in ocular blood flow and oxidative stress are currently suggested as important risk factors for glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell loss. New treatment modalities that improve ocular blood flow and reduce oxidative stress have been investigated in many studies. Magnesium (Mg) is thought to be one of the molecules that has a treatment potential in glaucoma. Mg has been shown to improve blood flow by modifying endothelial function via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Mg also exhibits neuroprotective role by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-related calcium influx and by inhibiting the release of glutamate, and hence protects the cell against oxidative stress and apoptosis. Both improvement in ocular blood flow and prevention of ganglion cell loss would make magnesium a good candidate for glaucoma management. Further studies on the effect of Mg may open a new therapeutic era in glaucoma. PMID:27433524

  10. A Surgical Approach to Pediatric Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif O

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma in children differs from adult-onset disease and typically requires surgical intervention. However, affected children exhibit a spectrum of disease severity and prospective data guiding the choice of operation are lacking. This article reviews common procedures and a surgical approach to pediatric glaucoma. PMID:26069523

  11. New pharmacotherapy for the treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Schehlein, Emily M; Novack, Gary; Robin, Alan L

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world and current pharmacotherapies for glaucoma have remained relatively unchanged (with the exception of fixed combinations of previously available medications) since the mid-1990s with the development of prostaglandin analogues. Now, with both new formulations and new classes of medications with novel mechanisms of action, the medical therapy of glaucoma may be heralding a new dawn in medical management. Areas covered: This review outlines new topical therapies for intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering treatment, in addition to new formulations, preservative-free options, and advances in glaucoma medical therapy delivery. We performed a comprehensive search for published studies for glaucoma medical therapy using the electronic database PubMed. A manual search for each therapy or delivery system was also performed. Expert commentary: These advances in glaucoma therapy have the potential to overcome many barriers to glaucoma's medical care, particularly in terms of adherence. However, both time and research are needed to prove the relative efficacy and safety of these new pharmacotherapies and products, helping us decide their role in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. We are hopeful that these new developments in therapy may bring more options for glaucoma medical therapy.

  12. [Diode laser in "Malignant Glaucoma" treatment].

    PubMed

    Bresson Dumont, H; Ballereau, L; Lehoux, A; Santiago, P-Y

    2006-05-01

    Malignant glaucoma remains one of the most dramatic complications of ocular surgery. It can occur after glaucoma surgery but also after iridotomy, capsulotomy, or cataract extraction. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. to evaluate diode laser cyclodestruction as a complementary treatment in refractory malignant glaucoma. Seven women with malignant glaucoma with onset several months before (mean, 43 months; range, 12-96 months), in whom shallow anterior chamber and high IOP (25 mmHg +/- 5.5 treated with 2.86 +/- 0.9 topical and systemic medications) persisted despite prior surgical treatment (mean, 2; range, 1-5). Controlateral eyes had hyperopia (mean, +3.7 D, range, +1 to +6), five had shallow anterior chamber and high IOP. UBM detected plateau iris in four women. Seven eyes with malignant glaucoma and three controlateral eyes underwent cyclodestruction with diode laser (Viridis Twin Quantel Medical, laser, 810 nm), 22 burns around 270 degrees , 2 mm from the limbus for glaucomatous eyes and 15 inferior burns for controlateral eyes. Resolution of malignant glaucoma, with lower pressure (mean, 35%; range, 10%-70%), lower levels of medications (64%), final IOP at 13.2 mmHg (+/- 4.7), and deepening anterior chamber was achieved in all cases (mean follow-up, 18 months; range, 12-22). Cycloplegic topical treatment was stopped in 70% of cases. Diode laser cyclodestruction can help to resolve refractory malignant glaucoma. Larger UBM studies could help us to better understand the mechanisms of malignant glaucoma.

  13. Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Following Ptosis Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bae, Steven S; Campbell, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    To highlight the potential risk of glaucoma drainage device erosion following ptosis surgery. Case report. A 71-year-old man underwent uncomplicated superotemporal Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the left eye in 2008. Approximately 8 years later, the patient underwent bilateral ptosis repair, which successfully raised the upper eyelid position. Three months postoperatively, the patient's glaucoma drainage implant tube eroded through the corneal graft tissue and overlying conjunctiva to become exposed. A graft revision surgery was successfully performed with no further complications. Caution and conservative lid elevation may be warranted when performing ptosis repair in patients with a glaucoma drainage implant, and patients with a glaucoma implant undergoing ptosis surgery should be followed closely for signs of tube erosion.

  14. [Value-based medicine for glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Hirneiss, C; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S

    2010-03-01

    The application of value-based medicine (VBM) tenets in the area of glaucoma research requires valid and reliable data concerning the quality of life with glaucoma. A multitude of instruments for measuring quality of life of patients with glaucoma have been employed in the past. Any instrument used would need to capture peripheral vision loss and its influence on patient-reported quality of life as this is one of the hallmarks of this disease. Cost-utility analyses can then be based on the reported quality of life and the cost of glaucoma therapy. Several cost-utility analyses have been applied in the field of glaucoma screening as well as treating ocular hypertension and based on this a recommendation regarding population subgroups which can be treated cost efficiently can be made.

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Microinvasive Glaucoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David Z.

    2017-01-01

    Microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) is emerging as a new therapeutic option for glaucoma patients who wish to reduce their medication burden and avoid the postoperative complications of conventional glaucoma filtration surgery. These devices differ in terms of their efficacy and safety profile. Schlemm's canal devices have the most favorable safety profile at the compromise of modest efficacy, while subconjunctival and suprachoroidal devices are potentially more effective at lowering the intraocular pressure at the expense of a higher rate of complications. This review consolidates the latest evidence on the efficacy and safety of the MIGS devices in clinical use and provides an overview on upcoming devices which would likely also become viable treatment options in the near future. These clinical data would assist a glaucoma surgeon in selecting the most appropriate MIGS device for each patient based on the glaucoma severity and patient expectations. PMID:28512578

  16. Outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Revision in Pediatric Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Omairi, Ahmed Mansour; Al Ameri, Aliah H; Al-Shahwan, Sami; Khan, Arif O; Al-Jadaan, Ibrahim; Mousa, Ahmed; Edward, Deepak P

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulation of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) plate is a common cause for postoperative elevation of intraocular pressure, especially in children. Many reports have described the outcomes of AGV revision in adults. However, the outcomes of AGV revision in children are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of AGV revision in children. Retrospective cross-sectional study. A retrospective chart review of patients less than 15 years of age who underwent AGV revision with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 6 months was conducted. Outcome measures included reduction in intraocular pressure from baseline, survival analysis, and reduction in the number of antiglaucoma medications. Postoperative complications were also noted. Complete success was defined as an IOP of 21 mm Hg or less without medications, while qualified success was defined as having an IOP of 21 mm Hg or less with medications. A total of 44 eyes met the inclusion criteria. Primary congenital glaucoma was present in 39 eyes (88.6%), aphakic glaucoma in 4 eyes (9.1%), and Peters anomaly-associated glaucoma in 1 eye (2.3%). The mean number of previous surgeries was 1.4, and the mean age was 6.7 years (range, 1.9-13 years) with a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-24 months). The IOP was reduced from a preoperative mean of 30.4 (± 10.3) to 24.9 (± 10.6) mm Hg at 6 months postoperatively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the complete success rate at 1 month was 100% followed by a rapid decline at 6 months to 38.6%, 27.7% at 1 year, and 5.5% at 2 years. Qualified success rate was 100% at 1 month followed by a 6-month and 1-year survival rate of approximately 50% and a 2-year survival rate of approximately 16%. The median survival time was 14 months. No specific risk factors for failure were identified. Visual acuity remained unchanged following revision. The most common complication was recurrence of encapsulation with elevated IOP (15.9%). Other

  17. Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphaema Syndrome. General review.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Mihail; Camburu, Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Uveitis-Glaucoma-Hyphaema Syndrome (UGH syndrome, or "Ellingson" Syndrome) is a rare condition caused by the mechanical trauma of an intraocular lens malpositioned over adjacent structures (iris, ciliary body, iridocorneal angle), leading to a spectrum of iris transillumination defects, microhyphaemas and pigmentary dispersion, concomitant with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). UGH Syndrome can also be characterized by chronic inflammation, secondary iris neovascularization, cystoid macular edema (CME). The fundamental step in the pathogenesis of UGH syndrome appears to arise from repetitive mechanical iris trauma by a malpositioned or subluxed IOL. These patients have uncomplicated cataract implants and return for episodes of blurry vision weeks to months after surgery. This may be accompanied by pain, photophobia, erythropsia, anterior uveitis, hyphaema along with raised intraocular pressure. A careful history and examination, as well as appropriate investigations can confirm the diagnostic. Treatment options are IOL Explantation exchange, topical and systemic medication, and cyclophotocoagulation, the placement of a Capsular Tension Ring to redistribute zonular tension and Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) Therapy.

  18. Metabolic Vulnerability in the Neurodegenerative Disease Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Denise M.; Harun-Or-Rashid, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Axons can be several orders of magnitude longer than neural somas, presenting logistical difficulties in cargo trafficking and structural maintenance. Keeping the axon compartment well supplied with energy also presents a considerable challenge; even seemingly subtle modifications of metabolism can result in functional deficits and degeneration. Axons require a great deal of energy, up to 70% of all energy used by a neuron, just to maintain the resting membrane potential. Axonal energy, in the form of ATP, is generated primarily through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In addition, glial cells contribute metabolic intermediates to axons at moments of high activity or according to need. Recent evidence suggests energy disruption is an early contributor to pathology in a wide variety of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by axonopathy. However, the degree to which the energy disruption is intrinsic to the axon vs. associated glia is not clear. This paper will review the role of energy availability and utilization in axon degeneration in glaucoma, a chronic axonopathy of the retinal projection. PMID:28424571

  19. Filtering data from the collaborative initial glaucoma treatment study for improved identification of glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Schell, Greggory J; Lavieri, Mariel S; Stein, Joshua D; Musch, David C

    2013-12-21

    Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is a prevalent, degenerate ocular disease which can lead to blindness without proper clinical management. The tests used to assess disease progression are susceptible to process and measurement noise. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology which accounts for the inherent noise in the data and improve significant disease progression identification. Longitudinal observations from the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS) were used to parameterize and validate a Kalman filter model and logistic regression function. The Kalman filter estimates the true value of biomarkers associated with OAG and forecasts future values of these variables. We develop two logistic regression models via generalized estimating equations (GEE) for calculating the probability of experiencing significant OAG progression: one model based on the raw measurements from CIGTS and another model based on the Kalman filter estimates of the CIGTS data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and associated area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimates are calculated using cross-fold validation. The logistic regression model developed using Kalman filter estimates as data input achieves higher sensitivity and specificity than the model developed using raw measurements. The mean AUC for the Kalman filter-based model is 0.961 while the mean AUC for the raw measurements model is 0.889. Hence, using the probability function generated via Kalman filter estimates and GEE for logistic regression, we are able to more accurately classify patients and instances as experiencing significant OAG progression. A Kalman filter approach for estimating the true value of OAG biomarkers resulted in data input which improved the accuracy of a logistic regression classification model compared to a model using raw measurements as input. This methodology accounts for process and measurement noise to enable improved discrimination between progression and nonprogression

  20. Angiogenesis in Glaucoma Filtration Surgery and Neovascular Glaucoma-A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Megan; Lee, Chelsea; Payne, Rachael; Yue, Beatrice Y.J.T.; Chang, Jin-Hong; Ying, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis may pose a clinical challenge in glaucoma, for example during the wound healing phase after glaucoma filtration surgery and in a severe form of secondary glaucoma called neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Up regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key mediator of angiogenesis, occurs in eyes that have undergone glaucoma filtration surgery, as well as those with NVG. This has led to studies investigating the ability of anti-VEGF therapy to improve outcomes, and we examine their findings with respect to the safety and efficacy of anti-VEGF agents, mainly bevacizumab and ranibizumab, in eyes that have undergone glaucoma filtration surgery or have NVG. Combining conventional therapies—such as anti-metabolites after filtration surgery and panretinal photocoagulation in NVG—and anti-VEGF drugs may achieve a synergetic effect, although further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of combination treatments. PMID:25980779

  1. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors among People with Glaucoma Attending Outpatient Clinic at Menelik II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bedasso, Kufa; Bedaso, Asres; Feyera, Fetuma; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Yohannis, Zegeye

    2016-01-01

    The burden of blindness from glaucoma is high. Therefore, people suffering from a serious eye disease such as glaucoma, which can lead to blindness, usually have an emotional disturbance on the patient. Untreated psychiatric illness is associated with increased morbidity and increased costs of care. This study aimed to assess prevalence of common mental disorders and associated factors among people with Glaucoma attending Menelik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014. Institution based Cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology Menelik II Referral Hospital from April 10 to May 15, 2014. 423 participants who had undergone through investigation, examination and diagnosed as patients of glaucoma were selected randomly from the glaucoma clinic. Data were collected through face to face interview using Self Reporting Questionnaire consisted of 20 items. Study subjects who scored ≥11 from SRQ-20 were considered as having common mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95% CI were done and variables with P<0.05 in the final model were identified as independent factors associated with common mental disorders. Four hundred five patients with glaucoma were included in our study with response rate of 95.7% and 64.5% were males. The average age was 59±13.37 years. Common mental disorders were observed in 23.2% of Glaucoma patients. It is quite obvious that levels of CMDs were high among patients with glaucoma. There was a significant association between age, sex, chronic physical illness, income and duration of illness at P < 0.05. Symptoms of common mental disorders were the commonest comorbidities among patients with glaucoma. It will be better to assess and treat Common mental disorders as a separate illness in patients with glaucoma.

  2. Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors among People with Glaucoma Attending Outpatient Clinic at Menelik II Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bedasso, Kufa; Feyera, Fetuma; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Yohannis, Zegeye

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of blindness from glaucoma is high. Therefore, people suffering from a serious eye disease such as glaucoma, which can lead to blindness, usually have an emotional disturbance on the patient. Untreated psychiatric illness is associated with increased morbidity and increased costs of care. Objective This study aimed to assess prevalence of common mental disorders and associated factors among people with Glaucoma attending Menelik II referral hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2014. Methods Institution based Cross-sectional study design was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology Menelik II Referral Hospital from April 10 to May 15, 2014. 423 participants who had undergone through investigation, examination and diagnosed as patients of glaucoma were selected randomly from the glaucoma clinic. Data were collected through face to face interview using Self Reporting Questionnaire consisted of 20 items. Study subjects who scored ≥11 from SRQ-20 were considered as having common mental disorders. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis with 95% CI were done and variables with P<0.05 in the final model were identified as independent factors associated with common mental disorders. Results Four hundred five patients with glaucoma were included in our study with response rate of 95.7% and 64.5% were males. The average age was 59±13.37 years. Common mental disorders were observed in 23.2% of Glaucoma patients. It is quite obvious that levels of CMDs were high among patients with glaucoma. There was a significant association between age, sex, chronic physical illness, income and duration of illness at P < 0.05. Conclusion and Recommendation Symptoms of common mental disorders were the commonest comorbidities among patients with glaucoma. It will be better to assess and treat Common mental disorders as a separate illness in patients with glaucoma. PMID:27584147

  3. Glaucoma as a Metabolic Optic Neuropathy: Making the Case for Nicotinamide Treatment in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pete A; Harder, Jeffrey M; John, Simon W M

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important, if not essential, component of human glaucoma. Using transcriptomics followed by molecular and neurobiological techniques, we have recently demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction within retinal ganglion cells is an early feature in the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma. Guided by these findings, we discovered that the retinal level of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, a key molecule for mitochondrial health) declines in an age-dependent manner. We hypothesized that this decline in NAD renders retinal ganglion cells susceptible to damage during periods of elevated intraocular pressure. To replete NAD levels in this glaucoma, we administered nicotinamide (the amide of vitamin B3). At the lowest dose tested, nicotinamide robustly protected from glaucoma (~70% of eyes had no detectable glaucomatous neurodegeneration). At this dose, nicotinamide had no influence on intraocular pressure and so its effect was neuroprotective. At the highest dose tested, 93% of eyes had no detectable glaucoma. This represents a ~10-fold decrease in the risk of developing glaucoma. At this dose, intraocular pressure still became elevated but there was a reduction in the degree of elevation showing an additional benefit. Thus, nicotinamide is unexpectedly potent at preventing this glaucoma and is an attractive option for glaucoma therapeutics. Our findings demonstrate the promise for both preventing and treating glaucoma by interventions that bolster metabolism during increasing age and during periods of elevated intraocular pressure. Nicotinamide prevents age-related declines in NAD (a decline that occurs in different genetic contexts and species). NAD precursors are reported to protect from a variety of neurodegenerative conditions. Thus, nicotinamide may provide a much needed neuroprotective treatment against human glaucoma. This manuscript summarizes human data implicating mitochondria in glaucoma, and argues for studies to

  4. Importance of intraocular pressure in glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.

    1999-06-01

    Glaucoma results in permanent vision loss and affects the peripheral vision initially. It is presented in 22.5 million people worldwide and is the 3rd cause of blindness. Present tonometers are not ideal for intraocular pressure measurements in all eyes. Of concern, PRK and LASIK may result in lower intraocular pressure readings. A challenges now exists for the development of a tonometer which can easily compensate for corneas with many parameters to avoid a future increase in normal-tension glaucoma or glaucoma which is advanced.

  5. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits: can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    PubMed Central

    Stoutenbeek, R; Jansonius, N M

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods 1200 inhabitants aged >40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A questionnaire was mailed to these inhabitants with questions on their latest optician visit and risk factors for glaucoma. A second questionnaire was sent to their opticians, who were asked about their willingness to conduct an additional glaucoma screening programme in the future. Results The questionnaire was returned by 959 of 1200 inhabitants and 37 of 50 opticians. The percentage of inhabitants who visited an optician during a 5‐year period was 83% (95% confidence interval (CI) 80% to 85%). This percentage was adjusted for the presence of risk factors for glaucoma to obtain the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma. The percentage of opticians willing to cooperate in a glaucoma screening programme extended beyond a non‐contact tonometry measurement alone was 91% (95% CI 77% to 98%). Conclusion By conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits, a large section of the population at risk of developing glaucoma can be reached. PMID:16854829

  6. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits: can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    PubMed

    Stoutenbeek, R; Jansonius, N M

    2006-10-01

    To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. 1,200 inhabitants aged >40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A questionnaire was mailed to these inhabitants with questions on their latest optician visit and risk factors for glaucoma. A second questionnaire was sent to their opticians, who were asked about their willingness to conduct an additional glaucoma screening programme in the future. The questionnaire was returned by 959 of 1,200 inhabitants and 37 of 50 opticians. The percentage of inhabitants who visited an optician during a 5-year period was 83% (95% confidence interval (CI) 80% to 85%). This percentage was adjusted for the presence of risk factors for glaucoma to obtain the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma. The percentage of opticians willing to cooperate in a glaucoma screening programme extended beyond a non-contact tonometry measurement alone was 91% (95% CI 77% to 98%). By conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits, a large section of the population at risk of developing glaucoma can be reached.

  7. Studies of Scleral Biomechanical Behavior Related to Susceptibility for Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Experimental Mouse Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cathy; Cone, Frances E.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Coudrillier, Baptiste; Pease, Mary E.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To study anatomical changes and mechanical behavior of the sclera in mice with experimental glaucoma by comparing CD1 to B6 mice. Methods. Chronic experimental glaucoma for 6 weeks was produced in 2- to 4-month-old CD1 (43 eyes) and B6 mice (42 eyes) using polystyrene bead injection into the anterior chamber with 126 control CD1 and 128 control B6 eyes. Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were made with the TonoLab at baseline and after bead injection. Axial length and scleral thickness were measured after sacrifice in the CD1 and B6 animals and compared to length data from 78 eyes of DBA/2J mice. Inflation testing of posterior sclera was conducted, and circumferential and meridional strain components were determined from the displacement response. Results. Experimental glaucoma led to increases in axial length and width by comparison to fellow eyes (6% in CD1 and 10% in B6; all P < 0.03). While the peripapillary sclera became thinner in both mouse types with glaucoma, the remainder of the sclera uniformly thinned in CD1, but thickened in B6. Peripapillary sclera in CD1 controls had significantly greater temporal meridional strain than B6 and had differences in the ratios of meridional to effective circumferential strain from B6 mice. In both CD1 and B6 mice, exposure to chronic IOP elevation resulted in stiffer pressure–strain responses for both the effective circumferential and meridional strains (multivariable regression model, P = 0.01–0.03). Conclusions. Longer eyes, greater scleral strain in some directions at baseline, and generalized scleral thinning after glaucoma were characteristic of CD1 mice that have greater tendency to retinal ganglion cell damage than B6 mice. Increased scleral stiffness after glaucoma exposure in mice mimics findings in monkey and human glaucoma eyes. PMID:23404116

  8. Linkage analysis excludes the glaucoma locus on 1q from involvement in autosomal dominant glaucoma with iris hypoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Heon, E.; Sheth, B.P.; Kalenak, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic factors have been implicated in a variety of types of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma, infantile glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. We previously mapped the disease-causing gene for one type of juvenile open angle glaucoma to chromosome 1q21-31. Weatherill and Hart (1969) and Pearce (1983) each noted the association of iris hypoplasia and early-onset autosomal dominant glaucoma. We recently had the opportunity to study a large family (12 affected members) with this phenotype. Affected individuals developed glaucoma at an average age of 30 years. These patients also have a strikingly underdeveloped iris stroma which causes a peculiarmore » eye color. Linkage analysis was able to completely exclude the 1q glaucoma locus from involvement in the disorder that affects this family. A complete clinical description of the family and linkage results at additional candidate loci will be presented.« less

  9. Methylphenidate (Ritalin)-associated cataract and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao-Kung; Kuang, Tung-Mei; Chou, Joe Ching-Kuang

    2006-12-01

    Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.

  10. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  11. Current perspective of neuroprotection and glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Kailin; Shibata-Germanos, Shannon; Pahlitzsch, Milena; Cordeiro, M Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and is most notably characterized by progressive optic nerve atrophy and advancing loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The main concomitant factor is the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Existing treatments are focused generally on lowering IOP. However, both RGC loss and optic nerve atrophy can independently occur with IOP at normal levels. In recent years, there has been substantial progress in the development of neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma in order to restore vital visual function. The present review intends to offer a brief insight into conventional glaucoma treatments and discuss exciting current developments of mostly preclinical data in novel neuroprotective strategies for glaucoma that include recent advances in noninvasive diagnostics going beyond IOP maintenance for an enhanced global view. Such strategies now target RGC loss and optic nerve damage, opening a critical therapeutic window for preventative monitoring and treatment. PMID:26635467

  12. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios Gp

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist.

  13. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios GP

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist. PMID:26045655

  14. The use of Ahmed glaucoma valve in the management of pediatric glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Balekudaru, Shantha; Vadalkar, Juhie; George, Ronnie; Vijaya, Lingam

    2014-08-01

    To assess the intraocular pressure control (IOP), changes in visual acuity, complications, reoperation rates and risk factors for failure following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in pediatric eyes with glaucoma. The medical records of consecutive patients with glaucoma who underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation from January 2000 to December 2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Only one eye of each patient was included. Subgroup analysis was performed in three groups; group 1 included phakic eyes with primary congenital glaucoma, juvenile open-angle glaucoma, or glaucoma associated with ocular anomalies; group 2 included eyes with glaucoma in aphakia or pseudophakia; group 3 included eyes with other diagnoses. A successful outcome was defined as final IOP between 6 mm Hg and 18 mm Hg without loss of light perception or reoperation for glaucoma. A total of 71 eyes in 71 patients: 15 (21%) in group 1, 47 (66%) in group 2, and 9 (13%) in group 3 were included Successful IOP control was achieved in 44 eyes of 44 patients (62%). Cumulative probabilities of success by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 12 and 24 months was 97% and 80% for the entire group, 100% and 82% for group 1, 95% and 86% for group 2, and 90% and 42% for group 3. Reoperation was necessary for 18 patients (25%), either for tube-related complications or for IOP control. The only significant risk factor for failure was the category of diagnosis (P = 0.029). Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation is an option in the management of pediatric glaucoma; however, reoperations for tube related complications or for persistent elevated IOP is frequently needed. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Driving patterns in older adults with glaucoma.

    PubMed

    van Landingham, Suzanne W; Hochberg, Chad; Massof, Robert W; Chan, Emilie; Friedman, David S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2013-02-21

    The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p < 0.001). Glaucoma subjects were also more likely than suspects to report a greater number of driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both). Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.

  16. Treatment of absolute painful glaucoma with dynamic arcs using novalis shaped beam radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Olhovich, Irene; Celis, Miguel Angel; Larraga-Gutierrez, Jose

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: We assessed the effect of shaped beam conformal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in 1 patient with chronic painful glaucoma in one eye refractory to medical treatment. Methods and Materials: Left eye ciliary body was targeted at 18 Gy (90% isodose curve) with a dedicated linear accelerator (Novalis, BrainLAB, Germany) SRS. Interval follow-up was performed weekly for the first month, and every 2 months until 1 year was completed with clinical examinations and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Results: Ocular pain resolved at 6 weeks after SRS treatment. IOP decreased and normalized at 1 year. Conclusions: We present a case in whichmore » SRS appears to be an effective treatment of chronic refractory painful glaucoma. Further Phase I studies are needed to know the best parameters for radiation dose, tolerance of organs at risk, and pathophysiologic effects.« less

  17. Pharmaceutical management of the childhood glaucomas.

    PubMed

    Talbot, A W; Russell-Eggitt, I

    2000-05-01

    Glaucoma in childhood is a diverse, blinding group of conditions, which presents a major therapeutic challenge. Treatment is primarily surgical with medical treatments used as an adjunct. None of these drugs has been granted approval by the regulatory agencies for use in children, but they are used on a compassionate basis. Issues of efficacy and safety of these medications in children are discussed. beta-adrenoceptor blockers have been employed as first line pharmaceutical therapy for many years. Recently three new classes of drugs have been developed for use in glaucoma in adults. beta-blockers remain first line therapy if there are no contraindications such as asthma. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) appear to be less effective than beta-blockers, but seem safe systemically, although associated with local irritation. They are useful as an adjunct to beta-blockers or as first line therapy when beta-blockers are contraindicated. Prostaglandins have not proved as effective in childhood glaucoma as in adult glaucoma, although it works well in some patients with juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG) and others with aphakic glaucoma. alpha-adrenergic agonists, although effective at least in the short-term, have serious, potential systemic side effects, which demand close observation when used in neonates and young infants.

  18. The glaucoma research foundation patient survey: patient understanding of glaucoma and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Leon W; Brunner, Thomas M; Rollins, Jane Neff

    2006-01-01

    Determine patients' understanding of glaucoma and its treatment, their sources of information about glaucoma, their preferences for treatment, their experience with medication side effects, and their reasons for changing eye doctors. Prospective, nonrandomized patient survey study. A questionnaire was developed and sent to the 22,000 subscribers of the Gleams newsletter who have glaucoma. Questionnaires were returned by 4310 glaucoma patients. Most respondents received glaucoma information from their eye doctor. Only 28% of respondents reported having changed eye doctors for reasons related to their glaucoma. Of those who had, 60% cited poor communication as the reason. When queried about specific side effects associated with their medication, over 85% of responding patients were never or rarely bothered by headaches and eyelid darkening. Most respondents (67% and 55%, respectively) were rarely or never disturbed by red eye or burning and stinging. Most respondents understood the importance of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering in glaucoma, and of those patients who expressed a preference, 92% reported that they would prefer the medication that lowers IOP the most, even if it caused red eye for a few weeks, over a medication that caused no red eye but did not get IOP as low. Patients who subscribe to Gleams and responded to the survey rely most on their doctors for information about glaucoma and its treatment. Most understand the importance of maintaining low IOP to decrease the risk of vision loss, and most will tolerate temporary ocular side effects to achieve low IOP.

  19. What Do Patients With Glaucoma See? Visual Symptoms Reported by Patients With Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Cindy X.; Zangalli, Camila; Hsieh, Michael; Gupta, Lalita; Williams, Alice L.; Richman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Vision loss from glaucoma has traditionally been described as loss of “peripheral vision.” In this prospective study, we aimed to improve our clinical understanding of the visual symptoms caused by glaucoma by asking patients specific detailed questions about how they see. Methods: Patients who were clinically diagnosed with various types and stages of glaucoma were included. All had a comprehensive ocular examination, including Octopus visual field testing. Patients were excluded if they had other ocular conditions that affected their vision, including cornea, lens or retina pathologies. Patients responded to an oral questionnaire about their visual symptoms. We investigated the visual symptoms described by patients with glaucoma and correlated the severity of visual field loss with visual symptoms reported. Results: Ninety-nine patients completed the questionnaire. Most patients (76%) were diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma. The most common symptoms reported by all patients, including patients with early or moderate glaucoma, were needing more light and blurry vision. Patients with a greater amount of field loss (Octopus mean defect >+9.4 dB) were more likely to report difficulty seeing objects to one or both sides, as if looking through dirty glasses and trouble differentiating boundaries and colors. Conclusions: Vision loss in patients with glaucoma is not as simple as the traditional view of loss of peripheral vision. Needing more light and blurry vision were the most common symptoms reported by patients with glaucoma. PMID:24992392

  20. Cannabinoids for treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Novack, Gary D

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of cannabis in the treatment of glaucoma, including the greater availability of marijuana in the USA. The potency of marijuana, as measured by the concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol, has increased from ∼2 to 3% in the 1970s to ∼20% today. Many US states have passed laws allowing either medicinal or recreational use of marijuana. The pharmacology of marijuana and its effect on intraocular pressure has not changed since the research in the 1970s and 1980s. Marijuana is an effective ocular hypotensive agent. However, cardiovascular and neurological effects are observed at the same dose, and may theoretically reduce the beneficial effect of lowering intraocular pressure by reducing ocular blood flow. The clinician must be cognizant of this potential in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

  1. Methods to Induce Chronic Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Ashim; Manthey, Abby L.; Chiu, Kin; Do, Chi-Wai

    2018-01-01

    Glaucoma, a form of progressive optic neuropathy, is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Being a prominent disease affecting vision, substantial efforts are being made to better understand glaucoma pathogenesis and to develop novel treatment options including neuroprotective and neuroregenerative approaches. Cell transplantation has the potential to play a neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative role for various ocular cell types (e.g., retinal cells, trabecular meshwork). Notably, glaucoma is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure, and over the past 2 decades, several rodent models of chronic ocular hypertension (COH) have been developed that reflect these changes in pressure. However, the underlying pathophysiology of glaucoma in these models and how they compare to the human condition remains unclear. This limitation is the primary barrier for using rodent models to develop novel therapies to manage glaucoma and glaucoma-related blindness. Here, we review the current techniques used to induce COH-related glaucoma in various rodent models, focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of the each, in order to provide a more complete understanding of how these models can be best utilized. To so do, we have separated them based on the target tissue (pre-trabecular, trabecular, and post-trabecular) in order to provide the reader with an encompassing reference describing the most appropriate rodent COH models for their research. We begin with an initial overview of the current use of these models in the evaluation of cell transplantation therapies. PMID:29637819

  2. Oculoplastic technique of connecting a glaucoma valve shunt to extraorbital locations in cases of severe glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Peter A D; Chang, Eli; Bernardino, Carlo Roberto; Hatton, Mark P; Dohlman, Claes H

    2004-09-01

    To describe a technique for inserting glaucoma shunts to the sinuses or the lacrimal sac as a means of lowering intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma associated with severe ocular surface disease. Nineteen patients with severe ocular surface disease necessitating a keratoprosthesis and with intractable glaucoma underwent placement of a modified Ahmed shunt to direct aqueous in the maxillary or ethmoid sinus or lacrimal sac. Intraocular pressure is presently well controlled without glaucoma medications in two thirds of patients. None of the patients had endophthalmitis. Established oculoplastic surgery techniques may be used to redirect aqueous to extraorbital locations and effectively lower intraocular pressure in patients with severe ocular surface disease and refractory glaucoma. This procedure has not been associated with endophthalmitis.

  3. Implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device.

    PubMed

    Francis, Brian A; Fernandes, Rodrigo A B; Akil, Handan; Chopra, Vikas; Diniz, Bruno; Tan, James; Huang, Alex

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate success rates in controlling intraocular pressure (IOP) after implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (GDD) with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant in patients with refractory glaucoma, with a secondary aim of reducing the need for postoperative glaucoma medications. This retrospective, noncomparative, interventional study included patients undergoing a second GDD for uncontrolled glaucoma from a tertiary care glaucoma service. Data were obtained from the medical records for the preoperative period and after the 1st, 15th, and 30th day, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then yearly until the last postoperative visit. Visual acuity, IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) from the follow-up visits were compared to baseline. Success and failure criteria were analyzed based on IOP level or need of glaucoma medications. Forty-nine patients were studied, with a mean follow-up time of 25 ± 21 months. The mean preoperative IOP was 23.7 ± 8.2 mmHg, and decreased to 14.8 ± 4.0 mmHg after 1 year, 14.4 ± 3.9 mmHg after 2 years, and 16.6 ± 8.5 mmHg after 3 years. The mean preoperative NGM was 3.4 ± 1.3, and decreased to 2.0 ± 1.8 after 1 year, 2.5 ± 1.6 after 2 years, and 2.8 ± 2.0 after 3 years. Absolute success was 9% after 1 year for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 18 mmHg, and 76% for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 21 mmHg. The qualified success was 88% at the first and second years and 83% at the third year. With up to 3 years of follow-up, a second glaucoma drainage device was successful in reducing IOP to below 21 mmHg, but not as successful below 18 mmHg. The success rate is improved with the use of glaucoma medications with up to 3 years of follow-up.

  4. Who's lost first? Susceptibility of retinal ganglion cell types in experimental glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Della Santina, Luca; Ou, Yvonne

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize our current knowledge about the susceptibility of specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in experimental glaucoma, and to delineate the initial morphological and functional alterations that occur in response to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. There has been debate in the field as to whether RGCs with large somata and axons are more vulnerable, with definitive conclusions still in progress because of the wide diversity of RGC types. Indeed, it is now estimated that there are greater than 30 different RGC types, and while we do not yet understand the complete details, we discuss a growing body of work that supports the selective vulnerability hypothesis of specific RGC types in experimental glaucoma. Specifically, structural and functional degeneration of various RGC types have been examined across different rodent models of experimental glaucoma (acute vs. chronic) and different strains, and an emerging consensus is that OFF RGCs appear to be more vulnerable to IOP elevation compared to ON RGCs. Understanding the mechanisms by which this selective vulnerability manifests across different RGC types should lead to novel and improved strategies for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in glaucoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  6. Potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas

    2018-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows assessment of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies using OCTA in glaucoma and highlight potential applications of this new technology in the field of glaucoma. OCTA studies have shown that retinal vascular changes may not develop solely as a result of advanced glaucoma damage. OCTA-derived measurements have provided evidence for lower retinal vascular densities at the optic nerve head, peripapillary and macula in preperimetric-glaucoma and early-glaucoma, as well as, in more advanced glaucoma, in comparison to with normal eyes. OCTA is a novel imaging modality that has already started to expand our knowledge base regarding the role of ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Future studies will better elucidate the role of OCTA-derived measurements in clinical practice, research, and clinical trials in glaucoma.

  7. Glaucoma as an early complication of Hurler's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Nowaczyk, M J; Clarke, J T; Morin, J D

    1988-01-01

    We report three cases of Hurler's disease in which glaucoma developed in early childhood. We draw attention to the fact that glaucoma may be a commonly unrecognised early complication of this condition. PMID:3140740

  8. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  9. Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-Up Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-02

    Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect; Diabetic Retinopathy; Ocular Hypertension; Cataract; Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion; Branch Retinal Arterial Occlusion; Central Retinal Vein Occlusion; Central Retinal Artery Occlusion; Epi-retinal Membrane; Macular Degeneration; Drusen; Loss of Vision

  10. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding ... NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  11. Glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage in animal models of elevated IOP. Nerve cell regeneration is another approach to repairing neuronal tissue damaged ... or injury. NIH-supported researchers recently provoked nerve cell regeneration in rodents by activating a nerve cell’s natural ...

  12. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602

  13. Secondary glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Alparslan; Çaça, Ihsan; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksel, Harun; Şahin, Muhammed; Çinar, Yasin; Ari, Şeyhmus

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the incidence and risk factors of secondary glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS Two hundred and forty nine eyes of 148 patients underwent cataract surgery without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (group 1), and 220 eyes of 129 patients underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation (group 2) retrospectively, were evaluated between 2000 and 2011. The outcome measure was the presence or absence of post-cataract surgery glaucoma, defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥26mmHg, as measured on at least two occasions along with corneal or optic nerve changes. RESULTS The mean follow-up periods of group 1 and 2 were (60.86±30.95) months (12-123 months) and (62.11±31.29) months (14-115 months) respectively. In group 1, 12 eyes of 8 patients (4.8%) developed glaucoma. None of the patients developed glaucoma after surgery in group 2. The mean age of the patients at the cataract surgery was (2.58±0.90) months (1 month-4 months) and the average period for glaucoma development after surgery was (9.50±4.33) months (4-16 months) in group 1. Three of the 12 glaucomatous eyes were controlled with antiglaucomatous medication and 9 eyes underwent trabeculectomy+mitomycin C surgery. One patient underwent a second trabeculectomy + mitomycin C operation for both of his eyes. CONCLUSION The incidence of glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery is very low in patients in whom IOL is implanted. The aphakic eyes after pediatric cataract surgery are at an increased risk for glaucoma development particularly if they underwent surgery before 4 months of age. PMID:23638427

  14. Efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab combined with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Fu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Zhi; Fan, Ying; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Xun

    2016-01-09

    Neovascular glaucoma is a refractive glaucoma. Recently, anti-VEGF factors have been used alone or in combination for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma. However, the medium- and long-term efficacy of such drugs remains to be evaluated. This study was to determine the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab combined with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma. In this prospective non-randomized study, 43 neovascular glaucoma patients (43 eyes) were assigned to receive either 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab for three to 14 days before Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (injection group, n = 21) or Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation alone (control group, n = 22). The patients were followed up for six to 12 months. Differences in surgical success rate, intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity, anti-glaucoma medications and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Surgical success was defined as IOP > = 6 mm Hg and < = 21 mm Hg, with or without the use of anti-glaucoma medications, and without severe complications or reoperation. Of the 43 patients, 40 completed the 6-month follow-up and 37 completed the 1-year follow-up. Success rate was 73.7% vs. 71.4% at six months and 72.2% vs. 68.4% at 12 months in the injection group and the control group respectively. No significant difference was noted between the two groups (six months: P = 0.87, 12 months: P = 1.00). There were no significant differences in the two groups with respect to intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity, anti-glaucoma medications or postoperative complications at six months or 12 months. Single intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg) before surgery has no significant effect on the medium- or long-term outcomes of neovascular glaucoma treated with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR-OOC-14005709, Trial registration date: 2014-12-01).

  15. Glaucoma Structural and Functional Progression in American and Korean Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Kostanyan, Tigran; Sung, Kyung Rim; Schuman, Joel S.; Ling, Yun; Lucy, Katie A.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Lee, Jin Y.; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the rate of glaucoma structural and functional progression in American and Korean cohorts. Design Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants 313 eyes from 189 glaucoma and glaucoma suspects, followed for an average of 38 months. Methods All subjects were examined semiannually with visual field (VF) testing and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. All subjects had ≥5 reliable visits. Main Outcome Measurements The rates of change of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, cup-to-disc (C/D) ratios, and VF mean deviation (MD) were compared between the cohorts. Variables affecting the rate of change for each parameter were determined, including ethnicity, refraction, baseline age and severity, disease subtype (high vs. normal tension glaucoma), clinical diagnosis (glaucoma vs. glaucoma suspect), and the interactions between variables. Results The Korean cohort was predominantly normal tension glaucoma, while the American cohort was high tension glaucoma. Cohorts had similar VF parameters at baseline, but the Korean eyes had significantly thinner mean RNFL and larger cups. Korean glaucoma eyes showed a faster thinning of mean RNFL (mean: −0.71 vs. −0.24μm/year, p<0.01). There was no detectable difference in the rate of change between the glaucoma cohorts for C/D ratios and VF MD and for all parameters in glaucoma suspect eyes. Different combinations of the tested variables significantly impacted the rate of change. Conclusion Ethnicity, baseline severity, disease subtype, and clinical diagnosis should be considered when comparing glaucoma progression studies. PMID:26778345

  16. Is Estrogen a Therapeutic Target for Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Dewundara, Samantha; Wiggs, Janey; Sullivan, David A.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the association between estrogen and glaucoma. Methods A literature synthesis of articles published in peer review journals screened through May 05, 2015 using the PubMed database. Key words used were “estrogen and glaucoma,” “reproductive factors and glaucoma,” “estrogen, nitric oxide and eye.” Forty three journal articles were included. Results Markers for lifetime estrogen exposure have been measured by several studies and show that the age of menarche onset, oral contraceptive (OC) use, bilateral oophorectomy, age of menopause onset and duration between menarche to menopause are associated with primary open angle (POAG) risk. The Blue Mountain Eye Study found a significantly increased POAG risk with later (>13 years) compared with earlier (≤12 years) age of menarche. Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) investigators found that OC use of greater than 5 years was associated with a 25% increased risk of POAG. The Mayo Clinic Cohort Study of Oophorectomy and Aging found that women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before age 43 had an increased risk of glaucoma. The Rotterdam Study found that women who went through menopause before reaching the age of 45 years had a higher risk of open-angle glaucoma (2.6-fold increased risk) while the NHS showed a reduced risk of POAG among women older than 65 who entered menopause after age ≥ 54 years. Increased estrogen states may confer a reduced risk of glaucoma or glaucoma related traits such as reduced intraocular pressure (IOP). Pregnancy, a hyperestrogenemic state, is associated with decreased IOP during the third trimester. Though the role of post-menopausal hormone (PMH) use in the reduction of IOP is not fully conclusive, PMH use may reduce the risk of POAG. From a genetic epidemiologic perspective, estrogen metabolic pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with POAG in women and polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, a gene receptive to

  17. The Ex-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device Implantation in Uveitic Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dhanireddy, Swetha; Kombo, Ninani C; Payal, Abhishek R; Freitas-Neto, Clovis Arcoverde; Preble, Janine; Foster, C Stephen

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of the Ex-PRESS Filtration Device in patients with uveitic glaucoma. We reviewed 23 eyes, comparing control simple glaucoma patients (n = 11) to uveitic glaucoma patients (n = 12). Intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications at the preoperative examination were compared with those at the 6-month and 10-14-month postoperative examination. Surgical success was defined as ≥25% decrease in intraocular pressure without hypotony, and/or decrease in glaucoma medications at 6 months follow-up. Statistically significant reduction in mean IOP from preoperative levels occurred in both groups at 6 months follow-up (p<0.0001) and 10-14 months follow-up (p = 0.0007) and in the mean number of medications in the uveitic glaucoma (UG) group (p = 0.0313). Surgical success was seen in 10 eyes in the control group (90.9%) and nine eyes (75%) in the UG group (p = 0.314). Ex-PRESS implantation is an effective surgical intervention for the management of uveitic glaucoma.

  18. Diagnosis of glaucoma and detection of glaucoma progression using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Dilraj S; Tanna, Angelo P

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid adoption of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in clinical practice and the recent advances in software technology, there is a need for a review of the literature on glaucoma detection and progression analysis algorithms designed for the commercially available instruments. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and macular thickness, including segmental macular thickness calculation algorithms, have been demonstrated to be repeatable and reproducible, and have a high degree of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes across the glaucoma continuum. Newer software capabilities such as glaucoma progression detection algorithms provide an objective analysis of longitudinally obtained structural data that enhances our ability to detect glaucomatous progression. RNFL measurements obtained with SDOCT appear more sensitive than time domain OCT (TDOCT) for glaucoma progression detection; however, agreement with the assessments of visual field progression is poor. Over the last few years, several studies have been performed to assess the diagnostic performance of SDOCT structural imaging and its validity in assessing glaucoma progression. Most evidence suggests that SDOCT performs similarly to TDOCT for glaucoma diagnosis; however, SDOCT may be superior for the detection of early stage disease. With respect to progression detection, SDOCT represents an important technological advance because of its improved resolution and repeatability. Advancements in RNFL thickness quantification, segmental macular thickness calculation and progression detection algorithms, when used correctly, may help to improve our ability to diagnose and manage glaucoma.

  19. Surgical management of glaucoma: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, R; Khurana, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is a serious sight-threatening disorder aptly named the Silent thief of sight. India, being the second most populous country in the world, has about 20% of the world glaucoma population. The complex geographical and socioeconomic architecture and the economic extremes have a profound effect on its health system. The present times are abundant with fresh developments in the field of glaucoma. Though newer modalities are present in India, they are not ample and are unequally distributed. Adherence and persistence with medical therapy is an issue owing to a multitude of factors. In such a setting, most of the ophthalmologists find themselves performing glaucoma surgeries quite often. In the present era, there are a number of new surgeries to choose from, especially procedures which are nonpenetrating and blebless. Faced with a spectrum of surgeries from shunts to canal surgeries and trabecular bypass devices, the surgeon is often in a dilemma. Still, trabeculectomy remains the gold standard with an increasing trend toward glaucoma drainage devices. The new procedures and devices are worth exploring but await long-term results, good training of surgeons and cost effectiveness. PMID:21150023

  20. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  1. [Study of corvitin efficiency in primary glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Mykheĭtseva, I M; Kashyntseva, L T; Artemov, O V; Khramenko, N I

    2012-01-01

    There were concluded our results of animal experimental investigation and clinical observation of the quercetin-containing preparation corvitin (C) in primary glaucoma treatment. On the model of disease it is shown for rabbit, that introduction of 0.5 ml 2 % C as factious instillation into the eye a basely decreased eye blood flow was increased twice, mionectic at glaucoma eye hydrodynamics was normalized : the outflow of liquid increased on 58 %, inflow - on 52 %, intraocular pressure went down on 14%. Intravenous inflowing of C brought down expressed of oxidative stress - M[see text]A in blood is decreased on 40 %, level of endothelial dysfunction marker NO is increased on 70 %. On the model of glaucoma for rats C, entered protractedly, showed the neuroprotective actions on the neurons of retina, promoting survivability of ganglion cells, that it is shown on histological preparations. Application C in the clinic of glaucoma (intravenously a 0.5 g of preparation in 100 ml of solution) improved for patients a blood supply in the eye on 25 %, and also rendered a positive antioxidant and metabolic effect. Noted positive influences of C concurrently to important pathogeneses factors such as regional eye blood supply, eye hydrodynamics, oxidative stress, metabolic changes, survival of retina neurons grounds to talk about new strategy of pathogenesis therapy of glaucoma.

  2. Magnetic resonance in studies of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Fiedorowicz, Michał; Dyda, Wojciech; Rejdak, Robert; Grieb, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Summary Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness. It affects retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve. However, there is emerging evidence that glaucoma also affects other components of the visual pathway and visual cortex. There is a need to employ new methods of in vivo brain evaluation to characterize these changes. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are well suited for this purpose. We review data on the MR evaluation of the visual pathway and the use of MR techniques in the study of glaucoma, both in humans and in animal models. These studies demonstrated decreases in optic nerve diameter, localized white matter loss and decrease in visual cortex density. Studies on rats employing manganese-enhanced MRI showed that axonal transport in the optic nerve is affected. Diffusion tensor MRI revealed signs of degeneration of the optic pathway. Functional MRI showed decreased response of the visual cortex after stimulation of the glaucomatous eye. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated changes in metabolite levels in the visual cortex in a rat model of glaucoma, although not in glaucoma patients. Further applications of MR techniques in studies of glaucomatous brains are indicated. PMID:21959626

  3. [Long-term outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for treating refractory glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yumei; Hong, Tao; Li, Wanming

    2015-02-10

    To explore the efficacies and complications of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for treating refractory glaucoma. A retrospective study of case series was conducted for 24 patients (26 eyes) with refractory glaucoma from February 2001 to July 2008 at our hospital. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation was performed. Pre- and post-operative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications and complications were recorded and analyzed. The follow-up period was 58-159 months. The post-operative values of IOP were 13.02+/-6.79, 11.43+/-5.24 and 18.56+/-6.43 mmHg at 1 day, 1 month and the last follow-up respectively. There were significant difference when compared with pre-operative IOP (37.59+/-10.76 mmHg, P < 0.01). And 65.38% of eyes maintained or gained ≥ 1 line of BSCVA. But there was no significant difference with pre-operative BSCVA (P = 0.110). Twenty eyes required anti-glaucoma drugs after glaucoma valve implantation and the average number of medication was 1.72+/-0.98. There was significant difference with the pre-operative medication number 2.7 ± 0.7 (P = 0.001). The surgical success rate was 73.1%. And the causes of failure were endophthalmitis, corneal endothelial decompensation, persistent conjunctival wound non-healing, glaucoma valve exposure and loss of light perception.Early postoperative complications were ocular hypotony, shallow anterior chamber, hyphema, transient high IOP and tube occlusion. And long-term complications included encapsulated cyst formation, tube exposure, corneal endothelial decompensation and endophthalmitis. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation is efficacious for refractory glaucoma.However, clinicians should pay attention to the prevention and treatment of complications.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density in Healthy, Glaucoma Suspect, and Glaucoma Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadi, Adeleh; Zangwill, Linda M.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Suh, Min Hee; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel; Fatehee, Naeem; Yousefi, Siamak; Belghith, Akram; Saunders, Luke J.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Huang, David; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) retinal vasculature measurements in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma patients. Methods Two hundred sixty-one eyes of 164 healthy, glaucoma suspect, and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) participants from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study with good quality OCT-A images were included. Retinal vasculature information was summarized as a vessel density map and as vessel density (%), which is the proportion of flowing vessel area over the total area evaluated. Two vessel density measurements extracted from the RNFL were analyzed: (1) circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD) measured in a 750-μm-wide elliptical annulus around the disc and (2) whole image vessel density (wiVD) measured over the entire image. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Results Age-adjusted mean vessel density was significantly lower in OAG eyes compared with glaucoma suspects and healthy eyes. (cpVD: 55.1 ± 7%, 60.3 ± 5%, and 64.2 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.001; and wiVD: 46.2 ± 6%, 51.3 ± 5%, and 56.6 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.001). For differentiating between glaucoma and healthy eyes, the age-adjusted AUROC was highest for wiVD (0.94), followed by RNFL thickness (0.92) and cpVD (0.83). The AUROCs for differentiating between healthy and glaucoma suspect eyes were highest for wiVD (0.70), followed by cpVD (0.65) and RNFL thickness (0.65). Conclusions Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density had similar diagnostic accuracy to RNFL thickness measurements for differentiating between healthy and glaucoma eyes. These results suggest that OCT-A measurements reflect damage to tissues relevant to the pathophysiology of OAG. PMID:27409505

  5. The Role of Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery Devices in the Management of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Murray; Dickerson, Jaime E.

    2018-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE Noncompliance is a problem affecting glaucoma patients. Approaches to improve adherence include the use of drug-delivery systems and safer forms of surgery. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has reduced complications, particularly in combination with cataract surgery, and with its good intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction may reduce or eliminate glaucoma medications. Glaucoma is a progressive disease and a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Elevated IOP is the most important risk factor, but effective medical management is dependent on patient adherence. This review summarizes the adherence problem in glaucoma and the efforts, including MIGS, to provide effective IOP control that is not dependent on patient compliance. The current understanding of patient adherence to pharmacological treatment of glaucoma is discussed including the challenges facing glaucoma patients. Historical approaches to providing IOP control in a sustained and reliable way are presented culminating in a review of the burgeoning use of MIGS devices. It is estimated that, in the United States, 27% of prescriptions written, across all medications, are not filled or are filled but not taken. For ocular hypotensive medications, even when filled, a large percentage (which varies widely by study) are not instilled as prescribed. To address this problem, methods for sustained drug delivery have been and continue to be developed, as well as surgical and laser approaches. Most recently, MIGS devices have gained popularity because of the ease of implantation during cataract surgery, favorable safety profile, and the possibility for effective and long-lasting IOP lowering, as well as the reduction or elimination of need for IOP-lowering medication. Poor adherence to treatment is relatively common among glaucoma patients and is associated with progression of disease. Recommending MIGS implantation during cataract surgery may offer optometrists a valuable treatment option in

  6. Structural and Functional Evaluations for the Early Detection of Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Katie A; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of glaucoma is imperative in order to preserve functional vision. Structural and functional methods are utilized to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage and the vision loss it causes. The relationship between these detection measures is complex and differs between individuals, especially in early glaucoma. Using both measures together is advised in order to ensure the highest probability of glaucoma detection, and new testing methods are continuously developed with the goals of earlier disease detection and improvement of disease monitoring. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between structural and functional glaucoma detection and discuss important technological advances for early glaucoma detection.

  7. Structural and Functional Evaluations for the Early Detection of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, Katie A.; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of glaucoma is imperative in order to preserve functional vision. Structural and functional methods are utilized to detect and monitor glaucomatous damage and the vision loss it causes. The relationship between these detection measures is complex and differs between individuals, especially in early glaucoma. Using both measures together is advised in order to ensure the highest probability of glaucoma detection, and new testing methods are continuously developed with the goals of earlier disease detection and improvement of disease monitoring. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationship between structural and functional glaucoma detection and discuss important technological advances for early glaucoma detection. PMID:28603546

  8. Trabecular meshwork stiffness in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Read, A Thomas; Sulchek, Todd; Ethier, C Ross

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in stiffness of the trabecular meshwork (TM) may play an important role in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the second leading cause of blindness. Specifically, certain data suggest an association between elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and increased TM stiffness; however, the underlying link between TM stiffness and IOP remains unclear and requires further study. We here first review the literature on TM stiffness measurements, encompassing various species and based on a number of measurement techniques, including direct approaches such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and uniaxial tension tests, and indirect methods based on a beam deflection model. We also briefly review the effects of several factors that affect TM stiffness, including lysophospholipids, rho-kinase inhibitors, cytoskeletal disrupting agents, dexamethasone (DEX), transforming growth factor-β 2 (TGF-β 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and cellular senescence. We then describe a method we have developed for determining TM stiffness measurement in mice using a cryosection/AFM-based approach, and present preliminary data on TM stiffness in C57BL/6J and CBA/J mouse strains. Finally, we investigate the relationship between TM stiffness and outflow facility between these two strains. The method we have developed shows promise for further direct measurements of mouse TM stiffness, which may be of value in understanding mechanistic relations between outflow facility and TM biomechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ahmed glaucoma valve in children: A review☆

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Nariman; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Coleman, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric glaucoma is potentially a blinding disease. Although goniotomy and trabeculotomy are associated with good early success rates, eventually 20% of these procedures fail and many children will require additional surgery to control the IOP in the long-term. In this review, we reported that adequate IOP control can be achieved with the placement of Ahmed glaucoma valve and can last 5 or more years. However, most patients will need one or more glaucoma medications at some point after surgery. In addition, the implants may be associated with pupillary irregularities, lenticular opacification as well as tube-related complications, particularly in the first year of life, as the globe is enlarging with age. PMID:23960945

  10. Linkage studies in primary open angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Avramopoulos, D.; Grigoriadu, M.; Kitsos, G.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The majority of glaucoma is associated with an open, normal appearing anterior chamber angle and is termed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, MIM 137760). It is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and onset in middle age or later. A subset of POAG with juvenile onset has recently been linked to chromosome 1q in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven pedigrees with autosomal dominant POG (non-juvenile-onset) have been identified in Epirus, Greece. In the present study DNA samples have been collected from 50 individuals from one large pedigree, including 12 affected individuals.more » Preliminary results of linkage analysis with chromosome 1 microsatellites using the computer program package LINKAGE Version 5.1 showed no linkage with the markers previously linked to juvenile-onset POAG. Further linkage analysis is being pursued, and the results will be presented.« less

  11. Starflo glaucoma implant: early experience in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    István, Cseke; Péter, Vámosi; Mária, Bausz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the early experience with the implantation technique, safety and efficiency of STARflo™ device for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: referring intra- and postoperative clinical experience with a series of seven cases in three glaucoma centers in Hungary. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. Postoperative inflammatory signs disappeared rapidly. The mean IOP reduction was from 27,6 ± 5,0 mmHg to 18,9±3,4 mmHg (32% reduction/ patient) at six months postoperatively. Conclusion: STARflo™ implant was safe and (except for one case with neovascular glaucoma) effective in our cases. The learning curve for experienced anterior segment surgeons was short. PMID:27220226

  12. Unilateral glaucoma in Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism).

    PubMed

    Yen, M T; Gedde, S J; Flynn, J T

    2000-12-01

    To report a patient with unilateral glaucoma associated with Sotos syndrome. Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a disorder of growth and development with characteristic facial changes and normal endocrine function. Ocular manifestations may also include megalocornea, iris hypoplasia, cataracts, megalophthalmos, strabismus, nystagmus, and retinal dystrophy. Case report. A 50 year-old man with the clinical features of Sotos syndrome presented with complaints of decreased vision in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral megalocornea, megalophthalmos, iris hypoplasia and transillumination defects, cataracts, and unilateral glaucoma. Intraocular pressure was lowered, and visual field loss was stabilized with topical medications. Sotos syndrome patients should be examined routinely to allow for early detection and treatment of potential ocular problems, including glaucoma.

  13. Automatic glaucoma diagnosis through medical imaging informatics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Zhuo; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Xu, Yanwu; Yin, Fengshou; Cheng, Jun; Tan, Ngan Meng; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Xu, Dong; Tham, Yih Chung; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis for screening utilizes computer-based analytical methodologies to process patient information. Glaucoma is the leading irreversible cause of blindness. Due to the lack of an effective and standard screening practice, more than 50% of the cases are undiagnosed, which prevents the early treatment of the disease. To design an automatic glaucoma diagnosis architecture automatic glaucoma diagnosis through medical imaging informatics (AGLAIA-MII) that combines patient personal data, medical retinal fundus image, and patient's genome information for screening. 2258 cases from a population study were used to evaluate the screening software. These cases were attributed with patient personal data, retinal images and quality controlled genome data. Utilizing the multiple kernel learning-based classifier, AGLAIA-MII, combined patient personal data, major image features, and important genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) features. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to compare AGLAIA-MII's performance with classifiers using patient personal data, images, and genome SNP separately. AGLAIA-MII was able to achieve an area under curve value of 0.866, better than 0.551, 0.722 and 0.810 by the individual personal data, image and genome information components, respectively. AGLAIA-MII also demonstrated a substantial improvement over the current glaucoma screening approach based on intraocular pressure. AGLAIA-MII demonstrates for the first time the capability of integrating patients' personal data, medical retinal image and genome information for automatic glaucoma diagnosis and screening in a large dataset from a population study. It paves the way for a holistic approach for automatic objective glaucoma diagnosis and screening.

  14. [Influence of Luxury Foodstuffs on Glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Huber-van der Velden, K K

    2017-02-01

    The term "luxury foodstuffs" refers to foods which are not consumed because of their nutritional value. Classic modern luxury foodstuffs are alcohol, caffeine-containing drinks, cocoa, sugar and tobacco. The following review article examines some of these modern luxury foodstuffs in detail, as well as their influence on glaucoma. Thus, small quantities of alcohol lower high intraocular pressure and have a positive influence on the blood circulation of the optic nerve. In addition, red wine polyphenols exert vasoprotective effects. In general, however, alcohol consumption appears to have no significant effect on the prevalence of glaucoma. The most important source of caffeine intake is coffee consumption. In some studies, coffee consumption caused no changes in intraocular pressure, while others reported a rise. A large study showed a connection between heavy coffee consumption and the risk of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Green and black teas are rich sources of flavonoids with antioxidant activity. In addition, a slight trend for lowering the intraocular pressure has been measured. As regards chocolate, flavonoid-rich dark chocolate should be favoured, due to its antioxidant activity. It lowers blood pressure and improves endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. Excessive sugar consumption over many years can lead to increased body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes. Many studies show a positive relationship between BMI and intraocular pressure. Some studies have identified significant correlations between type 2 diabetes and the risk of glaucoma. Smoking is a very widespread stimulant; it narrows the blood vessels and thus reduces the blood circulation of the optic nerve. Otherwise, studies on the role of smoking as a risk factor for glaucoma have been very inconsistent. Luxury foodstuffs may effect glaucoma and should be included in the medical history. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Rare Diseases Leading to Childhood Glaucoma: Epidemiology, Pathophysiogenesis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Fameli, Valeria; Mollo, Roberto; Contestabile, Maria Teresa; Perdicchi, Andrea; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Noteworthy heterogeneity exists in the rare diseases associated with childhood glaucoma. Primary congenital glaucoma is mostly sporadic; however, 10% to 40% of cases are familial. CYP1B1 gene mutations seem to account for 87% of familial cases and 27% of sporadic cases. Childhood glaucoma is classified in primary and secondary congenital glaucoma, further divided as glaucoma arising in dysgenesis associated with neural crest anomalies, phakomatoses, metabolic disorders, mitotic diseases, congenital disorders, and acquired conditions. Neural crest alterations lead to the wide spectrum of iridocorneal trabeculodysgenesis. Systemic diseases associated with childhood glaucoma include the heterogenous group of phakomatoses where glaucoma is frequently encountered in the Sturge-Weber syndrome and its variants, in phakomatosis pigmentovascularis associated with oculodermal melanocytosis, and more rarely in neurofibromatosis type 1. Childhood glaucoma is also described in systemic disorders of mitotic and metabolic activity. Acquired secondary glaucoma has been associated with uveitis, trauma, drugs, and neoplastic diseases. A database research revealed reports of childhood glaucoma in rare diseases, which do not include glaucoma in their manifestation. These are otopalatodigital syndrome, complete androgen insensitivity, pseudotrisomy 13, Brachmann-de Lange syndrome, acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis, caudal regression syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

  16. Innovative approaches to glaucoma management of Boston keratoprosthesis type 1.

    PubMed

    Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Liu, Jessica; Wilensky, Jacob; Cortina, M Soledad; Aref, Ahmad A

    2016-09-01

    Glaucoma remains a prevalent disorder and visual limiting factor after Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 implantation. Patients with glaucoma have worse initial and late visual acuity outcomes after otherwise successful keratoprosthesis implantation. Management of glaucoma in the setting of a keratoprosthesis is challenging because of relatively rapid progression and an inability to accurately measure intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, there are no standard guidelines for glaucoma surveillance and monitoring after keratoprosthesis surgery. This report provides a review of the current literature and offers innovative strategies that will overcome the challenges in managing glaucoma in the setting of a Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 implant. The topics that will be discussed in this section include alternative methods for IOP measurement, rationales and surgical techniques for a pars plana tube placement for glaucoma drainage device, effective medical and laser treatment, the risk for IOP elevations after YAG laser, and practical guides to glaucoma surveillance and monitoring.

  17. Management of Blood Pressure in Patients with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Levine, Russell M; Yang, Alina; Brahma, Venkatesh; Martone, James F

    2017-09-19

    Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) is defined as the difference between BP and intraocular pressure (IOP). With low BP comes low OPP and resultant ischemic damage to the optic nerve, leading to glaucoma progression. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on BP as it relates to glaucoma and to create a forum of discussion between ophthalmologists and internal medicine specialists. Both high and low BP has been linked glaucoma. Low BP is particularly associated with glaucoma progression in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Patients who have low nighttime BP readings are at highest risk of progression of their glaucoma. Internal medicine specialists and ophthalmologists should consider the relationship between BP and glaucoma when treating patients with concomitant disease. Too-low nighttime BP should be avoided. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a useful tool to identify patients at greatest risk for progression.

  18. Increasing healthcare costs: can we influence the costs of glaucoma care?

    PubMed

    Töteberg-Harms, Marc; Berlin, Michael S; Meier-Gibbons, Frances

    2017-03-01

    Despite a decrease in real average growth rates per capita since 2009, healthcare costs continue to rise worldwide. Numerous patient-related and doctor-related factors have contributed to this rise. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and requires chronic, usually lifelong treatment. As with other chronic diseases, the adherence to prescribed treatment is often low and maybe influenced by the cost of the therapy. The purpose of this review is to seek potential solutions to best control the escalating costs of glaucoma care. The studies we selected for this review can be divided into four different categories: costs of diagnostic tests; costs of direct comparisons between drugs or laser and conventional surgery; patient-related factors (such as adherence); and general aspects regarding costs: theoretical models and calculations. It is challenging to find reliable studies concerning this subject matter. As patients are under the umbrellas of variously organized healthcare systems which span different cultures, the costs between countries are difficult to compare. However, one common aspect to lower costs in glaucoma care is to improve patient adherence. Theoretical models with actual patient studies could enable cost reductions by comparing multiple diagnostic and therapeutic scenarios. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COOP/A22.

  19. Diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Hoon; Ahn, Sang Il; Ko, Sung Ju

    2015-11-01

    Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), this study aims to investigate the glaucoma diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis. A cross-sectional study was conducted. This study was performed to investigate glaucoma diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis in eyes with various degrees of glaucoma. We enrolled 181 healthy eyes and 265 glaucomatous eyes. Glaucomatous eyes were subdivided into pre-perimetric, early, moderate and advanced-to-severe glaucoma based on visual field test results. For each eye, macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness was measured using OCT. Average GCIPL thickness, GCIPL thicknesses in superior and inferior hemispheres, absolute difference in GCIPL thickness between superior and inferior hemispheres and GCIPL asymmetry index calculated as the absolute value of log10 (inferior hemisphere thickness/superior hemisphere thickness) were analysed. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) of GCIPL parameter were calculated and compared. All of the GCIPL parameters showed good glaucoma diagnostic ability (AUCs ≥ 0.817, P < 0.01). AUCs of average, superior and inferior GCIPL thickness increased as the severity of glaucoma increased. GCIPL thickness difference and asymmetry index showed the highest AUCs in early and moderate glaucoma and lower AUCs in pre-perimetric and advanced-to-severe glaucoma. GCIPL thickness difference and asymmetry index showed better glaucoma diagnostic ability than other GCIPL parameters only in early stage of glaucoma (P < 0.05); in other stages, these parameters had similar to or worse glaucoma diagnostic ability than other GCIPL parameters. Macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis showed good glaucoma diagnostic ability, especially in early-stage glaucoma. However, it has limited usefulness in other stages of glaucoma. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation for Uveitic Glaucoma Secondary to Behçet Disease.

    PubMed

    Satana, Banu; Yalvac, Ilgaz S; Sungur, Gulten; Eksioglu, Umit; Basarir, Berna; Altan, Cigdem; Duman, Sunay

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate outcomes of patients with uveitic glaucoma secondary to Behçet disease (BD) who underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. A retrospective chart review of 14 eyes of 10 patients with uveitic glaucoma associated with BD who underwent AGV implantation at a tertiary referral center. Treatment success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) between 6 and 21 mm Hg with or without antiglaucoma medication, without further additional glaucoma surgery or loss of light perception. The main outcome measures were IOP, best-corrected visual acuity measured with Snellen charts, and number of glaucoma medications. Mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 18.2±6.6 months (range, 6 to 31 mo). Of the 14 eyes, 10 (71.4%) were pseudophakic and 5 (35.7%) had primary AGV implantation without a history of previous glaucoma surgery. At the most recent follow-up visit, 13 of the 14 eyes had an IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg. Mean IOP was significantly reduced during follow-up, as compared with preoperative values (P≤0.005). The cumulative probability of surgical success rate was 90.9% at 18 months based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The mean number of antiglaucoma medications required to achieve the desired IOP decreased from 3.4±0.5 preoperatively to 1.0±1.1 postoperatively (P≤0.05). Visual acuity loss of >2 lines occurred in 4 eyes (28.5%) due to optic atrophy associated with retinal vasculitis. Temporary hypotony developed during follow-up in 4 eyes (28.5%) at first postoperative week. For the management of uveitic glaucoma associated with BD, AGV implantation is a successful method for glaucoma control but requires additional surgical interventions for high early hypotony rates.

  1. Corneal hysteresis in patients with glaucoma-like optic discs, ocular hypertension and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melissa L; Pokrovskaya, Olya; Galligan, Marie; O'Brien, Colm

    2017-01-10

    To compare corneal hysteresis (CH) measurements between patients with glaucoma, ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma-like optic discs (GLD)- defined as a cup to disc ratio greater than or equal to 0.6 with normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual fields. The secondary aim was to investigate whether corneal resistance factor (CRF) and central corneal thickness (CCT) differ between patient groups. In this cross sectional study a total of 123 patients (one eye each) were recruited from a glaucoma outpatient department to undergo ocular response analyser (ORA) testing and ultrasound pachymetry as well as clinical examination. A One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to evaluate the mean difference in CH between the three diagnostic groups (glaucoma, OHT and GLD) correcting for potential confounding factors, IOP and age. Analysis was repeated for CRF and CCT. There was a significant difference in mean CH across the three diagnosis groups; F(2, 115) = 96.95; p < 0.001. Mean CH significantly higher for GLD compared to glaucoma (mean difference 1.83, p < 0.001), and significantly higher for OHT compared to glaucoma (mean difference 2.35, p < 0.001). Mean CH was slightly lower in patients with GLD than those with OHT but this difference was not statistically significant. A similar pattern was seen when the analysis was repeated for CRF and CCT. Higher CH in GLD and OHT compared to glaucoma suggests increased viscoelasticity of ocular tissues may have a protective role against glaucoma.

  2. Comparative proteomic study in serum of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    PubMed

    González-Iglesias, Héctor; Álvarez, Lydia; García, Montserrat; Escribano, Julio; Rodríguez-Calvo, Pedro Pablo; Fernández-Vega, Luis; Coca-Prados, Miguel

    2014-02-26

    Alterations in the sera proteins between patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG), Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma (PEXG), and healthy controls were identified through a proven approach utilizing equalization of high-abundance serum proteins with ProteoMiner™, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), MALDI-TOF/TOF, and nanoLC-MS-MS. Quantitative immunoassays of the 17 most-differentially-altered proteins identified in this analysis confirmed that they were also over expressed in the intact serum of newly recruited glaucoma patients. Overall, this report identifies a panel of candidates for glaucoma biomarkers and supports their further validation in large population studies. Additionally, functional pathway analysis of these candidate proteins suggested that they are part of a network linked to regulating immune and inflammatory-related processes. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000198. POAG and PEXG are major causes of age-related blindness in the world; however, treatment can be very effective if they are identified early on in the progression. Genetic linkage studies can only explain a limited number of cases, suggesting that these forms of glaucoma are multigenic in nature. Other important factors, such as modifier genes, epigenetic influences, environmental and dietary agents, and inflammatory and oxidative effects are also believed to affect the development of these diseases. The characterization of metabolic and/or proteins changes, for example in bodily fluids, before the clinical manifestation of glaucoma is of considerable relevance for its early diagnosis. In the present work, identification of over-expressed proteins in serum of glaucoma patients (POAG and PEXG) linked to immune and inflammatory processes supports the finding that changes in these pathways also manifest systemically in patients with these pathologies. This study provides a new basis to validate the identified

  3. Adapted motivational interviewing to improve the uptake of treatment for glaucoma in Nigeria: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abdull, Mohammed M; Gilbert, Clare; McCambridge, Jim; Evans, Jennifer

    2014-04-29

    Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease associated with irreversible visual loss. In Africa, glaucoma patients often present late, with very advanced disease. One-off procedures, such as laser or surgery, are recommended in Africa because of lack of or poor adherence to medical treatment. However, acceptance of surgery is usually extremely low. To prevent blindness, adherence to treatment needs to improve, using acceptable, replicable and cost-effective interventions. After reviewing the literature and interviewing patients in Bauchi (Nigeria) motivational interviewing (MI) was selected as the intervention for this trial, with adaptation for glaucoma (MIG). MI is designed to strengthen personal motivation for, and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring a person's reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. The aim of this study is to assess whether MIG increases the uptake of laser or surgery amongst glaucoma patients where this is the recommended treatment. The hypothesis is that MIG increases the uptake of treatment. This will be the first trial of MI in Africa. This is a hospital based, single centre, randomized controlled trial of MIG plus an information sheet on glaucoma and its treatment (the latter being "standard care") compared with standard care alone for glaucoma patients where the treatment recommended is surgery or laser.Those eligible for the trial are adults aged 17 years and above who live within 200 km of Bauchi with advanced glaucoma where the examining ophthalmologist recommends surgery or laser. After obtaining written informed consent, participants will be randomly allocated to MIG plus standard care, or standard care alone. Motivational interviewing will be delivered in Hausa or English by one of two MIG trained personnel. One hundred and fifty participants will be recruited to each arm. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants undergoing laser or surgery within two months of the date given

  4. Adapted motivational interviewing to improve the uptake of treatment for glaucoma in Nigeria: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease associated with irreversible visual loss. In Africa, glaucoma patients often present late, with very advanced disease. One-off procedures, such as laser or surgery, are recommended in Africa because of lack of or poor adherence to medical treatment. However, acceptance of surgery is usually extremely low. To prevent blindness, adherence to treatment needs to improve, using acceptable, replicable and cost-effective interventions. After reviewing the literature and interviewing patients in Bauchi (Nigeria) motivational interviewing (MI) was selected as the intervention for this trial, with adaptation for glaucoma (MIG). MI is designed to strengthen personal motivation for, and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring a person’s reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. The aim of this study is to assess whether MIG increases the uptake of laser or surgery amongst glaucoma patients where this is the recommended treatment. The hypothesis is that MIG increases the uptake of treatment. This will be the first trial of MI in Africa. Methods This is a hospital based, single centre, randomized controlled trial of MIG plus an information sheet on glaucoma and its treatment (the latter being “standard care”) compared with standard care alone for glaucoma patients where the treatment recommended is surgery or laser. Those eligible for the trial are adults aged 17 years and above who live within 200 km of Bauchi with advanced glaucoma where the examining ophthalmologist recommends surgery or laser. After obtaining written informed consent, participants will be randomly allocated to MIG plus standard care, or standard care alone. Motivational interviewing will be delivered in Hausa or English by one of two MIG trained personnel. One hundred and fifty participants will be recruited to each arm. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants undergoing laser or surgery within two

  5. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  6. Unilateral Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma After Elective Lumbar Surgery Reveals Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms. A Case Report and Discussion on Workup of Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Storey, Christopher; Menger, Richard; Hefner, Matthew; Keating, Patrick; Ahmed, Osama; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our paper is to present a case of a rare complication of posterior lumbar surgery. Our patient presented for elective lumbar decompression, which was complicated by durotomy. She then developed sudden headache and right eye pain once upright on postoperative day 2. Then on postoperative day 3, she developed a dilated nonreactive pupil with extraocular movements intact. A computed tomography scan of the head was negative for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a possible right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. She was transferred to a tertiary center with a severe headache and a nonreactive pupil, raising concern for evolving third nerve palsy due to aneurysm. A cerebral angiogram was performed and showed multiple aneurysms. Aneurysm location did not explain the patient's symptoms, and ophthalmology was consulted. Elevated intraocular pressure was noted, and the patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG). Our patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent laser peripheral iridotomy. She has had improved vision and pupillary function at 1 month follow-up. The diagnosis is complicated by a durotomy, which led to cascade in the differential diagnosis to rule out intracranial pathology. Her age and home medications, which had sympathomimetic effects, placed her at increased risk, but lying prone in the dark under the drapes was likely the lead causative factor. In conclusion, a postoperative posterior spine patient with eye pain and changes in vision and pupils should be evaluated with AACG in mind due to the devastating consequences if left untreated or treatment is delayed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Programs to optimize adherence in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kowing, Dianne; Messer, Dawn; Slagle, Scott; Wasik, Alyon

    2010-07-01

    This study was designed to raise awareness of the materials, devices, and Internet resources available to improve adherence to use of medications for the treatment of glaucoma and to review new devices under development. A review of current indexed literature and Internet resources was conducted. A variety of educational brochures, pamphlets, and fact sheets promoting adherence to ocular hypotensive medications are available through multiple organizations and are easily accessed and ordered on the Internet. Video and Web-based patient educational tools have been designed to support patient adherence to glaucoma management plans and promote open dialogue between patients and providers. Reminder and recall systems that integrate with office software can be sent to cell phones as well as e-mails and personal digital assistant (PDAs), alerting patients to upcoming appointments and reminding them to instill their drops. Bottle devices with dosing support (timers with audible and visual signals and dispensing aids) and electronic monitoring have been shown to promote adherence. New products currently under development to improve the delivery of medications include nanoparticles, punctal plugs, and contact lenses that release glaucoma medications. Many educational materials, services, Internet resources, and devices are available to optometrists to encourage patient adherence to glaucoma treatment and management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Peripapillary schisis in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, N; Manoharan, R; Gill, S; Nagar, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo report clinical features, topographic findings and outcome of 10 eyes with peripapillary schisis in open-angle glaucoma.Patients and methodsA retrospective review of patients with open-angle glaucoma who were noted to have peripapillary schisis on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were included. Serial peripapillary and macula infrared and OCT images, visual acuity, visual fields, and schisis appearance were reviewed.ResultsTen eyes of nine patients with open-angle glaucoma were detected to have the presence of peripapillary schisis. Nerve fibre layer schisis was detected in all eyes and one eye had an associated macular schisis. None of the eyes had an acquired pit of the optic nerve or pathological myopia. The mean intraocular pressures at detection was 18.3±4.3 mm Hg and the schisis resolved in four eyes after a mean follow-up of 21.2±8.8 months. Visual field worsening was noted in 4 of the 10 eyes and the resolution of schisis resulted in significant reduction in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness.ConclusionsPeripapillary schisis detected during the normal course of open-angle glaucoma can resolve spontaneously and rarely involves the macula. Its resolution leads to reduction in RNFL thickness; therefore, caution is advised while interpreting serial scans.

  9. Personality type of the glaucoma patient.

    PubMed

    Lim, Michele C; Shiba, Diana R; Clark, Ingrid J; Kim, Daniel Y; Styles, Douglas E; Brandt, James D; Watnik, Mitchell R; Barthelow, Isaac J

    2007-12-01

    To characterize the personality profile of glaucoma subjects. One hundred eight subjects including 56 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and 52 controls were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) test and all performed automated perimetry. Clinical and demographic information which could relate to personality type was collected. OAG subjects had significantly higher Hypochondriasis (Hs; P=0.0082), Hysteria (Hy; P=0.0056), and Health Concerns (HEA; P=0.0025) mean scores than the control group. OAG subjects also had a significantly greater frequency of clinically abnormal score for hysteria (P=0.0262), and health concerns (P=0.0018). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Hypochondriasis, Hysteria, and Health Concerns scores were related to number of systemic medications used and to diagnostic group. Other potential explanatory variables such as sex, ethnicity, number of medical problems, length of glaucoma diagnosis, occurrence of glaucoma surgery, intraocular pressure, and visual status (logMAR, visual field indices) were not related to these personality scores. Patients with a diagnosis of OAG had more abnormal MMPI-2 scores in areas that focus upon concerns of somatic complaints and poor health. The use of systemic medications, which may be a constant reminder of illness, is a factor that may contribute to higher MMPI-2 scores.

  10. The Suprachoroidal Route in Glaucoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shaarawy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glaucoma surgeries targeting the uveoscleral drainage pathways have been drawing more attention lately. Among all the available techniques, procedures focusing on the supra-choroidal space seem particularly promising, by making use of a presumably efficient and secure outflow route and avoiding subconjunctival filtration blebs. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and the security of the different suprachoroidal drainage implants, namely the CyPass Micro-Stent, the iStent Supra, the SOLX Gold Shunt, the Aquashunt, and the STARflo Glaucoma Implant. Most clinical studies seem to currently point toward the direction that there are actual benefits in suprachoroidal surgeries by avoiding bleb-related complications. Nevertheless, even suprachoroidal implants may be subject to scarring and failure. More data are still needed, especially concerning long-term effects, although the approach does seem appealing. How to cite this article: Gigon A, Shaarawy T. The Suprachoroidal Route in Glaucoma Surgery. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(1): 13-20. PMID:27231415

  11. Update on pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Kingsley; Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2017-03-01

    The present article reviews the clinical features and pathogenesis of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma and provides an update regarding their diagnosis and management. Newer imaging modalities including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography facilitate visualization of the iris concavity characteristic of eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Patients with pigmentary glaucoma may be distinguished from those with other glaucoma types by the presence of typical symptoms, personality type, and patterns of diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation. Although laser iridotomy has been shown to alter iris anatomy in pigmentary glaucoma, it is not proven to slow visual field progression. Multiple trials have validated the safety and efficacy of filtering surgery in treating pigmentary glaucoma, with fewer studies published on the role of micro-invasive glaucoma surgery. Literature from the review period has further defined the unique clinical characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Laser surgery has a limited role in the management of these entities, whereas trabeculectomy remains an acceptable first-line surgical treatment. Further studies are needed to define the potential application of the newer micro-invasive glaucoma procedures in pigmentary glaucoma.

  12. Childhood glaucoma surgery in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, M; Edmunds, B; Fenerty, C; Khaw, P T

    2014-01-01

    Most children with glaucoma will require surgery in their lifetime, often in their childhood years. The surgical management of childhood glaucoma is however challenging, largely because of its greater potential for failure and complications as compared with surgery in adults. The available surgical repertoire for childhood glaucoma has remained relatively unchanged for many years with most progress owing to modifications to existing surgery. Although the surgical approach to childhood glaucoma varies around the world, angle surgery remains the preferred initial surgery for primary congenital glaucoma and a major advance has been the concept of incising the whole of the angle (circumferential trabeculotomy). Simple modifications to the trabeculectomy technique have been shown to considerably minimise complications. Glaucoma drainage devices maintain a vital role for certain types of glaucoma including those refractory to other surgery. Cyclodestruction continues to have a role mainly for patients following failed drainage/filtering surgery. Although the prognosis for childhood glaucoma has improved significantly since the introduction of angle surgery, there is still considerable progress to be made to ensure a sighted lifetime for children with glaucoma all over the world. Collaborative approaches to researching and delivering this care are required, and this paper highlights the need for more high-quality prospective surgical trials in the management of the childhood glaucoma. PMID:24924446

  13. Green disease in optical coherence tomography diagnosis of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mohamed S; Margolis, Michael; Lee, Richard K

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become an integral component of modern glaucoma practice. Utilizing color codes, OCT analysis has rendered glaucoma diagnosis and follow-up simpler and faster for the busy clinician. However, green labeling of OCT parameters suggesting normal values may confer a false sense of security, potentially leading to missed diagnoses of glaucoma and/or glaucoma progression. Conditions in which OCT color coding may be falsely negative (i.e., green disease) are identified. Early glaucoma in which retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disc parameters, albeit labeled green, are asymmetric in both eyes may result in glaucoma being undetected. Progressively decreasing RNFL thickness may reveal the presence of progressive glaucoma that, because of green labeling, can be missed by the clinician. Other ocular conditions that can increase RNFL thickness can make the diagnosis of coexisting glaucoma difficult. Recently introduced progression analysis features of OCT may help detect green disease. Recognition of green disease is of paramount importance in diagnosing and treating glaucoma. Understanding the limitations of imaging technologies coupled with evaluation of serial OCT analyses, prompt clinical examination, and structure-function correlation is important to avoid missing real glaucoma requiring treatment.

  14. Clinical impact of 8 prospective, randomized, multicenter glaucoma trials.

    PubMed

    Panarelli, Joseph F; Banitt, Michael R; Sidoti, Paul A; Budenz, Donald L; Singh, Kuldev

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of 8 multicenter randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on glaucoma practice. An electronic survey was distributed to the members of the American Glaucoma Society (AGS). Each participant was asked 2 study-specific questions and 1 standard question common to all 8 RCTs assessing the study's impact on clinical practice. RCTs included in the survey were the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS), Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma (CNTG) Study, European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS), Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), Glaucoma Laser Trial (GLT), Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS), and Tube Versus Trabeculectomy (TVT) Study. A 5-point Likert scale was used for rating all responses. The practice setting and duration of glaucoma practice was determined for all AGS members who responded. A total of 206 (23.0%) of 894 AGS members participated in the survey. Among those who responded, 46.4% were self classified as academic practitioners and 53.6% worked in a private practice setting. Mean Likert scores for the standard question evaluating the overall impact of the RCT were OHTS 4.47, CNTG Study 4.13, AGIS 3.78, TVT Study 3.53, EMGT 3.48, CIGTS 3.44, GLT 3.39, and 2.69 EGPS. Substantial differences were observed in the clinical impact of several RCTs in glaucoma. The reported impact of each study likely reflects several factors including study timing, design, conduct, and interpretation of results.

  15. Awareness of glaucoma in the rural population of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Kovai, Vilas; Srinivas, Marmamula; Shamanna, Bindiganavale R; Rao, Gullapalli N; Thomas, Ravi

    2005-09-01

    To explore the awareness of glaucoma amongst the rural population of Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 7775 subjects of all ages, representative of the rural population of Andhra Pradesh, participated in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. The responses of subjects older than 15 years (n=5573) who completed a structured questionnaire regarding awareness (heard of glaucoma) and knowledge (understanding of disease) of glaucoma formed the basis of this study. Awareness of glaucoma (n=18; 0.32%) was very poor in this rural population, and females were significantly less aware (p=0.007). Awareness of glaucoma was also significantly less among illiterate persons (p<0.0001), and socially backward population (p<0.0001). Majority of the respondents who were aware of glaucoma (n=10; 55.6%) did not know if visual loss due to glaucoma was permanent or reversible. The major source of awareness of glaucoma in this population was TV/magazines and other media followed by information from a relative or acquaintance suffering from the disease. Awareness of glaucoma is very poor in the rural areas of southern India. The data suggest the need for community-based health education programmes to increase the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma.

  16. Superior versus inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, Mohammad; Yazdani, Shahin; Shahabi, Camelia; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2009-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) (New World Medical Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation in the superior versus inferior quadrants. Prospective parallel cohort study. A total of 106 eyes of 106 patients with refractory glaucoma. Consecutive patients with refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation in the superior or inferior quadrants. Main outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP) and rate of complications. Other outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of glaucoma medications, and success rate (defined as at least 30% IOP reduction and 5glaucoma surgery, phthisis bulbi, or loss of light perception. Of a total of 106 eyes, 58 and 48 eyes underwent AGV implantation in the superior and inferior quadrants, respectively. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the study groups, except for preoperative IOP, which was higher in the superior group (P = 0.01). Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.6+/-8.49 months and 10.58+/-6.75 months in the superior and inferior groups, respectively (P = 0.477). BCVA was comparable between the groups at all postoperative visits (P>0.122). After 1 year, statistically significant but comparable IOP reduction from baseline (P<0.001) was achieved in both groups (47.0%+/-27.2% and 43.0%+/-24.5% reduction for superior and inferior groups, respectively, P = 0.725). The mean number of glaucoma medications was comparable after 1 year (1.3+/-1.2 vs. 1.9+/-0.8 for superior and inferior implants, respectively, P = 0.256). Success rates were also similar at 1 year: 27 eyes (81.8%) versus 20 eyes (95.2%) for superior and inferior implants, respectively (P = 0.227). However, the overall rate of complications, such as implant exposure necessitating removal, cosmetically unappealing appearance, and endophthalmitis, was higher in the inferior group: 12 eyes (25

  17. Glaucoma Mini-Shunt Implantation After Keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Gil, Jasbeth; García-Rodríguez, María de Los Ángeles; Gurria, Lulu U; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Navas, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    To report the outcomes of patients who underwent miniature glaucoma shunt implantation after secondary glaucoma due to keratoplasty. Prospective study of consecutive clinical cases who underwent mini-glaucoma shunt implantation following keratoplasty. In brief, a fornix-based conjunctival flap was performed, approximately 50% thickness scleral flap. Mitomycin C 0.025% placed under Tenon's capsule. A 25-G needle created entry for mini-shunt. Ex-PRESS model P-50 was inserted. Scleral flap and conjunctiva were closed with 10-0 Nylon. STATA 8.0 and SPSS software were used for statistical analysis. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with a mean age of 39.70 years (SD=18.33, range: 18 to 76). A total of 64.70% were male and 35.30% female. Eleven cases after penetrating keratoplasty, 3 cases after triple procedure, 2 after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and 1 following endothelial keratoplasty. Most of the indications for keratoplasty were keratoconus in 9 cases (52.94%), 4 due to endothelial failure (23.52%), 3 cases of herpetic keratitis (17.64%), and 1 case of post-LASIK ectasia (5.88%). Mean preoperative intraocular pressure was 35.94 mm Hg with maximal medical therapy (SD=9.65, range: 18 to 55). Decreasing intraocular pressure to 12.76 mm Hg postoperatively (SD=2.51, range 10 to 18) (P=0.001). Mean follow-up after mini-glaucoma shunt implantation was 23.76 months (SD=8.73, range: 10 to 35 mo). Preoperative mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 1.31±0.63 (20/408 Snellen) and postoperative mean UDVA was 0.85±0.40 (20/141 Snellen) (P=0.001). Preoperative mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 0.83±0.76 (20/135 Snellen) and postoperative mean CDVA was 0.56±0.44 (20/72 Snellen) (P=0.032). Ex-PRESS miniature glaucoma shunt could be an alternative treatment in postkeratoplasty glaucoma resistant to medical treatment. This technique may be helpful, in trying to avoid corneal damage produced by conventional glaucoma procedures.

  18. Diagnostic Ability of Automated Pupillography in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Harsha L; Kadambi, Sujatha V; Mehta, Pooja; Dasari, Srilakshmi; Puttaiah, Narendra K; Pradhan, Zia S; Rao, Dhanraj A S; Shetty, Rohit

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability of automated pupillography measurements in glaucoma and study the effect of inter-eye asymmetry in glaucomatous damage on the diagnostic ability. In an observational, cross-sectional study, 47 glaucoma patients and 42 control subjects underwent automated pupillography using a commercially available device. Diagnostic abilities of the pupillary response measurements were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. Influence of inter-eye asymmetry in glaucoma [inter-eye mean deviation (MD) difference on visual fields (VF)] on the diagnostic ability of pupillography parameters was evaluated by ROC regression approach. The AUCs of automated pupillography parameters ranged from 0.60 (amplitude score with peripheral blue stimulus) to 0.82 (amplitude score with full field white stimulus, Amp-FF-W). Sensitivity at 95% specificity ranged between 5% (amplitude score with full field blue stimulus) and 45% (amplitude score with full field green stimulus). Inter-eye MD difference significantly affected the diagnostic performance of automated pupillography parameters (p < 0.05). AUCs of Amp-FF-W at inter-eye MD difference of 0 dB, 5 dB, 10 dB and 15 dB were 0.71, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.93, respectively, according to the regression model. The corresponding sensitivities at 95% specificity were 20%, 34%, 50% and 66%, respectively. The diagnostic abilities of even the best automated pupillography parameters were only moderate in glaucoma. The performance of these pupillography measurements in detecting glaucoma significantly increased with greater inter-eye asymmetry in the glaucomatous damage.

  19. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... retina. 6009Unhealed eye injury. General Rating Formula for Diagnostic Codes 6000 through 6009 Evaluate... irregularities, if this would result in a higher evaluation. 6012Angle-closure glaucoma: Evaluate on the basis of either visual impairment due to angle-closure glaucoma or incapacitating episodes, whichever results in a...

  20. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... retina. 6009Unhealed eye injury. General Rating Formula for Diagnostic Codes 6000 through 6009 Evaluate... irregularities, if this would result in a higher evaluation. 6012Angle-closure glaucoma: Evaluate on the basis of either visual impairment due to angle-closure glaucoma or incapacitating episodes, whichever results in a...

  1. 38 CFR 4.79 - Schedule of ratings-eye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... retina. 6009Unhealed eye injury. General Rating Formula for Diagnostic Codes 6000 through 6009 Evaluate... irregularities, if this would result in a higher evaluation. 6012Angle-closure glaucoma: Evaluate on the basis of either visual impairment due to angle-closure glaucoma or incapacitating episodes, whichever results in a...

  2. Soap Gets in Your Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Alistair; Bloom, Philip

    1990-01-01

    We present a previously unreported series of five cases of acute angle closure glaucoma associated with watching the Australia soap opera "Neighbours". Two cases were bilateral and associated with watching two episodes of "Neighbours" on the same day. The pathogenesis, and possible role of watching soap operas in the causation of primary angle closure glaucoma is discussed. PMID:1369543

  3. The effect of an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant on corneal endothelial cell density in children with glaucoma secondary to uveitis.

    PubMed

    Kalinina Ayuso, Viera; Scheerlinck, Laura M; de Boer, Joke H

    2013-03-01

    To assess the effect of Ahmed glaucoma valve implants on corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) in children with uveitic glaucoma. Cross-sectional study. setting: Institutional. patientpopulation: Eighty eyes from 42 patients diagnosed with uveitis before the age of 16. Twenty-eight eyes had an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant because of secondary glaucoma. Fifty-two eyes without an implant served as controls. intervention orobservationprocedure(s): Corneal ECD was examined cross-sectionally using a noncontact specular microscope. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations analyses with correction for paired eyes were performed. mainoutcomemeasure(s): Correlation of ECD with the presence of an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant and with the time following implantation. ECD was significantly lower in the Ahmed glaucoma valve group than in controls (2359 and 3088 cells/mm(2), respectively; P < .001) following an average of 3.5 years after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Presence of an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant, previous intraocular surgery, age, duration of uveitis, and history of corneal touch by the implant tube were all significantly associated with decreased ECD. Following a multivariate analysis, presence of an Ahmed glaucoma valve implant (B = -340; adjusted P < .011) and older age (B = -58; adjusted P = .005) remained independently associated with decreased ECD. Within the implant group, the age-adjusted time interval following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation was highly correlated with decreased ECD (B = -558, P < .001). Ahmed glaucoma valve implants in children with uveitic glaucoma are independently associated with decreased ECD, and this effect is associated with the time interval following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A prospective comparative study on neovascular glaucoma and non-neovascular refractory glaucoma following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Chen, Shida; Li, Xingyi; Gao, Xinbo; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-01-01

    Neovascular glaucoma is a refractory disease, and difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and non-NVG patients. This prospective, non-randomized study included 55 eyes of 55 patients with refractory glaucoma; 27 had NVG (NVG group) and 28 had non-NVG (non-NVG group). All of the patients underwent AGVI. The NVG group was adjunctively injected with intravitreal ranibizumab/bevacizumab (IVR/IVB) before AGVI. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was the primary outcome measure in this study. Surgical success rate, number of antiglaucoma medications used, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and postoperative complications were analyzed between the groups. All of the patients completed the study (follow-up of 12 months). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the qualified success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 70.5% and 92.9%, respectively; this difference was significant (P = 0.036). The complete success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 66.7% and 89.3%, respectively (P = 0.049). Compared with preoperative examinations, the postoperative mean IOP and use of medications were significantly lower at all follow-up time points in both groups (all P < 0.05). There were significant differences in BCVA between the two groups at the 12-month follow-up (χ(2) = 9.86, P = 0.020). Cox proportional hazards regression showed NVG as a risk factor for surgical failure (RR = 15.08, P = 0.033). Postoperative complications were similar between the two groups. AGVI is a safe and effective procedure in refractory glaucoma, but the success rate of surgery was related to the type of refractory glaucoma. The complete and qualified success rates of NVG patient adjunctive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment are still lower than those of non-NVG patients.

  5. Glaucoma and cataract surgery: two roads merging into one.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manjool; Law, Geoffrey; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the increasing utilization of cataract extraction in the management of glaucoma and to highlight advances in surgical care that can promote synergistic treatment of these comorbid conditions. Recent years have demonstrated significant advances in the management of glaucoma through the use of novel microinvasive glaucoma devices. Furthermore, an increased understanding of the role of cataract surgery in the treatment of various glaucomas warrants review. Nevertheless, cataract surgery in the glaucoma patient warrants specific preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative planning to optimize visual function and quality of life while mitigating potential risk factors for adverse events. Although the challenges of performing cataract extraction on glaucoma patients exist, the potential benefit to these patients is substantial. With attention to pre- and perioperative surgical planning and intraoperative technique, as well as with awareness and potential utilization of novel devices and treatment strategies, cataract extraction offers a unique platform for anatomical and functional improvement in this increasingly common cohort of patients.

  6. Alternative therapy in glaucoma management: is there any role?

    PubMed

    Parikh, Rajul S; Parikh, Shefali R

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Various randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) does reduce progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. However, there is lots of interest in nonpharmacological options that includes lifestyle adjustment and alternative and complementary therapy (ACT). At least 5% glaucoma population uses ACT. Various lifestyle activities like exercise and alcohol can reduce IOP by 1 to 2 mm Hg but would have small effect on glaucoma. The psychological stress can increase IOP. Hypothetically and few studies do show neuroprotective effect (or effect on ocular blood flow) of alcohol, Gingko biloba, bilberry, but the current evidence is weak for its routine use. We must also remember the side effects of 'medications' (e.g., marijuana, alcohol) before promoting as remedy for glaucoma. In current armamentarium of glaucoma management, ACT cannot substitute the conventional treatment available to lower IOP.

  7. Case report: imaging and treatment of ophthalmic manifestations in oculodentodigital dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mosaed, Sameh; Jacobsen, Bradley H; Lin, Ken Young

    2016-01-07

    Diagnostic and surgical management of severe chronic angle- closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body cysts can be difficult to manage in a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia. A 6-year old girl with oculodentodigital dysplasia, with progressive chronic angle- closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body cysts presented to our clinic. The initial examination revealed counting fingers vision in the left eye. Intraocular pressure (IOP), as assessed by tonopen, was 31 mm Hg. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed ciliary body cysts in the left eye, and gonioscopy confirmed chronic angle closure. A tube shunt was placed to control the elevated IOP. A year after her tube shunt placement in the left eye, ultrasound biomiscropy was performed on her right eye and showed no ciliary body cysts. Gonioscopy in the right eye revealed an open angle to the ciliary body band. Subsequent serial gonioscopy every 3 months showed gradual narrowing of the right eye angle and finally three-and-a-half years after tube placement of the left eye, her right eye IOP became uncontrolled with medications alone and a tube shunt was similarly placed in the right eye. Intraoperative ultrasound biomicroscopy performed at the time of the right eye tube shunt revealed extensive ciliary body cysts in the right eye. Her IOP in both eyes have been well controlled since the placement of tube shunts. This is one of the first reported cases of severe chronic angle- closure glaucoma secondary to ciliary body cysts in a patient with oculodentodigital dysplasia. We believe that early screening for ciliary body cysts is important in patients with oculodentodigital dysplasia.

  8. Iris juvenile xanthogranuloma in an infant - spontaneous hyphema and secondary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pantalon, Anca; Ștefănache, Tudor; Danciu, Mihai; Zurac, Sabina; Chiseliță, Dorin

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic skin disorder mainly encountered during infancy and childhood. Although with multiple potential localizations, less than 1% of the cases exhibit ocular manifestations. Some of these might lead to serious complications, specifically, secondary glaucoma that can result in severe and blinding eye disease. The aim of the present case report was to demonstrate typical clinical features, emphasize the difficulties attributed when managing these patients and literature review. We present the case of 4 months old female baby with spontaneous hyphema and secondary unilateral glaucoma due to ocular JXG. The natural history and treatment of the condition were extremely difficult to handle due to multiple opinions in histopathology related to other severe conditions that resembled with the lesions detected in this case: myelomonocytic leukemia and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Although a minority of patients with JXG have ocular involvement, recognition of this condition is important because a treatment delay can lead to serious complications, such as glaucoma and spontaneous hyphema, as in our case. A thorough differential diagnosis represents the key to a proper management plan in these patients, both on short and long term. "Triple disease" defined as JXG plus neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JCML) has been reported, but it was not confirmed in our patient.

  9. Glaucoma: Biological Trabecular and Neuroretinal Pathology with Perspectives of Therapy Innovation and Preventive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzi, Raffaele; Tridico, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common degenerative disease affecting retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and optic nerve axons, with progressive and chronic course. It is one of the most important reasons of social blindness in industrialized countries. Glaucoma can lead to the development of irreversible visual field loss, if not treated. Diagnosis may be difficult due to lack of symptoms in early stages of disease. In many cases, when patients arrive at clinical evaluation, a severe neuronal damage may have already occurred. In recent years, newer perspective in glaucoma treatment have emerged. The current research is focusing on finding newer drugs and associations or better delivery systems in order to improve the pharmacological treatment and patient compliance. Moreover, the application of various stem cell types with restorative and neuroprotective intent may be found appealing (intravitreal autologous cellular therapy). Advances are made also in terms of parasurgical treatment, characterized by various laser types and techniques. Moreover, recent research has led to the development of central and peripheral retinal rehabilitation (featuring residing cells reactivation and replacement of defective elements), as well as innovations in diagnosis through more specific and refined methods and inexpensive tests. PMID:28928631

  10. Study on Incentives for Glaucoma Medication Adherence (SIGMA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to increase glaucoma medication adherence using value pricing.

    PubMed

    Bilger, Marcel; Wong, Tina T; Howard, Kaye L; Lee, Jia Yi; Toh, Ai Nee; John, Geraldine; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Finkelstein, Eric A

    2016-07-15

    non-adherent glaucoma patients, and more generally whether this approach represents a promising strategy to cost-effectively improve chronic disease management. NCT02271269 . Registered on 19 October 2014.

  11. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma--a major review.

    PubMed

    Niyadurupola, Nuwan; Broadway, David C

    2008-12-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an interesting condition that can lead to secondary open angle glaucoma. Pigmentary glaucoma is primarily a disease of young people, myopes and men. PDS is characterized by the presence of Krukenberg spindles, iris trans-illumination defects, trabecular meshwork pigmentation and backward bowing of the iris. Posterior bowing of the iris causes rubbing of the pigmented iris epithelium against lens structures, liberation of pigment and trabecular meshwork changes that result in reduced aqueous outflow with the risk of glaucoma. Peripheral laser iridotomy can reverse backward bowing of the iris and may prevent progression of pigmentary glaucoma.

  12. Short term outcome of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in management of refractory glaucoma in a tertiary hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manali R.; Khandekar, Rajiv B.; Zutshi, Rajiv; Mahrooqi, Rahima

    2013-01-01

    Background: We present outcomes of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation in treating refractory glaucoma in a tertiary hospital in Oman. Refractory glaucoma was defined as previously failed conventional glaucoma surgery and an uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) of more than 21 mm Hg despite treatment with three topical and/or oral therapy. Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study was conducted in 2010. Details of medical and surgical treatment were recorded. Ophthalmologists examined eyes and performed glaucoma surgeries using AGV. The best corrected distant vision, IOP, and glaucoma medications were prospectively reviewed on 1st day, 1st, 6th, 12th week postoperatively, and at the last follow up. Result: Glaucoma specialists examined and treated 40 eyes with refractory glaucoma of 39 patients (20 males + 19 females). Neo-vascular glaucoma was present in 23 eyes. Vision before surgery was <3/60 in 21 eyes. At 12 weeks, one eye had vision better than 6/12, seven eyes had vision 6/18 to 6/60, and eight eyes had vision 6/60 to 3/60. Mean IOP was reduced from 42.9 (SD 16) to 14.2 (SD 8) and 19.1 (SD 7.8) mmHg at one and 12 weeks after surgery, respectively. At 12 weeks, five (12.5%) eyes had IOP controlled without medication. In 33 (77.5%) eyes, pressure was controlled by using one or two eye drops. The mean number of preoperative anti-glaucoma medications (2.38; SD 1.1) was reduced compared to the mean number of postoperative medications (1.92; SD 0.9) at 12 weeks. Conclusion: We succeeded in reducing visual disabilities and the number of anti-glaucoma medications used to treat refractory glaucoma by AGV surgery. PMID:23772122

  13. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey.

    PubMed

    Grigera, Daniel E; Mello, Paulo Augusto Arruda; Barbosa, Wilma Lelis; Casiraghi, Javier Fernando; Grossmann, Rodolfo Perez; Peyret, Alejo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1) and diagnosis (Part 2) of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. Fifty participants from 14 countries completed the questionnaire. For the medical treatment of glaucoma, nearly all respondents (98% or greater) confirmed that medical treatment as first-line therapy is preferred to surgery, prostaglandin analogs are the medication of first choice for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), longitudinal monitoring of efficacy should include intraocular pressure, structural and functional status, as well as if patients' quality of life is impaired by the high cost of medication. For the diagnosis of glaucoma section, all respondents confirmed that, after initial examination, gonioscopy should be repeated over time, standard automated perimetry is the most important functional examination for diagnosis and monitoring of primary open-angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness is important in assessment of glaucoma, and computerized imaging tests help in clinical evaluation of optic disc. This survey shows a high level of agreement on most aspects of glaucoma diagnosis and treatment among Latin American glaucoma experts. Areas of disagreement highlight the need for further evidence or education. These findings will be useful for guiding future efforts to optimize glaucoma practice by clinicians in Latin America.

  14. [Management of corneal endothelial decompensation with Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant].

    PubMed

    Röck, T; Bartz-Schmidt, K-U; Röck, D; Yoeruek, E

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the main causes for developing bullous keratopathy are from problems related to intraocular surgery, trauma, infection, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and chronically elevated intraocular pressure. In the 1990s penetrating keratoplasty was once considered the therapy of choice for treatment of bullous keratopathy but in recent years it has been replaced by posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) procedure represents the final development of posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The question now arises whether DMEK can be used in patients with bullous keratopathy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. A 72-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation with the diagnosis of bullous keratopathy and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. The bullous keratopathy was caused by a variety of previous operations as well as decompensation of intraocular pressure. This article describes the therapy of bullous keratopathy by DMEK with existing Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. After surgery the cornea became clear and the best-corrected visual acuity improved from hand movement to 0.2. The intraocular pressure remained normal (10-14 mmHg) without antiglaucoma medication and the endothelial cell count decreased only slightly over a follow-up of 13 months. No complications were encountered. The DMEK surgical procedure seems to be possible in patients with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant and endothelial decompensation. However, further studies with a larger number of patients should follow to validate the replacement of penetrating keratoplasty and other posterior lamellar procedures by DMEK.

  15. Pigmentary glaucoma accompanied by Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Jalali, Kamran Hodjat

    2012-08-01

    To report a case of pigmentary glaucoma (PG) accompanied by Usher syndrome. Case report. The results were presented after standard ocular examination, visual field test, anterior segment and fundus photography, electroretinography, and otolaryngology consultation were conducted. Typical retinitis pigmentosa, flat electroretinography, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, high intraocular pressure, Krukenberg spindle, iris concavity, radial iris transillumination defect, severe pigment deposition on the trabecular meshwork, and glaucomatous optic nerve damage were indicative of PG accompanied by Usher syndrome. In some rare cases, PG may coexist with Usher syndrome. Common findings of Usher syndrome, including night blindness, impaired vision, visual field defects, and retinal changes may distract the clinician from considering the diagnosis of glaucoma. Such association should be borne in mind to make a timely diagnosis and treatment possible.

  16. Pattern-reversal electroretinograms in unilateral glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wanger, P; Persson, H E

    1983-06-01

    Pattern-reversal and flash electroretinograms (ERG) and oscillatory potentials (OP) were recorded from 11 patients with unilateral glaucoma. All glaucomatous eyes had reduced amplitudes both compared to the opposite eye in the same patient and to reference values. In 10 of the 11 cases this reduction was below the level of normal variation. The difference in pattern-reversal ERG amplitude means from glaucomatous and opposite eyes was statistically significant. No differences were observed in flash ERGs or OPs. The histopathologic correlate to the visual field defects in glaucoma is retinal ganglion cell degeneration. The present electrophysiologic findings support the view, based on results from animal experiments, that the pattern-reversal ERG reflects ganglion cell activity.

  17. Cellular proliferation after experimental glaucoma filtration surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Jampel, H.D.; McGuigan, L.J.; Dunkelberger, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    We used light microscopic autoradiography to determine the time course of cellular incorporation of tritiated thymidine (a correlate of cell division) following glaucoma filtration surgery in seven eyes of four cynomolgus monkeys with experimental glaucoma. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine was detected as early as 24 hours postoperatively. Peak incorporation occurred five days postoperatively and had returned to baseline levels by day 11. Cells incorporating tritiated thymidine included keratocytes, episcleral cells, corneal and capillary endothelial cells, and conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy was correlated with the autoradiographic results to demonstrate that fibroblasts were dividing on the corneoscleral margin.more » These findings have potential clinical implications for the use of antiproliferative agents after filtration surgery.« less

  18. Incidence of and risk factors for glaucoma in lost-to-follow-up normal-tension glaucoma suspect patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jun Sang; Lee, So Yeon; Hong, Young Jae

    2016-05-25

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors of glaucoma in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) suspect patients who had been lost-to-follow-up for at least 24 months. Seventy-two eyes of 72 NTG suspect patients who returned to the hospital after at least 24 months of follow-up loss were enrolled in this study between January 2009 and June 2013. The data were collected retrospectively. The incidence of glaucoma was investigated using a comprehensive glaucoma evaluation in lost-to-follow-up NTG suspect patients. The patients were classified into the glaucoma group, who developed glaucoma during the study period, and the glaucoma suspect group, who did not, to analyse the risk factors for glaucoma. The number of patients who developed glaucoma was 7 (9.7 %) out of the 72 NTG suspect patients who had been mean lost-to-follow-up for 44 months. The rate of progression from suspected to glaucoma was 2.6 %/year. In the glaucoma group, the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.43 ± 2.44 mmHg, and the average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was 78.14 ± 7.60 μm; in the glaucoma suspect group, the baseline IOP was 14.95 ± 2.47 mmHg, and the average RNFL thickness was 92.55 ± 7.65 μm. The study results showed that the glaucoma group had higher baseline IOP and a thinner average RNFL (p = 0.003; p < 0.001). The results of the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for glaucoma were high baseline IOP (OR = 1.63; p = 0.037) and a thin average RNFL (OR = 0.841; p = 0.004). The incidence of glaucoma in the lost-to-follow-up NTG suspect patients was 9.7 % for approximately 44 months, at a rate of 2.6 %/year. The risk factors for glaucoma in these patients were high baseline IOP and a thin average RNFL.

  19. Dynamic tube movement after reimplantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve in a child with glaucoma in aphakia

    PubMed Central

    Senthil, Sirisha; Badakare, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl underwent an Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation as a primary procedure for glaucoma in aphakia due to congenital cataract surgery. Following an unintended accidental excision of AGV tube during bleb revision for hypertensive phase, AGV was explanted and a second AGV was implanted in the same quadrant after 2 weeks. This resulted in a rare complication of dynamic tube movement in the anterior chamber with tube corneal touch and localised corneal oedema. Excision of the offending unstable tube and placement of a paediatric AGV in a different quadrant led to resolution of this complication, stable vision and well-controlled intraocular pressure. This case highlights the possible causes of dynamic tube, related complications and its management. This case also highlights the importance of understanding the various physiological phases after glaucoma drainage device implantation and their appropriate management. PMID:24695662

  20. Hypothyroidism and Glaucoma in The United States

    PubMed Central

    Kakigi, Caitlin; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Wang, Sophia Y.; Singh, Kuldev; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira; Lin, Shan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included all subjects above the age of 40 years from two nationwide surveys: the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) as well as the 2007 and 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The presence or absence of glaucoma, thyroid disease and other demographic and health-related information including comorbidities was ascertained via interview. Blood samples were collected from NHANES subjects and analyzed for thyrotropin (TSH). Results A total of 13,599 and 3,839 NHIS and NHANES participants respectively were analyzed to assess for a possible relationship between self-reported glaucoma, and self-reported hypothyroidism as well as self-reported thyroid disease. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for NHIS showed a significant association between self-reported glaucoma and self-reported hypothyroidism (OR 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.99). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, race, comorbidities, and health-related behavior, however, showed no association between self-reported glaucoma and hypothyroidism or thyroid disease in both surveys (OR 1.60, 95%CI 0.87-2.95 for NHIS; OR 1.05, 95%CI 0.59-1.88 for NHANES). Conclusion A previously reported association between hypothyroidism and glaucomatous disease was not confirmed in two large U.S. health survey populations. While such an association was noted in the univariate analysis for the NHIS survey, such a relationship was not found in the multivariate analysis after adjustment for potential confounding variables. PMID:26230664

  1. Is topical haloperidol a useful glaucoma treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, M. J.; Andrews, V.

    1986-01-01

    A randomised, double blind, single dose study of topical haloperidol, a dopamine receptor blocking drug, was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. After its administration a modest reduction in intraocular pressure was recorded over the six-hour study period, but the difference was not significant at the p less than 0.05 level. Although dopamine blocking agents are effective in reducing intraocular pressure in experimental animals, topical haloperidol appears unlikely to be clinically useful in the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:3718908

  2. Surgical outcomes of trabeculectomy and glaucoma drainage implant for uveitic glaucoma and relationship with uveitis activity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye Jin; Kong, Yu Xiang George; Tao, Lingwei William; Lim, Lyndell L; Martin, Keith R; Green, Catherine; Ruddle, Jonathan; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2017-07-01

    This study provides ophthalmologists who manage uveitic glaucoma with important information on factors that can affect the success of surgical management of this challenging disease. This study examines surgical outcomes of trabeculectomy and glaucoma device implant (GDI) surgery for uveitic glaucoma, in particular the effect of uveitis activity on surgical outcomes. Retrospective chart review at a tertiary institution. Eighty-two cases with uveitic glaucoma (54 trabeculectomies and 28 (GDI) surgeries) performed between 1 December 2006 and 30 November 2014. Associations of factors with surgical outcomes were examined using univariate and multivariate analysis. Surgical outcomes as defined in Guidelines from World Glaucoma Association. Average follow up was 26.4 ± 21.5 months. Overall qualified success rate of the trabeculectomies was not statistically different from GDI, being 67% and 75%, respectively (P = 0.60). Primary and secondary GDI operations showed similar success rates. The most common postoperative complication was hypotony (~30%). Active uveitis at the time of operation was higher in trabeculectomy compared with GDI group (35% vs. 14%). Active uveitis at the time of surgery did not significantly increase risk of failure for trabeculectomies. Recurrence of uveitis was significantly associated with surgical failure in trabeculectomy group (odds ratio 4.8, P = 0.02) but not in GDI group. Surgical success rate of GDI was not significantly different from trabeculectomy for uveitic glaucoma in this study. Regular monitoring, early and prolonged intensive treatment of ocular inflammation is important for surgical success particularly following trabeculectomy. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Comparison between visual field defect in pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Nilforushan, Naveed; Yadgari, Maryam; Jazayeri, Anisalsadat

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual field defect patterns between pigmentary glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective, comparative study. Patients with diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in mild to moderate stages were enrolled in this study. Each of the 52 point locations in total and pattern deviation plot (excluding 2 points adjacent to blind spot) of 24-2 Humphrey visual field as well as six predetermined sectors were compared using SPSS software version 20. Comparisons between 2 groups were performed with the Student t test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with a mean age of 66.26 ± 11 years (range 48-81 years) in the POAG group and 36 eyes of 22 patients with a mean age of 50.52 ± 11 years (range 36-69 years) in the PG group were studied. (P = 0.00). More deviation was detected in points 1, 3, 4, and 32 in total deviation (P = 0.03, P = 0.015, P = 0.018, P = 0.023) and in points 3, 4, and 32 in pattern deviation (P = 0.015, P = 0.049, P = 0.030) in the POAG group, which are the temporal parts of the field. It seems that the temporal area of the visual field in primary open-angle glaucoma is more susceptible to damage in comparison with pigmentary glaucoma.

  4. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.

  5. Clinical characteristics and current treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Laura P; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-06-02

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder in which degenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGC) produce significant visual disability. Clinically, glaucoma refers to an array of conditions associated with variably elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that contributes to RGC loss via mechanical stress, vascular abnormalities, and other mechanisms, such as immune phenomena. The clinical diagnosis of glaucoma requires assessment of the ocular anterior segment with slit lamp biomicroscopy, which allows the clinician to recognize signs of conditions that can produce elevated IOP. After measurement of IOP, a specialized prismatic lens called a gonioscope is used to determine whether the angle is physically open or closed. The structural manifestation of RGC loss is optic nerve head atrophy and excavation of the neuroretinal rim tissue. Treatment is guided by addressing secondary causes for elevated IOP (such as inflammation, infection, and ischemia) whenever possible. Subsequently, a variety of medical, laser, and surgical options are used to achieve a target IOP. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Automatic CDR Estimation for Early Glaucoma Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Jiménez, S.; Alemany, P.

    2017-01-01

    Glaucoma is a degenerative disease that constitutes the second cause of blindness in developed countries. Although it cannot be cured, its progression can be prevented through early diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for automatic glaucoma diagnosis based on retinal colour images. We focus on capturing the inherent colour changes of optic disc (OD) and cup borders by computing several colour derivatives in CIE L∗a∗b∗ colour space with CIE94 colour distance. In addition, we consider spatial information retaining these colour derivatives and the original CIE L∗a∗b∗ values of the pixel and adding other characteristics such as its distance to the OD centre. The proposed strategy is robust due to a simple structure that does not need neither initial segmentation nor removal of the vascular tree or detection of vessel bends. The method has been extensively validated with two datasets (one public and one private), each one comprising 60 images of high variability of appearances. Achieved class-wise-averaged accuracy of 95.02% and 81.19% demonstrates that this automated approach could support physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in its early stage, and therefore, it could be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening programs. PMID:29279773

  7. Novel drug delivery systems for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lavik, E; Kuehn, M H; Kwon, Y H

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by pharmaceutical or surgical means has long been the standard treatment for glaucoma. A number of excellent drugs are available that are effective in reducing IOP. These drugs are typically applied as eye drops. However, patient adherence can be poor, thus reducing the clinical efficacy of the drugs. Several novel delivery systems designed to address the issue of adherence and to ensure consistent reduction of IOP are currently under development. These delivery systems include contact lenses-releasing glaucoma medications, injectables such as biodegradable micro- and nanoparticles, and surgically implanted systems. These new technologies are aimed at increasing clinical efficacy by offering multiple delivery options and are capable of managing IOP for several months. There is also a desire to have complementary neuroprotective approaches for those who continue to show progression, despite IOP reduction. Many potential neuroprotective agents are not suitable for traditional oral or drop formulations. Their potential is dependent on developing suitable delivery systems that can provide the drugs in a sustained, local manner to the retina and optic nerve. Drug delivery systems have the potential to improve patient adherence, reduce side effects, increase efficacy, and ultimately, preserve sight for glaucoma patients. In this review, we discuss benefits and limitations of the current systems of delivery and application, as well as those on the horizon. PMID:21475311

  8. Optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma care.

    PubMed

    Chansangpetch, Sunee; Lin, Shan C

    2018-05-14

    Rapid improvements in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology have allowed for enhancement of both image resolution and scanning speed, and the development of vascular assessment modality. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is the non-invasive in vivo imaging of the vasculature located within the retina and optic nerve head area. The principle of OCTA is to use the variations in OCT signals caused by moving particles as the contrast mechanism for imaging of flow. Several algorithms which aim to maximize the contrast signal and minimize the noise have been developed including the phase-based techniques, intensity-based techniques (e.g., split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography (SSADA)), and complex-based techniques (e.g., optical microangiography (OMAG)). With its reliable technique, high image resolution, and current availability, OCTA has been widely used in the assessment of posterior segment diseases including glaucoma in which ocular perfusion dysfunction has been proposed as a pathophysiological mechanism. This review will provide the reader with information on the principle techniques of OCTA; the current literature on OCTA reproducibility; its applications to glaucoma detection and monitoring of progression; and the role of OCTA in the assessment of the vascular component in glaucoma pathogenesis.

  9. A New Glaucoma Severity Score Combining Structural and Functional Defects.

    PubMed

    Wachtl, J; Töteberg-Harms, M; Frimmel, S; Kniestedt, C

    2017-04-01

    Background In order to assess glaucoma severity and to compare the success of surgical and medical therapy and study outcomes, an objective and independent staging tool is necessary. A combination of information from both structural and functional testing is probably the best approach to stage glaucomatous damage. There has been no universally accepted standard for glaucoma staging. The aim of this study was to develop a Glaucoma Severity Score (GSS) for objective assessment of a patient's glaucoma severity, combining both functional and structural information. Materials and methods The Glaucoma Severity Score includes the following 3 criteria: superior and inferior Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL) thickness, perimetric mean defect (MD), and agreement of anatomical and perimetric defects, as assessed by two glaucoma specialists. The specialists defined a staging tool for each of the 3 criteria in a consensus process, assigning specific characteristics to a scale value between 0 and 2 or 0 and 3, respectively. The GSS ranges between 0 and 10 points. In a prospective observational study, the data of 112 glaucoma patients were assessed independently by the two specialists according to this staging tool. Results The GSS was applied to 112 eyes and patients (59.8 % female) with a mean age of 66.3 ± 13.1 years. Mean GSS was 4.73 points. Cohen's kappa coefficient was determined to measure inter-rater agreement between glaucoma specialists for the third criterion. With κ = 0.83, the agreement was very good. Thus, all 3 criteria of the GSS may be regarded as objective. Conclusions The Glaucoma Severity Score is an objective tool, combining both structural and functional characteristics, and permitting comparison of different patients, populations and studies. The Glaucoma Severity Score has proven effective in the objective assessment of 112 glaucoma patients and is relatively user-friendly in clinical practice. A comparative study of the GSS with the results of

  10. [Bibliometric analysis of current glaucoma research based on Pubmed database].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-bin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min-wen; Chen, Shi-da; Zhang, Xiu-lan

    2013-11-01

    To survey the distribution pattern and subject domain knowledge of worldwide glaucoma research based on literatures in Pubmed database. Literatures on glaucoma published in 2007 to 2011 were identified in Pubmed database. The analytic items of an article include published year, country, language author, and journal. After core mesh terms had been characterized by BICOMS, the co-occurrence matrix was built. Cluster analysis was finished by SPSS 20.0. Then visualized network was drawn using ucinet 6.0. Totally 6427 literatures were included, the number of annual articles changed slightly between 2007 and 2011. The United States, England, Germany, Australia, and France together accounted for 77.63% of articles. There were 52 high-frequency subjects and hot topics were clustered into the following 10 categories: (1) Pathology of optic disc and nerve fibers and OCT application, (2) METHODS: of visual field (VF) and visual function examination, (3) Glaucoma drug medications, (4) Pathology and physiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) including VF and intraocular pressure (IOP), (5) Glaucoma surgery, (6) Gene research related to POAG, (7) Glaucoma disease pathology and animal models, (8) Ocular hypertension (OHT) induced complications and corneal changes, (9) Etiology of congenital glaucoma and complications, (10) Etiology and epidemiology of glaucoma. The visualized domain knowledge mapping was successfully built. The pathology of optic disc and nerve fibers, medications, and surgery were well developed. Study on IOP and visual field was in the core domain, which have an important link to etiology, diagnosis, and therapy. The researches on glaucomatous gene, disease pathology model, congenital glaucoma, etiology and epidemiology were not developed well, which are of great promotion space. The distribution pattern and subject domain knowledge of worldwide glaucoma research in the recent five years were shown by using bibliometric analysis.Western developed

  11. Supra-Tenon Capsule Implantation of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Refractory Pediatric Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Elhefney, Eman M; Al-Sharkawy, Hossam T; Kishk, Hanem M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of supra-Tenon capsule implantation of an Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) as a measure to decrease the fibrotic potential of the Tenon capsule on bleb formation and its subsequent effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) control in children with refractory glaucoma. Mansoura Ophthalmic Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. A prospective interventional study. Twenty-two eyes of 12 children with refractory glaucoma underwent supra-Tenon capsule implantation of AGV. Ophthalmic examinations under general anesthesia including measurement of the corneal diameter and the IOP with Perkin's tonometer were performed preoperatively, on the first postoperative day, the first postoperative week, weekly for the first month, 2-weekly for the following 3 months, and monthly for at least 18 months. Postoperative complications and the number of glaucoma medications used preoperatively and postoperatively were recorded. The paired Student t test was used to compare preoperative and postoperative data. There were 12 eyes (54.6%) with refractory congenital glaucoma, 7 eyes (31.8%) with refractory pseudophakic glaucoma, and 3 eyes (13.6%) with refractory aphakic glaucoma. Patients included 10 male (83.3%) and 2 female (16.7%) children with a mean age of 16.3±9.7 months. The mean follow-up duration was 24.1±4.3 months. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean preoperative IOP (30.7±2.88 mm Hg) and the mean postoperative IOP (16.1±3.60 mm Hg) (t=16.22 and P=0.000, with a mean decrease in the IOP by 47.6%). The difference between the mean number of antiglaucoma medications before surgery (1.86±0.4) and after surgery (1.0±0.9) was also statistically significant (t=4.31 and P=0.000). Total success was achieved in 18 eyes (81.9%). Postoperative complications included tube exposure and slippage (10%), hypotony (10%), and hyphema (5%). Supra-Tenon capsule implantation of the AGV was successful in controlling the IOP with few

  12. Daily cost of glaucoma medications in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Wu, Lingling; Li, Aijun

    2007-01-01

    To determine and compare the daily cost of various glaucoma medications in China. The majority of glaucoma medications commercially available in China were included in this research. The total number of drops in 1 bottle of each medication was counted drop by drop. The mean volume per bottle of each medication was calculated. The cost per drop, number of days for both eyes usage per bottle, and daily cost was calculated. (1) The volume per drop ranged from 0.03 mL (brinzolamide 1%, travoprost 0.004%, bimatoprost 0.03%, and latanoprost 0.005%) to 0.05 mL (timolol 0.5%-Chengrui and pilocarpine 0.5% and 2%-Zhenrui). (2) The cost per bottle ranged from $0.69 (US dollar) (timolol 0.5%-Malaisuan Saimaluo'er) to $40.78 (latanoprost 0.005%). (3) The number of days for both eyes usage per bottle ranged from 52 days (bimatoprost 0.03%) to 11 days (pilocarpine nitrate 0.5%-Zhenrui). (4) The daily cost for both eyes usage from expensive to cheap were latanoprost 0.005%-$0.91, travoprost 0.004%-$0.77, brimonidine 0.2%-$0.61, bimatoprost 0.03%-$0.46, D-timolol 1%-$0.36, brinzolamide 1%-$0.34, pilocarpine 2%-Zhenrui-$0.28, levobunolol 0.5%-$0.25, betaxolol 0.25%-$0.24, pilocarpine 0.5%-Zhenrui-$0.18, pilocarpine 2%-Huming-$0.16, carteolol 1%-Mikelan-$0.15, carteolol 2%-Mikelan-$0.15, pilocarpine 1%-Huming-$0.10, timolol 0.5%-Chengrui-$0.08, timolol 0.5%-Malaisuan Saimaluo'er-$0.03. The daily cost of glaucoma medications in China ranged much more wildly than developed countries. These data may be useful in selecting medications for glaucoma therapy. The ophthalmic solution of prostaglandins is powerful in reducing intraocular pressure. However, its high price should be considered when selecting glaucoma medications in China.

  13. Inter-eye Asymmetry of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Vessel Density in Bilateral Glaucoma, Glaucoma Suspect, and Healthy Eyes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huiyuan; Moghimi, Sasan; Zangwill, Linda M; Shoji, Takuhei; Ghahari, Elham; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel C; Penteado, Rafaella C; Weinreb, Robert N

    2018-03-23

    To investigate inter-eye retinal vessel density asymmetry in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and mild to moderate glaucoma subjects, and its potential utility for early detection of glaucomatous damage. Cross-sectional study. 153 subjects including 55 healthy, 32 glaucoma suspect, and 66 glaucoma subjects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study(DIGS). Vessel density was obtained from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) macular and optic nerve head scans. Thickness of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) was measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans. Inter-eye asymmetry was calculated by taking the absolute value of difference in vessel density and thickness between the right and left eyes. Inter-eye retinal vessel density asymmetry parameters were significantly different among the three groups. Glaucoma suspects had significantly higher peripapillary and macular inter-eye vessel density asymmetries compared to healthy groups in univariate (1.1% vs. 2.0%, P=0.014 and 1.2% vs. 2.5%, P=0.027, respectively) and multivariate analyses (P=0.007 and 0.038, respectively). No significant differences in asymmetry of thickness parameters were found between glaucoma suspect and healthy groups (all P> 0.718). However significant differences in asymmetry of thickness parameters between glaucoma suspects and glaucoma patients (P<0.01) were found for all parameters. Inter-eye vessel density asymmetry can be quantified by OCT-A measurement. Glaucoma suspects have significantly greater vessel density asymmetry than healthy eyes. Longitudinal studies are needed to better characterize the relationship of vessel density asymmetry with the development and progression of glaucoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between clinical parameters and glaucoma-specific quality of life in Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jacky W Y; Chan, Catherine W S; Chan, Jonathan C H; Li, Q; Lai, Jimmy S M

    2014-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the association between clinical measurements and glaucoma-specific quality of life in Chinese glaucoma patients. DESIGN. Cross-sectional study. SETTING. An academic hospital in Hong Kong. PATIENTS. A Chinese translation of the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 questionnaire was completed by 51 consecutive patients with bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma. The binocular means of several clinical measurements were correlated with Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 findings using Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. The measurements were the visual field index and pattern standard deviation from the Humphrey Field Analyzer, Snellen best-corrected visual acuity, presenting intra-ocular pressure, current intra-ocular pressure, average retinal nerve fibre layer thickness via optical coherence tomography, and the number of topical anti-glaucoma medications being used. RESULTS. In these patients, there was a significant correlation and linear relationship between a poorer Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 score and a lower visual field index (r=0.3, r(2)=0.1, P=0.01) and visual acuity (r=0.3, r(2)=0.1, P=0.03). A thinner retinal nerve fibre layer also correlated with a poorer Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 score, but did not attain statistical significance (r=0.3, P=0.07). There were no statistically significant correlations for the other clinical parameters with the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 scores (all P values being >0.7). The three most problematic activities affecting quality of life were "adjusting to bright lights", "going from a light to a dark room or vice versa", and "seeing at night". CONCLUSION. For Chinese primary open-angle glaucoma patients, binocular visual field index and visual acuity correlated linearly with glaucoma-specific quality of life, and activities involving dark adaptation were the most problematic.

  15. Traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Gordon; Ellul, Antony; Gouws, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion. This rare form of secondary glaucoma has only been reported twice previously, with both patients demonstrating angle recession, indicating associated damage to the trabecular meshwork. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in which angle recession was absent.

  16. Assessment and diagnosis of suspected glaucoma in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Jane; Flaherty, Maree; Pitz, Susanne; Ramlee, Azura

    2015-03-01

    The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare lysosomal storage disorders, characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans within multiple organ systems including the eye. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glaucoma in patients with MPS, as well as the characteristics, diagnosis and management of patients with MPS and glaucoma. A multicentre retrospective case-note review was carried out by ophthalmologists from four tertiary referral centres to identify patients with MPS who had been treated for glaucoma. Clinical ophthalmological data were collected using standardized data collection forms. Fourteen patients were identified (27 eyes) of 294 patients with MPS. The prevalence of glaucoma ranged from 2.1% to 12.5%. The median age at diagnosis of glaucoma was 8 years. Diagnostic evaluation of glaucoma was incomplete in many patients: intraocular pressure was documented in all eyes, but optic disc appearance was only assessed in 67%, central corneal thickness in 26%, visual fields in 19% and iridocorneal angle in 15%. Patients with MPS need regular assessment for possible glaucoma including during childhood. Multiple factors contribute to the challenges of assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma in these patients. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Brain: The Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Kumar, Ashutosh; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a form of multifactorial ocular neurodegeneration with immensely complex etiology, pathogenesis and pathology. Though the mainstream therapeutic management of glaucoma is lowering of intraocular pressure, there is, as of now, no cure for the disease. New evidences ardently suggest brain involvement in all aspects of this malady. This consequently advocates the opinion that brain should be the spotlight of glaucoma research and may form the impending and promising target for glaucoma diagnosis and treatment. The present analysis endeavors at understanding glaucoma vis-à-vis brain structural and/or functional derangement and central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. Commencing with the premise of developing some understanding about the brain-nature of ocular structures; we discuss the nature of the cellular and molecular moieties involved in glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease. Substantial deal of literature implies that glaucoma may well be a disease of the brain, nevertheless, manifesting as progressive loss of vision. If that is the case, then targeting brain will be far more imperative in glaucoma therapeutics than any other remedial regimen currently being endorsed.

  18. High rate of incidental glaucoma detection in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Erceg, Joshua; Bevin, Tui H; Sanderson, Gordon

    2016-12-02

    To investigate how glaucoma is initially detected in New Zealanders and what factors aroused disease suspicion. A postal survey of 500 randomly selected members of the Glaucoma New Zealand database was undertaken in 2012 to analyse factors relating to their initial presentation and diagnosis of glaucoma. Online surveys and telephone interviews were used to increase the response rate. The overall response rate was 80% (376/468) of eligible participants. The sample had an average age of 76 years. Prior to diagnosis, 80% (290/361) of participants who responded to this question reported no suspicion of glaucoma. A positive family history for glaucoma was the most common reason (71%) for presenting to a health care professional with a suspicion of glaucoma (13% of total sample). After diagnosis, 95% (357/376) of respondents reported that they had informed family members of their diagnosis. This study confirmed that the majority of glaucoma was discovered through incidental findings. A positive family history was the most common risk factor prompting examination, knowledge about which appeared to increase dramatically post-diagnosis. These findings indicated that there was potential to educate the public about glaucoma in order to raise awareness and diagnose the disease earlier.

  19. Primary congenital glaucoma associated with Patau syndrome with long survival.

    PubMed

    Jaru-Ampornpan, Pimkwan; Kuchtey, John; Dev, V G; Kuchtey, Rachel

    2010-06-23

    Ocular abnormalities are common in Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), but only a few cases with congenital glaucoma have been reported, some of which were associated with other ocular defects. This report describes a case of primary congenital glaucoma in an 11-year-old patient with full trisomy 13. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S.; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed. PMID:26339209

  1. EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: efficacy, safety, and predictability

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jessica E; Netland, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Trabeculectomy has been the traditional primary surgical therapy for open-angle glaucoma. While trabeculectomy is effective in lowering intraocular pressure, complications associated with the procedure have motivated the development of alternative techniques and devices, including the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. This review describes the efficacy, safety, complication rates, and potential advantages and disadvantages of the EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device. EX-PRESS implantation is technically simpler compared with that of trabeculectomy, with fewer surgical steps. Vision recovery has been more rapid after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. Intraocular pressure variation is lower during the early postoperative period, indicating a more predictable procedure. While efficacy of the EX-PRESS implant has been comparable to trabeculectomy, postoperative complications appear less common after EX-PRESS implantation compared with trabeculectomy. The EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device appears to be safe and effective in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. PMID:26366105

  2. Visual disability and quality of life in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Cesareo, Massimo; Ciuffoletti, Elena; Ricci, Federico; Missiroli, Filippo; Giuliano, Mario Alberto; Mancino, Raffaele; Nucci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that can result in progressive and irreversible vision loss, thereby affecting quality of life (QoL) of patients. Several studies have shown a strong correlation between visual field damage and visual disability in patients with glaucoma, even in the early stages of the disease. Visual impairment due to glaucoma affects normal daily activities required for independent living, such as driving, walking, and reading. There is no generally accepted instrument for assessing quality of life in glaucoma patients; different factors involved in visual disability from the disease are difficult to quantify and not easily standardized. This chapter summarizes recent works from clinical and epidemiological studies, which describe how glaucoma affects the performance of important vision-related activities and QoL. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed.

  4. A Review of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant and Comparison with Other Surgical Operations.

    PubMed

    Riva, Ivano; Roberti, Gloria; Katsanos, Andreas; Oddone, Francesco; Quaranta, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) is a popular glaucoma drainage implant used for the control of intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. While in the past AGV implantation was reserved for glaucoma patients poorly controlled after one or more filtration procedures, mounting evidence has recently encouraged its use as a primary surgery in selected cases. AGV has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in reducing intraocular pressure in patients with primary or secondary refractory glaucoma. Compared to other glaucoma surgeries, AGV implantation has shown favorable efficacy and safety. The aim of this article is to review the results of studies directly comparing AGV with other surgical procedures in patients with glaucoma.

  5. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery as primary stand-alone surgery for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Nathan M; Wang, Jing; Barton, Keith

    2017-05-01

    Recently, many new devices and procedures have been developed to lower intraocular pressure in a less invasive and purportedly safer manner than traditional glaucoma surgery. These new devices might encourage an earlier transition to surgery and reduce the long-term commitment to topical glaucoma medications with their associated compliance and intolerance issues. Although often seen as an adjunct to cataract surgery, a growing body of evidence suggests that primary minimally invasive glaucoma surgery may be a viable initial treatment option. New studies have shown that primary ab interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome, NeoMedix Inc., Tustin, CA, USA), trabecular micro-bypass stent insertion (iStent and iStent Inject, Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), canalicular scaffolding (Hydrus, Invantis Inc., Irvine CA, USA), the ab interno gel Implant (XEN, Allergan, Dublin, Ireland) or supraciliary stenting (CyPass Micro-Stent, Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) may lower the lowering intraocular pressure and/or topical medication burden in phakic or pseudophakic patients with glaucoma. This effect seems to last at least 12 months but reliable cost-effectiveness and quality of life indicators have not yet been established by investigator-initiated randomized trials of sufficient size and duration. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Nanotechnology and glaucoma: a review of the potential implications of glaucoma nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nathaniel J; Harris, Alon; Gerber, Austin; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Amireskandari, Annahita; Huck, Andrew; Siesky, Brent

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of nanotechnology and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the field of ophthalmology, particularly as it pertains to glaucoma. We reviewed literature using MEDLINE and PubMed databases with the following search terms: glaucoma, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, ophthalmology and liposomes. We also reviewed pertinent references from articles found in this search. A brief history of nanotechnology and nanomedicine will be covered, followed by a discussion of the advantages and concerns of using this technology in the field of glaucoma. We will look at various studies concerning the development of nanomedicine, its potential applications in ocular drug delivery, diagnostic and imaging modalities and, surgical techniques. In particular, the challenges of assuring safety and efficacy of nanomedicine will be examined. We conclude that nanotechnology offers a novel approach to expanding diagnostic, imaging and surgical modalities in glaucoma and may contribute to the knowledge of disease pathogenesis at a molecular level. However, more research is needed to better elucidate the mechanism of cellular entry, the potential for nanoparticle cytotoxicity and the assurance of clinical efficacy.

  7. Association between body levels of trace metals and glaucoma prevalence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal body levels of essential elements and exposure to toxic trace metals have been postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases affecting many organ systems, including the eye. To investigate associations between body levels of trace metals and the prevalence of glaucoma in a cross-sectional population-based study. Blood or urine metallic element levels and information pertaining to ocular disease were available for 2680 individuals 19 years and older participating in the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009, the second and the third years of the survey (2007-2009). Glaucoma diagnosis was based on criteria established by the International Society of Geographic and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine associations between blood and urine trace element levels and the odds of glaucoma diagnosis. All analyses were performed between September 2014 and December 2014. The presence or absence of glaucoma. After adjustment for potential confounders, blood manganese level was negatively associated with the odds of glaucoma diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.92). Blood mercury level was positively associated with glaucoma prevalence (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03). No definitive association was identified between blood cadmium or lead levels or urine arsenic level and a diagnosis of glaucoma. These findings in a cross-sectional study of the South Korean population suggest that a lower blood manganese level and a higher blood mercury level are associated with greater odds of glaucoma. For more confidence that trace metals may have a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, prospective studies would need to confirm that the presence of such trace metals increases the chance of developing glaucoma.

  8. Late-onset endophthalmitis secondary to exposed glaucoma tube implant in a rare case of paediatric glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Akshatha; Hashim, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma drainage implants (GDIs) are used to treat paediatric glaucoma resistant to conventional medical and surgical treatment, achieving good intraocular pressure (IOP) control and long-term success. Late endophthalmitis is a rare complication that may develop following GDI surgery. A 17-year-old male presented with acute endophthalmitis 2 years after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with pericardial patch graft for management of refractory glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uveae. The glaucoma tube was exposed due to erosion of the overlying conjunctiva with no visible pericardial graft. After control of active infection, he underwent tube revision surgery whereby the exposed tube was retained and repatched with a double-thickness pericardial patch graft. He did well following surgery with good control of IOP and restoration of vision. Conjunctival dehiscence with graft melting over the GDI tube presented a major risk factor for endophthalmitis. Prompt surgical revision of an exposed tube is highly recommended to avoid ocular morbidity.

  9. Combined Phacoemulsification and Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Implant Surgery for Patients With Refractory Glaucoma and Cataract.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Felipe; Browne, Andrew; Srur, Miguel; Nieme, Carlos; Zanolli, Mario; López-Solís, Remigio; Traipe, Leonidas

    2016-02-01

    To examine the indications, safety, efficacy, and complications of combined phacoemulsification and Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant surgery. A retrospective case review of 35 eyes (31 patients) subjected to combined phacoemulsification and Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Demographic characteristics of the study population, indications for combined surgery, and operative and postoperative complications were recorded. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and number of glaucoma medications were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Complete success was defined as IOP ≤ 21 mm Hg without medication, qualified success if IOP ≤ 21 mm Hg with ≥ 1 medications, and failure if IOP>21 mm Hg or ≤ 5 mm Hg on ≥ 2 consecutive visits. Mean follow-up was 29.5 months (range, 6 to 87 mo). The most common indication for combined surgery was a history of prior failed trabeculectomy (60%). Postoperative visual acuity improved in 30 of 35 eyes (85%) (P<0.01) regardless of the indication for combined surgery. IOP was reduced from a mean of 24.7 to 15.0 mm Hg at the last follow-up visit (P<0.01). The number of IOP-lowering medications was reduced from a median of 3.1 preoperatively to 1.7 at the last follow-up (P<0.01). Overall, there were 31 eyes (89%) classified as qualified success and 4 eyes (11%) as complete success. The most common postoperative complication was a hypertensive phase in 18 eyes (51%). Combined phacoemulsification and Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant surgery seems to be a safe and effective surgical option, providing good visual rehabilitation and control of IOP for patients with refractory glaucoma and cataract.

  10. Resource Planning in Glaucoma: A Tool to Evaluate Glaucoma Service Capacity.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ruchika; Sharma, Hannah E; Elaraoud, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Shabbir

    2017-12-28

    The National Patient Safety Agency (2009) publication advising timely follow-up of patients with established glaucoma followed several reported instances of visual loss due to postponed appointments and patients lost to follow-up. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists Quality Standards Development Group stated that all hospital appointments should occur within 15% of the intended follow-up period. To determine whether: 1. Glaucoma follow-up appointments at a teaching hospital occur within the requested time 2. Appointments are requested at appropriate intervals based on the NICE Guidelines 3. The capacity of the glaucoma service is adequate Methods: A two-part audit was undertaken of 98 and 99 consecutive patients respectively attending specialist glaucoma clinics. In the first part, the reasons for delayed appointments were recorded. In the second part the requested follow-up was compared with NICE guidelines where applicable. Based on the findings, changes were implemented and a re-audit of 100 patients was carried out. The initial audit found that although clinical decisions regarding follow-up intervals were 100% compliant with NICE guidelines where applicable, 24% of appointments were delayed beyond 15% of the requested period, due to administrative errors and inadequate capacity, leading to significant clinical deterioration in two patients. Following the introduction of an electronic appointment tracker and increased clinical capacity created by extra clinics and clinicians, the re-audit found a marked decrease in the percentage of appointments being delayed (9%). This audit is a useful tool to evaluate glaucoma service provision, assist in resource planning for the service and bring about change in a non-confrontational way. It can be widely applied and adapted for use in other medical specialities.

  11. Understanding disparities among diagnostic technologies in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C

    2012-07-01

    To investigate causes of disagreement among 3 glaucoma diagnostic techniques: standard automated achromatic perimetry (SAP), the multifocal visual evoked potential technique (mfVEP), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). In a prospective cross-sectional study, 138 eyes of 69 patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy were tested using SAP, the mfVEP, and OCT. Eyes with the worse and better mean deviations (MDs) were analyzed separately. If the results of 2 tests were consistent for the presence of an abnormality in the same topographic site, that abnormality was considered a true glaucoma defect. If a third test missed that abnormality (false-negative result), the reasons for disparity were investigated. Eyes with worse MD (mean [SD], -6.8 [8.0] dB) had better agreements among tests than did eyes with better MD (-2.5 [3.5] dB, P<.01). For the 94 of 138 hemifields with abnormalities of the more advanced eyes, the 3 tests were consistent in showing the same hemifield abnormality in 50 hemifields (53%), and at least 2 tests were abnormal in 65 of the 94 hemifields (69%). The potential explanations for the false-negative results fell into 2 general categories: inherent limitations of each technique to detect distinct features of glaucoma and individual variability and the distribution of normative values used to define statistically significant abnormalities. All the cases of disparity could be explained by known limitations of each technique and interindividual variability, suggesting that the agreement among diagnostic tests may be better than summary statistics suggest and that disagreements between tests do not indicate discordance in the structure-function relationship.

  12. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Vitrectomized Eyes.

    PubMed

    Erçalık, Nimet Yeşim; İmamoğlu, Serhat

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in vitrectomized eyes. The medical records of 13 eyes that developed glaucoma due to emulsified silicon oil or neovascularization following pars plana vitrectomy and underwent AGV implantation were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Surgical success was defined as last IOP ≤21 mmHg or ≥6 mmHg and without loss of light perception. The mean follow-up duration was 11.7 ± 5.5 (range, 6-23) months. The mean IOP before the AGV implantation was 37.9 ± 6.7 mmHg with an average of 3.5 ± 1.2 drugs. At the final visit, the mean IOP was 15.9 ± 4.6 mmHg ( p =0.001) and the mean number of glaucoma medications decreased to 2.3 ± 1.3 ( p =0.021). At the last visit, 11 eyes (84.4%) had stable or improved VA and one eye (7.7%) had a final VA of no light perception. Surgical success was achieved in 11 of the 13 eyes (84.4%). Postoperative complications were bleb encapsulation (69.2%), early hypotony (38.5%), hyphema (23.1%), decompression retinopathy (23.1%), choroidal detachment (15.4%), intraocular hemorrhage (7.7%), and late endophthalmitis (7.7%). One eye (7.7%) was enucleated because of late endophthalmitis. Despite complications necessitating medical and surgical interventions, vitrectomized eyes were effectively managed with AGV implantation.

  13. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in Vitrectomized Eyes

    PubMed Central

    İmamoğlu, Serhat

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in vitrectomized eyes. Materials and Methods The medical records of 13 eyes that developed glaucoma due to emulsified silicon oil or neovascularization following pars plana vitrectomy and underwent AGV implantation were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of antiglaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Surgical success was defined as last IOP ≤21 mmHg or ≥6 mmHg and without loss of light perception. Results The mean follow-up duration was 11.7 ± 5.5 (range, 6–23) months. The mean IOP before the AGV implantation was 37.9 ± 6.7 mmHg with an average of 3.5 ± 1.2 drugs. At the final visit, the mean IOP was 15.9 ± 4.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and the mean number of glaucoma medications decreased to 2.3 ± 1.3 (p=0.021). At the last visit, 11 eyes (84.4%) had stable or improved VA and one eye (7.7%) had a final VA of no light perception. Surgical success was achieved in 11 of the 13 eyes (84.4%). Postoperative complications were bleb encapsulation (69.2%), early hypotony (38.5%), hyphema (23.1%), decompression retinopathy (23.1%), choroidal detachment (15.4%), intraocular hemorrhage (7.7%), and late endophthalmitis (7.7%). One eye (7.7%) was enucleated because of late endophthalmitis. Conclusions Despite complications necessitating medical and surgical interventions, vitrectomized eyes were effectively managed with AGV implantation. PMID:29862068

  14. Predicting Vision-Related Disability in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Costa, Vital P; Wu, Zhichao; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2018-01-01

    To present a new methodology for investigating predictive factors associated with development of vision-related disability in glaucoma. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two hundred thirty-six patients with glaucoma followed up for an average of 4.3±1.5 years. Vision-related disability was assessed by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) at baseline and at the end of follow-up. A latent transition analysis model was used to categorize NEI VFQ-25 results and to estimate the probability of developing vision-related disability during follow-up. Patients were tested with standard automated perimetry (SAP) at 6-month intervals, and evaluation of rates of visual field change was performed using mean sensitivity (MS) of the integrated binocular visual field. Baseline disease severity, rate of visual field loss, and duration of follow-up were investigated as predictive factors for development of disability during follow-up. The relationship between baseline and rates of visual field deterioration and the probability of vision-related disability developing during follow-up. At baseline, 67 of 236 (28%) glaucoma patients were classified as disabled based on NEI VFQ-25 results, whereas 169 (72%) were classified as nondisabled. Patients classified as nondisabled at baseline had 14.2% probability of disability developing during follow-up. Rates of visual field loss as estimated by integrated binocular MS were almost 4 times faster for those in whom disability developed versus those in whom it did not (-0.78±1.00 dB/year vs. -0.20±0.47 dB/year, respectively; P < 0.001). In the multivariate model, each 1-dB lower baseline binocular MS was associated with 34% higher odds of disability developing over time (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.70; P = 0.013). In addition, each 0.5-dB/year faster rate of loss of binocular MS during follow-up was associated with a more than 3.5 times increase in the risk of

  15. Factors affecting the decision to pursue glaucoma fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Gedde, Steven J; Budenz, Donald L; Haft, Payman; Lee, Yunhee; Quigley, Harry A

    2007-01-01

    To identify factors associated with the choice to pursue glaucoma fellowship training by graduating ophthalmology residents. An anonymous survey was sent to each graduating ophthalmology resident in the United States in February 2003. Demographic data and information relating to residency training, career goals, and factors influencing career choices were collected from the surveys. Surveys were completed by 215 (49.2%) residents, including 135 (62.8%) who were pursuing fellowships. Among residents undertaking fellowship training, 17 (12.6%) selected glaucoma and 118 (87.4%) chose other subspecialties. Residents entering glaucoma fellowships performed more glaucoma filtering procedures (P=0.006), and they were less likely to publish a paper (P=0.05) and have time allocated for research (P=0.04) than residents seeking fellowships in other subspecialties. Factors that were rated as less important to those choosing glaucoma fellowships included interest in challenging diagnostic problems (P=0.009), types of patient problems (P=0.015), an academic career (P=0.03), and working with new technology (P=0.04). The decision to pursue fellowship training was made later by residents entering glaucoma compared with those choosing other subspecialties (P=0.001). A variety of factors affect the decision to pursue fellowship training. There are differences in how these factors are weighed among residents seeking fellowships in glaucoma and other subspecialties.

  16. Topical treatment of glaucoma: established and emerging pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dikopf, Mark S; Vajaranant, Thasarat S; Edward, Deepak P

    2017-06-01

    Glaucoma is a collection of optic neuropathies consisting of retinal ganglion cell death and corresponding visual field loss. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide and is forecasted to precipitously increase in prevalence in the coming decades. Current treatment options aim to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) via topical or oral therapy, laser treatment to the trabecular meshwork or ciliary body, and incisional surgery. Despite increasing use of trabecular laser therapy, topical therapy remains first-line in the treatment of most forms of glaucoma. Areas covered: Novel glaucoma therapies are a long-standing focus of investigational study. More than two decades have passed since the last United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a topical glaucoma drug. Here, the authors review established topical glaucoma drops as well as those currently in FDA phase 2 and 3 clinical trial, nearing clinical use. Expert opinion: Current investigational glaucoma drugs lower IOP, mainly through enhanced trabecular meshwork outflow. Although few emerging therapies show evidence of retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve neuroprotection in animal models, emerging drugs are focused on lowering IOP, similar to established medicines.

  17. Anticlotting agents and the surgical management of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sozeri, Yasemin; Salim, Sarwat

    2018-03-01

    A large subset of patients with glaucoma uses anticlotting agents. No standardized guidelines currently exist for managing these agents in the specific perioperative setting of glaucoma surgery. The present review focuses on currently available anticlotting agents, their influence on hemorrhagic complications following glaucoma surgery, and management strategies for their use in the perioperative period RECENT FINDINGS: Anticlotting agents increase the risk of perioperative hemorrhagic complications following glaucoma surgery. Other factors that increase that risk have been identified as well, including the type of glaucoma surgery, preoperative intraocular pressure, postoperative hypotony, previous ocular surgeries, and race. Although general guidelines in the perioperative management of blood thinning agents exist, the best way to apply these guidelines specifically to glaucoma surgery remains unclear. Blood thinners are widely used and can increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing glaucoma surgery. Managing these agents in the perioperative setting is challenging and should be done in collaboration with the patient's primary care provider, hematologist, or cardiologist. Management strategies should be tailored to each individual's risk of hemorrhage versus thromboembolism. Additionally, surgical plans can be modified to help minimize hemorrhagic outcomes, especially in patients who are deemed to be at high risk for perioperative bleeding.

  18. Prevalence of posterior vitreous detachment in glaucoma patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Christoph; Glatz, Wilfried; Schmidt, Bernd; Lindner, Ewald; Oettl, Karl; Riedl, Regina; Wedrich, Andreas; Ivastinovic, Domagoj; Velikay-Parel, Michaela; Mossboeck, Georg

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of oxidative stress - present in glaucoma - on the vitreous. We therefore compare the presence of early and late stages of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) between patients with glaucoma and controls. The vitreous state was evaluated by the combination of optical coherence tomography and ultrasound. The main outcome was the vitreous state classified into 'no PVD', 'initial PVD' and 'advanced PVD'. We evaluated the vitreous state in 48 patients with glaucoma (age: mean 66.5 ± 11.9 years; visual field deviation: mean 10.4 ± 6.8 dB) and compared the results with 101 previously investigated controls (age: mean 73.6 ± 9.3 years). After one-to-one matching on age and sex, ordinal logistic regression revealed that patients with glaucoma were significantly more likely to exhibit advanced PVD stages compared to non-glaucoma patients (OR 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-6.36, p = 0.037). Our results suggest that the presence or absence of PVD might be a valuable hint for diagnosing glaucoma - however, further research is needed to determine whether PVD can be used to supplement current glaucoma screening guidelines. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ensemble Pruning for Glaucoma Detection in an Unbalanced Data Set.

    PubMed

    Adler, Werner; Gefeller, Olaf; Gul, Asma; Horn, Folkert K; Khan, Zardad; Lausen, Berthold

    2016-12-07

    Random forests are successful classifier ensemble methods consisting of typically 100 to 1000 classification trees. Ensemble pruning techniques reduce the computational cost, especially the memory demand, of random forests by reducing the number of trees without relevant loss of performance or even with increased performance of the sub-ensemble. The application to the problem of an early detection of glaucoma, a severe eye disease with low prevalence, based on topographical measurements of the eye background faces specific challenges. We examine the performance of ensemble pruning strategies for glaucoma detection in an unbalanced data situation. The data set consists of 102 topographical features of the eye background of 254 healthy controls and 55 glaucoma patients. We compare the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the Brier score on the total data set, in the majority class, and in the minority class of pruned random forest ensembles obtained with strategies based on the prediction accuracy of greedily grown sub-ensembles, the uncertainty weighted accuracy, and the similarity between single trees. To validate the findings and to examine the influence of the prevalence of glaucoma in the data set, we additionally perform a simulation study with lower prevalences of glaucoma. In glaucoma classification all three pruning strategies lead to improved AUC and smaller Brier scores on the total data set with sub-ensembles as small as 30 to 80 trees compared to the classification results obtained with the full ensemble consisting of 1000 trees. In the simulation study, we were able to show that the prevalence of glaucoma is a critical factor and lower prevalence decreases the performance of our pruning strategies. The memory demand for glaucoma classification in an unbalanced data situation based on random forests could effectively be reduced by the application of pruning strategies without loss of performance in a population with increased

  20. Meta-analysis of stratus OCT glaucoma diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Yue-Cune

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma in different stages, different types of glaucoma, and different ethnic groups using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT). We searched MEDLINE to identify available articles on diagnostic accuracy of glaucoma published between January 2004 and December 2011. A PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information) search using medical subject headings and keywords was executed using the following terms: "diagnostic accuracy" or "receiver operator characteristic" or "area under curve" or "AUC" and "Stratus OCT" and "glaucoma." The search was subsequently limited to publications in English. The area under a receiver operator characteristic (AUC) curve was used to measure the diagnostic performance. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled AUC value of the 17 parameters (average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, temporal quadrant, superior quadrant, nasal quadrant, inferior quadrant, and 1 to 12 o'clock). Meta-regression analysis was used to check the significance of some important factors: (1) glaucoma severity (five stages), (2) glaucoma types (four types), and (3) ethnicity (four categories). The orders of accuracy among those parameters were as follows: average > inferior > superior > 7 o'clock > 6 o'clock > 11 o'clock > 12 o'clock > 1 o'clock > 5 o'clock > nasal > temporal > 2 o'clock > 10 o'clock > 8 o'clock > 9 o'clock > 4 o'clock > 3 o'clock. After adjusting for the effects of age, glaucoma severity, glaucoma types, and ethnicity, the average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness provided highest accuracy compared with the other parameters of OCT. The diagnostic accuracy in Asian populations was significantly lower than that in whites and the other two ethnic types. Stratus OCT demonstrated good diagnostic capability in differentiating glaucomatous from normal eyes. However, we should be more cautious in applying this instrument in Asian groups in glaucoma management.

  1. Retinal nerve fiber layer reflectance for early glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Milner, Thomas E; Markey, Mia K; McKinnon, Stuart J; Rylander, Henry G

    2014-01-01

    Compare performance of normalized reflectance index (NRI) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) parameters determined from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images for glaucoma and glaucoma suspect diagnosis. Seventy-five eyes from 71 human subjects were studied: 33 controls, 24 glaucomatous, and 18 glaucoma-suspects. RNFLT and NRI maps were measured using 2 custom-built OCT systems and the commercial instrument RTVue. Using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, RNFLT and NRI measured in 7 RNFL locations were analyzed to distinguish between control, glaucomatous, and glaucoma-suspect eyes. The mean NRI of the control group was significantly larger than the means of glaucomatous and glaucoma-suspect groups in most RNFL locations for all 3 OCT systems (P<0.05 for all comparisons). NRI performs significantly better than RNFLT at distinguishing between glaucoma-suspect and control eyes using RTVue OCT (P=0.008). The performances of NRI and RNFLT for classifying glaucoma-suspect versus control eyes were statistically indistinguishable for PS-OCT-EIA (P=0.101) and PS-OCT-DEC (P=0.227). The performances of NRI and RNFLT for classifying glaucomatous versus control eyes were statistically indistinguishable (PS-OCT-EIA: P=0.379; PS-OCT-DEC: P=0.338; RTVue OCT: P=0.877). NRI is a promising measure for distinguishing between glaucoma-suspect and control eyes and may indicate disease in the preperimetric stage. Results of this pilot clinical study warrant a larger study to confirm the diagnostic power of NRI for diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma.

  2. Ganglion cell complex scan in the early prediction of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ganekal, S

    2012-01-01

    To compare the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) with peripapillary retinal fiber layer (RNFL) thickness map in glaucoma suspects and patients. Forty participants (20 glaucoma suspects and 20 glaucoma patients) were enrolled. Macular GCC and RNFL thickness maps were performed in both eyes of each participant in the same visit. The sensitivity and specificity of a color code less than 5% (red or yellow) for glaucoma diagnosis were calculated. Standard Automated Perimetry was performed with the Octopus 3.1.1 Dynamic 24-2 program. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 10.1 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, EUA). Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation and a p value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. Provide absolute numbers of these findings with their units of measurement. There was a statistically significant difference in average RNFL thickness (p=0.004), superior RNFL thickness (p=0.006), inferior RNFL thickness (p=0.0005) and average GCC (p=0.03) between the suspects and glaucoma patients. There was no difference in optic disc area (p=0.35) and vertical cup/disc ratio (p=0.234) in both groups. While 38% eyes had an abnormal GCC and 13% had an abnormal RNFL thickness in the glaucoma suspect group, 98% had an abnormal GCC and 90% had an abnormal RNFL thickness in the glaucoma group. The ability to diagnose glaucoma with macular GCC thickness is comparable to that with peripapillary RNFL thickness . Macular GCC thickness measurements may be a good alternative or a complementary measurement to RNFL thickness assessment in the clinical evaluation of glaucoma. © NEPjOPH.

  3. Lifetime risk of blindness in open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dorothea; Bengtsson, Boel; Heijl, Anders

    2013-10-01

    To determine the lifetime risk and duration of blindness in patients with manifest open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Retrospective chart review. We studied glaucoma patients who died between January 2006 and June 2010. Most glaucoma patients living in the catchment area (city of Malmö; n = 305 000) are managed at the Department of Ophthalmology at Skåne University Hospital in Malmö. From the patient records we extracted visual field status, visual acuity, and low vision or blindness as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and caused by glaucoma at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up. We also noted age at diagnosis and death and when low vision or blindness occurred. Five hundred and ninety-two patients were included. At the time of the last visit 250 patients (42.2%) had at least 1 blind eye because of glaucoma, while 97 patients (16.4%) were bilaterally blind, and 12 patients (0.5%) had low vision. Median time with a glaucoma diagnosis was 12 years (<1-29), median age when developing bilateral blindness was 86 years, and median duration of bilateral blindness was 2 years (<1-13). The cumulative incidences of blindness in at least 1 eye and bilateral blindness from glaucoma were 26.5% and 5.5%, respectively, after 10 years, and 38.1% and 13.5% at 20 years. Approximately 1 out of 6 glaucoma patients was bilaterally blind from glaucoma at the last visit. Median duration of bilateral blindness was 2 years. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glaucoma Blindness at a Tertiary Eye Care Center.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jordan S; Muir, Kelly W; Stinnett, Sandra S; Rosdahl, Jullia A

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an important cause of irreversible blindness. This study describes the characteristics of a large, diverse group of glaucoma patients and evaluates associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and blindness. Data were gathered via retrospective chart review of patients (N = 1,454) who were seen between July 2007 and July 2010 by glaucoma service providers at Duke Eye Center. Visual acuity and visual field criteria were used to determine whether patients met the criteria for legal blindness. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed on the glaucoma patients who were not blind (n = 1,258) and those who were blind (n = 196). A subgroup analysis of only those patients with primary open-angle glaucoma was also performed. In this tertiary care population, 13% (n = 196) of glaucoma patients met criteria for legal blindness, nearly one-half of whom (n = 94) were blind from glaucoma, and another one-third of whom (n = 69) had glaucoma-related blindness. The most common glaucoma diagnosis at all levels of vision was primary open-angle glaucoma. A larger proportion of black patients compared with white patients demonstrated vision loss; the odds ratio (OR) for blindness was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.6-3.2) for black patients compared with white patients. The use of systemic antihypertensive medications was higher among patients who were blind compared with patients who were not blind (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1). A subgroup analysis including only patients with primary open-angle glaucoma showed similar results for both black race and use of systemic antihypertensive medications. The relationship between use of systemic antihypertensive medications and blindness was not different between black patients and white patients (interaction P = .268). Data were based on chart review, and associations may be confounded by unmeasured factors. Treated systemic hypertension may be correlated with blindness, and the cause cannot be explained solely

  5. Glaucoma Blindness at a Tertiary Eye Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jordan S.; Muir, Kelly W.; Stinnett, Sandra S.; Rosdahl, Jullia A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glaucoma is an important cause of irreversible blindness. This study describes the characteristics of a large, diverse group of glaucoma patients and evaluates associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and blindness. METHODS Data were gathered via retrospective chart review of patients (N = 1,454) who were seen between July 2007 and July 2010 by glaucoma service providers at Duke Eye Center. Visual acuity and visual field criteria were used to determine whether patients met the criteria for legal blindness. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were performed on the glaucoma patients who were not blind (n = 1,258) and those who were blind (n = 196). A subgroup analysis of only those patients with primary open-angle glaucoma was also performed. RESULTS In this tertiary care population, 13% (n = 196) of glaucoma patients met criteria for legal blindness, nearly one-half of whom (n = 94) were blind from glaucoma, and another one-third of whom (n = 69) had glaucoma-related blindness. The most common glaucoma diagnosis at all levels of vision was primary open-angle glaucoma. A larger proportion of black patients compared with white patients demonstrated vision loss; the odds ratio (OR) for blindness was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.6–3.2) for black patients compared with white patients. The use of systemic antihypertensive medications was higher among patients who were blind compared with patients who were not blind (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4–3.1). A subgroup analysis including only patients with primary open-angle glaucoma showed similar results for both black race and use of systemic antihypertensive medications. The relationship between use of systemic antihypertensive medications and blindness was not different between black patients and white patients (interaction P = .268). LIMITATIONS Data were based on chart review, and associations may be confounded by unmeasured factors. CONCLUSIONS Treated systemic hypertension may be correlated

  6. Clinical Utility of Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zachary M.; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has established itself as the dominant imaging moda