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Sample records for chronic aphasic patients

  1. Idiom Comprehension in Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagno, Costanza; Tabossi, Patrizia; Colombo, Maria Rosa; Zampetti, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Idiom comprehension was assessed in 10 aphasic patients with semantic deficits by means of a string-to-picture matching task. Patients were also submitted to an oral explanation of the same idioms, and to a word comprehension task. The stimuli of this last task were the words following the verb in the idioms. Idiom comprehension was severely…

  2. Right unilateral spatial neglect in aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Ihori, Nami; Kashiwagi, Asako; Kashiwagi, Toshihiro

    2015-08-01

    To investigate spatial responses by aphasic patients during language tasks, 63 aphasics (21 severe, 21 moderate, and 21 mild) were administered two kinds of auditory pointing tasks-word tasks and sentence tasks-in which the spatial conditions of the stimuli were controlled. There were significantly fewer correct responses on the right side of a space than on the left side in both the word and sentence tasks, but the left deviation of correct responses was more prominent in the sentence task than in the word task. Additionally, the severe aphasics exhibited a prominent leftward deviation that may have been the result of deficits in rightward attention controlled by the left hemisphere. This phenomenon also seems to reflect the directional attention that is subserved by the right hemisphere, which attends to the left side of a space and, less predominantly, the right side of a space.

  3. Audiological findings in aphasic patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Solange Satie; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Minett, Thaís Soares Cianciarullo; Borges, Alda Christina Lopes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Objective To outline the audiological findings of aphasic patients after cerebrovascular accidents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed between March 2011 and August 2012 in the Speech, Language, and Hearing Pathology Department of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo. A total of 43 aphasic subjects (27 men) were referred for audiological evaluation after stroke, with mean age of 54.48 years. Basic audiological evaluation tests were performed, including pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry (speech recognition threshold and word recognition score), immittance measures (tympanometry and contralateral acoustic reflex), and transient otoacoustic emissions. Results Sensorineural hearing loss was prevalent (78.6%). Speech recognition threshold and word recognition score were not obtained in some patients because they were unable to perform the task. Hearing loss was a common finding in this population. Conclusion Comprehension and/or oral emission disruptions in aphasic patients after stroke compromised conventional speech audiometry, resulting in the need for changes in the evaluation procedures for these patients. PMID:25628193

  4. Improvement of language functions in a chronic non-fluent post-stroke aphasic patient following bilateral sequential theta burst magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vuksanović, Jasmina; Jelić, Milan B; Milanović, Sladjan D; Kačar, Katarina; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Filipović, Saša R

    2015-01-01

    In chronic non-fluent aphasia patients, inhibition of the intact right hemisphere (RH), by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or similar methods, can induce improvement in language functions. The supposed mechanism behind this improvement is a release of preserved left hemisphere (LH) language networks from RH transcallosal inhibition. Direct stimulation of the damaged LH can sometimes bring similar results too. Therefore, we developed a novel treatment approach that combined direct LH (Broca's area (BA)) stimulation, by intermittent theta burst stimulation (TBS), with homologue RH area's inhibition, by continuous TBS. We present the results of application of 15 daily sessions of the described treatment approach in a right-handed patient with chronic post-stroke non-fluent aphasia. The intervention appeared to improve several language functions, but most notably propositional speech, semantic fluency, short-term verbal memory, and verbal learning. Bilateral TBS modulation of activation of the language-related areas of both hemispheres seems to be a feasible and promising way to induce recovery in chronic aphasic patients. Due to potentially cumulative physiological effects of bilateral stimulation, the improvements may be even greater than following unilateral interventions.

  5. Comprehension of Sentences with Stylistic Inversion by French Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigalleau, Francois; Baudiffier, Vanessa; Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics and three French-speaking Conduction aphasics were tested for comprehension of Active, Passive, Cleft-Subject, Cleft-Object, and Cleft-Object sentences with Stylistic Inversion using an object manipulation test. The agrammatic patients consistently reversed thematic roles in the latter sentence type, and…

  6. Comprehension of Sentences with Stylistic Inversion by French Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigalleau, Francois; Baudiffier, Vanessa; Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics and three French-speaking Conduction aphasics were tested for comprehension of Active, Passive, Cleft-Subject, Cleft-Object, and Cleft-Object sentences with Stylistic Inversion using an object manipulation test. The agrammatic patients consistently reversed thematic roles in the latter sentence type, and…

  7. EEG Delta Band as a Marker of Brain Damage in Aphasic Patients after Recovery of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    In this study spectral delta percentage was used to assess both brain dysfunction/inhibition and functional linguistic impairment during different phases of word processing. To this aim, EEG delta amplitude was measured in 17 chronic non-fluent aphasic patients while engaged in three linguistic tasks: Orthographic, Phonological and Semantic.…

  8. Orthographic Effects in the Word Substitutions of Aphasic Patients: An Epidemic of Right Neglect Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Rita Sloan; Haendiges, Anne N.; Mitchum, Charlotte C.

    2005-01-01

    Aphasic patients with reading impairments frequently substitute incorrect real words for target words when reading aloud. Many of these word substitutions have substantial orthographic overlap with their targets and are classified as ''visual errors'' (i.e., sharing 50% of targets' letters in the same relative position). Fifteen chronic aphasic…

  9. EEG Delta Band as a Marker of Brain Damage in Aphasic Patients after Recovery of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    In this study spectral delta percentage was used to assess both brain dysfunction/inhibition and functional linguistic impairment during different phases of word processing. To this aim, EEG delta amplitude was measured in 17 chronic non-fluent aphasic patients while engaged in three linguistic tasks: Orthographic, Phonological and Semantic.…

  10. Processing of visual syntax in a globally aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, M; Steele, R D; Carlson, G S; Kleczewska, M; Wertz, R T; Baker, E

    1989-04-01

    A globally aphasic patient was trained on a computerized visual communication system. His ability to comprehend reversible locative prepositional phrases after training was studied and compared with the performance of Broca's aphasics on a similar task. This patient's ability to generalize symbols for actions was also investigated. The results demonstrate our patient's capacity to master a formal visual syntax in the absence of natural language and illustrate how this capacity may be used successfully in a visual communication system. A problem in generalizing symbols for actions is demonstrated, suggesting that certain heuristic and cueing capabilities in the approach may be helpful.

  11. Theta burst stimulation over the right Broca's homologue induces improvement of naming in aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Jochen; Schumacher, Rahel; Cazzoli, Dario; Gutbrod, Klemens; Koenig, Monica; Nyffeler, Thomas; Dierks, Thomas; Müri, René M

    2012-08-01

    Improvements of language production in aphasic patients have been reported following repeated 1-Hz transcranial magnetic stimulation over the nondamaged right hemisphere. Most studies examined aphasic patients in the chronic phase. The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation application in acute or subacute patients has not been systematically studied. We aimed to evaluate whether continuous theta burst stimulation, an inhibitory protocol with a shorter application time than the common 1-Hz protocol, is able to improve naming performance in aphasic patients in different poststroke phases. Eighteen right-handed aphasic patients performed a picture naming task and a language independent alertness test before and after the application of theta burst stimulation over the intact right Broca's homologue localized by the 10-20 electroencephalogram system in a randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. We found that naming performance was significantly better, and naming latency was significantly shorter, after theta burst stimulation than after the sham intervention. Patients who responded best were in the subacute phase after stroke. This setting with the short theta burst stimulation application time and the simple stimulation localization procedure is suitable for clinical purposes.

  12. Aphasic disorder in patients with closed head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; Grossman, R G; Kelly, P J

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of 50 patients with closed head injury disclosed that anomic errors and word finding difficulty were prominent sequelae as nearly half of the series had defective scores on tests of naming and/or word association. Aphasic disturbance was associated with severity of brain injury as reflected by prolonged coma and injury of the brain stem. PMID:1011017

  13. Dislocated Dental Prothesis Sitting at the Larynx in an Aphasic Patient: Potentially Fatal Situation.

    PubMed

    Türk, Bilge; Ünsal, Özlem; Kaya, Kerem Sami; Coşkun, Berna Uslu

    2017-10-01

    Foreign body in respiration tract is a life-threatening emergency and requires urgent treatment. The diagnosis and treatment requires awareness and suspicion of signs and symptoms of foreign body aspiration. A unique case of total dental prothesis aspiration of a 44-year-old aphasic patient is presented. The prothesis is completely removed from the larynx. Foreign-body aspiration is frequently suspected in children, it is rarely thought about in adults with subacute or chronic respiratory symptoms unless an evident history of an aspiration event is obtained. Facial trauma, dental procedures, central nervous system dysfunction due to stroke, mental retardation, metabolic encephalopathy, seizures, and alcoholism are precipitating factors in adults. Careful clinical history and physical examination is mandatory. Foreign bodies located in the laryngeal region are almost always treated with surgery. Loose dentures must be avoided especially in mental retarded, aphasic patients, and patients with central nervous system dysfunction.

  14. Testing Idiom Comprehension in Aphasic Patients: The Effects of Task and Idiom Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagno, C.; Caporali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Idiom comprehension in 15 aphasic patients was assessed with three tasks: a sentence-to-picture matching task, a sentence-to-word matching task and an oral definition task. The results of all three tasks showed that the idiom comprehension in aphasic patients was impaired compared to that of the control group, and was significantly affected by the…

  15. The comprehension of ambiguous idioms in aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Cristina; Reati, Fabiola; Colombo, Maria Rosa; Padovani, Roberto; Rizzo, Silvia; Papagno, Costanza

    2006-01-01

    The ability to understand ambiguous idioms was assessed in 15 aphasic patients with preserved comprehension at a single word level. A string-to-word matching task was used. Patients were requested to choose one among four alternatives: a word associated with the figurative meaning of the idiom string; a word semantically associate with the last constituent of the idiom string; and two unrelated words. The results showed that patients' performance was impaired with respect to a group of matched controls, with patients showing a frontal and/or temporal lesion being the most impaired. A significant number of semantically associate errors were produced, suggesting an impairment of inhibition mechanisms and/or of recognition/activation of the idiomatic meaning.

  16. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M

    2016-01-01

    Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients' comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes.

  17. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C.; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Method Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. Results In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Conclusion Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients’ comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26735917

  18. Nonparallel Recovery of Languages in a Quadrilingual Aphasic Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filiputti, Dario; Tavano, Alessandro; Vorano, Lorenza; De Luca, Guido; Fabbro, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether the treatment of only one language of a multilingual fluent aphasic results in a parallel improvement of all languages, and whether the hypothesized benefits of rehabilitation last 4 years after the end of treatment. The resulting recovery pattern is non parallel, with a significant improvement of the language of treatment and…

  19. Application of binaural beat phenomenon with aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Barr, D F; Mullin, T A; Herbert, P S

    1977-04-01

    We investigated whether six aphasics and six normal subjects could binaurally fuse two slightly differing frequencies of constant amplitude. The aphasics were subdivided into two groups: (1) two men who had had mild cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) during the past 15 months; (2) four men who had had severe CVAs during the last 15 months. Two tones of different frequency levels but equal in intensity were presented dichotically to the subjects at 40 dB sensation level. All subjects had normal hearing at 500 Hz (0 to 25 dB). All six normal subjects and the two aphasics who had had mild CVAs could hear the binaural beats. The four aphasics who had had severe CVAs could not hear them. A 2 X 2 design resulting from this study was compared using chi2 test with Yates correction and was found to be significantly different (P less than .05). Two theories are presented to explain these findings: the "depression theory" and the "temporal time-sequencing theory." Therapeutic implications are also discussed relative to cerebral and/or brain stem involvement in the fusion of binaural stimuli.

  20. Syllabic constraints in the phonological errors of an aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Romani, C; Calabrese, A

    1998-08-01

    The Sonority Dispersion Principle (Clements, 1990) states that the sharper the rise in sonority between the beginning of the syllable and the nucleus, the better the syllable. So far evidence in favour of this principle has been derived mainly from the distributional properties of syllable types and, to a lesser extent, from language acquisition. The case of DB, presented in this study, provides strong evidence that the Sonority Dispersion Principle also applies to an explanation of aphasic errors and revives Jakobson's idea that the same principles of complexity can explain the distribution of syllables, language acquisition, and language loss (Jakobson, 1941, 1968). Although some evidence that sonority constraints aphasic errors has been presented before, this is the first study reporting systematic effects of sonority-based complexity in aphasia.

  1. Variable Solutions to the Same Problem: Aberrant Practice Effects in Object Naming by Three Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Arthur; Brownell, Hiram; Hoyte, Ken J.

    2006-01-01

    Although deficits in confrontation naming are a common consequence of damage to the language areas of the left cerebral hemisphere, some patients with aphasia show relatively good naming ability. We measured effects of repeated practice on naming latencies for a set of pictured objects by three aphasic patients with near-normal naming ability and…

  2. Analysis of Spoken Narratives in a Marathi-Hindi-English Multilingual Aphasic Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbhari-Adhyaru, Medha

    2010-01-01

    In a multilingual country such as India, the probability that clinicians may not have command over different languages used by aphasic patients is very high. Since formal tests in different languages are limited, assessment of people from diverse linguistic backgrounds presents speech- language pathologists with many challenges. With a view to…

  3. Analysis of Spoken Narratives in a Marathi-Hindi-English Multilingual Aphasic Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbhari-Adhyaru, Medha

    2010-01-01

    In a multilingual country such as India, the probability that clinicians may not have command over different languages used by aphasic patients is very high. Since formal tests in different languages are limited, assessment of people from diverse linguistic backgrounds presents speech- language pathologists with many challenges. With a view to…

  4. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Development of More Efficient Measures for Evaluating Language Impairments in Aphasic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Phyllis P.; Halpin, Gerald

    Because it generally took over an hour to administer the Porch Index of Communicative Ability (PICA), a shorter but comparable version of the test was developed. The original test was designed to quantify aphasic patients' ability level on common communicative tasks and consisted of 18 ten-item subtests. Each item resulted in a proficiency rating,…

  6. Eye Gaze Behavior at Turn Transition: How Aphasic Patients Process Speakers' Turns during Video Observation.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Basil C; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Gutbrod, Klemens; Nyffeler, Thomas; Cazzoli, Dario; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2016-10-01

    The human turn-taking system regulates the smooth and precise exchange of speaking turns during face-to-face interaction. Recent studies investigated the processing of ongoing turns during conversation by measuring the eye movements of noninvolved observers. The findings suggest that humans shift their gaze in anticipation to the next speaker before the start of the next turn. Moreover, there is evidence that the ability to timely detect turn transitions mainly relies on the lexico-syntactic content provided by the conversation. Consequently, patients with aphasia, who often experience deficits in both semantic and syntactic processing, might encounter difficulties to detect and timely shift their gaze at turn transitions. To test this assumption, we presented video vignettes of natural conversations to aphasic patients and healthy controls, while their eye movements were measured. The frequency and latency of event-related gaze shifts, with respect to the end of the current turn in the videos, were compared between the two groups. Our results suggest that, compared with healthy controls, aphasic patients have a reduced probability to shift their gaze at turn transitions but do not show significantly increased gaze shift latencies. In healthy controls, but not in aphasic patients, the probability to shift the gaze at turn transition was increased when the video content of the current turn had a higher lexico-syntactic complexity. Furthermore, the results from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping indicate that the association between lexico-syntactic complexity and gaze shift latency in aphasic patients is predicted by brain lesions located in the posterior branch of the left arcuate fasciculus. Higher lexico-syntactic processing demands seem to lead to a reduced gaze shift probability in aphasic patients. This finding may represent missed opportunities for patients to place their contributions during everyday conversation.

  7. Old and recent approaches to the problem of non-verbal conceptual disorders in aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-04-01

    From the first research on aphasia, it has been shown that, in addition to verbal communication disorders, aphasic patients often have difficulty on non-verbal cognitive tasks, which can actually be solved without the use of language. In this survey, I will discuss in a historical perspective the different interpretations provided by classical and contemporary authors to explain this puzzling observation. First, I will take into account the different positions of classical authorities on this topic, starting from the first debates (mainly based on anatomo-clinical observations) on the organisation of language in the brain. Then, I will attempt to summarize the work of authors who have tackled this complex issue more recently, in systematic investigations using methods drawn from experimental psychology, to clarify the meaning of non-verbal cognitive disorders in aphasia. Finally, in the last part of the survey, I will discuss the interpretation of proponents of the 'semantic hub' hypothesis who have tried to analyse and explain the differences between the non-verbal semantic defects of patients with semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients. The hypothesis which assumes that most non-verbal cognitive disorders observed in aphasic patients are due to a preverbal conceptual disorder, which cannot be attributed to a loss of semantic representations but rather to a defect in their controlled retrieval, seems substantially confirmed. Nevertheless, two main issues must still be clarified. The first is that some of the non-verbal cognitive defects of aphasic patients seem due to the negative influence of language disturbances on abstract non-verbal cognitive activities, rather than to a preverbal conceptual disorder. The second issue concerns the exact nature and the neuroanatomical correlates of the defective controlled retrieval of unimpaired conceptual representations, which should subsume most of the non-verbal cognitive disorders of aphasic patients. Copyright

  8. Validity and reliability of a new test for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients: Ege Aphasia Test.

    PubMed

    Calis, Funda Atamaz; On, Arzu Yagiz; Durmaz, Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fact that the phonetic, morphological and syntactic structures of the Turkish language differ significantly from other European languages, the translated forms of the currently available aphasia assessment batteries are not adequate for Turkish-speaking aphasic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Ege Aphasia Test that we have developed. The test, which includes the 8 subtests of praxia, spontaneous language, auditory and verbal comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, writing and calculating, was applied into 100 aphasic patients, 40 dysarthric patients and 40 healthy subjects. All test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients were found to be excellent (ICC = 0.99). The Cronbach's coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. All the subtests showed significantly greater scores in aphasic patients (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between the subtests and corrected total score (p < 0.05). Finally, the Ege Aphasia Test has an acceptable validity and reliability. It seems to be a promising battery for evaluation of aphasia in the Turkish language, which is spoken mainly in Turkey and in the surrounding regions. We believe that this study will pioneer the development of aphasia rehabilitation in these countries and contribute to future studies.

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of E-Rest: Teletherapy for Chronically Aphasic Speakers.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Marina B; Rietveld, Toni C M; Hoskam, Vera; VAN Beers, Marijn M A

    2016-01-01

    Delivering aphasia therapy via telecommunication may provide a means to deliver intensive therapy in a cost-effective way. Teletherapy, remotely-administered (language) treatment, may support the repetitive drill practices that people with chronic aphasia need to perform when learning to compensate for their lasting language difficulties. The use of teletherapy may allow speech and language pathologists (SLPs) to focus in-person sessions more strongly on the generalisation of therapy effects to daily life. This single subject study is an investigation whether a teletherapy application called e-REST meets the criteria of accessibility, user-friendliness, as well as effectiveness. e-REST, the teletherapy version of the Dutch and adapted Reduced Syntax Therapy, teaches chronically aphasic speakers of Dutch who experience difficulties in sentence production to convey their messages in a kind of telegraphic style. The results obtained suggest that it is reasonable to conduct a larger study into the user-friendliness, accessibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of e-REST.

  10. An Exploratory Investigation of E-Rest: Teletherapy for Chronically Aphasic Speakers

    PubMed Central

    RUITER, MARINA B.; RIETVELD, TONI C.M.; HOSKAM, VERA; VAN BEERS, MARIJN M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Delivering aphasia therapy via telecommunication may provide a means to deliver intensive therapy in a cost-effective way. Teletherapy, remotely-administered (language) treatment, may support the repetitive drill practices that people with chronic aphasia need to perform when learning to compensate for their lasting language difficulties. The use of teletherapy may allow speech and language pathologists (SLPs) to focus in-person sessions more strongly on the generalisation of therapy effects to daily life. This single subject study is an investigation whether a teletherapy application called e-REST meets the criteria of accessibility, user-friendliness, as well as effectiveness. e-REST, the teletherapy version of the Dutch and adapted Reduced Syntax Therapy, teaches chronically aphasic speakers of Dutch who experience difficulties in sentence production to convey their messages in a kind of telegraphic style. The results obtained suggest that it is reasonable to conduct a larger study into the user-friendliness, accessibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of e-REST. PMID:27563388

  11. Are aphasic patients who fail the GOAT in PTA? A modified Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test for persons with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Jain, N S; Layton, B S; Murray, P K

    2000-02-01

    Because the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) requires oral or written response, it risks misclassifying as amnestic aphasic patients who are not, in fact, amnestic. To correct for possible classification errors due to anomia, a modified multiple-choice format of the GOAT (AGOAT) was developed. The average GOAT score of 10 control nonaphasic head-injured patients suggested that an AGOAT score of 90 corresponds to the standard GOAT cutoff of 75 for resolution of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). Using this criterion, 8 of 15 aphasic head-injured patients who technically were classified as amnestic on the GOAT were classified as nonamnestic on the AGOAT.

  12. Development and Standardization of a New Cognitive Assessment Test Battery for Chinese Aphasic Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-Bao; Lyu, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Hai-Peng; Wang, Qi

    2017-10-05

    Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia. The NLCA consists of five nonverbal tests, which could assess five nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as visuospatial functions, attention test, memory, reasoning, and executive functions of aphasic patients. All tests are modified from the nonverbal items of the current existed tests with some changes to the characteristics of Chinese culture. The NLCA was tested in 157 participants (including 57 aphasic patients, 50 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 50 normal controls), and was compared with other well-established relative neuropsychological tests on the reliability, validity, and utility. The NLCA was fully applicable in the MCI patients and the normal controls, almost working in the aphasic patients (57/62 patients, 91.9%). The NLCA scores were 66.70 ± 6.30, 48.67 ± 15.04, and 77.58 ± 2.56 for the MCI group, the aphasic group, and the control group, respectively , and a significant difference was found among three groups (F = 118.446, P < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha of the NLCA as an index of internal consistency was 0.805, and the test-retest and interrater reliability was adequate (r=0.977 and r= 0.970, respectively). The correlations of the cognitive subtests and their validation instruments were between 0.540 and 0.670 (all P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that the coefficient of internal consistency of each subtest itself was higher than other subtests. When choosing the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of <26 as the diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment, the area under

  13. Perception of co-speech gestures in aphasic patients: a visual exploration study during the observation of dyadic conversations.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Basil C; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2015-03-01

    Co-speech gestures are part of nonverbal communication during conversations. They either support the verbal message or provide the interlocutor with additional information. Furthermore, they prompt as nonverbal cues the cooperative process of turn taking. In the present study, we investigated the influence of co-speech gestures on the perception of dyadic dialogue in aphasic patients. In particular, we analysed the impact of co-speech gestures on gaze direction (towards speaker or listener) and fixation of body parts. We hypothesized that aphasic patients, who are restricted in verbal comprehension, adapt their visual exploration strategies. Sixteen aphasic patients and 23 healthy control subjects participated in the study. Visual exploration behaviour was measured by means of a contact-free infrared eye-tracker while subjects were watching videos depicting spontaneous dialogues between two individuals. Cumulative fixation duration and mean fixation duration were calculated for the factors co-speech gesture (present and absent), gaze direction (to the speaker or to the listener), and region of interest (ROI), including hands, face, and body. Both aphasic patients and healthy controls mainly fixated the speaker's face. We found a significant co-speech gesture × ROI interaction, indicating that the presence of a co-speech gesture encouraged subjects to look at the speaker. Further, there was a significant gaze direction × ROI × group interaction revealing that aphasic patients showed reduced cumulative fixation duration on the speaker's face compared to healthy controls. Co-speech gestures guide the observer's attention towards the speaker, the source of semantic input. It is discussed whether an underlying semantic processing deficit or a deficit to integrate audio-visual information may cause aphasic patients to explore less the speaker's face. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impairment of language is related to left parieto-temporal glucose metabolism in aphasic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Karbe, H; Szelies, B; Herholz, K; Heiss, W D

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-six aphasic patients who had an ischaemic infarct in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) were investigated. Cranial computed tomography (CT) showed various lesion sites: infarcts restricted to cortical structures in 12 patients, combined cortical and subcortical infarcts in 7 and isolated subcortical infarcts sparing the left cortex in another 7 cases. 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed remote hypometabolism of the left convexity cortex and of the left basal ganglia, which was extended further than the morphological infarct zone in all cases. Types and degrees of aphasia were classified using the Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT): 10 patients had global aphasia, 2 Broca's, 5 Wernicke's, and 5 amnesic aphasia. Four patients suffered from minimal or residual aphasic symptoms. The AAT results were compared with the regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose of the left hemisphere. Irrespective of the infarct location all five AAT subtests (Token test, repetition, written language, confrontation naming, auditory and reading comprehension) were closely correlated among each other and with left parieto-temporal metabolic rates, whereas left frontal and left basal ganglia metabolism showed no significant correlation. The close relation between left temporo-parietal functional activity and all five AAT subtests suggests that the different aspects of aphasia tested by AAT can be related to a common disorder of language processing in those areas.

  15. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) based approach for speech therapy of aphasic patients: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamal, Norezmi; Shanta, Shahnoor; Mahmud, Farhanahani; Sha'abani, MNAH

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art an automatic speech recognition (ASR) based approach for speech therapy of aphasic patients. Aphasia is a condition in which the affected person suffers from speech and language disorder resulting from a stroke or brain injury. Since there is a growing body of evidence indicating the possibility of improving the symptoms at an early stage, ASR based solutions are increasingly being researched for speech and language therapy. ASR is a technology that transfers human speech into transcript text by matching with the system's library. This is particularly useful in speech rehabilitation therapies as they provide accurate, real-time evaluation for speech input from an individual with speech disorder. ASR based approaches for speech therapy recognize the speech input from the aphasic patient and provide real-time feedback response to their mistakes. However, the accuracy of ASR is dependent on many factors such as, phoneme recognition, speech continuity, speaker and environmental differences as well as our depth of knowledge on human language understanding. Hence, the review examines recent development of ASR technologies and its performance for individuals with speech and language disorders.

  16. Thematic role assignment in two severely aphasic patients: associations and dissociations.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Weber, C

    1995-02-01

    Two severely aphasic patients were compared in their abilities to comprehend and produce locative prepositional phrases and reversible S-V-O sentences using English and C-VIC, a computer-based iconographic communication system. One patient demonstrated a significant dissociation between his performance in interpreting symbol order in C-VIC prepositional phrases vs. S-V-O sentences. Patients were able to comprehend order in C-VIC S-V-O sentences significantly better than they were able to assign symbol order when they produced these sentences. These data suggest that the procedures for assigning thematic roles to nouns in sentences are at least partially distinct for comprehension and production and that the ordering of nouns around prepositions involves conceptual processes distinct from those involved in ordering nouns around verbs.

  17. Acquired Dyslexia in Three Writing Systems: Study of a Portuguese-Japanese Bilingual Aphasic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes. PMID:22713387

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of post-stroke depression in aphasic patients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Valiengo, Leandro; Casati, Roberta; Bolognini, Nadia; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M; Goulart, Alessandra C; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a common consequence of stroke; it is estimated that about two-thirds of aphasic patients will develop depression in the first year after the stroke. Treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD) is challenging due to the adverse effects of pharmacotherapy and difficulties in evaluating clinical outcomes, including aphasia. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a novel treatment that may improve clinical outcomes in the traditionally pharmacotherapy-refractory PSD. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tDCS for patients with PSD and with aphasia. The Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire (SADQ) and the Aphasic Depression Rating Scale (ADRS) were used to evaluate the severity of PSD. The diagnoses of PSD and aphasia were confirmed by a psychiatrist and a speech-language pathologist, respectively. In this open case series, patients (n = 4) received 10 sessions (once a day) of bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and two additional sessions after two and four weeks, for a total of 12 sessions. All patients exhibited improvement in depression after tDCS, as indicated by a decrease in SADQ (47.5%) and in ADRS (65.7%). This improvement was maintained four weeks after the treatment. In this preliminary, open-label study conducted in four PSD patients with aphasia, bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC was shown to induce a substantial mood improvement; tDCS was safe and well tolerated by every patient. Stroke patients with aphasia can be safely treated for PSD with tDCS. Sham-controlled studies are necessary to evaluate this technique further.

  19. Agraphia in patients with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 with P301L MAPT mutation: dysexecutive, aphasic, apraxic or spatial phenomenon?

    PubMed Central

    Sitek, Emilia J.; Narożańska, Ewa; Barczak, Anna; Jasińska-Myga, Barbara; Harciarek, Michał; Chodakowska-Żebrowska, Małgorzata; Kubiak, Małgorzata; Wieczorek, Dariusz; Konieczna, Seweryna; Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matt; Berdyński, Mariusz; Brockhuis, Bogna; Barcikowska, Maria; Żekanowski, Cezary; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Wszołek, Zbigniew K.; Sławek, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) may be agraphic. The study aimed at characterizing agraphia in individuals with a P301L MAPT mutation. Methods Two pairs of siblings with FTDP-17 were longitudinally examined for agraphia in relation to language and cognitive deficits. Results All patients presented with dysexecutive agraphia. In addition, in the first pair of siblings one sibling demonstrated spatial agraphia with less pronounced allographic agraphia and the other sibling had aphasic agraphia. Aphasic agraphia was also present in one sibling from the second pair. Conclusion Agraphia associated with FTDP-17 is very heterogeneous. PMID:23121543

  20. Task-induced brain activity in aphasic stroke patients: what is driving recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The estimated prevalence of aphasia in the UK and the USA is 250 000 and 1 000 000, respectively. The commonest aetiology is stroke. The impairment may improve with behavioural therapy, and trials using cortical stimulation or pharmacotherapy are undergoing proof-of-principle investigation, but with mixed results. Aphasia is a heterogeneous syndrome, and the simple classifications according to the Broca-Wernicke-Lichtheim model inadequately describe the diverse communication difficulties with which patients may present. Greater knowledge of how intact neural networks promote recovery after aphasic stroke, either spontaneously or in response to interventions, will result in clearer hypotheses about how to improve the treatment of aphasia. Twenty-five years ago, a pioneering study on healthy participants heralded the introduction of functional neuroimaging to the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, such studies have been interpreted as supporting one of three hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive. The first two predate the introduction of functional neuroimaging: that recovery is the consequence of the reconstitution of domain-specific language systems in tissue around the lesion (the ‘perilesional’ hypothesis), or by homotopic cortex in the contralateral hemisphere (the ‘laterality-shift’ hypothesis). The third is that loss of transcallosal inhibition to contralateral homotopic cortex hinders recovery (the ‘disinhibition’ hypothesis). These different hypotheses at times give conflicting views about rehabilitative intervention; for example, should one attempt to activate or inhibit a contralateral homotopic region with cortical stimulation techniques to promote recovery? This review proposes that although the functional imaging data are statistically valid in most cases, their interpretation has often favoured one explanation while ignoring plausible alternatives. In our view, this is particularly evident when

  1. Task-induced brain activity in aphasic stroke patients: what is driving recovery?

    PubMed

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L E; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-10-01

    The estimated prevalence of aphasia in the UK and the USA is 250 000 and 1 000 000, respectively. The commonest aetiology is stroke. The impairment may improve with behavioural therapy, and trials using cortical stimulation or pharmacotherapy are undergoing proof-of-principle investigation, but with mixed results. Aphasia is a heterogeneous syndrome, and the simple classifications according to the Broca-Wernicke-Lichtheim model inadequately describe the diverse communication difficulties with which patients may present. Greater knowledge of how intact neural networks promote recovery after aphasic stroke, either spontaneously or in response to interventions, will result in clearer hypotheses about how to improve the treatment of aphasia. Twenty-five years ago, a pioneering study on healthy participants heralded the introduction of functional neuroimaging to the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, such studies have been interpreted as supporting one of three hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive. The first two predate the introduction of functional neuroimaging: that recovery is the consequence of the reconstitution of domain-specific language systems in tissue around the lesion (the 'perilesional' hypothesis), or by homotopic cortex in the contralateral hemisphere (the 'laterality-shift' hypothesis). The third is that loss of transcallosal inhibition to contralateral homotopic cortex hinders recovery (the 'disinhibition' hypothesis). These different hypotheses at times give conflicting views about rehabilitative intervention; for example, should one attempt to activate or inhibit a contralateral homotopic region with cortical stimulation techniques to promote recovery? This review proposes that although the functional imaging data are statistically valid in most cases, their interpretation has often favoured one explanation while ignoring plausible alternatives. In our view, this is particularly evident when recovery is

  2. Sonority Effects in Telugu Aphasics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasanta, D.; Suvarna, A.; Sireesha, J.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is application of the concept of "sonority" to the study of aphasic speech. An assessment tool that is capable of examining sonority effects was developed and administered to a patient diagnosed to have progressive non-fluent aphasia. This tool successfully distinguished the performance of the patient from that of two…

  3. Sonority Effects in Telugu Aphasics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasanta, D.; Suvarna, A.; Sireesha, J.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is application of the concept of "sonority" to the study of aphasic speech. An assessment tool that is capable of examining sonority effects was developed and administered to a patient diagnosed to have progressive non-fluent aphasia. This tool successfully distinguished the performance of the patient from that of two…

  4. Feasibility of the cognitive assessment scale for stroke patients (CASP) vs. MMSE and MoCA in aphasic left hemispheric stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Barnay, J-L; Wauquiez, G; Bonnin-Koang, H Y; Anquetil, C; Pérennou, D; Piscicelli, C; Lucas-Pineau, B; Muja, L; le Stunff, E; de Boissezon, X; Terracol, C; Rousseaux, M; Bejot, Y; Binquet, C; Antoine, D; Devilliers, H; Benaim, C

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke aphasia makes it difficult to assess cognitive deficiencies. We thus developed the CASP, which can be administered without using language. Our objective was to compare the feasibility of the CASP, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in aphasic stroke patients. All aphasic patients consecutively admitted to seven French rehabilitation units during a 4-month period after a recent first left hemispheric stroke were assessed with CASP, MMSE and MoCA. We determined the proportion of patients in whom it was impossible to administer at least one item from these 3 scales, and compared their administration times. Forty-four patients were included (age 64±15, 26 males). The CASP was impossible to administer in eight of them (18%), compared with 16 for the MMSE (36%, P=0.05) and 13 for the MoCA (30%, P=0.21, NS). It was possible to administer the CASP in all of the patients with expressive aphasia, whereas the MMSE and the MoCA could not be administered. Administration times were longer for the CASP (13±4min) than for the MMSE (8±3min, P<10(-6)) and the MoCA (11±5min, P=0.23, NS). The CASP is more feasible than the MMSE and the MoCA in aphasic stroke patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Writing disorders in Italian aphasic patients. A multiple single-case study of dysgraphia in a language with shallow orthography.

    PubMed

    Luzzatti, C; Laiacona, M; Allamano, N; De Tanti, A; Inzaghi, M G

    1998-09-01

    We report results of a writing task given to 53 mildly to moderately aphasic Italian subjects. The task was designed to test the writing performance along the subword-level routine for the spelling of regular words and non-words, and along the lexical routine for the spelling of irregular words. The aim of the study was to identify the incidence of different dysgraphic subtypes in Italian, a language that is considered to have shallow orthography. Its spelling, however, is not completely free of ambiguity. A five-part writing task was used: (i) words with regular one-sound-to-one-grapheme conversion; (ii) words with regular syllabic conversion; (iii) words with ambiguous transcription; (iv) loan-words; and (v) non-words. For regular words, the effects of word length and word frequency, and of the variables determining the complexity of the acoustic-to-phonological conversion (continuant versus plosive phones; consonant-vowel sequence versus doubled consonants or consonant clusters) were also considered. Patients' performances were classified according to the presence of a dissociation between (i) regular words and non-words, (ii) regular words and words with unpredictable spellings, and (iii) one-to-one and syllabic conversions. The 53 aphasic patients span the whole spectrum of dysgraphic taxonomy. Thirty-nine patients, in particular, manifested a dissociated pattern of performance. Eighteen patients showed a prevalent surface dysgraphic pattern and seven a phonological one, while 11 patients showed a mixed pattern (i.e. a better performance for regular words than for ambiguous words or regular non-words). Three patients showed a specific deficit for regular syllabic conversion rules only. A high rate of 'mixed dysgraphia' suggests either a mutual interaction of the two impaired routines when regular words are written, or two separate functional lesions: one at the level of the auditory-to-phonological conversion procedure, the other at the level of the

  6. [Repetitive phenomenona in the spontaneous speech of aphasic patients: perseveration, stereotypy, echolalia, automatism and recurring utterance].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, C W; Brunner, R J; Seemüller, E

    1983-12-01

    Repetitive phenomena in spontaneous speech were investigated in 30 patients with chronic infarctions of the left hemisphere which included Broca's and/or Wernicke's area and/or the basal ganglia. Perseverations, stereotypies, and echolalias occurred with all types of brain lesions, automatisms and recurring utterances only with those patients, whose infarctions involved Wernicke's area and basal ganglia. These patients also showed more echolalic responses. The results are discussed in view of the role of the basal ganglia as motor program generators.

  7. Cognitive and Language Function in Aphasic Patients Assessed With the Korean Version of Mini-Mental Status Examination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Jeong, Hyun Sun; Moon, Eun Rhan; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical usefulness of the relatively short instrument, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), for testing the association between cognition and language function in subacute post-stroke aphasia patients. Methods Medical charts of 111 post-stroke patients (65 men; age 69.6±10.0 years; 124.6±80.6 days post-onset) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were assessed longitudinally for aphasia using the validated Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery (K-WAB) and for cognition using the MMSE-K. Patients were categorized and analyzed according to 3 aphasia-severity clusters. Results All subscales of the K-WAB showed significant improvement in follow-up assessments in all groups (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Only the scores of orientation, language function, and total score of MMSE-K showed significant improvement in all groups (p<0.01). The more severely impaired group showed stronger Pearson correlation coefficients between cognition and language function. Additionally, comparisons between correlation coefficients showed that the association of improvement in orientation with that of fluency and AQ% (aphasia quotient %) was significant in the more severely impaired group. Conclusion Among subacute post-stroke aphasic patients, patients with more severe aphasia showed greater impairments to cognitive function; in addition, recovery of orientation may be related to recovery of language function. PMID:26949682

  8. Parallel or serial activation of word forms in speech production? Neurolinguistic evidence from an aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Blanken, Gerhard; Dittmann, Jürgen; Wallesch, Claus-W

    2002-05-31

    We report the oral picture naming performance of the German aphasic MW who presented with frequent meaning related word substitutions (e.g. tiger ==> lion) and word finding blockings (omissions) while his phonological capacities at the single word level were nearly preserved. Targets were controlled for their 'semantic competitiveness', that is, whether there exist closely meaning related lexical competitors or not. Semantic errors were far more numerous with the highly competitive targets than with the low competitive ones. However, omissions were more frequent with the low competitive items so that the sum of the semantic errors and of the omissions was comparable in both conditions. This inverse and compensatory relationship suggests that both error types are not mutually independent. The found pattern is at odds with serial psycholinguistic theories which locate word selection (and misselection) and word form access (and blockings) at different and serially connected stages of word production but supports theories which allow for a parallel architecture in lexical activation and selection involving the word form level.

  9. Brain regions essential for improved lexical access in an aged aphasic patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Marcus; Flaisch, Tobias; Obleser, Jonas; Assadollahi, Ramin; Djundja, Daniela; Barthel, Gabriela; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2006-08-17

    The relationship between functional recovery after brain injury and concomitant neuroplastic changes is emphasized in recent research. In the present study we aimed to delineate brain regions essential for language performance in aphasia using functional magnetic resonance imaging and acquisition in a temporal sparse sampling procedure, which allows monitoring of overt verbal responses during scanning. An 80-year old patient with chronic aphasia (2 years post-onset) was investigated before and after intensive language training using an overt picture naming task. Differential brain activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus for correct word retrieval and errors was found. Improved language performance following therapy was mirrored by increased fronto-thalamic activation while stability in more general measures of attention/concentration and working memory was assured. Three healthy age-matched control subjects did not show behavioral changes or increased activation when tested repeatedly within the same 2-week time interval. The results bear significance in that the changes in brain activation reported can unequivocally be attributed to the short-term training program and a language domain-specific plasticity process. Moreover, it further challenges the claim of a limited recovery potential in chronic aphasia, even at very old age. Delineation of brain regions essential for performance on a single case basis might have major implications for treatment using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  10. Processing ambiguity in a linguistic context: decision-making difficulties in non-aphasic patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Spotorno, Nicola; Healey, Meghan; McMillan, Corey T; Rascovsky, Katya; Irwin, David J; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Some extent of ambiguity is ubiquitous in everyday conversations. For example, words have multiple meaning and very common pronouns, like "he" and "she" (anaphoric pronouns), have little meaning on their own and refer to a noun that has been previously introduced in the discourse. Ambiguity triggers a decision process that is not a subroutine of language processing but rather a more general domain resource. Therefore non-aphasic patients with limited decision-making capability can encounter severe limitation in language processing due to extra linguistic limitations. In the present study, we test patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD), focusing on anaphora as a paradigmatic example of ambiguity resolution in the linguistic domain. bvFTD is characterized by gray matter (GM) atrophy in prefrontal cortex, but relative sparing of peri-Sylvian cortex. A group of patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) was also tested here in order to investigate the specific role of prefrontal cortex in the task employed in the current study. Participants were presented with a pair of sentences in which the first sentence contained two nouns while the second contained a pronoun. In the experimental (ambiguous) condition, both nouns are plausible referents of the pronoun, thus requiring decision-making resources. The results revealed that bvFTD patients are significantly less accurate than healthy seniors in identifying the correct referent of a pronoun in the ambiguous condition, although CBS patients were as accurate as healthy seniors. Imaging analyses related bvFTD patients' performance to GM atrophy in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). These results suggest that bvFTD patients have difficulties in decision processes that involve the resolution of an ambiguity.

  11. Processing ambiguity in a linguistic context: decision-making difficulties in non-aphasic patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Spotorno, Nicola; Healey, Meghan; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Irwin, David J.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Some extent of ambiguity is ubiquitous in everyday conversations. For example, words have multiple meaning and very common pronouns, like “he” and “she” (anaphoric pronouns), have little meaning on their own and refer to a noun that has been previously introduced in the discourse. Ambiguity triggers a decision process that is not a subroutine of language processing but rather a more general domain resource. Therefore non-aphasic patients with limited decision-making capability can encounter severe limitation in language processing due to extra linguistic limitations. In the present study, we test patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD), focusing on anaphora as a paradigmatic example of ambiguity resolution in the linguistic domain. bvFTD is characterized by gray matter (GM) atrophy in prefrontal cortex, but relative sparing of peri-Sylvian cortex. A group of patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) was also tested here in order to investigate the specific role of prefrontal cortex in the task employed in the current study. Participants were presented with a pair of sentences in which the first sentence contained two nouns while the second contained a pronoun. In the experimental (ambiguous) condition, both nouns are plausible referents of the pronoun, thus requiring decision-making resources. The results revealed that bvFTD patients are significantly less accurate than healthy seniors in identifying the correct referent of a pronoun in the ambiguous condition, although CBS patients were as accurate as healthy seniors. Imaging analyses related bvFTD patients’ performance to GM atrophy in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). These results suggest that bvFTD patients have difficulties in decision processes that involve the resolution of an ambiguity. PMID:26578928

  12. LANGUAGE DEFICITS, LOCALIZATION, AND GRAMMAR: EVIDENCE FOR A DISTRIBUTIVE MODEL OF LANGUAGE BREAKDOWN IN APHASIC PATIENTS AND NEUROLOGICALLY INTACT INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Frederic; Bates, Elizabeth; Wulfeck, Beverly; Utman, Jennifer; Dronkers, Nina; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Selective deficits in aphasics patients’ grammatical production and comprehension are often cited as evidence that syntactic processing is modular and localizable in discrete areas of the brain (e.g., Y. Grodzinsky, 2000). The authors review a large body of experimental evidence suggesting that morphosyntactic deficits can be observed in a number of aphasic and neurologically intact populations. They present new data showing that receptive agrammatism is found not only over a range of aphasic groups, but is also observed in neurologically intact individuals processing under stressful conditions. The authors suggest that these data are most compatible with a domain-general account of language, one that emphasizes the interaction of linguistic distributions with the properties of an associative processor working under normal or suboptimal conditions. PMID:11699116

  13. No effects of anodal transcranial direct stimulation on language abilities in early rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Polanowska, K E; Leśniak, M; Seniów, J B; Członkowska, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that an increased level of stroke-affected left hemisphere cortical (especially frontal) excitability is associated with better language improvement in aphasic patients. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS), increasing cortical activity, may facilitate perilesional left hemisphere recruitment to subserve language processing and enhance effects of behavioural therapy. The aim of the study (randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled) was to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated A-tDCS over Broca area as a strategy to enhance aphasia recovery during early post-stroke rehabilitation. Thirty-seven participants with moderate or severe aphasia were randomized to receive 15 consecutive daily sessions of A-tDCS (1 mA, 10 min; experimental group, n = 18) or sham stimulation (1 mA, 25 s; control group, n = 19) followed by language therapy. Effects of tDCS were assessed using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, performed before and after the rehabilitation, and three months later. The results did not confirm a positive impact of repeated A-tDCS, preceding language therapy, on language abilities in our patients. Although both groups improved after the therapy, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in either short-term or long-term tDCS effects. Effect sizes for the experimental group, at post-treatment and the 3-month follow-up, were slightly higher than in controls but insufficient to infer any beneficial influence of the applied intervention. The findings do not support A-tDCS functional benefits during early rehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of this kind of neuromodulation.

  14. Association between Therapy Outcome and Right-Hemispheric Activation in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Maria; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere for language processing and successful therapeutic interventions in aphasic patients is a matter of debate. This study explored brain activation in right-hemispheric areas and left-hemispheric perilesional areas in response to language tasks in chronic non-fluent aphasic patients before and after constraint-induced…

  15. Association between Therapy Outcome and Right-Hemispheric Activation in Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Maria; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The role of the right hemisphere for language processing and successful therapeutic interventions in aphasic patients is a matter of debate. This study explored brain activation in right-hemispheric areas and left-hemispheric perilesional areas in response to language tasks in chronic non-fluent aphasic patients before and after constraint-induced…

  16. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the right cortex homologous to left language areas are directly affected by left hemispheric damage in aphasic stroke patients: evaluation by Tc-ECD SPECT and novel analytic software.

    PubMed

    Uruma, G; Kakuda, W; Abo, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the influence of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on rCBF in each region in the non-dominant hemisphere in post-stroke aphasic patients. The study subjects were 27 aphasic patients who suffered their first symptomatic stroke in the left hemisphere. In each subject, we measured rCBF by means of 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimmer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The SPECT images were analyzed by the statistical imaging analysis programs easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS) and voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). Segmented into Brodmann Area (BA) levels, Regions of Interest (ROIs) were set in language-relevant areas bilaterally, and changes in the relative rCBF as average negative and positive Z-values were computed fully automatically. To assess the relationship between rCBF changes of each ROIs in the left and right hemispheres, the Spearman ranked correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were applied. Globally, a negative and asymmetric influence of rCBF changes in the language-relevant areas of the dominant hemisphere on the right hemisphere was found. The rCBF decrease in left BA22 significantly influenced the rCBF increase in right BA39, BA40, BA44 and BA45. The results suggested that the chronic increase in rCBF in the right language-relevant areas is due at least in part to reduction in the trancallosal inhibitory activity of the language-dominant left hemisphere caused by the stroke lesion itself and that these relationships are not always symmetric.

  17. Brain plasticity in aphasic patients: intra- and inter-hemispheric reorganisation of the whole linguistic network probed by N150 and N350 components

    PubMed Central

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined linguistic plastic reorganization of language through Evoked Potentials in a group of 17 non-fluent aphasic patients who had suffered left perisylvian focal lesions, and showed a good linguistic recovery. Language reorganisation was probed with three linguistic tasks (Phonological, Semantic, Orthographic), the early word recognition potential (N150) and the later phonological-related component (N350). Results showed the typical left-lateralised posterior N150 in healthy controls (source: left Fusiform Gyrus), that was bilateral (Semantic) or right sided (Phonological task) in patients (sources: right Inferior/Middle Temporal and Fusiform Gyri). As regards N350, controls revealed different intra- and inter-hemispheric linguistic activation across linguistic tasks, whereas patients exhibited greater activity in left intact sites, anterior and posterior to the damaged area, in all tasks (sources: Superior Frontal Gyri). A comprehensive neurofunctional model is presented, describing how complete intra- and inter-hemispheric reorganisation of the linguistic networks occurs after aphasic damage in the strategically dominant left perisylvian linguistic centres. PMID:26217919

  18. Brain plasticity in aphasic patients: intra- and inter-hemispheric reorganisation of the whole linguistic network probed by N150 and N350 components.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-07-28

    The present study examined linguistic plastic reorganization of language through Evoked Potentials in a group of 17 non-fluent aphasic patients who had suffered left perisylvian focal lesions, and showed a good linguistic recovery. Language reorganisation was probed with three linguistic tasks (Phonological, Semantic, Orthographic), the early word recognition potential (N150) and the later phonological-related component (N350). Results showed the typical left-lateralised posterior N150 in healthy controls (source: left Fusiform Gyrus), that was bilateral (Semantic) or right sided (Phonological task) in patients (sources: right Inferior/Middle Temporal and Fusiform Gyri). As regards N350, controls revealed different intra- and inter-hemispheric linguistic activation across linguistic tasks, whereas patients exhibited greater activity in left intact sites, anterior and posterior to the damaged area, in all tasks (sources: Superior Frontal Gyri). A comprehensive neurofunctional model is presented, describing how complete intra- and inter-hemispheric reorganisation of the linguistic networks occurs after aphasic damage in the strategically dominant left perisylvian linguistic centres.

  19. Linguistic Structures in Stereotyped Aphasic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Hugh W., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The linguistic structure of specific introductory type clauses, which appear at a relatively high frequency in the utterances of a severely brain damaged fluent aphasic with neologistic jargon speech, is examined. The analysis is restricted to one fifty-six-year-old male patient who suffered massive subdural hematoma. (SCC)

  20. [Evaluation of intelligence with non-verbal tests in aphasic patients].

    PubMed

    Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A

    1979-09-01

    Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics.

  1. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: (1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and (2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients…

  2. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: 1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and 2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients were faster in detecting targets in the right visual field when the target and distracters had different color names compared to when their names were the same. This effect was absent in the LH patients, consistent with the hypothesis that injury to the left hemisphere handicaps the automatic activation of lexical codes. Moreover, the LH patients showed a reversed effect, such that the advantage of different target-distracter names was now evident for targets in the left visual field. This reversal may suggest a reorganization of the color lexicon in the right hemisphere following left hemisphere brain injury and/or the unmasking of a heightened right hemisphere sensitivity to color categories. PMID:21216454

  3. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: (1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and (2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients…

  4. Comparison of machine learning methods for classifying aphasic and non-aphasic speakers.

    PubMed

    Järvelin, Antti; Juhola, Martti

    2011-12-01

    The performance of eight machine learning classifiers were compared with three aphasia related classification problems. The first problem contained naming data of aphasic and non-aphasic speakers tested with the Philadelphia Naming Test. The second problem included the naming data of Alzheimer and vascular disease patients tested with Finnish version of the Boston Naming Test. The third problem included aphasia test data of patients suffering from four different aphasic syndromes tested with the Aachen Aphasia Test. The first two data sets were small. Therefore, the data used in the tests were artificially generated from the original confrontation naming data of 23 and 22 subjects, respectively. The third set contained aphasia test data of 146 aphasic speakers and was used as such in the experiments. With the first and the third data set the classifiers could successfully be used for the task, while the results with the second data set were less encouraging. However, based on the results, no single classifier performed exceptionally well with all data sets, suggesting that the selection of the classifier used for classification of aphasic data should be based on the experiments performed with the data set at hand. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of hemodynamic disturbances in aphasic patients by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Pendefunda, L

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a study of Doppler cerebrovascular ultrasonography carried out in 38 aphasie patients (forms ranging from transient speech disturbances to severe, persistent disturbances of motor, sensory or mixed aphasia) after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. In these cases, the clinical symptoms were dominated by speech impairment and neurological deficits (mainly pyramidal), of low intensity or transient. The angiographic study revealed stenotic or occlusive disturbances at various levels of the cerebral arterial trunks. The prevalence of some clinical aspects of aphasia correlated with Doppler velocimetric images is discussed and the use of transcranial Doppler method in idiopathic aphasia, possible consequence of a transient ischemic attack, is suggested.

  6. Different patterns of spoken and written word comprehension deficit in aphasic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents neuropsychological evidence for differences in the semantic representations underpinning spoken and written word comprehension. Potential modality-based discrepancies in the semantic system were examined by testing whether spoken word (auditory-verbal input) and written word (visual-verbal input) comprehension exhibited the same effect profile on variables typically used to distinguish so-called access and storage disorders (e.g., response consistency, sensitivity to item frequency). The study was based on the premise that damage to a common set of semantic representations should have an equivalent impact upon comprehension performance irrespective of input modality, whereas damage to partially dissociable semantic representations may give rise to different qualities of deficit (access/storage) in the comprehension of stimuli presented in different input modalities (spoken/written). The study involved two patients with global aphasia following left middle cerebral artery stroke (F.B.I. and H.O.P.). The two patients showed matched performance on conventional tests of single word comprehension with clear evidence of semantic impairment for stimuli presented in both the spoken and written input modalities. However, in H.O.P., spoken and written word comprehension was affected in the same way by variations in stimulus category, frequency, and multiple stimulus presentations, whilst in F.B.I., there were clear differences between input modalities with all three variables. More specifically, F.B.I.'s written word comprehension was significantly affected by category (living > nonliving) and frequency (high > low) but not multiple presentations (single = multiple), more consistent with degradation of stored representations (storage deficit). By contrast, his spoken word comprehension was unaffected by category (living = nonliving) and frequency (high = low) but was affected by multiple presentations (single > multiple; serial

  7. Cognitive impairments of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R; Glöckner-Rist, A; Lutz, M; Maier, T; Meier, E

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of earlier experiments showing a differential deficit of aphasics in picture sorting and matching tasks, two experiments were conducted to test the conjecture of a specific deficit of aphasics in the analytical appraisal of individual features. Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics--according to clinical diagnoses and the Aachener Aphasie Test--were compared with patients having right-hemisphere lesions or left-hemisphere lesions without aphasia. Both groups of aphasics differed from the control groups in the sorting task, irrespective of the sorting criterion, but the differences were small. The picture matching task did not discriminate between groups. Obviously, the basic assumption has to be modified with respect to specific conditions of task requirements. The experimental literature is reviewed.

  8. Neighbourhood Density Effects in Auditory Non-Word Processing in Aphasic Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janse, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates neighbourhood density effects on lexical decision performance (both accuracy and response times) of aphasic patients. Given earlier results on lexical activation and deactivation in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia, the prediction was that smaller neighbourhood density effects would be found for Broca's aphasic patients,…

  9. Neighbourhood Density Effects in Auditory Non-Word Processing in Aphasic Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janse, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates neighbourhood density effects on lexical decision performance (both accuracy and response times) of aphasic patients. Given earlier results on lexical activation and deactivation in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia, the prediction was that smaller neighbourhood density effects would be found for Broca's aphasic patients,…

  10. The mental representation of singular and plural nouns in Algerian Arabic as revealed through auditory priming in agrammatic aphasic patients.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Z; Kehayia, E; Jarema, G

    1998-01-01

    Working within the theoretical framework of prosodic nonconcatenative morphology developed by McCarthy (1975) for Semitic languages, we addressed, in the present paper, the issues of lexical representation, morphological relatedness, and modes of access in Algerian Arabic--a dialect of Standard Arabic--in an auditory morphological priming experiment. More specifically, we investigated the process of word recognition of singular and plural nouns in the performance of 24 non-brain-damaged subjects and 2 Algerian-speaking agrammatic aphasics. Plurals in Arabic involve either suffixation as in the sound plural (e.g., lbas "dress"/lbasat "dresses"), or stem-internal changes as in the broken plurals (e.g., kursi "chair"/krasa "chairs"). Our findings reveal a differential processing of the two forms, indicating whole word access for broken plurals and decomposition into word and suffix for suffixed plurals. Further, the evidence suggests for Algerian Arabic an architecture of the lexicon reflecting a family-like organization which takes into account language-specific features.

  11. A computer-aided evaluation of error patterns in aphasic speech.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sharon; Tsigka, Styliani; Boschetti, Federico; Capasso, Rita

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to provide an improved automated computational tool to study aphasic production. Using the speech production of Italian aphasic patients, the present study demonstrates the possibility of applying an integrated algorithm to automatically assess and generate error patterns typical of aphasic speech. Philological studies and aphasia studies share one common point: errors (or variants) are informative, and the intention of the authors (in the case of philology) or of the patients (in the case of aphasiology) is to be established. For this precise reason, the present study adapts a tool, originally used in computational philology for the alignment of textual variants (Boschetti, 2007, 2008), and puts it to use for assessing aphasic patient's speech error patterns. As is demonstrated, this tool is effective and analytical. The authors expect this to be beneficial for the use of analysing aphasic production in both clinical and academic settings.

  12. Patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Salama-Hanna, Joseph; Chen, Grace

    2013-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic pain is important because it may lead to multidisciplinary preoperative treatment of patients' pain and a multimodal analgesia plan for effective pain control. Preoperative multidisciplinary management of chronic pain and comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, deconditioning, and opioid tolerance, can improve patient satisfaction and surgical recovery. Multimodal analgesia using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies shifts the burden of analgesia away from simply increasing opioid dosing. In more complicated chronic pain patients, multidisciplinary treatment, including pain psychology, physical therapy, judicious medication management, and minimally invasive interventions by pain specialists, can improve patients' satisfaction and surgical outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Syllable structure and sonority in language inventory and aphasic neologisms.

    PubMed

    Stenneken, Prisca; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Huber, Walter; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2005-11-01

    Phonological theories have raised the notion of a universally preferred syllable type which is defined in terms of its sonority structure (e.g., ). Empirical evidence for this notion has been provided by distributional analyses of natural languages and of language acquisition data, and by aphasic speech error analyses. The present study investigates frequency distributions of syllable types in German, which allows for a rather complex syllable structure, and in neologistic utterances of a German speaking jargon aphasic. The findings suggest that the sonority structure of the patient's neologisms is generally in accordance with the notion of theoretically preferred syllables. Moreover, comparative analyses suggest that the predominance of the preferred syllable type is especially pronounced in the aphasic data. On the basis of these findings, the influence of sonority in impaired phonological lexical processing is discussed.

  14. Making Non-Fluent Aphasics Speak: Sing along!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Amelie; Bard, Celine; Peretz, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were…

  15. Making Non-Fluent Aphasics Speak: Sing along!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racette, Amelie; Bard, Celine; Peretz, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were…

  16. Inflectional marking in Hungarian aphasics.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, B; Osmán-Sági, J

    1991-08-01

    How do aphasics deal with the rich inflectional marking available in agglutinative languages like Hungarian? For the Hungarian noun alone, aphasics have to deal with over 15 basic case markings and dozens of possible combinations of these basic markings. Using the picture description task of MacWhinney and Bates (1978), this study examined the use of inflectional markings in nine Broca's and five Wernicke's aphasic speakers of Hungarian. The analysis focused on subject, direct object, indirect object, and locative nominal arguments. Compared to normals, both groups had a much higher rate of omission of all argument types. Subject ellipsis was particularly strong, as it is in normal Hungarian. There was a tendency for Broca's to omit the indirect object and for Wernicke's to omit the direct object. Across argument types, Wernicke's had a much higher level of pronoun usage than did Broca's. Broca's also showed a very high level of article omission. Compared to similar data reported by Slobin (this issue) for Turkish, the Hungarian aphasics showed an elevated level of omission of case markings. Addition errors were quite rare, but there were 14 substitutions of one case marking for another. These errors all involved the substitution of some close semantic competitor. There were no errors in the basic rules for vowel harmony or morpheme order. Overall the results paint a picture of a group of individuals whose grammatical abilities are damaged and noisy, but still largely functional. Neither the view of Broca's as agrammatic nor the view of Wernicke's as paragrammatic was strongly supported.

  17. Improved Neural Processing Efficiency in a Chronic Aphasia Patient Following Melodic Intonation Therapy: A Neuropsychological and Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Ken-ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Nakano, Chizuru; Ito, Ai; Shimoji, Yasuo; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a treatment program for the rehabilitation of aphasic patients with speech production disorders. We report a case of severe chronic non-fluent aphasia unresponsive to several years of conventional therapy that showed a marked improvement following intensive 9-day training on the Japanese version of MIT (MIT-J). The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of MIT-J by functional assessment and examine associated changes in neural processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging. MIT improved language output and auditory comprehension, and decreased the response time for picture naming. Following MIT-J, an area of the right hemisphere was less activated on correct naming trials than compared with before training but similarly activated on incorrect trials. These results suggest that the aphasic symptoms of our patient were improved by increased neural processing efficiency and a concomitant decrease in cognitive load. PMID:27698650

  18. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  19. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  20. Pragmatic-mode mediation of sentence comprehension among aphasic bilinguals and hispanophones.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, M L

    1989-01-01

    A test of sentence comprehension administered in four input-output modality combinations to a group of aphasic bilinguals and monolingual hispanophones provides evidence that aphasics tend to use pragmatic-mode (in the sense of Givón, 1979, On understanding-grammar, New York, Academic Press) strategies in approaching this task. When five factors were identified and dichotomized with respect to the pragmatic-mode-syntactic-mode dimension, the patients performed significantly better on items classified as pragmatic than on those classified as syntactic, in both languages. The results support a vertical/hierarchical view of aphasic language dissolution.

  1. Contrasting patterns of comprehension for superordinate, basic-level, and subordinate names in semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2008-06-01

    It is well established that patients with semantic memory impairment show a relative sparing of general superordinate information as compared with more detailed item-specific information. The objective of the current study was to examine whether or not this superordinate superiority effect is also reliably observed in individuals with stroke. The participants were 3 patients with a diagnosis of semantic dementia (SD) and 4 left middle cerebral artery stroke patients. In the first experiment, participants were administered a series of spoken-word-picture matching tasks, in which picture identity was probed under two conditions: item name (e.g., goose, beetle, shark, hedgehog) and superordinate name (e.g., bird, insect, fish, mammal). The SD patients showed the predicted pattern of performance, identifying stimuli significantly more accurately by their superordinate term than by their specific name. By contrast, the stroke patients showed the reverse pattern of inferior performance in the superordinate condition in all versions of the experimental task. In a second experiment comparing comprehension ofbasic-level names (e.g., dog, bird, fish) and subordinate-level names (e.g., Dalmatian, sparrow, trout), stroke patients also showed a reversal of the normal basic-level effect, showing less accurate comprehension of basic-level names. The pattern of results documented among the stroke patients cannot be accommodated obviously or readily by existing models of conceptual knowledge. These contrasting abilities of SD patients, stroke patients, and normal healthy participants to process subordinate, basic-level, and superordinate names are considered in relation to disorders of executive processing and taxonomic categorization.

  2. Cognitive Factors in the Choice of Syntactic Form by Aphasic and Normal Speakers of English and Japanese: The Speaker's Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menn, Lise; And Others

    This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…

  3. Assessing Spontaneous Language Abilities of Aphasic Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Knott, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Reports on research to develop a descriptive framework capable of revealing relevant linguistic features of aphasic speech. Spontaneous speech samples collected from aphasic and normal speakers in dyadic conversational settings and from monologic picture descriptions are transcribed; lexical, phrasal and causal elements are coded and quantified.…

  4. Chronically Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Sara L.; Daly, Barbara J.; Kelley, Carol Genet; O’Toole, Elizabeth; Montenegro, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronically critically ill patients often have high costs of care and poor outcomes and thus might benefit from a disease management program. Objectives To evaluate how adding a disease management program to the usual care system affects outcomes after discharge from the hospital (mortality, health-related quality of life, resource use) in chronically critically ill patients. Methods In a prospective experimental design, 335 intensive care patients who received more than 3 days of mechanical ventilation at a university medical center were recruited. For 8 weeks after discharge, advanced practice nurses provided an intervention that focused on case management and interdisciplinary communication to patients in the experimental group. Results A total of 74.0% of the patients survived and completed the study. Significant predictors of death were age (P = .001), duration of mechanical ventilation (P = .001), and history of diabetes (P = .04). The disease management program did not have a significant impact on health-related quality of life; however, a greater percentage of patients in the experimental group than in the control group had “improved” physical health-related quality of life at the end of the intervention period (P = .02). The only significant effect of the intervention was a reduction in the number of days of hospital readmission and thus a reduction in charges associated with readmission. Conclusion The intervention was not associated with significant changes in any outcomes other than duration of readmission, but the supportive care coordination program could be provided without increasing overall charges. PMID:17724242

  5. Parallel recovery in a bilingual aphasic: a neurolinguistic and fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Marangolo, Paolo; Rizzi, Christina; Peran, Patrice; Piras, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Umberto

    2009-05-01

    In bilingual aphasics, the neural correlates of rehabilitation benefits and their generalization across languages are still scarcely understood. The authors present the case of a highly proficient bilingual woman (Flemish, L1/Italian, L2) with chronic aphasia who, in the presence of the same pattern of impairment in both languages, showed parallel recovery in both languages after long-term rehabilitation therapy in L2. The authors postulated that this recovery was due to the engagement of the same neural substrates. To confirm this the authors used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to explore cortical activation during an overt picture naming task, performed in both Flemish and Italian once before and once after 2 weeks of training in L2. Behaviorally, the patient showed complete recovery of both languages. The fMRI results indicated that the same cerebral regions were recruited for both languages before and after training. Increasing activations were observed perilesionally and in homologous contralesional areas. Our data, in agreement with previous results of fMRI studies in healthy bilinguals, indicate a promising direction for future research on the neural mechanisms associated with recovery in bilingual aphasics.

  6. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible (“The boy is eating the apple”) and reversible (“The boy is pushing the girl”) sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  7. [The significance of the Montessori method and phenomenon with a particular view to the therapy of the aphasics (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Birchmeier-Nussbaumer, A K

    1980-05-01

    The methods of the Italian physician Maria Montessori influenced the development of modern learning practices. There is general agreement that the Montessori phenomenon is personality forming. Aspects of this method, which are relevant for the rehabilitation of the brain-damaged and, in particular, the aphasics are presented. Possible shifts of emphasis within the relationship therapist - method - patient are analysed. Examples are used to outline in how far an increasingly patient-oriented therapy can influence the development of the aphasic patient.

  8. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas.

  9. Managing the chronically late patient.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Every practice has patients who are chronically late. This wrecks havoc with your schedule and makes you less productive. Patients can be trained to respect your time and arrive in the office on time. This article discusses several approaches to managing the chronically late patient.

  10. Rasch Models of Aphasic Performance On Syntactic Comprehension Tests

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, Roee; DeDe, Gayle; Michaud, Jennifer; Liu, Jun; Caplan, David

    2010-01-01

    Responses of forty-two people with aphasia to eleven sentence types in enactment and sentence-picture matching tasks were characterized using Rasch models that varied in the inclusion of the factors of task, sentence type, and patient group. The best fitting models required the factors of task and patient group but not sentence type. The results provide evidence that aphasic syntactic comprehension is best accounted for by models that include different estimates of patient ability in different tasks and different difficulty of all sentences in different groups of patients, but that do not include different estimates of patient ability for different types of sentences. PMID:21058076

  11. Comprehension of Idioms in Turkish Aphasic Participants.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Burcu; Barin, Muzaffer; Yagiz, Oktay

    2017-06-19

    Brain damaged participants offer an opportunity to evaluate the cognitive and linguistic processes and make assumptions about how the brain works. Cognitive linguists have been investigating the underlying mechanisms of idiom comprehension to unravel the ongoing debate on hemispheric specialization in figurative language comprehension. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the comprehension of idiomatic expressions in left brain damaged (LBD) aphasic, right brain damaged (RBD) and healthy control participants. Idiom comprehension in eleven LBD aphasic participants, ten RBD participants and eleven healthy control participants were assessed with three tasks: String to Picture Matching Task, Literal Sentence Comprehension Task and Oral Idiom Definition Task. The results of the tasks showed that in overall idiom comprehension category, the left brain-damaged aphasic participants interpret idioms more literally compared to right brain-damaged participants. What is more, there is a significant difference in opaque idiom comprehension implying that left brain-damaged aphasic participants perform worse compared to right brain-damaged participants. On the other hand, there is no statistically significant difference in scores of transparent idiom comprehension between the left brain-damaged aphasic and right brain-damaged participants. This result also contribute to the idea that while figurative processing system is damaged in LBD aphasics, the literal comprehension mechanism is spared to some extent. The results of this study support the view that idiom comprehension sites are mainly left lateralized. Furthermore, the results of this study are in consistence with the Giora's Graded Salience Hypothesis.

  12. Comprehension of contrastive stress by Broca's aphasics.

    PubMed

    Avrutin, S; Lubarsky, S; Greene, J

    1999-11-01

    obtained in these two experiments seem to support the view that aphasic patients may have a lack of processing capacity, resulting in more errors during the processing of discourse-related linguistic constructions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. The effects of single versus combined cue presentations on picture naming by aphasic adults.

    PubMed

    Weidner, W E; Jinks, A F

    1983-03-01

    Research has demonstrated that the presentation of auditory and visual cues is an effective clinical procedure for improving picture naming of nonfluent aphasic speakers. The effect of combined cue presentation, however, has not been clearly demonstrated. The present study investigated the effect of single and multiple cueing techniques used with nonfluent (Broca's) aphasic patients. The subjects were divided into a minimum or maximum error group based on their performance on a picture-naming task. Printed words (in either cursive or manuscript style), initial syllables, and sentence completion cues were presented independently and in combination. Discussion is directed toward the potential clinical application of multiple cueing techniques.

  14. Changes in Identity after Aphasic Stroke: Implications for Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Thomas; Bokhour, Barbara G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Stroke survivors with aphasia experience difficulty associated with their communication disorder. While much has been written about aphasia's impacts on partners/family, we lack data regarding the psychosocial adjustment of aphasic stroke survivors, with a paucity of data from the patients themselves. Methods. Qualitative study of lived experiences of individuals with poststroke aphasia. Each of the stroke survivors with aphasia completed 3-4 semistructured interviews. In most cases, patients' partners jointly participated in interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using techniques derived from grounded theory. Results. 12 patients were interviewed, with the total of 45 interviews over 18 months. Themes included poststroke changes in patients' relationships and identities, which were altered across several domains including occupational identity, relationship and family roles, and social identity. While all these domains were impacted by aphasia, the impact varied over time. Conclusion. Despite the challenges of interviewing individuals with aphasia, we explored aphasia's impacts on how individuals experience their identity and develop new identities months and years after stroke. This data has important implications for primary care of patients with aphasia, including the importance of the long-term primary care relationship in supporting psychosocial adjustment to life after aphasic stroke. PMID:25685553

  15. Language and syntactic impairment following stroke in late bilingual aphasics.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Muriel; Laganaro, Marina; Michel, Patrik; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Di Pietro, Marie; Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2011-12-01

    Bilingual aphasia generally affects both languages. However, the age of acquisition of the second language (L2) seems to play a role in the anatomo-functional correlation of the syntactical/grammatical processes, thus potentially influencing the L2 syntactic impairment following a stroke. The present study aims to analyze the influence of late age of acquisition of the L2 on syntactic impairment in bilingual aphasic patients. Twelve late bilingual participants (speaking French as L2 and either English, German, Italian or Spanish as L1) with stroke-induced aphasia participated in the study. The MAST or BAT aphasia batteries were used to evaluate overall aphasia score. An auditory syntactic judgement task was developed and used to test participants syntactic performance. The overall aphasia scores did not differ between L1 and L2. In a multiple case analysis, only one patient had lower scores in L2. However, four patients presented significantly lower performances in syntactic processing in the late L2 than in their native language (L1). In these four patients the infarct was localized, either exclusively or at least partially, in the pre-rolandic region. This pilot study suggests that, in late bilingual aphasics, syntactic judgment abilities may be more severely impaired in L2, and that this syntactic deficit is most likely to occur following anterior lesions. 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Effects of Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Stimuli on the Confrontation-Naming Performance of Aphasics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Wright, Judith M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of semantic grouping on confrontation-naming performances of 16 fluent and 10 nonfluent aphasic adults was examined. Performances were not uniformly facilitated in one naming condition over the other. Some patients, however, did appear to display performance discrepancies between the two conditions. (Author/CL)

  17. Omissions and Semantic Errors in Aphasic Naming: Is There a Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormann, Tobias; Kulke, Florian; Wallesch, Claus-W.; Blanken, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Within a discrete two-stage model of lexicalization, semantic errors and errors of omission are assumed to be independent events. In contrast, cascading and interactive models allow for an influence of word form on lexical selection and thus for an inherent relationship in accounting for both error types. A group of 17 aphasic patients was…

  18. An Investigation of Luria's Hypothesis on Prompting in Aphasic Naming Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Edith Chin; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    The study investigated A. R. Luria's hypothesis that aphasic subgroups (Broca's, conduction, Wernicke's, and anomic aphasics) would respond differentially to phonemic prompts. Results, with the exception of the anomic aphasic group, supported Luria's predictions. (Author/DB)

  19. [Thoughts on modern aphasic discourse studies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke-rong

    2006-04-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the content of aphasic discourse analysis, the theoretical frameworks applied, and critical findings . It also points out the problem that faces the study, the variety of study methods that arises, and the future trend. The structuralists tend to focus on the micro aspects of the discourse while the functionalists on its general structure and the meaning. The study in the future shall address the connection of these two levels.

  20. Patterns of neural activity predict picture-naming performance of a patient with chronic aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yune Sang; Zreik, Jihad T; Hamilton, Roy H

    2017-01-08

    Naming objects represents a substantial challenge for patients with chronic aphasia. This could be in part because the reorganized compensatory language networks of persons with aphasia may be less stable than the intact language systems of healthy individuals. Here, we hypothesized that the degree of stability would be instantiated by spatially differential neural patterns rather than either increased or diminished amplitudes of neural activity within a putative compensatory language system. We recruited a chronic aphasic patient (KL; 66 year-old male) who exhibited a semantic deficit (e.g., often said "milk" for "cow" and "pillow" for "blanket"). Over the course of four behavioral sessions involving a naming task performed in a mock scanner, we identified visual objects that yielded an approximately 50% success rate. We then conducted two fMRI sessions in which the patient performed a naming task for multiple exemplars of those objects. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) searchlight revealed differential activity patterns associated with correct and incorrect trials throughout intact brain regions. The most robust and largest cluster was found in the right occipito-temporal cortex encompassing fusiform cortex, lateral occipital cortex (LOC), and middle occipital cortex, which may account for the patient's propensity for semantic naming errors. None of these areas were found by a conventional univariate analysis. By using an alternative approach, we extend current evidence for compensatory naming processes that operate through spatially differential patterns within the reorganized language system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Code Switching in Normal and Aphasic Kannada-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Sapna; Chengappa, Shyamala

    Patterns of code switching were studies from two aphasic and two neurologically normal Kannada-English bilinguals. Conversational analysis of the samples based on the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993) revealed consistent code switching between two languages by all the subjects. The aphasic subjects demonstrated a greater…

  2. Revisiting "The Influence of Literacy in Paraphasias of Aphasic Speakers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaco, Dora; Mineiro, Ana; Leal, Gabriela; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that illiterate subjects are unaware of the phonological structure of language. This fact may influence the characteristics of aphasic speech, namely the structure of paraphasias. A battery of tests was developed for this study to be used with aphasic subjects (literate and illiterate), in order to explore this topic in more…

  3. Revisiting "The Influence of Literacy in Paraphasias of Aphasic Speakers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaco, Dora; Mineiro, Ana; Leal, Gabriela; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that illiterate subjects are unaware of the phonological structure of language. This fact may influence the characteristics of aphasic speech, namely the structure of paraphasias. A battery of tests was developed for this study to be used with aphasic subjects (literate and illiterate), in order to explore this topic in more…

  4. Aphasic status epilepticus with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in a bilingual patient as a presenting sign of "AIDS-toxoplasmosis complex".

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Gülşen; Kurne, Asli; Unal, Serhat; Oğuz, Kader Karli; Karabudak, Rana; Saygi, Serap

    2006-08-01

    We describe an HIV-infected, bilingual patient presenting with Wernicke's aphasia due to partial status epilepticus with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges, as the first sign of AIDS-toxoplasmosis complex. The localization of the native and secondary language centers in the brain and the possible role of recurrent seizures in the fluctuating course of Wernicke's aphasia in this patient are discussed. The clinical course of this patient supports the belief that a second language area for a second language learned in the later stages of life is located in an area different from that for the native language but still in close proximity to it.

  5. [The evaluation of aphasic deficits for the definition of a targetted logotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, A; Pezzoni, F; Zonca, G; Guarnaschelli, C; Zelaschi, F; Luzzatti, C

    1997-01-01

    The Aachener Aphasie Test (AAT) is the major German test for the diagnosis of aphasic disorders. The test is easy to use and is valid and reliable for the diagnosis of aphasia and its severity and to evaluate the recovery of the aphasic disorder after language rehabilitation. The AAT is, however, not sufficient to define cognitively sound logotherapeutic treatment. The use of tasks which are based on cognitive functional models allows the identification of specific processing levels that have been damaged by a cerebral lesion, and the definition of a focussed rehabilitation plan. In this paper, we will discuss the results of a cognitive neurolinguistic treatment in a patient who suffered of Broca's aphasia with agrammatism and phonological dyslexia.

  6. Asyntactic Thematic Role Assignment by Mandarin Aphasics: A Test of the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis and the Double Dependency Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yi-ching.; Lee, Shu-er; Chung, Yuh-mei

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension patterns of various sentence types by Mandarin-speaking aphasic patients and evaluates the validity of the predictions from the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) and the Double Dependency Hypothesis (DDH). Like English, the canonical word order in Mandarin is SVO, but the two languages differ in that the head…

  7. Asyntactic Thematic Role Assignment by Mandarin Aphasics: A Test of the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis and the Double Dependency Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yi-ching.; Lee, Shu-er; Chung, Yuh-mei

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension patterns of various sentence types by Mandarin-speaking aphasic patients and evaluates the validity of the predictions from the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis (TDH) and the Double Dependency Hypothesis (DDH). Like English, the canonical word order in Mandarin is SVO, but the two languages differ in that the head…

  8. Mimicking aphasic semantic errors in normal speech production: evidence from a novel experimental paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Catherine; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Semantic errors are commonly found in semantic dementia (SD) and some forms of stroke aphasia and provide insights into semantic processing and speech production. Low error rates are found in standard picture naming tasks in normal controls. In order to increase error rates and thus provide an experimental model of aphasic performance, this study utilised a novel method- tempo picture naming. Experiment 1 showed that, compared to standard deadline naming tasks, participants made more errors on the tempo picture naming tasks. Further, RTs were longer and more errors were produced to living items than non-living items a pattern seen in both semantic dementia and semantically-impaired stroke aphasic patients. Experiment 2 showed that providing the initial phoneme as a cue enhanced performance whereas providing an incorrect phonemic cue further reduced performance. These results support the contention that the tempo picture naming paradigm reduces the time allowed for controlled semantic processing causing increased error rates. This experimental procedure would, therefore, appear to mimic the performance of aphasic patients with multi-modal semantic impairment that results from poor semantic control rather than the degradation of semantic representations observed in semantic dementia [Jefferies, E. A., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2006). Semantic impairment in stoke aphasia vs. semantic dementia: A case-series comparison. Brain, 129, 2132-2147]. Further implications for theories of semantic cognition and models of speech processing are discussed.

  9. Financial and legal decision-making capacity in the aphasic population - a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Carr, Frances

    2016-12-01

    Capacity is assumed to be present unless proven otherwise. Assessments of specific decision-making capacity for financial and legal decisions, although challenging in the general population, becomes almost impossible for individuals with language disorders (i.e. aphasia) in the absence of appropriate communication aids. Several capacity aids exist for the general population; however, it is unclear whether any communication aids exist specifically for the aphasic population to assist assessment of financial and legal decision-making capacity. A literature review was conducted of six databases with the assistance of a research librarian. From 171 articles screened, 12 were included in the final review. The literature focus was on medical decision-making capacity, and in particular, patient consent. Few articles addressed legal or financial decision-making capacity. Several articles identified the presence of general and specific capacity aids for the general population; however, there was a clear absence of similar communication aids available for the aphasic population with only one communication aid identified to assist with decision-making capacity assessment for healthcare and accommodation decisions only. Whilst a significant amount of research has been done on decision-making capacity, it is mostly focused on healthcare; in particular, on patient consent for treatment for the non-aphasic population. Although a communication aid exists to aid assessment of decision-making capacity for healthcare for aphasic individuals, no similar tools exist to aid financial and legal decision-making capacity assessments. This paper highlights an important problem encountered during clinical practice which requires further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging of language function recovery after aphasic stroke: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; van der Lugt, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Two advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have recently made their way into clinically oriented research and hold great promise to study the brain's adaptive changes of function and structure after aphasic stroke, respectively. Such functional and structural neuroplasticity is thought to underlie the recovery of language function, occurring spontaneously and/or in the context of therapeutic intervention. With fMRI, brain activity can be visualized. Spontaneous brain activity, present in multiple brain networks, is measured with resting-state fMRI and language-related brain activity by having the subject perform a language task during scanning (task-based fMRI). With DTI the major white matter tracts, such as the dorsal and ventral language pathways and the commissural fibers, can be visualized and quantified. Both techniques are entirely noninvasive and thus offer the unique opportunity to perform multiple assessments within the same subject. To gain more insight in functional and structural neuroplasticity after aphasic stroke, advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging studies in specific patient populations, at several stages after stroke and in the course of language recovery, are needed. Such studies will help to clarify the influence of the many factors that play a role in the recovery of language function and are thus vital to further the development of aphasia therapy. Application of these techniques in aphasic stroke patients, however, is not without challenge. The purpose of this article is to discuss the methodologic challenges of fMRI and DTI in the assessment of language recovery after aphasic stroke.

  11. Naming in aphasic children: analysis of paraphasic errors.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, H R; Visch-Brink, E G

    1988-01-01

    In the spontaneous speech of aphasic children paraphasias have been described. This analysis of naming errors during recovery showed that neologisms, literal and verbal paraphasias occurred. The etiology affected the recovery course of neologisms, but not other errors.

  12. Self-organizing dynamics of lexical access in normals and aphasics.

    PubMed

    McNellis, M G; Blumstein, S E

    2001-02-15

    The goal of this article is to illustrate the application of self-organizing dynamics in the design of a model of lexical access. We focus particularly on the mapping of sound structure on to the lexicon and the influence of that structure on lexical access. The approach is tested in a series of two sets of simulations that explicate how lexical access might occur in normal subjects and aphasic patients. Both sets of simulations address the behavioral effects of both phonological and phonetic variability of prime stimuli on the magnitude of semantic priming. Results show that the model can successfully account for the behavioral effects associated with several kinds of acoustic manipulation, competitor presence, and the unfolding of those effects over time--primarily because it balances three important control parameters: resting lexical activation, positive feedback, and negative feedback. These simulations are offered as support (in the form of an existence proof) that deficits in the degree of lexical activation can account for the lexical processing impairments shown by Broca's aphasics who have reduced lexical activation, and Wernicke's aphasics who have increased lexical activation. Overall, results suggest that the present approach promises to offer a coherent theoretical framework within which to link empirical evidence in language processing and cognitive neuroscience in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.

  13. Gallstones in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    With prevalence of 10–20% in adults in developed countries, gallstone disease (GSD) is one of the most prevalent and costly gastrointestinal tract disorders in the world. In addition to gallstone disease, chronic liver disease (CLD) is also an important global public health problem. The reported frequency of gallstone in chronic liver disease tends to be higher. The prevalence of gallstone disease might be related to age, gender, etiology, and severity of liver disease in patients with chronic liver disease. In this review, the aim was to identify the epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment strategies of gallstone disease in chronic liver disease patients. PMID:28251162

  14. Understanding and managing patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Szumita, Richard P; Szumita, Paul M; Just, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery has had at its core the foundations of anesthesia and pain and anxiety control. This article attempts to refamiliarize the reader with clinical pearls helpful in the management of patients with chronic pain conditions. The authors also hope to highlight the interplay of chronic pain and psychology as it relates to the oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. To that end, the article outlines and reviews the neurophysiology of pain, the definitions of pain, conditions encountered by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon that produce chronic pain, the psychological impact and comorbidities associated with patients experiencing chronic pain conditions, and concepts of multimodal treatment for patients experiencing chronic pain conditions.

  15. Nasal Consonant Production in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasics: Speech Deficits and Neuroanatomical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurowski, Kathleen M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Palumbo, Carole L.; Waldstein, Robin S.; Burton, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the articulatory implementation deficits of Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics and their potential neuroanatomical correlates. Five Broca's aphasics, two Wernicke's aphasics, and four age-matched normal speakers produced consonant-vowel-(consonant) real word tokens consisting of [m, n] followed by [i, e, a, o, u]. Three…

  16. Nasal Consonant Production in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasics: Speech Deficits and Neuroanatomical Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurowski, Kathleen M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Palumbo, Carole L.; Waldstein, Robin S.; Burton, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the articulatory implementation deficits of Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics and their potential neuroanatomical correlates. Five Broca's aphasics, two Wernicke's aphasics, and four age-matched normal speakers produced consonant-vowel-(consonant) real word tokens consisting of [m, n] followed by [i, e, a, o, u]. Three…

  17. The production of semantic paralexias in a Spanish-speaking aphasic.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, A R; Miravalles, G

    1995-05-01

    A case of a Spanish-speaking aphasic patient who produced a great number of semantic paralexias in reading aloud and who showed other symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of deep dyslexia is presented. In this study, (a) the production of semantic paralexias and the features of the deep dyslexia syndrome which have only recently begun to be studied in Spanish-speaking patients, are analyzed; and (b) the "obligatory character of phonological mediation in the reading of Spanish proposed by some authors is discussed.

  18. Promethazine use among chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Kara L.; Shapiro, Brad J.; Coffa, Diana; Novak, Scott P.; Kral, Alex H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Concomitant use of opioids and promethazine has been reported in various subpopulations, including methadone maintenance patients, injection drug users, and at-risk teenagers. Promethazine is thought to potentiate the “high” from opioids. However, to date, the prevalence of promethazine use has not been determined among patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Methods Urine samples from 921 patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain were analyzed for promethazine. Demographic data, toxicology results, and opioid prescription information were obtained through medical record abstraction. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariable and multivariable statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine-positive urine samples among chronic pain patients was 9%. Only 50% of promethazine-positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Having benzodiazepine-positive urine with no prescription for a benzodiazepine was statistically associated with promethazine use. Also, having a prescription for methadone for pain or being in methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence were both statistically associated with promethazine use. Chronic pain patients prescribed only a long-acting opioid were more likely to have promethazine-positive urines than patients prescribed a short-acting opioid. Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence of significant promethazine use in chronic pain patients. Promethazine should be considered as a potential drug of abuse that could cause increased morbidity in opioid-using populations. PMID:25754939

  19. Resilience profile of patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Souza, Israel; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Caumo, Wolnei; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2017-01-23

    The aim of this study was to identify resilience profiles of patients with chronic pain. Using latent class analysis in a sample of 414 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, three profiles were identified: primary resilience (40%), consisting of individuals 40 years or younger with high education, who seek medical care, are not working, and without symptoms of psychological stress; secondary resilience (30%), consisting of women over 54 years of age with low schooling, who seek medical care, are not working, and with low likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress; tertiary resilience (29%), women with medium schooling, 40 to 54 years old, working, who do not seek medical care, and with a high likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress. The three profiles display different paths of resilience in chronic pain that are relevant to clinical practice, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary care for patients with chronic pain.

  20. Thrombophilia in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond S M; Bakshi, Kalpana; Brainsky, Andres

    2015-01-01

    An increased risk of thromboembolic events among patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia has been reported but is still not fully understood. A thrombophilia panel (factors suspected/known to denote a thrombophilic state or indicate activation of the clotting cascade) was measured in previously treated patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia enrolled in an eltrombopag trial to assess potential thrombophilia risk markers. Of 167 patients, 136 (81%) had abnormal levels of at least 1 known or suspected thrombosis risk marker or coagulation cascade activation marker. Six patients reported thromboembolic events, and all of these patients had at least two abnormal analytes in the thrombophilia panel. The presence of multiple baseline thrombophilia risk markers support the theory that chronic immune thrombocytopenia is a pro-thrombotic disease.

  1. Individualized treatment with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia due to stroke.

    PubMed

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P; Norise, Catherine; Garcia, Gabriella; Torres, Jose; Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Hamilton, Roy H

    2015-01-01

    While evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may facilitate language recovery in chronic post-stroke aphasia, individual variability in patient response to different patterns of stimulation remains largely unexplored. We sought to characterize this variability among chronic aphasic individuals, and to explore whether repeated stimulation with an individualized optimal montage could lead to persistent reduction of aphasia severity. In a two-phase study, we first stimulated patients with four active montages (left hemispheric anode or cathode; right hemispheric anode or cathode) and one sham montage (Phase 1). We examined changes in picture naming ability to address (1) variability in response to different montages among our patients, and (2) whether individual patients responded optimally to at least one montage. During Phase 2, subjects who responded in Phase 1 were randomized to receive either real-tDCS or to receive sham stimulation (10 days); patients who were randomized to receive sham stimulation first were then crossed over to receive real-tDCS (10 days). In both phases, 2 mA tDCS was administered for 20 min per real-tDCS sessions and patients performed a picture naming task during stimulation. Patients' language ability was re-tested after 2-weeks and 2-months following real and sham tDCS in Phase 2. In Phase 1, despite considerable individual variability, the greatest average improvement was observed after left-cathodal stimulation. Seven out of 12 subjects responded optimally to at least one montage as demonstrated by transient improvement in picture-naming. In Phase 2, aphasia severity improved at 2-weeks and 2-months following real-tDCS but not sham. Despite individual variability with respect to optimal tDCS approach, certain montages result in consistent transient improvement in persons with chronic post-stroke aphasia. This preliminary study supports the notion that individualized tDCS treatment may enhance aphasia

  2. Bilingualism delays the onset of behavioral but not aphasic forms of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Alladi, Suvarna; Bak, Thomas H; Shailaja, Mekala; Gollahalli, Divyaraj; Rajan, Amulya; Surampudi, Bapiraju; Hornberger, Michael; Duggirala, Vasanta; Chaudhuri, Jaydip Ray; Kaul, Subhash

    2017-05-01

    Bilingualism has been found to delay onset of dementia and this has been attributed to an advantage in executive control in bilinguals. However, the relationship between bilingualism and cognition is complex, with costs as well as benefits to language functions. To further explore the cognitive consequences of bilingualism, the study used Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes, to examine whether bilingualism modifies the age at onset of behavioral and language variants of Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) differently. Case records of 193 patients presenting with FTD (121 of them bilingual) were examined and the age at onset of the first symptoms were compared between monolinguals and bilinguals. A significant effect of bilingualism delaying the age at onset of dementia was found in behavioral variant FTD (5.7 years) but not in progressive nonfluent aphasia (0.7 years), semantic dementia (0.5 years), corticobasal syndrome (0.4 years), progressive supranuclear palsy (4.3 years) and FTD-motor neuron disease (3 years). On dividing all patients predominantly behavioral and predominantly aphasic groups, age at onset in the bilingual behavioral group (62.6) was over 6 years higher than in the monolingual patients (56.5, p=0.006), while there was no difference in the aphasic FTD group (60.9 vs. 60.6 years, p=0.851). The bilingual effect on age of bvFTD onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, gender, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects. To conclude, bilingualism delays the age at onset in the behavioral but not in the aphasic variants of FTD. The results are in line with similar findings based on research in stroke and with the current views of the interaction between bilingualism and cognition, pointing to advantages in executive functions and disadvantages in lexical tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Disease management for chronic heart failure patient].

    PubMed

    Bläuer, Cornelia; Pfister, Otmar; Bächtold, Christa; Junker, Therese; Spirig, Rebecca

    2011-02-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are limited in their quality of life, have a poor prognosis and face frequent hospitalisations. Patient self-management was shown to improve quality of life, reduce rehospitalisations and costs in patients with chronic HF. Comprehensive disease management programmes are critical to foster patient self-management. The chronic care model developed by the WHO serves as the basis of such programmes. In order to develop self-management skills a needs orientated training concept is mandatory, as patients need both knowledge of the illness and the ability to use the information to make appropriate decisions according to their individual situation. Switzerland has no established system for the care of patients with chronic diseases in particular those with HF. For this reason a group of Swiss experts for HF designed a model for disease management for HF patients in Switzerland. Since 2009 the Swiss Heart Foundation offers an education programme based on this model. The aim of this programme is to offer education and support for practitioners, patients and families. An initial pilot evaluation of the program showed mixed acceptance by practitioners, whereas patient assessed the program as supportive and in line with their requirements.

  4. [Demodex spp in chronic blepharitis patients].

    PubMed

    Laspina, Florentina; Samudio, Margarita; Arrúa, Martín; Sanabria, Rosa; Fariña, Norma; Carpinelli, Letizia; Cibils, Diógenes; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia

    2015-02-01

    Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ± 13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.

  5. [Effectiveness of halotherapy of chronic bronchitis patients].

    PubMed

    Abdrakhmanova, L M; Farkhutdinov, U R; Farkhutdinov, R R

    2000-01-01

    The chemoluminescence test in 49 patients with lingering inflammatory chronic bronchitis has revealed inhibition of generation of active oxygen forms in the whole blood, intensification of lipid peroxidation in the serum, depression of local immunity. Administration of halotherapy to the above patients results in correction of disturbances of free-radical oxidation, improves local immunity and clinical course of the disease.

  6. [Meniscal repair in patients with chronic lesions].

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, José Clemente Ibarra; Sierra Suárez, Luis; Almazán Díaz, Arturo; Cruz López, Francisco; Pérez Jiménez, Francisco Xavier; Encalada Díaz, Iván; León Hernández, Saúl Renán; Angulo Gutiérrez, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the subjective and objective outcome of arthroscopic meniscal repair in patients with chronic meniscal lesions. A group of patients that underwent arthroscopic meniscal repair of chronic tears with a minimum follow-up of six months was retrospectively evaluated. Physical examination oriented at finding persistent meniscal lesions was performed. IKDC, Lysholm and Tegner scores were applied, and a control magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. Twenty seven menisci in 25 patients were repaired. There were 21 male and 4 female patients with a mean age of 29.6 +/- 8.2 years (20-45). Mean time from lesion to surgery was 25.24 +/- 26 months (6-120). 27. There was significant improvement in all parameters evaluated in 21 patients. Four patients were found to have signs and symptoms of persistent meniscal tears. Abnormal increased signal intensity in the repaired menisci was observed by MRI in all patients, not correlating with clinical findings. Short-term success rate of 85% was obtained with arthroscopic repair of chronic meniscal lesions in this study, which supports the fact that a long period of time before surgery does not necessarily lead to failure. It is valid to perform a meniscal repair in patients with chronic tears as long as the proper surgical technique and an adequate rehabilitation protocol are used.

  7. A new test battery to assess aphasic disturbances and associated cognitive dysfunctions -- German normative data on the aphasia check list.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, Elke; Reinhold, Nadine; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J; Kessler, Josef

    2005-10-01

    Aphasia, defined as an acquired impairment of linguistic abilities, can be accompanied by a diversity of neuropsychological dysfunction. Accordingly, the necessity to include cognitive testing in the diagnosis of aphasia is increasingly recognized. Here we present the Aphasia Check List (ACL), a new test battery for the assessment of aphasic and associated cognitive disorders. The language part of the battery provides a differentiated profile of important linguistic abilities. In addition, the ACL includes nonverbal screening tests for three neuropsychological domains: memory, attention, and reasoning. Dysfunctions in these domains have been observed in aphasic patients and can have an impact on language function. The ACL is applicable to patients with language disturbances of different etiologies, different stages of disease, and to patients with mild to severe aphasia. As the entire test duration is only about 30 minutes, the ACL is also economically valuable. It thus presents an adequate starting point in aphasia diagnosis for a wide range of patients. Here we describe the construction of the ACL, and the normative study of its original German version with 154 aphasic patients and 106 healthy comparison subjects. The ACL cognition part revealed additional neuropsychological dysfunction in the aphasia group. We present the patterns of these dysfunctions and their correlations with language deficits.

  8. Storage Costs and Heuristics Interact to Produce Patterns of Aphasic Sentence Comprehension Performance

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite general agreement that aphasic individuals exhibit difficulty understanding complex sentences, the nature of sentence complexity itself is unresolved. In addition, aphasic individuals appear to make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences, and the other based on dependency locality theory (DLT). Complexity metrics derived from these theories are evaluated under various assumptions of heuristic use. Method: A set of complexity metrics was derived from each general theory of sentence complexity and paired with assumptions of heuristic use. Probability spaces were generated that summarized the possible patterns of performance across 16 different sentence structures. The maximum likelihood of comprehension scores of 42 aphasic individuals was then computed for each probability space and the expected scores from the best-fitting points in the space were recorded for comparison to the actual scores. Predictions were then compared using measures of fit quality derived from linear mixed effects models. Results: All three of the metrics that provide the most consistently accurate predictions of patient scores rely on storage costs based on the DLT. Patients appear to employ an Agent–Theme heuristic, but vary in their tendency to accept heuristically generated interpretations. Furthermore, the ability to apply the heuristic may be degraded in proportion to aphasia severity. Conclusion: DLT-derived storage costs provide the best prediction of sentence comprehension patterns in aphasia. Because these costs are estimated by counting incomplete syntactic dependencies at each point in a sentence, this finding suggests that aphasia is associated with reduced availability of cognitive resources for maintaining these dependencies. PMID:22590462

  9. [Pulmonary embolism in patients with chronic hypoxemia].

    PubMed

    Ristić, Lidija; Rancić, Milan; Pejcić, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, originally designed, clinical--diagnostic study including 200 chronic hypoxemic patients was to assess the possibility of implementation of noninvasive diagnostic strategy and to investigate the incidence of pulmonary embolism and parameters of diagnostic accuracy of radiological findings according to Shintz criteria, echocardiography, lung perfusion scanning according to PIOPED criteria. The study included 200 chronic hypoxemic patients divided into 2 groups, the group I consisting of 42 women and 58 men and the group II consisting of 48 women and 52 men. Out of 200 hypoxemic patients, 49 patients (24.5%) were found to have pulmonary embolism. In the group I of 100 patients (42 women and 58 men) with chronic hypoxemia and secondary erythrocytosis the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was confirmed in 39%, that being statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) from 100 patients (48 women and 52 men) in the group II with chronic hypoxemia without secondary erythrocytosis, where pulmonary embolism was found in 10% of the patients. The predictive value was positive for direct radiological signs in 92.3% of patients in the group I for PTE, for indirect ones in 74.35%, and in the group II it was positive for direct radiological signs in 60% and for indirect ones in 90%. The predictive value of perfusion scan was positive in 59% of the group I and in only 22% of the group II. The predictive value for high pressure in the pulmonary artery was positive in 93.7% of the group I and in 66.6% of the group II. The following were found to be a variable predictor: hypoxemia, enlargement of the pulmonary artery, peripheral oligemia and elevation of diaphragm. Logistic regression according to backward--conditional method showed that the chronic hypoxemic patients with secondly erythrocytosis, who had radiological sign of peripheral oligemia--Westermark sign, had 2.286 times higher probability of having pulmonary embolism than similar patients

  10. [Patients' assessment of their chronic illness care].

    PubMed

    Adrián-Arrieta, Leyre; Casas Fernández de Tejerina, Juan Manuel

    2017-09-04

    The aim of this study is to assess the care received by chronic patients from their point of view and objectify the factors related with a better assessment of care. Cross-sectional descriptive study realized between September 2014 and April 2015. Nine Health Centers of Navarra (6 urban and 3 rural), Spain. Sampling opportunity of 196 patients aged over 65years presenting at least one chronic disease. Outcome variable: Evaluation of the care received through the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) test (score 1 to 5, higher values indicate better perception about quality of care). Explanatory variables: quality of life employing the EQ5D instrument, Katz index and Gijón's socio-family evaluation scale. Other variables studied were: sex, age, education, Charlson index and number of chronic diseases. The association between the PACIC numerical value with the rest of the variables was calculated. The assessment of the care received according to the PACIC was higher with more chronic diseases (rho: 0.196; p=0.006), with less autonomy (mild or no disability: mean 2.9; SD: 0.6 vs. moderate or severe disability: mean 3.3; SD: 0.2; P=.003), in those with worse quality of life (EQ5D5L Index value rho: -0.227; P=.001. EQ VAS rho: -0.145; P=.043), and in those with a more favorable social situation (rho: -0.167; P=.022). The perception of chronic patients about the received care is better with an increased number of chronic diseases and with less autonomy and quality of life. The social environment influences the care perception of the patient, being this worse in environments with higher social risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Benjamin; Henseler, Ilona; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases-known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources-even without singing.

  12. How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Benjamin; Henseler, Ilona; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases—known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources—even without singing. PMID:23450277

  13. Clinically concordant variations of Alzheimer pathology in aphasic versus amnestic dementia.

    PubMed

    Gefen, Tamar; Gasho, Katherine; Rademaker, Alfred; Lalehzari, Mona; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily; Wieneke, Christina; Bigio, Eileen; Geula, Changiz; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2012-05-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by gradual dissolution of language but relative sparing of other cognitive domains, especially memory. It is associated with asymmetric atrophy in the language-dominant hemisphere (usually left), and differs from typical Alzheimer-type dementia where amnesia is the primary deficit. Various pathologies have been reported, including the tangles and plaques of Alzheimer's disease. Identification of Alzheimer pathology in these aphasic patients is puzzling since tangles and related neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease typically emerge in memory-related structures such as entorhinal cortex and spread to language-related neocortex later in the disease. Furthermore, Alzheimer pathology is typically symmetric. How can a predominantly limbic and symmetric pathology cause the primary progressive aphasia phenotype, characterized by relative preservation of memory and asymmetric predilection for the language-dominant hemisphere? Initial investigations into the possibility that Alzheimer pathology displays an atypical distribution in primary progressive aphasia yielded inconclusive results. The current study was based on larger groups of patients with either primary progressive aphasia or a typical amnestic dementia. Alzheimer pathology was the principal diagnosis in all cases. The goal was to determine whether Alzheimer pathology had clinically-concordant, and hence different distributions in these two phenotypes. Stereological counts of tangles and plaques revealed greater leftward asymmetry for tangles in primary progressive aphasia but not in the amnestic Alzheimer-type dementia (P < 0.05). Five of seven aphasics had more leftward tangle asymmetry in all four neocortical regions analysed, whereas this pattern was not seen in any of the predominantly amnestic cases. One aphasic case displayed higher right-hemisphere tangle density despite greater left-hemisphere hypoperfusion and atrophy during

  14. [Chronic norovirus infection in an immunocompromised patient].

    PubMed

    Lambregts, Merel M C; Alleman, Maarten A; Ruys, Gijs J H M; Groeneveld, Paul H P

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old man, immunocompromised due to non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chemotherapy, was admitted for a community-acquired norovirus infection. He developed chronic intermittent diarrhoea and cachexia. A video-capsule examination showed severe mucosal atrophy in the jejunum. The patient died eight months after the initial norovirus infection. Eight of the nine stool examinations were positive for the norovirus during this entire period. Excretion of norovirus is known to persist after the symptoms have been resolved. However, there is only one previously reported case of excretion over such a long period. Recognising a chronic norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients is vital as then complications such as mucosal atrophy with malabsorption and cachexia can be diagnosed and supportive therapy can be started. Furthermore, recognising a chronic norovirus infection is essential for preventing norovirus outbreaks. Infected patients should always be isolated, regardless of their symptoms and faecal viral load.

  15. APHASIC CHILDREN, IDENTIFICATION AND EDUCATION BY THE ASSOCIATION METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGINNIS, MILDRED A.

    THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED TO DEFINE APHASIA AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS, TO PRESENT A PROCEDURE FOR TEACHING LANGUAGE TO APHASIC CHILDREN, AND TO APPLY THIS PROCEDURE TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS. OTHER HANDICAPPING CONDITIONS WHICH COMPLICATE THE DIAGNOSIS OF APHASIA ARE PRESENTED BY MEANS OF CASE STUDIES. CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF…

  16. APHASIC CHILDREN, IDENTIFICATION AND EDUCATION BY THE ASSOCIATION METHOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGINNIS, MILDRED A.

    THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED TO DEFINE APHASIA AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS, TO PRESENT A PROCEDURE FOR TEACHING LANGUAGE TO APHASIC CHILDREN, AND TO APPLY THIS PROCEDURE TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUBJECTS. OTHER HANDICAPPING CONDITIONS WHICH COMPLICATE THE DIAGNOSIS OF APHASIA ARE PRESENTED BY MEANS OF CASE STUDIES. CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF…

  17. Unsolicited Nominalizations by Aphasics: The Plausibility of the Lexicalist Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Harry A.

    This paper uses a discussion of experiments with aphasics' use of verbally derived nouns to illustrate how one linguistic model may be superior to another in accounting for the facts of verbal behavior. The models involved are the transformational, which relates derived nominals to their source verb and lists only the verb in the lexicon, and the…

  18. Syllable Structure and Sonority in Language Inventory and Aphasic Neologisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenneken, Prisca; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Huber, Walter; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2005-01-01

    Phonological theories have raised the notion of a universally preferred syllable type which is defined in terms of its sonority structure (e.g., Clements, 1990). Empirical evidence for this notion has been provided by distributional analyses of natural languages and of language acquisition data, and by aphasic speech error analyses. The present…

  19. Negative symptom assessment of chronic schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Raskin, A; Pelchat, R; Sood, R; Alphs, L D; Levine, J

    1993-01-01

    A new scale for assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia, the Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA), was administered to 101 male chronic, inpatient schizophrenia patients. Factor analysis of the NSA yielded seven factors, but most of the explained variance resided in Factor 1, Restricted Affect/Emotion. The factors that emerged from this study closely resembled NSA factors derived from an earlier study of outpatient schizophrenia patients, which indicates the factor structure of the NSA is robust. A constellation of variables reflecting long-term or chronic illness were significantly related to six of the seven factors. These results suggest that "institutionalism" may play a role in the evolution of some negative symptoms.

  20. Verb and Sentence Processing in Norwegian Aphasic Speakers Compared to Dutch and English Aphasic Speakers: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Marianne; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2007-01-01

    The article reports on a comparative study of the abilities of aphasic speakers and normal control subjects to comprehend and produce verbs and sentences. The analysis is based on test results obtained as part of the standardization procedure for a test battery originally developed for Dutch and since translated and adapted for English and…

  1. L'adaptation langagiere de differents intervenants en interaction avec un aphasique (Linguistic Adaptation of Different Therapists in Interaction with an Aphasic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perren, Helene

    1998-01-01

    The nature of research on speech communication in asymmetrical interactions, such as those between a speech therapist and patient, is discussed and some general approaches to therapy are noted. The situation of the aphasic is then considered, in which intervention is particularly difficult due to the lack of some important aspects of interpersonal…

  2. Strategy and impairment in sentence understanding by Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics.

    PubMed

    Kolk, H H; Friederici, A D

    1985-03-01

    15 Broca's aphasics and 14 Wernicke's aphasics, both German and Dutch speaking patients, were presented with a sentence-picture matching task. Both syntactic and semantic distractor pictures were used. Sentences were either reversible or non-reversible, had a topicalized or a non-topicalized word order and contained either of three types of prepositions that were labelled 'syntactic' (case-marking), 'obligatory' (subcategorized) and 'lexical' (locative). Results indicated (a) a significant difference between reversible and non reversible sentences for both Broca's and Wernicke's; (b) no significant differences between these two groups in the differences scores reversible minus non-reversible; (c) an above-chance performance on reversible sentences for both groups. To explain the pattern of differences between the various types of sentences, two schemes of interpretation are presented. The first scheme assumes that both Broca's and Wernicke's have lost basic (but different) syntactic abilities and that they can understand reversible sentences by non-syntactic strategies only. The second scheme assumes that there is no such loss, but that the impairment in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia is such that the more syntactic analysis is required, the more errors are made. Patients are assumed to approach this task by trying to limit their syntactic analysis to the beginning of the sentence.

  3. Improvement of spontaneous language in stroke patients with chronic aphasia treated with music therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Rossi, Agnese; Goulene, Karine; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of active music therapy (MT) based on free-improvisation (relational approach) in addition to speech language therapy (SLT) compared with SLT alone (communicative-pragmatic approach: Promoting Aphasic's Communicative Effectiveness) in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The experimental group (n = 10) was randomized to 30 MT individual sessions over 15 weeks in addition to 30 SLT individual sessions while the control group (n = 10) was randomized to only 30 SLT sessions during the same period. Psychological and speech language assessment were made before (T0) and after (T1) the treatments. The study shows a significant improvement in spontaneous speech in the experimental group (Aachener Aphasie subtest: p = 0.020; Cohen's d = 0.35); the 50% of the experimental group showed also an improvement in vitality scores of Short Form Health Survey (chi-square test = 4.114; p = 0.043). The current trial highlights the possibility that the combined use of MT and SLT can lead to a better result in the rehabilitation of patients with aphasia than SLT alone.

  4. Chronic tophaceous gout in patients with psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Laís Cruz; Coutinho, Jéssica Castiel; Frota, Maria Zeli Moreira; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology influenced by genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. We report the case of a patient with psoriasis for more than 25 years who developed hyperuricemia and chronic tophaceous gout with unusual appearance. In psoriasis, hyperuricemia may occur by increased epidermal cell turnover, which accelerates purine metabolism and has uric acid as the product of its catabolism. The association of psoriasis with hyperuricemia can trigger the onset of gouty arthritis, and pose a greater risk of developing other inflammatory comorbidities. Therefore, it is important to periodically investigate uric acid levels in order to treat changes triggered by hyperuricemia. PMID:28225966

  5. Chronic tophaceous gout in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Laís Cruz; Coutinho, Jéssica Castiel; Frota, Maria Zeli Moreira; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of multifactorial etiology influenced by genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. We report the case of a patient with psoriasis for more than 25 years who developed hyperuricemia and chronic tophaceous gout with unusual appearance. In psoriasis, hyperuricemia may occur by increased epidermal cell turnover, which accelerates purine metabolism and has uric acid as the product of its catabolism. The association of psoriasis with hyperuricemia can trigger the onset of gouty arthritis, and pose a greater risk of developing other inflammatory comorbidities. Therefore, it is important to periodically investigate uric acid levels in order to treat changes triggered by hyperuricemia.

  6. Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of patients with chronic diseases will be one of the main challenges of medicine in the future. This paper presents an overview of different origins, mechanism, and symptoms necessary for understanding new and different interventions that include a psychosomatic view. In a psychosomatic therapeutic intervention there are very different targets, such as psychological symptoms, personality traits, attitudes toward disease and life, risk behaviour, and social isolation and as biological targets the change of autonomic imbalance and of the effects of the psycho-endocrinological or psycho-immunological stress responses. And there are also different psychosomatic measures that influence the individual biological, psychological and sociological targets. There is a need to give different answer to different questions in the field of psychosomatic and behavioral medicine. Comparative effectiveness research is an important strategy for solving some methodological issues. What is the target of treatment for different diseases: Symptom reduction, healing, or limiting progression to the worst case - the death of patients. We know that, the patient-physician relationship is important for every medical/therapeutic action for patients with chronic diseases. This volume of BioPsychoSocial Medicine will present four different psychosomatic treatment studies from the clinical field in the sense of phase 2 studies: Reports of patients with obesity, anorexia nervosa, chronic somatoform pain and coronary artery disease were presented PMID:22293471

  7. A careflow management system for chronic patients.

    PubMed

    Panzarasa, Silvia; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Larizza, Cristiana; Stefanelli, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The management of chronic patients is a complex process, which requires the cooperation of all primary care professionals and their interaction with specialists, laboratories and personnel of different organizations. In this paper we show how a Careflow Management System (CfMS) may represent an essential component of an innovative Health Information System (HIS) able to handle the information and communication needs underlying chronic diseases management. On the basis of a general architecture designed for chronic diseases, we describe a CfMS implementation in the area of diabetes management; such a system embeds EPR and telemedicine functionalities as end-users applications as well as a module for inter-organizational communication based on contracts and on XML messages.

  8. Aphasia severity in chronic stroke patients: a combined disconnection in the dorsal and ventral language pathways.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Charlotte; Vargas, Patricia; Valabregue, Romain; Arbizu, Céline; Henry-Amar, François; Leger, Anne; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Samson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of lesion size and location in poststroke aphasia is debated, especially the extent to which aphasia severity is affected by damage to specific white matter areas. To identify specific white matter areas critical for poststroke aphasia global severity and to determine whether injury to these areas had more impact on aphasia severity than the infarct volume. Twenty-three chronic poststroke aphasic patients were assessed with the Aphasia Rapid Test (ART) and the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Examination (BDAE) global severity scales and underwent diffusion tensor and structural imaging. Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging regression analysis was used to determine in which areas fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities were correlated with ART and BDAE severity scales. The relationships between aphasia severity, FA values, and infarct volumes were investigated using global and partial correlations. We found a critical area associated with aphasia severity overlapping with the arcuate and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, resulting in a combined disconnection of the dorsal and ventral pathways. ART scores were inversely correlated with FA values in this region, with greater severity present with lower FA values (correlation coefficient = -0.833, P < .0001). The proportion of variance explained by the FA value was higher than the proportion of variance explained by the infarct volume (R (2) = 68% vs 27%, P = .01). The impact of infarct volume on aphasia severity disappeared when damage to this critical white matter area was taken into account (P = .38). The assessment of the integrity of this region may potentially have a clinical impact in neurorehabilitation and acute decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Noninvasive brain stimulation for treatment of right- and left-handed poststroke aphasics.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Hartmann, Alexander; Rubi-Fessen, Ilona; Anglade, Carole; Kracht, Lutz; Kessler, Josef; Weiduschat, Nora; Rommel, Thomas; Thiel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from single case studies, small case series and randomized controlled trials seems to suggest that inhibitory noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) over the contralesional inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of right-handers in conjunction with speech and language therapy (SLT) improves recovery from poststroke aphasia. Application of inhibitory NIBS to improve recovery in left-handed patients has not yet been reported. A total of 29 right-handed subacute poststroke aphasics were randomized to receive either 10 sessions of SLT following 20 min of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the contralesional IFG or 10 sessions of SLT following sham stimulation; 2 left-handers were treated according to the same protocol with real rTMS. Language activation patterns were assessed with positron emission tomography prior to and after the treatment; 95% confidence intervals for changes in language performance scores and the activated brain volumes in both hemispheres were derived from TMS- and sham-treated right-handed patients and compared to the same parameters in left-handers. Right-handed patients treated with rTMS showed better recovery of language function in global aphasia test scores (t test, p < 0.002) as well as in picture-naming performance (ANOVA, p = 0.03) than sham-treated right-handers. In treated right-handers, a shift of activation to the ipsilesional hemisphere was observed, while sham-treated patients consolidated network activity in the contralesional hemisphere (repeated-measures ANOVA, p = 0.009). Both left-handed patients also improved, with 1 patient within the confidence limits of TMS-treated right-handers (23 points, 15.9-28.9) and the other patient within the limits of sham-treated subjects (8 points, 2.8-14.5). Both patients exhibited only a very small interhemispheric shift, much less than expected in TMS-treated right-handers, and more or less consolidated initially active networks in both hemispheres

  10. [Electrophysiological study of the central and peripheral hearing system of aphasic individuals].

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Kátia de Freitas; Lamônica, Dionisia Cusim; Costa Filho, Orozimbo Alves; Banhara, Marcus Roberto; Oliveira, Danielle Tavares; Campo, Michelle Alves

    2005-03-01

    Electrophysiology of the auditory system. Electrophysiological evaluation of the peripheral and central auditory system of brain injured patients. Experimental group: eleven brain injured and aphasic subjects, both genders and with ages ranging from 43 to 75; control group: eleven individuals without hearing complaints, equalized as to gender and age. The subjects were evaluated through auditory brainstem response (ABR); auditory middle latency response (AMLR) and auditory P300 response. An increase in the V wave latency and I-V interpeak in both groups, due to the age factor. The presence of statistically significant hemispheric differences when compared to the Pa component in MLAEP research, registered in the C3 (left hemisphere) and the C4 (right hemisphere). In researching the P300 Cognitive Potential, there was an absence or increase in P300 latency and a decrease in P300 amplitude in the presence of the N2 component. The AMLR and auditory P300 response have proven to be effective instruments for evaluating aphasic individuals.

  11. Where is the effect of frequency in word production? Insights from aphasic picture naming errors

    PubMed Central

    Kittredge, Audrey K.; Dell, Gary S.; Verkuilen, Jay; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2010-01-01

    Some theories of lexical access in production locate the effect of lexical frequency at the retrieval of a word’s phonological characteristics, as opposed to the prior retrieval of a holistic representation of the word from its meaning. Yet there is evidence from both normal and aphasic individuals that frequency may influence both of these retrieval processes. This inconsistency is especially relevant in light of recent attempts to determine the representation of another lexical property, age of acquisition or AoA, whose effect is similar to that of frequency. To further explore the representations of these lexical variables in the word retrieval system, we performed hierarchical, multinomial logistic regression analyses of 50 aphasic patients’ picture-naming responses. While both log frequency and AoA had a significant influence on patient accuracy and led to fewer phonologically related errors and omissions, only log frequency had an effect on semantically related errors. These results provide evidence for a lexical access process sensitive to frequency at all stages, but with AoA having a more limited effect. PMID:18704797

  12. Chronic Salmonella Osteomyelitis in a Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis in patients without hemoglobulinopathy is quite uncommon. Osteal involvement is seen in only 0.8% of all Salmonella infection cases. We describe the case of a 67-year-old diabetic woman who developed Salmonella osteomyelitis and subsequently underwent a surgical excision of a tibial lesion followed by two months of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. The patient responded very well to the treatment. This case is exemplary for the successful treatment of chronic Salmonella osteomyelitis in a diabetic patient with a vascular complication. PMID:28680773

  13. Tapentadol extended release for chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain reduces quality of life, utilizes healthcare resources, and increases healthcare costs. It is widespread, but generally inadequately treated or managed, partly due to several obstacles, including a limited number of mechanistic options for long-term pharmacologic agents. Opioids are generally the primary class of analgesic prescribed, but because of associated side effects during long-term treatment, many patients become noncompliant or discontinue treatment. A long-term use analgesic with a good benefit/risk ratio is advantageous. A literature search for randomized trials using tapentadol extended release (ER) for noncancer chronic pain patients was conducted. Databases searched included PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, using key terms "tapentadol," "prolonged release," "extended release," and "chronic pain" individually or in combination. The results were synthesized and evaluated. A total of six randomized, controlled studies were identified. Chronic pain conditions analyzed included low back, osteoarthritis, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Treatment arms consisted most often of placebo, tapentadol ER (100-250 mg twice daily [b.i.d.]), and/or oxycodone CR (controlled release) (20-50 mg b.i.d.). Subjects treated with tapentadol ER had significant reduction in pain intensity compared to placebo controls and similar efficacy to oxycodone CR. Overall, the safety profile was superior to that of oxycodone CR in regards to reduction in side effects, reduced severity of side effects (particularly gastrointestinal related), and lower study discontinuation rates. The two mechanisms of analgesic action of tapentadol, combined with an ER, appears to provide equal efficacy to a strong controlled-release opioid while providing greater gastrointestinal tolerability. The reduction in incidence and severity of gastrointestinal side effects correlated with a higher compliance rate. These findings suggest that tapentadol ER might be a viable

  14. [Urethrovesical reflux in patients with chronic cystitis].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Astapov, A I; Zaĭtsev, A V; Gumin, L M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the role of urethrovesical reflux in the onset and maintenance of chronic inflammation in the urinary bladder in patients suffering from chronic cystitis combined with pseudopolyposis of the neck of the bladder and proximal part of the urethra. We modelled a simplified version of an urination fragment of a special computer graphic station. The original computer model theoretically proves the existance of urethrovesical reflux caused by pseudopolyposis in the zone of the urinary bladder cervix and/or proximal urethra. The data were confirmed by radionuclide investigation. Our studies proved the presence of urethrovesical reflux in patients with pseudopolyposis of the bladder cervix provoking retrograde infection of the lower urinary tract. We think it necessary to combine conventional conservative treatment of cystitis with endourethral surgical interventions aimed at reestablishment of normal urination.

  15. Uremic pleuritis in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rashid-Farokhi, Farin; Pourdowlat, Guitti; Nikoonia, Mohammad-Reza; Behzadnia, Neda; Kahkouee, Shahram; Nassiri, Amir-Ahmad; Masjedi, Mohammad-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are predisposed to several complications associated with pleural effusion. In addition, uremia can directly cause pleuritis. However, there are inadequate data about pathogenesis and natural course of uremic pleuritis. In this study, 76 chronic HD patients with pleural effusion admitted to the Respiratory Center of Masih Daneshvari Hospital, in Tehran, Iran between June 2005 and May 2011 were evaluated to figure out the etiology of their pleural disease. Among these patients, patients with uremic pleuritis were identified and studied. The rate of uremic pleuritis was 23.7%. Other frequent etiologies of pleural effusion were parapneumonic effusion (23.7%), cardiac failure (19.7%), tuberculosis (6.6%), volume overload, malignancy, and unknown. In patients with uremic pleuritis, dyspnea was the most common symptom, followed by cough, weight loss, anorexia, chest pain, and fever. Compared to patients with parapneumonic effusion, patients with uremic effusion had a significantly higher rate of dyspnea and lower rate of cough and fever. Pleural fluid analysis showed that these patients had a significantly lower pleural to serum lactic dehydrogenase ratio, total pleural leukocytes, and polymorphonuclear count compared to patients with parapneumonic effusion. Improvement was achieved in 94.1% of patients with uremic pleuritis by continuation of HD, chest tube insertion or pleural decortication; an outcome better than the previous reports. Despite the association with an exudative effusion, inflammatory pleural reactions in patients with uremic pleuritis may not be as severe as infection-induced effusions. Owing to the advancement in HD technology and other interventions, outcome of uremic pleuritis may be improved.

  16. Consonant harmony as a compensatory mechanism in fluent aphasic speech.

    PubMed

    Kohn, S E; Melvold, J; Smith, K L

    1995-12-01

    This study addresses how fluent aphasics construct complete phonological representations, given the premise that their phonological speech errors result from faulty information about stored lexical representations. We explored whether consonant harmony, a common rule-governed process of feature copying, operates as a compensatory device for completing phonological representations in fluent aphasia. This was examined in a corpus of phonemic paraphasias (n = 543) produced by 8 fluent aphasics during picture naming. Consonant substitutions due to a single feature change (n = 143) were analyzed for the properties of consonant harmony predicted by the phonological principles embodied in a Universal Markedness version of Underspecification Theory (e.g., Chomsky and Halle, 1968). Results indicated that harmony constrained the feature substitution errors involving the feature class of voice (e.g., calendar-->/[symbol: see text]/), but not place of articulation (e.g., igloo-->/idlu/); substitutions due to an error in manner were rare. These findings were used to argue that for English-speaking fluent aphasics a consonant harmony rule for the feature voice is incorporated into a compensatory output mechanism that is used to complete faulty lexical-phonological representations.

  17. Interpretive psychotherapy with chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Lakoff, R

    1983-12-01

    Patients for whom medical and surgical management has failed to relieve chronic pain were treated in a multimodal programme which included interpretive psychotherapy. Dynamic conflicts were identified in all cases and utilized in the psychotherapy and programme design. Examined in the light of ego functioning, pain that was previously considered intractible, yielded to psychological treatment. Further research is planned to identify the parts played by the different modalities and to study outcome.

  18. [Chronic kidney disease in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Mora-Gutiérrez, José María; Slon Roblero, María Fernanda; Castaño Bilbao, Itziar; Izquierdo Bautista, Diana; Arteaga Coloma, Jesús; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás

    2016-05-06

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is widely prevalent worldwide, with a special impact on elderly population. Around half of people aged over 75 meet diagnostic criteria for CKD according to the recent 'Kidney disease improving global outcomes' (KDIGO) 2012 clinical practice guideline on the evaluation and management of CKD. However, geriatric patients have characteristics that may not be addressed by general guidelines. Therefore, it is important to know the natural history of the disease, symptoms, and 'red-flags' that could help in the management of these patients. In this review, a complete approach is presented on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CKD in the geriatric population.

  19. Outcomes of Care Systems for Chronic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth B.; Egri, Gladys; Caton, Carol L.M.

    1984-01-01

    In a study of the postdischarge treatment of 119 comparable chronic schizophrenics hospitalized and treated after release in six community mental health care systems, it was found that lower rehospitalization rates and longer community survivorship correlated significantly with patients' compliance in early postdischarge treatment plans and the frequency of aftercare visits prescribed for them during the early postrelease period. Rehospitalization rates and community survivorship experience were substantially better for patients of two of the six systems, without disproportionate reduction of their clinical or social functioning in the community. Characteristics of the community care systems with better outcomes are described. PMID:6694221

  20. Exercise for older patients with chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Petrella, R J

    1999-10-01

    Coronary artery disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and cognitive disorders become more prevalent as people age. Besides delaying the onset of many of these conditions, regular exercise may improve function and delay disability and morbidity in those who have them. Further, exercise may work synergistically with medication to combat the effects of some chronic diseases. Special adaptations for older patients include lower-intensity exercise (eg, fewer repetitions), low-impact exercise (cycling, exercise while sitting), and modified equipment (smaller weights, special shoes, loose clothing). Unresolved issues include development of optimal strategies for motivating older patients to begin and maintain exercise programs.

  1. [Chronic subdural haematomas in very elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, Cristina; Román-Pena, Paula; Arán-Echabe, Eduardo; Gelabert-González, Miguel

    Chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical conditions and is especially prevalent among elderly individuals. The objective of this study was to analyse the demographic, clinical and radiological findings, and surgical outcomes in a series of chronic subdural haematoma in patients older than 85 years. A review was carried out on all patients over 85 years with CSDH treated in our neurosurgical service from April 1986 to November 2015. A record was made of the baseline patient characteristics (age, sex, comorbidities, known risk factors, imaging characteristics, and number of burr-holes) and surgical outcomes (complications, especially recurrences and mortality). An analysis was carried out on the special characteristics of these patients, as well as the relationships between gender, clinical grade, anti-platelet or anticoagulant therapy, internal architecture of the haematoma, and midline shift, with mortality and recurrence of the haematoma. A total of 200 patients were included, with a mean age of 88.5 (range 85-104) years, and the male: female sex ratio was 1:1.1. History of injury was reported in 114 (57%) cases. Anti-platelet or anticoagulant therapy was being used by 71 (35.5%) patients. On admission, 114 patients (57%) were in satisfactory condition (Markwalder grades 0-2). The main symptom was behavioural disturbance in 82 (41%) cases. CSDH was left-sided in 89 (44.5%) patients, right-sided in 78 (39%) cases (39%), and bilateral in the remaining 33 (16.5%) cases). Postoperative complications were observed in 59 cases (29 recurrences). Preoperative Markwalder grade correlated significantly with recurrence rate and mortality (P<.0001). CSDH was a very common disease in very elderly patients. Behavioural disturbance and neurological deficits are the most common first symptom. Preoperative neurological status at admission is the most important factor in recurrences and mortality. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier Espa

  2. Perioperative management of the chronically anticoagulated patient.

    PubMed

    Heit, J A

    2001-09-01

    Common indications for chronic anticoagulation include mechanical prosthetic heart valve, non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation, and venous thromboembolism. Perioperative management of the chronically anticoagulated patient is a complex medical problem, and includes the following issues: urgency of surgery, risk of thromboembolism in the absence of anticoagulation, bleeding risk, consequences of bleeding, ability to control bleeding physically, and duration of bleeding risk after the procedure. Most patients can be managed safely by stopping oral anticoagulants 4-5 days before surgery and restarting anticoagulation after the procedure at the patient's usual daily dose. In general, dental procedures and cataract extraction can be performed without interrupting anticoagulation. Most other procedures can be safely performed with an INR < or = 1.4. For patients with double-wing prosthetic valves (e.g., St. Jude, Carbomedics) in the aortic position, uncomplicated atrial fibrillation, or a remote (>3 months) history of venous thromboembolism, oral anticoagulants can be stopped 4-5 days before surgery and restarted at the usual daily dose immediately after surgery. For other patients at higher risk of thrombosis, "bridging therapy" with outpatient low molecular weight heparin is safe and effective. For urgent procedures, a small dose of oral vitamin K usually will reduce the INR within 24-36 hours to a level sufficient for surgery and avoids exposure to transfused blood products.

  3. Patients, populations and policy: patient outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Powe, N R

    2001-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease represents an interesting illustration for evaluating an epidemic of chronic illness, the impact of care processes and technology on health outcomes, the impact of financial incentives and cost containment on health outcomes, and the choices society must consider in responding to a chronic illness. The evidence suggests that strong economic pressures exist in the care of chronic kidney disease and that cost containment is important. The results in large part reflect the impact of economic pressures on clinical decision making in the absence of good evidence on outcomes. To improve clinical decision making we need valid evidence linking specific processes of care to patient outcomes. Specific processes amenable to study include the provision of preventive services, physician and nurse technical and interpersonal care and adherence to clinical practice guidelines. The ESRD Quality Study (EQUAL) currently underway and supported by the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, may help to guide physicians and centers in caring for their patients with chronic kidney disease. This investigation examines the relation between process of care and outcomes and expands outcomes measure to include disease-specific quality-of-life measures and patient satisfaction and accounts for case mix using the Index of Co-Existent Disease, a measure of the extent of different comorbid diseases as well as their severity (18,19,20). Better data on how processes of care are linked to health outcomes can inform decision making and allow educated cost cutting and quality maintenance.

  4. [Bile composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Koval's'ka, I O; Shvets', Iu P; Vesel's'kyĭ, S P

    2013-05-01

    There was investigated a hepatic bile in 50 persons, aged 35-58 years old, including 20--practically healthy persons (I group), 20 patients, suffering chronic fibrose-degenerative pancreatitis (CHFDP) without jaundice syndrome (II group) and 10 patients, suffering CHFDP with jaundice syndrome (III group). There were determined the contents of the bile acids, the lipids and electrolytic contents of bile. A trustworthy difference in the bile contents was registered in patients, suffering CHFDP with the jaundice syndrome and without it, comparing with such in healthy persons. This have had permitted to add the complex of medicinal preoperative preparation of these patients substantially, and to apply the electrolytes content of a bile to apply as an additional diagnostic marker.

  5. [Clinical integration in the chronic patient].

    PubMed

    Carretero-Alcántara, Luis; Comes-Górriz, Natividad; Borrás-López, Agustina; Rodríguez-Balo, Alberto; Seara-Aguilar, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Castilla-La Mancha Health Service is developing the integration of care levels due to the challenge of an aging population in the region. Aging is associated with chronic diseases and an increasing number of concomitant diseases. This poses a major care challenge care, with more fragile patients and new needs. This also requires a sustainable approach: the concurrence of several chronic diseases affects the cost of care, which is especially acute in times of severe economic crisis. One of the pillars of the strategy for dealing with chronic diseases in our region is care integration, in an effort to adapt the organization to the new needs. The Balanced Scorecard or Integrated Scorecard of the integration process was introduced as it has been designed. The integration of primary and hospital care at an organizational level has already been completed, and the development of integrated care processes has also been performed in order to achieve real integration at care level. To help finance this, a prospective capitation system is gradually being implemented, achieving a convergence of per capita costs in the different health areas integrated. Nurses has a key role in this process, their skills as educators and trainers in self-care, in the role of case managers of patients with particularly complex conditions, and the role of professional liaison to improve the transition between care areas and units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Xerostomia in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Tazza, Luigi

    2012-01-17

    Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of a dry mouth, which is relatively common in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Xerostomia can be caused by reduced salivary flow secondary to atrophy and fibrosis of the salivary glands, use of certain medications, restriction of fluid intake and old age. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, xerostomia is associated with the following problems: difficulties in chewing, swallowing, tasting and speaking; increased risk of oral disease, including lesions of the mucosa, gingiva and tongue; bacterial and fungal infections, such as candidiasis, dental caries and periodontal disease; interdialytic weight gain resulting from increased fluid intake; and a reduction in quality of life. Unfortunately, no effective treatment exists for xerostomia in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The stimulation of salivary glands by mechanical means (such as chewing gum) or pharmacological agents (such as pilocarpine and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, the latter alone or in combination with angiotensin-receptor blockers), as well as saliva substitutes, are all ineffective, or effective only in the short term. Xerostomia remains a frustrating symptom for patients on hemodialysis, and further efforts should be made to find an effective treatment for it in the near future.

  7. Neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing in agrammatic aphasic and healthy age-matched listeners

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C.K.; Bonakdarpour, B.; Fix, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lexical verbs involves automatic access to argument structure entries entailed within the verb's representation. Recent neuroimaging studies with young normal listeners suggest that this involves bilateral posterior perisylvian tissue, with graded activation in these regions based on argument structure complexity. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural mechanisms of verb processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in older normal volunteers and patients with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, a syndrome in which verb, as compared to noun, production often is selectively impaired, but verb comprehension in both on-line and off-line tasks is spared. Fourteen healthy listeners and five age-matched aphasic patients performed a lexical decision task, which examined verb processing by argument structure complexity, i.e., one-argument (i.e., intransitive (v1)); two-argument (i.e., transitive (v2)), and three-argument (v3) verbs. Results for the age-matched listeners largely replicated those for younger participants studied by Thompson et al. (2007): v3-v1 comparisons showed activation of the angular gyrus in both hemispheres and this same heteromodal region was activated in the left hemisphere in the (v2+v3)-v1 contrast. Similar results were derived for the agrammatic aphasic patients, however, activation was unilateral (in the right hemisphere for 3 participants) rather than bilateral likely because these patients' lesions extended to the left temporoparietal region. All performed the task with high accuracy and, despite differences in lesion site and extent, they recruited spared tissue in the same regions as healthy normals. Consistent with psycholinguistic models of sentence processing, these findings indicate that the posterior language network is engaged for processing verb argument structure and is crucial for semantic integration of argument structure information. PMID:19702460

  8. [Telemedicine for patients with chronic intestinal failure].

    PubMed

    Nauta, Sjoukje; Feibig, Doreen; Wanten, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine is a valuable extension of the ways in which patients with chronic diseases can be contacted. Patients can easily contact their caregivers within the safe environment of the digital waiting room. Telemedicine especially offers an advantage for those forms of care where the visual aspect is important. Care should be taken with respect to its implementation into the disease management process with careful synchronisation between all involved parties, e.g. patient, caregiver, and organisation. The effectiveness of telemedicine and the savings that can be achieved should be properly established in order to justify the funding of a telemedicine project. Rather than focusing on the possible drawbacks of telemedicine, e.g. safety concerns and the user-friendliness of the system, we should highlight the possibilities that information technology offers.

  9. Action Naming in Anomic Aphasic Speakers: Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonkers, Roel; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2007-01-01

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a noun. Instrumental verbs were shown to be better…

  10. The Influence of Information and Daily Contact on Children's Attitudes Towards Aphasic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakay, Dan

    1985-01-01

    Influences upon attitudes towards aphasic children were studied when ordinary children (ages nine-14) were given explanations of, or had direct contact with, motoric aphasic children and explanations of their handicap. Attitudes of children exposed to daily contact were less negative and attitudes were more negative with decreasing age across…

  11. Precrisis Intervention: A Tool for Meeting the Needs of Significant Others Involved with Aphasic Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadden, Barbara B.

    1987-01-01

    Precrisis intervention programming can provide the significant others of aphasic older adults with information and experiences which will help them to understand the nature of aphasic communication breakdown, its impact on the individual and family, and the strategies which will enhance communicative interactions and facilitate rehabilitation…

  12. Action Naming in Anomic Aphasic Speakers: Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonkers, Roel; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2007-01-01

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a noun. Instrumental verbs were shown to be better…

  13. Oral Tori in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pei-Jung; Yang, Huang-Yu; Huang, Wen-Hung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Wang, I-Kuan; Tsai, Aileen I.; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study investigated the epidemiology of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) in hemodialysis patients and analyzed the influences of hyperparathyroidism on the formation of oral tori. Method. During 2013, 119 hemodialysis patients were recruited for dental examinations for this study. Results. The prevalence of oral tori in our sample group was high at 33.6% (40 of 119). The most common location of tori was TP (70.0%), followed by TM (20.0%), and then both TP and TM (10.0%). Of the 40 tori cases, most (67.5%) were <2 cm in size; moreover, the majority (52.5%) were flat in shape. In symmetry, most (70.0%) occurred in the midline, followed by bilateral sides (20.0%). Notably, the levels of intact parathyroid hormone did not differ in patients with or without tori (P = 0.611). Furthermore, patients with tori did not differ from patients without tori in inflammatory variables such as log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 1.000) or nutritional variables such as albumin (P = 0.247). Finally, there were no differences between patients with and without tori in adequacy of dialysis (P = 0.577). Conclusions. Neither hyperparathyroidism nor inflammation malnutrition syndrome was found to contribute to the formation of oral tori in chronic hemodialysis patients. Further studies are warranted. PMID:25918724

  14. Ghrelin levels in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Gülin; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Koçak, Havva; Orhan, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has modulatory effects on the immune system. This study was designed to evaluate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and to investigate if a relationship exists between ghrelin and periodontal parameters, serum cytokines, and bone turnover markers. Thirty-five chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and periodontal healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine the levels of total and acylated ghrelin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the soluble receptor activator nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC). Plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin were significantly elevated in the CP group compared with the C group (p < 0.05). The difference was significant only between males in the two groups (groups were compared with respect to gender) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the levels of serum sRANKL, TNF-α, and ALP. A relative increase in the serum levels of IL-1β and a decrease in the serum levels of OSC of the CP group were observed (p < 0.05). In addition, positive correlations between total ghrelin/ALP and total ghrelin/acylated ghrelin were discovered. We found no direct correlation between ghrelin levels and periodontal parameters. Our results indicate an increase of total and acylated ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, studies in larger populations (which could include ghrelin levels in gingival tissue, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva) are needed in order to confirm the role of ghrelin in periodontal disease.

  15. Evaluation of butaclamol in chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Clark, M L; Paredes, A; Costiloe, J P; Wood, F

    1977-01-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, an attempt was made to evaluate butaclamol in chronic schizophrenic patients using chlorpromazine (CPZ) as the standard comparative drug. With doses up to 50 mg/day, butaclamol was shown to have significant antipsychotic activity comparable to CPZ but with a much higher incidence of extrapyramidal signs. A more reasonable maintenance dose may be in the range of 5 to 20 mg/day. Rebound insomnia was noted again with butaclamol, which warrants further study.

  16. Telehomecare for patients with multiple chronic illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Liddy, Clare; Dusseault, Joanne J.; Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Humber, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the feasibility and efficacy of integrating home health monitoring into a primary care setting. DESIGN A mixed method was used for this pilot study. It included in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. SETTING A semirural family health network in eastern Ontario comprising 8 physicians and 5 nurses caring for approximately 10 000 patients. PARTICIPANTS Purposeful sample of 22 patients chosen from the experimental group of 120 patients 50 years old or older in a larger randomized controlled trial (N = 240). These patients had chronic illnesses and were identified as being at risk based on objective criteria and physician assessment. INTERVENTIONS Between November 2004 and March 2006, 3 nurse practitioners and a pharmacist installed telehomecare units with 1 or more peripheral devices (eg, blood-pressure monitor, weight scale, glucometer) in patients’ homes. The nurse practitioners incorporated individualized instructions for using the unit into each patient’s care plan. Patients used the units every morning for collecting data, entering values into the system either manually or directly through supplied peripherals. The information was transferred to a secure server and was then uploaded to a secure Web-based application that allowed care providers to access and review it from any location with Internet access. The devices were monitored in the office on weekdays by the nurse practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Acceptance and use of the units, patients’ and care providers’ satisfaction with the system, and patients’ demographic and health characteristics. RESULTS All 22 patients, 12 men and 10 women with an average age of 73 years (range 60 to 88 years), agreed to participate. Most were retired, and a few were receiving community services. Common diagnoses included hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All patients had blood pressure monitors installed, 11 had wired weight

  17. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David; Morris, Rachael; Milberg, William; Sakel, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for four consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and 1-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy. PMID:24391559

  18. Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n = 243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium × phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p = 0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium × phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p = 0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium × phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957

  19. Chronic pain patients' perspectives of medical cannabis.

    PubMed

    Piper, Brian J; Beals, Monica L; Abess, Alexander T; Nichols, Stephanie D; Martin, Maurice W; Cobb, Catherine M; DeKeuster, Rebecca M

    2017-07-01

    Medical cannabis (MC) is used for a variety of conditions including chronic pain. The goal of this report was to provide an in-depth qualitative exploration of patient perspectives on the strengths and limitations of MC. Members of MC dispensaries (N = 984) in New England including two-thirds with a history of chronic pain completed an online survey. In response to "How effective is medical cannabis in treating your symptoms or conditions?," with options of 0% "no relief" to 100% "complete relief," the average was 74.6% ± 0.6. The average amount spent on MC each year was $3064.47 ± 117.60, median = $2320.23, range = $52.14 to $52,140.00. Open-ended responses were coded into themes and subthemes. Analysis of answers to "What is it that you like most about MC?" (N = 2592 responses) identified 10 themes, including health benefits (36.0% of responses, eg, "Changes perception and experience of my chronic pain."), the product (14.2%, eg, "Knowing exactly what strain you are getting"), nonhealth benefits (14.1%), general considerations (10.3%), and medications (7.1%). Responses (N = 1678) to "What is it that you like least about MC?" identified 12 themes, including money (28.4%, eg, "The cost is expensive for someone on a fixed income"), effects (21.7%, eg, "The effects on my lungs"), the view of others (11.4%), access (8.2%), and method of administration (7.1%). These findings provide a patient-centered view on the advantages (eg, efficacy in pain treatment, reduced use of other medications) and disadvantages (eg, economic and stigma) of MC.

  20. Jackson's Parrot: Samuel Beckett, Aphasic Speech Automatisms, and Psychosomatic Language.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Laura; Code, Chris

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationship between automatic and involuntary language in the work of Samuel Beckett and late nineteenth-century neurological conceptions of language that emerged from aphasiology. Using the work of John Hughlings Jackson alongside contemporary neuroscientific research, we explore the significance of the lexical and affective symmetries between Beckett's compulsive and profoundly embodied language and aphasic speech automatisms. The interdisciplinary work in this article explores the paradox of how and why Beckett was able to search out a longed-for language of feeling that might disarticulate the classical bond between the language, intention, rationality and the human, in forms of expression that seem automatic and "readymade".

  1. [Lesion localization of non-aphasic alexia and agraphia].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2011-08-01

    The author reviews the lesion localization of non-aphasic alexia and agraphia and proposes a new classification of alexia and agraphia on this basis. The newly proposed alexia and agraphia are pure alexia for kana (Japanese phonograms), or more generally pure alexia for letters, caused by a lesion in the posterior occipital area (posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri), and pure agraphia for kanji (Japanese morphograms) caused by a lesion in the posterior middle temporal gyrus and also a lesion restricted to the angular gyrus. In addition, the anatomical lesions presumably responsible for the parietal apraxic agraphia, frontal pure agraphia and thalamic agraphia are discussed.

  2. Prolidase activity in chronic plaque psoriasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Nurten; Ozgöztas, Orhan; Sezen, Hatice; Yesilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, T-cell-mediated and hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by erythematous, squamous, sharply circumscribed and infiltrated plaques. The metabolisms of the collagen proteins undergo considerable changes due to the acceleration of their turnovers as a result of increased prolidase activity in psoriasis patients. Aim To determine the level of prolidase activity in psoriasis patients and evaluate its relationship with the oxidative system. Material and methods The serum prolidase enzyme activity, total antioxidant levels and total oxidant levels of 40 psoriasis patients and a control group including 47 healthy individuals were analyzed by using their serum samples, and their oxidative stress indices were calculated. Results The prolidase levels (p < 0.01), total oxidant levels (p < 0.01) and oxidative stress index levels (p < 0.001) of the patient group were higher than the corresponding parameters in the control group. The total antioxidant level was low (p < 0.01). Although a positive correlation was found between the prolidase and total antioxidant levels and the total oxidant level, no correlation was found between prolidase and the oxidative stress index. Conclusions It has been determined that the activity of the prolidase enzyme increases due to the increased collage turnover in psoriasis patients. Increased serum oxidant levels and oxidative stress indices values may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:26015776

  3. Long-term effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation in chronic post-stroke aphasia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vestito, Lucilla; Rosellini, Sara; Mantero, Massimo; Bandini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested to improve language function in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Most studies on aphasic patients, however, were conducted with a very limited follow-up period, if any. In this pilot, single-blind study on chronic post-stroke aphasic patients, we aimed to verify whether or not tDCS is able to extend its beneficial effects for a longer period of time (21 weeks after the end of stimulation). Three aphasic patients underwent anodal tDCS (A-tDCS, 20 min, 1.5 mA) and sham stimulation (S-tDCS) over the left frontal (perilesional) region, coupled with a simultaneous naming training (on-line tDCS). Ten consecutive sessions (5 days per week for 2 weeks) were implemented. In the first five sessions, we used a list of 40 figures, while in the subsequent five sessions we utilized a second set of 40 figures differing in word difficulty. At the end of the stimulation period, we found a significant beneficial effect of A-tDCS (as compared to baseline and S-tDCS) in all our subjects, regardless of word difficulty, although with some inter-individual differences. In the follow-up period, the percentage of correct responses persisted significantly better until the 16th week, when an initial decline in naming performance was observed. Up to the 21st week, the number of correct responses, though no longer significant, was still above the baseline level. These results in a small group of aphasic patients suggest a long-term beneficial effect of on-line A-tDCS.

  4. Long-Term Effects of Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation in Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vestito, Lucilla; Rosellini, Sara; Mantero, Massimo; Bandini, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested to improve language function in patients with post-stroke aphasia. Most studies on aphasic patients, however, were conducted with a very limited follow-up period, if any. In this pilot, single-blind study on chronic post-stroke aphasic patients, we aimed to verify whether or not tDCS is able to extend its beneficial effects for a longer period of time (21 weeks after the end of stimulation). Three aphasic patients underwent anodal tDCS (A-tDCS, 20 min, 1.5 mA) and sham stimulation (S-tDCS) over the left frontal (perilesional) region, coupled with a simultaneous naming training (on-line tDCS). Ten consecutive sessions (5 days per week for 2 weeks) were implemented. In the first five sessions, we used a list of 40 figures, while in the subsequent five sessions we utilized a second set of 40 figures differing in word difficulty. At the end of the stimulation period, we found a significant beneficial effect of A-tDCS (as compared to baseline and S-tDCS) in all our subjects, regardless of word difficulty, although with some inter-individual differences. In the follow-up period, the percentage of correct responses persisted significantly better until the 16th week, when an initial decline in naming performance was observed. Up to the 21st week, the number of correct responses, though no longer significant, was still above the baseline level. These results in a small group of aphasic patients suggest a long-term beneficial effect of on-line A-tDCS. PMID:25352798

  5. Fatigue in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Poynard, T; Cacoub, P; Ratziu, V; Myers, R P; Dezailles, M H; Mercadier, A; Ghillani, P; Charlotte, F; Piette, J C; Moussalli, J

    2002-07-01

    In numerous studies of symptoms in patients with chronic hepatitis C there has been no systematic assessment of both fatigue and extrahepatic manifestations. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of fatigue in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and to identify associations between fatigue and clinical and biological hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. We studied 1614 patients. Data were prospectively recorded during the first visit of patients infected with HCV and the prevalence of fatigue and its association with dermatological, rheumatological, neurological and nephrological manifestations; diabetes; arterial hypertension; auto-antibodies, and cryoglobulinaemia were assessed. Then, using multivariate analysis, we identified demographic, biochemical, immunological, virological, and histological factors associated with the presence of fatigue. Fatigue was present in 53% of patients (95% confidence interval 51-56). In 17% of patients (95% confidence interval 15-19) fatigue was severe, impairing activity. Five other extrahepatic manifestations had a prevalence above 10% including, in decreasing order: arthralgia, paresthesia, myalgia, pruritus, and sicca syndrome. In univariate and multivariate analyses, fatigue, in comparison with the absence of fatigue, was associated with female gender, age over 50 years, cirrhosis, depression and purpura. Independent of these associations, fatigue was associated with arthralgia, myalgia, paresthesia, sicca syndrome and pruritus. The prevalence of fibromyalgia (as defined by the association of fatigue with arthralgia or myalgia) was 19% (95% confidence interval 17-21). There was no significant association between fatigue and the following characteristics: viral load or genotype, alcohol consumption, abnormal thyroid function, and type and level of cryoglobulinaemia. Hence, fatigue is the most frequent extrahepatic manifestation in patients infected with HCV. Fatigue is independently associated with female

  6. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients.

    PubMed

    Brouqui, P; Lascola, B; Roux, V; Raoult, D

    1999-01-21

    Infection with Bartonella quintana can cause trench fever, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis. An outbreak of bacteremia due to B. quintana has been reported among homeless people in Seattle, and the seroprevalence is high among homeless people in both the United States and Europe. Body lice are known to be the vectors of B. quintana. We studied all the homeless people who presented in 1997 to the emergency departments of the University Hospital, Marseilles, France. Blood was collected for microimmunofluorescence testing for antibodies against B. quintana and for culture of the bacterium. Body lice were collected and analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a portion of the citrate synthase gene of B. quintana. In 10 of 71 homeless patients (14 percent), blood cultures were positive for B. quintana, and 21 of the patients (30 percent) had high titers of antibody against the organism. A total of 17 patients (24 percent) had evidence of recent infection (bacteremia or seroconversion). Tests of lice from 3 of the 15 patients from whom they were collected were positive for B. quintana. The homeless people with B. quintana bacteremia were more likely to have been exposed to lice (P=0.002), were more likely to have headaches (P=0.03) and severe leg pain (P<0.001), and had lower platelet counts (P=0.006) than the homeless people who were seronegative for B. quintana and did not have bacteremia; 8 of the 10 patients with bacteremia were afebrile. Five patients had chronic bacteremia, as indicated by positive blood cultures over a period of several weeks. In an outbreak of urban trench fever among homeless people in Marseilles, B. quintana infections were associated with body lice in patients with nonspecific symptoms or no symptoms.

  7. Behavior Modification with an Aphasic Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Laurence P.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques based upon operant conditioning were employed with a male patient who had sustained a cerebrovascular accident with consequent right hemiplegia and expressive asphasia. A combination of positive verbal reinforcement and feedback of progress were utilized to improve language fluency and speed of typing. (Author)

  8. Behavior Modification with an Aphasic Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Laurence P.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques based upon operant conditioning were employed with a male patient who had sustained a cerebrovascular accident with consequent right hemiplegia and expressive asphasia. A combination of positive verbal reinforcement and feedback of progress were utilized to improve language fluency and speed of typing. (Author)

  9. Cerebrolysin adjuvant treatment in Broca's aphasics following first acute ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    Muresanu, DF; Bajenaru, O; Popescu, BO; Deme, SM; Moessler, H; Meinzingen, SZ; Petrica, L; Serpe, M; Ursoniu, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of Cerebrolysin administration in Broca's aphasics with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We registered 2,212 consecutive Broca's aphasics following an acute ischemic stroke admitted in four departments of neurology in Romania, between September 2005 and September 2009. Language was evaluated with the Romanian version of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). The following inclusion criteria were used for this study: age 20%75 years, admission in the hospital within 12 hours from the onset of the symptoms, diagnosis of first acute left middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke, presence of large artery disease (LAD) stroke, a NIHSS score of 5%22 points, and a therapeutic time window within 72 h. Fifty two patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (Cerebrolysin group) as an adjunctive treatment. A placebo group, which received saline infusions (n=104 patients) were matched to the NIHSS and WAB scores, gender and age of the Cerebrolysin group at baseline. We assessed spontaneous speech (SS), comprehension (C), repetition (R), naming (N), and Aphasia Quotient (AQ) scores of the two groups in an open label design, over 90 days, the mRS scores and mortality. Results: The Cerebrolysin and the placebo groups had similar age (66+/%8 versus 65+/%8 years) and sex ratio (14/38 versus 30/74). The mean AQ scores and the mean subscores for 3 subtests of WAB (SS, R, N) were similar at baseline and improved in the Cerebrolysin group significantly (p<0.05) over placebo group at all study time points. The mRS score at 90 days was also lower in the Cerebrolysin group than in the placebo group. Cerebrolysin and placebo were both tolerated and safe, and no difference in the mortality rate was seen (3.8% in each group). Conclusion: Cerebrolysin is effective for the treatment of Broca's aphasics with a first acute ischemic stroke of the left MCA territory. PMID:20945821

  10. Verbal training to improve explanations of conservation with aphasic adults.

    PubMed

    Cooper, L D; Rigrodsky, S

    1979-12-01

    Recent research has indicated a need to study the relationship between the language of the adult aphasic and his attempts at cognitive processing. Nine aphasic adults who demonstrated a minimal ability to explain conservation (as defined by Piaget), a cognitive task which they understood, were given verbal model training to improve their explanations of weight and liquid conservation. Each subject was given a pretest, an experimental condition during which explanations for weight conservation only were trained, a control condition during which subjects named pictured common objects, and a posttest. Order of presentation of the experimental and control conditions was varied. As a result of training, a greater number of explanations (quantitative improvement) and a greater number of explanatory concepts (qualitative improvement) were expressed for both the trained and nontrained conservation tasks. It is suggested that the improvement in conservation explanations is the result of "response facilitation effects" as described by Bandura. Furthermore, the improvement in conservation explanations is supportive of Schuell's concept of impaired linguistic retrieval mechanisms in aphasia.

  11. High-quality chronic care delivery improves experiences of chronically ill patients receiving care

    PubMed Central

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigate whether high-quality chronic care delivery improved the experiences of patients. Design This study had a longitudinal design. Setting and Participants We surveyed professionals and patients in 17 disease management programs targeting patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, stroke, comorbidity and eating disorders. Main Outcome Measures Patients completed questionnaires including the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) [T1 (2010), 2637/4576 (58%); T2 (2011), 2314/4330 (53%)]. Professionals' Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) scores [T1, 150/274 (55%); T2, 225/325 (68%)] were used as a context variable for care delivery. We used two-tailed, paired t-tests to investigate improvements in chronic illness care quality and patients' experiences with chronic care delivery. We employed multilevel analyses to investigate the predictive role of chronic care delivery quality in improving patients' experiences with care delivery. Results Overall, care quality and patients' experiences with chronic illness care delivery significantly improved. PACIC scores improved significantly from 2.89 at T1 to 2.96 at T2 and ACIC-S scores improved significantly from 6.83 at T1 to 7.18 at T2. After adjusting for patients' experiences with care delivery at T1, age, educational level, marital status, gender and mental and physical quality of life, analyses showed that the quality of chronic care delivery at T1 (P < 0.001) and changes in care delivery quality (P < 0.001) predicted patients' experiences with chronic care delivery at T2. Conclusion This research showed that care quality and changes therein predict more positive experiences of patients with various chronic conditions over time. PMID:24123243

  12. Fluctuations of haemoglobinaemia in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    De Meester, J; Maes, B; De Vriese, A; De Moor, B; Donck, J; Helbert, M; Bammens, B; Jamar, S

    2011-01-01

    In March 2008 and June 2009, an ad hoc working group of nephrologists discussed the status of anaemia therapy with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents [ESA] in patients on chronic haemodialysis, the phenomenon of fluctuations of haemoglobinaemia, and the need for individualisation of ESA treatment. The working group put together the following statements: (1) ESAs increase the haemoglobin concentration and adaptations of the ESA dose adjust the response according to a negative-feedback loop. The long lag time between an ESA dose change and its effect on erythropoiesis is cumbersome. The optimal haemoglobin target concentration is different for every haemodialysis patient; the lowest haemoglobin concentration upon which one could consistently demonstrate a positive subjective and objective clinical benefit in chronic dialysis is 11 g/dL, in contrast to the lowest haemoglobin concentration of 10 g/dL recommended in the current EMEA label for ESAs. (2) Intra-individual fluctuation of haemoglobinaemia over time is unavoidable, not only due to the ESA dose/haemoglobin response interaction, but also, and more importantly, due to the occurrence of acute illnesses and exacerbations of co-morbid conditions. Many different methodologies to characterise haemoglobin variability have been described but there is currently no universally applied definition of the phenomenon. (3) An impact of the haemoglobin level and the amplitude of the haemoglobin fluctuations on patient outcome has been observed. Without disclosing any causal relationship, worse outcomes were associated with haemoglobin fluctuations around the lower target level, but later on, more simply linked to the relative time spent below the haemoglobin concentration of 11 g/dL and to the administration of inappropriately high ESA doses in order to achieve the recommended haemoglobin target range. A plausible mechanism might be that acute illnesses blunt the patients' basal ESA sensitivity; this leads to subnormal and

  13. [The patient with uncontrolled chronic hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Zarski, J-P; Leroy, V

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis B is now based on the using of pegylated interferon or nucleoside or nucleotide analogs. In the majority of cases, these drugs can control viral replication with an hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA negativation after approximately 6 months of therapy. In case of primary non response, it is necessary to modify antiviral therapy and if resistance appears to combine a nucleoside and a nucleotide analog. In patients treated by nucleoside analog, if HBV DNA is not negative or do not dramatically decreases at the week 24, it is also necessary to add a nucleotide analog. However, for adefovir therapy, it is usually preferable to wait at week 48. In summary, a regular following every 3 months of HBV DNA detection by a sensitive method (Real Time PCR) allows to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and to prevent the risk of biochemical and clinical rebound due to appearance of resistance mutations.

  14. On separability of A-phases during the cyclic alternating pattern.

    PubMed

    Mendez, M O; Alba, A; Chouvarda, I; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2014-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the separability of EEG A-phases, with respect to basal activity, is presented in this study. A-phases are short central events that build up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) during sleep. The CAP is a brain phenomenon which is thought to be related to the construction, destruction and instability of sleep stages dynamics. From the EEG signals, segments obtained around the onset and offset of the A-phases were used to evaluate the separability between A-phases and basal sleep stage oscillations. In addition, a classifier was trained to separate the different A-phase types (A1, A2 and A3). Temporal, energy and complexity measures were used as descriptors for the classifier. The results show a percentage of separation between onset and preceding basal oscillations higher than 85 % for all A-phases types. For Offset separation from following baseline, the accuracy is higher than 80 % but specificity is around 75%. Concerning to A-phase type separation, A1-phase and A3-phase are well separated with accuracy higher than 80, while A1 and A2-phases show a separation lower than 50%. These results encourage the design of automatic classifiers for Onset detection and for separating among A-phases type A1 and A3. On the other hand, the A-phase Offsets present a smooth transition towards the basal sleep stage oscillations, and A2-phases are very similar to A1-phases, suggesting that a high uncertainty may exist during CAP annotation.

  15. Firstline treatment for chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients should be based on a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-02-01

    New selective and more potent drugs for the cure of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients are now available: physicians in some countries must decide the best option, selecting one of the drugs available. What the main prognostic factors are in order to make this selection remains a matter of discussion. Introducing a 'holistic approach' for the first time in chronic myeloid leukemia, as practiced in other diseases, and looking at the patient in a complete picture, considering several variables, such as comorbidities, age, concomitant drugs, lifestyle and patient expectations, may be of help to understand, patient by patient, the best therapeutic strategy.

  16. The use of the picture–word interference paradigm to examine naming abilities in aphasic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although naming deficits are well documented in aphasia, on-line measures of naming processes have been little investigated. The use of on-line measures may offer further insight into the nature of aphasic naming deficits that would otherwise be difficult to interpret when using off-line measures. Aims The temporal activation of semantic and phonological processes was tracked in older normal control and aphasic individuals using a picture–word interference paradigm. The purpose of the study was to examine how word interference results can augment and/or corroborate standard language testing in the aphasic group, as well as to examine temporal patterns of activation in the aphasic group when compared to a normal control group. Methods & Procedures A total of 20 older normal individuals and 11 aphasic individuals participated. Detailed measures of each aphasic individual's language and naming skills were obtained. A visual picture–word interference paradigm was used in which the words bore either a semantic, phonological, or no relationship to 25 pictures. These competitor words were presented at stimulus onset asynchronies of −300 ms, +300 ms, and 0 ms. Outcomes & Results Analyses of naming RTs in both groups revealed significant early semantic interference effects, mid-semantic interference effects, and mid-phonological facilitation effects. A matched control-aphasic group comparison revealed no differences in the temporal activation of effects during the course of naming. Partial support for this RT pattern was found in the aphasic naming error pattern. The aphasic group also demonstrated greater SIEs and PFEs compared to the matched control group, which indicated disruptions of the phonological processing stage. Analyses of behavioural performances of the aphasic group corroborated this finding. Conclusions The aphasic naming RTs results were unexpected given the results from the priming literature, which has supported the idea of slowed or

  17. Aphasic speech with and without SentenceShaper: Two methods for assessing informativeness.

    PubMed

    Fink, Ruth B; Bartlett, Megan R; Lowery, Jennifer S; Linebarger, Marcia C; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SentenceShaper((R)) (SSR) is a computer program that is for speech what a word-processing program is for written text; it allows the user to record words and phrases, play them back, and manipulate them on-screen to build sentences and narratives. A recent study demonstrated that when listeners rated the informativeness of functional narratives produced by chronic aphasic speakers with and without the program they gave higher informativeness ratings to the language produced with the aid of the program (Bartlett, Fink, Schwartz, & Linebarger, 2007). Bartlett et al. (2007) also compared unaided (spontaneous) narratives produced before and after the aided version of the narrative was obtained. In a subset of comparisons, the sample created after was judged to be more informative; they called this "topic-specific carryover". AIMS: (1) To determine whether differences in informativeness that Bartlett et al.'s listeners perceived are also revealed by Correct Information Unit (CIU) analysis (Nicholas & Brookshire, 1993)-a well studied, objective method for measuring informativeness-and (2) to demonstrate the usefulness of CIU analysis for samples of this type. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A modified version of the CIU analysis was applied to the speech samples obtained by Bartlett et al. (2007). They had asked five individuals with chronic aphasia to create functional narratives on two topics, under three conditions: Unaided ("U"), Aided ("SSR"), & Post-SSR Unaided ("Post-U"). Here, these samples were analysed for differences in % CIUs across conditions. Linear associations between listener judgements and CIU measures were evaluated with bivariate correlations and multiple regression analysis. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: (1) The aided effect was confirmed: samples produced with SentenceShaper had higher % CIUs, in most cases exceeding 90%. (2) There was little CONCLUSIONS: That the percentage of CIUs was higher in SSR-aided samples than in

  18. [Autonomy of the patient with chronic diseases: from passive patient to active patient].

    PubMed

    González Mestre, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Due to social, economic and cultural changes, there has been a transformation of Health Services around the world. A new figure has emerged from this: the Active Patient, more responsible, with more information and willing to change his life as a chronic patient. In order to respond to this new situation, several countries have established initiatives such as self-reliance programmes for chronic patients. The aim of this article is to underline the Expert Patient Programme Catalonia(®) and to explain its operation and the results obtained up until now. The purpose of this program is to improve the experience of chronic disease by patients, from meetings in which an expert patient provides his knowledge and experiences to a group of patients with the same disease, with the aim of promoting changes in habits and lifestyles that improve the quality of life and the coexistence of the person with his chronic process.

  19. Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0388 TITLE: Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients By Genetic And Immune Profiling 5b. GRANT...at the HLA level that makes you more susceptible to have Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or any differences between the cases and controls. In order

  20. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Snyder, S; Bergen, C; Sigler, M H; Teehan, B P

    1991-01-01

    The effects of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) were studied in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients who had a normalized protein catabolic rate (PCRN) of less than or equal to 0.8 g/kg/day, and KT/V = 0.94 +/- 0.04. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition was administered during thrice weekly CHD for 3-6 months, and consisted of essential and nonessential amino acids (42.5 g), glucose (125 g), and lipid emulsion (50 g). Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin, transferrin, pre-albumin, total lymphocyte count, anthropometrics, protein catabolic rate, 3 day historic dietary protein intake, and dietary energy intake (DEI) were measured at baseline, before IDPN, during IDPN, and at completion of IDPN. Six of nine enrolled patients completed the study. Reasons for withdrawal included nausea and hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. DPI normalized for body weight (DPIN) increased significantly from 0.75 +/- 0.1 to 1.02 +/- 0.18 (p = 0.02). Increases in PCRN (0.57 +/- 0.18 to 0.78 +/- 0.2) and DEI (1495 +/- 266 to 1681 +/- 358) did not reach statistical significance. More aggressive IDPN or a longer study period may be necessary to assess this form of nutritional intervention.

  1. Burnout in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clementz, Gunilla; Borsbo, Bjorn; Norrbrink, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess burnout and its relation to pain, disability, mood and health-related quality of life in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Forty-five patients with chronic WAD ([greater than or equal to] 3 months) referred to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation centre were included. A questionnaire…

  2. Burnout in Patients with Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clementz, Gunilla; Borsbo, Bjorn; Norrbrink, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to assess burnout and its relation to pain, disability, mood and health-related quality of life in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Forty-five patients with chronic WAD ([greater than or equal to] 3 months) referred to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation centre were included. A questionnaire…

  3. Updated management of chronic kidney disease in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hass, Virginia McCoy

    2014-06-01

    Chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), are the primary threat to global public health in the 21st century. Recently updated guidelines from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative provide patient care benchmarks that physician assistants can use when caring for patients with diabetes and CKD and developing clinical performance improvement plans.

  4. Hemorheological Alteration in Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Chronic Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bohyun; Han, Ji Won; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Cho, Young I; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-12-01

    Since liver function is changed by chronic liver diseases, chronic liver disease can lead to different hemorheological alterations during the course of the progression. This study aims to compare alterations in whole blood viscosity in patients with chronic liver disease, focusing on the gender effect. Chronic liver diseases were classified into three categories by patient's history, serologic markers, and radiologic findings: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 63), chronic viral hepatitis B and C (n = 50), and liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 35). Whole blood viscosity was measured by automated scanning capillary tube viscometer, while liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography using FibroScan®. Both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosities were significantly lower in patients with LC than NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis (P < 0.001) in male patients, but not in female patients. In correlation analysis, there were inverse relationships between both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosity and liver stiffness (systolic: r = -0.25, diastolic: r = -0.22). Whole blood viscosity was significantly lower in male patients with LC than NAFLD or chronic viral hepatitis. Our data suggest that whole blood viscosity test can become a useful tool for classifying chronic liver disease and determining the prognosis for different types of chronic liver diseases.

  5. Hemorheological Alteration in Patients Clinically Diagnosed with Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since liver function is changed by chronic liver diseases, chronic liver disease can lead to different hemorheological alterations during the course of the progression. This study aims to compare alterations in whole blood viscosity in patients with chronic liver disease, focusing on the gender effect. Chronic liver diseases were classified into three categories by patient’s history, serologic markers, and radiologic findings: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 63), chronic viral hepatitis B and C (n = 50), and liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 35). Whole blood viscosity was measured by automated scanning capillary tube viscometer, while liver stiffness was measured by transient elastography using FibroScan®. Both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosities were significantly lower in patients with LC than NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis (P < 0.001) in male patients, but not in female patients. In correlation analysis, there were inverse relationships between both systolic and diastolic whole blood viscosity and liver stiffness (systolic: r = −0.25, diastolic: r = −0.22). Whole blood viscosity was significantly lower in male patients with LC than NAFLD or chronic viral hepatitis. Our data suggest that whole blood viscosity test can become a useful tool for classifying chronic liver disease and determining the prognosis for different types of chronic liver diseases. PMID:27822933

  6. The Effect of Redundant Cues on Comprehension of Spoken Messages by Aphasic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venus, Carol A.; Canter, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Aphasic adults (N=16) with severe auditory comprehension impairment were evaluated for comprehension of redundant and nonredundant spoken and/or gestured messages. Results indicated redundancy was not reliably superior to spoken messages alone. (Author/DB)

  7. Analysis of A-phase transitions during the cyclic alternating pattern under normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase--A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p < 0.05) between A-phases and B-phase for the standard deviation, energy, sample entropy, Tsallis entropy and frequency band indices. The A-phase onset showed values of energy three times higher than B-phase at all the sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80% of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80% for specificity and accuracy and 70% for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands.

  8. Venous disease and chronic oedema: treatment and patient concordance.

    PubMed

    Todd, Marie

    Compression therapy is the mainstay in the management of chronic venous disease, venous leg ulceration (VLU) and chronic oedema. The management of VLU alone is thought to cost a staggering £400 million per year and accounts for 13% of all district nursing visits. The predicted increase in elderly, obese and chronically ill patients will pose a further strain on already stretched resources. The impact of chronic venous and lymphovenous disease is also costly in terms of physical and psychological terms for patients. Adopting a preventive approach would reduce the financial, workload and symptomatic aspects of this condition.

  9. [Vegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system in patients with chronic heart failure with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, T E; Borovkova, N Iu

    2014-01-01

    This review deals with vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and signs of chronic renal insufficiency. CHF is currently regarded as a disturbance of neurohumoral mechanisms controlling blood circulation. At the same time, both prognosis and outcome of CHF depend on the presence of chronic renal insufficiency whose pathogenesis is poorly understood The authors emphasize the importance of elucidation of common pathogenetic mechanisms of these mutually complicating conditions.

  10. Unusual presentation of tuberculosis in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Amedia, C; Oettinger, C W

    1977-08-01

    Four patients developed miliary tuberculosis while undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Two patients had diabetes mellitus. Three of the four patients were hemodialyzed 18--24 months prior to the onset of symptoms. Signs and symptoms included prolonged fever, pleural effusion, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, abdominal pain, weight loss, and ascites. All patients were PPD negative and without historical or radiographic evidence of latent tuberculosis. Disseminated tuberculosis was proven at autopsy in three patients. M. tuberculosis was eventually recovered from pleural fluid and urine in the fourth patient. The immune deficiencies of chronic renal failure and diabetes mellitus are suspected predisposing factors to the development of miliary tuberculosis in these patients.

  11. Treatment of chronic periodontitis decreases serum prohepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Eduardo Machado; Bastos, Jessica Amaral; Fernandes, Natalia; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Chaoubah, Alfredo; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of periodontal treatment on serum levels of prohepcidin (the prohormone of hepcidin) and systemic inflammation markers, as well as correlations among these markers, in patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis. We included 56 chronic periodontitis patients, 36 with chronic kidney disease and 20 without systemic diseases and with normal renal function (control group). Chronic kidney disease was defined as suggested by the clinical practice guidelines in the National Kidney Foundation. Chronic periodontitis was defined through clinical attachment level and by probing pocket depth, according to the American Association of Periodontology. The inflammatory markers ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prohepcidin were evaluated before and 3 months after periodontal treatment. The efficacy of periodontal treatment was confirmed by the improvement in clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis in the control and chronic kidney disease groups. Periodontal treatment resulted in significant reductions in ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and serum prohepcidin levels in both groups. Moreover, in multivariate linear regression, the reduction in prohepcidin after periodontal treatment was significantly and independently associated with interleukin-6 levels in the control group. By inducing a decline in the systemic inflammatory response and a decrease in serum prohepcidin, successful periodontal treatment may represent an important means of ameliorating the inflammatory burden seen in patients with chronic kidney disease. ISRCTN59866656.

  12. Treatment of chronic periodontitis decreases serum prohepcidin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Eduardo Machado; Bastos, Jessica Amaral; Fernandes, Natalia; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Chaoubah, Alfredo; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of periodontal treatment on serum levels of prohepcidin (the prohormone of hepcidin) and systemic inflammation markers, as well as correlations among these markers, in patients with chronic periodontitis and chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis. METHODS: We included 56 chronic periodontitis patients, 36 with chronic kidney disease and 20 without systemic diseases and with normal renal function (control group). Chronic kidney disease was defined as suggested by the clinical practice guidelines in the National Kidney Foundation. Chronic periodontitis was defined through clinical attachment level and by probing pocket depth, according to the American Association of Periodontology. The inflammatory markers ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prohepcidin were evaluated before and 3 months after periodontal treatment. RESULTS: The efficacy of periodontal treatment was confirmed by the improvement in clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis in the control and chronic kidney disease groups. Periodontal treatment resulted in significant reductions in ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and serum prohepcidin levels in both groups. Moreover, in multivariate linear regression, the reduction in prohepcidin after periodontal treatment was significantly and independently associated with interleukin-6 levels in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: By inducing a decline in the systemic inflammatory response and a decrease in serum prohepcidin, successful periodontal treatment may represent an important means of ameliorating the inflammatory burden seen in patients with chronic kidney disease. Trial registration: ISRCTN59866656. PMID:21655762

  13. Relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman

    2014-08-01

    Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain.

  14. Subclinical intestinal inflammation in chronic granulomatous disease patients.

    PubMed

    Broides, Arnon; Sagi, Orli; Pinsk, Vered; Levy, Jacov; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2016-02-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species. Non-infectious colitis is common in chronic granulomatous disease, and high levels of antimicrobial antibodies that are associated with Crohn's disease are common even without colitis. Fecal calprotectin concentration is a marker for intestinal inflammation. We sought to determine whether subclinical intestinal inflammation occurs in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients. Asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients without overt gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of colitis at the time of enrollment were studied for fecal calprotectin concentration, antibodies associated with Crohn's disease and systemic inflammatory markers. Eight patients were included, aged 54-176 months. In 7/8 (87.5 %) fecal calprotectin concentration was normal (<50) and elevated (137 mg/kg) in only one patient. This patient later developed colitis. In 7/8 (87.5 %) anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody was positive. C-reactive protein, albumin, complete blood count and p-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were normal in all 8 patients. Subclinical colitis is not evident in most asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients; however, in some patients, fecal calprotectin concentration may be elevated, possibly indicating the presence of subclinical colitis and predicting the occurrence of clinically relevant colitis. Serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody concentrations do not seem to correlate with fecal calprotectin concentration in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients.

  15. Virtual reality as a distraction technique in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures.

  16. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.

  17. Virtual Reality as a Distraction Technique in Chronic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196

  18. Living well through chronic illness: the relevance of virtue theory to patients with chronic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Swift, Teresa L; Ashcroft, Richard E; Tadd, Win; Campbell, Alastair V; Dieppe, Paul A

    2002-10-15

    Virtues and vices possessed by patients may affect their quality of life and how well they cope with disease. The objective of this study is to assess the relevance of the concept of virtue and vice to patients with chronic arthritis. Aristotle's theory of virtue and vice was used to construct a guide for in-depth interviews, carried out with 5 patients with chronic osteoarthritis. Interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed (using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis) for information on personal qualities or intellectual approaches that participants thought necessary to thrive in the face of chronic disease. Five main themes emerged: strength, prudence, gratitude, self-worth, and insight into flourishing. The data on each of these is compared with Aristotle's definitions of virtues and vices. Aristotle's virtue theory can be applied to the narratives of these patients with chronic osteoarthritis, and may help in understanding their coping strategies and quality of life.

  19. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Meirleir, Kenny De

    2007-05-01

    In addition to debilitating fatigue the majority of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience chronic widespread pain. Conducting a systematic review to critically assess the existing knowledge on chronic pain in CFS. We focussed on the definition, the prevalence and incidence, the aetiology, the relevance and the therapy strategy for chronic musculoskeletal pain and post-exertional pain in CFS. To identify relevant articles, we searched eight medical search engines. The search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" AND "pain", "nociception", "arthralgia" and "myalgia", were used to identify articles concerning pain in CFS. Included articles were reviewed by two blinded researchers. Twenty-five articles and two abstract were identified and selected for further appraisal. Only 11 search results focussed on musculoskeletal pain in CFS patients. Regarding the standardized review of the articles, a 96% agreement between the researchers was observed. There is no consensus in defining chronic widespread pain in CFS, and although there is little or no strong proof for the exact prevalence, chronic pain is strongly disabling in CFS. Aetiological theories are proposed (sleep abnormalities, tryptophan, parovirus-B, hormonal and brain abnormalities and central sensitisation) and a reduction of pain threshold after exercise has been shown. Furthermore depression seemed not related to pain in CFS and a staphylococcus toxoid vaccine caused no significant pain reduction. The results from the systematic review highlight the clinical importance of chronic pain in CFS, but only few studies addressing the aetiology or treatment of chronic pain in CFS are currently available.

  20. Evaluation of etiological factors in patients with chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Colgecen, Emine; Ozyurt, Kemal; Gul, Ali Irfan; Utas, Serap

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, increasing understanding of the pathomechanisms involved in chronic urticaria has highlighted the heterogeneity of different subtypes, and chronic urticaria is now classified as chronic spontaneous urticaria and inducible urticaria. Although many factors are thought to be involved in chronic urticaria, the etiology is yet to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate etiological factors in patients with chronic urticaria. Five hundred patients with chronic urticaria, 351 women and 149 men, were studied for etiological factors. The autologous serum skin test was performed on 197 patients. Provocation testing for physical urticaria was performed on 354 patients. Patients with acute urticaria were excluded from the study. We determined at least one focus of infection that might be involved in the etiology of the disease in 18.8% of cases. Patients with infections were treated, and symptoms resolved after treatment in six cases (5.3%). Autologous serum skin tests were positive in 125 patients (63.5%). Provocation tests for physical urticaria were positive in 131 (37%) patients with urticaria. We suggest that physical stimuli and autoantibodies play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of urticaria.

  1. [Post-operative pain therapy of a chronic pain patient].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed.

  2. Biopsychosocial Approach to Assessing and Managing Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care.

  3. Drug abuse and dependency in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Maruta, T; Swanson, D W; Finlayson, R E

    1979-04-01

    Of 144 patients with chronic pain of nonmalignant cause, 35 (24%) were drug-dependent, 59 (41%) drug abusers, and 50 (35%) nonabusers. Codeine and oxycodone (Percodan) were most frequently abused. In regard to characteristics tested, differences between the groups were not great; but there was a significant difference in outcome between nonabuse and dependent groups. Early detection and treatment of drug abuse should minimize some of the difficulties involved in management of treatment-resistive patients with chronic pain.

  4. [Contrast baths in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Rychkova, M A; Aĭrapetova, N S; Davydova, O B; Krivtsova, I E; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A

    1994-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis with obstructive syndrome was treated in 91 patients with contrast baths. The latter produced good results in 80.3% of the patients. This treatment is analysed as to clinical efficacy, the effect on the external respiration, right heart hemodynamics, inflammation activity, changes in immunity system. Principal contraindications are defined. A differential approach to contrast baths in chronic bronchitis after treatment is advocated.

  5. Serum gastrin in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I L; Sells, R A; McConnell, R B; Dockray, G J

    1980-12-01

    The realisation that circulating gastrin is heterogeneous necessitates a reappraisal of gastrin's role in the increased incidence of duodenal ulcer disease that occurs in chronic renal failure. Radioimmunoassays employing region-specific antisera have been used to examine renal and extrarenal factors controlling serum gastrin concentration in patients with chronic renal failure. The present study has shown that basal serum gastrin concentrations measured with a carboxyl-terminal specific antibody were significantly higher in eight patients with chronic renal failure treated by dietary restriction (388+/-196 pM) than in 14 patients with chronic renal failure treated by haemodialysis (28.7+/-4.6 pM). However, basal gastrin concentrations in both groups of patients were significantly higher than in 25 normal subjects (12.3+/-1.8 pM) and showed significant negative correlations with maximal gastric acid secretion (p < 0.01). Markedly raised basal gastrin concentrations were observed only in chronic renal failure patients who were also achlorhydric. Although the peak postprandial increment in big gastrin concentration in 11 chronic renal failure patients (34.0+/-7.5 pM) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in 25 normal subjects (19.5+/-4.6 pM), the little gastrin responses were not significantly different. In addition, clearance of exogenous little gastrin was similar in four chronic failure patients (clearance half time: 8.1+/-0.7 min) and four normal subjects (clearance half time: 6.5+/-1.2 min). These studies suggest that the human kidney is unimportant in the metabolism of little gastrin. As circulating little gastrin is six times more potent than big gastrin in stimulating acid secretion, these studies suggest that the raised gastrin concentrations observed in patients with chronic renal failure have little significance in terms of their increased incidence of duodenal ulcer disease.

  6. Effects of significant weight gain on chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Jamison, R N; Stetson, B; Sbrocco, T; Parris, W C

    1990-03-01

    This study examined the effect of significant weight gain on physical, demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors in a representative sample of chronic pain patients. One hundred fifty-five chronic pain patients who reported gaining more than 15 pounds since the onset of their pain were compared with 341 pain patients who stated that their weight had remained the same since the onset of their pain. All patients were given a medical examination and each patient completed a comprehensive pain questionnaire and an SCL-90. Results showed that a significant relationship exists between weight gain and decreased physical activity, increased emotional distress, and accident liability. This study suggests that the inclusion of weight management training in multidisciplinary pain centers may play an important part in the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients.

  7. Prevalence of fungal infection among Iranian patients with chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Naghibzadeh, B; Razmpa, E; Alavi, Sh; Emami, M; Shidfar, M; Naghibzadeh, Gh; Morteza, A

    2011-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a major cause of morbidity today. Regional variations in the incidence of this disease have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fungal infection as the causative agent of chronic sinusitis among Iranian patients. A cross sectional hospital based study was designed; the patients underwent paranasal sinus washing and maxillary sinus biopsy. All specimens were studied by light microscopy. Fungal culturing was employed to confirm diagnosis. The patients underwent Computed Tomography for sinus evaluation. Of 162 participants, 12 samples from patients showed fungal elements, 2 of them Aspergillus fulvous (1.2%), 9 of them Alternaria species (5.56%) and 1 of them Psilomysis (0.6%). All patients presented radiologic evidence of sinusitis, ranging from mucosal thickening to total opacity. In conclusion, results obtained showed a low prevalence of fungal sinusitis among Iranian patients with chronic sinusitis. Findings also showed that Alternaria is the most causative agent.

  8. A Systematic History for the Patient with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a source of frustration to both the physician and the patient. Physicians have been ill equipped by their training to confront the multifaceted nature of the complaints of patients with chronic pelvic pain. Patients have experienced a repetitive dismissal of their complaints by physicians too busy in their practices to address their problems comprehensively. The approach to the patient with chronic pelvic pain must take into account six major sources of the origin of this pain: 1) gynecological, 2) psychological, 3) myofascial, 4) musculoskeletal, 5) urological, and 6) gastrointestinal. Only by addressing and evaluating each of these components by a very careful history and physical examination and by approaching the patient in a comprehensive manner can the source of the pain be determined and appropriate therapy be administered. This article was developed to provide the clinician with a set of tools and a methodology by which the patient with this complaint can be approached. PMID:10694069

  9. Designing patient-centric applications for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Gil-Herrera, Eleazar; Yalcin, Ali; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Barnes, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease are the leading causes of disability and death in the developed world. Technological interventions such as mobile applications have the ability to facilitate and motivate patients in chronic disease management, but these types of interventions present considerable design challenges. The primary objective of this paper is to present the challenges arising from the design and implementation of software applications aiming to assist patients in chronic disease management. We also outline preliminary results regarding a self-management application currently under development targeting young adults suffering from type 1 diabetes.

  10. Hormones and arterial stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Ozkan; Kircelli, Fatih; Voroneanu, Luminita; Covic, Adrian; Ok, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease constitutes the major cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Arterial stiffness is an important contributor to the occurrence and progression of cardiovascular disease. Various risk factors, including altered hormone levels, have been suggested to be associated with arterial stiffness. Based on the background that chronic kidney disease predisposes individuals to a wide range of hormonal changes, we herein review the available data on the association between arterial stiffness and hormones in patients with chronic kidney disease and summarize the data for the general population.

  11. The chronic illness problem inventory: problem-oriented psychosocial assessment of patients with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Kames, L D; Naliboff, B D; Heinrich, R L; Schag, C C

    1984-01-01

    Two studies are presented which describe the development of a problem-oriented psychosocial screening instrument for use in health care settings. Reliability and validity data are presented on the Chronic Illness Problem Inventory (CIPI) which demonstrate its ability to document accurately patient's specific problems in areas of physical limitations, psychosocial functioning, health care behaviors and marital adjustment. A study is also presented which compares the problems of patients with three distinct chronic illnesses: pain, obesity, and respiratory ailments. Results indicate a significantly greater severity of problems for pain patients and especially patients with multiple pain complaints. Problem areas common to all three illness groups are discussed in the context of providing better comprehensive treatment for chronically ill patients.

  12. The Treatment Based on Temporal Information Processing Reduces Speech Comprehension Deficits in Aphasic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Szymaszek, Aneta; Wolak, Tomasz; Szelag, Elzbieta

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies have reported a close association between temporal information processing (TIP) and language comprehension. Brain-injured subjects with aphasia show disturbed TIP which was evidenced in elevated temporal order threshold (TOT) as compared to control subjects. The present study is aimed at improving auditory speech comprehension in aphasic subjects using a specific temporal treatment. Fourteen patients having deficits in both speech comprehension and TIP were tested. The Token Test, phoneme discrimination tests (PDT) and Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) Test were employed to assess speech comprehension. The TOT was measured using two 10 ms tones (400 Hz, 3000 Hz) presented binaurally. The patients participated in eight 45-min sessions of either the specific temporal treatment (n = 7) aimed at improving the perception of sequencing abilities, or in a non-temporal control treatment (n = 7) on volume discrimination. The temporal treatment yielded an improvement in TIP. Moreover, a transfer of improvement from the time domain to the language domain was observed. The control treatment did not improve either TIP or speech comprehension in any of the applied tests. PMID:28443018

  13. The aphasic person's views of the encounter with other people: a grounded theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, S; Fridlund, B

    2002-06-01

    Being affected by aphasia influences the total life experience. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model, from a nursing perspective, of what aphasic persons (n = 12) experience in encounters with other people. Data were collected through interviews which adopted a biophysical, socio-cultural and psychological approach and then analysed using grounded theory method. Two main categories emerged, namely: 'interaction' and 'support'. Encountered experiences led to: 'a feeling of having ability'; 'a feeling of being an outsider'; and 'a feeling of dejection or uncertainty'. The feeling state was dependent on whether the interaction was 'obstructed' or 'secure' and on whether the support resulted in 'strengthened' or 'impaired' self-esteem. Therefore nurses need to give support that enhances patients' self-esteem and which results in them gaining a positive and realistic view of their aphasia, as well as involving those around them in this perspective. This then will give the possibility for the patient to turn the interaction process from an obstructed into a secure one.

  14. Chronic coinfections in patients diagnosed with chronic lyme disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M; Wormser, Gary P

    2014-11-01

    Often, the controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients also are treated for chronic coinfections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. Five systematic literature searches were performed using Boolean operators and the PubMed search engine. The literature searches did not demonstrate convincing evidence of: 1) chronic anaplasmosis infection; 2) treatment-responsive symptomatic chronic babesiosis in immunocompetent persons in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities, and detectable parasitemia; 3) either geographically widespread or treatment-responsive symptomatic chronic infection with Babesia duncani in the absence of fever, laboratory abnormalities, and detectable parasitemia; 4) tick-borne transmission of Bartonella species; or 5) simultaneous Lyme disease and Bartonella infection. The medical literature does not support the diagnosis of chronic, atypical tick-borne coinfections in patients with chronic, nonspecific illnesses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  16. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  17. Practical Rehabilitation of the Chronic Allergic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, N.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes the roles of the treatment team responsible for helping to rehabilitate chronic asthmatics at St. Joseph's Hospital in Toronto. The program can be set up in any local hospital currently having these personnel on staff, and does not require additional financial outlay. PMID:20469185

  18. Mitochondrial DNA deletions in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Arzu; Tasdemir, Sener; Sahin, Ibrahim; Bozoglu, Ceyda; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Yoruk, Ozgur; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 and 7400 bp deletions of mitochondrial DNA in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and to indicate the possible association of mitochondrial DNA deletions with chronic suppurative otitis media. Thirty-six patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were randomly selected to assess the mitochondrial DNA deletions. Tympanomastoidectomy was applied for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and the curettage materials including middle ear tissues were collected. The 4977 and 7400 bp deletion regions and two control regions of mitochondrial DNA were assessed by using the four pair primers. DNA was extracted from middle ear tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients, and then polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed. PCR products were separated in 2 % agarose gel. Seventeen of 36 patients had the heterozygote 4977 bp deletion in the middle ear tissue but not in peripheral blood. There wasn't any patient who had the 7400 bp deletion in mtDNA of their middle ear tissue or peripheral blood tissue. The patients with the 4977 bp deletion had a longer duration of chronic suppurative otitis media and a higher level of hearing loss than the others (p < 0.01). Long time chronic suppurative otitis media and the reactive oxygen species can cause the mitochondrial DNA deletions and this may be a predisposing factor to sensorineural hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media. An antioxidant drug as a scavenger agent may be used in long-term chronic suppurative otitis media.

  19. The Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Anal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weiming; Liao, Xiujun; Wu, Wenjing; Yu, Yanyan; Yang, Guangen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and psychological distress in patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain. The study was conducted on patients referred to Hangzhou Third Hospital for chronic anal pain from January, 2010 to December, 2014. Patient demographics, clinical history, anorectal physiology, and radiological imaging data were recorded for all patients. The treatment outcome was noted for patients treated and followed up for more than 6 month at the present unit. Ninety-six patients with mean age of 45.1 years (range, 17-82) were studied. Seventy-one patients (74.0%) had functional anorectal pain(FARP). The main complaints were dull, sharp, stabbing, or spasm pain. Among all patients, 34.3% reported that their pain radiated into other locations. Fifty-one patients (53.1%) had bowel dysfunction, while 28.1% patients had urinary dysfunction. The common factors associated with pain relief were day time, lying down and warm water baths; the factors that contributed to aggravated pain were night time, defecation or sitting. 92.7% (89/96) of patients reported symptoms of psychological disturbance. FARP patients exhibited increased depression than non-FARP patients(P<0.05). In addition, female patients were more likely to have depression than male patients (P<0.05). The overall pain treatment success rate was 55.2% (53/96). The pain treatment outcome was better in non-FARP patients than in FARP patients(χ2=3.85, P<0.05). Conclusively, chronic idiopathic anal pain is a complex clinical symptom, involving pelvic floor muscles, the nervous system, endocrine system, and the patients’ psychological conditions. Further research is needed to improve diagnosis and treatment for patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain. PMID:28730167

  20. Patient-Staff Interactions and Mental Health in Chronic Dialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…

  1. Patient-Staff Interactions and Mental Health in Chronic Dialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…

  2. [Disturbances of word finding of compound nouns (nomina composita) in aphasics (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, R

    1977-09-14

    The faulty use of compound nouns by aphasics is of practical and theoretical significance. Defects in the finding and using of compound nouns were investigated with respect to the following parameters: the importance of the frequency with which compounds and compound parts are used in normal speech, the influence of grammatical and psycholinguistic peculiarities on aphasic dysfunction, and the handling of compounds in individual aphasic syndromes. The distinctly poorer recall of compound nouns compared with simple nouns was found to be due mainly to their less frequent use in normal speech. In word-finding the grammatical unit of the compound noun was not very stable patholinguistically. If one part of the compound noun was commoner and more usual in normal speech than the other it was usually better recalled. However, some remarkable deviations from this were due to semantic functional value, vividness, morphologic peculiarities, and linguistic form. The wider meaning-range of the second part of the compound noun had no positive mnemonic effect, despite the propensity of the aphasic for the general. In naming tests the first part of the compound noun was preferred on average. Certain differences in the defective use of compound nouns were observed between the individual aphasic syndromes.

  3. Halting aphasic interaction: creation of intersubjectivity and spousal relationship in situ.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Tarja; Laakso, Minna

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a communicative phenomenon that is relatively less studied: getting stuck in an aphasic conversation. Although aphasia as a medical and linguistic condition has been widely examined, the more social and participatory aspects of the symptom are not so well-known. Aphasia forms a threat to the emergence of a shared understanding, as well as to the experience of being in the shared, i.e., in the intersubjective, social world. In our analysis, we closely explore how understanding is constructed in the sequential organization of conversation. We use two data corpora when analysing the halting interaction. In our data, we detected two kinds of interactive halts that emerged in connection with aphasic word searching. First, 'real halts' were caused by the aphasic person's inability to find correct words and the co-participants were also not able to resolve the problem. Second, 'exam halts' occurred when the co-participant did not provide the missing words despite knowing what the aphasic speaker was trying to say. We discuss how this halting phenomenon is linked with the notions of intersubjectivity and face-work and conclude that real halts are more directly caused by the aphasic condition, whereas exam halts reflect the spousal relationship in the form of face-work.

  4. XMRV Prevalence in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Chronic Immunomodulatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Timothy J.; Li, Jonathan Z.; Felsenstein, Donna; Kotton, Camille N.; Plenge, Robert M.; Pereyra, Florencia; Marty, Francisco M.; Lin, Nina H.; Grazioso, Paul; Crochiere, Danielle M.; Eggers, Daniel; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Tsibris, Athe M. N.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in 293 participants seen at academic hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were recruited from five groups of patients: chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, n = 32), HIV infection (n = 43), rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 97), hematopoietic stem-cell or solid organ transplant (n = 26), or a general cohort of patients presenting for medical care (n = 95). XMRV DNA was not detected in any participant samples. We found no association between XMRV and patients with CFS or chronic immunomodulatory conditions. PMID:20936980

  5. [Biofilm from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Morphological SEM studies].

    PubMed

    Głowacki, Roman; Strek, Paweł; Zagórska-Swiezy, Katarzyna; Składzień, Jacek; Oleś, Krzysztof; Hydzik-Sobocińska, Karolina; Miodoński, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm is a three-dimensional structure made of aggregates of bacterial cells (microcolonies) and the extra cellular matrix released by them, adhering to organic and inorganic surfaces. It is estimated that 99% of all bacteria exist in biofilms, and only 1% live in a free-floating or planktonic state at any given time. The aim of the study was to demonstrate biofilms in mucosal specimens of patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis and co-occurrence of such illnesses as nasal polyps, bronchial asthma, NSAIDs allergy, and aspirin-induced asthma. A prospective study of 25 patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis. All patients underwent completed a otolaryngological examination and paranasal sinus CT scans. Endoscopic surgery of nasal sinuses (ESS) was performed in all patients. The mucous membrane samples were taken from the inside of the sinus and concha bullosa. They were prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images were then compared with the available database of the biofilm images. Using SEM morphologic criteria, the biofilms were identified in the studied material in nineteen patients (83%). In four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, no biofilms were found on the samples taken. A bacteriological examination of smears from inside of the sinus, revealed the presence of various types of bacteria. In two patients no bacteria was found in the smears. It is supposed that bacterial biofilms perform an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis. One may speculate that, the presence of biofilms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis could induce the co-occurrence of such illnesses as nasal polyps, bronchial asthma, aspirin-induced asthma or a NSAIDs allergy. In order to evaluate better the role of biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis, it seems justified to extend the research to a larger group of patients and a control group.

  6. [Suplemented restricted diet in old patients with chronic renal disease].

    PubMed

    Teplan, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    In last decades was confirmed remarkable increase in number of old patients with chronic kidney disease. Despide of developments in dialysis technology and kidney transplantation there is a growing number of old patients who are not suitable for these methods. Recently were published data showing long-term effect of protein restricted diet supplemented with keto amino acids in elderly. Based on our results obtained in re-analysis of 3 000 patients we can confirm also good compliance and low risk of malnutrition.Key words: chronic kidney disease - keto amino acids - old age - restricted diet.

  7. Dermatological diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gagnon1, Amy L; Desai, Tejas

    2013-04-01

    There are a variety of dermatological diseases that are more commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplants than the general population. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Some cutaneous diseases are clearly unique to this population. Of them, Lindsay's Nails, xerosis cutis, dryness of the skin, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and acquired perforating dermatosis have been described in chronic kidney disease patients. The most common malignancy found in all transplant recipients is non-melanoma skin cancer. It is important for patients and physicians to recognize the manifestations of skin disease in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease to mitigate the morbidity associated with these conditions.

  8. Dermatological diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon1, Amy L.; Desai, Tejas

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are a variety of dermatological diseases that are more commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplants than the general population. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Results: Some cutaneous diseases are clearly unique to this population. Of them, Lindsay’s Nails, xerosis cutis, dryness of the skin, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and acquired perforating dermatosis have been described in chronic kidney disease patients. The most common malignancy found in all transplant recipients is non-melanoma skin cancer. Conclusions: It is important for patients and physicians to recognize the manifestations of skin disease in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease to mitigate the morbidity associated with these conditions. PMID:24475435

  9. Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kisic, Bojana; Miric, Dijana; Dragojevic, Ilija; Rasic, Julijana; Popovic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure.

  10. Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kisic, Bojana; Miric, Dijana; Dragojevic, Ilija; Rasic, Julijana; Popovic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure. PMID:27127544

  11. Increased interleukin-13 levels in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuki; Inoue, Teruo; Nitto, Takeaki; Morooka, Toshifumi; Node, Koichi

    2009-01-24

    A great number of basic and clinical studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines play an important role in development and progress of heart failure. However, there is limited information about allergic cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13). The inflammatory responses mediated by allergic cytokines can cause significant morbidity and mortality when they become chronic. Therefore, we elucidated the role of IL-13 in the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure. We measured plasma IL-13 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 110 patients with chronic heart failure and 20 control subjects. Plasma IL-13 levels were increased in heart failure patients, compared with the controls, in association with NYHA functional class. In addition, IL-13 levels were correlated positively with plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein, and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction. Plasma IL-13 levels may be useful for evaluating disease severity in chronic heart failure.

  12. Chronic disease management for patients with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Elizabeth

    National and international awareness of the heavy burden of chronic disease has led to the development of new strategies for managing care. Elisabeth Bryant explains how self-care, education and support for more patients with complex needs should be built into planned care delivery, and emphasises that the patient is the key member of the care team.

  13. Undetectable ABO isoagglutinin in a patient with chronic myelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Hasegawa, S

    1977-01-01

    An instance of undetectable anti(A+B) was described in a patient, group O, in acute crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. The finding was not parallel to the level of gamma globulin in the patient and a possibility of functional abnormality of the related antibody was discussed.

  14. Time-Limited Group Counseling for Chronic Home Hemodialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Compared effects of six sessions of group counseling of nine chronic home hemodialysis patients with a comparable no treatment control group. Comparisons revealed no significant differences between groups. Subsequent testing a year later suggested that hemodialysis patients use the defensive mechanism of denial in adapting to their condition.…

  15. Time-Limited Group Counseling for Chronic Home Hemodialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Compared effects of six sessions of group counseling of nine chronic home hemodialysis patients with a comparable no treatment control group. Comparisons revealed no significant differences between groups. Subsequent testing a year later suggested that hemodialysis patients use the defensive mechanism of denial in adapting to their condition.…

  16. An overview of the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn C

    2016-11-23

    Chronic pancreatitis is a complex inflammatory condition characterised by irreversible damage to the pancreas. This article explores the pathophysiology of this condition and its effects on pancreatic function. It outlines the causes and presenting features of chronic pancreatitis, as well as its effect on patients' quality of life and the changes to their lifestyle that are likely to be required. Chronic pancreatitis cannot be cured; therefore, treatment aims to control pain, manage problems associated with malabsorption, and assess and manage long-term complications that may develop, such as insulin dependence.

  17. New oral anticoagulants in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Belmar Vega, Lara; de Francisco, A L M; Bada da Silva, Jairo; Galván Espinoza, Luis; Fernández Fresnedo, Gema

    2016-12-08

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop bleeding and thrombotic tendencies, so the indication of anticoagulation at the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) is complex. AF is the most common chronic cardiac arrhythmia, and thromboembolism and ischemic stroke in particular are major complications. In recent years, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed, and they have shown superiority over the classical AVK in preventing stroke, systemic embolism and bleeding risk, constituting an effective alternative to those resources.

  18. Neurodegenerative Properties of Chronic Pain: Cognitive Decline in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Souren, Pierre; Arns, Martijn; Gordon, Evian; Vissers, Kris; Wilder-Smith, Oliver; van Rijn, Clementina M.; van Goor, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain has been associated with impaired cognitive function. We examined cognitive performance in patients with severe chronic pancreatitis pain. We explored the following factors for their contribution to observed cognitive deficits: pain duration, comorbidity (depression, sleep disturbance), use of opioids, and premorbid alcohol abuse. The cognitive profiles of 16 patients with severe pain due to chronic pancreatitis were determined using an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Data from three cognitive domains (psychomotor performance, memory, executive functions) were compared to data from healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Multivariate multilevel analysis of the data showed decreased test scores in patients with chronic pancreatitis pain in different cognitive domains. Psychomotor performance and executive functions showed the most prominent decline. Interestingly, pain duration appeared to be the strongest predictor for observed cognitive decline. Depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, opioid use and history of alcohol abuse provided additional explanations for the observed cognitive decline in some of the tests, but to a lesser extent than pain duration. The negative effect of pain duration on cognitive performance is compatible with the theory of neurodegenerative properties of chronic pain. Therefore, early and effective therapeutic interventions might reduce or prevent decline in cognitive performance, thereby improving outcomes and quality of life in these patients. PMID:21876748

  19. Neural underpinnings for model-oriented therapy of aphasic word production.

    PubMed

    Abel, Stefanie; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Model-oriented therapies of aphasic word production have been shown to be effective, with item-specific therapy effects being larger than generalisation effects for untrained items. However, it remains unclear whether semantic versus phonological therapy lead to differential effects, depending on type of lexical impairment. Functional imaging studies revealed that mainly left-hemisphere, perisylvian brain areas were involved in successful therapy-induced recovery of aphasic word production. However, the neural underpinnings for model-oriented therapy effects have not received much attention yet. We aimed at identifying brain areas indicating (1) general therapy effects using a naming task measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 patients before and after a 4-week naming therapy, which comprised increasing semantic and phonological cueing-hierarchies. We also intended to reveal differential effects (2) of training versus generalisation, (3) of therapy methods, and (4) of type of impairment as assessed by the connectionist Dell model. Training effects were stronger than generalisation effects, even though both were significant. Furthermore, significant impairment-specific therapy effects were observed for patients with phonological disorders (P-patients). (1) Left inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis (IFGoper), was a positive predictor of therapy gains while the right caudate was a negative predictor. Moreover, less activation decrease due to therapy in left-hemisphere temporo-parietal language areas was positively correlated with therapy gains. (2) Naming of trained compared to untrained words yielded less activation decrease in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and precuneus, bilateral thalamus, and right caudate due to therapy. (3) Differential therapy effects could be detected in the right superior parietal lobule for the semantic method, and in regions involving bilateral anterior and mid cingulate, right precuneus, and left middle

  20. The impact of ulcerative colitis on patients' lives compared to other chronic diseases: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Rubin, David T; Dubinsky, Marla C; Panaccione, Remo; Siegel, Corey A; Binion, David G; Kane, Sunanda V; Hopper, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    This study was designed to identify the impact chronic ulcerative colitis (UC) has on the lives of patients compared to other chronic conditions. Overall, 451 patients with UC, 309 with rheumatoid arthritis, 305 with asthma, and 305 with migraine headaches were recruited in an Internet survey designed to assess a variety of disease-impact indices. Patients with UC reported a mean of eight (self-defined) flare-ups in the previous 12 months. Significantly more patients with UC (81%) believed that the quantity of flare-ups they experienced was 'normal', compared to patients with migraine headaches (64%) or asthma (75%). Patients with UC also reported significantly more worry about disease complications (84%), depression (62%), and embarrassment (70%) than patients with the other chronic conditions. Compared to patients with other chronic conditions, patients with UC perceive substantially more negative impact upon their lives, especially with regard to the psychological burden.

  1. Clinical COPD Questionnaire in patients with chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Canavan, Jane L; Dilaver, Deniz; Clark, Amy L; Jones, Sarah E; Nolan, Claire M; Kon, Samantha S C; Man, William D-C

    2014-10-01

    The Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ) is an easy to complete, health-related quality of life questionnaire which has been well-validated in COPD. The responsiveness of the CCQ in chronic respiratory disease patients other than COPD has not been previously described. The study aims were to determine if the CCQ in chronic respiratory disease correlates with other health related quality of life questionnaires, to assess the responsiveness of the CCQ to pulmonary rehabilitation and to determine the minimum important difference. The CCQ, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) were measured in 138 chronic respiratory disease patients completing pulmonary rehabilitation. Change in CCQ with pulmonary rehabilitation was correlated with change in the other questionnaires. The minimum important difference of the CCQ was calculated using distribution and anchor-based approaches. The CCQ, CAT, CRQ and SGRQ improved significantly with rehabilitation with effect sizes of -0.43, -0.26, 0.62, -0.37. Change in CCQ correlated significantly with CAT, CRQ and SGRQ (r = 0.53, -0.64, 0.30, all P < 0.0001). The minimum important difference was -0.42 at the population level and -0.4 at the individual level. The CCQ is responsive to pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic respiratory disease patients, with an MID estimated at -0.4 at the individual level. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Brain morphological alternation in chronic pain patients with neuropathic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sugimine, Satomi; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic characteristics are highly involved in the development of chronic pain both physically and psychologically. However, little is known about the relationship between neuropathic characteristics and brain morphological alteration. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of chronic pain development by examining the above-mentioned relationships by voxel-based morphometry in patients with chronic pain. Methods First, we assessed neuropathic characteristics using the painDETECT Questionnaire in 12 chronic pain patients. Second, to assess the gray matter volume changes by voxel-based morphometry, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We applied multiregression analysis of these two assessment methods. Results There were significant positive correlations between painDETECT Questionnaire scores and the gray matter volume in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and right posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuropathic characteristics strongly affect the brain regions related to modulation of pain in patients with chronic pain and, therefore, contribute to the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27284013

  3. [Chronic dialysis patients' expectations towards dialysis nurses].

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Nowicki, Michał; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    As a result of changes in the Polish healthcare system, healthcare institutions--including dialysis units--are expected to provide their patients with broad-spectrum and high-quality services. Nurses are the members of the therapeutic team who spend most time with the patient undergoing renal replacement therapy, and thus the image of the whole dialysis unit depends on their work. The aim of the study was to assess the dialysis patients' expectations towards their nurses. The study group consisted of 150 adult dialysis patients treated with hemodialysis in dialysis units in Lodz region. The participants were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire specially tailored for the study. We showed that dialysis patients were generally satisfied with the level of care provided by nurses and described them as reliable, professional and well-qualified. Patients especially valued kind attitude, smile and friendliness of the nurses. Fully professional care was noticed by 25.7% of patients. Patients dialyzed for a longer period of time (over 10 years) described nurses' knowledge, practical skills and independence with more criticism. A quarter of them stated that nurses always relied on the doctor's decision. The study revealed that dialysis nurses' work, practical skills and attitude were assessed very well by patients. Their level of satisfaction would be higher if nurses spent more time and initiated more discussion with the patients. The high merit that nurses received should be considered as a stimulus that ought to increase the professional independence and quality of dialysis nurses performance.

  4. Dissociations and Associations of Performance in Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia and their Implications for the Nature of Aphasic Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one pwa were tested on syntactic comprehension in three tasks: sentence-picture matching, sentence-picture matching with auditory moving window presentation, and object manipulation. There were significant correlations of performances on sentences across tasks. First factors in unrotated factor analyses accounted for most of the variance on which all sentence types loaded in each task. Dissociations in performance between sentence types that differed minimally in their syntactic structures were not consistent across tasks. These results replicate previous results with smaller samples and provide important validation of basic aspects of aphasic performance in this area of language processing. They point to the role of a reduction in processing resources and of the interaction of task demands and parsing and interpretive abilities in the genesis of patient performance. PMID:24061104

  5. [Structure quality in outpatient care of chronic pain patients].

    PubMed

    Lang, E; Eisele, R; Bickel, A; Winter, E; Schlabeck, M; Kastner, S; Sittl, R; Liebig, K; Martus, P; Neundörfer, B

    1999-04-14

    Outcome quality of medical treatment depends on structure quality of the treatment facility. In the present study we tried evaluate structural parameters of outpatient treatment facilities relating to management of headache, low back pain and cancer pain. 109 outpatient treatment facilities (104 offices, 3 outpatient departments of hospitals, 2 pain ambulances of hospitals) in middle franconia, one of the larger Bavarian administrative division (population: 1,6 Mio.), have been evaluated by questionnaires. Questions examined certain structural conditions of the treatment facility as compared to german guidelines for outpatient treatment of pain patients ("Schmerztherapievereinbarung"). Only one treatment facility worked within an interdisciplinary setting. Less than 25% (median) of total patients of an outpatient treatment facility suffered from acute or chronic headache, low back pain or cancer pain. 38% of physicians participated regularly on pain conferences. Established methods for diagnosis and documentation of patients suffering from chronic headache, chronic back pain and cancer pain were regularly used by 16%, 12% and 10% of physicians, respectively. Regular interdisciplinary cooperation in the management of patients with chronic headache, chronic back pain and cancer pain was indicated by 28%, 24% and 41% of physicians, respectively. However, personal discussion of patient related problems took place in less than 5% of physicians. Although a considerable number of different therapies (included as standard therapy for outpatient management of chronic pain in the "Schmerztherapievereinbarung") can be applied in each outpatient treatment facility (median:5), psychological therapy for management of chronic headache, chronic back pain and cancer pain was used regularly by 5%, 2% and 7% of physicians, respectively. Scoring of all examined structural parameters provides a measure for the quality of the parameters of a certain outpatient treatment facility as

  6. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity.

  7. Respiratory weakness in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline

    2013-06-01

    Respiratory muscle strength is one parameter that is currently proposed to be affected in patients with chronic neck pain. This study was aimed at examining whether patients with chronic neck pain have reduced respiratory strength and with which neck pain problems their respiratory strength is associated. In this controlled cross-sectional study, 45 patients with chronic neck pain and 45 healthy well-matched controls were recruited. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed through maximal mouth pressures. The subjects were additionally assessed for their pain intensity and disability, neck muscle strength, endurance of deep neck flexors, neck range of movement, forward head posture and psychological states. Paired t-tests showed that patients with chronic neck pain have reduced Maximal Inspiratory (MIP) (r = 0.35) and Maximal Expiratory Pressures (MEP) (r = 0.39) (P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength (r > 0.5), kinesiophobia (r < -0.3) and catastrophizing (r < -0.3) were significantly associated with maximal mouth pressures (P < 0.05), whereas MEP was additionally negatively correlated with neck pain and disability (r < -0.3, P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength was the only predictor that remained as significant into the prediction models of MIP and MEP. It can be concluded that patients with chronic neck pain present weakness of their respiratory muscles. This weakness seems to be a result of the impaired global and local muscle system of neck pain patients, and psychological states also appear to have an additional contribution. Clinicians are advised to consider the respiratory system of patients with chronic neck pain during their usual assessment and appropriately address their treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comorbid Chronic Pain and Depression: Patient Perspectives on Empathy.

    PubMed

    Sternke, Elizabeth A; Abrahamson, Kathleen; Bair, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Clinician empathy is a well-documented component of effective patient/provider communication. Evidence surrounding the association between patient perspectives on clinician empathy and perception of pain management is currently limited, particularly among patients with chronic pain and depression. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' perspectives on the emergent theme of empathy and describe how patients construct their experiences and expectations surrounding empathic interactions. A secondary analysis of focus group data was designed using grounded theory methodology. Veterans Affairs (VA) and University Primary Care Clinics. Respondents with chronic pain and comorbid depression (N = 18) were 27 to 84 years old (mean 54.8 years), 61% women, 22% black, and 74% white. Study participants highly valued empathy and two types of empathic interactions: empathic listening and empathic action. Patients who provided examples of empathic interactions claimed that others understood, valued, and cared for them. In contrast, patients who perceived a lack of empathy and empathic interactions felt frustrated and uncared for by others (including their physicians) physically and emotionally. Patients with chronic pain and depression claimed that empathy helped them feel understood, believed, taken seriously, and that their needs were met. In demonstrating empathy and engaging in empathic interactions with patients, providers relate better to patients, better understand their life experience, and provide patient-centered care that is meaningful for patients, providers, and the health care systems within which they interact. Future research is needed to purposefully study the effects of empathic interactions on outcomes for patients with chronic pain and comorbid depression. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  9. Online Patient Education for Chronic Disease Management: Consumer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Than; Hassan, Naffisah Mohd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Probst, Yasmine

    2016-04-01

    Patient education plays an important role in chronic disease management. The aim of this study is to identify patients' preferences in regard to the design features of effective online patient education (OPE) and the benefits. A review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify the benefits of OPE and its essential design features. These design features were empirically tested by conducting survey with patients and caregivers. Reliability analysis, construct validity and regression analysis were performed for data analysis. The results identified patient-tailored information, interactivity, content credibility, clear presentation of content, use of multimedia and interpretability as the essential design features of online patient education websites for chronic disease management.

  10. [Chronic diseases and complexity: new roles in nursing. Advanced practice nurses and chronic patient].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, C Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    The increase in chronic diseases and the progressive ageing of the population is a source of concern for the different agencies with responsibility for health care. This has led to the creation of many documents focused on the analysis of the current situation and care of chronic diseases, including the WHO recommendations intended to assist countries and health services design and implement strategies that will address the existing demand, control and prevention of chronic diseases. In addition, there is a need to respond to the demand generated by chronic diseases in every sense, and from the different systems it is becoming more difficult to get enough support from multidisciplinary teams where the nurse has a central importance. While chronic diseases are becoming a threat due to the costs they generate, it is also an opportunity for nursing to be at the forefront for advanced care requirements, performed by professionals with recognized advanced clinical skills and ability for case management while monitoring and controlling complex chronic patients. The different services of the National Health System have introduced nurses that play different roles (cases managers, liaison nurses, advanced practice nurses and so on). However, it could be argued that they are not being trained to a desirable development level. It is therefore time for health care authorities to determine the role of the advanced practice nurse in relation to functional positions, and allow them to make an advance in the development of unified skills for the whole National Health System. From our experience we have learned that the advanced practice nurse is a resource that helps in the sustainability of services, thanks to the efficiency shown in the results obtained from the care given to both chronic and complex chronic patients.

  11. Investigation of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gerontoukou, Evangelia-Ioanna; Michaelidoy, Sofia; Rekleiti, Maria; Saridi, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    The health of an individual depends on both his/her physical and psychological condition. In recent years it has been observed that chronic patients have frequently an affected psycho-emotional state. The purpose of this study is to investigate anxiety and depression in patients with chronic diseases and the correlation of the results with daily physical activity levels and individual health levels, as well comorbidity. This study included patients with chronic diseases that were treated in a local general hospital or were visiting often outpatient clinics of the same hospital due to their condition. The sample in this particular study included 204 patients; 118 of them were women and 86 men. From the total sample that participated in our research, 118 (57.8%) were females and the majority of the participants were secondary/basic education graduates (67%), married (71%), living in urban areas (53%). Hypertension was the most frequent chronic disease in our sample, followed by hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus. Comparing the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms in both questionnaires in relation to the expected frequency in the general population, significant levels of depression and anxiety symptoms were recorded. Taking into consideration the findings of this research, anxiety and depression symptoms can have profound effects regarding the control of chronic diseases, the patients’ quality of life and their general health. PMID:26973961

  12. Graves' disease in a dialysis dependent chronic renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538

  13. Chronic vagal stimulation in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Sanzo, Antonio; Schwartz, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Increased sympathetic and reduced vagal activity predict increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Experimentally, vagal stimulation (VS) is protective both during acute myocardial ischemia and in chronic heart failure. In man, VS is used in refractory epilepsy but has never been used in cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there is a strong rationale to investigate the effects of chronic VS in patients with CHF. We assesses the feasibility and safety of chronic VS with CardioFit (BioControl Medical), a VS implantable system delivering pulses synchronous with heart beats to the right cervical vagus nerve in a preliminary pilot study in eight advanced CHF patients with favorable results, and subsequently in a larger multicenter study. Overall, 32 patients have been successfully implanted (mostly in NYHA Class III; mean age 56 years, ischemic etiology in 69%; prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in 63%; concomitant beta blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in 100%). Preliminary results confirm feasibility of the study, an acceptable side effect profile and promising preliminary efficacy data. Several mechanisms may contribute to the beneficial effect observed in patients with heart failure. Should these results be confirmed in larger controlled studies, chronic vagal stimulation could be a further treatment option for CHF patients, possibly integrated with defibrillator and resynchronization therapies.

  14. Steroid myopathy in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Levin, Oleg S; Polunina, Anna G; Demyanova, Marina A; Isaev, Fedor V

    2014-03-15

    Corticosteroid-induced myopathy is a well known clinical entity, and experimental studies showed decreased rate of protein synthesis and increased rate of protein breakdown in muscles of chronically treated animals. The present observational study was aimed to evaluate skeletal muscle functions in asthmatics and patients with other chronic respiratory diseases treated by inhaled or oral corticosteroids. Thirty six patients with respiratory diseases were included into the study. The physician-rated peripheral motor deficits scale, stepper test and ankle/wrist index were used for assessment of muscle functions. The effects of length of glucocorticoids intake on muscle functions were evaluated. Sixty five per cent of patients using corticosteroids daily during 1 year and longer reported weakness in legs, and 20% of these patients demonstrated objective signs of the muscle weakness. The performance on the stepper test was significantly worse in patients chronically using corticosteroids in comparison with the control group (10.9 ± 3.4 steps vs 16.1 ± 2.4 steps per 10s, respectively; F=21.6, p<0.001). In addition, a proportion of patients using corticosteroids for at least 18 months were characterized by muscle hypotrophy at a dominant leg. Chronic intake of inhaled corticosteroids induces clinically significant decrease of muscle functions at least after 1-year of daily treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contact laser prostatectomy in a patient on chronic anticoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Edward J.

    1995-05-01

    The `gold standard' therapy for patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has always been electrocautery TURP. However, in patients with medical problems requiring chronic anticoagulation, this procedure is contraindicated due to the extreme risk of hemorrhage, both during the procedure and the immediate post operative period. With the recent development of contact laser prostatectomy the patient on chronic anticoagulation can safely undergo the procedure. Herein, I present a case of a 60 year old with significant bladder outlet obstruction yielding an AUA symptom score of 18. The patient had a history of multiple episodes of deep venous thrombosis of the left leg with three prior pulmonary emboli. He was maintained on chronic anticoagulation with alternating days of 3.5 mg. and 5.0 mg. of warfarin sodium (coumadin). Preoperative cystoscopy showed a 4 cm prostatic fossa obstructed by tri-lobar hypertrophy, with large kissing lateral lobes and visual obstruction from the verumontanum. The patient underwent a contact laser prostatectomy with the SLT Nd:YAG laser at 50 watts. There was minimal bleeding both during the procedure and in the immediate postoperative period. At three months post-op the AUA symptom score had decreased to 2. This case demonstrated that contact laser prostatectomy can be safely and effectively performed in patients on chronic anticoagulation.

  16. ELN 2013 response status criteria: relevance for de novo imatinib chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients?

    PubMed

    Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Lascaux, Axelle; Schmitt, Anna; Bidet, Audrey; Fort, Marie-Pierre; Lippert, Eric; Bureau, Caroline; Adiko, Didier; Hayette, Sandrine; Reiffers, Josy; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Mahon, François-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The response definitions proposed by the European Leukemia Net (ELN) have been recently modified. We evaluated the new criteria for de novo imatinib (400 mg/d) chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) patients. Response status according to the 2009 and 2013 criteria were determined in 180 unselected patients. Outcome of the subgroups of patients were then compared. The 180 patients were classified as optimal responders (OR2009; n = 113, 62.7%), suboptimal responders (SOR2009; n = 47, 26.1%) and failures (FAIL2009; n = 20, 11.1%) according to the 2009 ELN criteria and optimal responders (OR2013; n = 77, 42.7%), warnings (WAR2013; n = 59, 32.7%), and failures (FAIL2013; n = 44, 24.4%) according to the 2013 ELN criteria. No difference in terms of outcome was observed between OR2009 patients who became WAR2013 when compared with OR2013 patients. When compared with FAIL2009 patients, SOR2009 patients who became WAR2013 had better EFS, FFS, PFS, and OS. No difference was observed in PFS or OS in SOR2009 patients who became FAIL2013. The 2013 ELN response status criteria have improved patients classification in terms of response status. However, in our patient population this improvement is related to a better definition of failure rather than that of optimal response for CP-CML patients treated with IM frontline therapy.

  17. Somatic and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with chronic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Ferm, Ingela; Sterner, Magnus; Wallengren, Joanna

    2010-07-01

    It has been reported that 10-50% of patients with pruritus but no skin rash have an underlying systemic disease and up to 70% a psychiatric one. The aim of this retrospective study was to review the records of a large number of patients with chronic pruritus for concomitant diseases and treatment options. Medical records of 139 patients (52 males, 87 females) with chronic pruritus who visited the outpatient dermatological clinic during a 17-month period were reviewed. Itch was the presenting symptom in 6 of 47 patients with systemic disease and in 17 of 31 patients with psychiatric disease. Twenty-four patients had neuropathic itch and 37 patients had pruritus of unknown origin. The most severe and long-lasting itch was found in patients with multiple systemic diseases and in those with pruritus of unknown origin. Pruritus of the scalp and face was most common in psychogenic pruritus. Phototherapy was found to be a useful therapeutic option. In conclusion, systemic diseases are unlikely to cause chronic pruritus in patients consulting a dermatology department.

  18. Assessing nutritional status in chronically critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Patricia A; Daly, Barbara J; Lipson, Amy R; Guo, Su-Er

    2006-03-01

    Numerous methods are used to measure and assess nutritional status of chronically critically ill patients. To discuss the multiple methods used to assess nutritional status in chronically critically ill patients, describe the nutritional status of chronically critically ill patients, and assess the relationship between nutritional indicators and outcomes of mechanical ventilation. A descriptive, longitudinal design was used to collect weekly data on 360 adult patients who required more than 72 hours of mechanical ventilation and had a hospital stay of 7 days or more. Data on body mass index and biochemical markers of nutritional status were collected. Patients' nutritional intake compared with physicians' orders, dieticians' recommendations, and indirect calorimetry and physicians' orders compared with dieticians' recommendations were used to assess nutritional status. Relationships between nutritional indicators and variables of mechanical ventilation were determined. Inconsistencies among nurses' implementation, physicians' orders, and dieticians' recommendations resulted in wide variations in patients' calculated nutritional adequacy. Patients received a mean of 83% of the energy intake ordered by their physicians (SD 33%, range 0%-200%). Patients who required partial or total ventilator support upon discharge had a lower body mass index at admission than did patients with spontaneous respirations (Mann-Whitney U = 8441, P = .001). In this sample, the variability in weaning progression and outcomes most likely reflects illness severity and complexity rather than nutritional status or nutritional therapies. Further studies are needed to determine the best methods to define nutritional adequacy and to evaluate nutritional status.

  19. [Chronic pain management in non-cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Zagorul'ko, O I; Medvedeva, L A; Gnezdilov, A V; Nikoda, V V

    2010-01-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain management is an urgent global problem. To set up pain clinics is a promising and economically sound approach. There are pain clinics operating in Russia; however, there are no unified approaches to solving their organizational, therapeutic, and educational-and-methodological problems. An antipain care model is proposed for patients with chronic non-cancer pain, which makes it possible to optimize the treatment of the patients, to train pain specialists, and to enhance the economic efficiency of management.

  20. A retrospective study of patients with recurrent chronic atrophic candidosis.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, L P; MacFarlane, T W

    1981-08-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in thirty-seven patients who had recurrent chronic atrophic candidosis (CAC). The factors commonly believed to predispose to CAC were investigated, including corrected whole blood folate, iron saturation, and vitamin B12. The incidence of CAC based on clinical and microbiologic criteria was assessed before and after antifungal therapy and correction of predisposing factors. No significant difference was found. Hence, the role of additional, less well-known predisposing factors in the etiopathology of CAC should be considered when one is treating patients with recurrent, chronic Candida infections.

  1. The Initiation of Chronic Opioids: A Survey of Chronic Pain Patients.

    PubMed

    Callinan, Catherine E; Neuman, Mark D; Lacy, Kim E; Gabison, Claudia; Ashburn, Michael A

    2016-12-03

    This study reports the results of a researcher-administered survey with 115 patients receiving chronic opioid therapy (>90 days) to obtain information regarding how chronic opioid therapy was started. Chronic opioids were started after surgery (27.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.5-35.5) or for the treatment of acute injury-related pain (27.0%, 95% CI, 18.5-35.5). Many who initiated opioid therapy after surgery reported postoperative complications (61.3%, 95% CI, 50.8-71.8) and many with injury-related pain reported follow-up corrective surgery (58.1%, 95% CI, 47.5-68.7), which led to the continuation of opioids. A large percentage of patients had concurrent depression (43.5%, 95% CI, 34.0-53.0) and anxiety (23.5%, 95% CI, 15.3-31.7). Many participants had a medical history of aberrant drug-related behavior (32.5%, 95% CI, 23.5-41.5) and self-reported history of addiction (21.7%, 95% CI, 13.7-29.7). Almost one-quarter reported taking opioids for a different indication than that for which opioids were started (95% CI, 26.6-45.0). Patients receiving long-term opioid therapy often transitioned to chronic use after starting opioids for the short-term treatment of postoperative or injury-related pain. It is not evident if a clear decision to continue opioids on a chronic basis was made. This survey provides insight as to how chronic opioid therapy is started, and may suggest opportunities for improved patient selection for opioid therapy.

  2. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spatial compatibility and affordance compatibility in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kume, Yu; Sato, Fumiyasu; Hiraoka, Yuya; Suzuki, Shingo; Niyama, Yoshitsugu

    2016-12-01

    A deterioration in information-processing performance is commonly recognized in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Although the enhancement of cognitive skills in patients with schizophrenia is important, the types of external stimuli that influence performance have not received much attention. The aim of present study was to clarify the effects of spatial and affordance compatibility in patients with schizophrenia, compared with those in healthy people. The subjects (25 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls) participated in two experiment examining the effects of the spatial location of stimuli and the action-relevance of objects. The results showed that the effect of spatial compatibility was similar in both the patients and the controls, whereas the influence of action-relevant objects was not highlighted in either patients with chronic schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings provide important evidence of a normal spatial compatibility effect in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, further research examining the affordance compatibility effect is needed, taking into consideration the symptomatology and the severity of the social functioning level in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Disease management system in patients with chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Scardi, Sabino; Humar, Franco; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Mazzone, Carmine; Giansante, Carlo; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare managers are more and more interested in the role of general practitioners (GP) in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Continuing adjustments of the health organization are the old/new challenge in improving patient care. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend a disease-management program for heart failure (HF); moreover, observational studies and randomized controlled trials have reported better patient outcomes if patients are in charge of cardiologists rather than GPs or other physicians. Patients with chronic HF are often very old and affected by multiple comorbid conditions, by themselves associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, too many patients receive neither a correct diagnosis nor treatment until advanced disease occurs. New treatment approaches, some of them requiring the expertise of well-trained cardiologists, are ongoing to improve the clinical outcomes. The optimal management of patients with HF needs teamwork, i.e. GPs, cardiologists, nurses and caregivers, since a multidisciplinary program, only, can embody the best answer for outpatients with chronic HF. Currently, the Cardiovascular Center in Trieste is performing an experimental trial, so far never attempted before, in treating patients with chronic HF using a thorough approach with the full involvement of local cardiologists, GPs and nurses. Such approach is, at the same time, as well a challenge as an opportunity: a challenge because conventional clinical habits must be changed; an opportunity because patients can benefit from a proper whole care-group, aimed at prolonging life and reducing morbidity and symptoms.

  5. [CERTAIN PROBLEMS OF DIAGNOSTICS OF CHRONIC CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Karoli, N A; Borodkin, A V; Rebrov, A P

    2015-01-01

    Apnea is a commonest complaint in aged patients. It may be due to chronic cardiac insufficiency (CCI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prevalence of CCI in the general populations and among 65 year old subjects is 1.8 and 6-10% respectively, decompensation being the most frequent cause of hospitalization of elderly patients. Different authors report CCI in 30-62% of the elderly patients with COPD. Combination of CCI and COPD create difficulties for diagnostics and treatment due to late detection of CCI, common risk factors and pathogenetic features of the two conditions their similar clinical picture. This paper is designed to consider methods of CCI diagnostics in patients with COPD. Special emphasis is laid on the thorough analysis of medical histories, specific laboratory tests (BNP NT-proBNP), and instrumental methods (echocardiogram, MRI, spirography, X-ray studies).

  6. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  7. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  8. Chronic Lyme disease: misconceptions and challenges for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, John J

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, causes both specific and nonspecific symptoms. In untreated chronic infection, specific manifestations such as a relapsing large-joint oligoarthritis can persist for years, yet subside with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Nervous system involvement occurs in 10%–15% of untreated patients and typically involves lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis, and/or mononeuritis multiplex; in some rare cases, patients have parenchymal inflammation in the brain or spinal cord. Nervous system infection is similarly highly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, including oral doxycycline. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, perceived cognitive slowing, headache, and others occur in patients with Lyme disease and are indistinguishable from comparable symptoms occurring in innumerable other inflammatory states. There is no evidence that these nonspecific symptoms reflect nervous system infection or damage, or that they are in any way specific to or diagnostic of this or other tick-borne infections. When these symptoms occur in patients with Lyme disease, they typically also subside after antimicrobial treatment, although this may take time. Chronic fatigue states have been reported to occur following any number of infections, including Lyme disease. The mechanism underlying this association is unclear, although there is no evidence in any of these infections that these chronic posttreatment symptoms are attributable to ongoing infection with B. burgdorferi or any other identified organism. Available appropriately controlled studies indicate that additional or prolonged courses of antimicrobial therapy do not benefit patients with a chronic fatigue-like state after appropriately treated Lyme disease. PMID:26028977

  9. The prevalence of widespread central hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Schliessbach, J; Siegenthaler, A; Streitberger, K; Eichenberger, U; Nüesch, E; Jüni, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Curatolo, M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pain is associated with generalized hypersensitivity and impaired endogenous pain modulation (conditioned pain modulation; CPM). Despite extensive research, their prevalence in chronic pain patients is unknown. This study investigated the prevalence and potential determinants of widespread central hypersensitivity and described the distribution of CPM in chronic pain patients. We examined 464 consecutive chronic pain patients for generalized hypersensitivity and CPM using pressure algometry at the second toe and cold pressor test. Potential determinants of generalized central hypersensitivity were studied using uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Prevalence of generalized central hypersensitivity was calculated for the 5th, 10th and 25th percentile of normative values for pressure algometry obtained by a previous large study on healthy volunteers. CPM was addressed on a descriptive basis, since normative values are not available. Depending on the percentile of normative values considered, generalized central hypersensitivity affected 17.5-35.3% of patients. 23.7% of patients showed no increase in pressure pain threshold after cold pressor test. Generalized central hypersensitivity was more frequent and CPM less effective in women than in men. Unclearly classifiable pain syndromes showed higher frequencies of generalized central hypersensitivity than other pain syndromes. Although prevalent in chronic pain, generalized central hypersensitivity is not present in every patient. An individual assessment is therefore required in order to detect altered pain processing. The broad basic knowledge about central hypersensitivity now needs to be translated into concrete clinical consequences, so that patients can be offered an individually tailored mechanism-based treatment. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  10. Remote patient monitoring in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mishkin, Aaron; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kalra, Ankur; Frishman, William H

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) poses a significant economic burden on our health-care resources with very high readmission rates. Remote monitoring has a substantial potential to improve the management and outcome of patients with HF. Readmission for decompensated HF is often preceded by a stage of subclinical hemodynamic decompensation, where therapeutic interventions would prevent subsequent clinical decompensation and hospitalization. Various methods of remote patient monitoring include structured telephone support, advanced telemonitoring technologies, remote monitoring of patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators, and implantable hemodynamic monitors. Current data examining the efficacy of remote monitoring technologies in improving outcomes have shown inconsistent results. Various medicolegal and financial issues need to be addressed before widespread implementation of this exciting technology can take place.

  11. Home telemonitoring of severe chronic respiratory insufficient and asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Zamith, Manuela; Cardoso, Teresa; Matias, Isabel; Marques Gomes, Maria João

    2009-01-01

    For 9 months we evaluated a portable device to transfer patient-clinician data by Internet: oximetry, ECG, clinical questionnaires and messages from the doctor. Fifty-one patients with severe chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) were followed at the hospital Pulido Valente and Espírito Santo and 21 asthmatics (A) were followed at the latter hospital. The use and acceptance of this device was evaluated through questionnaires soliciting patients' and health professionals' opinions. Patients with CRI followed in Lisbon were also asked about hospital admissions and quality of life compared with a nine month period before the monitoring programme. CRI patients found learning to use the system more difficult; the majority (80%) reported problems with the equipment, qualified as rare/occasional in 62% of the cases. For 31 CRI patients followed in Lisbon, the use of the system was classified as correct in 12 patients, incorrect in 7 and reasonable in 12 patients. The first group had a reducded number and duration of hospital admissions and also improved quality of life. With this remote monitoring system 80% of CRI patients reported they were more/much more supported and 33 patients (75%) would use this system in the future. 81% of asthmatic patients would also like to maintain this type of monitoring. The service was considered useful by the researchers. We concluded that home telemonitoring was a positive contribution to the management of chronic patients and raised awareness of it should be considered in the future.

  12. Lower alloimmunization rates in pediatric sickle cell patients on chronic erythrocytapheresis compared to chronic simple transfusions.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Shannon Kelly; Garcia, Alicia; Hagar, Ward; Gildengorin, Ginny; Quirolo, Keith; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2012-12-01

    Erythrocytapheresis (ECP), automated red blood cell exchange, is increasingly being used for chronic transfusion therapy in sickle cell disease (SCD) as it is an isovolumetric transfusion, is more effective in lowering hemoglobin (Hb)S, and can limit iron overload. Because ECP requires increased blood exposure compared to simple transfusions there is concern for increased transfusion complications, including alloimmunization. We compared alloimmunization rates between patients receiving simple or exchange chronic transfusions. Data were retrospectively collected for 45 SCD patients (n = 23 simple, n = 22 ECP) on a chronic transfusion program as of December 2010 to determine the rate of antibody formation (antibodies formed per 100 units transfused). The 45 patients received 10,949 units and formed six new alloantibodies during the study period (1994-2010); therefore, the overall alloimmunization rate was 0.055 alloantibodies per 100 U. There were three antibodies formed in three patients on ECP, one allo (anti-rh(i) ) and two autoantibodies. There were six antibodies in four patients on a simple transfusion program, five allo (anti-Le(a) , M, D, C, and Kp(a) ) and one autoantibody. The ECP group received significantly more blood (338.5 units/patient vs. 152.2 units/patient, p = 0.001). The rate of antibody formation (auto plus allo) was 0.040 antibodies per 100 U in the ECP group and 0.171 antibodies per 100 U in the simple transfusion group (p = 0.04). The alloantibodies formed per 100 units was 0.013 in the ECP group and 0.143 in the simple transfusion group (p = 0.03). Chronic ECP should be considered in patients requiring optimal management of HbS levels and iron burden. Concerns about increased alloimmunization with ECP may be unjustified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. [Chronic elevation of enzymes of pancreatic origin in asymptomatic patients].

    PubMed

    Quílez, C; Martínez, J; Gómez, A; Trigo, C; Palazón, J M; Belda, G; Pérez-Mateo, M

    1998-05-01

    Chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is a well known entity although little has been reported. In most cases chronic asymptomatic elevation of amylase is due to a salival isoamylase increase or macroamylasemia. However, we have studied 10 cases with an increase in amylases due to pancreatic isoamylase and an increase in the remaining pancreatic enzymes which remained elevated during the follow up period ranging from 2 to 60 months. The amylase values ranged from 186 to 1,600; the lipase from 176 to 3,989, trypsin from 476 to 2,430 and pancreatic isoamylase from 122 to 1,263. In all patients CT and echography were carried out, which discarded structural damage. Nonetheless, an indirect test of pancreatic function presented unexplained pathologic values in 4 out of 10 patients. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes is of unknown etiology with no associated structural pancreatic pathology demonstrable by the usual study methods.

  14. [Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Leray-Moragués, Hélène; Chenine-Koualef, Leila; Patrier, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the most advanced form of artificial renal support. It ensures the survival of almost 2 million patients wordwide. Considerable progress has been made in recent years thanks to a better understanding of uremia, optimization of treatment modalities and more personalized treatment schedules. Increase of uremic toxins removal, improvement of hemodynamic tolerance of the sessions, reduction of proinflammatory reactions due to the bioincompatibility system are major advances that may explain the reduction of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. New technologies (nanotechnology, biotechnology, microelectronics) are now expected to introduce further progresses by miniaturizing devices and providing them with an "artificial intelligence" capable of interacting with the patient. The main obstacle remains ageing of uremic patients, increasing prevalence of comorbidities and shortage of social resources that are not conducive to innovation. By promoting a more physiological, longer and more effective hemodialysis performed at home with help of teledialysis monitoring that would probably be an interesting option to evaluate on a medico-economical point of view.

  15. Pharmacotherapy of Hypertension in Chronic Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2016-11-07

    Among patients on dialysis, hypertension is highly prevalent and contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Strict volume control via sodium restriction and probing of dry weight are first-line approaches for the treatment of hypertension in this population; however, antihypertensive drug therapy is often needed to control BP. Few trials compare head-to-head the superiority of one antihypertensive drug class over another with respect to improving BP control or altering cardiovascular outcomes; accordingly, selection of the appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized. To individualize therapy, consideration should be given to intra- and interdialytic pharmacokinetics, effect on cardiovascular reflexes, ability to treat comorbid illnesses, and adverse effect profile. β-Blockers followed by dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers are our first- and second-line choices for antihypertensive drug use. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be reasonable third-line choices, because the evidence base to support their use in patients on dialysis is sparse. Add-on therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in specific subgroups of patients on dialysis (i.e., those with severe congestive heart failure) seems to be another promising option in anticipation of the ongoing trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. Adequately powered, multicenter, randomized trials evaluating hard cardiovascular end points are urgently warranted to elucidate the comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive drug classes in patients on dialysis. In this review, we provide an overview of the randomized evidence on pharmacotherapy of hypertension in patients on dialysis, and we conclude with suggestions for future research to address critical gaps in this important area.

  16. Study of Hepatic Osteodystrophy in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karoli, Yogesh; Fatima, Jalees; Manhar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It involves haemodynamic and metabolic complications. Hepatic Osteodystrophy is a metabolic bone disease that may occur in individuals with chronic liver disease. It can significantly affect morbidity and quality of life of these patients. Fractures are also associated with an excess mortality. It has been an under recognized and inadequately studied complication among Indian population. An early diagnosis is essential to correct reversible risk factors which predispose to bone mass loss. Aim To assess the prevalence of metabolic bone disease and identify the risk factors associated with hepatic osteodystrophy in patients with cirrhosis. Materials and Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, hospital based study conducted at a medical college hospital. All patients more than 20-year-old, diagnosed with chronic liver disease/Cirrhosis were enrolled. They were subjected to haematological, biochemical investigations, evaluation of Vitamin D and other hormonal parameters. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Results A total of 72 patients with mean age 50.04±11.24 years were included in the study. Amongst causes of chronic liver disease were alcoholic liver disease 22 (30.6%), CLD due to hepatitis B 24 (33.3%) and chronic hepatitis C 26 (36.1%). Twenty one (29.2%) patients had normal BMD while 51 (70.8%) had a low BMD. Out of these 51 patients, 36 (70.6%) were diagnosed of osteopenia and 15 (29.4%) others were found to have osteoporosis. Vitamin D levels and severity of liver disease had correlation with low BMD. Conclusion Low BMD is highly prevalent in patients with chronic liver disease of variable aetiologies. We advocate more randomised and prospective studies to be conducted on homogeneous groups with chronic liver disease in its various stages. In view of numerous therapeutic options available both for liver

  17. [Perception of health care quality by patients with chronic conditions].

    PubMed

    Couillerot-Peyrondet, A-L; Midy, F; Bruneau, C

    2011-02-01

    Patient opinion is becoming ever more important when considering healthcare quality and the reforms required to improve healthcare quality. The main aim of this study was to explore factors determining perceived healthcare quality among patients with chronic diseases. Data are drawn from the survey carried out in 2008 by the Commonwealth Fund, in partnership with the French Superior Health Authority (Haute Autorité de santé). The prospective telephone survey targeted adults in eight countries who had serious health problems (chronic or severe disease, declared poor state of health, hospital admission or major surgery). Of the 1202 French respondents, 851 had at least one diagnosed chronic disease. A multinomial logistic model was used to identify the relationship between perceived healthcare quality and patients' recent experience with the healthcare system. People with chronic disease in general perceived that healthcare quality was excellent (45%) or good (44%). Only 11% of respondents judged it to be average or poor. There was a hint of "could do better", for example when considering podology and ophthalmology follow-up in diabetes or the management of multiple medications. The explanatory model revealed a positive correlation between excellent perceived healthcare quality and a strong doctor-patient relationship, taking into account both the length of this relationship and the ability of the doctor to involve the patient at all stages of decision-making concerning therapeutic management. There was no major link between the perceived quality of care and objective care quality, the quality of procedures, the cost of care to the patient or how frequently patients access the healthcare system. The quality of the relationship between the patient and his/her doctor is a determining factor in the patient's judgement of the quality of healthcare he/she receives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. High prevalence of microalbuminuria in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    van de Wal, Ruud M A; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Plokker, H W Thijs; Smilde, Tom D J; Lok, Dirk; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A

    2005-10-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relation between microalbuminuria and chronic heart failure has not been well described yet. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association with neurohormonal parameters in severe chronic heart failure patients. We studied 94 stable chronic heart failure patients (New York Heart Association class III/IV) receiving therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for over three months. In all patients, renal function and neurohormonal status were evaluated and correlated with urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. The studied population consisted of 70 men and 21 women (mean age 69 +/- 12 years). Ischemia was the underlying cause of heart failure in 61 patients. Overall, 100% of the patients were treated with an ACE inhibitor, 72% with a beta-blocker, and 47% with spironolactone. In 32% (95% confidence interval 22-42) of the patients, microalbuminuria was present, which is significantly higher than in the general population. However, we found no significant association between the presence of microalbuminuria and renal function. Plasma NT-proBNP, active renin protein, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, and aldosterone did not differ significantly between groups with and without microalbuminuria. In 32% of the patients, microalbuminuria was present. No association was found with either renal or neurohormonal parameters.

  19. Patient Perspectives on Fluid Management in Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Design Semi-structured focus groups. Setting Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Participants 19 patients on chronic hemodialysis. Intervention Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. Main outcome measure We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Results Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction which we categorized into 6 themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Conclusion Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. PMID:19913443

  20. Use of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Dragomiretskaya, Natalia; Izha, Anna; Kalinichenko, Nikolay; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława; Klimczyk, Mariusz; Cieślicka, Mirosława; Muszkieta, Radosław; Prusik, Krzysztof; Napierała, Marek; Żukowska, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The presence of background HCV infection cannot be overestimated in view of the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C and the risk of adverse outcomes of this disease. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined use of antiviral therapy (Roferon + Vero-Ribavirin) and resort factors in patients with chronic hepatitis C in the phase of replication. Material and methods We observed 48 patients with chronic hepatitis C; the minimum level of activity of the process defined the phase of replication. Markers of HCV infection were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (a-HCV and HCV-Ig M). HCV RNA was determined twice by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping of hepatitis C virus was performed. Biochemical blood analysis and the study of HCV infection markers were carried out four times. Results of therapy were assessed immediately after the end of the resort (spa) treatment, then at 3, 6 and 12 months after starting treatment. At 12 months after starting treatment, all the observed patients had persistent clinical and biochemical remission. Elimination of the virus from the blood was noted in 56% of the control group and 74% of patients in the study group. Conclusions For patients with moderately active HCV, the replication phase was characterized by asthenic-vegetative syndrome (100% of patients) with severe depression (22.92%), pain (77.08%) and dyspeptic syndrome (33.33%), moderate hypertransferaseemia (100%), slightly pronounced cholestasis (33% of patients), and signs of mesenchymal-inflammatory response. PMID:28352697

  1. Patient perspectives on fluid management in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-09-01

    We sought to describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Semistructured focus groups. Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis. Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction, which we categorized into six themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of hepatitis C in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Filho, Roberto J; Feldner, Ana Cristina CA; Silva, Antonio Eduardo B; Ferraz, Maria Lucia G

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjects under hemodialysis and in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The vast majority of HCV chronic infections in the hemodialysis setting are currently attributable to nosocomial transmission. Acute and chronic hepatitis C exhibits distinct clinical and laboratorial features, which can impact on management and treatment decisions. In hemodialysis subjects, acute infections are usually asymptomatic and anicteric; since spontaneous viral clearance is very uncommon in this context, acute infections should be treated as soon as possible. In KT recipients, the occurrence of acute hepatitis C can have a more severe course, with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis. In these patients, it is recommended to use pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in combination with ribavirin, with doses adjusted according to estimated glomerular filtration rate. There is no evidence suggesting that chronic hepatitis C exhibits a more aggressive course in CKD subjects under conservative management. In these subjects, indication of treatment with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin relies on the CKD stage, rate of progression of renal dysfunction and the possibility of a preemptive transplant. HCV infection has been associated with both liver disease-related deaths and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among those individuals, low HCV viral loads and the phenomenon of intermittent HCV viremia are often observed, and sequential HCV RNA monitoring is needed. Despite the poor tolerability and suboptimal efficacy of antiviral therapy in CKD patients, many patients can achieve sustained virological response, which improve patient and graft outcomes. Hepatitis C eradication before KT theoretically improves survival and reduces the occurrence of chronic graft nephropathy, de novo glomerulonephritis and post-transplant diabetes

  3. Differences in exercise capacity in patients with chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2014-11-01

    Exercise impairment is common in chronic left heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Exercise impairment degree is a strong predictor of clinical outcome. Our purpose was to evaluate differences in exercise capacity using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in patients with chronic left and right heart failure, and determine which factors were related to exercise impairment. 102 patients with class II/III New York Heart Association were involved in the study (41 with chronic left heart failure, 61 with chronic right heart failure secondary to PAH). All patients underwent CPX to evaluate exercise capacity. Patients with right heart failure had significantly lower peak oxygen uptake (VO2), peak VO2/kg ratio, peak oxygen uptake/heart rate (VO2/HR) ratio and increases in oxygen uptake/increase in work rate (ΔVO2/ΔWR) slope, and had higher minute ventilation/CO2 production ratio and peak dead space volume/tidal volume during exercise. In patients with left heart failure, peak VO2/HR ratio was positively correlated with ΔVO2/ΔWR slope. However, VO2 and VO2/HR ratio were positively correlated with ΔVO2/ΔWR slope in patients with right heart failure. Compared with left heart failure, patients with right heart failure showed worse exercise capacity resulting from worse pulmonary and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The concept of “expert patient” has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health. PMID:27445572

  5. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Gamonal, J; Sanz, M; O'Connor, A; Acevedo, A; Suarez, I; Sanz, A; Martínez, B; Silva, A

    2003-07-01

    Neutrophil cells constitute the first defense barrier against the oral bacterial challenge in the periodontium. Reduction of neutrophils could impair this response against periopathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Our previous work implicates the apoptosis of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. We now demonstrate that granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) present in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and secreted during the immune response reduces the apoptosis of neutrophils. In this study, the presence of GM-CSF and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in GCF was determined in samples obtained from adult patients with periodontitis and from control subjects with clinically healthy gingiva. GCF was collected for 30 s using Periopaper(R) strips, and cytokines were quantified by ELISA. We used ex vivo culture of gingival tissue biopsies for 2 and 4 days in the presence of GM-CSF. Apoptosis was determined using the terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and expression of Bax by immunohistochemistry. The presence of GM-CSF and TNF-alpha was detected in the majority of sites from periodontal patients (83.3% and 63.3%, respectively), presenting a total amount of 27.65 and 42.38 pg, respectively. GM-CSF reduces the neutrophil apoptosis determined by double staining with TUNEL and myeloperoxidase and by a reduction of Bax expression. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which neutrophils specifically accumulate in adult patients with periodontitis.

  6. [Cyclosporine monitoring in patients with chronic uveitis].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Pleyer, U

    2005-04-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) is a widely used drug in the treatment of posterior uveitis. Whereas treatment with CsA has considerably improved the visual prognosis of uveitis patients, the therapeutic benefits of CsA are partially outweighed by its adverse effects, most notably nephrotoxicity and hypertension. Recently, monitoring the CsA 2-h postdose level (C(2)) has been recommended as the most sensitive assay and predictor of clinical outcome in transplantation. This prospective clinical trial included 15 patients with posterior uveitis who received oral CsA (5 mg/kg BW b.i.d.). The relationship of C(2) to C0 blood levels was analyzed and correlated with clinical safety and efficacy. A high intrapatient and interpatient variability was observed regarding the C0 values depending on several factors including comedication and intestinal resorption. C(2) values corresponded to control measurements of intraocular inflammation. C(2) monitoring offers a simple and accurate alternative for clinical monitoring of CsA. It allows the dose of CsA to be individualized effectively for each patient.

  7. Ambulatory monitoring for chronic cardiac and pulmonary patients.

    PubMed

    Zarakovitis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Pantelis; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Psymarnou, Markela

    2004-01-01

    In the Greek pilot of the e-Vital project, remote telemedicine services are provided to chronic cardiac and pulmonary patients who are not confined to a hospital (i.e. receiving home/ambulatory health care) with the aim of exploring the dynamics of interactive continuous chronic patient monitoring, particularly focusing on the impact on patient's quality of life, the patient's active involvement in their own care and according impact on the overall quality of healthcare provision, as well as the benefits for healthcare providers (time management, patient management, savings, etc). The current trial in progress validates the business potential of remote monitoring services and demonstrates the technical environment that enables patient-doctor interaction regardless of location and the according communication modes and protocols. The domain for applying the envisaged service is the private healthcare sector and the users groups include individual chronic patients with cardiac and pulmonary diseases. So far, from the patient's point of view, the service mainly appeals to patients with arrhythmias due to lightweight technology and easy processes involved in the transmission of 1-lead ECG. Asthma and COPD patients are also enthusiastic, as they can receive doctor advice in real time. From the health professional's point of view the service has real added value in the fields of diagnosis, prevention, monitoring and follow up. In the case of asthma and COPD the value of the service in diagnosis is even more apparent as these patients may be asymptomatic, when they visit their doctor and have exacerbations when they are at home. e-Vital in this case ensures that the healthcare professional will acquire the complete image of the patient condition. Finally, the experiences gained so far indicate that e-Vital could be particularly efficient in isolated areas, with shortage of experienced scientific personnel.

  8. Getting It Right? Using Aphasic Naming Errors to Evaluate Theoretical Models of Spoken Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickels, Lyndsey

    1995-01-01

    Different models of spoken word production make different predictions regarding the extent of effects of certain word properties on the output of that model. This article examines these predictions with regard to the effect of these variables on the production of semantic and phonological errors by aphasic subjects. (60 references) (Author/CK)

  9. Mimicking Aphasic Semantic Errors in Normal Speech Production: Evidence from a Novel Experimental Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Catherine; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic errors are commonly found in semantic dementia (SD) and some forms of stroke aphasia and provide insights into semantic processing and speech production. Low error rates are found in standard picture naming tasks in normal controls. In order to increase error rates and thus provide an experimental model of aphasic performance, this study…

  10. The "Shewan Spontaneous Language Analysis" (SSLA) System for Aphasic Adults: Description, Reliability, and Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewan, Cynthia M.

    1988-01-01

    The study describes the Shewan Spontaneous Language Analysis (SSLA), establishes its reliability and validity, and reports on its use with 47 aphasic adults who had suffered a single unilateral occlusive cerebral vascular accident two to four weeks prior to testing and 30 normal adults. (Author/DB)

  11. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  12. Mimicking Aphasic Semantic Errors in Normal Speech Production: Evidence from a Novel Experimental Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Catherine; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic errors are commonly found in semantic dementia (SD) and some forms of stroke aphasia and provide insights into semantic processing and speech production. Low error rates are found in standard picture naming tasks in normal controls. In order to increase error rates and thus provide an experimental model of aphasic performance, this study…

  13. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  14. Effects of Nonlinguistic Auditory Variations on Lexical Processing in Broca's Aphasics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Audrey; Davis, Lissa; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the effect of white noise distortion and talker variation on lexical access in normal and Broca's aphasic participants was examined using an auditory lexical decision paradigm. Masking the prime stimulus in white noise resulted in reduced semantic priming for both groups, indicating that lexical access is degraded by…

  15. [Halotherapy in the combined treatment of chronic bronchitis patients].

    PubMed

    Maev, E Z; Vinogradov, N V

    1999-06-01

    Halotherapy proved to be a highly effective method in a complex sanatorium treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. Its use promotes more rapid liquidation of clinical manifestations of disease, improves indices of vent function of lungs, especially those values that characterize bronchial conduction (volume of forced exhalations per second, index Tiffno), increases tolerance to physical load, normalizes indices of reduced immunity and leads to increasing the effectiveness of patient treatment in sanatorium.

  16. Cryptococcal prostatitis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Varma, S; Varma, N; Kumari, S; Chakraborty, A

    2000-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a systemic mycosis usually affecting patients of immunodeficiency i.e. transplants recipients, patients on chemotherapy for neoplastic diseases and in those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus infection. We report a 52-year old male suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) on chemotherapy who presented with fever and features of prostatism. Cryptococcus neoformans infection (CN) was diagnosed on aspiration of a prostatic nodule. Subsequent investigations revealed a disseminated involvement by cryptococcus. The case represents an unusual presentation of disseminated cryptococcosis.

  17. Female sexual dysfunction among Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Elshimi, Esam; Morad, Wesam; Mohamad, Noha Ezzat; Shebl, Nashwa; Waked, Imam

    2014-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations that impact and impair the quality of life. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has a high prevalence in Egypt and carries with the diagnosis many social impacts and stigmatization correlates that further impair social function. This might negatively impact patients and their sexual function. Sexuality and sexual function have not been studied well in patients with HCV, especially in women. To investigate sexual dysfunction in Egyptian women with chronic hepatitis C. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores of patients with hepatitis C, both total and for individual domains, were compared with those of controls. The self-administered FSFI questionnaire was completed by 112 sexually active female patients with chronic hepatitis C without liver cirrhosis prior to initiation of therapy by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Their results were compared to those of 225 age- and socioeconomic class-matched sexually active healthy females. Significantly more patients than controls had questionnaire scores below the threshold of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) (79% vs. 21%, P < 0.05), and the mean total score for the patients was significantly lower than that for controls (19.54 ± 6.2 vs. 28.43 ± 4.9 P < 0.001). The patients' scores in all domains of the questionnaire were significantly lower than those of the controls. Chronic hepatitis C negatively impacts female sexual function, affecting all domains of the sex cycle; this warrants further studies and needs to be addressed as part of a comprehensive therapy plan to improve patients' quality of life. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Hypovitaminosis D in female patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ahmed; Abdel-Nasser, Ahmed M; Hamdy, Ahmed; Omran, Ahmed A; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A

    2007-11-01

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) is an extremely common problem in practice, where it is often labeled idiopathic. No sufficient studies have been conducted to analyze the contribution of hypovitaminosis D to the etiology of chronic LBP in populations wherein vitamin D deficiency is endemic. The present study was, therefore, carried out to examine hypovitaminosis D and its determinants in female patients with chronic LBP during the childbearing period. Sixty female patients complaining of LBP lasting more than 3 months were clinically studied rheumatologically and neurologically. Questionnaires and indices quantifying risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency were utilized. Biochemical assays of serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathormone (PTH), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) were performed and compared to those of 20 matched healthy controls. The determinants of vitamin D levels in patients were examined by stepwise regression. Patients with LBP had significantly lower 25 OHD levels (p < 0.05) and significantly higher PTH (p < 0.05) and ALP (p < 0.001) than controls, although there were no significant group differences in calcium and phosphorus. Hypovitaminosis D (25 OHD < 40 ng/ml) was found in 49/60 patients (81%) and 12/20 (60%) of controls, with an odds ratio of 2.97. Although many risk factors related to sun exposure, clothing, diet, and pregnancy were significantly correlated with vitamin D levels in patients, only limited duration of sun exposure, contributing 55% to the variance of 25 OHD, limited areas of skin exposed (13%), and increased number of pregnancies (2%), were significant determinants of vitamin D levels in patients. Despite the sunny climate, hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among Egyptian women in the childbearing period, especially those presenting with chronic LBP, where it is associated with hyperphosphatasia and hyperparathyroidism, without alterations in serum calcium. The major determinant of hypovitaminosis D

  19. Perioperative Outcome of Dyssomnia Patients on Chronic Methylphenidate Use

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Thomas; Moran, Kenneth; Ackermann, Wiebke; Wilson, Thomas; Quevedo, Eduardo; Bergese, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate is frequently prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and other sleep disorders requiring psychostimulants. Our report is based on 2 different clinical experiences of patients with chronic methylphenidate use, undergoing general anesthesia. These cases contrast different strategies of taking versus withholding the drug treatment on the day of surgery. From the standpoint of anesthetic management and patient safety, the concerns for perioperative methylphenidate use are mainly related to cardiovascular stability and possible counteraction of sedatives and anesthetics. PMID:26425593

  20. Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania in a patient with a macroprolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarov, M; Valade, D; Jublanc, C; Ducros, A

    2006-06-01

    We report a patient with headaches meeting the criteria of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, as defined by the International Headache Society classification. Headaches were fully responsive to indomethacin during the first 3 months of treatment but recurred when daily doses were lowered. Investigations revealed a macroprolactinoma. Headaches stopped after cabergoline treatment. This report further suggests that patients with paroxysmal hemicrania should be investigated for pituitary abnormalities.

  1. Implementing a patient-led service for chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Pope, Denise; Tipler, Sue; Kirwan, John; Hewlett, Sarah

    Many chronic conditions with fluctuating levels of disease activity are traditionally managed by lifelong regular medical reviews. However, this means appointments do not always coincide with patient need, while the volume of reviews makes it difficult to respond quickly to requests for help. Research in rheumatoid arthritis suggests that hospital-initiated reviews can be replaced by patient-initiated reviews, supported by nurse-led initiatives.

  2. Care fragmentation, quality, and costs among chronically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Brigham R; Joynt, Karen E; Rebitzer, James B; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-05-01

    To assess the relationship between care fragmentation and both quality and costs of care for commercially insured, chronically ill patients. We used claims data from 2004 to 2008 for 506,376 chronically ill, privately insured enrollees of a large commercial insurance company to construct measures of fragmentation. We included patients in the sample if they had chronic conditions in any of the following categories: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, or migraine. We assigned each patient a fragmentation index based on the patterns of care of their primary care provider (PCP), with care patterns spread across a higher number of providers considered to be more fragmented. We used regression analysis to examine the relationship between fragmentation and both quality and cost outcomes. Patients of PCPs in the highest quartile of fragmentation had a higher chance of having a departure from clinical best practice (32.8%, vs 25.9% among patients of PCPs in the lowest quartile of fragmentation; P < .001). Similarly, patients of PCPs with high fragmentation had higher rates of preventable hospitalizations (9.1% in highest quartile vs 7.1% in lowest quartile; P < .001). High fragmentation was associated with $4542 higher healthcare spending ($10,396 in the highest quartile vs $5854 in the lowest quartile; P < .001). We found similar or larger effects on quality and costs among patients when we examined the most frequently occurring disease groups individually. Chronically ill patients whose primary care providers offer highly fragmented care more often experience lapses in care quality and incur greater healthcare costs.

  3. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.

  4. [Chronic central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, F J; Venturini, M; Gomes, E; de Mello, M T

    2008-05-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is an endemic fungus in America that may present as a lung self-limiting infection or be asymptomatic. Disseminated histoplasmosis can occur in cell-mediated immunity disorders and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Isolated central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is uncommon, furthermore in immunocompetent patients. A 34 year old inmunocompetent male is reported. He presented with several pathogenic forms of neurohistoplasmosis: chronic meningitis, meningovascular histoplasmosis with stroke, acute myelopathy and chronic recurrent hydrocephalus. Other causes of chronic infectious meningitis were ruled out. Cerebrospinal flow (CSF) analysis showed an increased white cell count, hyperproteinorraquia and decrease of glucose levels. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hydrocephalus and gadolinium enhancement of the meninges; a spinal cord MRI detected a cervical and thoracic myelopathy. A chronic unspecific inflammatory process and absence of granulomata were observed in a meninge biopsy. Electronic microscopy showed the presence of yeasts in the CSF. Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated in a specific culture from two consecutive CSF samples. The patient was treated with ev amphotericin B and fluconazol, plus 6 months of oral itraconazole. Isolated chronic CNS histoplasmosis may present as recurrent episodes of stroke, meningitis, myelopathy and hydrocephalus. CSF specific culture can help in the diagnosis.

  5. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693

  6. Subjective experiences of clozapine treatment by patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Waserman, J; Criollo, M

    2000-05-01

    A 37-item survey covering a variety of somatopsychic domains was constructed to explore patients' subjective response to treatment with clozapine. The survey was administered to 130 patients with diagnoses of chronic schizophrenic or schizoaffective disorders who were on a stable clozapine regimen. The majority reported improvement in their level of satisfaction, quality of life, compliance with treatment, thinking, mood, and alertness. Most patients reported worsening in nocturnal salivation, and smaller numbers reported worsening in various gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms and weight gain. This general health survey highlights the patients' positive regard for clozapine, despite adverse bodily experiences. Subjective reports are a useful component of outcome measures of drug treatment.

  7. [Neurophysiologic evaluation of patients with chronic prostatitis (III B chronic pain syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Belousov, I I; Shornikov, P V

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of neurophysiological examination of 32 patients with noninflammatory form of abacterial chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS III B). Intramuscular electromyography was performed, right and left bulbocavernous reflex and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials during stimulation of n. pudendus were evaluated. It is shown that there is a high frequency of abnormal neurophysiological patterns in the absence of clinical neurological disease in patients with CP/CPPS III B. In this case, the pain as the main symptom was not associated with prostate disease. It is suggested that some patients with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS III B have neurological pathology that not manifested at the time of the examination.

  8. Incidence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ranju; Perumandla, Sirisha; Patsiornik, Yelena; Niranjan, Selvanayagam; Ohri, Anju

    2006-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD). METHOD: Twenty-seven patients with a diagnosis of CMPD were included in the study. Patients were excluded if they had a secondary cause of PH. Diagnosis of PH was established if right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was >35 mmHg. RESULTS: Diagnosis of PH was established in 14 out of 27 patients. Two patients were excluded from analysis because of poor ejection fraction on TTE, resulting in a final diagnosis of PH in 12 of 25 (48%) patients. Of these 25 patients, seven of nine with essential thrombocytosis (ET), five of 14 with polycythemia vera (PV), and 0 out of two with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) had PH. All patients were asymptomatic at the time of their most recent visit. There was no relationship between PH and age at diagnosis, duration of disease, platelet count and hematocrit at diagnosis or during follow-up, both for the entire cohort or for specific diagnosis of ET or PV. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary hypertension appears to be common in patients with CMPD. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of treatment on PH and long-term survival in these patients. PMID:17128687

  9. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: Results in 14 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chahid, Tamam; Alfidja, Agaicha T.; Biard, Marie; Ravel, Anne; Garcier, Jean Marc; Boyer, L.

    2004-11-15

    We evaluated immediate and long-term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement to treat stenotic and occluded arteries in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Fourteen patients were treated by 3 exclusive celiac artery (CA) PTAs (2 stentings), 3 cases with both Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and CA angioplasties, and 8 exclusive SMA angioplasties (3 stentings). Eleven patients had atheromatous stenoses with one case of an early onset atheroma in an HIV patient with antiphospholipid syndrome. The other etiologies of mesenteric arterial lesions were Takayashu arteritis (2 cases) and a postradiation stenoses (1 case). Technical success was achieved in all cases. Two major complications were observed: one hematoma and one false aneurysm occurring at the brachial puncture site (14.3%). An immediate clinical success was obtained in all patients. During a follow-up of 1-83 months (mean: 29 months), 11 patients were symptom free; 3 patients had recurrent pain; in one patient with inflammatory syndrome, pain relief was obtained with medical treatment; in 2 patients abdominal pain was due to restenosis 36 and 6 months after PTA, respectively. Restenosis was treated by PTA (postirradiation stenosis), and by surgical bypass (atheromatous stenosis). Percutaneous endovascular techniques are safe and accurate. They are an alternative to surgery in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia due to short and proximal occlusive lesions of SMA and CA.

  10. Defining chronic cancer: patient experiences and self-management needs.

    PubMed

    Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Velikova, Galina

    2012-09-01

    Chronic cancer is poorly defined and strategies for supporting patients during this disease phase are lacking. This research defines chronic cancer, explores patient experiences and reviews patients' support needs against those described in the 2007 Department of Health Generic Choice Model for Long-term Conditions (DoH-GCM). Semistructured interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data explored for emergent themes. The a priori themes from DoH-GCM were applied: clinical support; self-care and self-management; supporting independence; psychological support; and social and economic factors. 56 patients >12 months postdiagnosis of advanced cancer were recruited from five clinics at a Yorkshire cancer centre: breast (n=11); renal (n=11); colorectal/gastrointestinal (n=12); gynaecological (n=12); and prostate (n=10). Most patients aspired to living normal lives. Challenges included frequent and lengthy hospital appointments, long-term symptom control and uncertainty. Only renal and prostate patients reported routine access to specialist nursing. Uptake of support services was varied and there was generally poor understanding of support pathways for non-medical problems and issues occurring when patients were not receiving active treatment. There was variation in coping strategies and ability of patients to attain a positive outlook on life. For patients to do well in this cancer phase requires good self-management of symptoms plus taking an active role in accessing appropriate services as needed. Care planning at the point of transition to the chronic phase of cancer should focus on evaluating patients' needs, clarifying support pathways, increasing the profile and involvement of community services and organisations, and supporting patients and families develop effective self-management skills.

  11. Defining chronic cancer: patient experiences and self-management needs.

    PubMed

    Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Velikova, Galina

    2015-12-01

    Chronic cancer is poorly defined and strategies for supporting patients during this disease phase are lacking. This research defines chronic cancer, explores patient experiences and reviews patients' support needs against those described in the 2007 Department of Health Generic Choice Model for Long-term Conditions (DoH-GCM). Semistructured interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data explored for emergent themes. The a priori themes from DoH-GCM were applied: clinical support; self-care and self-management; supporting independence; psychological support; and social and economic factors. 56 patients >12 months postdiagnosis of advanced cancer were recruited from five clinics at a Yorkshire cancer centre: breast (n=11); renal (n=11); colorectal/gastrointestinal (n=12); gynaecological (n=12); and prostate (n=10). Most patients aspired to living normal lives. Challenges included frequent and lengthy hospital appointments, long-term symptom control and uncertainty. Only renal and prostate patients reported routine access to specialist nursing. Uptake of support services was varied and there was generally poor understanding of support pathways for non-medical problems and issues occurring when patients were not receiving active treatment. There was variation in coping strategies and ability of patients to attain a positive outlook on life. For patients to do well in this cancer phase requires good self-management of symptoms plus taking an active role in accessing appropriate services as needed. Care planning at the point of transition to the chronic phase of cancer should focus on evaluating patients' needs, clarifying support pathways, increasing the profile and involvement of community services and organisations, and supporting patients and families develop effective self-management skills. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh; Victor, Norbert; Foster, Nadine E.; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Linde, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for four chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain where allocation concealment was determined unambiguously to be adequate. Individual patient data meta-analyses were conducted using data from 29 of 31 eligible trials, with a total of 17,922 patients analyzed. Results In the primary analysis including all eligible trials, acupuncture was superior to both sham and no acupuncture control for each pain condition (all p<0.001). After exclusion of an outlying set of trials that strongly favored acupuncture, the effect sizes were similar across pain conditions. Patients receiving acupuncture had less pain, with scores 0.23 (95% C.I. 0.13, 0.33), 0.16 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.25) and 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.24) standard deviations lower than sham controls for back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache respectively; the effect sizes in comparison to no acupuncture controls were 0.55 (95% C.I. 0.51, 0.58), 0.57 (95% C.I. 0.50, 0.64) and 0.42 (95% C.I. 0.37, 0.46). These results were robust to a variety of sensitivity analyses, including those related to publication bias. Conclusions Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo. However, these differences are relatively modest, suggesting that factors in addition to the specific effects of needling are important contributors to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. PMID:22965186

  13. Personal Health Records for Patients with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rozenblum, R.; Park, A.; Dunn, M.; Bates, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Personal health records (PHRs) connected to a physician’s electronic health record system hold substantial promise for supporting and engaging patients with chronic disease. Objectives: To explore how U.S. health care organizations are currently utilizing PHRs for chronic disease populations. Methods A mixed methods study including semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire was conducted. A purposive sample was developed of health care organizations which were recognized as exemplars for PHRs and were high performers in national patient satisfaction surveys (H-CAHPS or CAHPS). Within each organization, participants were health IT leaders or those managing high-risk or chronic disease populations. Results Interviews were conducted with 30 informants and completed questionnaires were received from 16 organizations (84% response rate). Most PHRs allowed patients to access health records and educational material, message their provider, renew prescriptions and request appointments. Patient generated data was increasingly being sought and combined with messaging, resulted in greater understanding of patient health and functioning outside of the clinic visit. However for chronic disease populations, there was little targeted involvement in PHR design and few tools to help interpret and manage their conditions beyond those offered for all. The PHR was largely uncoupled from high risk population management interventions and no clear framework for future PHR development emerged. Conclusion This technology is currently underutilized and represents a major opportunity given the potential benefits of patient engagement and shared decision making. A coherent patient-centric PHR design and evaluation strategy is required to realize its potential and maximize this natural hub for multidisciplinary care co-ordination. PMID:25024758

  14. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients on chronic anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Nerli, R B; Reddy, M N; Devaraju, S; Hiremath, M B

    2012-08-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an integral component in the management of large volume renal stone disease either as monotherapy or in combination with shock wave lithotripsy. Stone disease in patients on chronic anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy, however, poses a difficult scenario. Bleeding is a major concern for any patient undergoing PCNL. We retrospectively analyzed our series of patients with renal calculi who were on chronic anticoagulant therapy and who underwent PCNL. We reviewed the case records of patients undergoing PCNL during the period from January 2005 to December 2011. We analyzed the changes in preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and clotting parameters, as well as intraoperative and postoperative bleeding and thromboembolic complications. During the 5-year study period, a total of 36 patients (30 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 46.33±9.96 years (range, 29-61 years) who were on chronic anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy underwent PCNL for urolithiasis. The mean size of the stone was 6.40±1.98 cm(2) (range, 2.8-9 cm(2)). The mean operating time was 62.08±10.10 min. The bleeding was successfully managed in all patients and the anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents were restarted after an appropriate duration. The mean rise in serum creatinine at discharge was 0.05±0.03 mg/dl and the mean fall in serum hemoglobin was 1.63±0.77 g/dl. At 3 months after surgery, the stone-free rate was 100%. With careful preoperative care and regulation of anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy and appropriate intraoperative management, PCNL can be performed safely and successfully in properly selected patients with renal calculi who are on chronic anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.

  15. Computed tomography evaluation of patients with chronic headache.

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, M D; Pexman, J H; Kreeft, J H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the rate of detecting a tumour, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or aneurysm with the use of enhanced or unenhanced computed tomography (CT) is significant in patients with chronic headache and to calculate the cost. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Chronic headache clinic at a tertiary care referral centre. PATIENTS: All 373 consecutive patients with chronic headache (284 women, 89 men) referred for CT scanning from May 1987 to October 1992 who met one or more of the following criteria: increased severity of symptoms or resistance to appropriate drug therapy (287 patients [76.9%]), change in characteristics or pattern of headache (78 [20.9%]) or family history of intracranial structural lesion (8 [2.1%]). INTERVENTIONS: CT scans of the head were enhanced with nonionic contrast medium (292 scans), were unenhanced (70) or involved both methods (40). OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and nature of minor and major findings, and total price per scan. RESULTS: Of the 402 CT scans 14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7 to 21) revealed minor findings that did not alter patient management: infarct (9 scans), cerebral atrophy (2), cavum vergae (1), hyperostosis frontalis interna (1) and communicating hydrocephalus (1). Four scans (95% CI 0 to 8) showed significant lesions: osteoma (2), low-grade glioma (1) and aneurysm (1); only the aneurysm was treated. There were no cases of AVM. An unenhanced scan cost $82.63 and an enhanced scan $204.05. The cost per significant finding was over $18,000. In all, it cost $74,243 to find one treatable vascular lesion. CONCLUSIONS: The detection rate of CT scanning in patients with chronic headache is similar to that expected in the general population, provided the neurologic findings are normal. The cost of detecting intracranial lesions in this patient population is high [corrected]. PMID:7954139

  16. Managing patients with chronic severe asthma: rise to the challenge.

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo; Benfatto, Giuseppe Trifoglio

    2009-03-01

    Most asthmatic patients with moderate to severe disease can be satisfactorily managed with a combination of inhaled corticosteroids and beta(2)-agonists. However, there are perhaps 10% of the asthmatic population with persistent symptoms, impaired quality of life and excessive health-care utilization, despite this management regime. These patients often require frequent and even occasionally regular oral corticosteroid use. Chronic, severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with distinct sub-phenotypes. A systematic diagnostic work-up may help to identify these distinct sub-phenotypes and this may help guide treatment and may even provide information about prognosis. Optimal treatment of chronic severe asthma should achieve the best possible asthma control and quality of life with the least dose of systemic corticosteroids. The choice and formulation of therapeutic agent is dictated by the severity of disease and includes conventional, immunosuppressive/immunomodulating and biologic therapies. Unfortunately, current asthma management guidelines offer little contribution to the care of the challenging patient with chronic severe asthma. This review article aims at summarizing the evidence regarding various therapeutic modalities for chronic severe asthma and also aims to provide a practical approach to diagnosis and management for the benefit of those who have a specific interest in this problematic condition.

  17. Management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Abdul A; Elkhalili, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a comorbid condition that affects, based on recent estimates, between 47% and 54% of patients with gouty arthritis. However, data from randomized controlled trials in patients with gouty arthritis and CKD are limited, and current gouty arthritis treatment guidelines do not address the challenges associated with managing this patient population. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine are recommended first-line treatments for acute gouty arthritis attacks. However, in patients with CKD, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended because their use can exacerbate or cause acute kidney injury. Also, colchicine toxicity is increased in patients with CKD, and dosage reduction is required based on level of kidney function. Allopurinol, febuxostat, and pegloticase are all effective treatments for controlling elevated uric acid levels after the treatment of an acute attack. However, in patients with CKD, required allopurinol dosage reductions may limit efficacy; pegloticase requires further investigation in this population, and febuxostat has not been studied in patients with creatinine clearance<30 mL/min. This article reviews the risks and benefits associated with currently available pharmacologic agents for the management of acute and chronic gouty arthritis including urate-lowering therapy in patients with CKD. Challenges specific to primary care providers are addressed, including guidance to help them decide when to collaborate with, or refer patients to, rheumatology and nephrology specialists based on the severity of gout and CKD.

  18. Conditioned pain modulation in patients with nonspecific chronic back pain with chronic local pain, chronic widespread pain, and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P < 0.001) indicating induction of CPM. Conditioned pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P < 0.001), but CPM in CWP and FMS did not differ. Interestingly, a higher number of painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values <0.01). Our findings suggest that CPM dysfunction is associated with CWP and not with FMS as suggested previously. FMS seems to differ from CWP without FMS by higher psychosocial burden. Moreover, patients with CBP should be stratified into CLP and CWP, and centrally acting treatments targeting endogenous pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.

  19. Brain Gray Matter Deficits in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Noh, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jeong-Sik; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Mi Rim; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the structural changes in patients with chronic primary insomnia and the relationships with clinical features of insomnia. Design: Statistical parametric mapping 8-based voxel-based morphometry was used to identify differences in regional gray and white matter between patients with chronic primary insomnia and normal controls. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-seven patients and 27 age/sex-matched controls. Interventions: Regional differences were compared using two-sample t-tests with age, sex, and intracranial volume as covariates. Measurements and Results: The patients were a mean age of 52.3 y and had a mean history of insomnia of 7.6 y. Patients displayed cognitive deficits in attention, frontal/executive function, and nonverbal memory. Patients also displayed significantly reduced gray matter concentrations (GMCs) in dorsolateral prefrontal and pericentral cortices, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum and decreased gray matter volumes in medial frontal and middle temporal gyri compared with control patients with the cluster threshold ≥ 50 voxels at the level of uncorrected P < 0.001. Negative correlations were found between GMC of the prefrontal cortex and insomnia severity and the wakefulness after sleep onset, and between GMC of pericentral cortex and sleep latencies. None of the findings continued to be significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: We found gray matter deficits in multiple brain regions including bilateral frontal lobes in patients with psychophysiologic insomnia. Gray matter deficit of the pericentral and lateral temporal areas may be associated with the difficulties in sleep initiation and maintenance. It is still unclear whether gray matter reductions are a preexisting abnormality or a consequence of insomnia. Citation: Joo EY; Noh HJ; Kim JS; Koo DL; Kim D; Hwang KJ; Kim JY; Kim ST; Kim MR; Hong SB. Brain gray matter deficits in patients with

  20. Effects of Ethamivan in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sproule, B. J.; Jans, Ronald L.; Breitkreutz, H.; Mahon, W.

    1964-01-01

    Nineteen patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease were evaluated before, during and after ethamivan administration by serial measurement of arterial pH, pCO2, plasma ethamivan levels and alveolar ventilation. Ethamivan was administered intravenously as a single injection of 50 mg. in five patients; as an injection of 25 mg./kg. in five patients; as an intravenous injection of (a) 50 mg. over 15 minutes and (b) 150 mg. over 15 minutes in five patients; and finally as an oral dose of 300 to 500 mg. in five patients. Plasma levels of ethamivan became unmeasurable within 15 minutes of receiving the largest dose. Alveolar ventilation increased only in patients receiving the highest intravenous dose, and no significant changes in blood gases were elicited in any patient. PMID:14226094

  1. Treatment of younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Younger patients (defined as patients younger than 50-55 years of age) represent a small group of newly diagnosed patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, accounting only for 10% to 20% of newly diagnosed cases. However, once these patients become symptomatic and require treatment, their life expectancy is significantly reduced. Therapeutic approaches for younger patients should be directed at improving survival by achieving a complete remission and, where possible, eradicating minimal residual disease. Chemoimmunotherapy combinations carry the highest response rates and are commonly offered to younger patients. Additional strategies that should be considered for younger patients include early referral for stem-cell transplantation and clinical trials of consolidation therapy to eliminate minimal residual disease.

  2. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  3. Nonprofessional Care in Chronic Critically Ill Patient: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Leila Mardanian; Babashahi, Monireh; Irajpour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Decision-making about patients with critical condition transfer from Intensive Care Unit to the general wards be delegated to their families. The aim of the study was explaining the experiences of family caregiver's about care of chronic critically ill patient. Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative content analysis using unstructured interview. Participants were selected purposively from May 2014 to May 2015 and data collection continued until data saturation. Analysis was based on conventional content analysis. Results: Participants’ experiences classified into three main categories as following: nonprofessional care, enhancing factors of care, and inhibiting factors of care. Conclusions: Finding of the current study showed different aspects of care. Care of chronic critically ill patients is a long-term process that affected by different factors. It seems that the exploration of caregivers needs and planning supportive interventions based on their needs improve the quality of care. PMID:28028426

  4. [Living with a chronic abdominal wound--the patients' perspective].

    PubMed

    Rüeger-Schaad, Elisabeth; Panfil, Eva-Maria; Viehl, Carsten T; Spirig, Rebecca

    2008-08-01

    Chronic abdominal wounds lead to prolonged hospital stays. However, no data exist that describe the experience of persons living with a chronic abdominal wound. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experience of persons living with chronic abdominal wounds and elicit their expectations in health professionals. Narrative interviews were conducted with five women and four men. Using content analysis techniques, five categories with one to four subcategories emerged from the data. "Returning to everyday life without a wound" represents the main goal of the participants and is driven by their hope to achieve this outcome. "Everyday life with the wound" illustrates the reality of participants' lives, which is affected by suffering. "The patients' work" demonstrates the component that patients contribute to managing their wound. "The work of primary support persons" shows the importance of the work of people close to the patient. "The work of professionals" includes the expectations that patients have in their caregivers. Teamwork between professionals, patients and primary support persons seems to be an essential condition for the successful healing of an abdominal wound.

  5. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed.

  6. Polypharmacy and enteral nutrition in patients with complex chronic diseases

    PubMed

    Romero Jiménez, Rosa Mª; Ortega Navarro, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina

    2017-05-08

    Oral medications are often administered through enteral feeding tubes in patients with complex chronic diseases. It is important to consider possible interactions between drugs and enteral nutrition that might lead to unsuccessful treatment or tube occlusion. These patients become subjects for higher risk of problems and errors such as drug incompatibility with enteral nutrition and inappropriate dosage form selection. It is possible to minimize the risk of tube occlusion and incompatibilities problems by recognizing potential medication errors, selecting the most appropriate drug and dosage form and using appropriate administration techniques. In this context, high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases deserve special attention. Furthermore, risk exposure should be considered among healthcare professionals and patient caregivers handling hazardous drugs. Therefore, main incompatibility problems between drugs and enteral nutrition have been reviewed, including general recommendations for administration of oral medications through enteral feeding tubes and safe handling of hazardous drugs. Specific recommendations for administration of high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases are also included.

  7. Evaluation of Results of Diagnostic Ureteroscopy in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Karakan, Tolga; Yildiz, Yildiray; Sonmez, Nurettin Cem; Dalkilic, Ayhan

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the safety of diagnostic ureteroscopy (dURS) in chronic hemodialysis patients. The data of chronic hemodialysis patients (group I) and the patients with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (group II) who had dURS between 2004 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. eGFR, complications, and postoperative stent placement were noted in all patients. Continuous and categorical variables were compared between the groups. p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Overall complication rate of group I was 10.5%, while this rate was 4.8% in group II (p = 0.16). No statistically significant differences were noted in terms of gender, age, or laterality between two groups. The mean duration of surgery and the rates of balloon dilatation and postoperative stent placement were higher in group I when compared with group II, and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). In this study, we determined that dURS was a safe method in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, duration of surgery and the rates of balloon dilatation and postoperative stent placement were high in our study.

  8. Impaired neutrophil directional chemotactic accuracy in chronic periodontitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Helen M; Ling, Martin R; Insall, Robert; Kalna, Gabriela; Spengler, Julia; Grant, Melissa M; Chapple, Iain LC

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the chemotactic accuracy of peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis compared with matched healthy controls, before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Material & Methods Neutrophils were isolated from patients and controls (n = 18) by density centrifugation. Using the Insall chamber and video microscopy, neutrophils were analysed for directional chemotaxis towards N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine [fMLP (10 nM), or CXCL8 (200 ng/ml)]. Circular statistics were utilized for the analysis of cell movement. Results Prior to treatment, neutrophils from patients with chronic periodontitis had significantly reduced speed, velocity and chemotactic accuracy compared to healthy controls for both chemoattractants. Following periodontal treatment, patient neutrophils continued to display reduced speed in response to both chemoattractants. However, velocity and accuracy were normalized for the weak chemoattractant CXCL8 while they remained significantly reduced for fMLP. Conclusions Chronic periodontitis is associated with reduced neutrophil chemotaxis, and this is only partially restored by successful treatment. Dysfunctional neutrophil chemotaxis may predispose patients with periodontitis to their disease by increasing tissue transit times, thus exacerbating neutrophil-mediated collateral host tissue damage. PMID:25360483

  9. The Impact of Religiosity on Quality of Life and Psychological Symptoms in Chronic Mental Patients.

    PubMed

    Šimunović, Martina; Tokmakčija, Stanija; Pavlović, Marko; Babić, Romana; Vasilj, Marina; Martinac, Marko; Vasilj, Ivan; Babić, Dragan

    2017-05-01

    In recent decades, there is more and more scientific research and evidence that religiosity has a positive impact on quality of life and mental health. The aim this study is to evaluate the impact of religiosity on the quality of life and psychological symptoms of chronic mental patients. The test group was consisted of 100 chronic mental patients at the Clinic for Psychiatry UCH Mostar, and control group was consisted of 80 somatic patients surveyed from the Infirmary of family medicine of the Health Center Mostar. The survey was conducted by the social and demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire on the quality of life of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF, the questionnaire on religiosity and self-assessment questionnaire for psychological symptoms SCL-90(th). For the socio-demographic data we obtained results that chronic mental patients as opposed to chronic somatic patients have significantly higher percent of an average lifestyle habits. There is statistically significant difference in the place of residence, chronic mental patients live in the city as opposed to somatic who live in the countryside. On the question of religiosity we received information that the chronic mental patients in relation to chronic somatic patients significantly more attend public religious gatherings, but however, chronic somatic patients compared to chronic mental significantly more use religiosity for better financial position, social comfort. In self evaluation of psychological symptoms we received information that the chronic mental patients as opposed to chronic somatic patients had significantly more psychotic features. To test the quality of life between the two groups, we received the information that chronic mental patients have significantly better physical and mental health, social relationships and caring for the environment as opposed to chronic somatic patients. Quality of life was significantly better in the chronic mental patients. Also, chronic mental

  10. Health professionals, patients and chronic illness policy: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Laurann; Gillespie, James; RN, Yun‐Hee Jeon; Kljakovic, Marjan; Brien, Jo‐anne; Jan, Stephen; Lehnbom, Elin; Pearce‐Brown, Carmen; Usherwood, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective  This study investigates health professionals’ reactions to patients’ perceptions of health issues – a little‐researched topic vital to the reform of the care of chronic illness. Methods  Focus groups were undertaken with doctors, nurses, allied health staff and pharmacists (n = 88) in two Australian urban regions. The focus groups explored responses to patient experiences of chronic illness (COPD, Diabetes, CHF) obtained in an earlier qualitative study. Content analysis was undertaken of the transcripts assisted by NVivo7 software. Results  Health professionals and patients agreed on general themes: that competing demands in self‐management, financial pressure and co‐morbidity were problems for people with chronic illness. However where patients and carers focused on their personal challenges, health professionals often saw the patient experience as a series of failures relating to compliance or service fragmentation. Some saw this as a result of individual shortcomings. Most identified structural and attitudinal issues. All saw the prime solution as additional resources for their own activities. Fee for service providers (mainly doctors) sought increased remuneration; salaried professionals (mainly nurses and allied health professionals) sought to increase capacity within their professional group. Conclusions  Professionals focus on their own resources and the behaviour of other professionals to improve management of chronic illness. They did not factor information from patient experience into their views about systems improvement. This inability to identify solutions beyond their professional sphere highlights the limitations of an over‐reliance on the perspectives of health professionals. The views of patients and carers must find a stronger voice in health policy. PMID:20550589

  11. Skin autofluorescence predicts cardiovascular mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kanno, Makoto; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Suzuki, Hodaka; Sato, Keiji; Sakaue, Michiaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyata, Toshio; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is thought to contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive measure of AGE accumulation using autofluorescence of the skin under ultraviolet light, has been reported to be an independent predictor of mortality associated with CVD in Caucasian patients on chronic hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of skin autofluorescence on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. Baseline skin autofluorescence was measured with an autofluorescence reader in 128 non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during a period of 6 years. During the follow-up period, 42 of the 128 patients died; 19 of those patients died of CVD. Skin autofluorescence did not have a significant effect on all-cause mortality. However, age, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), serum albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), skin autofluorescence and pre-existing CVD were significantly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed skin autofluorescence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]1.67-9.43), serum albumin (adjusted HR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.32), and hsCRP (adjusted HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.18-2.05) to be independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. The present study suggests that skin autofluorescence is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis.

  12. Brain Gray Matter Deficits in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Noh, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jeong-Sik; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Mi Rim; Hong, Seung Bong

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the structural changes in patients with chronic primary insomnia and the relationships with clinical features of insomnia. Statistical parametric mapping 8-based voxel-based morphometry was used to identify differences in regional gray and white matter between patients with chronic primary insomnia and normal controls. University hospital. Twenty-seven patients and 27 age/sex-matched controls. Regional differences were compared using two-sample t-tests with age, sex, and intracranial volume as covariates. The patients were a mean age of 52.3 y and had a mean history of insomnia of 7.6 y. Patients displayed cognitive deficits in attention, frontal/executive function, and nonverbal memory. Patients also displayed significantly reduced gray matter concentrations (GMCs) in dorsolateral prefrontal and pericentral cortices, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum and decreased gray matter volumes in medial frontal and middle temporal gyri compared with control patients with the cluster threshold ≥ 50 voxels at the level of uncorrected P < 0.001. Negative correlations were found between GMC of the prefrontal cortex and insomnia severity and the wakefulness after sleep onset, and between GMC of pericentral cortex and sleep latencies. None of the findings continued to be significant after correction for multiple comparisons. We found gray matter deficits in multiple brain regions including bilateral frontal lobes in patients with psychophysiologic insomnia. Gray matter deficit of the pericentral and lateral temporal areas may be associated with the difficulties in sleep initiation and maintenance. It is still unclear whether gray matter reductions are a preexisting abnormality or a consequence of insomnia. Joo EY; Noh HJ; Kim JS; Koo DL; Kim D; Hwang KJ; Kim JY; Kim ST; Kim MR; Hong SB. Brain gray matter deficits in patients with chronic primary insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(7):999-1007.

  13. Pneumococci Can Persistently Colonize Adult Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Domenech, A.; Balsalobre, L.; Marti, S.; Calatayud, L.; De la Campa, A. G.; Brueggemann, A. B.; Liñares, J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae plays an important role in causing acute exacerbations in patients with chronic respiratory disease. However, few data are available regarding pneumococcal persistence in adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Fifty pneumococci recovered from sputum samples (1995 to 2010) from 13 adult patients with ≥3 episodes of acute exacerbation or pneumonia, with the same serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, were studied. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) loci, penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes (pbp2x, pbp1a, pbp2b), and the quinolone-resistant determining regions (QRDRs) of parC, parE, and gyrA were PCR amplified and sequenced. The average time between the first and last episode was 582 days (standard deviation [SD], ±362). All but two patients received multiple courses of β-lactam treatment, and all persistent strains were resistant to penicillin; however, the PBP sequences were stable over time apart from one variable nucleotide in pbp2x, observed among pneumococci isolated from three patients. In contrast, 7/11 patients treated with fluoroquinolones had fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci. In three patients, the initially fluoroquinolone-susceptible strain developed resistance after fluoroquinolone therapy, and in the remaining four patients, the persistent strain was fluoroquinolone resistant from the first episode. QRDR changes involved in fluoroquinolone resistance were frequently observed in persistent strains after fluoroquinolone treatment; however, the PBP sequences and MLST genotypes of these strains were stable over time. PMID:23052300

  14. [Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in patients with chronic appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng-feng; Xiao, Long-bin; Wu, Wen-hui; Zhang, Xing-wei; Long, Shuo; Tan, Jin-fu; Tan, Min

    2007-07-01

    To compare the advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in patients with chronic appendicitis. Two hundred twenty- four patients were divided into laparoscopic group (n=98) and open appendectomy group (n=126) according to individual willing. Prospective non- randomized study was performed to compare the operative time, operative bleeding, hospitalization time, the discovery and management concerned in operation. Abdominal pain in these chronic appendicitis cases was followed up. The operative time was (54.8+/-21.8) min in open group and (51.8+/-18.0) min in laparoscopic group (t=0.80,P > 0.05). The operative bleeding was (18.6+/-23.3) ml in open group and (9.8+/-4.7) ml in laparoscopic group (t=3.13, P < 0.05). The hospitalization time was (8.9+/-5.3) d in open group and (6.8+/-3.0) d in laparoscopic group (t=2.66,P < 0.05). Twenty- five cases had abdominal adhesion in laparoscopic group, including 9 cases of adhesion around appendix, 6 cases of adhesion between ileocecum and anterior or lateral abdominal wall, 4 cases of adhesion between epiploon and abdominal wall or intestines, 6 cases of adhesion around colon and others. All adhesion had been dissected. Fourteen cases adhesion around appendix had been discovered in 126 cases of open group and dissected (chi(2) =7.95,P < 0.05). In follow- up research, 24 cases still had chronic abdominal pain in 98 case of open group, and 9 cases had chronic abdominal pain in 87 of laparoscopic group, the difference was significant (chi(2)=6.29,P < 0.05). The laparoscopic appendectomy possesses more advantages in treating chronic appendicitis and can decrease the incidence of chronic abdominal pain after operation.

  15. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Materials and Methods: Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm2 per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). After treatment, no significant differences were observed in the knee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee. PMID:25705083

  16. [Secretory immunoglobulin of the stomach in patients with chronic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskiĭ, A B; Nikolaeva, O V; Isakova, V N

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the level of secretory IgA by a method of radial immunodiffusion after Mancini in the gastric juice of 48 patients with chronic gastritis in correlation with the status of the gastric mucosa, the level of acidification and the phase of exacerbation has shown diagnostic potentialities of the method. The highest IgA level was detected in patients with "rearrangement" gastritis and in patients with sharply suppressed gastric secretion. In marked atrophy of the gastric mucosa IgA secretion was significantly lowered. The period of remission was attended by a decrease in IgA secretion as compared with the phase of exacerbation.

  17. [Exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Chlumský, J

    2005-01-01

    Limitation of exercise tolerance, especially activities of daily living, is the most significant clinical experience, which greatly affects quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchial obstruction in patients with COPD and their meanings for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease have occurred during the last two decades. The author discusses the most significant factors, which influence tolerance of physical exercise in patients with more advanced forms of COPD, and brings the attention to a practical test of physical capacity.

  18. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease.

    PubMed

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Banga, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an important tool for management of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several well conducted studies in the recent years have established its role in the initial, as well as later management of these patients. However, some grey areas remain. Moreover, data is emerging on the role of long term nocturnal NIV use in patients with very severe stable COPD. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various stages of COPD, discuss the merits as well as demerits of this novel ventilatory strategy and highlight the grey areas in the current body of knowledge.

  19. Autoantibodies against vinculin in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Satoh, Mamoru; Mori, Masahiro; Kazami, Takahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Ishibashi, Masumi; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kado, Sayaka; Kodera, Yoshio; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    To identify the target molecules of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), we used proteomic-based approach in the extracted proteins from porcine cauda equina. Two of 31 CIDP patients had markedly elevated serum autoantibodies against vinculin, a cell adhesion protein. Both of the patients with anti-vinculin antibodies had similar clinical manifestation, which are compatible with those of "typical" CIDP. Immunocytochemistry showed that vinculin was stained at the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerves by serum samples. Our results suggest that vinculin is a possible immunological target molecule in a subpopulation of typical CIDP patients.

  20. Preferences for shared decision making in chronic pain patients compared with patients during a premedication visit.

    PubMed

    Spies, C D; Schulz, C M; Weiss-Gerlach, E; Neuner, B; Neumann, T; von Dossow, V; Schenk, M; Wernecke, K-D; Elwyn, G

    2006-09-01

    There is some evidence that patients' outcomes improve if they are involved in shared decision making (SDM). A chronic pain clinic or premedication visit could be adequate settings for the implementation of SDM. So far, the patients' preference for involvement in decision making and their desire for information have not been tested in anesthesiological settings. A group of chronic pain patients was compared with a group of patients in the premedication visit with respect to SDM, the desire for information and perceived involvement in care. The autonomy preference index (API, measuring preference for involvement and desire for information) and the perceived involvement in care scale (PICS, measuring patients' perception of easier involvement by doctors and information exchange) were administered. In total, 190 chronic pain patients and 151 patients of premedication were included in this study. Patient of the premedication visit had significantly higher SDM scores. Desire for information was high, but there were no differences between groups. Younger patients [B (estimate) =- 0.3; 95% CI (-0.4) - (-0.1)], women (B = 10.9; 95% CI 6.3-15.4) and patients with higher educational level (B = 10.1; 95% CI 5.6-14.6) had more desire for SDM. PICS scores were basically influenced by groups: chronic pain patients felt more facilitated by doctors [B =- 0.185; 95% CI (-0.4) - (-0.1)] and had more information exchange [B =- 19.5; 95% CI (-15.8) - (-2.4)] than patients in the premedication visit. In both anesthesiological settings, the desire for information was high, but patients in the premedication visit had higher SDM scores, especially young female patients with higher educational level. Real patient-physician interaction showed that premedication patients felt less involved by doctors and had less information exchange compared with the chronic pain patients. Therefore, premedication visits should be focussed more on adequate information exchange and involvement of the patient

  1. Metformin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Duong, J K; Roberts, D M; Furlong, T J; Kumar, S S; Greenfield, J R; Kirkpatrick, C M; Graham, G G; Williams, K M; Day, R O

    2012-10-01

    Metformin therapy is limited in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to the potential risk of lactic acidosis. This open-label observational study investigated metformin and lactate concentrations in patients with CKD (n = 22; creatinine clearances 15-40 ml/min) and in two dialysed patients. Patients were prescribed a range of metformin doses (250-2000 mg daily) and metformin concentrations were compared with data from healthy subjects (scaled to 1500 mg twice daily). A subset of patients (n = 7) was controlled on low doses of metformin (250 or 500 mg daily). No correlation between metformin and lactate concentrations was observed. Three patients had high lactate concentrations (>2.7 mmol/l) and two had high metformin concentrations (3-5 mg/l), but none had any symptoms of lactic acidosis. Reducing metformin dosage and monitoring metformin concentrations will allow the safe use of metformin in CKD, provided that renal function is stable.

  2. Emerging therapies for patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Julio; Briones, Javier; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is a common lymphoid malignancy with a variable clinical course. While some patients never require treatment or can be managed effectively with palliative chemotherapy, others experience early disease progression and death. The development of new prognostic markers has helped in the identification of patients with high risk disease, even among those diagnosed at early stage. Recent prospective trials have established chemo-immunotherapy combinations as the new standard of care for CLL patients requiring therapy. Unfortunately, patients whose tumour cells have certain genomic aberrations, such as a chromosome 17 deletion, have a disease that is frequently refractory to conventional therapy and should have their treatment tailored accordingly. Younger patients with high risk disease should be referred for allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation if they have an appropriate donor. For the remaining high risk patients, a number of new compounds are emerging, which could lead to further improvement in their outcome.

  3. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition in hemodialysis patients: Acute and chronic intervention.

    PubMed

    Avery-Lynch, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Protein and calorie malnutrition have been encountered more frequently than expected in the hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) has been documented to improve nutritional status in hemodialysis patients in both acute and chronic settings (Henrich, 1996). The aim of this study was to support the usage of IDPN in our malnourished hemodialysis patients. Serum concentration of albumin is one of the main indicators of mortality in the dialysis population. The serum albumin concentration for six out of eight of our hemodialysis (HD) patients receiving IDPN increased significantly. There was a mean increase of 7.0 g/L of plasma albumin for the eight patients assessed. These results demonstrate that IDPN is an effective nutritional intervention for malnourished hemodialysis patients.

  4. Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: Mixing Acute and Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Silvia; Samoni, Sara; Villa, Gianluca; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for developing critical illness and for admission to intensive care units (ICU). 'Critically ill CKD patients' frequently develop an acute worsening of renal function (i.e. acute-on-chronic, AoC) that contributes to long-term kidney dysfunction, potentially leading to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). An integrated multidisciplinary effort is thus necessary to adequately manage the multi-organ damage of those kidney patients and contemporaneously reduce the progression of kidney dysfunction when they are critically ill. The aim of this review is to describe (1) the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of AoC kidney dysfunction and its role in the progression toward ESKD; (2) the most common clinical presentations of critical illness among CKD/ESKD patients; and (3) the continuum of care for CKD/ESKD patients from maintenance hemodialysis/peritoneal dialysis to acute renal replacement therapy performed in ICU and, vice-versa, for AoC patients who develop ESKD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Fantasies about stem cell therapy in chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Seo; Chung, Dan-Il; Choi, Hojin; Baek, Wonki; Kim, Hyun Young; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed for the treatment of neurological disorders. Although there is insufficient clinical evidence to support its efficacy, unproven SCTs are being performed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the perspectives and expectations of chronic ischemic stroke patients and physicians about SCTs. A total of 250 chronic ischemic stroke patients were interviewed at 4 hospitals. Structured open and closed questions about SCT for chronic stroke were asked by trained interviewers using the conventional in-person method. In addition, 250 stroke-related physicians were randomly interviewed via an e-mail questionnaire. Of the 250 patients (mean 63 years, 70% male), 121 (46%) responded that they wanted to receive SCT in spite of its unknown side effects. Around 60% of the patients anticipated physical, emotional, and psychological improvement after SCT, and 158 (63%) believed that SCT might prevent strokes. However, physicians had much lower expectations about the effectiveness of SCTs, which was not in line with patient expectations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-3.64], longer disease duration (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02), higher modified Rankin Scale score (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60), and familiarity with stem cells (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10-3.15) were independently associated with wanting SCT. The major source of information about SCT was television (68%), and the most reliable source was physicians (49%). Patients have unfounded expectations that SCT will improve their functioning. Considering our finding that the major source of information on stem cells is media channels, but not the physician, to decrease patients' inappropriate exposure, doctors should make more effort to educate patients using mass media with accurate information.

  6. Fantasies About Stem Cell Therapy in Chronic Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Seo; Chung, Dan-il; Choi, Hojin; Baek, Wonki; Kim, Hyun Young; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed for the treatment of neurological disorders. Although there is insufficient clinical evidence to support its efficacy, unproven SCTs are being performed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the perspectives and expectations of chronic ischemic stroke patients and physicians about SCTs. A total of 250 chronic ischemic stroke patients were interviewed at 4 hospitals. Structured open and closed questions about SCT for chronic stroke were asked by trained interviewers using the conventional in-person method. In addition, 250 stroke-related physicians were randomly interviewed via an e-mail questionnaire. Of the 250 patients (mean 63 years, 70% male), 121 (46%) responded that they wanted to receive SCT in spite of its unknown side effects. Around 60% of the patients anticipated physical, emotional, and psychological improvement after SCT, and 158 (63%) believed that SCT might prevent strokes. However, physicians had much lower expectations about the effectiveness of SCTs, which was not in line with patient expectations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–3.64], longer disease duration (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02), higher modified Rankin Scale score (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06–1.60), and familiarity with stem cells (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10–3.15) were independently associated with wanting SCT. The major source of information about SCT was television (68%), and the most reliable source was physicians (49%). Patients have unfounded expectations that SCT will improve their functioning. Considering our finding that the major source of information on stem cells is media channels, but not the physician, to decrease patients' inappropriate exposure, doctors should make more effort to educate patients using mass media with accurate information. PMID:22784218

  7. Distraction analgesia in chronic pain patients: the impact of catastrophizing.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Kristin L; Campbell, Claudia; Martel, Marc O; Greenbaum, Seth; Wasan, Ajay D; Borsook, David; Jamison, Robert N; Edwards, Robert R

    2014-12-01

    Diverting attention away from noxious stimulation (i.e., distraction) is a common pain-coping strategy. Its effects are variable across individuals, however, and the authors hypothesized that chronic pain patients who reported higher levels of pain catastrophizing would derive less pain-reducing benefit from distraction. Chronic pain patients (n=149) underwent psychometric and quantitative sensory testing, including assessment of the temporal summation of pain in the presence and absence of a distracting motor task. A simple distraction task decreased temporal summation of pain overall, but, surprisingly, a greater distraction analgesia was observed in high catastrophizers. This enhanced distraction analgesia in high catastrophizers was not altered when controlling for current pain scores, depression, anxiety, or opioid use (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]: F=8.7, P<0.005). Interestingly, the magnitude of distraction analgesia was inversely correlated with conditioned pain modulation (Pearson R=-0.23, P=0.005). Distraction produced greater analgesia among chronic pain patients with higher catastrophizing, suggesting that catastrophizing's pain-amplifying effects may be due in part to greater attention to pain, and these patients may benefit from distraction-based pain management approaches. Furthermore, these data suggest that distraction analgesia and conditioned pain modulation may involve separate underlying mechanisms.

  8. Disrupted Brain Functional Network Architecture in Chronic Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Yuan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Mao, Cun-Nan; Xia, Wenqing; Ren, Jun; Yin, Xindao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated the disruptions of multiple brain networks in tinnitus patients. Nonetheless, several studies found no differences in network processing between tinnitus patients and healthy controls (HCs). Its neural bases are poorly understood. To identify aberrant brain network architecture involved in chronic tinnitus, we compared the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) patterns of tinnitus patients and HCs. Materials and Methods: Chronic tinnitus patients (n = 24) with normal hearing thresholds and age-, sex-, education- and hearing threshold-matched HCs (n = 22) participated in the current study and underwent the rs-fMRI scanning. We used degree centrality (DC) to investigate functional connectivity (FC) strength of the whole-brain network and Granger causality to analyze effective connectivity in order to explore directional aspects involved in tinnitus. Results: Compared to HCs, we found significantly increased network centrality in bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Unidirectionally, the left SFG revealed increased effective connectivity to the left middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left postcentral gyrus, and right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) while the right SFG exhibited enhanced effective connectivity to the right supplementary motor area (SMA). In addition, the effective connectivity from the bilateral SFG to the OFC and SMA showed positive correlations with tinnitus distress. Conclusions: Rs-fMRI provides a new and novel method for identifying aberrant brain network architecture. Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted FC strength and causal connectivity mostly in non-auditory regions, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The current findings will provide a new perspective for understanding the neuropathophysiological mechanisms in chronic tinnitus. PMID:27458377

  9. Syntax and conversation in aphasia. A strategic restrictive use of Spanish and Catalan connector QUE by aphasic speakers.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sacristán, Carlos; Rosell-Clari, Vicent

    2009-10-01

    Oral conversational data are deemed to be a relevant empirical source when it comes to formulating and supporting hypotheses about cognitive processes involved in aphasic linguistic production. With this assumption in mind, free conversational uses of the Spanish and Catalan connector QUE by fluent and non-fluent aphasic speakers are examined by contrasting them with normal speakers' (i.e. conversational partners') productions. Strictly ungrammatical uses in aphasic speakers are practically non-existent in free conversation. Nevertheless, this data permits one to characterize the aphasic production of the morpheme QUE as restrictive--to different degrees--with respect to normal production. Moreover, this restriction, selectively affecting the types of syntactic environments examined, can be considered strategic in nature: it is guided by some kind of knowledge about the administration of remnant linguistic resources.

  10. Colonoscopic Findings in Peruvian Patients with Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Villafuerte-Gálvez, Javier; Sotelo-Olivera, María Isabel; Cok, Jaime; Piscoya-Rivera, Alejandro; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the colonoscopic and pathological findings in patients with chronic diarrhea from a gastroenterology unit during approximately 3 years in a general teaching hospital located in Lima-Peru. Materials and Methods Patients with chronic diarrhea as the motive for colonoscopy from March 2008 to December 2010 were selected from the colonoscopy report computerized database. Colonoscopic findings were registered. Biopsies taken during the procedure were prospectively reviewed. Results 226 patients were included, of which 162 (71.7%) had a colon biopsy available. The average age of the patients was 53.6±16.36. 85.8% of patients were reported to have a normal colon. 14.8% of patients were found to have a normal colonic mucosa or mucosal edema, 35.8% of patients had lymphocytic colitis and 28.4% had paucicelular colitis. Conclusions The majority of colonoscopies were reported with unremarkable macroscopic findings. Lymphocytic colitis was unusually frequent compared to previous reports. PMID:23094029

  11. Acute and chronic response to CRT in narrow QRS patients.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Tim; Niazi, Imran; Leon, Angel; Stucky, Michael; Herrmann, Keith

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that CRT may benefit narrow QRS patients with mechanical dyssynchrony (MD). We conducted an acute and chronic study, evaluating the response of heart failure patients with a narrow QRS to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). ESTEEM-CRT was a multi-center, single-arm, feasibility study that evaluated ICD-indicated, medically-optimized patients with EF ≤ 35%, NYHA class III heart failure, QRS duration <120 ms, and MD as defined by the standard deviation of time to peak systolic velocity of 12 segments (Ts-SD). Sixty-eight patients received a CRT defibrillator, exercise testing, and echo exams, and 47 of these patients underwent invasive hemodynamic testing at implant. Follow-up was at 6 and 12 months. The average maximal improvement in LV dP/dt(max) was minor (2 ± 2%). NYHA and quality of life scores were substantially improved at 6 and 12 months (P < 0.001), while exercise capacity and LV volumes were unchanged. The echo indices of MD were difficult to collect, discordant, and failed to predict clinical outcomes. ESTEEM-CRT patients with a narrow QRS and MD as defined in this study did not improve as measured by acute hemodynamics, chronic exercise performance, or reverse remodeling. These multi-center results support the notion that dyssynchrony indices are ineffective or at least require greater refinement for the selection of narrow QRS patients for CRT.

  12. Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Undifferentiated Myeloproliferative Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-08

    Accelerated Phase of Disease; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase of Disease; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Recurrent Disease

  13. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  14. Carnitine metabolism in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Krähenbühl, S; Reichen, J

    1997-01-01

    Carnitine metabolism was studied in 79 patients with chronic liver disease, including 22 patients with noncirrhotic liver disease and 57 patients with different types of cirrhosis (22 patients with hepatitis B- or C-associated cirrhosis, 15 patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis, 15 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC], and 5 patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis), and compared with 28 control subjects. In comparison with control subjects, patients with noncirrhotic liver disease showed no change in the plasma carnitine pool, whereas patients with cirrhosis had a 29% increase in the long-chain acylcarnitine concentration. Analysis of subgroups of patients with cirrhosis showed that patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis had an increase in the total plasma carnitine concentration (67.8 +/- 29.5 vs. 55.2 +/- 9.9 micromol/L in control subjects), resulting from increases in both the short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine concentration. In this group of patients, the acylcarnitine concentrations showed a close correlation with the total carnitine concentration, and the total carnitine concentration with the serum bilirubin concentration. Urinary excretion of carnitine was not different between patients with noncirrhotic or cirrhotic liver disease and control patients. However, patients with PBC showed an increased urinary excretion of total carnitine (52.5 +/- 40.0 vs. 28.0 +/- 16.7 micromol carnitine/mmol creatinine), resulting from an increase in the fractional excretion of both free carnitine and short-chain acylcarnitine. The current studies show that patients with cirrhosis are normally not carnitine deficient. Patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis have increased plasma carnitine concentrations, which may result from increased carnitine biosynthesis because of increased skeletal muscle protein turnover. The increase in the fractional carnitine excretion in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis may result from competition of bile acids and

  15. Seasonal affective disorder in patients with chronic tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young H

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the point prevalence of SAD, degrees of anxiety/depression/sleep disturbance, and characteristics of tinnitus in patients with chronic tinnitus. Cross-sectional survey study. From December 2012 to February 2014, 100 patients with chronic persistent or intermittent tinnitus (>3 months) were enrolled. Audiograms, tinnitograms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) were used to assess tinnitus. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) assessment and questionnaires about anxiety/depression/sleep disturbance/SAD were administered. The male:female ratio was 48:52, and the mean age was 55.0 years. The numbers of patients with suspected SAD and subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) were nine (9.0%) and 11 (11.0%), respectively. Winter was the most uncomfortable season. Nine patients had a catastrophic THI score >76 (11.1% in the SAD group, 27.3% in the S-SAD group, and 6.3% in the control group), suggesting a significant correlation between SAD/S-SAD and THI (P = .042). Audiogram, tinnitogram, VAS assessment, and sleep disturbance testing revealed no significant differences among the three groups. Anxiety tests yielded more abnormal findings in the SAD group than in the control group (State Anxiety Inventory score: 33.3% vs. 3.3%, respectively, P = .012; Trait Anxiety Inventory score: 22.2% vs. 1.3%, respectively, P = .002). Depression test scores were significantly higher in the SAD/S-SAD groups than in the control group (35.0% vs. 21.3%, respectively; P = .005). Suspected SAD and/or S-SAD in chronic tinnitus patients were correlated with THI, anxiety, and depression. Understanding SAD in tinnitus patients may be important to manage these patients effectively. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Chronic cholecystitis with Cystoisospora belli in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideo; Falk, Gavin A; Cruise, Michael; Morris-Stiff, Gareth

    2015-06-11

    A 47-year-old woman presented with a history of vague abdominal pain for several years, which worsened over the past 2 months, with pain more prominent in the right upper quadrant. She also had a history of peptic ulcer disease. The ultrasound scan of right upper quadrant revealed normal gallbladder and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was unremarkable. A (99m)technetium labelled hepato iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan with cholecystokinin provocation demonstrated a decreased gallbladder ejection fraction (EF) of 32%. On this basis, the patient was diagnosed with biliary dyskinesia and underwent an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Histopathological analysis revealed chronic cholecystitis with Cystoisospora belli identified in the gallbladder wall. Cystoisospora has been identified to cause an opportunistic acalculous cholecystitis among immunocompromised hosts, especially those with AIDS. This is the first case report of chronic cholecystitis due to C. belli in an immunocompetent patient.

  17. Management of pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Dina

    2006-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease in children is associated with complications that require nursing interventions in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Given the progressive nature of the disease and the complexity of the treatment regimen, it is important that nurses be comfortable implementing acute and preventive care strategies and facilitating the coordination of care. In addition, the need for multiple therapies can be distressing for patients and their families, further supporting the role of the nurse in patient and family education and decision making regarding the plan of care. In this review, we discuss the pertinent issues of pediatric chronic kidney disease in the context of a case study to promote better understanding of real-world nursing practice.

  18. Chorea in a Chronic Pain Patient Using Gabapentin

    PubMed Central

    Souzdalnitski, Dmitri; Chang, Anita Kumar; Guirguis, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Background Gabapentin increasingly is being used to treat chronic pain in addition to seizures, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Chorea has been reported as a potential side effect of gabapentin. Case Report We report the case of a patient with chronic low back pain who was treated with a host of modalities, including gabapentin. After she increased her dose of gabapentin, she developed chorea of the upper extremities, neck, and head. With cessation of gabapentin, the bulk of her symptoms resolved within 24 hours, and symptoms completely resolved in the following months. Conclusions Chorea is thought to appear when the basal ganglia are deregulated. Gabapentin interferes with gamma-aminobutyric acid, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the motor pathway. Chorea associated with gabapentin has been reported in several case studies, but not at a dose as low as the patient took in this case. PMID:24940142

  19. Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients By Genetic and Immune Profiling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have successfully performed all testing of the approximately 600 samples (200 CFS /ME patients vs 397 healthy...in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome ( CFS )/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). It is likely that these findings will also result in an...unveil the pathogenesis of ME/ CFS and subsequently of GWI. It appears that we will gain a significant understanding of the immune responses and

  20. Hepatitis-related stigma in chronic patients: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    HassanpourDehkordi, Ali; Mohammadi, Nooredin; NikbakhatNasrabadi, Alireza

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis is one of health problems throughout the world. It has numerous consequences on patients' life. Stigma, depression, social marginalization and financial problems are some of the challenges in these patients. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine hepatitis-related stigma and discrimination in patients living with chronic hepatitis in Iranian society. This present study was designed as a qualitative method, and this article shows up the results of a qualitative research study undertaken with patients living with hepatitis in Iran. The study uses a content analysis method. A purposive sample of 18 patients was chosen. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field note that the researchers will take during participants' observation. Data analysis process was performed on the texts which were generated from verbatim transcripts of the participants interviews. Participants were between 18 and 61 years old. The main theme, Stigma, emerged from three themes during the process data analysis in this study. These themes were including fear to lose of family and social support, fear to present in public and fear of transmission. This research indicates that stigma presents major challenges not only for patients living with chronic hepatitis but also for nurses, other healthcare practitioners, family and social networks, institutions and society. The researcher suggests that interventions to reduce or eliminate stigma should require individual, structural, cultural thought, society and systemic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Course of chronic kidney disease in French patients

    PubMed Central

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Juillard, Laurent; Deray, Gilbert; Hannedouche, Thierry; Isnard-Rouchon, Myriam; Burtey, Stéphane; Vanhille, Philippe; Ortiz, Jean-Paul; Janin, Gérard; Nicoud, Philippe; Touam, Malik; Laville, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Background In 1998, a French survey showed that the referral of patients with chronic kidney disease to a nephrologist was delayed, resulting in many emergency initiations of dialysis. In 2009, the ORACLE study aimed to describe the renal course of dialysis patients from their first nephrology visit to their first dialysis session. Methods The ORACLE study was a multicentre retrospective study of all patients who started chronic dialysis. Data were collected at the first nephrology visit and at the first dialysis session. Results In total, 720 patients were included (69 centres). At the first nephrology visit, the mean Cockcroft–Gault (CG) indicator was 31.8 mL/min (22.7 in 1998) and 52.4% of patients (73% in 1998) had a CG <30. The mean time between the first nephrology visit and the first dialysis session was 48 months (35 months in 1998). Conclusion In 2009, most patients were referred a long time before dialysis initiation, which likely allowed them to benefit from the impact of nephrology care on early outcomes when on dialysis. However, 34.2% of the dialysis sessions were still initiated under emergency conditions. PMID:28638607

  2. Urinary infection in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gluhovschi, G; Golea, O; Schiller, A; Arcan, P; Drăgan, I; Nasem, A K; Barbu, N

    1987-01-01

    A group of 37 hemodialyzed patients with chronic renal failure were investigated within a period of 6 months to 9 years. Of these patients five presented quantitatively significant bacteriuria noncorrelated with the causal nephropathy. Of the 9 patients with urologic past history two presented urinary infection. Urinary bacterial immunofluorescence was constantly positive in all the cases in which bacteriuria was significant and, at least in one determination when the germ count was below 10,000/ml. This finding was also supported by the increase of gammaglobulinemia and of the circulating immune complexes in all the cases investigated as well as of the B lymphocytes in one third of cases. Fifty percent of the patients presented T lymphocytopenia with excess of suppressor lymphocytes and deficit of the helper ones. It can, therefore be assumed that in patients with chronic renal failure nondialyzable antigens persist in the renal parenchyma where they stimulate anticorpogenesis but at a low level owing to some immune disturbances present in such patients.

  3. Management of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Barberà, Joan Albert; Blanco, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic pulmonary diseases, especially in advanced disease, and is associated with greater mortality and worse clinical course. Patients with symptoms that exceed those expected by their pulmonary disease should be further evaluated by echocardiography. Confirmatory right heart catheterization is indicated in those conditions where the results of the hemodynamic assessment will determine treatment options. The treatment of choice for patients who are hypoxemic and have pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung disease is long-term oxygen therapy. Conventional vasodilators or drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension are not recommended in patients with mild-to-moderate PH because they may impair gas exchange and because there is a lack of evidence supporting their efficacy. Patients with severe PH should be considered for referral to a center with expertise in PH and lung diseases. Ideally, these patients should be included in randomized controlled trials to determine which patients are more likely to derive benefit and which therapies are most likely to be successful.

  4. Sociodrama in the rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hickling, F W

    1989-04-01

    Sociodrama, a synthesis of group psychotherapy and theatrical presentation, was used from 1978 to 1981 to promote rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients at Bellevue Mental Hospital in Jamaica. Staff and patients collectively analyzed their recollections of the hospital's history, then wrote and staged dramatic productions based on the insights derived from those analyses. Changes in the major themes that emerged from the process reflected improvement in therapeutic attitudes and practices and in patient-staff communication over the four-year period. Patients who participated in the sociodramas had greater decreases in medication dosage and psychosocial disability scores and higher rates of improvement and discharge than a matched group of patients who did not participate.

  5. Upper gastrointestinal complaints and complications in chronic rheumatic patients in comparison with other chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Janssen, M; Dijkmans, B A; van der Sluys, F A; van der Wielen, J G; Havenga, K; Vandenbroucke, J P; Lamers, C B; Zwinderman, A H; Cats, A

    1992-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of upper gastrointestinal (GI) complaints and complications between chronic rheumatic patients who are most often non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) users and patients with other chronic conditions. In this comparison we took into account known risk factors for upper GI disease. To achieve the study aims we performed a combined cross-sectional and retrospective study. We therefore interviewed by means of a standard questionnaire, an index and a reference group, about current upper GI complaints and previous complications. The former group comprises 578 outpatients of the Department of Rheumatology, the latter of 531 outpatients of the Departments of Internal Medicine, Pulmonology, and Cardiology. Although the number of patients in the index group being chronically treated with NSAIDs was very high (62% versus 9% in the reference group: P < 0.00001), no between-group differences were found for the frequency of several current upper gastrointestinal complaints or for the number of upper gastrointestinal investigations ever performed (35% and 37%: NS) or for the use of gastric drugs (14% and 10%: NS). Risk factors for upper GI complaints were not related to NSAID use but with the use of prednisolone, history of duodenal ulcer disease, family history of peptic ulcer disease and female sex. For peptic ulcer disease, bleeding, and gastric surgery, the only difference between the index and reference groups concerned the frequency of gastric ulcers (6.7% and 2.8%: P < 0.005), which was highest in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Upper GI bleeding had more often been present in male seropositive rheumatoid arthritis patients (13.2% [corrected] and 4.5%: P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The occurrence of molds in patients with chronic sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Twarużek, Magdalena; Soszczyńska, Ewelina; Winiarski, Piotr; Zwierz, Aleksander; Grajewski, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition of nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa. Although pathogenic bacteria were postulated as main etiological factor responsible for most cases of CRS, the involvement of molds was recently proved in some cases. The aim of the study was to conduct mycological analysis of material obtained from patients operated on due to chronic sinusitis. The study included 107 patients, 45 women and 62 men. During the surgery, a fragment of mucosa from the region of the ethmoid bulla was obtained as microbiological characteristics of this material closely resemble those of sinus mucosa. In addition, maxillary sinus lavage was obtained. The control group comprised patients without chronic sinusitis. The dithiothreitol solution method was used for the lavage examination. The tissue material (mucosal fragment from the region of the ethmoid bulla) was incubated in 2% liquid Sabouraud medium for 24 h. The material was inoculated onto culture media. The presence of molds was detected in 67% of examined samples. Overall, 41 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated. The most frequently detected genera included Penicillium spp. (46%) and Aspergillus spp. (16%). In addition, Cladosporium spp. (11%), Fusarium spp. (7%), Acremonium spp. (4%), Eurotium spp. (4%), Alternaria spp. (2%), Chaetomium spp. (1%), Geotrichum spp. (1%), Verticillium spp. (1%), Rhizopus spp. (1%), and some unidentified colonies (5%) were isolated. Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species.

  7. Participation preferences of patients with acute and chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Johannes; Neuner, Bruno; Kasper, Jürgen; Vodermaier, Andrea; Loh, Andreas; Deinzer, Anja; Heesen, Christoph; Kissling, Werner; Busch, Raymonde; Schmieder, Roland; Spies, Claudia; Caspari, Cornelia; Härter, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background  There is little knowledge as to whether the chronicity of a disease affects patients’ desire for participation. Aim  To study whether participation preferences vary according to the type of disease. Design, participants and methods  Data of 1393 patients from six trials with different medical conditions (hypertension, depression, breast cancer, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, minor traumas) were pooled and analysed, using multiple regression analysis controlling for socio‐demographic variables. Results  Younger age, better education as well as female gender accounted for a small but statistically significantly greater desire to participate. Patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibited significantly higher participation preferences than the other diagnostic groups. There were no major differences between the other diagnostic groups. Age, gender, education and diagnosis explained only 14% of the variance. Conclusions  We found no clear differences between chronic and acute conditions. However, patients suffering from MS, a chronic condition, were clearly different from all other diagnostic groups. The reasons for this difference remain unclear. The predictive value of socio‐demography and type of illness is low. PMID:17986072

  8. Anticonvulsants for preventing seizures in patients with chronic subdural haematoma.

    PubMed

    Ratilal, Bernardo O; Pappamikail, Lia; Costa, João; Sampaio, Cristina

    2013-06-06

    Anticonvulsant therapy is sometimes used prophylactically in patients with chronic subdural haematoma, although the benefit is unclear. To assess the effects of prophylactic anticonvulsants in patients with chronic subdural haematoma, in both the pre- and post-operative periods. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), PubMed, LILACS, and the databases clinicaltrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Current Controlled Trials. The search was through 27th March 2013. Randomised controlled trials comparing any anticonvulsant versus placebo or no intervention. Three authors screened the search results to identify relevant studies. No studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. No randomised controlled trials were identified. No formal recommendations can be made about the use of prophylactic anticonvulsants in patients with chronic subdural haematoma based on the literature currently available. There are no randomised controlled trials on this topic, and non-controlled studies have conflicting results. There is an urgent need for well-designed randomised controlled trials.

  9. Nasal Consonant Production in Broca’s and Wernicke’s Aphasics: Speech Deficits and Neuroanatomical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Kathleen M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Palumbo, Carole L.; Waldstein, Robin; Burton, Martha W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the articulatory implementation deficits of Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasics and their potential neuroanatomical correlates. Five Broca’s aphasics, two Wernicke’s aphasics, and four age-matched normal speakers produced consonant-vowel-(consonant) real word tokens consisting of [m, n] followed by [i, e, a, o, u]. Three acoustic measures were analyzed corresponding to different properties of articulatory implementation: murmur duration (a measure of timing), amplitude of the first harmonic at consonantal release (a measure of articulatory coordination), and murmur amplitude over time (a measure of laryngeal control). Results showed that Broca’s aphasics displayed impairments in all of these parameters, whereas Wernicke’s aphasics only exhibited greater variability in the production of two of the parameters. The lesion extent data showed that damage in either Broca’s area or the insula cortex was not predictive of the severity of the speech output impairment. Instead, lesions in the upper and lower motor face areas and the supplementary motor area resulted in the most severe implementation impairments. For the Wernicke’s aphasics, the posterior areas (superior marginal gyrus, parietal, and sensory) appear to be involved in the retrieval and encoding of lexical forms for speech production, resulting in increased variability in speech production. PMID:17145076

  10. Experiences of air travel in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Lee; Hobkirk, James; Damy, Thibaud; Nabb, Samantha; Clark, Andrew L.; Cleland, John G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To conduct a survey in a representative cohort of ambulatory patients with stable, well managed chronic heart failure (CHF) to discover their experiences of air travel. Methods An expert panel including a cardiologist, an exercise scientist, and a psychologist developed a series of survey questions designed to elicit CHF patients' experiences of air travel (Appendix 1). The survey questions, information sheets and consent forms were posted out in a self-addressed envelope to 1293 CHF patients. Results 464 patients (response rate 39%) completed the survey questionnaires. 54% of patients had travelled by air since their heart failure diagnosis. 20% of all patients reported difficulties acquiring travel insurance. 65% of patients who travelled by air experienced no health-related problems. 35% of patients who travelled by air experienced health problems, mainly at the final destination, going through security and on the aircraft. 27% of all patients would not travel by air in the future. 38% of patients would consider flying again if there were more leg room on the aeroplane, if their personal health improved (18%), if they could find cheaper travel insurance (19%), if there were less waiting at the airport (11%), or if there were less walking/fewer stairs to negotiate at the airport (7%). Conclusion For most patients in this sample of stable, well managed CHF, air travel was safe. PMID:21256607

  11. [Nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Brunori, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The population of patients with chronic kidney disease is aging, and approximately 50% of those starting renal replacement therapy are older than 65 years. Aging poses challenges to maintaining the nutritional status of these patients. As patients get older, purchasing and preparing food may become difficult if the patient is not supported by relatives or social workers. In addition, appetite may decrease as a result of depression. Furthermore, intercurrent illnesses may become more frequent, leading to changes in nutrient requirements. Mobility and cognitive function often decline in elderly patients and the combination of these factors may result in malnutrition. Since malnutrition has been demonstrated to impact on survival in dialysis patients of all ages, appropriate attention to nutritional status and its management is essential in the elderly patient, both in the predialysis phase and on dialysis. This article reviews the issues associated with the maintenance of good nutrition in elderly patients and describes the potential causes of malnutrition. It also reviews the nutrient requirements of older dialysis patients (which differ somewhat from those of younger patients) as well as the assessment of their nutritional status. Finally, recommendations for the management of nutrition in the elderly patient are discussed.

  12. Multimodal therapy for category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in UPOINTS phenotyped patients

    PubMed Central

    MAGRI, VITTORIO; MARRAS, EMANUELA; RESTELLI, ANTONELLA; WAGENLEHNER, FLORIAN M.E.; PERLETTI, GIANPAOLO

    2015-01-01

    The complex network of etiological factors, signals and tissue responses involved in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) cannot be successfully targeted by a single therapeutic agent. Multimodal approaches to the therapy of CP/CPPS have been and are currently being tested, as in the frame of complex diagnostic-therapeutic phenotypic approaches such as the urinary, psychosocial, organ-specific, infection, neurological and muscle tenderness (UPOINTS) system. In this study, the effect of combination therapy on 914 patients diagnosed, phenotyped and treated in a single specialized prostatitis clinic was analyzed. Patients received α-blockers, Serenoa repens (S. repens) extracts combined or not with supplements (lycopene and selenium) and, in the presence of documented or highly suspected infection, antibacterial agents. Combination treatment induced marked and significant improvements of National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) prostatitis symptom scores, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) sexual dysfunction scores, urinary peak flow rates and bladder voiding efficiency. These improvements, assessed after a 6-month course of therapy, were sustained throughout a follow-up period of 18 months. A clinically appreciable reduction of ≥6 points of the total NIH-CPSI score was achieved in 77.5% of patients subjected to combination therapy for a period of 6 months. When the patients were divided in two cohorts, depending on the diagnosis of CP/CPPS [inflammatory (IIIa) vs. non-inflammatory (IIIb) subtypes], significant improvements of all signs and symptoms of the syndrome were observed in both cohorts at the end of therapy. Intergroup comparison showed that patients affected by the IIIa sub-category of CP/CPPS showed more severe signs and symptoms (NIH-CPSI total, pain and quality of life impact scores, and Qmax) at baseline when compared with IIIb patients. However, the improvement of symptoms after

  13. Multimodal therapy for category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in UPOINTS phenotyped patients.

    PubMed

    Magri, Vittorio; Marras, Emanuela; Restelli, Antonella; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2015-03-01

    The complex network of etiological factors, signals and tissue responses involved in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) cannot be successfully targeted by a single therapeutic agent. Multimodal approaches to the therapy of CP/CPPS have been and are currently being tested, as in the frame of complex diagnostic-therapeutic phenotypic approaches such as the urinary, psychosocial, organ-specific, infection, neurological and muscle tenderness (UPOINTS) system. In this study, the effect of combination therapy on 914 patients diagnosed, phenotyped and treated in a single specialized prostatitis clinic was analyzed. Patients received α-blockers, Serenoa repens (S. repens) extracts combined or not with supplements (lycopene and selenium) and, in the presence of documented or highly suspected infection, antibacterial agents. Combination treatment induced marked and significant improvements of National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) prostatitis symptom scores, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) sexual dysfunction scores, urinary peak flow rates and bladder voiding efficiency. These improvements, assessed after a 6-month course of therapy, were sustained throughout a follow-up period of 18 months. A clinically appreciable reduction of ≥6 points of the total NIH-CPSI score was achieved in 77.5% of patients subjected to combination therapy for a period of 6 months. When the patients were divided in two cohorts, depending on the diagnosis of CP/CPPS [inflammatory (IIIa) vs. non-inflammatory (IIIb) subtypes], significant improvements of all signs and symptoms of the syndrome were observed in both cohorts at the end of therapy. Intergroup comparison showed that patients affected by the IIIa sub-category of CP/CPPS showed more severe signs and symptoms (NIH-CPSI total, pain and quality of life impact scores, and Qmax) at baseline when compared with IIIb patients. However, the improvement of symptoms after

  14. Altered Systemic Adipokines in Patients with Chronic Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Hoang Kim Tu; Pham, Duy Le; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Hyun-Young; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that adipokines affect immune responses and chronic urticaria (CU) is associated with an altered immune response related to chronic systemic inflammation. Our objectives were to investigate whether adipokines are involved in CU pathogenesis and to outline relationships between adipokines and urticaria severity and quality of life. Serum adiponectin, leptin, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 191 CU patients and 89 healthy controls. The effect of LCN2 on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was assessed using migration assays. CU severity was assessed based on the urticaria activity score (UAS). To explore relationships between adipokines and UAS and the chronic urticaria-specific quality of life (CU-QoL) questionnaire, a structural equation model was used. Mean levels of serum LCN2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher in CU patients than in controls. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in patients with CU than in controls. While serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in refractory CU patients, compared to responsive CU individuals, LCN2 levels were significantly lower. LCN2 inhibited fMLP-induced neutrophil migration. LCN2 showed a direct relationship with UAS (β = -0.274, p < 0.001), and UAS was found to contribute to CU-QoL (β = 0.417, p < 0.001). Our results highlighted an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in CU patients. We suggest that LCN2 could be a differential marker for disease activity and the clinical responses to antihistamine treatment in CU patients. Modulation of systemic inflammation may be a therapeutic strategy for treating severe, refractory CU. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Lokomat: a therapeutic chance for patients with chronic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Demet Erdoğan; Paker, Nurdan; Buğdaycı, Derya

    2014-01-01

    Treadmill training with partial body weight support has been suggested as a useful strategy for gait rehabilitation after stroke. This prospective, randomized, controlled study of gait training tested the feasibility and potential efficacy of using a robotic-assisted gait device, Lokomat, for treadmill training with partial body weight support in subjects with chronic hemiplegia; the device was also compared with conventional home exercise. Twenty-two male ambulatory ischemic or hemorrhagic induced stroke patients with chronic hemiplegia lasting at least 12 months were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were assigned to either the Lokomat group or the conventional exercise group. The Lokomat group underwent active robotic training for ten sessions (five sessions per week for two weeks). Each session lasted 30 minutes. If a patient missed three consecutive training sessions, he was removed from the study. The Timed Up and Go Test is used to assess mobility and requires both static and dynamic balance. The 10-m Timed Walking Speed Test is designed to determine the patient's overground walking speed. The Mini-Mental State Examination and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used for mental and psychological evaluation; the Functional Ambulation Categories was used to assess ambulatory status. Within each eight-week interval, the patients undergoing the Lokomat training demonstrated significantly greater improvement on the Timed Up and Go Test and 10-m Timed Walking Speed Test than those undergoing conventional training. Despite the small number of patients in the study, the present data suggests that the robotic-assisted device, Lokomat, provides innovative possibilities for gait training in chronic hemiplegia rehabilitation by training at higher intensity levels for longer durations than traditional home exercise.

  16. Wandering spleen with chronic torsion in a patient with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi Long

    2014-12-01

    Wandering spleen or splenoptosis is an uncommon entity and often an asymptomatic finding of acute abdomen in the emergency department. A high index of suspicion for splenic torsion is required, particularly in patients with known splenomegaly, as this condition could potentially lead to splenic infarction. Recognition of this condition can help avoid potential confusion with acute abdomen of other aetiologies. Herein, we present a unique case of wandering spleen with chronic torsion, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been described in an elderly patient with haemoglobin H thalassaemia. We also review the literature for the aetiology and pathogenesis of wandering spleen, and discuss the relevant diagnostic modalities and treatment options.

  17. Anaesthesia for patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Duggappa, Devika Rani; Rao, G Venkateswara; Kannan, Sudheesh

    2015-01-01

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has become a disease of public health importance. Among the various risk factors, smoking remains the main culprit. In addition to airway obstruction, the presence of intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure, respiratory muscle dysfunction contributes to the symptoms of the patient. Perioperative management of these patients includes identification of modifiable risk factors and their optimisation. Use of regional anaesthesia alone or in combination with general anaesthesia improves pulmonary functions and reduces the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications. PMID:26556916

  18. Chronic Disease Management Programmes: an adequate response to patients' needs?

    PubMed

    Rijken, Mieke; Bekkema, Nienke; Boeckxstaens, Pauline; Schellevis, François G; De Maeseneer, Jan M; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2014-10-01

    Inspired by American examples, several European countries are now developing disease management programmes (DMPs) to improve the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. Recently, questions have been raised whether the disease management approach is appropriate to respond to patient-defined needs. In this article we consider the responsiveness of current European DMPs to patients' needs defined in terms of multimorbidity, functional and participation problems, and self-management. Information about existing DMPs was derived from a survey among country-experts. In addition, we made use of international scientific literature. Most European DMPs do not have a solid answer yet to the problem of multimorbidity. Methods of linking DMPs, building extra modules to deal with the most prevalent comorbidities and integration of case management principles are introduced. Rehabilitation, psychosocial and reintegration support are not included in all DMPs, and the involvement of the social environment of the patient is uncommon. Interventions tailored to the needs of specific social or cultural patient groups are mostly not available. Few DMPs provide access to individualized patient information to strengthen self-management, including active engagement in decision making. To further improve the responsiveness of DMPs to patients' needs, we suggest to monitor 'patient relevant outcomes' that might be based on the ICF-model. To address the needs of patients with multimorbidity, we propose a generic comprehensive model, embedded in primary care. A goal-oriented approach provides the opportunity to prioritize goals that really matter to patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Patient empowerment in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Melanie

    2014-04-01

    Patient empowerment is a patient-centered approach to care in which healthcare providers nurture patients' innate abilities to self-manage and incorporate patient goals for therapy into the overall management plan. Standard care of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) requires lifelong medication with oral therapy and regular follow-up. The success of CML treatment, therefore, depends on a high degree of patient involvement and motivation, as well as strong collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. Oncology nurses can support patients with CML from the time of diagnosis to the end of treatment to ensure they maintain high levels of involvement in their care. At the author's center, patients who most actively collaborate with their physicians in treatment decisions take personal responsibility for the quality of their care and show good adherence to treatment. In the current article, the author discusses the potential effect of patient response to cancer diagnosis on clinical outlook and describes strategies in place at the cancer center to ensure that patients diagnosed with CML have the best chance at keeping their cancer under control.

  20. Epidemiology of acute infections among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Go, Alan S

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this review were (1) to review recent literature on the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infections in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and did or did not require renal replacement therapy; (2) to review literature on the efficacy and use of selected vaccines for patients with CKD; and (3) to outline a research framework for examining key issues regarding infections in patients with CKD. Infection-related hospitalizations contribute substantially to excess morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, and infection is the second leading cause of death in this population. Patients who have CKD and do not require renal replacement therapy seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with patients without CKD; however, data about patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis therapy are very limited. Numerous factors potentially predispose patients with CKD to infection: advanced age, presence of coexisting illnesses, vaccine hyporesponsiveness, immunosuppressive therapy, uremia, dialysis access, and the dialysis procedure. Targeted vaccination seems to have variable efficacy in the setting of CKD and is generally underused in this population. In conclusion, infection is a primary issue when caring for patients who receive maintenance dialysis. Very limited data exist about the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infection in patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis. Future research is needed to delineate accurately the epidemiology of infections in these populations and to develop effective preventive strategies across the spectrum of CKD severity.

  1. Epidemiology of Acute Infections among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Go, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this review were (1) to review recent literature on the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infections in patients who had chronic kidney disease (CKD) and did or did not require renal replacement therapy; (2) to review literature on the efficacy and use of selected vaccines for patients with CKD; and (3) to outline a research framework for examining key issues regarding infections in patients with CKD. Infection-related hospitalizations contribute substantially to excess morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD, and infection is the second leading cause of death in this population. Patients who have CKD and do not require renal replacement therapy seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with patients without CKD; however, data about patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis therapy are very limited. Numerous factors potentially predispose patients with CKD to infection: advanced age, presence of coexisting illnesses, vaccine hyporesponsiveness, immunosuppressive therapy, uremia, dialysis access, and the dialysis procedure. Targeted vaccination seems to have variable efficacy in the setting of CKD and is generally underused in this population. In conclusion, infection is a primary issue when caring for patients who receive maintenance dialysis. Very limited data exist about the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of infection in patients who have CKD and do not require dialysis. Future research is needed to delineate accurately the epidemiology of infections in these populations and to develop effective preventive strategies across the spectrum of CKD severity. PMID:18650409

  2. Anxious, introverted personality traits in patients with chronic subjective dizziness.

    PubMed

    Staab, Jeffrey P; Rohe, Daniel E; Eggers, Scott D Z; Shepard, Neil T

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subjective dizziness (CSD) is a neurotologic disorder of persistent non-vertiginous dizziness, unsteadiness, and hypersensitivity to one's own motion or exposure to complex visual stimuli. CSD usually follows acute attacks of vertigo or dizziness and is thought to arise from patients' failure to re-establish normal locomotor control strategies after resolution of acute vestibular symptoms. Pre-existing anxiety or anxiety diathesis may be risk factors for CSD. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CSD are more likely than individuals with other chronic neurotologic illnesses to possess anxious, introverted personality traits. Data were abstracted retrospectively from medical records of 40 patients who underwent multidisciplinary neurotology evaluations for chronic dizziness. Twenty-four subjects had CSD. Sixteen had chronic medical conditions other than CSD plus co-existing anxiety disorders. Group differences in demographics, Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) scores, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores, DSM-IV diagnoses, personality traits measured with the NEO Personality Inventory - Revised (NEO-PI-R), and temperaments composed of NEO-PI-R facets were examined. There were no differences between groups in demographics, mean DHI or HADS-anxiety scores, or DSM-IV diagnoses. The CSD group had higher mean HADS-depression and NEO-PI-R trait anxiety, but lower NEO-PI-R extraversion, warmth, positive emotions, openness to feelings, and trust (all p<0.05). CSD subjects were significantly more likely than comparison subjects to have a composite temperament of high trait anxiety plus low warmth or excitement seeking. An anxious, introverted temperament is strongly associated with CSD and may be a risk factor for developing this syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment preferences of psychotherapy patients with chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, John C; Meehan, Kevin B; Petkova, Eva; Zhao, Yihong; Van Meter, Page E; Neria, Yuval; Pessin, Hayley; Nazia, Yasmin

    2016-03-01

    Patient treatment preference may moderate treatment effect in major depressive disorder (MDD) studies. Little research has addressed preference in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); almost none has assessed actual patients' PTSD psychotherapy preferences. From a 14-week trial of chronic PTSD comparing prolonged exposure, relaxation therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy, we report treatment preferences of the 110 randomized patients, explore preference correlates, and assess effects on treatment outcome. Patients recruited between 2008 and 2013 with chronic DSM-IV PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] score ≥ 50) received balanced, scripted psychotherapy descriptions prerandomization and indicated their preferences. Analyses assessed relationships of treatment attitudes to demographic and clinical factors. We hypothesized that patients randomized to preferred treatments would have better outcomes, and to unwanted treatment worse outcomes. Eighty-seven patients (79%) voiced treatment preferences or disinclinations: 29 (26%) preferred prolonged exposure, 29 (26%) preferred relaxation therapy, and 56 (50%) preferred interpersonal psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 18.46, P < .001), whereas 29 (26%) were disinclined to prolonged exposure, 18 (16%) to relaxation therapy, and 3 (3%) to interpersonal psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 22.71, P < .001). Several baseline clinical variables correlated with treatment preferences. Overall, treatment preference/disinclination did not predict change in CAPS score, treatment response, or dropout. Comorbidly depressed patients receiving unwanted treatment had worse final CAPS scores. These exploratory findings are the first relating patients' PTSD psychotherapy preferences to outcome. Despite explanations emphasizing prolonged exposure's greater empirical support, patients significantly preferred interpersonal psychotherapy. Preference subtly affected psychotherapy outcome; depression appeared an important moderator of the effect

  4. [Drug prescription profile in patients with advanced chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Duque, Nieves; Rivas-Cobas, Carlota; Bernabeu-Wittel, Máximo; Ruiz-Cantero, Alberto; Murcia-Zaragoza, José; Oliver, Miguel; Díez-Manglano, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the prescription profile and the factors associated with multiple medications (polypharmacy) and non-adherence in patients with advanced chronic diseases. Longitudinal cross-sectional study including 41 Spanish hospitals (PALIAR project). Polypharmacy was defined as a prescribed treatment with five or more drugs, and excessive polypharmacy when the number was ten or more. The adherence was evaluated using a questionnaire completed by the patients or their caregivers. Description of drug prescription profile and analysis was performed on the risk factors associated with multiple medications and non-adherence. The study included 1847 patients, and 1778 (96.2%) completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 78.74±10 years. Antihypertensives (82.6%), gastroprotectives (73.8%), anti-platelets/anticoagulants (70.3%), and psychotropic drugs (51.8%) were the most frequently prescribed drugs. Prevalence of polypharmacy/excessive polypharmacy was 86.2%/31.3%, with a mean of 8±3.5 drugs per patient. Errors in treatment compliance were detected in 48.2% of patients, but 38.5% and 9.6% referred to an occasional or almost daily failure, respectively. Factors associated with non-adherence were: to be a patient with multiple diseases, cognitive impairment, three or more 3 hospital admissions in the last three months, and having polypharmacy. Factors associated with polypharmacy were: to be a patient with multiple diseases, an ECOG score <3, age <85 years, and 3 or more hospital admissions. Factors associated with excessive polypharmacy were: to be a patient with multiple diseases and previous frequent hospital admissions. The prevalence of polypharmacy in patients with advanced chronic diseases is high, and mistakes in treatment compliance are frequent. Further studies with better defined objectives and more specific therapeutic limits are needed. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Haché, Chantal; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a common disease and approximately 20% of infected patients with compensated cirrhosis will decompensate over 5 years. If untreated, the survival of decompensated cirrhosis is poor (15% at 5 years). The extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, as assessed by serum HBV-DNA level, is a strong predictor of the risk of disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma. This provides a rationale for antiviral therapy to arrest progression of liver disease. Lamivudine is a pyrimidine analogue that inhibits HBV-DNA reverse transcriptase. It decreases HBV replication, normalises alanine aminotransferase levels and reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. This article will focus on the use of lamivudine in patients with HBV-cirrhosis. In patients with compensated HBV-cirrhosis, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial has shown that lamivudine significantly reduced the rate of disease progression and hepatocellular carcinoma development over a 3-year period. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, treatment with lamivudine can produce spectacular improvements of liver function, but the improvement is slow and a clinical benefit is usually not observed until after at least 3-6 months of treatment. A major drawback of lamivudine treatment is the development of resistance, observed in 15-20% of patients after 1 year and up to 70% after 5 years of continued treatment. Thus, patients with HBV-cirrhosis treated with lamivudine should have regular monitoring of serum HBV-DNA levels and prompt institution of additional antiviral therapy if viral breakthrough is observed. Adefovir, tenofovir and entecavir have demonstrated efficacy in patients with lamivudine resistance. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, in whom the development of resistance can be fatal, combination therapy (such as lamivudine plus adefovir) may prove more effective than monotherapy and this issue needs further study.

  6. Hepcidin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Luca; Messa, Piergiorgio; Pelusi, Serena; Campostrini, Natascia; Girelli, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Altered systemic iron metabolism is a key element of uremia, and functional iron deficiency mainly related to subclinical inflammation makes it difficult to maintain proper control of anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients (CHD). In the last decade, the hepatic hormone hepcidin has been progressively recognized as the master regulator of circulating iron levels through the modulation of cellular iron fluxes in response to iron stores, as well as to erythroid and inflammatory stimuli. Hepcidin is cleared by the kidney and progression of renal disease has been associated to increased serum hepcidin levels. This, in turn, reduces iron availability for erythropoiesis, suggesting anti-hepcidin strategies for improving anemia control. Moreover, hepcidin has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of long-term complications of dialysis, like accelerated atherosclerosis. Initial studies almost invariably reported a sustained increase of serum hepcidin in chronic hemodialysis patients. Noteworthy, such studies included relatively few patients and controls that were poorly matched for major determinants of serum hepcidin at population level, i.e., age and gender. More recent data based on accurately matched larger series challenge the view that hepcidin is intrinsically increased in hemodialysis patients, showing a marked inter- and intra-individual variability of hormone levels. Here we take a critical look to the data published so far on hepcidin levels in CHD, analyze the reasons underlying the discrepancies in available studies and the hepcidin variability in CHD, and point out the need for further studies in large series of well-characterized CHD patients and controls.

  7. Enteral nutrition in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient.

    PubMed

    DeBellis, Heather F; Fetterman, James W

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic disease, in which malnutrition can have an undesirable effect. Therefore, the patient's nutritional status is critical for optimizing outcomes in COPD. The initial nutrition assessment is focused on identifying calorically compromised COPD patients in order to provide them with appropriate nutrition. Nutritional intervention consists of oral supplementation and enteral nutrition to prevent weight loss and muscle mass depletion. Evaluation of nutritional status should include past medical history (medications, lung function, and exercise tolerance) and dietary history (patient's dietary habits, food choices, meal patterns, food allergy information, and malabsorption issues), in addition to physiological stress, visceral proteins, weight, fat-free mass, and body mass index. The current medical literature conflicts regarding the appropriate type of formulation to select for nutritional intervention, especially regarding the amount of calories from fat to provide COPD patients. This review article focuses on the enteral product formulations currently available, and how they are most appropriately utilized in patients with COPD.

  8. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Cheol; Mofarrahi, Mahroo; Hussain, Sabah NA

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease characterized by inflammation-induced airflow limitation and parenchymal destruction. In addition to pulmonary manifestations, patients with COPD develop systemic problems, including skeletal muscle and other organ-specific dysfunctions, nutritional abnormalities, weight loss, and adverse psychological responses. Patients with COPD often complain of dyspnea on exertion, reduced exercise capacity, and develop a progressive decline in lung function with increasing age. These symptoms have been attributed to increases in the work of breathing and in impairments in gas exchange that result from airflow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation. However, there is mounting evidence to suggest that skeletal muscle dysfunction, independent of lung function, contributes significantly to reduced exercise capacity and poor quality of life in these patients. Limb and ventilatory skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD patients has been attributed to a myriad of factors, including the presence of low grade systemic inflammatory processes, nutritional depletion, corticosteroid medications, chronic inactivity, age, hypoxemia, smoking, oxidative and nitrosative stresses, protein degradation and changes in vascular density. This review briefly summarizes the contribution of these factors to overall skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with COPD, with particular attention paid to the latest advances in the field. PMID:19281080

  9. Skin cancer in patients with chronic radiation dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.M.; Hanke, C.W.; Zollinger, T.W.; Montebello, J.F.; Hornback, N.B.; Norins, A.L.

    1989-04-01

    The cases of 76 patients with chronic radiation dermatitis resulting from low-dose ionizing radiation for benign disease were reviewed retrospectively for risk factors leading to the development of neoplasia. The patients were studied with respect to original hair color, eye color, sun reactive skin type, benign disease treated, area treated, age at treatment, and age at development of first skin cancer. Analysis of data showed 37% of patients had sun-reactive skin type I, 27% had type II, and 36% had type III. Types IV through VI were not represented. There appeared to be an overrepresentation of types I and II. Increased melanin pigmentation may therefore be either directly or indirectly protective against the development of skin cancers in patients who have received low-dose superficial ionizing radiation for benign disease. The sun-reactive skin type of patients with chronic radiation dermatitis may be used as a predictor of skin cancer risk when the total dose of ionizing radiation is not known.

  10. [Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: anatomoclinic's study of 50 patients].

    PubMed

    Hakem, D; Berrah, A; Berkane, S; Asselah, H; Aït-Younes, S; Asselah, F; Salah, S; Merriche, S; Abbadi, M C

    2005-11-01

    To analyse anatomoclinic and evolutive aspects of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) through 50 observations collected in two Internal Medicine departments in Algiers from 1998 to 2002 and to make a review of the literature. The study is prospective. The diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is established according to the recommendations of the score of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (1991) or/and hepatitic damage confirmed by histology. Fifty patients were studied: (32 women-18 men) and the mean age was 38 years (17 to 73). Autoimmune extra-hepatitic manifestations were associated in 26%. The AIH type 1 has been noted in 58%. AIH were type 2 in only 6%. In 22% of the cases AIH were sero-negative and the others AIH represented 14% were classed as overlap-syndrome (5 cases of primary biliary cirrhosis and 2 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis hepatitis overlap syndrome). The first liver biopsy tissue showed strong necrotic-inflammatory activity in 56% and cirrhosis was identified in 19 patients (38%). The treatment (azathioprine and corticosteroid) was prescribed in 37 patients (74%) in active chronic hepatitis or in compensed cirrhosis. 28% of the patients died (9-36 months) because cirrhosis's complications or because complications of hepatocarcinoma (3 cases). The diagnosis of AIH must be established early for each patient with chronic liver disease particularly is those are supposed as a crypto genetic hepatitis. The prognosis is compromised by delayed diagnosis and the mortality in middle following up is high.

  11. Surgical Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jennifer J; Tepolt, Frances A; Miller, Patricia E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a cause of leg pain in running athletes and is treated with fasciotomy after failure of nonoperative management. CECS is being seen with increased frequency in younger patients. The demographics and outcomes of fasciotomy for CECS in pediatric patients, including risk factors for treatment failure, have not been described. To describe characteristics of pediatric patients with CECS and determine surgical outcomes of the condition in this population. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed for patients 18 years and younger treated surgically for CECS with compartment release at a single institution from 1995 to 2014. Demographic and condition characteristics, operative procedure, postoperative course, and clinical outcomes were recorded for 286 legs of 155 patients. Compartment pressure testing using the Pedowitz criteria confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. A total of 155 patients were included in the study (average patient age at presentation, 16.4 ± 1.38 years); 136 (88%) were female. All 155 patients presented with leg pain; of these patients, 8 (5%) also had neurologic symptoms, and 131 (85%) presented with bilateral symptoms requiring bilateral compartment release. Symptoms were chronic in nature, with duration over 1 year in 63% of patients. The primary sport was most commonly reported as running (25%), soccer (23%), or field hockey (12%); 50% of patients were multisport athletes. Of 286 legs, 138 (48%) had only anterior and/or lateral compartments released, while 84 (29.4%) had all 4 compartments released. Documented return to sport was seen in 79.5% of patients. Outcomes analysis was performed for 250 of 286 legs. Of these 250 legs, 47 (18.8%) had recurrent CECS requiring reoperation at a median of 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0.8-3.5) after initial compartment release. For each additional month between presentation and release, the odds of recurrence decreased by 12

  12. Prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Eschrich, Klaus; Rodloff, Arne C; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Actinomyces spp. in shallow, deep and very deep pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy controls and correlated the results with clinical status. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical indices were recorded in a six-point measurement per tooth. From each patient samples of supra and subgingival plaque were taken separately from teeth with shallow, deep and very deep pockets. Samples of supragingival plaque and sulcular microflora were collected from the healthy subjects. All the samples were cultivated on different media at 37̊C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 7 days. All the suspect colonies were identified using a rapid ID 32 A system (bioMèrieux) and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using an Autoflex II Instrument (Bruker Daltonics) together with in house developed identification software and a reference spectra database. A total of 977 strains were identified as Actinomyces. Actinomyces naeslundii/oris/johnsonii (430 isolates) was the most prevalent species and was found in all patients and in almost all of the healthy subjects. Significant differences (p=0.003) between the groups were found for Actinomyces odontolyticus/meyeri and Actinomyces israelii which were associated with periodontitis patients. Actinomyces dentalis was found in higher percentage (p=0.015) in the periodontitis group. Actinomyces gerencseriae and Actinomyces massiliensis were significantly more often found supragingivally than subgingivally (p=0.004, p=0.022, respectively) in the periodontitis group. Whether some Actinomyces species, definitely important plaque formers, are actively involved in the pathogenicity of chronic periodontitis needs further investigation.

  13. An online UPOINT tool for phenotyping patients with chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Christine N; Li, Jianbo; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical phenotypes of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) using a web based online tool and to compare these clinical features with patients evaluated in a tertiary referral clinic. Data was collected from 720 men who gave complete online responses on a website which determines the UPOINT clinical phenotype in CP/CPPS and measures symptom severity with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). This was compared to phenotype and symptom severity of 220 patients evaluated in person at a tertiary referral clinic. The web-based cohort had CPSI scores of 11.1, 4.8, 7.6, and 23.6 for pain, urinary, quality-of-life, and total score, respectively. The percentage of patients positive for each domain was 76%, 74%, 75%, 10%, 46%, and 75% for the urinary, psychosocial, organ specific, infection, neurologic/systemic, and tenderness domains, respectively. There was a positive correlation between CPSI and number of positive UPOINT domains (p = 0.25, p < 0.0001). Comparison between web- and clinic-based groups showed that the clinic group had fewer UPOINT positive domains compared to the web-based group (2.9 versus 3.6, p < 0.0001), but had worse quality-of-life (9.0 versus 7.6, p < 0.0001) and CPSI total scores (25.0 versus 23.6, p = 0.0052). Men using an online tool to clinically phenotype CP/CPPS show similar correlations between UPOINT domains, symptom severity, age and duration. While symptom severity was worse in patients seen in a tertiary referral clinic, the differences were small.

  14. [Patient education for children and adolescents with chronic diseases].

    PubMed

    Tubiana-Rufi, Nadia

    2009-12-01

    The education of children with chronic diseases and of their parents is a treatment procedure that must be integrated into the management of the child's disease: it is essential for his or her physical and psychological health and quality of life. This continuous process is part of long-term follow-up and of the child's development; it is not a procedure that can be carried out once and for all. The program must include initial, follow-up, and advanced education. Treatment education for parents occurs simultaneously with the child's medical management and has the same requirements as that of the child (which means that the time spent in this education requires financial support). The role of the pediatrics departments serving these children is essential, and they must work with other participants, whose roles are not identical to they perform in education for adult patients. Pediatric patient education requires an interdisciplinary pediatric team with specific skills and appropriate liaison with those involved in other aspects of the child's life (e.g., daycare and school). The child's psychological development is central to the design and implementation of pediatric patient education programs. Knowledge of child development is critical in providing these services for children and adolescents; training in this field is required in addition to that necessary for adult patient education. Epidemiologic findings of the increased incidence of several chronic diseases in children must be considered in decisions about the resources allocated to coping with them. The particularities and requirements of adolescence and its interactions with chronic disease must also be considered in specific patient education programs for adolescents, and in the training and skills of healthcare professionals.

  15. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines.

  16. Assessment of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Make, Barry J.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important to establish an accurate diagnosis, assist in making therapeutic decisions, measuring outcomes for clinical and research purposes, and determining prognosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans are useful in patients who present with airflow limitation and clinical features suggestive of COPD but in whom other diagnoses are being considered. In such cases, a chest CT may indicate another diagnosis. The amount and distribution of emphysema can identify outcomes from lung volume reduction surgery, and chest CT scans are mandatory in assessment of patients for this surgery. Quantitative parameters from chest CT scans have been used to define longitudinal progression of disease. Assessment of patients with COPD for both clinical and research purposes should incorporate a variety of different outcomes. There are outcome measures that have been successfully incorporated in large clinical trials, and the design and outcomes of these trials can be used to plan future clinical investigations in COPD. PMID:19056711

  17. Awareness of Chronic Kidney Disease among Patients and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura C.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Powe, Neil R.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier recognition of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could slow progression, prevent complications, and reduce cardiovascular-related outcomes. However, current estimates of CKD awareness indicate that both patient- and provider-level awareness remain unacceptably low. Many of the factors that are possibly associated with CKD awareness, which could help guide implementation of awareness efforts, have yet to be fully examined. Also, little is known regarding whether increased patient or provider awareness improves clinical outcomes or whether there are possible negative consequences of awareness for CKD patients. Further research is necessary to continue to design and refine awareness campaigns aimed at both patients and providers, but there is an immediate need for dissemination of basic CKD information, given both the high prevalence of CKD and its risk factors and the low estimated awareness of CKD. PMID:20439091

  18. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  19. Assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Make, Barry J; Martinez, Fernando J

    2008-12-15

    Assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important to establish an accurate diagnosis, assist in making therapeutic decisions, measuring outcomes for clinical and research purposes, and determining prognosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans are useful in patients who present with airflow limitation and clinical features suggestive of COPD but in whom other diagnoses are being considered. In such cases, a chest CT may indicate another diagnosis. The amount and distribution of emphysema can identify outcomes from lung volume reduction surgery, and chest CT scans are mandatory in assessment of patients for this surgery. Quantitative parameters from chest CT scans have been used to define longitudinal progression of disease. Assessment of patients with COPD for both clinical and research purposes should incorporate a variety of different outcomes. There are outcome measures that have been successfully incorporated in large clinical trials, and the design and outcomes of these trials can be used to plan future clinical investigations in COPD.

  20. Mn vacancy defects, grain boundaries, and A-phase stability of helimagnet MnSi.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, T Y; Shu, G J; Lin, J-Y; Hu, C D; Chou, F C

    2016-01-20

    Mn vacancy defect and grain size are shown to modify the magnetic phase diagram of MnSi significantly, especially near the critical regime of A-phase (skyrmion lattice) formation and the helimagnetic phase transition. Crystals grown using controlled nonstoichiometric initial precursors creates both grain boundaries and intrinsic Mn vacancy defect of various levels in MnSi. The results of combined transport, specific heat, and AC spin susceptibility measurements are compared for MnSi single crystal samples of various manganese deficiency levels and grain sizes. The finite-size effect and Mn vacancy level dependent helical phase transition temperature T(c) have been identified and verified. The stability of A-phase in H-T phase space has been examined through AC spin susceptibility data analysis.

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Fibrosing Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hoeper, Marius M.; Behr, Juergen; Held, Matthias; Grunig, Ekkehard; Vizza, C. Dario; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Lange, Tobias J.; Claussen, Martin; Grohé, Christian; Klose, Hans; Olsson, Karen M.; Zelniker, Thomas; Neurohr, Claus; Distler, Oliver; Wirtz, Hubert; Opitz, Christian; Huscher, Doerte; Pittrow, David; Gibbs, J. Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common finding in patients with chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). Little is known about the response to pulmonary vasodilator therapy in this patient population. COMPERA is an international registry that prospectively captures data from patients with various forms of PH receiving pulmonary vasodilator therapies. Methods We retrieved data from COMPERA to compare patient characteristics, treatment patterns, response to therapy and survival in newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and PH associated with IIP (PH-IIP). Results Compared to patients with IPAH (n = 798), patients with PH-IIP (n = 151) were older and predominantly males. Patients with PH-IIP were treated predominantly with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (88% at entry, 87% after 1 year). From baseline to the first follow-up visit, the median improvement in 6MWD was 30 m in patients with IPAH and 24.5 m in patients with PH-IIP (p = 0.457 for the difference between both groups). Improvements in NYHA functional class were observed in 22.4% and 29.5% of these patients, respectively (p = 0.179 for the difference between both groups). Survival rates were significantly worse in PH-IIP than in IPAH (3-year survival 34.0 versus 68.6%; p<0.001). Total lung capacity, NYHA class IV, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation were independent predictors of survival in patients with PH-IIP. Conclusions Patients with PH-IIP have a dismal prognosis. Our results suggest that pulmonary vasodilator therapy may be associated with short-term functional improvement in some of these patients but it is unclear whether this treatment affects survival. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01347216 PMID:26630396

  2. Uncontrolled chronic disease: patient non-compliance or clinical mismanagement?

    PubMed

    Javors, Jonathan R; Bramble, Judith E

    2003-01-01

    A study group of 30 individuals was randomly chosen from 1,379 beneficiaries predicted to be at risk for health care complications at a large, Midwest, industrial company currently experiencing increased health care costs. All 30 individuals had one or more chronic illness, primarily diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or asthma. Through analysis of medical records, a self-reporting health risk assessment survey, and personal contact with both patients and clinicians, each study individual was assessed as to whether his disease(s) was under control, the individual was compliant with his treatment protocol, and whether the supervising clinician was following nationally accepted standards of care. Fewer than 50% of the individuals in the study group had their chronic illness(es) under control. Those individuals whose treatment adhered to national guidelines were significantly more likely to have their disease under control (p < 0.001). For this study, patient compliance was high and unrelated to whether their disease was under control. Behavioral (external) barriers were most often cited as the reason a clinical practitioner did not follow the appropriate national standard of care. Most clinicians were aware of and familiar with the guidelines; a few either did not agree with or misunderstood the guidelines. The results of this study suggest that changing clinical practice behaviors to better ensure compliance to national standards of care may make a substantial difference in chronic disease control.

  3. Lung fluid clearance in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Lawrence, Mark D; Cavallaro, Elena; Rubino, Vito; Bersten, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv) consistently leads to alveolocapillary barrier thickening and reduction in the filtration coefficient. In animal models of chronic heart failure (CHF) the lung remains dry despite hydrostatic forces. As fluid flux is bi-directional, it has been postulated that an increase in alveolar fluid clearance may facilitate the dry lung when Pmv is chronically elevated. In this study we aimed to examine alveolar fluid clearance in ambulatory patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared against non-CHF controls. Lung clearance following aerosol delivery of (99m)technetium (Tc)-diethyl triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was measured non-invasively by scintigraphy and half time of (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (T (1/2)) was calculated by mono-exponential curve fit. Alveolar fluid clearance measured as half time DTPA clearance was significantly faster in CHF patients than controls (P=0.001). This was further defined by NYHA classification. No correlation was found between DTPA clearance and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine or aldosterone hormone (P>0.05). Our results support an association between increasing alveolar fluid clearance and disease severity in CHF, and the concept of controlled bi-directional fluid flux in CHF associated with increasing Pmv, and represents another defence mechanism of the lung against pulmonary oedema. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a patient with suspected chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jani-Acsadi, Agnes; Lewis, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Demyelinating neuropathies are typically characterized by physiological slowing of conduction velocity and pathologically by segmental loss of myelin and in some instances, evidence of remyelination. Clinically, patients with demyelinating neuropathy can be seen with inherited disorders (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) or acquired disorders, typically immune-mediated or inflammatory. The acquired disorders can be either acute or subacute as seen in the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic progressive or relapsing disorders such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. It is important to develop a logical approach to diagnosing these disorders. This requires an understanding of the clinical, genetic, physiological, and pathological features of these neuropathies. Clinically, important features to consider are the temporal progression, degree of symmetry, and involvement of proximal as well as distal muscles. Genetically, recognizing the different inheritance patterns and age of onset allow for a coordinated approach to determining a specific genotype. Physiologically, besides nerve conduction slowing, other physiological hallmarks of demyelination include temporal dispersion of compound motor action potentials (CMAP) on proximal stimulation, conduction block, and distal CMAP duration prolongation with certain patterns of involvement pointing to specific disorders. This chapter focuses on these various aspects of the evaluation of patients with chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies to develop a comprehensive and thoughtful diagnostic concept.

  5. Metformin in patients with chronic kidney disease: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Almeida, Marta; Santos, Josefina; Carvalho, André

    2013-01-01

    A wide array of benefits has been attributed to metformin. These include attenuation of abnormal glucose metabolism (diabetes treatment and prevention), weight neutrality or weight loss, improvement in the pathophysiologic components of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction), lipid-lowering properties, cardiovascular protection, and antineoplastic potential. Metformin itself is not a nephrotoxic drug. Initially appointed as the safest hypoglycemic agent in chronic kidney disease, its use has been limited in these patients because of the perceived risk of lactic acidosis. A fear perpetuated by numerous case reports in which it is implicated. Current guidelines stipulate that it must be used with caution in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of less than 60 mL/minute and not at all in eGFRs of less than 30 mL/minute. Identified risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include acute kidney injury, hypoxemia, sepsis, alcohol abuse, liver failure, myocardial infarction, and shock. Treatment may include supportive care and dialysis techniques. On the other hand, it is likely that the use of metformin would be beneficial in many with chronic kidney disease according to the advantages associated with attenuation of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular protection. The reality of severe metformin-induced lactic acidosis in the absence of chronic renal impairment raises the question of limitation of its use in these patients.

  6. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Nanda, Satyan; Tripathi, Adarsh; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Himanshu, D; Verma, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but there is a paucity of data from India. Aims and Objectives: Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University). A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire. Results: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in COPD patients (28.4%) as compared to controls (2.7%). As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years. Conclusion: The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any. PMID:27051106

  7. Mental status in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Banyra, Oleg; Ivanenko, Olha; Nikitin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic prostatitis is a widespread urological disease with a lengthy course and a propensity to frequent recurrences. Adequate response to anti–inflammatory therapy is lacking in a high percentage of patients, which causes them to seek medical advice from different doctors. Thus, the physicians are challenged to look for other reasons causing the pathological symptoms. Material and methods We have reviewed the patients with treatment–resistant chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) from the perspective of psychosomatic medicine. For the evaluation of primary mental status and treatment control we used standard approved questionnaires. All 337 CBP patients initially underwent therapy aimed at pathogen eradication. If psychopathological symptoms were evident and dominated over urological ones, the patients were referred to psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Results The frequency of concomitant psychosomatic disorders (PSD) in patients with CBP was 28.2% and neurotic disorders – 26.4%. Adequate multimodal anti–inflammatory therapy followed by a few sessions of psychotherapy decreased the manifestations of PSD in 30.5%, neurotic disorders in 51.7%, and premature ejaculation in 60.5% of patients with CBP. The addition of pharmacotherapy to psychotherapy is effective in treatment–resistant cases. However, after multimodal treatment, 31.5% of pts. with PSD and 13.5% of pts. with neurotic disorders still remain treatment–resistant and required in–depth long–term psychiatric care. Conclusions A significant portion of CBP patients were diagnosed with neurotic, psychosomatic, and/or depressive disorders. Antibacterial and anti–inflammatory therapy, when followed by appropriate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, significantly decrease the manifestations of mental disorders in CBP patients. PMID:24579003

  8. Nutritional status and patient characteristics for hospitalised older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Odencrants, Sigrid; Ehnfors, Margareta; Ehrenberg, Anna

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and compare nutritional status and social and medical characteristics among older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to an acute care hospital ward for respiratory medicine. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a condition associated with risk of developing malnutrition. A body mass index <20 is predictive of hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Knowledge about patient characteristics is crucial for the identification of malnourished patients and the development of nursing care for these patients. Quantitative descriptive study. Thirty-three hospitalised women and 17 men with a mean age of 75.7 years (SD 6.9) were consecutively included. A very severe case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was indicated in 28 out of 39 patients who underwent a lung function test. Data were collected with measurement of nutritional status using Mini Nutritional Assessment, anthropometry and lung function. Nearly half of the patients (48%) were identified as malnourished, an equal part as at risk for malnutrition and two patients as well nourished. The mean Mini Nutritional Assessment score of 17.2 (SD 3.99) for all patients was near the Mini Nutritional Assessment cut-off score (i.e. 17) for malnutrition. Patients identified as malnourished had a mean body mass index of 18.9 and those at risk for malnutrition had a mean of 23.4. It was more common for those identified as malnourished to live singly, to not live in own property and to be dependent on daily community service. Seven patients identified as malnourished died during the data collection period. This study provides important knowledge about further risks of impaired nutritional status among older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This knowledge can provide registered nurses with the necessary knowledge to make them aware of certain patients needing particular kinds of attention.

  9. Participation of chronic patients in medical consultations: patients' perceived efficacy, barriers and interest in support.

    PubMed

    Henselmans, Inge; Heijmans, Monique; Rademakers, Jany; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Chronic patients are increasingly expected to participate actively in medical consultations. This study examined (i) patients' perceived efficacy and barriers to participation in consultations, (ii) patients' interest in communication support and (iii) correlates of perceived efficacy and barriers, with an emphasis on differences across providers' disciplines. A representative panel of chronic patients (n = 1314) filled out the short Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Provider Interaction scale and were questioned about barriers to participation and interest in communication support. Potential correlates included socio-demographic (age, sex, education, living situation), clinical (discipline care provider, type of illness, comorbidity, illness duration, functional disabilities, health consultations in last year) and personal characteristics (information preference, health literacy, level of general patient activation). Most patients felt efficacious in consultations, although 46% reported barriers to participation and 39% had an interest in support. Barriers most frequently recognized were 'not wanting to be bothersome', 'perception there is too little time' and 'remembering subjects only afterwards'. Patients most frequently endorsed relatively simple support. Patients perceived the least barriers and were least likely to endorse support when seeing a nurse. In multivariate models, consistent risk factors for low efficacy and perceived barriers were low health literacy and a low general patient activation. Many chronically ill patients feel confident in medical interactions. Still, a significant number might benefit from support. Often this concerned more generally vulnerable patients, that is, the low literate and generally less activated. Relatively simple supportive interventions are likely to be endorsed and might overcome frequent barriers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic renal failure - part II].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kędzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kędzierska, Joanna; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance, and volume regulation. In subjects with chronic renal failure, particularly at its later stages, these adaptive responses are impaired and some of these alterations are of clinical relevance. The ways in which chronic renal failure affects function of endocrine organs include impaired secretion of kidney-derived hormones, altered peripheral hormone metabolism, disturbed binding to carrier proteins, accumulation of hormone inhibitors, as well as abnormal target organ responsiveness. Apart from secondary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid dysfunction and impaired growth, reviewed in our previous study, endocrine disturbances that most frequently affect this group of patients include: abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamicpituitary- gonadal axes, bone loss and gynecomastia. The clinical picture and laboratory findings of these endocrine disturbances depend on the treatment strategy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  11. Undiagnosed renal sarcoidosis in a patient with chronic interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenfang; Qiu, Bin; Liu, Hongfeng; He, Leren

    2017-09-05

    A 53-year-old female was admitted to hospital, with acute elevation of SCr and hypercalcemia, on a 5-year history of chronic interstitial nephritis and stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD). Extensive workup failed to yield a definitive diagnosis concerning the cause of the disorder. Intense uptake of (18)F-FDG in the spleen and liver was detected by PET/CT imaging with negative angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in serum. The spleen and the hypermetabolism nodules of the liver were resected for histopathologic examination and turned out to be noncaseating granulomas, likely sarcoidosis. Combined with clinical features, the final diagnosis for this patient was sarcoidosis, involving the kidneys, spleen, liver, and lungs.

  12. Musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; Gonzales, Boris; Bayo, Miguel Ángel; Luna, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is a very common symptom in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with CMP in patients with advanced CKD not on dialysis, and to analyse their relation with other uraemic symptoms and their prognosis significance. Cross-sectional study to analyse the uraemic symptoms of an unselected cohort of patients with CKD stage 4-5 pre-dialysis. In order to characterise patients with CMP, demographic and anthropometric data were collected, as well as data on comorbidities and kidney function. In addition, inflammatory parameters, uric parameters, bone mineral metabolism including 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHCC), creatine kinase and drugs of potential interest including allopurinol, statins and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were recorded. The study group consisted of 1169 patients (mean age 65±15 years, 54% male). A total of 38% of patients complained of CMP, and this symptom was more prevalent in women than in men (49 vs. 28%; P<.0001). Muscle weakness, pruritus, muscle cramps, ecchymosis, insomnia, oedema and dyspnoea were the most common symptoms associated with CMP. There were no significant associations between serum levels of creatine kinase, 25-OHCC, treatment with allopurinol, statins or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and CMP. The female gender, elderly age, obesity, comorbidity (mainly diabetes, heart failure or COPD), and elevated levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and non-neutrophilic leukocytes) were the best determinants of CMP. While patients with CMP showed a worse survival rate, a multivariate analysis adjusted for demographic data ruled out the independent association of CMP with mortality. CMP is highly prevalent in patients with advanced CKD and is associated with other common symptoms of chronic uraemia. As with the general population, elderly age, the

  13. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in 106 patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Forteza Gil, Alberto; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Eixerés, Andrea; Velázquez, María Teresa; Sánchez Nistal, María Antonia; Pérez Vela, José Luis; Ruiz Cano, María José; Gómez Sanchez, Miguel Ángel; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is the treatment of choice in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We report our experience with this technique. Between February 1996 and June 2014, we performed 106 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. Patient population, morbidity and mortality and the long-term results of this technique (survival, functional improvement and resolution of pulmonary hypertension) are described. Subjects' mean age was 53±14 years. A total of 89% were WHO functional class III-IV, presurgery mean pulmonary pressure was 49±13mmHg and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 831±364 dynes.s.cm(-5). In-hospital mortality was 6.6%. The most important post-operative morbidity was reperfusion pulmonary injury, in 20% of patients; this was an independent risk factor (p=0.015) for hospital mortality. With a 31-month median follow-up (interquartile range: 50), 3- and 5-year survival was 90 and 84%. At 1 year, 91% were WHO functional class I-II; mean pulmonary pressure (27±11mmHg) and pulmonary vascular resistance (275±218 dynes.s.cm(-5)) were significantly lower (p<0.05) than before the intervention. Although residual pulmonary hypertension was detected in 14 patients, their survival at 3 and 5 years was 91 and 73%, respectively. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy offers excellent results in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Long-term survival is good, functional capacity improves, and pulmonary hypertension is resolved in most patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient education in Switzerland: from diabetes to chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Assal, J P; Golay, A

    2001-07-01

    The Division of Therapeutic Education for Chronic Diseases at the University Hospital of Geneva has been playing an important role in the field of therapeutic patient education for more than 25 years. More than 16,000 patients have been hospitalised and an excess of 75,000 h have been spent with a rather novel interdisciplinary approach involving doctors, nurses, dieticians, psychologists, podiatrists and pedagogues. For the past 12 years, our division has held over 50 seminars of 1-week postgraduate training attended by over 3000 participants coming from more than 60 countries worldwide. In 1998, the faculty of medicine at the University of Geneva implemented a 3-year curriculum on therapeutic patient education leading to a postgraduate university diploma. In 1983, the WHO designated the Swiss teaching division as a WHO Collaborating Center for reference and research in diabetes education. In 1998, a WHO-Euro Working Group Report entitled "Therapeutic Patient Education. Continuing education programmes for health care providers in the field of prevention of chronic diseases" was published.

  15. Affective instability in patients with chronic pain: a diary approach.

    PubMed

    Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert

    2016-08-01

    Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain.

  16. DIABCARD a smart card for patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, R; Hildebrand, C

    1997-01-01

    Within the European Union-sponsored project DIABCARD, the core of a chip-card-based medical information system for patients with chronic diseases, exemplified on diabetes mellitus, has been developed. The long-term goal of the project is to improve the medical record and the quality of care for patients with chronic diseases. The basic idea is to have a portable electronic medical record on a smart card. This will improve the communication between the different healthcare personnel and between different institutions and, at the same time, promote shared care. The DIABCARD chip-card-based medical information system will offer controlled access to the necessary and up-to-date patient record to everyone involved in the patient's treatment, and it will help reduce the constantly rising healthcare expenditure. The system first was implemented in a small version. The system architecture contains hardware, software, and orgware. It considers especially the memory of the chip card, the processor, the data structure, security functions, the operating system on the chip card, the interface between the chip card and the application, and various application areas. The DIABCARD dataset was defined via an information model, which describes the different communication processes, via acknowledged diabetes datasets and medical scenarios. It includes, among others, emergency data, data for quality assurance, and data for blood glucose self-monitoring. The first prototype has been developed, and a pilot was run for 3 months.

  17. [Preparing patients with chronic pulmonary disease for air travel].

    PubMed

    Felkai, Péter; Böszörményi Nagy, György; Gyarmati, Ildikó

    2013-03-03

    Flying is the most important way of travelling in the continually growing international tourism. Number of passengers and those with preexisting diseases, mainly with cardiopulmonary problems, is increasing over years. One of the main tasks of the pre-travel advice is to assess tolerance to hypoxia of the traveler, and specify the necessity, as well as the type and volume of supplementary oxygen therapy. It is indispensable to know the cabin-environment and impact of that on the travelers' health. Travel medicine specialist has to be aware of the examinations which provide information for the appropriate decision on the fit-to-fly condition of the patient. The physician who prepares the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for repatriation by regular flight and the escorting doctor have to be fully aware of the possibilities, modalities, advantages and contraindications of the on-board oxygen supply and therapy. In this review, the authors give a summary of literature data, outline the tools of in-flight oxygen therapy as well as discuss possibilities for the preflight assessment of patients' condition including blood gas parameters required for safe air travel, as recommended in international medical literature. The preparation process for repatriation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also discussed.

  18. Partnering With Gastroenterologists to Evaluate Patients With Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.; Brunton, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Constipation is a highly prevalent and bothersome disorder that negatively affects patients' social and professional lives and imposes a heavy economic burden on patients and society. Most patients with chronic constipation are evaluated and treated in the primary care setting. Primary care clinicians often underestimate how much they can accomplish in the evaluation of a patient with constipation before they make a referral. There are numerous steps that primary care clinicians can take to address these issues and maximize the benefits of the referral process, including understanding key elements of an effective diagnostic work-up, familiarizing themselves with the utility of various diagnostic tests of colonic and anorectal function, implementing strategies/instruments to optimally communicate what they are striving to achieve through the referral process (eg, via a referral form), and developing a network of long-term working relationships with local gastroenterologists. Introduction Constipation is a highly prevalent disorder that affects approximately 12% to 19% of North Americans – estimates vary widely depending on study design and methodology.[1–6] For many persons, constipation is a chronic problem, lasting from several months to several years.[2] The multiple symptoms of chronic constipation encompass much more than reduced stool frequency; many patients report straining, feelings of incomplete evacuation, abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating, hard and/or small stools, or a need for digital manipulation to enable defecation.[5,7–12] For research purposes (eg, enrolling patients into clinical trials), the Rome II diagnostic criteria for constipation are generally used (Table 1).[2,13] Chronic constipation leads to decreased quality of life. The general well-being of patients with this disorder is lower than that of comparable normal populations,[14,15] and symptom severity has a negative correlation with perceived

  19. [Correction of psychoemotional status in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuz'menko, V V; Kuz'menko, A V; Kurnosova, N V

    2012-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the efficiency of combination treatment in patients with chronic prostatitis. Psychometric and psychological methods, such as the Hamilton depression rating scale and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, determination of the types of an attitude toward illness, and the personality rating questionnaire, were used to examine 80 men with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) who were allocated to 2 groups. A study group received levofloxacin in combination with adaptol for 10 days; a control group had antibacterial therapy only. The patients receiving adaptol were ascertained to have a more evident normalization of mental disorders, as shown by the scales, as lower scores: 4.9 +/- 0.6 for irritability, 5.7 +/- 0.6 for reactive aggression, 5.1 +/- 0.7 for shyness, and as a higher score (up to 5.2 +/- 1.3) for sociability (p < 0.05). There was a pronounced reduction in diurnal mood variations, which is indicative of relief of anxiety and depressive disorders. The use of adaptol in a dose of 500 mg thrice daily for 10 days as part of the combination treatment of patients with an exacerbation of CBP permits correction of the mental status and improves the quality of life of patients in a shorter period of treatment.

  20. Food Allergy in Korean Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bo Young; Cho, Yong Se; Kim, Hye One

    2016-01-01

    Background The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) remains unknown in most patients. Possible causes in some cases include food, but the role of allergy to food antigens in patients with CU remains controversial. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between food allergy and CU. Methods Korean patients with CU were assessed for a previous history of food allergy that caused symptoms of CU. Blood samples were taken from 350 patients to measure food allergen-specific IgE. Based on history and laboratory results, open oral food challenge (OFC) tests were performed. Results Of 350 participants, 46 (13.1%) claimed to have experienced previous food hypersensitivity. Pork (n=16) was the main food mentioned, followed by beef (n=7), shrimp (n=6), and mackerel (n=6). We found that 73 participants (20.9%) had elevated levels of food-specific IgE, with pork (n=30), wheat (n=25), and beef (n=23) being the most common. However, when the open OFC tests were conducted in 102 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity or raised levels of food-specific IgE, only four participants showed a positive reaction to pork (n=3) or crab (n=1). Conclusion Although some participants claimed to have a history of CU related to food intake, when an open OFC test was conducted, few of them had positive results. We therefore conclude that food allergy is an uncommon cause of chronic CU. PMID:27746634

  1. Multicenter Retrospective Analysis of Turkish Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Nur; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C.; Cömert, Melda; Çekdemir, Demet; Yılmaz, Mehmet; Ünal, Ali; Çağlıyan, Gülsüm; Bilgir, Oktay; İlhan, Osman; Özdemirkıran, Füsun; Kaya, Emin; Şahin, Fahri; Vural, Filiz; Saydam, Güray

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (CMPNs) that include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are Philadelphia-negative malignancies characterized by a clonal proliferation of one or several lineages. The aim of this report was to determine the demographic features, disease characteristics, treatment strategies, and survival rates of patients with CMPNs in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Across all of Turkey, 9 centers were enrolled in the study. We retrospectively evaluated 708 CMPN patients’ results including 390 with ET, 213 with PV, and 105 with PMF. Results: The JAK2V617F mutation was found positive in 86% of patients with PV, in 51.5% of patients with ET, and in 50.4% of patients with PMF. Thrombosis and bleeding at diagnosis occurred in 20.6% and 7.5% of PV patients, 15.1% and 9% of ET patients, and 9.5% and 10.4% of PMF patients, respectively. Six hundred and eight patients (85.9%) received cytoreductive therapy. The most commonly used drug was hydroxyurea (89.6%). Leukemic and fibrotic transformations occurred at rates of 0.6% and 13.2%. The estimated overall survival in PV, ET, and PMF patients was 89.7%, 85%, and 82.5% at 10 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between survival in ET, PV, and PMF patients at 10 years. Conclusion: Our patients’ results are generally compatible with the literature findings, except for the relatively high survival rate in PMF patients. Hydroxyurea was the most commonly used cytoreductive therapy. Our study reflects the demographic features, patient characteristics, treatments, and survival rates of Turkish CMPN patients. PMID:27094252

  2. Chronic pain patients' treatment preferences: a discrete-choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Junker, Uwe; Juhnke, Christin; Stemmler, Edgar; Kohlmann, Thomas; Leverkus, Friedhelm; Nübling, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify, document, and weight attributes of a pain medication that are relevant from the perspective of patients with chronic pain. Within the sub-population of patients suffering from "chronic neuropathic pain", three groups were analyzed in depth: patients with neuropathic back pain, patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy, and patients suffering from pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia. The central question was: "On which features do patients base their assessment of pain medications and which features are most useful in the process of evaluating and selecting possible therapies?" A detailed literature review, focus groups with patients, and face-to-face interviews with widely recognized experts for pain treatment were conducted to identify relevant treatment attributes of a pain medication. A pre-test was conducted to verify the structure of relevant and dominant attributes using factor analyses by evaluating the most frequently mentioned representatives of each factor. The Discrete-Choice Experiment (DCE) used a survey based on self-reported patient data including socio-demographics and specific parameters concerning pain treatment. Furthermore, the neuropathic pain component was determined in all patients based on their scoring in the painDETECT(®) questionnaire. For statistical data analysis of the DCE, a random effect logit model was used and coefficients were presented. A total of 1,324 German patients participated in the survey, of whom 44 % suffered from neuropathic back pain (including mixed pain syndrome), 10 % complained about diabetic polyneuropathy, and 4 % reported pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia. A total of 36 single quality aspects of pain treatment, detected in the qualitative survey, were grouped in 7 dimensions by factor analysis. These 7 dimensions were used as attributes for the DCE. The DCE model resulted in the following ranking of relevant attributes for treatment decision: "no character

  3. Nutrition Support for the Chronically Wasted or Acutely Catabolic Chronic Kidney Disease Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ikizler, T. Alp

    2013-01-01

    Summary Because of the number of factors affecting the nutritional and metabolic status in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease or who are on maintenance dialysis, the prevention and treatment of protein-energy wasting (PEW) of chronic kidney disease should involve a comprehensive combination of maneuvers to diminish protein and energy depletion, in addition to therapies that will avoid further losses. The available evidence suggests that nutritional supplementation, administered orally or parenterally, is effective in the treatment of maintenance dialysis patients with PEW in whom oral dietary intake from regular meals cannot maintain adequate nutritional status. Increased oral nutrient intake during dialysis and at home is the ideal choice for this intervention. In clinical practice, the advantages of intradialytic oral nutritional supplements include proven efficacy and compliance. Therefore, at a minimum, oral nutritional supplementation given intradialytically should be attempted in maintenance dialysis patients with PEW, accompanied by individualized dietary advice for appropriate intake at home. In ones who cannot tolerate oral feeding, other forms of nutritional supplementation including intradialytic parenteral nutritional are a reasonable strategy. Although not proven conclusively, nutritional interventions in the form of supplementation may lead to considerable improvements in mortality, hospitalization, and treatment costs. PMID:19121477

  4. [Anal stretching device for patients with chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Itza, Fernandok; Zarza, Daniel; Salinas, Jesus; Gómez-Sancha, Fernando; Ximénez, Carmen

    2013-03-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a poorly understood and ill-treated condition. It is accompanied by the shortening and increase in tone of the pelvic floor muscles and is closely related to myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This study aims to evaluate the utility of an anal stretching device (ASD) for improving the pain manifestations of chronic prostatitis (CP) and CPPS. Thirty-one men(38.6 years ± 8.2) were consecutively recruited with an average monitoring period of 14.4 months (± 8.2). The treatment duration was between six months and three years. A clinical history was compiled along with a physical examination and neurophysiological tests. To evaluate pain, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used before and after treatment; at the final visit, the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale (CGI-I) was administered. The ASD is a device that is commercially available in different diameters and lengths. Patients were diagnosed with MPS using neurophysiological tests. Significant differences were found before and after the treatment when evaluating the intensity of the pain using the VAS (6.1±2.1 vs. 1.9±1.3; p < .001). The CGI-I showed a total of 21 patients (70%) whose symptoms were improved or very much improved. Only one patient was worse after the treatment. ASD appears to be a safe and useful tool to treat the pain manifestations of CPPS without notable side effects.

  5. ST2 and patient prognosis in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Zhang, Yuhui; Ky, Bonnie

    2015-04-02

    Biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for diagnosis and prognosis, and the use of several biomarkers is now considered the standard of care. New markers continue to be developed, but few prove to be substantially better than established markers. Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is a marker of cardiomyocyte stress and fibrosis that provides incremental value to natriuretic peptides for risk stratification of patients with a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of all available data, the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines now recommend measurement of ST2 for additive risk stratification in patients with acute or chronic ambulatory heart failure (HF). This report provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical studies that led to the endorsement of ST2 as a cardiovascular prognostic marker in chronic HF. The presented data suggest that the addition of ST2 to a model that includes established mortality risk factors, including natriuretic peptides, substantially improves the risk stratification for death and HF hospitalization in patients with HF. ST2's prognostic value remains strong even in the subset of patients with renal insufficiency and is superior to other remodeling-fibrosis biomarkers currently being evaluated. In conclusion, these results have been repeatedly validated; thus, ST2 could be rapidly incorporated into clinical practice for risk prediction. Indeed, the body of evidence supporting the use of ST2 in chronic HF stratification continues to grow, with consistent data from cohorts around the world in single-center (Barcelona, Brussels, and San Diego cohorts) and multicenter (Penn Heart Failure Study [PHFS] and Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiac [MUSIC]) studies and in post hoc studies from clinical trials (Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation 2 [PRAISE-2], Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training [HF

  6. Management of chronic constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V G M; Abraham, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical assessment and evidence-based treatment options for managing diabetes-associated chronic constipation. A literature search of published medical reports in English language was performed using the OVID Portal, from PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to October 2015. A total of 145 abstracts were identified; duplicate publications were removed and 95 relevant full-text articles were retrieved for potential inclusion. Chronic constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes, and occurs more frequently than in healthy individuals. Treatment goals include improving symptoms and restoring bowel function by accelerating colonic transit and facilitating defecation. Based on guidelines and data from published literature, food and dietary change with exercise and lifestyle change should be the first step in management. For patients recalcitrant to these changes, laxatives should be the next step of treatment. Treatment should begin with bulking agents such as psyllium, bran or methylcellulose followed by osmotic laxatives if response is poor. Lactulose, polyethylene glycol and lactitol are the most frequently prescribed osmotic agents. Lactulose has a prebiotic effect and a carry-over effect (continued laxative effect for at least 6 to 7 days, post cessation of treatment). Stimulants such as bisacodyl, sodium picosulphate and senna are indicated if osmotic laxatives are not effective. Newer agents such as chloride-channel activators and 5-HT4 agonist can be considered for severe or resistant cases. The primary aim of intervention in diabetic patients with chronic constipation is to better manage the diabetes along with management of constipation. The physician should explain the rationale for prescribing laxatives and educate patients about the potential drawbacks of long-term use of laxatives. They should contact their physician if

  7. Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  8. Novel tool for deprescribing in chronic patients with multimorbidity: List of Evidence-Based Deprescribing for Chronic Patients criteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Aitana; Alfaro-Lara, Eva Rocío; Albiñana-Perez, Sandra; Nieto-Martín, María Dolores; Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Santos-Ramos, Bernardo

    2017-05-21

    To create a tool to identify drugs and clinical situations that offers an opportunity of deprescribing in patients with multimorbidity. A literature review completed with electronic brainstorming, and subsequently, a panel of experts using the Delphi methodology were applied. The experts assessed the criteria identified in the literature and brainstorming as possible situations for deprescribing. They were also asked to assess the influence of life prognosis in each criterion. A tool was composed of the most appropriate criteria according to the strength of their evidence, usefulness in patients with multimorbidity and applicability in clinical practice. Out of a total of 100, 27 criteria were selected to be included in the final list. It was named the LESS-CHRON criteria (List of Evidence-baSed depreScribing for CHRONic patients), and was organized by the anatomical group of the Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical (ATC) classification system of the drug to be deprescribed. Each criterion contains: drug indication for which it is prescribed, clinical situation that offers an opportunity to deprescribe, clinical variable to be monitored and the minimum time to follow up the patient after deprescribing. The "LESS-CHRON criteria" are the result of a comprehensive and standardized methodology to identify clinical situations for deprescribing drugs in chronic patients with multimorbidity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Hepatic Abscess in Patients With Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lublin, Matthew; Bartlett, David L.; Danforth, David N.; Kauffman, Howard; Gallin, John I.; Malech, Harry L.; Shawker, Thomas; Choyke, Peter; Kleiner, David E.; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J.; Chang, Richard; DeCarlo, Ellen S.; Holland, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and surgical management of hepatic abscesses in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Summary Background Data Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency in which phagocytes cannot destroy catalase-positive bacteria and fungi. Defects in the phagocytic cells’ respiratory burst lead to life-threatening infections, including hepatic abscess. These abscesses are recurrent and often multiple and are treated differently from bacterial abscesses in patients without CGD. Methods Between 1980 and 2000, 61 cases of hepatic abscess in 22 patients with CGD were treated at the National Institutes of Health. Clinicopathologic features were investigated by retrospective review of the medical records, radiographs, and histopathology. Results Twelve of the 61 cases were primary hepatic abscesses. Twenty-nine of the cases were recurrent hepatic abscesses, and 20 cases were persistent hepatic abscesses. The median age at the time of initial hepatic abscess presentation was 14 years. Subjective fever was the most frequent presenting symptom, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in 98% of cases. Fifty-two cases were managed surgically and eight cases were managed with percutaneous drainage. One patient refused surgery. The surgical complication rate was 56%; however, there were no deaths directly related to the hepatic abscesses. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism identified in culture (88% of positive cultures). Aggressive surgery and antibiotics ultimately resulted in successful treatment of all patients. Conclusions Hepatic abscesses occurring in patients with CGD represent a difficult diagnostic and treatment challenge. Early excision and treatment with antibiotics directed against S. aureus is necessary. General surgeons should be aware of this rare immunodeficiency and should aggressively manage hepatic abscesses in these patients

  10. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Dialyzed Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Simona; Masola, Valentina; Zoratti, Elisa; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Baruzzi, Anna; Messa, Michele; Sallustio, Fabio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that mediates the activation of caspase-1 (CASP-1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β, could be involved in the chronic inflammatory state observed in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment (CKD-HD), we employed several biomolecular techniques including RT-PCR, western blot, FACS analysis, confocal microscopy and microarray. Interestingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 CKD-HD patients showed higher mRNA levels of NLRP3, CASP-1, ASC, IL-1β, IL-18 and P2X7receptor compared to 15 healthy subjects. Western blotting analysis confirmed the above results. In particular, active forms of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 resulted significantly up-regulated in CKD-HD versus controls. Additionally, elevated mitochondrial ROS level, colocalization of NLRP3/ASC/mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CKD-HD patients and down-regulation of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 protein levels in immune-cells of CKD-HD patients stimulated with LPS/ATP in presence of mitoTEMPO, inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS production, suggested a possible role of this organelle in the aforementioned CKD-associated inflammasome activation. Then, microarray analysis confirmed, in an independent microarray study cohort, that NLRP3 and CASP-1, along with other inflammasome-related genes, were up-regulated in 17 CKD-HD patients and they were able to clearly discriminate these patients from 5 healthy subjects. All together these data showed, for the first time, that NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in uremic patients undergoing dialysis treatment and they suggested that this unphysiological condition could be possibly induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25798846

  11. [Nurses interacting therapeutically with elderly patients in chronic depression].

    PubMed

    Osinaga, V L; Scatena, M C; Rodrigues, A R

    1998-01-01

    In a humanist care model we searched to analyse experiences lived by nurses interacting with chronic depression patients. There was a female patient who was being assisted by Psycho-social Support Nucleus (NAP), 60 years old, presenting depressive symptoms, proper for her age, probably stressed by her suffering experiences in life. It was a therapeutic interaction as matters of the patient's interest (not the nurses interest) have been presented; the pace of communication has been determined b the patient herself; the nurse (except in the very beginning when the patient was a little anxious) followed her communication, physically approaching her whenever it was necessary; intervened only at necessary moments; inspired confidence that was necessary for the patient to talk about her intimate feelings; helped her to recover when she was out of control; conducted her safely, but with comprehensive attitude until the patient felt easy to leave her; demonstrated that she could help her in other moments if she thought it was necessary. Interaction achieved its aims helping the patient and being technically adequate for therapeutic and diagnosis aspects.

  12. Erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic pain treated with opioids.

    PubMed

    Ajo, Raquel; Segura, Ana; Inda, María-Del-Mar; Margarit, César; Ballester, Pura; Martínez, Emi; Ferrández, Guillermina; Sánchez-Barbie, Ángel; Peiró, Ana M

    2017-07-21

    Chronic pain is associated with comorbidities that have an impact on the quality of life of patients and, among others, affect their sexual functioning. One of the most relevant side effects of opioid analgesics is erectile dysfunction (ED), due in part to the inhibition of the gonadal-pituitary-hypothalamic axis and the decline in testosterone levels. To evaluate ED and effectiveness of treatment in men with chronic pain treated with long-term opioids. Prospective observational study lasting 3 years, where the intensity of pain (visual analogue scale, 0-10cm), erectile function (IIEF-EF, range 1-30 points), quality of life (EQ-VAS, 0-100mm), quality of sexual life (MSLQ-QOL, 0-100 points), anxiety/depression (HAD, 0-21 points) and testosterone levels, was assessed in patients who reported sexual dysfunction (ED or libido modification). A 6-month follow-up was applied to each patient after administering the usual treatment in the Andrology Unit. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee and data were statistically analyzed with the GraphPad Prism 5 software. ED was observed in 27.6% of patients (n=105, 57±12.2 years, mean dose of morphine equivalent=107.1±107.9mg/day, 84.3% adjuvant analgesics). After 6 months, 42% of patients showed a significant improvement after being treated with iPDE5 (48.5%) and/or testosterone gel (81.8%), with a resolution rate of 31% (p=0.000). A positive correlation was observed between the improvement of IIEF and quality of sexual life (55.5±25.7 points, p=0.000), as well as anxiety (7.4±4.3 points, p=0.048). No significant changes were observed in the levels of testosterone, in the levels of pain nor in the quality of life, which remained moderate. Erectile function and quality of sexual life, as well as anxiety, improved in patients treated chronically with opioids after administering andrological treatment. The management of patients with pain should include a review of their sexual health history given the

  13. Patient access to complex chronic disease records on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Access to medical records on the Internet has been reported to be acceptable and popular with patients, although most published evaluations have been of primary care or office-based practice. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of making unscreened results and data from a complex chronic disease pathway (renal medicine) available to patients over the Internet in a project involving more than half of renal units in the UK. Methods Content and presentation of the Renal PatientView (RPV) system was developed with patient groups. It was designed to receive information from multiple local information systems and to require minimal extra work in units. After piloting in 4 centres in 2005 it was made available more widely. Opinions were sought from both patients who enrolled and from those who did not in a paper survey, and from staff in an electronic survey. Anonymous data on enrolments and usage were extracted from the webserver. Results By mid 2011 over 17,000 patients from 47 of the 75 renal units in the UK had registered. Users had a wide age range (<10 to >90 yrs) but were younger and had more years of education than non-users. They were enthusiastic about the concept, found it easy to use, and 80% felt it gave them a better understanding of their disease. The most common reason for not enrolling was being unaware of the system. A minority of patients had security concerns, and these were reduced after enrolling. Staff responses were also strongly positive. They reported that it aided patient concordance and disease management, and increased the quality of consultations with a neutral effect on consultation length. Neither patient nor staff responses suggested that RPV led to an overall increase in patient anxiety or to an increased burden on renal units beyond the time required to enrol each patient. Conclusions Patient Internet access to secondary care records concerning a complex chronic disease is feasible and popular, providing an increased

  14. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of bosutinib in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hsyu, Poe-Hirr; Mould, Diane R; Upton, Richard N; Amantea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bosutinib is an orally active, dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has demonstrated manageable safety and high response rates in patients with chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The current analysis evaluated potential bosutinib pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships. Bosutinib exposure metrics at steady state were estimated from a previously developed population pharmacokinetic model. Safety and efficacy metrics were from two clinical studies of bosutinib 500 mg/day in patients with CP CML. The analysis included 749 patients (aged 18-91 years; mean weight, 75 kg; 54% male). An exposure-response relationship was identified for the pooled incidence (but not severity) of diarrhea, with predicted probability ranging from 0.575 to 0.797 for the lowest and highest area under the curve bins, respectively; a weak relationship was also observed for the incidence of rash (predicted probability, 0.216-0.419). There was no evidence of an exposure-response relationship for nausea, vomiting, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or elevated alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Exposure-response relationships were observed in patients with newly diagnosed CP CML for complete cytogenetic response at 1 year (predicted probability, 0.476-0.650), major molecular response at 1 year (0.238-0.497), and cumulative complete hematologic response (CHR) at 1 year (0.605-0.763). Patients with previously treated CP CML showed no exposure-response relationship for major cytogenetic response at 24 weeks (0.320); for CHR, higher bosutinib exposure was associated with a lower probability of response (0.926-0.743). The absence of exposure-response relationships for some safety and efficacy metrics may reflect bosutinib exposure metrics that exceeded the half-maximal inhibitory values and achieved a maximum effect.

  15. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  16. Overcoming the Influence of Chronic Pain on Older Patients' Difficulty with Recommended Self-Management Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krein, Sarah L.; Heisler, Michele; Piette, John D.; Butchart, Amy; Kerr, Eve A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Many older patients with common chronic conditions also experience chronic pain. We examined how chronic pain affects patients' difficulty with recommended self-management activities and the potential intervening role of self-efficacy (the level of confidence in one's own ability to perform a specific task). Design and Methods: We…

  17. Depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults in the United States and worldwide. Depression is a common comorbidity in this population, but often goes undiagnosed in persons with COPD. Because the presence of depression has the potential to negatively impact COPD-related outcomes, it is essential for health care practitioners involved in the care of patients with COPD to diagnose and treat COPD and the associated comorbidities, including depression. Although there is a lack of comprehensive guidelines for treating depression in those with COPD, an algorithm has been proposed to screen and manage depression in these patients. Several questionnaires are available that can be used to assess and assist in diagnosing depression in these patients. Following diagnosis, antidepressant therapy should be considered along with nonpharmacological strategies, such as pulmonary rehabilitation and cognitive behavioral therapy.

  18. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jison; Maron, David J; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving aberrant immune and tissue healing responses, which begins with endothelial dysfunction and ends with plaque development, instability and rupture. The increased risk for coronary artery disease in patients with rheumatologic diseases highlights how aberrancy in the innate and adaptive immune system may be central to development of both disease states and that atherosclerosis may be on a spectrum of immune-mediated conditions. Recognition of the tight association between chronic inflammatory disease and complications of atherosclerosis will impact the understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and change diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with rheumatologic syndromes as well as patients with coronary artery disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis, discuss the proposed mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis seen in association with rheumatologic diseases, evaluate the effect of immunosuppression on atherosclerosis and provide updates on available risk assessment tools, biomarkers and imaging modalities. PMID:27042216

  19. Knowledge management for chronic patient control and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreira, Nieves; Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Dorado, Julián; Pazos, Alejandro; Pereira, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) can be seen as the process of capturing, developing, sharing, and effectively using organizational knowledge. In this context, the work presented here proposes a KM System to be used in the scope of chronic patient control and monitoring for distributed research projects. It was designed in order to enable communication between patient and doctors, as well as to be usedbythe researchers involved in the project for its management. The proposed model integrates all the information concerning every patient and project management tasks in the Institutional Memory of a KMSystem and uses an ontology to maintain the information and its categorization independently. Furthermore, taking the philosophy of intelligent agents, the system will interact with the user to show him the information according to his preferences and access rights. Finally, three different scenarios of application are described.

  20. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Khilnani, Gopi C; Banga, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an important tool for management of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several well conducted studies in the recent years have established its role in the initial, as well as later management of these patients. However, some grey areas remain. Moreover, data is emerging on the role of long term nocturnal NIV use in patients with very severe stable COPD. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various stages of COPD, discuss the merits as well as demerits of this novel ventilatory strategy and highlight the grey areas in the current body of knowledge. PMID:18990962

  1. Temperament and character profiles of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Canan, Fatih; Karakaş, Ayşe Akman; Geçici, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psychosocial factors have been implicated as being important in the onset and/or exacerbation of urticaria. Aim To examine both personality factors of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and the correlations between illness duration, severity of itching, urticaria activity score (UAS) and temperament-character dimensions. Material and methods A total number of 70 CIU patients and 60 healthy individuals were included in the study. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered individually. The relationship between UAS, illness duration and severity of pruritus and TCI subscales were evaluated. Results The CIU group had significantly higher scores of novelty seeking and lower scores of cooperativeness, reward dependence and self-directedness than the control group. Conclusions The current study shows that CIU patients have distinctive temperament and character dimensions when compared with the control group. We suggest that evaluation and treatment of CIU should also include psychosomatic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:26161056

  2. Subjective concepts of chronically ill patients using distant healing.

    PubMed

    Güthlin, Corina; Anton, Andreas; Kruse, Jan; Walach, Harald

    2012-03-01

    Distant healing procedures consist of benevolent intentions, often taking the form of prayers for a patient. Despite inconclusive evidence regarding distant healing, prayers are a widespread health-related technique. We studied subjective concepts of distant healing in 17 patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity who were given distant healing during a randomized controlled trial. We applied reconstructive interview analysis when analyzing the results. The overall theme was the tension between mainstream medicine and the immaterial healing procedure. Several components highlighted this tension: (a) patterns of legitimizing the use of distant healing, (b) distant healing and the social setting, (c) integrating distant healing into their belief system, and (d) reconstruction of effects by means of hindsight. The interviews showed that patients felt the need to legitimize having tried distant healing. They had to bear the full ambiguity of biomedicine being in competition with distant healing, though also experiencing distant healing as giving support.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of isradipine in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cotting, J; Reichen, J; Kutz, K; Laplanche, R; Nüesch, E

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist isradipine has been examined in 8 healthy volunteers, 7 patients with non-cirrhotic chronic liver disease (CLD), and 8 patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis (CIR). Isradipine was simultaneously given orally (12C 5 mg) and i.v. (13C 1 mg). Systemic availability was significantly increased from 17% to 16% in controls and CLD, respectively, to 37% in CIR. The corresponding systemic clearances averaged 1.1, 0.9 and 0.6 l.min-1, the reduction in cirrhotics being significant. Both aminopyrine demethylation capacity, a measure of hepatic microsomal function, and indocyanine green disappearance, a measure of hepatic perfusion, were correlated with the reduction in systemic clearance, and the reduction in oral clearance was correlated with the reciprocal of the serum bile acid concentration. The loss of first-pass extraction should be considered when this calcium antagonist is given perorally in patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  4. Exercise improves albumin fractional synthetic rate in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Pupim, L B; Flakoll, P J; Ikizler, T A

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether exercise augments the improvements in fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of albumin observed with nutrition alone. Randomized crossover study. Each patient randomly participated in two protein metabolism kinetic studies using primed-constant infusion of (13C) leucine 2 h before, during and 2 h after hemodialysis. Plasma enrichments of (13C) leucine and (13C) ketoisocaproate were examined to determine the FSR of albumin. General Clinical Research Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Five chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Intra-dialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) with or without exercise. Exercise performance during hemodialysis significantly improves the FSR of albumin beyond what is observed with IDPN alone (26.2+/-3.1% per day versus 17.7+/-1.9% per day, P<0.05). Exercise improves albumin fractional synthetic rate beyond what is observed with IDPN alone in the acute setting in CHD patients.

  5. Management Strategy for Patients With Chronic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Keir, Graham; Marshall, M Blair

    2017-02-01

    We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PTCH1 expression at diagnosis predicts imatinib failure in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Dominguez, Juan M; Grinfeld, Jacob; Alikian, Mary; Marin, David; Reid, Alistair; Daghistani, Mustafa; Hedgley, Corinne; O'Brien, Stephen; Clark, Richard E; Apperley, Jane; Foroni, Letizia; Gerrard, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, around 25% of patients fail to sustain an adequate response. We sought to identify gene-expression biomarkers that could be used to predict imatinib response. The expression of 29 genes, previously implicated in CML pathogenesis, were measured by TaqMan Low Density Array in 73 CML patient samples. Patients were divided into low and high expression for each gene and imatinib failure (IF), probability of achieving CCyR, progression free survival and CML related OS were compared by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank. Results were validated in a second cohort of 56 patients, with a further technical validation using custom gene-expression assays in a conventional RT-qPCR in a sub-cohort of 37 patients. Patients with low PTCH1 expression showed a worse clinical response for all variables in all cohorts. PTCH1 was the most significant predictor in the multivariate analysis compared with Sokal, age and EUTOS. PTCH1 expression assay showed the adequate sensitivity, specificity and predictive values to predict for IF. Given the different treatments available for CML, measuring PTCH1 expression at diagnosis may help establish who will benefit best from imatinib and who is better selected for second generation TKI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prokaryotic DNA sequences in patients with chronic idiopathic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, J N; Riley, D E; Roberts, M C; Berger, R E

    1996-12-01

    Half of all men experience symptoms of prostatitis at some time in their lives, but the etiology is unknown for more than 90% of patients. Optimal clinical and culture methods were used to select 135 men with chronic prostatitis refractory to multiple previous courses of antimicrobial therapy. The subjects had no evidence of structural or functional lower genitourinary tract abnormalities of bacteriuria or bacterial prostatitis by traditional clinical tests, or of urethritis or urethral pathogens by culture. Specific PCR assays detected Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis in 10 patients (8%). Broad-spectrum PCR tests detected tetracycline resistance-encoding genes, tetM-tetO-tetS, in 25% of patients and 16S rRNA in 77% of subjects. The tetM-tetO-tetS-positive cases constituted a subset of the 16S rRNA-positive cases. Patients with 16S rRNA were more likely to have > or = 1,000 leukocytes per mm3 in their expressed prostatic secretion than men whose prostate biopsy specimens were negative for 16S rRNA (P < 0.001). Based on direct sequencing and repetitive cloning, multiple sources of 16S rRNA were observed in individual patients. Sequences of 29 cloned PCR products revealed 16S rRNAs distinct from those of common skin and gut flora. These findings suggest that the prostate can harbor microorganisms that are not detectable by traditional approaches. These organisms may be associated with inflammation in the expressed prostatic secretions. Molecular methods hold great promise for identifying culture-resistant microorganisms in patients with chronic prostatitis.

  8. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emphysema and chronic bronchitis, have been associated with increased lung cancer risk. Several epidemiological studies, including lung cancer screening trials, have found a 2- to 4-fold increase in lung cancer risk in patients with COPD when compared to individuals without airflow obstruction. Part of the risk attributed to airflow obstruction appears to be derived from the presence of radiographic emphysema. The latter has proven to be an important lung cancer risk factor in smokers without airflow obstruction and even in never smokers. This evidence supports the idea of including patients with COPD and/or emphysema in lung cancer screening programs. There is evidence that lung cancer screening in this population is effective and can potentially reduce mortality. Specific lung cancer risk scores have been developed for patients with COPD [COPD lung cancer screening score (LUCSS) and COPD-LUCSS-diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)] to identify those at high risk. A multidisciplinary approach for an adequate patient selection, especially of patients with severe disease, is key to maximize benefits and reduce harms from lung cancer screening in this population. Patients with COPD included in lung cancer screening programs could also benefit from other interventions, such as smoking cessation and adequate treatment.

  9. Prokaryotic DNA sequences in patients with chronic idiopathic prostatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, J N; Riley, D E; Roberts, M C; Berger, R E

    1996-01-01

    Half of all men experience symptoms of prostatitis at some time in their lives, but the etiology is unknown for more than 90% of patients. Optimal clinical and culture methods were used to select 135 men with chronic prostatitis refractory to multiple previous courses of antimicrobial therapy. The subjects had no evidence of structural or functional lower genitourinary tract abnormalities of bacteriuria or bacterial prostatitis by traditional clinical tests, or of urethritis or urethral pathogens by culture. Specific PCR assays detected Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis in 10 patients (8%). Broad-spectrum PCR tests detected tetracycline resistance-encoding genes, tetM-tetO-tetS, in 25% of patients and 16S rRNA in 77% of subjects. The tetM-tetO-tetS-positive cases constituted a subset of the 16S rRNA-positive cases. Patients with 16S rRNA were more likely to have > or = 1,000 leukocytes per mm3 in their expressed prostatic secretion than men whose prostate biopsy specimens were negative for 16S rRNA (P < 0.001). Based on direct sequencing and repetitive cloning, multiple sources of 16S rRNA were observed in individual patients. Sequences of 29 cloned PCR products revealed 16S rRNAs distinct from those of common skin and gut flora. These findings suggest that the prostate can harbor microorganisms that are not detectable by traditional approaches. These organisms may be associated with inflammation in the expressed prostatic secretions. Molecular methods hold great promise for identifying culture-resistant microorganisms in patients with chronic prostatitis. PMID:8940458

  10. Nutritional supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Yang, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cachexia, sarcopenia, and weight loss, and may result in poorer pulmonary function, decreased exercise capacity, and increased risk of exacerbations. Providing nutritional supplementation is an important therapeutic intervention, particularly for severely ill COPD patients with malnutrition. Higher calorie intake through nutritional supplementation significantly increases body weight and muscle strength, and improves quality of life in malnourished COPD patients. Difficulties may be experienced by these COPD patients, who are struggling to breathe and eliminate CO2 from the lungs, resulting in dyspnea, hypercapnia, hypoxia, and respiratory acidosis, which exacerbates muscle loss through oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. To overcome these problems, nutritional supplements should aim to reduce metabolic CO2 production, lower respiratory quotient, and improve lung function. Several studies have shown that high-fat supplements produce less CO2 and have lower respiratory quotient value than high-carbohydrate supplements. In addition, high-fat supplements may be the most efficient means of providing a low-volume, calorie-dense supplement to COPD patients, and may be most beneficial to patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation where hypercapnia and malnutrition are most pronounced. Further studies are required to investigate the optimal nutritional supplements for COPD patients according to their disease severity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Electroencephalogram characteristics in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tong; Qi, Xianghua; Su, Yuan; Teng, Jing; Xu, Xiangqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) using brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and EEG nonlinear dynamical analysis. Methods Forty-seven outpatients were selected over a 3-month period and divided into an observation group (24 outpatients) and a control group (23 outpatients) by using the non-probability sampling method. All the patients were given a routine EEG. The BEAM and the correlation dimension changes were analyzed to characterize the EEG features. Results 1) BEAM results indicated that the energy values of δ, θ, and α1 waves significantly increased in the observation group, compared with the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively), which suggests that the brain electrical activities in CFS patients were significantly reduced and stayed in an inhibitory state; 2) the increase of δ, θ, and α1 energy values in the right frontal and left occipital regions was more significant than other encephalic regions in CFS patients, indicating the region-specific encephalic distribution; 3) the correlation dimension in the observation group was significantly lower than the control group, suggesting decreased EEG complexity in CFS patients. Conclusion The spontaneous brain electrical activities in CFS patients were significantly reduced. The abnormal changes in the cerebral functions were localized at the right frontal and left occipital regions in CFS patients. PMID:26869792

  12. Quality of life in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Mayer, Eckhard; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Nikkho, Sylvia; Simonneau, Gérald

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) experience debilitating symptoms that have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL) in terms of physical capability, psychological wellbeing and social relationships. The use of QoL measurement tools is important in the assessment of treatment efficacy and in guiding treatment decisions. However, despite the importance of QoL, particularly to the patient, it remains under-reported in clinical studies of CTEPH therapy. CTEPH is unique in pulmonary hypertension in that it is potentially curable by surgery; however, a proportion of patients either have residual PH following surgery or are not operable. Although some patients with CTEPH have been treated off-label with pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies, there have been few randomised controlled trials of these therapies in patients with CTEPH. Moreover, in these trials QoL outcomes are variably assessed, and there is little consistency in the tools used. Here we review the assessment of QoL in patients with CTEPH and the tools that have been used. We also discuss the effect of surgical intervention and medical therapies on QoL. We conclude that further studies of QoL in patients with CTEPH are needed to further validate the optimal QoL tools. PMID:27076580

  13. Obinutuzumab treatment in the elderly patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Seiter, Karen; Mamorska-Dyga, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults in Western countries. Fludarabine-based regimens demonstrate higher response rates in younger patients but have a significant risk of infection and are thus poorly tolerated by older, frail patients. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies have added to the efficacy of chemotherapy in CLL. Obinutuzumab is a potent Type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular toxicity and direct cell death compared with rituximab. In Phase I studies, infusion reactions and neutropenia were the predominant toxicities. Phase II studies demonstrated efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in patients with CLL. The CLL11 trial was a Phase III randomized trial of chlorambucil alone or with either obinutuzumab or rituximab in elderly, unfit patients. Progression-free survival (the primary end point) was 26.7 months for patients receiving obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil versus 16.3 months for those receiving rituximab plus chlorambucil and 11.1 months for those receiving chlorambucil alone (P<0.001). Overall survival was improved for patients receiving obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil versus chlorambucil alone (P=0.002). This trial led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of obinutuzumab in this patient population. PMID:26109852

  14. [Porphyrin excretion in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Armas-Merino, R; Wolff, C; Parraguez, A; Soto, J R

    1997-03-01

    The high prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda, specially in those without family history of the disease, suggests that this could be an acquired disease and one of the most frequent extra hepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection. To study the excretion of porphyrins and its precursors in cirrhotic patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection. Eighteen patients with cirrhosis Child-Pough A, eight infected with hepatitis C virus, were studied. Urinary excretion of [symbol see text] aminolevulinic acid, porphobilinogen, coproporphyrins, uroporphyrins and fecal excretion of coproporphyrins and protoporphyrins were measured. Red blood cell protoporphyrin was also measured. There were no differences in the measured parameters between patients with or without hepatitis C virus infection. No patient had uroporphyrin excretion values over the normal range. Some patients had slight elevations in some parameters, but always below the values observed in porphyrias. In these group of patients, hepatitis C virus infection of its associated liver disease, do not cause detectable alterations in porphyrin metabolism.

  15. Patient education for phosphorus management in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This review explores the challenges and solutions in educating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to lower serum phosphorus while avoiding protein insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Methods: A literature search including terms “hyperphosphatemia,” “patient education,” “food fatigue,” “hypercalcemia,” and “phosphorus–protein ratio” was undertaken using PubMed. Results: Hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of mortality in advanced CKD and is remediated via diet, phosphorus binders, and dialysis. Dietary counseling should encourage the consumption of foods with the least amount of inorganic or absorbable phosphorus, low phosphorus-to-protein ratios, and adequate protein content, and discourage excessive calcium intake in high-risk patients. Emerging educational initiatives include food labeling using a “traffic light” scheme, motivational interviewing techniques, and the Phosphate Education Program – whereby patients no longer have to memorize the phosphorus content of each individual food component, but only a “phosphorus unit” value for a limited number of food groups. Phosphorus binders are associated with a clear survival advantage in CKD patients, overcome the limitations associated with dietary phosphorus restriction, and permit a more flexible approach to achieving normalization of phosphorus levels. Conclusion: Patient education on phosphorus and calcium management can improve concordance and adherence and empower patients to collaborate actively for optimal control of mineral metabolism. PMID:23667310

  16. [Wardenafil in combined treatment of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Aliaev, Iu G; Vinarov, A Z; Akhvlediani, N D

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in combination with antibacterial drugs in chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) was studied in a randomized trial with participation of 103 CBP patients (mean age 36.2 +/- 8.4 years). Group 1 patients (n = 32) received levofloxacine (500 mg/day) monotherapy for 4 weeks. Group 2 patients (n = 34) received antibacterial treatment plus wardenafil in a dose 10 mg in the evening. Group 3 patients (n = 37) received combined treatment (fluoroquinolone + wardenafil), PDE-5 inhibitor was taken for more than 2 times a week 10-60 min before the coitus. Treatment efficacy was assessed with NIH-CPSI scale, count of bacteria and leukocytes in the pre- and postmassage urine portions, uroflowmetry. By NIH-CPSI scale, a significant (p < 0.001) improvement was seen in dysuria and quality of life in group 2. The control test discovered pyuria in postmassage urine in 7 (21.9%), 4 (11.8%) and 6 (16.2%) patients of group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Manifest bacteriuria was registered in 3 (9.4%), 2 (5.9%) and 3 (8.1%) patients, respectively. Uroflowmetry reported significant changes (p < 0.05) in urine volume only in patients of group 2. Efficacy of CBP treatment significantly rises in combination of antibacterial treatment with wardenafil.

  17. Nutritional status and interdialytic weight gain of chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Sanzia Francisca; Freitas, Ana Tereza Vaz de Souza; Vaz, Inaiana Marques Filizola; Campos, Marta Isabel Valente Andrade Morais; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Pereira, Edna Regina Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional status (NS) of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is a major concern and challenge. Malnutrition is common in these patients and is related to poorer clinical outcomes. To assess the association between the NS and the interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on HD. Cross-sectional study with 322 patients older than 18 years. The NS was assessed by body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat estimated by the sum of four skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra iliac), lean body mass (LBM), serum creatinine and albumin and rate of nitrogen appearance (PNA). The IDWG was evaluated from the sum of the weight difference of 12 hemodialysis sessions (IDWGm). Considering the sample into quartiles IDWGm, it was found that BMI, LBM, serum creatinine ( p < 0.001) and PNA ( p = 0.011) were directly correlated. There was no association between IDWGm and serum albumin. Using multivariate analysis, it was found that the prevalence of patients with BMI suitability and serum creatinine were significantly higher for patients in the bottom quartile with respect to the first IDWGm. The NS is positively associated with IDWG. The results point to the need for individualized assessment of IDWG and cautious in order not to generalize a recommendation that does not meet the expectations of maintaining and promoting the nutritional status of these patients.

  18. Is chronic periodontitis premature in systemic lupus erythematosus patients?

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Débora Cerqueira; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida; Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Mendonça, Santuza Maria Souza; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Lúcio Teixeira, Antônio

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and severity of chronic periodontitis (CP) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with individuals without rheumatic diseases. Seventy-five patients with SLE were compared to 75 individuals without rheumatic diseases (control group) matched for age, educational level, and income. The activity of SLE was assessed with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000. Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus evaluated SLE-related damage. Dental evaluation included measuring plaque index and parameters of periodontal disease (probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing). Fifty-one (68 %) SLE patients and 42 (56 %) control individuals had CP (p = 0.13). Periodontal status was similar in both groups. Considering only individuals with CP, SLE patients were younger than controls (40.7 ± 9.8 versus 46.14 ± 12.5 years of age, p = 0.02). CP was not associated with activity or therapeutics in SLE patients. Severity of periodontal parameters was similar in SLE patients and control subjects; however, CP occurred earlier in SLE patients.

  19. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Barberán, José; Mensa, José

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common infection in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies or allogenic stem cell transplantation, and is less frequent in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucociliary activity impairment, immunosuppression due to the inhibition of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils by steroids, and receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, play a role in the development of IPA in COPD patients. Colonized patients or those with IPA are older, with severe CODP stage (GOLD≥III), and have a higher number of comorbidities. The mortality rate is high due to the fact that having a definitive diagnosis of IPA in COPD patients is often difficult. The main clinical and radiological signs of IPA in these types of patients are non-specific, and tissue samples for definitive diagnosis are often difficult to obtain. The poor prognosis of IPA in COPD patients could perhaps be improved by faster diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal treatment. Some tools, such as scales and algorithms based on risk factors of IPA, may be useful for its early diagnosis in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia after discontinuing ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Jain, Preetesh; Keating, Michael; Wierda, William; Estrov, Zeev; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Jain, Nitin; George, Binsah; James, Danelle; Kantarjian, Hagop; Burger, Jan; O'Brien, Susan

    2015-03-26

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RR-CLL). We describe the characteristics, causes of discontinuation, and outcomes in patients who discontinued treatment with ibrutinib. One hundred twenty-seven patients were enrolled in various clinical trials of ibrutinib, with or without rituximab, at our center. Thirty-three (26%) patients have discontinued ibrutinib to date. The majority of those patients had high-risk features: 94% with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene rearrangement, 58% with del(17p) by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and 54% with a complex karyotype. Causes of discontinuation were disease transformation (7), progressive CLL (7), stem cell transplantation (3), adverse events (11), serious adverse events/deaths (3), and miscellaneous reasons (2). Twenty five patients (76%) died after discontinuing ibrutinib; the median overall survival was 3.1 months after discontinuation. Most patients with RR-CLL who discontinued ibrutinib early were difficult to treat and had poor outcomes.

  1. Outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia after discontinuing ibrutinib

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Preetesh; Keating, Michael; Wierda, William; Estrov, Zeev; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Jain, Nitin; George, Binsah; James, Danelle; Kantarjian, Hagop; Burger, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (RR-CLL). We describe the characteristics, causes of discontinuation, and outcomes in patients who discontinued treatment with ibrutinib. One hundred twenty-seven patients were enrolled in various clinical trials of ibrutinib, with or without rituximab, at our center. Thirty-three (26%) patients have discontinued ibrutinib to date. The majority of those patients had high-risk features: 94% with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene rearrangement, 58% with del(17p) by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and 54% with a complex karyotype. Causes of discontinuation were disease transformation (7), progressive CLL (7), stem cell transplantation (3), adverse events (11), serious adverse events/deaths (3), and miscellaneous reasons (2). Twenty five patients (76%) died after discontinuing ibrutinib; the median overall survival was 3.1 months after discontinuation. Most patients with RR-CLL who discontinued ibrutinib early were difficult to treat and had poor outcomes. PMID:25573991

  2. Prevalence of personality disorders in patients with chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Fatih; Ilik, Faik

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) in patients with chronic migraine (CM). This study included 105 CM patients who were diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS) and 100 healthy volunteers. PDs were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders, and pain severity and level of disability were assessed with the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) test. Of the 105 CM patients, 85 (81%) had at least one PD. PDs were more prevalent in the patient group than in the healthy control group, and the most common PDs were obsessive-compulsive (n=53, 50.5%), dependent (n=20, 19%), avoidant (n=20, 19%), and passive-aggressive (n=14, 13.3%) PDs. The MIDAS scores of the CM patients with PDs were higher than those of the CM patients without PDs. PDs, particularly obsessive-compulsive, dependent, avoidant, and passive-aggressive PDs, were frequently observed in CM patients in the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Education of patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema].

    PubMed

    Krstić-Burić, M; Pavicić, F; Rozman, A; Bogić, B; Crc, M; Plesko, N; Sarajlić, N

    1997-02-01

    Patients' education belongs to the most efficient therapeutic measures in the management of asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. The following paper reports the experience in the educational programme at the Polyclinic for Respiratory Diseases in Zagreb. Each patient's education lasted 5 days, 3 lessons per day, in groups of 10-15 persons. The education was carried out by a teaching team consisting of pulmonologists, psychosomatologist, pharmacist, physiotherapist and biometeterologist. From March 1995 to February 1996 135 persons completed the educational programme, 65 of whom were asthma patients. Data on cough and dyspnoea, skills in inhaler and breathing technique were collected at the beginning and 3 months after the education in all asthma patients. Three months after the education the asthma patients showed a significant decrease in dyspnoea and a significant improvement in inhaler and breathing technique. A standard questionnaire was given to all patients at the end of the education and in more than 80% the education was well accepted by the patients. Initial results are encouraging and the programme should be expanded to all parts of Croatia.

  4. Obinutuzumab treatment in the elderly patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Seiter, Karen; Mamorska-Dyga, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults in Western countries. Fludarabine-based regimens demonstrate higher response rates in younger patients but have a significant risk of infection and are thus poorly tolerated by older, frail patients. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies have added to the efficacy of chemotherapy in CLL. Obinutuzumab is a potent Type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular toxicity and direct cell death compared with rituximab. In Phase I studies, infusion reactions and neutropenia were the predominant toxicities. Phase II studies demonstrated efficacy both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in patients with CLL. The CLL11 trial was a Phase III randomized trial of chlorambucil alone or with either obinutuzumab or rituximab in elderly, unfit patients. Progression-free survival (the primary end point) was 26.7 months for patients receiving obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil versus 16.3 months for those receiving rituximab plus chlorambucil and 11.1 months for those receiving chlorambucil alone (P<0.001). Overall survival was improved for patients receiving obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil versus chlorambucil alone (P=0.002). This trial led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of obinutuzumab in this patient population.

  5. Patient autonomy in chronic care: solving a paradox.

    PubMed

    Reach, Gérard

    2013-12-12

    The application of the principle of autonomy, which is considered a cornerstone of contemporary bioethics, is sometimes in obvious contradiction with the principle of beneficence. Indeed, it may happen in chronic care that the preferences of the health care provider (HCP), who is largely focused on the prevention of long term complications of diseases, differ from those, more present oriented, preferences of the patient. The aims of this narrative review are as follows: 1) to show that the exercise of autonomy by the patient is not always possible; 2) where the latter is not possible, to examine how, in the context of the autonomy principle, someone (a HCP) can decide what is good (a treatment) for someone else (a patient) without falling into paternalism. Actually this analysis leads to a paradox: not only is the principle of beneficence sometimes conflicting with the principle of autonomy, but physician's beneficence may enter into conflict with the mere respect of the patient; and 3) to propose a solution to this paradox by revisiting the very concepts of the autonomous person, patient education, and trust in the patient-physician relationship: this article provides an ethical definition of patient education.

  6. Inspiratory muscle endurance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. T.; Andrews, R.; Johnson, P.; Phillips, L.; Cowley, A. J.; Kinnear, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of changes in respiratory muscle endurance in relation to respiratory and limb muscle strength in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure using a threshold loading technique. SUBJECTS: 20 patients with chronic heart failure (17 male) aged 63.8 (SD 7.4) years and 10 healthy men aged 63.1 (5.6) years. Heart failure severity was New York Heart Association (NYHA) grade II (n = 11) and NYHA grade III/IV (n = 9). METHODS: Respiratory muscle strength was measured from mouth pressures during maximum inspiratory effort (MIP) at functional residual capacity (FRC) and limb muscle strength was measured using a hand grip dynamometer. Inspiratory muscle endurance was measured using a threshold loading technique. The total endurance duration, the maximum threshold pressure achieved (P-Max), and the inspiratory load (% ratio of P-Max/MIP) were recorded in all subjects. RESULTS: Inspiratory muscles were weaker in patients with heart failure than in the controls [MIP 53.6 (16.5) v 70.9 (20.2) cm H2O, P < 0.05]. Hand grip strength was similar in both subject groups [31.6 (SD) v 36.1 (15.9) dynes]. Total endurance duration was significantly reduced in the patient group [494 (223) v 996 (267) s, P < 0.01], as was the maximal threshold pressure achieved [P-Max 18.5 (6.4) v 30.7 (6.6) cm H2O, P < 0.01]. When expressed as a percentage of MIP, P-Max was also lower in the patients [35.2 (11.8) v 44.8 (11.4)%, P < 0.05]. There was no significant correlation between any measure of endurance and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory muscle endurance is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. These changes probably reflect a generalised skeletal myopathy and provide further evidence of respiratory muscle dysfunction in patients with this disease. Respiratory muscle endurance needs now to be related to symptoms and the effects of treatment and respiratory muscle training should also be explored. PMID:8983680

  7. [Femoroacetabular impingement: frequently missed in patients with chronic groin pain].

    PubMed

    Röling, Maarten A; Pilot, Peter; Krekel, Peter R; Bloem, Rolf M

    2012-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a diagnosis that is often missed in patients with chronic groin pain. The condition often appears in young athletes. An anatomic deformity of the femoral head and the acetabular ridge causes an impingement that damages the subchondral tissue. This damage can result in sharp pain in the groin during specific hip movements and the acetabular labrum may also be ruptured. Diagnosing femoroacetabular impingement and a labral tear can be a challenge. We present the case of a 19-year-old male who twisted his right hip joint during a game of football. Physiotherapy only aggravated the pain. Further diagnostics showed femoroacetabular impingement and a labral tear. Arthroscopic intervention in the hip joint by an orthopedic surgeon lead to immediate pain relief, and two years after surgery the patient is still free of pain and has returned playing sport at his previous level. Femoroacetabular impingement can be a cause of chronic groin pain in young athletes. Hip arthroscopy is a safe and effective treatment, enabling the patient to return to playing sport at their previous level.

  8. [Nursing role in patient management diagnosed chronic fatigue syndrome].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carballo; Royes, Badía; Lalinde, Sevillano; Vidal, Llinas; Martín, Alegre

    2010-12-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is a serious, complex and debilitating fatigue characterized by intense physical and mental, that does not subside significantly after rest and worsens with activity The appearance of the disease requires the patient to reduce the activity diminished their quality of life. While there is no cure, the complexity of the disease requires an interdisciplinary approach where the mission of nursing is to identify the least healthy responses of each individual in relation to their health status and interfering with them by means of specific support, integrated support and follow a care plan tailored to the individual needs of each individual. Fatigue, pain, sleep pattern disturbance, anxiety and lack of knowledge are the most prevalent health problems in patients treated at the Chronic Fatigue Unit, University Hospital Vail d'Hebron. Thus, in these problems and by developing a customized care plan process we use for health education as a tool for influencing the control of symptoms through interventions to improve the learning support, emotional support and Accompanying with the aim of helping the patient and their relatives are an adaptive response to their new health status and thus improve the quality of life.

  9. Relationship of aluminum to neurocognitive dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, S.M.; Corwin, H.L.; Tanner, C.M.; Wilson, R.S.; Green, B.J.; Goetz, C.G.

    1988-10-01

    Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.

  10. Relationship of aluminum to neurocognitive dysfunction in