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Sample records for chronic cerebral toxoplasmosis

  1. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  2. Cerebral toxoplasmosis combined with disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui Ho; Ahn, Poong Gi; Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Hyeok Su

    2012-05-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with mental change, fever, abdominal pain, tenderness and palpable mass on the lower abdomen. He was a non-Korean engineer and did not accompany a legal guardian, so medical history taking was difficult due to his mental status. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple rim-enhanced lesions of the brain, and abdominal computed tomography showed huge paraspinal abscess. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed poorly defined nodular opacities. We initially thought that this patient was infected with toxoplasmosis with typical cerebral image finding and immunoglobulin laboratory finding of cerebrospinal fluid and serum study. The abdominal abscess was confirmed as tuberculosis through the pathologic finding of caseous necrosis. We used anti-tuberculosis medication and anti-toxoplasmosis medication for almost 4 months, and then his clinical state and radiological findings were considerably improved.

  3. Successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis with clindamycin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Madi, Deepak; Achappa, Basavaprabhu; Rao, Satish; Ramapuram, John T; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is generally a late complication of HIV infection and usually occurs in patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 200/μl. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole) is the most common drug used in India for the treatment of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Other alternative drugs used for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis are clindamycin plus pyrimethamine and clarithromycin with pyrimethamine.A 30-year-old male known case of retroviral disease presented to Kasturba Medical College, India, with complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of his brain showed irregular ring enhancing lesion in the right basal ganglia. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the CT features and serology, diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with clindamycin alone as he had history of sulfonamide allergy. The patient was symptomatically better after 48 hours. After 21 days, repeat CT of brain was done which was normal. The patient showed good clinical improvement within 48 hours and the lesion resolved completely within 3 weeks. The authors recommend using clindamycin without pyrimethamine in resource poor settings and in patients who do not tolerate sulfa drugs.

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

  5. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  6. Asymptomatic diffuse "encephalitic" cerebral toxoplasmosis in a woman with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Novo, Jorge; Arvanitis, Leonidas

    2016-07-01

    Classic cerebral toxoplasmosis typically presents with neurologic symptoms such as seizures and mental status changes and histological examination shows focal lesions with necrosis. However, in the diffuse "encephalitic" form, patients are asymptomatic with diffuse, inflammatory, non-necrotic lesions. Asymptomatic diffuse "encephalitic" toxoplasmosis has been reported only in four acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients and one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present a 36-year-old HIV-negative woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis who was on immunosuppression for 9years after cadaveric renal transplant and died from pulmonary hemorrhage and cytomegalovirus pneumonia. Brain autopsy findings revealed multifocal microglial nodules containing Toxoplasma bradyzoites and associated astrogliosis. These nodules were prominent in the cerebellum, midbrain and medulla and also present in the cortex and thalamus. No coagulative necrosis, necrotizing abscesses, or other opportunistic infections were present. The patient had previously exhibited no neurologic symptoms and there was no clinical suspicion for toxoplasmosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of diffuse, non-necrotizing, "encephalitic" cerebral toxoplasmosis reported in a lupus patient and also the first reported female case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic lymphoglandular enlargement and toxoplasmosis in children.

    PubMed Central

    Thomaidis, T; Anastassea-Vlachou, K; Mandalenaki-Lambrou, C; Theodoridis, C; Vrahnou, E

    1977-01-01

    Serum antitoxoplasma titres were determined simultaneously by the direct agglutination and the indirect immunofluorescent tests in 52 children aged 2 to 16 years having chronic lymph node enlargement, mainly cervical. Direct agglutination titres were raised (64 to 4096) in 22 children (42%), but rarely in the control groups of children with acute suppurative lymphadenitis, and healthy children, adults, nurses, and physicians. It is concluded that toxoplasmosis is commoner in Greek children than previously believed, and that it should be included in the differential diagnosis of lymphoglandular enlargement. Clinically the condition is mild and may be self-limited, but it should be treated promptly with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, in order to prevent reactivation in adult life. PMID:326200

  8. Evolution of cytokine profile during the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cristina da Silva; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Vidal, José Ernesto; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thaís Alves da; Gava, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    This study was to follow IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 modulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV/cerebral toxoplasmosis patients (CT) during specific treatment. The results were compared with two other groups: HIV patients that had CT at least one year before (P/CT) and individuals with chronic toxoplasmosis (CHR). Blood samples (63) collected from three groups were analyzed. CT, 15 patients (3 blood samples collected one day before Toxoplasma gondii treatment; 7 and 15days during the treatment). P/CT, 5 patients (one blood sample collected at least, one year after the treatment). CHR, 13 individuals with chronic toxoplasmosis (one blood sample). Cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA after PBMC stimulation with T. gondii antigen. CT patients had low IFN-γ; discrete increase at 7th and 15th days; and the levels were recovered in cured patients (P/CT). CT patients had high TNF-α in the beginning of the treatment. TNF-α levels decrease during the treatment (7th and 15th) and in those patients who were treated (P/CT). IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT and P/CT groups but low when compared with CHR individuals. The evolution of the infection was correlated to restoration of IFN-γ response and a decrease of the inflammation. The evaluation of the immune response can provide valuable information and better monitoring of patients during specific treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Cristina S.; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L.; Vidal, José E.; de Mattos, Cinara C. Brandão; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A.; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fábio B.; de Mattos, Luiz C.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-γ when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-γ against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-α levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-α synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-α synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT

  10. Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cristina S; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L; Vidal, José E; de Mattos, Cinara C Brandão; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fábio B; de Mattos, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-γ when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-γ against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-α levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-α synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-α synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT

  11. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... People who have an organ transplant or a blood transfusion can also get toxoplasmosis if the organ or ... not pick up the toxoplasmosis parasite from the animals it hunts. If possible, have someone else take ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. More than 60 million people in the ... brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated ...

  13. Late-Onset Cerebral Toxoplasmosis After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Ahmed M.; Hashim, Mahmoud A.; Alsharabati, Mohammed; Fallon, Kenneth; Cure, Joel K.; Pappas, Peter; Mineishi, Shin; Saad, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: Cerebral toxoplasmosis after HSCT Symptoms: Hemiparesis • muscle weakness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Toxoplasmosis is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Post-transplant toxoplasmosis is often a reactivation of prior infection and typically occurs within the first 6 months of transplant. Herein, we report that cerebral toxoplasmosis may occur 22 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Case Report: We describe a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis that occurred 22 months after an allogeneic HCT while the patient was on aerosolized pentamidine for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis. The disease was only diagnosed after brain biopsy because of atypical MRI appearance of the cerebral lesion and negative Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody test result in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient received pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine treatment, with dramatic improvement after several months. The patient is alive 2 years after infection diagnosis, with no evidence of disease and is off Toxoplasma prophylaxis. Conclusions: Cerebral toxoplasmosis can occur late after allogeneic HCT while patients are on immunosuppression therapy, with atypical features on imaging studies and negative Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody test result in the CSF. Pre-transplant serologic screening for T. gondii antibodies in allogeneic transplant candidates is warranted. Brain biopsy can be a helpful diagnostic tool for cerebral lesions. PMID:28280256

  14. Toxoplasmosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J.P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles; Enright, Elizabeth A.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles; Enright, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

  15. Chronic active toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, S; Guy, E C; Dawson, S J; Francis, J M; Joynson, D H

    1993-11-01

    We report the case of an apparently immunocompetent woman whose symptoms and signs have persisted for 8 years following a serologically and histologically confirmed diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. During this period she had two successful pregnancies despite persistently increased anti-toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Neither child is infected.

  16. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in an MS patient receiving Fingolimod.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Marulanda, Alejandro; Valderrama-Chaparro, Jaime; Parrado, Laura; Diego Vélez, Juan; Maria Granados, Ana; Luis Orozco, Jorge; Quiñones, Jairo

    2017-11-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis. In this case report, we describe one patient with past medical history of MS in current treatment with Fingolimod for the last year which presents herself with hemiparesis, fever and fatigue. The initial MRI showed multiple demyelinating-like lesions that could have corresponded to the tumefactive form of MS relapse. The blood work up revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and a CD4+ count of 200 cell/mm 3 . Treatment for acute relapse was initiated with little to no response. Further examination was carried by the clinicians, a lumbar puncture was performed and it showed pleocytosis with increased protein levels. Later, several serologic studies were performed and both IgM and IgG antibodies for Toxoplasma were positive. Diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made and there was no evidence of HIV infection or other causes of secondary immunodeficiency in this patient, except the use of fingolimod. Evidence of decreased levels of CD4+ due to Fingolimod use is concerning. The risk of opportunistic infections in these patients must be considered in order to start or continue therapy with these agents. Further studies are needed to determine the percentage of the population at risk of immunosuppression and its long-term consequences as well as new actions to prevent infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the neurological emergency department of a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriela Brito; da Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes; Wanderley, Leandro Batista; da Cunha Correia, Carolina; Ferreira, Eduardo Caetano Brandão; de Medeiros, Zulma Maria; Filho, José Luiz Lima; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Santos, Alfredo Henrique Cecílio Marins

    2016-11-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of space occupying brain lesion in patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. In the post-HAART era, it is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study consists of a case series of 56 patients diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis whose clinical features, brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid aspects were analyzed. Cerebral toxoplasmosis led to the diagnosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 27 (48.2%) of the patients, while 29 (51.2%) others already knew to be HIV seropositive. However, at the time of diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, only 9 (16.6%) reported being under antiretroviral therapy and 5 (8.9%) were receiving primary prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis. Headache, strength deficit and fever were the most frequent signs and symptoms throughout the study. Fifty-three patients showed changes consistent with toxoplasmosis in CT or MRI. Thirty-four (60.7%) CSF samples were positive in the indirect haemagglutination test and for the reaction of Toxoplasma gondii IgG ELISA, while 31 (55.4%) were positive in the direct haemagglutination test. Fifty (89.3%) patients underwent first-line treatment for toxoplasmosis. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is still a very relevant neurological disease in individuals with AIDS admitted to neurology emergency departments. Early diagnosis and initiation of empiric treatment and antiretroviral therapy are important for good prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Successful Treatment of Pulmonary and Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Pneumocystis Pneumonia in an HIV Patient.

    PubMed

    Rey, Marie-Françoise; Mary, Charles; Sanguinetti, Diane; Ranque, Stéphane; Bartoli, Christophe; L'Ollivier, Coralie

    2017-12-18

    In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for P. jirovecii and brain abscess for T. gondii . Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reported an uncommon case of an AIDS patient (6 CD4 + T cells/mm³) with both pulmonary and cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with pneumocystis pneumonia. The patient presented with general weakness, fever and dyspnea. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis and pneumocystis were confirmed by microscopic examination and DNA detection in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Computed tomography imaging of the brain revealed a single characteristic cerebral toxoplasmosis lesion of the left capsular area. He was successful treated by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaxole in conjunction with an early reintroduction of cART, and without IRIS development. During a 3-year follow-up, HIV viral load remained undetectable, and the patient did not relapse for toxoplasmosis or Pneumocystis pneumonia.

  19. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Masquerading Cns Lymphoma on FDG PET-CT in Post Renal Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    20 year old post renal transplant patient developed recurrent episodes of seizure. MRI revealed focal lesion in right parieto-occipital lobe with perilesional edema. FDG PET-CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in bilateral cerebral hemisphere. Subsequent biopsy from the lesion demonstrated bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with inflammatory cells and thereby, a confirmatory diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. This case demonstrates the fact that increased FDG uptake in cerebral lesions in post transplant patient should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with histopathological correlation. PMID:28533649

  20. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients also provides unifying pathophysiologic hypotheses for Holmes tremor.

    PubMed

    Lekoubou, Alain; Njouoguep, Rodrigue; Kuate, Callixte; Kengne, André Pascal

    2010-06-03

    Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder. Currently suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are mostly derived from stroke cases. Although rare, cerebral toxoplasmosis may strengthen the pathophysiologic mechanism of disease. A case of Holmes tremor secondary to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an AIDS patient is presented. A relevant literature search was performed, using pubmed and several entries for Holmes tremor as labelled in the literature. The unifying feature of our case and those of the literature is the involvement of either the cerebello-thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways. The abscess or the extension of surrounding edema beyond these two circuits may account for the superimposed dysfunction of the nigrostriatal system in some but not all cases. The short delay observed in our observation and the dramatic response to treatment may indirectly support the secondary neuronal degeneration theory in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. Cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients also provide arguments for the role of the thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Holmes tremor. Involvement of the nigro-striatal pathway may not be crucial in the development of this syndrome. Our case also brings additional indirect arguments for the role of secondary neuronal degeneration in the mechanism of Holmes tremor.

  1. TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Halonen, Sandra K.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogen that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequela. In immune compromised individuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immune competent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. T. gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are 3 predominant clonal lineages, termed types I, II and III and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis, and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychriatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed. PMID:23829904

  2. [Interest of MR perfusion and MR spectroscopy for the diagnostic of atypical cerebral toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Barcelo, C; Catalaa, I; Loubes-Lacroix, F; Cognard, C; Bonneville, F

    2010-03-01

    We report an atypical case of cerebral toxoplasmosis (CT) in a 70-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a single ring-enhancing lesion in the pons with perifocal oedema and mass effect. Toxoplasma encephalitis was suggested by means of diffusion weighted imaging, MR perfusion and MR spectroscopy, leading to the discovery of HIV infection. The patient was put on antitoxoplasma therapy. Subsequent clinical and radiological improvements confirmed the diagnosis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV infection with concomitant cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated histoplasmosis in a 45-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Murata, Masayuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Otaguro, Shigeru; Nabeshima, Shigeki; Ariyama, Iwao; Hayashi, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Although disseminated histoplasmosis is a common opportunistic infection in HIV patients in endemic areas, it is not widely known in Japan. We report a rare case of a man from Ghana infected with HIV who was hospitalized in Japan and who suffered from coinfection with cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated histoplasmosis. The diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was confirmed by a brain biopsy, and the therapy for the disease resulted in almost complete resolution of the brain lesion. However, fever of unknown origin continued for 2 weeks, and disseminated histoplasmosis was diagnosed by examination of a blood smear and by the detection of the histoplasma genome in the peripheral blood by means of polymerase chain reaction. The isolate was confirmed to be Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii. Therapy with amphotericin B was initiated, and no histoplasma genome in the peripheral blood was detected 3 days later. Unfortunately, the patient died after 10 days from acute respiratory syndrome. This case highlights that histoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients when patients have a history of travel to or arrival from endemic areas.

  4. Significance of chronic toxoplasmosis in epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    Stepanova, Ekaterina V.; Kondrashin, Anatoly V.; Sergiev, Vladimir P.; Morozova, Lola F.; Turbabina, Natalia A.; Maksimova, Maria S.; Brazhnikov, Alexey I.; Shevchenko, Sergei B.

    2017-01-01

    Studies carried out in Moscow residents have revealed that the prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is very close to those in countries of Eastern and Central Europe. Our findings also demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the rate of traffic accidents and the seroprevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis in drivers who were held responsible for accidents. The latter was 2.37 times higher in drivers who were involved in road accidents compared with control groups. These results suggest that the consequences of chronic toxoplasmosis (particularly a slower reaction time and decreased concentration) might contribute to the peculiarities of the epidemiology of road traffic accidents in the Russian Federation and might interfere with the successful implementation of the Federal Programme named “Increase road traffic safety”. Suggestions for how to address overcome this problem are discussed in this paper. PMID:28957427

  5. Significance of chronic toxoplasmosis in epidemiology of road traffic accidents in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sergiev, Vladimir P; Morozova, Lola F; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Brazhnikov, Alexey I; Shevchenko, Sergei B; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-01-01

    Studies carried out in Moscow residents have revealed that the prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is very close to those in countries of Eastern and Central Europe. Our findings also demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between the rate of traffic accidents and the seroprevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis in drivers who were held responsible for accidents. The latter was 2.37 times higher in drivers who were involved in road accidents compared with control groups. These results suggest that the consequences of chronic toxoplasmosis (particularly a slower reaction time and decreased concentration) might contribute to the peculiarities of the epidemiology of road traffic accidents in the Russian Federation and might interfere with the successful implementation of the Federal Programme named "Increase road traffic safety". Suggestions for how to address overcome this problem are discussed in this paper.

  6. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Diagnosed by Nested-polymerase Chain Reaction in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Jun; Fujii, Akihiro; Mizuta, Ikuko; Norose, Kazumi; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2018-05-15

    A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) visited our hospital because of right facial sensory hypoesthesia. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was suspected on brain magnetic resonance imaging. We discontinued methotrexate for RA and started a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) mixture. Although ST treatment was interrupted because of adverse reactions, her prognosis was favorable. The Toxoplasma 18S rDNA gene was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Detecting the Toxoplasma 18S rDNA gene by nested-PCR is useful for the diagnosis and safer than a brain biopsy. In addition, the discontinuation of immunosuppressants may be recommended in patients compromised by those immunosuppressants.

  7. Evaluation of Propranolol Effect on Experimental Acute and Chronic Toxoplasmosis Using Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies against toxoplasmosis are limited, and drugs have significant side effects and low efficacies. We evaluated the potential anti-Toxoplasma activity of propranolol at a dose of 2 or 3 mg/kg of body weight/day in vivo in the acute and chronic phases. Propranolol as a cell membrane-stabilizing agent is a suitable drug for inhibiting the entrance of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into cells. The acute-phase assay was performed using propranolol, pyrimethamine, and propranolol plus pyrimethamine before (pretreatment) and after (posttreatment) intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 103 tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii strain RH in BALB/c mice. Also, in the chronic phase, treatment was performed 12 h before intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 106 tachyzoites of the virulent strain RH of T. gondii in rats. One week (in the acute phase) and 2 months (in the chronic phase) after postinfection, tissues were isolated and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, parasite load was calculated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the acute phase, in both groups, significant anti-Toxoplasma activity was observed using propranolol (P < 0.001). Propranolol in the pretreatment group showed higher anti-Toxoplasma activity than propranolol in posttreatment in brain tissues, displaying therapeutic efficiency on toxoplasmosis. Also, propranolol combined with pyrimethamine reduced the parasite load as well as significantly increased survival of mice in the pretreatment group. In the chronic phase, anti-Toxoplasma activity and decreased parasite load in tissues were observed with propranolol. In conclusion, the presented results demonstrate that propranolol, as an orally available drug, is effective at low doses against acute and latent murine toxoplasmosis, and the efficiency of the drug is increased when it is used in combination therapy with pyrimethamine. PMID:27645234

  8. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  9. Hepatic Metabolomics Investigation in Acute and Chronic Murine Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Elsheikha, Hany M; Hu, Rui-Si; Hu, Gui-Xue; Guo, Shu-Ling; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii poses a great threat to human health, with no approved vaccine available for the treatment of T. gondii infection. T. gondii infections are not limited to the brain, and may also affect other organs especially the liver. Identification of host liver molecules or pathways involved in T. gondii replication process may lead to the discovery of novel anti- T. gondii targets. Here, we analyzed the metabolic profile of the liver of mice on 11 and 30 days postinfection (dpi) with type II T. gondii Pru strain. Global metabolomics using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 389 significant metabolites from acutely infected mice; and 368 from chronically infected mice, when compared with control mice. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed distinct metabolic signatures from acutely infected, chronically infected and control mice. Infection influenced several metabolic processes, in particular those for lipids and amino acids. Metabolic pathways, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis, primary bile acid biosynthesis, bile secretion, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were perturbed during the whole infection process, particularly during the acute stage of infection. The present results provide insight into hepatic metabolic changes that occur in BALB/c mice during acute and chronic T. gondii infection.

  10. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães; Guerreiro, Bruna Martins; Dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Silva, Helenara Machado; Garcia, João Luis; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-01-01

    This experiment studied congenital transmission in sheep experimentally infected with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and reinfected at one of three stages of pregnancy. Twenty ewes were experimentally infected with T. gondii strain ME49 (day 0). After the T. gondii infection became chronic (IFAT≤512), the ewes were allocated with rams for coverage. After the diagnosis of pregnancy, these ewes were allocated into four experimental groups (n = 5): I-reinfected with T. gondii on the 40th day of gestation (DG); II-reinfected on DG 80; III-reinfected on DG 120; and IV-saline solution on DG 120 (not reinfected). Five ewes (IFAT<64) were kept as negative controls (uninfected, group V), therefore in groups I-III were infected prior to pregnancy and re-infected during pregnancy, group IV was only infected prior to pregnancy, and group V was not infected. Parasitism by T. gondii was investigated (histopathology, immunohistochemistry, mouse bioassay and PCR) in mothers and lambs tissue. All ewes produced lambs serologically positive for T. gondii. The results of the mouse bioassay, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays revealed the presence of T. gondii in all 20 sheep and their lambs. The congenital transmission of T. gondii was associated with fetal loss and abnormalities in persistently infected sheep and in ewes infected and subsequently reinfected by this protozoan. Therefore, congenital T. gondii infection was common when ewes were chronically infected prior to pregnancy, with or without reinfection during at various stages of gestation.

  11. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães; Guerreiro, Bruna Martins; dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Silva, Helenara Machado; Garcia, João Luis; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-01-01

    This experiment studied congenital transmission in sheep experimentally infected with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and reinfected at one of three stages of pregnancy. Twenty ewes were experimentally infected with T. gondii strain ME49 (day 0). After the T. gondii infection became chronic (IFAT≤512), the ewes were allocated with rams for coverage. After the diagnosis of pregnancy, these ewes were allocated into four experimental groups (n = 5): I-reinfected with T. gondii on the 40th day of gestation (DG); II-reinfected on DG 80; III-reinfected on DG 120; and IV-saline solution on DG 120 (not reinfected). Five ewes (IFAT<64) were kept as negative controls (uninfected, group V), therefore in groups I-III were infected prior to pregnancy and re-infected during pregnancy, group IV was only infected prior to pregnancy, and group V was not infected. Parasitism by T. gondii was investigated (histopathology, immunohistochemistry, mouse bioassay and PCR) in mothers and lambs tissue. All ewes produced lambs serologically positive for T. gondii. The results of the mouse bioassay, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays revealed the presence of T. gondii in all 20 sheep and their lambs. The congenital transmission of T. gondii was associated with fetal loss and abnormalities in persistently infected sheep and in ewes infected and subsequently reinfected by this protozoan. Therefore, congenital T. gondii infection was common when ewes were chronically infected prior to pregnancy, with or without reinfection during at various stages of gestation. PMID:27788185

  12. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with neurocognitive impairment in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ene, L; Marcotte, T D; Umlauf, A; Grancea, C; Temereanca, A; Bharti, A; Achim, C L; Letendre, S; Ruta, S M

    2016-10-15

    We evaluated the impact of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) on neurocognitive (NC) and neurobehavioural functioning in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection, using a standardised NC test battery, self-reported Beck Depression Inventory, Frontal System Behavior Scale, MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and risk-assessment battery. 194 young adults (median age 24years, 48.2% males) with chronic HIV infection (HIV+) since childhood and 51 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants were included. HIV+ individuals had good current immunological status (median CD4: 479 cells/μl) despite a low CD4 nadir (median: 93 cells/μl). LT (positive anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies) was present in one third of participants. The impairment rates in the HIV- with and without Toxo were not significantly different (p=0.17). However, we observed an increasing trend (p<0.001) in impairment rates with HIV and LT status: HIV-/LT- (6.1%); HIV-/LT+ (22%), HIV+/LT- (31%), HIV+/LT+ (49%). In a multivariable analysis using the entire study group there were main effects on cognition for HIV and also for LT. Within the HIV+ group LT was associated with worse performance globally (p=0.006), in memory (p=0.009), speed of information processing (p=0.01), verbal (p=0.02) and learning (p=0.02) domains. LT was not associated with depressive symptoms, frontal systems dysfunction or risk behaviors in any of the groups. HIV participants with lower Toxoplasma antibody concentration had worse NC performance, with higher GDS values (p=0.03) and worse learning (p=0.002), memory (p=0.006), speed of information processing (p=0.01) T scores. Latent Toxoplasmosis may contribute to NC impairment in young adults, including those with and without chronic HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Mimicking Subacute Meningitis in HIV-Infected Patients; a Cohort Study from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ganiem, A. Rizal; Dian, Sofiati; Indriati, Agnes; Chaidir, Lidya; Wisaksana, Rudi; Sturm, Patrick; Melchers, Willem; van der Ven, Andre; Parwati, Ida; van Crevel, Reinout

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-associated subacute meningitis is mostly caused by tuberculosis or cryptococcosis, but often no etiology can be established. In the absence of CT or MRI of the brain, toxoplasmosis is generally not considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed cerebrospinal fluid real time PCR and serological testing for Toxoplasma gondii in archived samples from a well-characterized cohort of 64 HIV-infected patients presenting with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. Neuroradiology was only available for 6 patients. At time of presentation, patients mostly had newly diagnosed and advanced HIV infection (median CD4 count 22 cells/mL), with only 17.2% taking ART, and 9.4% PJP-prophylaxis. CSF PCR for T. Gondii was positive in 21 patients (32.8%). Circulating toxoplasma IgG was present in 77.2% of patients tested, including all in whom the PCR of CSF was positive for T. Gondii. Clinically, in the absence of neuroradiology, toxoplasmosis was difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis or cryptococcal meningitis, although CSF abnormalities were less pronounced. Mortality among patients with a positive CSF T. Gondii PCR was 81%, 2.16-fold higher (95% CI 1.04–4.47) compared to those with a negative PCR. Conclusions/Significance Toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected subacute meningitis in settings where neuroradiology is not available. PMID:23326616

  14. A rare case of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in a patient with undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis on chronic methotrexate and corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, Abdullateef; D'Souza, Ryan Steven; Patel, Nitin; Donato, Anthony A

    2017-08-23

    Pulmonary toxoplasmosis is a serious pulmonary condition caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii It typically affects immunocompromised patients presenting acutely with cough, fever, myalgias, arthralgias and lymphadenopathy, and chronically with persistent cough and dyspnoea. Because of its protean features, it can mimic many more common lung conditions in the immunocompromised patient, including atypical pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and interstitial lung disease. In this article, we present the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with persistent dyspnoea and cough, initially suspected to have an arthritis-related interstitial lung disease. She received a final diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after lung biopsy demonstrated Toxoplasma cysts, later confirmed by serology. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in significant improvement of her respiratory symptoms after 3 months. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001360.htm Congenital toxoplasmosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when ...

  16. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human.

  17. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human. PMID:27124472

  18. Blimp-1–mediated CD4 T cell exhaustion causes CD8 T cell dysfunction during chronic toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Dustin A.; Bhadra, Rajarshi

    2016-01-01

    CD8, but not CD4, T cells are considered critical for control of chronic toxoplasmosis. Although CD8 exhaustion has been previously reported in Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE)–susceptible model, our current work demonstrates that CD4 not only become exhausted during chronic toxoplasmosis but this dysfunction is more pronounced than CD8 T cells. Exhausted CD4 population expressed elevated levels of multiple inhibitory receptors concomitant with the reduced functionality and up-regulation of Blimp-1, a transcription factor. Our data demonstrates for the first time that Blimp-1 is a critical regulator for CD4 T cell exhaustion especially in the CD4 central memory cell subset. Using a tamoxifen-dependent conditional Blimp-1 knockout mixed bone marrow chimera as well as an adoptive transfer approach, we show that CD4 T cell–intrinsic deletion of Blimp-1 reversed CD8 T cell dysfunction and resulted in improved pathogen control. To the best of our knowledge, this is a novel finding, which demonstrates the role of Blimp-1 as a critical regulator of CD4 dysfunction and links it to the CD8 T cell dysfunctionality observed in infected mice. The critical role of CD4-intrinsic Blimp-1 expression in mediating CD4 and CD8 T cell exhaustion may provide a rational basis for designing novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27481131

  19. Chronic lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis. A case with marked hyperglobulinemia and impaired delayed hypersensitivity responses during active infection.

    PubMed

    Sheagren, J N; Lunde, M N; Simon, H B

    1976-02-01

    A patient with lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis characterized by prolonged symptoms and repeated relapses with isolation of toxoplasma from lymph nodes is described. As the disease persisted and progressed, striking immunologic changes occurred that ultimately resulted in a state of extreme hyperglobulinemia associated with impaired delayed hypersensitivity responses. The case in question illustrates that progressive infection may occur in the face of high antibody levels of all immunoglobulin types whereas the only demonstrable immunologic impairment was of delayed hypersensitivity.

  20. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients. PMID:25692105

  2. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  3. Nanoemulsion of atovaquone as a promising approach for treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Azami, Sanaz Jafarpour; Amani, Amir; Keshavarz, Hossein; Najafi-Taher, Roqya; Mohebali, Mehdi; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Shojaee, Saeedeh

    2018-05-30

    Treatment of toxoplasmosis is necessary in congenital form and immunocompromised patients. Atovaquone is a powerful suppressor of protozoan parasites with a broad-spectrum activity, but an extremely low water solubility and bioavailability. In this study, nanoemulsion of this drug was prepared with grape seed oil using spontaneous emulsification method to increase bioavailability and efficacy of atovaquone for treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro activity of atovaquone nanoemulsion against T. gondii, RH and Tehran strains, was assessed in HeLa cell culture. For in vivo assessment, BALB/c mice were infected with RH and Tehran strains and then treated with nanoemulsion of atovaquone, compared to that treated with free atovaquone. Concentration of atovaquone nanoemulsion showed in vitro anti-parasitic effects in both strains of T. gondii. Furthermore, oral administration of atovaquone nanoemulsion increased oral bioavailability, tissue distribution and mice survival time and reduced parasitemia and number and size of the brain cysts. Decrease of cyst numbers was verified by down regulation of BAG1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay. Effective therapeutic activity of atovaquone at a reduced dose is the major achievement of this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ovine toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Buxton, David; Katzer, Frank

    2009-12-01

    Congenital infection with Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of abortion in sheep worldwide. The cat is the definitive host of the parasite, and infected cats may shed millions of oocysts in their faeces resulting in extensive environmental contamination and an important source of infection for grazing herbivorous animals. Studies looking at development of specific antibodies in sheep, as an indicator of exposure to T. gondii, have shown that there is an increase in seroprevalence associated with age indicating that most infections in sheep occur following birth. The stage of gestation when transplacental transmission of T. gondii to the developing foetus occurs is critical in determining the clinical outcome. The importance of endogenous transplacental transmission in persistently infected ewes and its clinical importance is a subject of current debate. Ewes infected prior to mating develop immune responses that help protect against disease in a subsequent pregnancy and also against experimental challenge administered during pregnancy. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated following T. gondii infection and experiments involving the chronic cannulation of peripheral lymph nodes in sheep have allowed the dynamics of the immune responses to be analysed in real time. A live vaccine, Toxovax is the only commercially available vaccine worldwide to protect against congenital toxoplasmosis.

  5. Chronic cerebral herniation in shunted Dandy-Walker malformation.

    PubMed

    Naidich, T P; Radkowski, M A; McLone, D G; Leestma, J

    1986-02-01

    A review of serial computed tomography (CT) scans of 25 patients with the Dandy-Walker malformation revealed six patients with chronic downward transincisural herniation of the cerebrum after shunt decompression of the posterior fossa cyst or malfunction of a lateral ventricular drainage catheter, or both. Chronic cerebral herniation was detected postmortem in a seventh patient with the Dandy-Walker malformation. The CT findings and autopsy appearance of this previously undescribed feature of shunted Dandy-Walker malformation are illustrated.

  6. [Congenital toxoplasmosis: severe ocular and neurological complications].

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Franka; Buzing, Cecile; Sporken, Jan M J; Erasmus, Corry E; van der Flier, Michiel; Semmekrot, Ben A

    2011-01-01

    Two infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are presented. A girl born prematurely was treated postnatally after the mother had received antimicrobial treatment during pregnancy for acute toxoplasmosis. Apart from being small for gestational age, she remained without symptoms and treatment was ceased after 13 months. A 2-month-old boy presented with hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis, consistent with congenital toxoplasmosis. Despite antimicrobial treatment, at 12 months of age he suffered from epilepsy, cerebral palsy and vision impairment. Most infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (2 per 1000 live births in the Netherlands) are asymptomatic at birth. The education of pregnant women is crucial for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Awareness of antenatal and postnatal presenting signs and symptoms is important for clinicians, because early diagnosis and treatment may minimize sequelae. Untreated, the majority of affected infants will develop chorioretinitis, deafness and/or neurological symptoms.

  7. Activation of chronic toxoplasmosis by transportation stress in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bang; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Jianxi; Pan, Ming; Xia, Ningbo; Zhang, Weichao; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2016-12-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite infecting 25% of the world population and enormous number of animals. It can exist in two forms in intermediate hosts: the fast replicating tachyzoites responsible for acute infection and the slowly replicating bradyzoites responsible for life-long chronic infection. The interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites plays critical roles in the transmission and pathogenesis of T. gondii. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the interconversion are largely unknown. In this study, we established a chronic infection model in mice and examined the impact of transportation stress on the status of chronic infection. Our results demonstrated that, treating chronically infected mice with conditions mimicking transportation stress reduced the levels of several key cytokines that restrict the infection at chronic stage. Increased expression of the tachyzoite specific gene SAG1 (surface antigen 1) was detected in brain cysts of stress treated mice, indicating activation and conversion of bradyzoites to tachyzoites. Using this model, we identified fifteen toxoplasmic proteins that had significant abundance changes during stress induced cysts reactivation. These proteins serve as a basis for further investigation of the mechanisms governing bradyzoite conversion.

  8. Trends in overall opportunistic illnesses, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis and Mycobacterium avium complex incidence rates over the 30 years of the HIV epidemic: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Lara; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula Mendes

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results observed in high-income settings with that for low/middle-income settings, with special attention given to studies from Brazil. We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Lilacs and Google scholar for publications on HIV associated opportunistic illness. Studies reporting rates based on person-time for all opportunistic illnesses and/or the three opportunistic infections of interest, namely, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and Mycobacterium avium complex were included. Significant reductions in the incidence rates were demonstrated for opportunistic illnesses overall and also for the specific opportunistic infections included in the present study, both in high and low/middle-income settings. Out of the 37 studies included in the present review, almost 70% were from high-income settings. All the studies conducted in low/middle-income settings were single center studies and four were from Brazil. We found no study from Brazil reporting annual incidence rates of opportunistic illnesses. Opportunistic illnesses remain an important public health problem. To better guide health policies in low/middle-income settings, multicenter cohort studies should be encouraged. Studies from Brazil are urgently needed to assess the current burden of opportunistic illnesses in our population and to support the planning of HIV/AIDS health care services organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  10. Transcriptional repression by ApiAP2 factors is central to chronic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Radke, Joshua B; Worth, Danielle; Hong, David; Huang, Sherri; Sullivan, William J; Wilson, Emma H; White, Michael W

    2018-05-01

    Tachyzoite to bradyzoite development in Toxoplasma is marked by major changes in gene expression resulting in a parasite that expresses a new repertoire of surface antigens hidden inside a modified parasitophorous vacuole called the tissue cyst. The factors that control this important life cycle transition are not well understood. Here we describe an important transcriptional repressor mechanism controlling bradyzoite differentiation that operates in the tachyzoite stage. The ApiAP2 factor, AP2IV-4, is a nuclear factor dynamically expressed in late S phase through mitosis/cytokinesis of the tachyzoite cell cycle. Remarkably, deletion of the AP2IV-4 locus resulted in the expression of a subset of bradyzoite-specific proteins in replicating tachyzoites that included tissue cyst wall components BPK1, MCP4, CST1 and the surface antigen SRS9. In the murine animal model, the mis-timing of bradyzoite antigens in tachyzoites lacking AP2IV-4 caused a potent inflammatory monocyte immune response that effectively eliminated this parasite and prevented tissue cyst formation in mouse brain tissue. Altogether, these results indicate that suppression of bradyzoite antigens by AP2IV-4 during acute infection is required for Toxoplasma to successfully establish a chronic infection in the immune-competent host.

  11. Transcriptional repression by ApiAP2 factors is central to chronic toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Danielle; Huang, Sherri

    2018-01-01

    Tachyzoite to bradyzoite development in Toxoplasma is marked by major changes in gene expression resulting in a parasite that expresses a new repertoire of surface antigens hidden inside a modified parasitophorous vacuole called the tissue cyst. The factors that control this important life cycle transition are not well understood. Here we describe an important transcriptional repressor mechanism controlling bradyzoite differentiation that operates in the tachyzoite stage. The ApiAP2 factor, AP2IV-4, is a nuclear factor dynamically expressed in late S phase through mitosis/cytokinesis of the tachyzoite cell cycle. Remarkably, deletion of the AP2IV-4 locus resulted in the expression of a subset of bradyzoite-specific proteins in replicating tachyzoites that included tissue cyst wall components BPK1, MCP4, CST1 and the surface antigen SRS9. In the murine animal model, the mis-timing of bradyzoite antigens in tachyzoites lacking AP2IV-4 caused a potent inflammatory monocyte immune response that effectively eliminated this parasite and prevented tissue cyst formation in mouse brain tissue. Altogether, these results indicate that suppression of bradyzoite antigens by AP2IV-4 during acute infection is required for Toxoplasma to successfully establish a chronic infection in the immune-competent host. PMID:29718996

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the relative efficacy and safety of treatment regimens for HIV-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis: is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole a real option?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, A V; Thota, P; Pellegrino, D; Pasupuleti, V; Benites-Zapata, V A; Deshpande, A; Penalva de Oliveira, A C; Vidal, J E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapies for cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected adults. The pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine (P-S) combination is considered the mainstay therapy for cerebral toxoplasmosis and pyrimethamine plus clindamycin (P-C) is the most common alternative treatment. Although trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has potential advantages, its use is infrequent. We searched PubMed and four other databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies. Two independent reviewers searched the databases, identified studies and extracted data. Risk ratios (RRs) were pooled across studies using random-effects models. Nine studies were included (five RCTs, three retrospective cohort studies and one prospective cohort study). In comparison to P-S, treatment with P-C or TMP-SMX was associated with similar rates of partial or complete clinical response [P-C: RR 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.08; TMP-SMX: RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.78-1.21], radiological response (P-C: RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.82-1.03), skin rash (P-C: RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.56-1.17; TMP-SMX: RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.02-1.29), gastrointestinal impairment (P-C: RR 5.16; 95% CI 0.66-40.11), and drug discontinuation because of adverse events (P-C: RR 0.32; 95% CI 0.07-1.47). Liver impairment was more frequent with P-S than P-C (P-C vs. P-S: RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.97). The current evidence fails to identify a superior regimen in terms of relative efficacy or safety for the treatment of HIV-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Use of TMP-SMX as preferred treatment may be consistent with the available evidence and other real-world considerations. Larger comparative studies are needed. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  13. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  14. Is chronic toxoplasmosis a risk factor for diabetes mellitus? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Dalvand, Sahar; Daryani, Ahmad; Galvan-Ramirez, Ma de la Luz; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    The global protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, infects many warm-blooded animals and humans by employing different transmission routes. There have been some recent studies on the probable relevance of infectious agents and diabetes. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the possible association between chronic toxoplasmosis and diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted following the general methodology recommended for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Nine English literature databases (Google scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, IngentaConnect, and Wiley Online Library) were searched, up to January 2016. Random effects model was used to determine odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Our review resulted in a total of seven publications meeting the inclusion criteria. Because of significant heterogeneity, we estimated a common OR by a random effects model at 1.10 (95% CI=0.13-9.57) with p=0.929 and 2.39 (95% CI=1.20-4.75) with p=0.013 for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Despite the limitations such as low number of studies, this meta-analysis suggests chronic toxoplasmosis as a possible risk factor for type 2 DM. However, based on random effects model no statistically significant association was observed between T. gondii and type 1 DM. It is highly recommended for researchers to carry out more accurate studies aiming to better understand this association. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Significant Reduction of Brain Cysts Caused by Toxoplasma gondii after Treatment with Spiramycin Coadministered with Metronidazole in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Kit; Ambu, Stephen; Mak, Joon Wah

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that generates latent cysts in the brain; reactivation of these cysts may lead to fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis, for which treatment remains unsuccessful. We assessed spiramycin pharmacokinetics coadministered with metronidazole, the eradication of brain cysts and the in vitro reactivation. Male BALB/c mice were fed 1,000 tachyzoites orally to develop chronic toxoplasmosis. Four weeks later, infected mice underwent different treatments: (i) infected untreated mice (n = 9), which received vehicle only; (ii) a spiramycin-only group (n = 9), 400 mg/kg daily for 7 days; (iii) a metronidazole-only group (n = 9), 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days; and (iv) a combination group (n = 9), which received both spiramycin (400 mg/kg) and metronidazole (500 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. An uninfected control group (n = 10) was administered vehicle only. After treatment, the brain cysts were counted, brain homogenates were cultured in confluent Vero cells, and cysts and tachyzoites were counted after 1 week. Separately, pharmacokinetic profiles (plasma and brain) were assessed after a single dose of spiramycin (400 mg/kg), metronidazole (500 mg/kg), or both. Metronidazole treatment increased the brain spiramycin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0–∞) by 67% without affecting its plasma disposition. Metronidazole plasma and brain AUC0–∞ values were reduced 9 and 62%, respectively, after spiramycin coadministration. Enhanced spiramycin brain exposure after coadministration reduced brain cysts 15-fold (79 ± 23 for the combination treatment versus 1,198 ± 153 for the untreated control group [P < 0.05]) and 10-fold versus the spiramycin-only group (768 ± 125). Metronidazole alone showed no effect (1,028 ± 149). Tachyzoites were absent in the brain. Spiramycin reduced in vitro reactivation. Metronidazole increased spiramycin brain penetration, causing a significant reduction of T. gondii brain cysts, with potential clinical

  16. Chitosan Microsphere Used as an Effective System to Deliver a Linked Antigenic Peptides Vaccine Protect Mice Against Acute and Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Sun, Xiahui; Yin, Huiquan; Wang, Ting; Li, Yan; Zhou, Chunxue; Zhou, Huaiyu; He, Shenyi; Cong, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccines have advantages over traditional Toxoplasma gondii vaccines, but are more susceptible to enzymatic degradation. As an effective delivery system, chitosan microspheres (CS) can overcome this obstacle and act as a natural adjuvant to promote T helper 1 (Th1) cellular immune responses. In this study, we use chitosan microparticles to deliver multiple antigenic epitopes from GRA10 (G10E), containing three dominant epitopes. When G10E was entrapped within chitosan microparticles (G10E-CS), adequate peptides for eliciting immune response were loaded in the microsphere core and this complex released G10E peptides stably. The efficiency of G10E-CS was detected both in vitro , via cell culture, and through in vivo mouse immunization. In vitro , G10E-CS activated Dendritic Cells (DC) and T lymphocytes by upregulating the secretion of costimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86). In vivo , Th1 biased cellular and humoral immune responses were activated in mice vaccinated with G10E-CS, accompanied by significantly increased production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IgG, and decreases in IL-4, IL-10, and IgG1. Immunization with G10E-CS conferred significant protection with prolonged survival in mice model of acute toxoplasmosis and statistically significant decreases in cyst burden in murine chronic toxoplasmosis. The results from this study indicate that chitosan microspheres used as an effective system to deliver a linked antigenic peptides is a promising strategy for the development of efficient vaccine against T. gondii .

  17. Vaccine potential of antigen cocktails composed of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii TgPI-1, ROP2 and GRA4 proteins against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Picchio, Mariano S; Sánchez, Vanesa R; Arcon, Nadia; Soto, Ariadna S; Perrone Sibilia, Matías; Aldirico, María de Los Angeles; Urrutia, Mariela; Moretta, Rosalía; Fenoy, Ignacio M; Goldman, Alejandra; Martin, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    The development of an effective and safe vaccine to prevent Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important aim due to the great clinical and economic impact of this parasitosis. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with the serine protease inhibitor-1 (TgPI-1) confers partial protection to C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice. In order to improve the level of protection, in this work, we combined this novel antigen with ROP2 and/or GRA4 recombinant proteins (rTgPI-1+rROP2, rTgPI-1+rGRA4, rTgPI-1+rROP2+rGRA4) to explore the best combination against chronic toxoplasmosis in C3H/HeN mice. All tested vaccine formulations, administered following a homologous prime-boost protocol that combines intradermal and intranasal routes, conferred partial protection as measured by the reduction of brain cyst burden following oral challenge with tissue cysts of Me49 T. gondii strain. The highest level of protection was achieved by the mixture of rTgPI-1 and rROP2 proteins with an average parasite burden reduction of 50% compared to the unvaccinated control group. The vaccine-induced protective effect was related to the elicitation of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses that included antigen-specific spleen cell proliferation, the release of Th1/Th2 cytokines, and the generation of antigen-specific antibodies in serum. Additionally, mucosal immune responses were also induced, characterized by secretion of antigen-specific IgA antibodies in intestinal lavages and specific mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that rTgPI-1+rROP2 antigens seem a promising mixture to be combined with other immunogenic proteins in a multiantigenic vaccine formulation against toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxoplasmosis in HIV infection: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraju, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas. The tissue cyst or oocyst is the infective form which enters by ingestion of contaminated meat and transform into tachyzoites and disseminate into blood stream. In immunocompetent persons due to cell-mediated immunity the parasite is transformed into tissue cyst resulting in life long chronic infection. In HIV-infected people opportunistic infection by T. gondii occurs due to depletion of CD4 cells, decreased production of cytokines and interferon gamma and impaired cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity resulting in reactivation of latent infection. The diagnosis can be done by clinical, serological, radiological, histological or molecular methods, or by the combination of these. There is various treatment regimen including acute treatment, maintenance therapy should be given as the current anti T. gondii therapy cannot eradicate tissue cysts. In HIV patients, CD4 counts <100; cotrimoxazole, alternately dapsone + pyrimethamine can be given for 6 months. Hence, early diagnosis of T. gondii antibodies is important in all HIV-positive individuals to prevent complications of cerebral toxoplasmosis. PMID:27722101

  19. Recurrent headache as the main symptom of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects with no lymphadenopathy: the parasite may be responsible for the neurogenic inflammation postulated as a cause of different types of headaches.

    PubMed

    Prandota, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Headache and/or migraine, a common problem in pediatrics and internal medicine, affect about 5% to 10% children and adolescents, and nearly 30% of middle-aged women. Headache is also one of the most common clinical manifestations of acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunosuppressed subjects. We present 11 apparently nonhuman immunodeficiency virus-infected children aged 7 to 17 years (8 girls, 3 boys) and 1 adult woman with recurrent severe headaches in whom latent chronic CNS T. gondii infection not manifested by enlarged peripheral lymph nodes typical for toxoplasmosis, was found. In 7 patients, the mean serum IgG Toxoplasma antibodies concentration was 189 +/- 85 (SD) IU/mL (range 89 to 300 IU/mL), and in 5 other subjects, the indirect fluorescent antibody test titer ranged from 1:40 to 1:5120 IU/mL (n= <1:10 IU/mL). Some of the patients suffered also from atopic dermatitis (AD) and were exposed to cat and/or other pet allergens, associated with an increased IL-4 and decreased IFN-gamma production. These cytokine irregularities caused limited control of cerebral toxoplasmosis probably because IL-4 down-regulated both the production of IFN-gamma and its activity, and stimulated production of a low NO-producing population of monocytes, which allowed cysts rupture, increased parasite multiplication and finally reactivation of T. gondii infection. The immune studies performed in 4 subjects showed a decreased percentage of T lymphocytes, increased total number of lymphocytes B and serum IgM concentration, and impaired phagocytosis. In addition, few of them had also urinary tract diseases known to produce IL-6 that can mediate immunosuppressive functions, involving induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These disturbances probably resulted from the host protective immune reactions associated with the chronic latent CNS T. gondii infection/inflammation. This is consistent with significantly lower enzyme indoleamine

  20. Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jie; Zhou, Qiong; Du, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Miao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xi, Ye; Li, Zhuyi; Miao, Jianting

    2014-08-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a critical causative factor for the development of cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, which involves many pathophysiological processes. Consequently, inhibition of several pathophysiological pathways is an attractive therapeutic strategy for this disorder. Rutin, a biologically active flavonoid, protects the brain against several insults through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cognitive deficits and brain damage caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of rutin on cognitive impairments and the potential mechanisms underlying its action in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We used Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), a well-established model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. After rutin treatment for 12 weeks, the neuroprotective effect of rutin in rats was evaluated by behavioural tests, biochemical and histopathological analyses. BCCAO rats showed marked cognitive deficits, which were improved by rutin treatment. Moreover, BCCAO rats exhibited central cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses and neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, compared with sham-operated rats. All these effects were significantly alleviated by treatment with rutin. Our results provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of rutin and suggest that rutin has multi-targeted therapeutical potential on cognitive deficits associated with conditions with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion such as vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Toxoplasmosis in macropodids: a review.

    PubMed

    Portas, Timothy J

    2010-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well-described disease entity that causes significant morbidity and mortality in both captive and free-ranging macropodids. The clinical presentation of toxoplasmosis in macropodids is variable, which reflects the multiple body systems affected by this disease. Animals may die without exhibiting premonitory signs or after the acute development of nonspecific signs of illness. In more chronic cases, clinical signs include neurologic deficits, blindness, respiratory signs, and, in some cases, diarrhea. Histologic lesions can be extensive and affect the pulmonary parenchyma, cardiac and skeletal muscle, lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, adrenal glands, pancreas, central nervous system, liver, and kidney. An antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, although a range of serologic tests are available. Treatment is frequently unrewarding, although recent evidence suggests that the anti-protozoal drug atovaquone may be effective in treating acute cases and eliminating infection. Attempts to vaccinate macropodids against toxoplasmosis have been unsuccessful, and preventive measures are limited to preventing exposure to sporulated oocysts in the environment.

  2. Characterization of White Matter Injury in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Kim, Dong-Hee; Back, Dong Bin; Kang, Chung Hwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Han, Jung-Soo; Choi, Dong-Hee; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Bo-Ram; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol-Heui; Kim, Hahn Young

    2016-02-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can lead to ischemic white matter injury resulting in vascular dementia. To characterize white matter injury in vascular dementia, we investigated disintegration of diverse white matter components using a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was modeled in Wistar rats by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. We performed cognitive behavioral tests, including the water maze task, odor discrimination task, and novel object test; histological investigation of neuroinflammation, oligodendrocytes, myelin basic protein, and nodal or paranodal proteins at the nodes of Ranvier; and serial diffusion tensor imaging. Cilostazol was administered to protect against white matter injury. Diverse cognitive impairments were induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Disintegration of white matter was characterized by neuroinflammation, loss of oligodendrocytes, attenuation of myelin density, structural derangement at the nodes of Ranvier, and disintegration of white matter tracts. Cilostazol protected against cognitive impairments and white matter disintegration. White matter injury induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can be characterized by disintegration of diverse white matter components. Cilostazol might be a therapeutic strategy against white matter disintegration in patients with vascular dementia. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. My Journey with Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

  4. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  5. Lymphonodular form of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Cicholska, A; Lysakowska, J

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of 3 cases of lymphoglandular toxoplasmosis recognized after biopsy of lymph nodes the authors established the clinical and morphological syndrome of this disease entity. Attention is called to the possibility of erroneous histological evaluation of the examined lymph nodes owing to the similarity of glandular toxoplasmosis to other diseases of the lymphatic system.

  6. Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Marissa Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Acute infection of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is detrimental to the developing fetus. In the United States, approximately 1 in 10,000 live births are affected by congenital toxoplasmosis. Although multifactorial in etiology, maternal infection is primarily attributed to the consumption of contaminated meat or water. Infection and transmission to the fetus may result in devastating neurologic impairment. Screening methods for all pregnant women should be implemented in routine prenatal care. This article will highlight the inherent dangers of congenital toxoplasmosis, while including general care of the fetus for prevention of transmission, medical management, and long-term outcomes.

  7. [Laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Strhársky, J; Mad'arová, L; Klement, C

    2009-04-01

    Under Central European climatic conditions, toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human parasitic diseases. A wide range of methods for both direct and indirect detection of the causative agent are currently available for the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the article is to review the history of the discovery of the causative agent of toxoplasmosis and how laboratory diagnostic methods were developed and improved. The main emphasis is placed on current options in the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii, more precisely on the serodiagnosis and new trends in molecular biology-based techniques.

  8. Toxoplasmosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can get on the hands after handling soil without gloves or handling uncooked, unwashed foods drinking ... keep your pet from getting toxoplasmosis from the soil and/or small infected animals it tries to ...

  9. CXCL10 Is Required to Maintain T-Cell Populations and to Control Parasite Replication during Chronic Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Norose, Kazumi; Kikumura, Akitoshi; Luster, Andrew D.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of ocular disease, which can lead to permanent vision loss in humans. T cells are critically involved in parasite control, but little is known about the molecules that promote T-cell trafficking and migration in the retina. Thus, the aim of this study was to image and dissect the T-cell response during chronic toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were infected with the Me49 strain of T. gondii, and T cells that infiltrated the eye were analyzed by flow cytometry and imaged using multiphoton microscopy. IFN-γ, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCR3 mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR. To investigate the role of CXCL10, mice were treated with anti–CXCL10 antibodies, and histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed to monitor changes in pathology, cellular infiltration, and parasite burden in the eye. Results. Infection with T. gondii leads to the infiltration of highly activated motile T cells into the eye. These cells express CXCR3 and are capable of producing IFN-γ and TNF-α, and CD8+ T cells express granzyme B. The expression of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the retina was significantly upregulated during chronic infection. Treatment of chronically infected mice with anti–CXCL10 antibodies led to decreases in the numbers of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells and the amount of IFN-γ mRNA expression in the retina and an increase in replicating parasites and ocular pathology. Conclusions. The maintenance of the T-cell response and the control of T. gondii in the eye during chronic infection is dependent on CXCL10. PMID:20811054

  10. Acute and chronic head-down tail suspension diminishes cerebral perfusion in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, M. Keith; Colleran, Patrick N.; Delp, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regional brain blood flow and vascular resistance are altered by acute and chronic head-down tail suspension (HDT). Regional cerebral blood flow, arterial pressure, heart rate, and vascular resistance were measured in a group of control rats during normal standing and following 10 min of HDT and in two other groups of rats after 7 and 28 days of HDT. Heart rate was not different among conditions, whereas mean arterial pressure was elevated at 10 min of HDT relative to the other conditions. Total brain blood flow was reduced from that during standing by 48, 24, and 27% following 10 min and 7 and 28 days of HDT, respectively. Regional blood flows to all cerebral tissues and the eyes were reduced with 10 min of HDT and remained lower in the eye, olfactory bulbs, left and right cerebrum, thalamic region, and the midbrain with 7 and 28 days of HDT. Total brain vascular resistance was 116, 44, and 38% greater following 10 min and 7 and 28 days of HDT, respectively, relative to that during control standing. Vascular resistance was elevated in all cerebral regions with 10 min of HDT and remained higher than control levels in most brain regions. These results demonstrate that HDT results in chronic elevations in total and regional cerebral vascular resistance, and this may be the underlying stimulus for the HDT-induced smooth muscle hypertrophy of cerebral resistance arteries.

  11. Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation Is Associated with Brain Atrophy and Worse Functional Status in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Mikio C.; Hu, Kun; Lo, Men-Tzung; Selim, Magdy; Olufsen, Mette S.; Novak, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) is impaired following stroke. However, the relationship between dCA, brain atrophy, and functional outcomes following stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether impairment of dCA is associated with atrophy in specific regions or globally, thereby affecting daily functions in stroke patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 33 subjects with chronic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 109 age-matched non-stroke subjects. dCA was assessed via the phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Brain tissue volumes were quantified from MRI. Functional status was assessed by gait speed, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), modified Rankin Scale, and NIH Stroke Score. Compared to the non-stroke group, stroke subjects showed degraded dCA bilaterally, and showed gray matter atrophy in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes ipsilateral to infarct. In stroke subjects, better dCA was associated with less temporal lobe gray matter atrophy on the infracted side ( = 0.029), faster gait speed ( = 0.018) and lower IADL score (0.002). Our results indicate that better dynamic cerebral perfusion regulation is associated with less atrophy and better long-term functional status in older adults with chronic ischemic infarctions. PMID:23071639

  12. Chronic hyperperfusion and angiogenesis follow subacute hypoperfusion in the thalamus of rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Nick MEA; Yanev, Pavel; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Miettinen, Riitta; Hiltunen, Mikko; Gröhn, Olli; Jolkkonen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is disrupted after focal ischemia in rats. We examined long-term hemodynamic and cerebrovascular changes in the rat thalamus after focal cerebral ischemia. Cerebral blood flow quantified by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was decreased in the ipsilateral and contralateral thalamus 2 days after cerebral ischemia. Partial thalamic CBF recovery occurred by day 7, then the ipsilateral thalamus was chronically hyperperfused at 30 days and 3 months compared with its contralateral side. This contrasted with permanent hypoperfusion in the ipsilateral cortex. Angiogenesis was indicated by endothelial cell (RECA-1) immunohistochemistry that showed increased blood vessel branching in the ipsilateral thalamus at the end of the 3-month follow-up. Only transient thalamic IgG extravasation was observed, indicating that the blood–brain barrier was intact after day 2. Angiogenesis was preceded by transiently altered expression levels of cadherin family adhesion molecules, cadherin-7, protocadherin-1, and protocadherin-17. In conclusion, thalamic pathology after focal cerebral ischemia involved long-term hemodynamic changes and angiogenesis preceded by altered expression of vascular adhesion factors. Postischemic angiogenesis in the thalamus represents a novel type of remote plasticity, which may support removal of necrotic brain tissue and aid functional recovery. PMID:21081957

  13. MCP-1-mediated activation of microglia promotes white matter lesions and cognitive deficits by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Shi, Hui; Zheng, Kuang; Su, Zulu; Su, Hai; Zhong, Ming; He, Xuenong; Zhou, Changlong; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Qijiang; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Microglia activation played a vital role in the pathogenesis of white matter lesions (WMLs) by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In addition, hypoxia induced up-regulated expression of MCP-1, promotes the activation of microglia. However, the role of MCP-1-mediated microglia activation in chronic cerebral ischemia is still unknown. To explore that, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model was established by permanent stenosis of bilateral common carotid artery in mice. The activation of microglia and the related signal pathway p38MAPK/PKC in white matter, and working memory of mice were observed. We found that stenosis of common carotid arteries could induce MCP-1-mediated activation of microglia through p38MAPK/PKC pathway and white matter lesions. Taken together, our findings represent a novel mechanism of MCP-1 involved in activation of microglia and provide a novel therapeutical strategy for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis in sick persons].

    PubMed

    Netrebko, I D

    2002-01-01

    A screening investigation was conducted designed to identify ill persons presenting with toxoplasmosis with the aid of an intracutaneous test with toxoplasmin and complement-fixing reaction with a dry toxoplasmic antigen. Toxoplasmosis was detected in those persons having lymphadenitis, therapeutical patients, women with aggravated obstetrical history having had spontaneous abortions and having given birth to sick children, patients with sluggish meningoencephalitis presenting with epileptoid and hypothalamic syndrome, polyneuritis, and patients with myopia, chorioretinitis and uveitis. Identification and treatment of toxoplasmic invasion constitutes a valid method of control of spontaneous abortions of toxoplasmic etiology. Detection in a timely fashion of toxoplasmic invasion in pregnant women and preventive treatment with two 5-day cycles of pirimetamin (0.025) twice a day and sulfodimezin (0.5) four times daily with a 10-day interval between the cycles has been found out to prevent toxoplasmosis affliction of the fetus.

  15. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a very rare presentation in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Matias, Margarida; Gomes, Antonia; Marques, Tiago; Fonseca, Ana Claudia

    2014-09-30

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of red eye, photophobia, pain and decreased visual acuity of the right eye. The ophthalmological examination revealed hypertensive non-granulomatous panuveitis, retinal vasculitis with focus of retinochoroiditis with pigmented central area suggestive of ocular toxoplasmosis in the active phase. He started treatment with azithromycin, pyrimethamine, topical steroids and measures for control of intraocular pressure. Serology for Toxoplasma gondii was positive and for HIV, negative. For headache and vomiting, he was hospitalised in order to exclude cerebral toxoplasma. The cerebral CT scan, MRI and lumbar puncture were negative and treatment was changed to pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and prednisolone. For persistence of vomiting he started clindamycin with clinical and ophthalmological improvement. The patient is currently under prophylaxis with co-trimoxazol for 1 year, and maintains clinical improvement. This case illustrates the rarity of presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis, without cerebral in an immunocompetent patient. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. [Relation between expression of cerebral beta-APP in the chronic alcoholism rats and death caused by TSAH].

    PubMed

    Wei, Lai; Lei, Huai-Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Qian, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Fang-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    By observing the cerebral beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) expression in the chronic alcoholism rats with slight cerebral injury, to discuss the correlation of chronic alcoholism and death caused by traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (TSAH). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into watering group, watering group with strike, alcoholism group and alcoholism group with strike. Among them, the alcohol was used for continuous 4 weeks in alcoholism groups and the concussion was made in groups with strike. In each group, HE staining and immunohistochemical staining of the cerebral tissues were done and the results were analyzed by the histopathologic image system. In watering group, there was no abnormal. In watering group with strike, mild neuronic congestion was found. In alcoholism group, vascular texture on cerebral surface was found. And the neurons arranged in disorder with dilated intercellular space. In alcoholism group with strike, diffuse congestion on cerebral surface was found. And there was TSAH with thick-layer patches around brainstem following irregular axonotmesis. The quantity of beta-APP IOD in alcoholism group was significantly higher in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, cerebellum, brainstem than those in watering group with strike and alcoholism group with strike. The cerebral tissues with chronic alcoholism, due to the decreasing tolerance, could cause fatal TSAH and pathological changes in cerebral tissues of rats under slight cerebral injury.

  17. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    MedlinePlus

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  18. Toxoplasmosis and epilepsy--systematic review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngoungou, Edgard B; Bhalla, Devender; Nzoghe, Amandine; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important, widespread, parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, usually considered as asymptomatic, is now suspected to be a risk factor for various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to estimate the risk of epilepsy due to toxoplasmosis. A systematic literature search was conducted of several databases and journals to identify studies published in English or French, without date restriction, which looked at toxoplasmosis (as exposure) and epilepsy (as disease) and met certain other inclusion criteria. The search was based on keywords and suitable combinations in English and French. Fixed and random effects models were used to determine odds ratios, and statistical significance was set at 5.0%. Six studies were identified, with an estimated total of 2888 subjects, of whom 1280 had epilepsy (477 positive for toxoplasmosis) and 1608 did not (503 positive for toxoplasmosis). The common odds ratio (calculated) by random effects model was 2.25 (95% CI 1.27-3.9), p = 0.005. Despite the limited number of studies, and a lack of high-quality data, toxoplasmosis should continue to be regarded as an epilepsy risk factor. More and better studies are needed to determine the real impact of this parasite on the occurrence of epilepsy.

  19. Management of toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients: an update.

    PubMed

    Dard, Céline; Marty, Pierre; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Garnaud, Cécile; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Pelloux, Hervé; Pomares, Christelle

    2018-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The risk of toxoplasmosis in transplant patients mainly depends on the degree of immunosuppression, the tropism of Toxoplasma gondii for the grafted tissue, and the seroprevalence in the general population. Although transplant recipients with toxoplasmosis have a high mortality rate, there are neither well-defined recommendations nor a consensus for the management of this disease in these patients. Areas covered. This review focuses on the management of toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients and discusses the various strategies for diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and follow-up in clinical practice. The literature search was conducted on publications in English and French using the search terms "Toxoplasma gondii", "organ transplant" and "transplant recipients". Expert commentary. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has greatly improved over the last two decades, in part due to molecular techniques, but it is still a fatal illness. Non-specificity of the symptoms, resulting in a delay before diagnosis, and therapeutic failure are the main causes of death. The development of active treatments against cysts is one of the current challenges that will considerably improve the management of toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients by clearing chronic infection to avoid T. gondii reactivation.

  20. Progressive Cortical Neuronal Damage and Chronic Hemodynamic Impairment in Atherosclerotic Major Cerebral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Shinya; Kishibe, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that chronic hemodynamic impairment may cause selective cortical neuronal damage in patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusive disease. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine whether the progression of cortical neuronal damage, evaluated as a decrease in central benzodiazepine receptors (BZRs), is associated with hemodynamic impairment at baseline or hemodynamic deterioration during follow-up. We evaluated the distribution of BZRs twice using positron emission tomography and (11)C-flumazenil over time in 80 medically treated patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusive disease that had no ischemic episodes during follow-up. Using 3D stereotactic surface projections, we quantified abnormal decreases in the BZRs in the cerebral cortex within the middle cerebral artery distribution and correlated changes in the BZR index with the mean hemispheric values of hemodynamic parameters obtained from (15)O gas positron emission tomography. In the hemisphere affected by arterial disease, the BZR index in 40 patients (50%) was increased during follow-up (mean 26±20 months). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, increases in the BZR index were associated with the decreased cerebral blood flow at baseline and an increased oxygen extraction fraction during follow-up. Increases in the oxygen extraction fraction during follow-up were associated with a lack of statin use. In patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery disease, the progression of cortical neuronal damage was associated with hemodynamic impairment at baseline and hemodynamic deterioration during follow-up. Statin use may be beneficial against hemodynamic deterioration and therefore neuroprotective. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. TRPM2 Channel Aggravates CNS Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment via Activation of Microglia in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Jun; Kakae, Masashi; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mori, Yasuo; Arai, Ken; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Kaneko, Shuji

    2018-04-04

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a characteristic seen in widespread CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative and mental disorders, and is commonly accompanied by cognitive impairment. Recently, several studies demonstrated that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can induce the excessive inflammatory responses that precede neuronal dysfunction; however, the precise mechanism of cognitive impairment due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is abundantly expressed in immune cells and is involved in aggravation of inflammatory responses. Therefore, we investigated the pathophysiological role of TRPM2 in a mouse chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model with bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). When male mice were subjected to BCAS, cognitive dysfunction and white matter injury at day 28 were significantly improved in TRPM2 knock-out (TRPM2-KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas hippocampal damage was not observed. There were no differences in blood-brain barrier breakdown and H 2 O 2 production between the two genotypes at 14 and 28 d after BCAS. Cytokine production was significantly suppressed in BCAS-operated TRPM2-KO mice compared with WT mice at day 28. In addition, the number of Iba1-positive cells gradually decreased from day 14. Moreover, daily treatment with minocycline significantly improved cognitive perturbation. Surgical techniques using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that activated Iba1-positive cells in white matter could be brain-resident microglia, not peripheral macrophages. Together, these findings suggest that microglia contribute to the aggravation of cognitive impairment by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and that TRPM2 may be a potential target for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-related disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is manifested in a wide variety of CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative

  2. Chronic cocaine disrupts neurovascular networks and cerebral function: optical imaging studies in rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiujia; You, Jiang; Volkow, Nora D.; Choi, Jeonghun; Yin, Wei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2016-02-01

    Cocaine abuse can lead to cerebral strokes and hemorrhages secondary to cocaine's cerebrovascular effects, which are poorly understood. We assessed cocaine's effects on cerebrovascular anatomy and function in the somatosensory cortex of the rat's brain. Optical coherence tomography was used for in vivo imaging of three-dimensional cerebral blood flow (CBF) networks and to quantify CBF velocities (CBFv), and multiwavelength laser-speckle-imaging was used to simultaneously measure changes in CBFv, oxygenated (Δ[HbO2]) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbR]) concentrations prior to and after an acute cocaine challenge in chronically cocaine exposed rats. Immunofluorescence techniques on brain slices were used to quantify microvasculature density and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After chronic cocaine (2 and 4 weeks), CBFv in small vessels decreased, whereas vasculature density and VEGF levels increased. Acute cocaine further reduced CBFv and decreased Δ[HbO2] and this decline was larger and longer lasting in 4 weeks than 2 weeks cocaine-exposed rats, which indicates that risk for ischemia is heightened during intoxication and that it increases with chronic exposures. These results provide evidence of cocaine-induced angiogenesis in cortex. The CBF reduction after chronic cocaine exposure, despite the increases in vessel density, indicate that angiogenesis was insufficient to compensate for cocaine-induced disruption of cerebrovascular function.

  3. Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Dirk; Däubener, Walter; Schares, Gereon; Groß, Uwe; Pleyer, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely sucessfull protozoal parasite which infects almost all mamalian species including humans. Approximately 30% of the human population worldwide is chronically infected with T. gondii. In general, human infection is asymptomatic but the parasite may induce severe disease in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. In addition, T. gondii may cause sight-threatening posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Apart from few exceptions, humans acquire T. gondii from animals. Both, the oral uptake of T. gondii oocysts released by specific hosts, i.e. felidae, and of cysts persisting in muscle cells of animals result in human toxoplasmosis. In the present review, we discuss recent new data on the cell biology of T. gondii and parasite diversity in animals. In addition, we focus on the impact of these various parasite strains and their different virulence on the clinical outcome of human congenital toxoplasmosis and T. gondii uveitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymptomatic cerebral lacunae in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shuzo; Ikeda, Toshio; Moriya, Hidekazu; Ohtake, Takayasu; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2004-07-01

    It remains unknown whether the prevalence of silent lacunar infarcts increases as renal function declines or what factors known as atherosclerotic risk factors are related to the development of lacunar infarcts. Fifty-one patients with chronic kidney disease without diabetes mellitus and 80 patients with essential hypertension with normal renal function were included in the study. The existence of lacunar infarcts was evaluated on brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. We evaluated the severity of carotid atherosclerosis by means of intima-media thickness of 1.0 mm or greater height in bilateral carotid arteries and by affecting factors, including plasma homocysteine levels. Lacunae prevalence was 25% in patients with a creatinine clearance (Ccr) greater than 40 mL/min/1.73 m2, 85% in patients with a Ccr less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 29% in patients with essential hypertension with normal renal function. Patients with lacunae had significantly lower hematocrits associated with increased fibrinogen and lipoprotein(a) levels compared with those without lacunae. Plasma total homocysteine and insulin levels at 2 hours after a 75-g glucose tolerance test correlated significantly with lacunae. Ischemic heart changes shown by electrocardiogram and thickened carotid intima-media thickness were significantly more frequent in patients with lacunae. However, logistic regression analysis showed that the most strongly contributing factor for lacunar infarcts was decline in Ccr (confidence interval, 0.933 to 0.995; P < 0.05). Decreased renal function, even without diabetes mellitus, is a risk factor for silent lacunar infarcts.

  5. Chronic kidney disease and poor outcomes in ischemic stroke: is impaired cerebral autoregulation the missing link?

    PubMed

    Castro, Pedro; Azevedo, Elsa; Rocha, Isabel; Sorond, Farzaneh; Serrador, Jorge M

    2018-03-02

    Chronic kidney disease increases stroke incidence and severity but the mechanisms behind this cerebro-renal interaction are mostly unexplored. Since both vascular beds share similar features, microvascular dysfunction could be the possible missing link. Therefore, we examined the relationship between renal function and cerebral autoregulation in the early hours post ischemia and its impact on outcome. We enrolled 46 ischemic strokes (middle cerebral artery). Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by transfer function (coherence, phase and gain) of spontaneous blood pressure oscillations to blood flow velocity within 6 h from symptom-onset. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and white matter lesions (WML) were collected from computed tomography performed at presentation and 24 h. Outcome was evaluated with modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. High gain (less effective autoregulation) was correlated with lower eGFR irrespective of infarct side (p < 0.05). Both lower eGFR and higher gain correlated with WML grade (p < 0.05). Lower eGFR and increased gain, alone and in combination, progressively reduced the odds of a good functional outcome [ipsilateral OR = 4.39 (CI95% 3.15-25.6), p = 0.019; contralateral OR = 8.15 (CI95% 4.15-15.6), p = 0.002] and increased risk of HT [ipsilateral OR = 3.48 (CI95% 0.60-24.0), p = 0.132; contralateral OR = 6.43 (CI95% 1.40-32.1), p = 0.034]. Lower renal function correlates with less effective dynamic cerebral autoregulation in acute ischemic stroke, both predicting a bad outcome. The evaluation of serum biomarkers of renal dysfunction could have interest in the future for assessing cerebral microvascular risk and relationship with stroke complications.

  6. Epidemiology of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eskild; Kijlstra, Aize; Stanford, Miles

    2012-04-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean and parts of tropical Africa as compared to Europe and Northern America, and is quite rare in China. Ocular disease in South America is more severe than in other continents due to the presence of extremely virulent genotypes of the parasite. Drinking untreated water is considered the major source of Toxoplasma infection in developing countries, whereas in the Western world the consumption of raw or undercooked meat (products) is the most important cause. Since acquired infection with T. gondii is currently a more important cause of ocular toxoplasmosis compared to congenital infection, prevention should be directed not only toward pregnant women but toward the general population.

  7. Controversies in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Denis; Cunningham, Emmett T; Pavesio, Carlos; Garweg, Justus G; Zierhut, Manfred

    2011-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a major cause of infectious uveitis, was elected by the editors of Ocular Immunology and Inflammation as the disease of the year for 2011. The aim of the present review was to report on the results of a survey of leading uveitis experts, in which the authors asked participants to address some of the most important issues related to diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. The survey revealed generally good consensus regarding clinical signs of typical and atypical toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. In contrast, views regarding diagnostic approach, possible epidemiological influences, transmission of disease, and trigger factors seemed less clearly defined. Responses revealed a large number of drug regimens in use for both congenital and acquired disease. Finally, recurrence prophylaxis was not regularly recommended by the majority of experts.

  8. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  9. [Fever and lymphadenopathy: acute toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Kaparos, Nikolaos; Favrat, Bernard; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2014-11-26

    Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. Immunocompetent patients are usually asymptomatic (80-90%) during primary infection. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy. Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests (IgG avidity test). If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid.

  10. A chronic scheme of cranial window preparation to study pial vascular reactivity in murine cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Peng Kai; Meays, Diana; Frangos, John A.; Carvalho, Leonardo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The acute implantation of a cranial window for studying cerebroarteriolar reactivity in living animals involves a highly surgically-invasive craniotomy procedure at the time of experimentation, which limits its application in severely ill animals such as in the experimental murine model of cerebral malaria (ECM). To overcome this problem, a chronic window implantation scheme was designed and implemented. Methods A partial craniotomy is first performed by creating a skull bone flap in the healthy mice, which are then left to recover for 1–2 weeks, followed by infection to induce ECM. Uninfected animals are utilized as control. When cranial superfusion is needed, the bone flap is retracted and window implantation completed by assembling a perfusion chamber for compound delivery to the exposed brain surface. The presurgical step is intended to minimize surgical trauma on the day of experimentation. Results Chronic preparations in uninfected mice exhibited remarkably improved stability over acute ones by significantly reducing periarteriolar tissue damage and enhancing cerebroarteriolar dilator responses. The chronic scheme was successfully implemented in ECM mice which unveiled novel preliminary insights on impaired cerebroarteriolar reactivity and eNOS dysfunction. Conclusion The chronic scheme presents an innovative approach for advancing our mechanistic understanding on cerebrovascular dysfunction in ECM. PMID:23279271

  11. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: an Update.

    PubMed

    Garweg, J G

    2016-04-01

    Although the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis has undergone a progressive 50 % decline during the past 20 years, the disease remains an economically important health hazard in many countries. Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most frequent cause of infectious posterior uveitis, and new insights into its pathophysiology have paved the way for new therapeutic strategies. This review summarises recent insights into the disease, its clinical manifestations and therapeutic options. The data have been gleaned from a PubMed search, which was conducted in August 2015 using the key term "ocular toxoplasmosis". A laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis serves as the basis for estimating the clinical burden of OT. This is more severe in South America than in Europe, due to the higher incidence of the more virulent New World parasitic strains. It is not yet possible to differentiate between acquired and congenital cases in most patients. However, in elderly individuals, clinical manifestations of acquired OT are more frequently encountered and in atypical forms. Although inflammation may initially be more pronounced in acquired than in congenital cases of OT, the final visual acuity is usually better and the risk of recurrence lower. Amongst the numerous therapeutic options, none is clearly superior. In immunocompromised individuals and in those with frequent recurrences, prophylactic measures should be considered. OT is still a potentially vision-threatening affection, namely in elderly individuals with acquired disease and in those patients harbouring the more aggressive New World strains of the parasite. Owing to the limitations in diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy, treatment strategies have to be tailored to the individual needs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Cataracts in congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Arun, Veena; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Latkany, Paul; Troia, Robert N; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Kasza, Kristen; Karrison, Ted; Cezar, Simone; Sautter, Mari; Greenwald, Mark J; Mieler, William; Mets, Marilyn B; Alam, Ambereen; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N; Roizen, Nancy; Rabiah, Peter; Del Monte, Monte A; McLeod, Rima

    2007-12-01

    To determine the incidence and natural history of cataracts in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Children referred to the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) between 1981 and 2005 were examined by ophthalmologists at predetermined times according to a specific protocol. The clinical course and treatment of patients who developed cataracts were reviewed. In the first year of life, 134 of 173 children examined were treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leukovorin, while the remaining 39 were not treated. Cataracts occurred in 27 eyes of 20 patients (11.6%, 95% confidence interval [7.2%, 17.3%]). Fourteen cataracts were present at birth and 13 developed postnatally. Locations of the cataracts included anterior polar (three eyes), anterior subcapsular (six eyes), nuclear (five eyes), posterior subcapsular (seven eyes), and unknown (six eyes). Thirteen cataracts were partial, nine total, and five with unknown complexity. Twelve cataracts remained stable, 12 progressed, and progression was not known for 3. Five of 27 eyes had cataract surgery, with 2 of these developing glaucoma. Sixteen eyes of 11 patients had retinal detachment and cataract. All eyes with cataracts had additional ocular lesions. In the NCCCTS cohort, 11.6% of patients were diagnosed with cataracts. There was considerable variability in the presentation, morphology, and progression of the cataracts. Associated intraocular pathology was an important cause of morbidity.

  13. Influence of chronic bromocriptine and levodopa administration on cerebral type 1 cannabinoid receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Casteels, Cindy; Vanbilloen, Bert; Vercammen, Dorien; Bosier, Barbara; Lambert, Didier M; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen

    2010-08-01

    The endocannabinoid system is an important modulatory system in the brain. Complex interactions with brain dopaminergic circuits have been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of the commonly used antiparkinsonian drugs, levodopa (L-DOPA) and bromocriptine, on type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors, using the PET radioligand [(18)F]MK-9470. Seventeen female Wistar rats were studied at baseline and after chronic exposure to either L-DOPA (6 mg/kg/day with 1.5 mg/kg/day carbidopa; n = 6), bromocriptine (4 mg/kg/day; n = 5), or saline (n = 6). [(18)F]MK-9470 binding was assessed in vivo using small animal PET imaging. [(18)F]MK-9470 parametric images were generated, anatomically standardized to Paxinos space and analyzed by voxel-based statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and a predefined volume-of-interest (VOI) approach. In a 2 x 2 analysis design (condition vs. treatment), no significant changes in absolute or relative [(18)F]MK-9470 binding were present upon chronic exposure to L-DOPA or bromocriptine as compared to saline treatment. The post hoc comparison of chronic scans to baseline within each treatment modality showed regional increases in relative [(18)F]MK-9470 binding in the thalamus (peak average value +6.3%) and in the sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus (peak average value +10.2%) after bromocriptine exposure, while no changes were found for L-DOPA. Chronic administration of L-DOPA and bromocriptine at the applied doses does not produce major cerebral changes in in vivo cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding of [(18)F]MK-9470 in the rat brain. These results also suggest that similar chronic L-DOPA and bromocriptine usage is unlikely to interfere with human PET imaging in healthy conditions using this radioligand.

  14. Safety of cerebral angiography and neuroendovascular therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae; Male, Shailesh; Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Streib, Christopher; Tummala, Ramachandra P

    2018-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common clinical concern in patients undergoing neuroendovascular procedures, especially in those with pre-existent kidney disease. We aimed to define the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in these high-risk patients in our practice. We analyzed data retrospectively from patients undergoing neuroendovascular procedures at two academic medical centers over a 4-year period. Contrast-induced nephropathy was determined by an absolute increase in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL or a rise from its baseline value by ≥ 25%, at 48-72 h after exposure to contrast agent after excluding other causes of renal impairment. High-risk patients were identified as those with pre-procedural estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min irrespective of creatinine level, corresponding to stages 3-5 of chronic kidney disease. One hundred eighty-five high-risk patients undergoing conventional cerebral angiography and neuroendovascular interventions were identified. Only 1 out of 184 (0.54%) high-risk patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy. That one patient had stage 5 chronic kidney disease and multiple other risk factors. We have observed a very low rate of renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease, traditionally considered high risk for neuroendovascular procedures. Multiple factors may be responsible in the risk reduction of contrast-induced nephropathy in this patient population.

  15. Imaging cerebral activity in recovery from chronic traumatic brain injury: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David H; Bluestone, Judith P; Savina, Maryann; Zoller, William H; Meshberg, Emily B; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2006-07-01

    People in chronic phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often told that there will be no further recovery in brain function, that they are in a "static phase." Holistic Approach to NeuroDevelopment and Learning Efficiency (HANDLE), an alternative therapy, aims to improve function by teaching a series of physical and mental activities that clients perform and encouraging changes in lifestyle. Five subjects (3 males) with chronic TBI (at least 3 years since ictus) completed the HANDLE Institute's program and were prospectively evaluated. Each had six regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans over 7 months (scans n= 30). Paired scans were performed with injection of Tc-99m ECD to image rCBF at rest and during the HANDLE "Crossed Arm Bounce" (CAB) exercise before the program, at 3-4 months into the program, and at 6-7 months, after the program had ended. SPECT images were analyzed statistically using Neurostat in which image sets were coregistered and warped into Talaraich atlas for pairwise subtraction between conditions. Group analysis of SPECT showed that CAB activated (increased rCBF) vermis and cerebellar hemispheres in first two paired scans and anterior cingulate and vermis on the final pair. Increased rCBF at rest occurred in cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, and right dorsomedial frontal cortex. These preliminary observations suggest that there may be a role of the hindbrain (vermis and cerebellum) with HANDLE treatment of chronic TBI.

  16. Acute and chronic hypoxia: implications for cerebral function and exercise tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; Twomey, Rosie; Amann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To outline how hypoxia profoundly affects neuronal functionality and thus compromise exercise-performance. Methods Investigations using electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) detecting neuronal changes at rest and those studying fatiguing effects on whole-body exercise performance in acute (AH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) were evaluated. Results At rest during very early hypoxia (<1-h), slowing of cerebral neuronal activity is evident despite no change in corticospinal excitability. As time in hypoxia progresses (3-h), increased corticospinal excitability becomes evident; however, changes in neuronal activity are unknown. Prolonged exposure (3–5 d) causes a respiratory alkalosis which modulates Na+ channels, potentially explaining reduced neuronal excitability. Locomotor exercise in AH exacerbates the development of peripheral-fatigue; as the severity of hypoxia increases, mechanisms of peripheral-fatigue become less dominant and CNS hypoxia becomes the predominant factor. The greatest central-fatigue in AH occurs when SaO2 is ≤75%, a level that coincides with increasing impairments in neuronal activity. CH does not improve the level of peripheral-fatigue observed in AH; however, it attenuates the development of central-fatigue paralleling increases in cerebral O2 availability and corticospinal excitability. Conclusions The attenuated development of central-fatigue in CH might explain, the improvements in locomotor exercise-performance commonly observed after acclimatisation to high altitude. PMID:25593787

  17. Piracetam improves cognitive deficits caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Liao, Yun; Zheng, Min; Zeng, Fan-Dian; Guo, Lian-Jun

    2008-06-01

    Piracetam is the derivate of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which improves the cognition,memory,consciousness, and is widely applied in the clinical treatment of brain dysfunction. In the present experiments, we study the effects of piracetam on chronic cerebral hypoperfused rats and observe its influence on amino acids, synaptic plasticity in the Perforant path-CA3 pathway and apoptosis in vivo. Cerebral hypoperfusion for 30 days by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries induced marked amnesic effects along with neuron damage, including: (1) spatial learning and memory deficits shown by longer escape latency and shorter time spent in the target quadrant; (2) significant neuronal loss and nuclei condensation in the cortex and hippocampus especially in CA1 region; (3) lower induction rate of long term potentiation, overexpression of BAX and P53 protein, and lower content of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in hippocampus. Oral administration of piracetam (600 mg/kg, once per day for 30 days) markedly improved the memory impairment, increased the amino acid content in hippocampus, and attenuated neuronal damage. The ability of piracetam to attenuate memory deficits and neuronal damage after hypoperfusion may be beneficial in cerebrovascular type dementia.

  18. Cerebral interactions of pain and reward and their relevance for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2012-06-29

    Pain and reward are opponent, interacting processes. Such interactions are enabled by neuroanatomical and neurochemical overlaps of brain systems that process pain and reward. Cerebral processing of hedonic ('liking') and motivational ('wanting') aspects of reward can be separated: the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids play an important role for the hedonic experience, and the ventral striatum and dopamine predominantly process motivation for reward. Supported by neuroimaging studies, we present here the hypothesis that the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids are responsible for pain modulation by hedonic experience, while the ventral striatum and dopamine mediate motivational effects on pain. A rewarding stimulus that appears to be particularly important in the context of pain is pain relief. Further, reward, including pain relief, leads to operant learning, which can affect pain sensitivity. Indirect evidence points at brain mechanisms that might underlie pain relief as a reward and related operant learning but studies are scarce. Investigating the cerebral systems underlying pain-reward interactions as well as related operant learning holds the potential of better understanding mechanisms that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain, as detailed in the last section of this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging Cerebral Microhemorrhages in Military Service Members with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Soderlund, Karl; Senseney, Justin S; Joy, David; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Ollinger, John; Sham, Elyssa B; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Oakes, Terrence R; Riedy, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    To detect cerebral microhemorrhages in military service members with chronic traumatic brain injury by using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The longitudinal evolution of microhemorrhages was monitored in a subset of patients by using quantitative susceptibility mapping. The study was approved by the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center institutional review board and is compliant with HIPAA guidelines. All participants underwent two-dimensional conventional gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging and three-dimensional flow-compensated multiecho gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging (processed to generate susceptibility-weighted images and quantitative susceptibility maps), and a subset of patients underwent follow-up imaging. Microhemorrhages were identified by two radiologists independently. Comparisons of microhemorrhage number, size, and magnetic susceptibility derived from quantitative susceptibility maps between baseline and follow-up imaging examinations were performed by using the paired t test. Among the 603 patients, cerebral microhemorrhages were identified in 43 patients, with six excluded for further analysis owing to artifacts. Seventy-seven percent (451 of 585) of the microhemorrhages on susceptibility-weighted images had a more conspicuous appearance than on gradient-recalled-echo images. Thirteen of the 37 patients underwent follow-up imaging examinations. In these patients, a smaller number of microhemorrhages were identified at follow-up imaging compared with baseline on quantitative susceptibility maps (mean ± standard deviation, 9.8 microhemorrhages ± 12.8 vs 13.7 microhemorrhages ± 16.6; P = .019). Quantitative susceptibility mapping-derived quantitative measures of microhemorrhages also decreased over time: -0.85 mm(3) per day ± 1.59 for total volume (P = .039) and -0.10 parts per billion per day ± 0.14 for mean magnetic susceptibility (P = .016). The number of microhemorrhages and quantitative susceptibility

  20. Clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Delair, Emmanuelle; Latkany, Paul; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Rabiah, Peter; McLeod, Rima; Brézin, Antoine

    2011-04-01

    Clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis are reviewed. Findings of congenital and acute acquired ocular toxoplasmosis include retinal scars, white-appearing lesions in the active phase often associated with vitritis. Complications can include fibrous bands, secondary serous or rhegmatogenous retinal detachments, optic neuritis and neuropathy, cataracts, increased intraocular pressure during active infection, and choroidal neovascular membranes. Recurrences in untreated congenital toxoplasmosis occur in teenage years. Manifestations at birth are less severe, and recurrences are fewer in those who were treated promptly early in the course of their disease in utero and in the first year of life. Severe retinal involvement is common at diagnosis of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States and Brazil. Acute acquired infections also may be complicated by toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, with recurrences most common close to the time of acquisition. Suppressive treatment can reduce recurrent disease.

  1. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, screening, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Caroline; Yudin, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    One of the major consequences of pregnant women becoming infected by Toxoplasma gondii is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause severe neurological or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. Prenatal care must include education about prevention of toxoplasmosis. The low prevalence of the disease in the Canadian population and limitations in diagnosis and therapy limit the effectiveness of screening strategies. Therefore, routine screening is not currently recommended. To review the prevention, diagnosis, and management of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. OUTCOMES evaluated include the effect of screening on diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis and the efficacy of prophylaxis and treatment. The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for articles published in English from 1990 to the present related to toxoplasmosis and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through references of these articles. The quality of evidence is rated and recommendations made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an approach to screening for and treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Patients will benefit from appropriate management of this condition. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. 1. Routine universal screening should not be performed for pregnant women at low risk. Serologic screening should be offered only to pregnant women considered to be at risk for primary Toxoplasma gondii infection. (II-3E) 2. Suspected recent infection in a pregnant woman should be confirmed before intervention by having samples tested at a toxoplasmosis reference laboratory, using tests that are as accurate as possible and correctly interpreted. (II-2B) 3. If acute infection is suspected, repeat testing should be performed within 2 to 3 weeks, and consideration

  2. Cerebral flow velocities during daily activities depend on blood pressure in patients with chronic ischemic infarctions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Vera; Hu, Kun; Desrochers, Laura; Novak, Peter; Caplan, Louis; Lipsitz, Lewis; Selim, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    Target blood pressure (BP) values for optimal cerebral perfusion after an ischemic stroke are still debated. We sought to examine the relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow velocities (BFVs) during daily activities. We studied 43 patients with chronic large vessel ischemic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory (aged 64.2+/-8.94 years; at 6.1+/-4.9 years after stroke) and 67 age-matched control subjects. BFVs in middle cerebral arteries were measured during supine baseline, sitting, standing, and tilt. A regression analysis and a dynamic phase analysis were used to quantify the BP-BFV relationship. The mean arterial pressure was similar between the groups (89+/-15 mm Hg). Baseline BFVs were lower by approximately 30% in the patients with stroke compared with the control subjects (P=0.0001). BFV declined further with postural changes and remained lower in the stroke group during sitting (P=0.003), standing (P=0.003), and tilt (P=0.002) as compared with the control group. Average BFVs on the stroke side were positively correlated with BP during baseline (R=0.54, P=0.0022, the slope 0.46 cm/s/mm Hg) and tilt (R=0.52, P=0.0028, the slope 0.40 cm/s/mm Hg). Regression analysis suggested that BFV may increase approximately 30% to 50% at mean BP >100 mm Hg. Orthostatic hypotension during the first minute of tilt or standing was independently associated with lower BFV on the stroke side (P=0.0008). Baseline BP-BFV phase shift derived from the phase analysis was smaller on the stroke side (P=0.0006). We found that BFVs are lower in patients with stroke and daily activities such as standing could induce hypoperfusion. BFVs increase with mean arterial pressure >100 mm Hg. Dependency of BFV on arterial pressure may have implications for BP management after stroke. Further prospective investigations are needed to determine the impact of these findings on functional recovery and strategies to improve perfusion pressure during daily activities after ischemic

  3. Comparison of retrograde cerebral perfusion to antegrade cerebral perfusion and hypothermic circulatory arrest in a chronic porcine model.

    PubMed

    Midulla, P S; Gandsas, A; Sadeghi, A M; Mezrow, C K; Yerlioglu, M E; Wang, W; Wolfe, D; Ergin, M A; Griepp, R B

    1994-09-01

    Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) is a new method of cerebral protection that has been touted as an improvement over hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). However, RCP has been used clinically for durations and at temperatures that are "safe" for HCA alone. This study was designed to compare RCP to HCA and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) deliberately exceeding "safe" limits, in order to determine unequivocally whether RCP provides better cerebral protection than HCA. Four groups of six Yorkshire pigs (20 to 30 kg) were randomly assigned to undergo 90 minutes of RCP, ACP, HCA, or HCA with heads packed in ice (HCA-HP) at an esophageal temperature of 20 degrees C. Arterial, mixed venous and cerebral venous oxygen, glucose and lactate contents; quantitative EEG; were monitored at baseline (37 degrees C); at the end of cooling cardiopulmonary bypass (20 degrees C); during rewarming (30 degrees C); and at two and four hours post intervention. Animals were recovered and were evaluated daily using a quantitative behavioral score (0 to 9). Mean behavioral score was lower in the HCA group than in the other three groups at seven days (HCA 5.8 +/- 1.1; RCP 8.5 +/- 0.2; ACP 9.0 +/- 0.0; HCA-HP 8.5 +/- 0.2, p < 0.05). Recovery of QEEG was better in the ACP group than in all others, but the RCP group had faster EEG recovery than HCA alone, although not better than HCA-HP (HCA 15 +/- 4; RCP 27 +/- 3; ACP 78 +/- 5; HCA-HP 19 +/- 3, p < 0.001). However, histopathological evidence of ischemic injury was present in 5 of 6 HCA animals and also in 4 of 6 of the HCP-HP group, but only in 1 of 6 RCP animals and in none of the ACP group. This study demonstrates that ACP affords the best cerebral protection by all outcome measures, but RCP provides clear improvement compared to HCA.

  4. [Schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Dion, Sarah; Barbe, Pierre Guillaume; Leman, Samuel; Camus, Vincent; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most severe and disabling psychiatric disease that affects about 1 % of the adult worldwide population. Aetiology of schizophrenia is still unknown but genetic and environmental factors are suspected to play a major role in its onset. Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that infectious agents may contribute to some cases of schizophrenia. In particular, several epidemiological, behavioural and neurochemical studies suggested the existence of an association between schizophrenia and past history of primo-infection by the Toxoplasma gondii. However, they are some limitations for this hypothesis among which the lack of correlation between the geographic distribution of both diseases and of direct evidence for the presence of the parasite in schizophrenic patients. Nevertheless the identification of physiopathological mechanisms related to the parasite could provide a better comprehension to the outcome of schizophrenia. Studies on the link between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia may provide interesting data for the diagnosis and the development of new treatments for this disorder.

  5. Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest vs. Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion in Cerebral Protection during the Surgical Treatment of Chronic Dissection of the Ascending and Arch Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Kamenskaya, Oksana Vasilyevna; Klinkova, Asya Stanislavovna; Chernyavsky, Alexander Mikhailovich; Lomivorotov, Vladimir Vladimirovich; Meshkov, Ivan Olegovich; Karaskov, Alexander Mikhailovich

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Circulatory arrest during aortic surgery presents a risk of neurological complications. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) vs. antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) in cerebral protection during the surgical treatment of chronic dissection of the ascending and arch aorta and to assess the quality-of-life (QoL) in the long-term postoperative period with respect to the used cerebral protection method. In a prospective, randomized study, 58 patients with chronic type I aortic dissection who underwent ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement surgery were included. Patients were allocated in two groups: 29 patients who underwent surgery under moderate hypothermia (24°C) combined with ACP and 29 patients who underwent surgery under DHCA (18°C) with craniocerebral hypothermia. The regional hemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2, %) were compared during surgery, neurological complications were analyzed during the early postoperative period, QoL was compared in the long-term postoperative period (1-year follow-up). During the early postoperative period, 37.9% of patients in the DHCA group exhibited neurological complications, compared with 13.8% of those in the ACP group (p < .05). The risk of neurological complications in the early postoperative period was dependent on the extent of rSO2 decrease during circulatory arrest. In the ACP group, rSO2 decreased by ≤17% from baseline during circulatory arrest. In the DHCA group, a more profound decrease in rSO2 (>30%) was recorded (p < .05). QoL in the long-term period after surgery improved, but it was not dependent on the cerebral protection method used during surgery. ACP during aortic replacement demonstrated the most advanced properties of cerebral protection that can be evidenced by a lesser degree of neurological complications, compared with patients who underwent surgery under conditions of DHCA. QoL after surgery was not dependent on the

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Agomelatine and Vinpocetine Against Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Induced Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Prabhat; Sharma, Brij Mohan; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been considered as a critical cause for the development of cognitive decline and dementia of vascular origin. Melatonin receptors have been reported to be beneficial in improving memory deterioration. Phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) enzyme offers protection against cognitive impairments and cerebrovascular disorders. Aim of this study is to explore the role of agomelatine (a dual MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist) and vinpocetine (selective PDE1 inhibitor) in CCH induced vascular dementia (VaD). Two vessel occlusion (2VO) or bilateral common carotid arteries ligation method was performed to initiate a phase of chronic hypoperfusion in mice. 2VO animals have shown significant cognitive deficits (Morris water maze), cholinergic dysfunction (increased acetyl cholinesterase -AChE) activity alongwith increased brain oxidative stress (decreased brain catalase, glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase with an increase in malondialdehyde levels), and significant increase in brain infarct size (2,3,5- triphenylterazolium chloride-TTC staining). Treatment of agomelatine and vinpocetine reduced CCH induced learning and memory deficits and limited cholinergic dysfunction, oxidative stress, and tissue damage, suggesting that agomelatine and vinpocetine may provide benefits in CCH induced VaD.

  7. Progesterone and Nestorone promote myelin regeneration in chronic demyelinating lesions of corpus callosum and cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    el-Etr, Martine; Rame, Marion; Boucher, Celine; Ghoumari, Abdel; Kumar, Narender; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Schumacher, Michael; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis affects mainly women and consists in intermittent or chronic damages to the myelin sheaths, focal inflammation and axonal degeneration. Current therapies are limited to immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory drugs, but there is no efficient treatment for stimulating the endogenous capacity of myelin repair. Progesterone and synthetic progestins have been shown in animal models of demyelination to attenuate myelin loss, reduce clinical symptoms severity, modulate inflammatory responses and partially reverse the age-dependent decline in remyelination. Moreover, progesterone has been demonstrated to promote myelin formation in organotypic cultures of cerebellar slices. In the present study, we show that progesterone and the synthetic 19-nor-progesterone derivative Nestorone® promote the repair of severe chronic demyelinating lesions induced by feeding cuprizone to female mice for up to 12 weeks. Progesterone and Nestorone increase the density of NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and CA II+ mature oligodendrocytes and enhance the formation of myelin basic protein (MBP)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-immunoreactive myelin. However, while demyelination in response to cuprizone was less marked in corpus callosum than in cerebral cortex, remyelination appeared earlier in the former. The remyelinating effect of progesterone was progesterone receptor (PR)-dependent, as it was absent in PR knockout mice. Progesterone and Nestorone also decreased (but did not suppress) neuroinflammatory responses, specifically astrocyte and microglial cell activation. Therefore, some progestogens are promising therapeutic candidates for promoting the regeneration of myelin. PMID:25092805

  8. Baclofen mediates neuroprotection on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells through the regulation of autophagy under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Li, Chang-jun; Lu, Yun; Zong, Xian-gang; Luo, Chao; Sun, Jun; Guo, Lian-jun

    2015-01-01

    GABA receptors play an important role in ischemic brain injury. Studies have indicated that autophagy is closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. However, during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, the changes of autophagy in the hippocampal CA1 area, the correlation between GABA receptors and autophagy, and their influences on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis have not been well established. Here, we found that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion resulted in rat hippocampal atrophy, neuronal apoptosis, enhancement and redistribution of autophagy, down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio, elevation of cleaved caspase-3 levels, reduction of surface expression of GABAA receptor α1 subunit and an increase in surface and mitochondrial expression of connexin 43 (CX43) and CX36. Chronic administration of GABAB receptors agonist baclofen significantly alleviated neuronal damage. Meanwhile, baclofen could up-regulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increase the activation of Akt, GSK-3β and ERK which suppressed cytodestructive autophagy. The study also provided evidence that baclofen could attenuate the decrease in surface expression of GABAA receptor α1 subunit, and down-regulate surface and mitochondrial expression of CX43 and CX36, which might enhance protective autophagy. The current findings suggested that, under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, the effects of GABAB receptors activation on autophagy regulation could reverse neuronal damage. PMID:26412641

  9. Screening and assessment of chronic pain among children with cerebral palsy: a process evaluation of a pain toolbox.

    PubMed

    Orava, Taryn; Provvidenza, Christine; Townley, Ashleigh; Kingsnorth, Shauna

    2018-06-08

    Though high numbers of children with cerebral palsy experience chronic pain, it remains under-recognized. This paper describes an evaluation of implementation supports and adoption of the Chronic Pain Assessment Toolbox for Children with Disabilities (the Toolbox) to enhance pain screening and assessment practices within a pediatric rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital. A multicomponent knowledge translation strategy facilitated Toolbox adoption, inclusive of a clinical practice guideline, cerebral palsy practice points and assessment tools. Across the hospital, seven ambulatory care clinics with cerebral palsy caseloads participated in a staggered roll-out (Group 1: exclusive CP caseloads, March-December; Group 2: mixed diagnostic caseloads, August-December). Evaluation measures included client electronic medical record audit, document review and healthcare provider survey and interviews. A significant change in documentation of pain screening and assessment practice from pre-Toolbox (<2%) to post-Toolbox adoption (53%) was found. Uptake in Group 2 clinics lagged behind Group 1. Opportunities to use the Toolbox consistently (based on diagnostic caseload) and frequently (based on client appointments) were noted among contextual factors identified. Overall, the Toolbox was positively received and clinically useful. Findings affirm that the Toolbox, in conjunction with the application of integrated knowledge translation principles and an established knowledge translation framework, has potential to be a useful resource to enrich and standardize chronic pain screening and assessment practices among children with cerebral palsy. Implications for Rehabilitation It is important to engage healthcare providers in the conceptualization, development, implementation and evaluation of a knowledge-to-action best practice product. The Chronic Pain Toolbox for Children with Disabilities provides rehabilitation staff with guidance on pain screening and assessment

  10. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion independently exacerbates cognitive impairment within the pathopoiesis of Parkinson's disease via microvascular pathologys.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hongmei; Gao, Yuyuan; Zhang, Qingxi; Nie, Kun; Zhu, Ruiming; Gao, Liang; Feng, Shujun; Wang, Limin; Zhao, Jiehao; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yuhu; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-08-30

    To date, the role of microvascular pathology and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHH) in the development of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) is unclear. Here, we investigated how the combined injury through interaction of CHH and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity act as an exacerbating element to damagae cognitive fuction in a mouse model. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice underwent MPTP injection. Subjects were classified into a PD with normal cognitive performance (PDCN) group or a PD-MCI group using the Morris Water Maze test. Further, CHH was induced by stenosis of the bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCAs). Consequently, the animals were divided into 7 groups: they are control, sham, BCCAs, PDCN, PD-MCI, PDCN+BCCAs and PD-MCI+BCCAs. The Morris Water Maze test, open field test, histological investigation and western blotting were performed to analyze cerebral microvascular impairment in each group. The results showed that CHH and MPTP injection caused spatial memory and behavioral impairment, accompanied by microvascular impairment and down-regulation of ZO-1 and Occludin at the protein level compared to the control group. The above injuries were synergistically exacerbated in the PDCN+BCCAs group and the PD-MCI+BCCAs group, which paralleled the elevated expression of p-MAPK and p-Akt. In short, our data demonstrate that CHH and MPTP caused cognitive and microvascular impairment separately. Moreover, CHH may exacerbate cognitive impairment in a mouse model of PD. The study provides a new opportunity for understanding the pathogenesis of PD-MCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebral flow velocities during daily activities depend on blood pressure in patients with chronic ischemic infarctions

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Vera; Hu, Kun; Desrochers, Laura; Novak, Peter; Caplan, Louis; Lipsitz, Lewis; Selim, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    Background Target blood pressure (BP) values for optimal cerebral perfusion after an ischemic stroke are still debated. We sought to examine the relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow velocities (BFV) during daily activities. Methods We studied 43 patients with chronic large vessel ischemic infarctions in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory (aged 64.2±8.94 years; at 6.1±4.9 years after stroke), and 67 age-matched controls. BFV in MCAs were measured during supine baseline, sitting, standing and tilt. A regression analysis and a dynamic phase analysis were used to quantify BP-BFV relationship. Results The mean arterial pressure was similar between the groups (89±15 mmHg). Baseline BFV were lower by ~ 30% in the stroke patients compared to the controls (p=0.0001). BFV declined further with postural changes, and remained lower in the stroke group during sitting (p=0.003), standing (p=0.003) and tilt (p=0.002) as compared to the control group. Average BFV on the stroke side were positively correlated with BP during baseline (R=0.54, p=0.0022, the slope 0.46 cm/s/mm Hg) and tilt (R=0.52, p=0.0028, the slope 0.40 cm/s/mm Hg). Regression analysis suggested that BFV may increase ~ 30-50% at mean BP > 100 mmHg. Orthostatic hypotension during the first minute of tilt or standing was independently associated with lower BFV on the stroke side (p=0.0008). Baseline BP-BFV phase shift derived from the phase analysis was smaller on the stroke-side (p=0.0006). Conclusion We found that BFV are lower in stroke patients and daily activities such as standing could induce hypoperfusion. BFV increase with mean arterial pressure > 100 mmHg. Dependency of BFV on arterial pressure may have implications for BP management after stroke. Further prospective investigations are needed to determine the impact of these findings on functional recovery and strategies to improve perfusion pressure during daily activities after ischemic stroke. PMID:19959536

  12. Chronic Stress Modulates Regional Cerebral Glucose Transporter Expression in an Age-Specific and Sexually-Dimorphic Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Sean D.; Harrell, Constance S.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) mediate glucose uptake across the blood-brain-barrier into neurons and glia. Deficits in specific cerebral GLUT isoforms are linked to developmental and neurological dysfunction, but less is known about the range of variation in cerebral GLUT expression in normal conditions and the effects of environmental influences on cerebral GLUT expression. Knowing that puberty is a time of increased cerebral plasticity, metabolic demand, and shifts in hormonal balance for males and females, we first assessed gene expression of five GLUT subtypes in four brain regions in male and female adolescent and adult Wistar rats. The data indicated that sex differences in GLUT expression were most profound in the hypothalamus, and the transition from adolescence to adulthood had the most profound effect on GLUT expression in the hippocampus. Next, given the substantial energetic demands during adolescence and prior demonstrations of the adverse effects of adolescent stress, we determined the extent to which chronic stress altered GLUT expression in males and females in both adolescence and adulthood. Chronic stress significantly altered cerebral GLUT expression in males and females throughout both developmental stages but in a sexually dimorphic and brain region-specific manner. Collectively, our data demonstrate that cerebral GLUTs are expressed differentially based on brain region, sex, age, and stress exposure. These results suggest that developmental and environmental factors influence GLUT expression in multiple brain regions. Given the importance of appropriate metabolic balance within the brain, further assessment of the functional implications of life stage and environmentally-induced changes in GLUTs are warranted. PMID:24382486

  13. Evaluation of gene expression levels for cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Maia, M M; Meira-Strejevitch, C S; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; de Hippólito, D D C; Silva, V O; Brandão de Mattos, C C; Frederico, F B; Siqueira, R C; de Mattos, L C

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated levels for mRNA expression of 7 cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT Group, n = 23) and chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR Group, n = 9) were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. Negative controls (NC) were constituted of 7 PBMC samples from individuals seronegative for toxoplasmosis. mRNA expression for cytokines was determined by qPCR. Results showed a significant increase in mRNA levels from antigen stimulated PBMCs derived from OT Group for expressing IL-6 (at P < .005 and P < .0005 for CHR and NC groups, respectively), IL-10 (at P < .0005 and P < .005 for CHR and NC groups, respectively) and TGF-β (at P < .005) for NC group. mRNA levels for TNF-α and IL-12 were also upregulated in patients with OT compared to CHR and NC individuals, although without statistical significance. Additionally, mRNA levels for IL-27 and IFN-γ in PBMC of patients with OT were upregulated in comparison with NC individuals. Differences between OT and NC groups were statistically significant at P < .05 and P < .0005, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cervical adenopathy secondary to toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rafaty, F M

    1977-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is not a rare disease. Infestation occurs in 75% of the general world population and in 35% of the US population. Lymphadenopathy, primarily of the cervical type, is one of the most common signs of acquired toxoplasmosis. During the past 15 years a great number of reports have appeared in the medical literature regarding toxoplasmosis. However, it seems that most clinicians do not consider this disease as a possibility when they encounter patients with unexplained cervical adenopathy in whom the usual tests for infectious mononucleosis are negative. In fact, the majority of such patients come to the operating room with a suspected diagnosis of malignant neoplasm, particularly of malignant lymphoma. Thus, a great deal of unnecessary anxiety is generated and, at times, unnecessary surgery is performed. These may be avoidable. A total of 38 cases of acquired toxoplasmosis manifested by lymphadenopathy (82% in the cervical region) are analyzed with respect to symptomatology, differential diagnosis, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and treatment. Toxoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with cervical tumors.

  15. Imaging Cerebral Microhemorrhages in Military Service Members with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Soderlund, Karl; Senseney, Justin S.; Joy, David; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Ollinger, John; Sham, Elyssa B.; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Oakes, Terrence R.; Riedy, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To detect cerebral microhemorrhages in military service members with chronic traumatic brain injury by using susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The longitudinal evolution of microhemorrhages was monitored in a subset of patients by using quantitative susceptibility mapping. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center institutional review board and is compliant with HIPAA guidelines. All participants underwent two-dimensional conventional gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging and three-dimensional flow-compensated multi-echo gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging (processed to generate susceptibility-weighted images and quantitative susceptibility maps), and a subset of patients underwent follow-up imaging. Microhemorrhages were identified by two radiologists independently. Comparisons of microhemorrhage number, size, and magnetic susceptibility derived from quantitative susceptibility maps between baseline and follow-up imaging examinations were performed by using the paired t test. Results Among the 603 patients, cerebral microhemorrhages were identified in 43 patients, with six excluded for further analysis owing to artifacts. Seventy-seven percent (451 of 585) of the microhemorrhages on susceptibility-weighted images had a more conspicuous appearance than on gradient-recalled-echo images. Thirteen of the 37 patients underwent follow-up imaging examinations. In these patients, a smaller number of microhemorrhages were identified at follow-up imaging compared with baseline on quantitative susceptibility maps (mean ± standard deviation, 9.8 microhemorrhages ± 12.8 vs 13.7 microhemorrhages ± 16.6; P = .019). Quantitative susceptibility mapping–derived quantitative measures of microhemorrhages also decreased over time: −0.85 mm3 per day ± 1.59 for total volume (P = .039) and −0.10 parts per billion per day ± 0.14 for mean magnetic susceptibility (P = .016). Conclusion The number of

  16. Corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ocular infestation with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. Objectives The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 October 2012. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with active ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, or different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved from the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text articles of studies categorized as ‘unsure’ or ‘include’ after review of the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text article. Discrepancies were

  17. Testicular toxoplasmosis in a 26-year-old immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent; Amarasekera, Channa; Kundu, Shilajit

    2018-06-04

    Testicular toxoplasmosis is a very rare presentation of Toxoplasma gondii A 26-year-old immunocompetent man presented to us with right testicular pain and a right epididymal mass. Ultrasound was concerning for malignancy and a radical orchiectomy was performed. Surgical pathology revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation which stained positive for T. gondii . © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Relationship between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia: A review.

    PubMed

    Fuglewicz, Aleksander J; Piotrowski, Patryk; Stodolak, Anna

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests a correlation between schizophrenia and exposure to infectious agents. The majority of studied cases concerns the infection caused by T. gondii, an obligatory intracellular parasite that infects about 1/3 of the entire human population, according to the available data. The acute stage of the disease, predominantly short-lived and transient, transforms into the latent and chronic phase in which the parasite localizes within tissue cysts, mainly in the central nervous system. The chronic toxoplasmosis, primarily regarded as benign and asymptomatic, might be responsible, in light of current scientific evidence, for a vast array of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Numerous epidemiological case-control studies show a higher prevalence of T. gondii infestation in individuals with various psychiatric and behavior disorders, including schizophrenia. This paper tends to review the relevant studies that demonstrate links between schizophrenia and T. gondii infestation, of which the latter may be acquired in different developmental phases. Apart from epidemiological correlation studies, some papers on other associations were also presented, describing putative patophysiological mechanisms that might be at least partly responsible for chronic infection-induced neuromediator disturbances, together with morphological and functional alterations, e.g., low-grade neuroinflammation, which are likely to induce psychopathological symptoms. Toxoplasmosis is only one of the putative infectious agents that derange correct brain growth and differentiation, alongside genetic and environmental factors. All of them may lead eventually to schizophrenia. A better knowledge of infection mechanisms and its influence on neurobiochemical and neuropathological pathways may enable more efficient therapy and the prevention of this devastating disease.

  19. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Berman, S M; Voytek, B; Mandelkern, M A; Hassid, B D; Isaacson, A; Monterosso, J; Miotto, K; Ling, W; London, E D

    2008-09-01

    Changes in brain function during the initial weeks of abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse may substantially affect clinical outcome, but are not well understood. We used positron emission tomography with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to quantify regional cerebral glucose metabolism, an index of brain function, during performance of a vigilance task. A total of 10 methamphetamine-dependent subjects were tested after 5-9 days of abstinence, and after 4 additional weeks of supervised abstinence. A total of 12 healthy control subjects were tested at corresponding times. Global glucose metabolism increased between tests (P=0.01), more in methamphetamine-dependent (10.9%, P=0.02) than control subjects (1.9%, NS). Glucose metabolism did not change in subcortical regions of methamphetamine-dependent subjects, but increased in neocortex, with maximal increase (>20%) in parietal regions. Changes in reaction time and self-reports of negative affect varied more in methamphetamine-dependent than in control subjects, and correlated both with the increase in parietal glucose metabolism, and decrease in relative activity (after scaling to the global mean) in some regions. A robust relationship between change in self-reports of depressive symptoms and relative activity in the ventral striatum may have great relevance to treatment success because of the role of this region in drug abuse-related behaviors. Shifts in cortical-subcortical metabolic balance either reflect new processes that occur during early abstinence, or the unmasking of effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse that are obscured by suppression of cortical glucose metabolism that continues for at least 5-9 days after cessation of methamphetamine self-administration.

  20. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Draper, C. C.; Killick-Kendrick, R.; Hutchison, W. M.; Siim, J. Chr.; Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Two chimpanzees were given by mouth large numbers of viable oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii obtained from the faeces of experimentally infected cats. Before the experiment the first chimpanzee had a positive dye test reaction (1:250), an indication that it had undergone an earlier infection of toxoplasmosis; the serum antibody titres remained unchanged, no evidence of illness was found, and oocysts did not appear in its faeces during the subsequent six weeks. The second chimpanzee showed a negative dye test reaction before infection, and this converted to positive on the 7th day, rose to a peak on the 35th day, and remained high for six months. This animal appeared unwell during the first week, and on the 7th day its blood proved infective to mice; on the 40th day the lymph nodes became enlarged and biopsy specimens of a node and muscle in the 11th week were also infective to mice. No oocysts were passed in the faeces. The presumed cycle in the chimpanzee and in man and the relationships between Toxoplasma and Isospora are discussed. PMID:5575975

  1. Oral administration of grape seed polyphenol extract restores memory deficits in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zheng, Yake; Wu, Tianwen; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been recognized as an important cause of both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the two most prominent neurodegenerative diseases causing memory impairment in the elderly. However, an effective therapy for CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been established. Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) has powerful antioxidant properties and protects neurons and glia during ischemic injury, but its potential use in the prevention of CCH-induced memory impairment has not yet been investigated. Here, CCH-related memory impairment was modeled in rats using permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. A Morris water maze task was used to evaluate memory, the levels of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine were used to evaluate cholinergic function, and oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonic dialdehyde, and catalase. We found that oral administration of GSPE for 1 month can rescue memory deficits. We also found that GSPE restores cholinergic neuronal function and represses oxidative damage in the hippocampus of CCH rats. We propose that GSPE protects memory in CCH rats by reducing ischemia-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. These findings provide a novel application of GSPE in CCH-related memory impairments.

  2. Caloric Requirements of Patients With Brain Impairment and Cerebral Palsy Who Are Dependent on Chronic Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Singer, Pierre; Kagan, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    Israeli law mandates chronic ventilator support for children and adolescents who are severely brain impaired and show minimal responses. Feeding protocols in these cases have been based on the caloric requirements of healthy children, deducting calories for lack of activity as well as an individual adjustment according to the cerebral palsy growth curves. However, patients are still inclined to gain excessive weight. Our objective was to determine the caloric requirements of these patients. Sixteen patients hospitalized in a dedicated unit who were ventilated through tracheostomies and fed via gastrostomies were included. Patients were aged 3-24 years; duration of ventilation was 1-7.5 years; and diagnoses included congenital genetic or brain malformations (n = 9), hypoxic accidents (n = 4), and postbacterial or postviral encephalitis (n = 3). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was determined by indirect calorimetry. REE values were compared with the caloric requirements of age-comparable healthy children and the calories actually delivered. Data were analyzed with paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and linear regression. The REE of our patients was 46% lower than the estimated caloric requirements of healthy children. In practice, patients received 32% more calories than that measured by REE. These findings were not affected by age, weight, diagnosis, or length of hospitalization. The caloric expenditure of these patients is very low. A diet guided by indirect calorimetry is proposed to aid in providing optimal nutrition support for this unique population to avoid overfeeding and obesity.

  3. The detection of chronic cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits with magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Jin, Gui; Qin, Mingxin; Wan, Zibing; Wang, Jinbao; ChaoWang; Guo, Wanyou; Xu, Lin; Ning, Xu; Xu, Jia; Pu, Xianjie; Chen, Mingsheng; Zhao, Hongmei

    2012-12-01

    Chronic cerebral hemorrhage (CCH) in the brain is an important clinical problem that is often monitored and studied with expensive devices such as MRI and PET, which are not readily available in low economical resource parts of the world. We have developed a less expensive tool for non-contact monitoring of CCH in the brain. The system measures the phase shift between the electromagnetic signals on the two coils. CCH was induced in the brain of rabbits by stereotactic method. Intracranial pressure (ICP) and Electrocardiograph (ECG) of subjects were monitored for 1.5h. Signals were continuously monitored up to t=1.5h at exciting frequency 10.7MHz. From 0.8 to 2.4 ml of autologous blood was injected (each injection quantity of 0.8 ml, the interval time for 30 minutes). The results show significant phase shifts increase as a function of injection volume. ICP and phase shift were directly proportional to the related, while HRV were stable around 200beats*min-1. Our system has high sensitivity that even 0.8 ml can also be detected. In this study, the curves of inductive phase shift are significantly related to ICP. This observation suggests that the method could be valuable, in addition to continuous monitoring, also for early warning in emergency medicine and critical care units.

  4. Betaine reverses the memory impairments in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rat model.

    PubMed

    Nie, Chunjie; Nie, Huijuan; Zhao, Yin; Wu, Jianzhao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2016-02-26

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second reason for the cognitive decline in aged people, but the effective therapy is still missing. The chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) had been widely found in VaD patients and is thought to be the key reason for cognitive impairment. Betaine is a natural product that had been implicated in many biological processes and had been used for the therapy of some neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we reported that betaine treatment could rescue the memory deficits induced by two-vessel occlusion (2-VO), a widely used CCH rat model. Betaine also restored the expression of PSD93, PSD95 and MAP2 to preserve the synaptic functions. Furthermore, betaine could reduce the oxidative stress by suppressing the MDA and ROS and enhancing the SOD and GSH. Overall, betaine treatment is able to rescue the memory deficits in CCH rats, which provide an experimental basis for the therapy of VaD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Christelle; Montoya, Jose G

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age at which the mother was infected and treatment. Here, we review laboratory methods for the diagnosis of CT, with emphasis on serological tools. A diagnostic algorithm that takes into account maternal history is presented. Copyright © 2016 Pomares and Montoya.

  6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Pomares, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age at which the mother was infected and treatment. Here, we review laboratory methods for the diagnosis of CT, with emphasis on serological tools. A diagnostic algorithm that takes into account maternal history is presented. PMID:27147724

  7. Murine neonatal infection provides an efficient model for congenital ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Ibtissem; Guinard, Marie; Sauer, Arnaud; Marcellin, Luc; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Roux, Michel; Mousli, Marc; Moussa, Adnan; Babba, Hamouda; Pfaff, Alexander W; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2010-02-01

    Congenital infection is one of the most serious settings of infection with the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Ocular diseases, such as retinochoroiditis, are the most common sequels of such infection in utero. However, while numerous studies have investigated the physiopathology of acquired toxoplasmosis, congenital infection has been largely neglected so far. Here, we establish a mouse model of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis. Parasite load and ocular pathology have been followed for the first 4 weeks of life. Ocular infection developed slowly compared to cerebral infection. Even after 4 weeks, not all eyes were infected and ocular parasite load was low. Therefore, we evaluated a scheme of neonatal infection to overcome problems associated with congenital infection. Development of infection and physiopathology was similar, but at a higher, more reliable rate. In summary, we have established a valuable model of neonatal ocular toxoplasmosis, which facilitates the research of the underlying physiopathological mechanisms and new diagnostic approaches of this pathology. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of S100 protein and protective effect of arundic acid on the rat brain in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Ryo; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Wakita, Hideaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Kayoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2007-03-02

    S100 protein is expressed primarily by astroglia in the brain, and accumulates in and around the ischemic lesions. Arundic acid, a novel astroglia-modulating agent, is neuroprotective in acute cerebral infarction, whereas the protective effects remain unknown during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Rats undergoing chronic cerebral hypoperfusion were subjected to a bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries, and were allowed to survive for 3, 7 and 14 days. The animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid, or vehicle, for 14 days. Alternatively, other groups of rats received a delayed intraperitoneal injection of 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid or vehicle, which started from 1, 3 or 7 days after ligation and continued to 14 days. The degree of white matter (WM) lesions and the numerical density of S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia were estimated. In the WM of rats with vehicle injections, the number of S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia increased significantly after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as compared to the sham-operation. A dosage of 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid suppressed the numerical increase in S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia and the WM lesions. These pathological changes were suppressed with delayed treatment up to 7 days in terms of astroglial activation, and up to 3 days in terms of the WM lesions. The protective effects of arundic acid against WM lesions were demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner, and even after postischemic treatments. These results suggest the potential usefulness of arundic acid in the treatment of cerebrovascular WM lesions.

  9. In vivo amino acid transport of subacute and chronic cerebral infarction evaluated by 12-18F-phenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Shimosegawa, E.; Miura, S.; Murakami, M.

    1994-05-01

    On the basis of previous validation of kinetic two-compartment model and the determination of normal values of three parameters (k{sub 1}:influx rate constant, k{sub 2}:outflux rate constant, Vd:distribution volume), PET measurements of in vivo amino acid transport from blood to brain using L-(2-18F)-fluorophenylalanine ({sup 18}F-Phe) were undergone in the patients with cerebral infarction. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the alteration of amino acid transport in subacute and chronic stage of cerebral infarction and to compare with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism. Dynamic {sup 18}F-Phe PET studies for 50 minutes were performed in 7 patients withmore » cerebral infarction. The input function was obtained by 27 points of arterial sampling. In all patients, measurements of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were made on the same day of {sup 18}F-Phe PET measurement. Each patient was studied twice, within 2 weeks of the onset and 3 months later. Weighted integration technique with table look-up method was applied for the reconstruction of parametric images of {sup 18}F-Phe and ROI analysis of k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}, and Vd. In subacute stage, significant reduction of k{sub 2} value in infarct area was observed when compared to that in periinfarct area (p<0.05) and in normal cortices (p<0.001). k{sub 1} value in this stage showed only slightly decrease in infarct area, therefore, Vd value in infarct area increased significantly compared to normal cortices (p<0.001). In chronic stage, both k{sub 1} and k{sub 2} values in infarct area were significantly lower than that in normal cortices (p<0.001), and corresponding Vd value reduced to normal level. Correlativity between kinetic parameters of {sup 18}F-Phe and CBF or oxygen metabolism was not observed both in subacute and chronic stage of infarction.« less

  10. Cerebral Oxygen Saturation in Children With Congenital Heart Disease and Chronic Hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Laussen, Peter C; Benni, Paul B; McGowan, Francis X; McElhinney, Doff B

    2017-07-01

    Increased hemoglobin (Hb) concentration accompanying hypoxemia is a compensatory response to maintain tissue oxygen delivery. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used clinically to detect abnormalities in the balance of cerebral tissue oxygen delivery and consumption, including in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Although NIRS-measured cerebral tissue O2 saturation (ScO2) correlates with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), jugular bulb O2 saturation (SjbO2), and Hb, little data exist on the interplay between these factors and cerebral O2 extraction (COE). This study investigated the associations of ScO2 and ΔSaO2-ScO2 with SaO2 and Hb and verified the normal range of ScO2 in children with CHD. Children undergoing cardiac catheterization for CHD were enrolled in a calibration and validation study of the FORE-SIGHT NIRS monitor. Two pairs of simultaneous arterial and jugular bulb samples were drawn for co-oximetry, calculation of a reference ScO2 (REF CX), and estimation of COE. Pearson correlation and linear regression were used to determine relationships between O2 saturation parameters and Hb. Data were also analyzed according to diagnostic group defined as acyanotic (SaO2 ≥ 90%) and cyanotic (SaO2 < 90%). Of 65 children studied, acceptable jugular bulb samples (SjbO2 absolute difference between samples ≤10%) were obtained in 57 (88%). The ΔSaO2-SjbO2, ΔSaO2-ScO2, and ΔSaO2-REF CX were positively correlated with SaO2 and negatively correlated with Hb (all P < .001). Although by diagnostic group ScO2 differed statistically (P = .002), values in the cyanotic patients were within the range considered normal (69% ± 6%). COE estimated by the difference between arterial and jugular bulb O2 content (ΔCaO2-CjbO2, mL O2/100 mL) was not different for cyanotic and acyanotic patients (P = .10), but estimates using ΔSaO2-SjbO2, ΔSaO2-ScO2, or ΔSaO2-ScO2/SaO2 were significantly different between the cyanotic and acyanotic children (P < .001). Children

  11. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence in rats induces motor impairments and cerebral cortex damage associated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Santana, Luana Nazaré da Silva; Bezerra, Fernando Romualdo; De Carvalho, Sabrina; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is common among adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we evaluated motor performance and tissue alterations in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to intermittent intoxication with ethanol from adolescence to adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) during 55 days by gavage to complete 90 days of age. The open field, inclined plane and the rotarod tests were used to assess the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination performance in adult animals. Following completion of behavioral tests, half of animals were submitted to immunohistochemical evaluation of NeuN (marker of neuronal bodies), GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) and Iba1 (microglia marker) in the cerebral cortex while the other half of the animals were subjected to analysis of oxidative stress markers by biochemical assays. Chronic ethanol intoxication in rats from adolescence to adulthood induced significant motor deficits including impaired spontaneous locomotion, coordination and muscle strength. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by marked changes in all cellular populations evaluated as well as increased levels of nitrite and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate that continuous ethanol intoxication from adolescence to adulthood is able to provide neurobehavioral and neurodegenerative damage to cerebral cortex.

  12. Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Alterations in Subacute and Chronic Stages of a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Edward; Tajiri, Naoki; Thomson, Avery; Barretta, Jennifer; Williams, Stephanie N.; Haim, Eithan D.; Qin, Hua; Frisina-Deyo, Aric; Abraham, Jerry V.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Van Loveren, Harry; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated blood-brain barrier impairment in remote contralateral brain areas in rats at 7 and 30 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), indicating ischemic diaschisis. Here, we focused on effects of subacute and chronic focal cerebral ischemia on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We observed BSCB damage on both sides of the cervical spinal cord in rats at 7 and 30 days post-tMCAO. Major BSCB ultrastructural changes in spinal cord gray and white matter included vacuolated endothelial cells containing autophagosomes, pericyte degeneration with enlarged mitochondria, astrocyte end-feet degeneration and perivascular edema; damaged motor neurons, swollen axons with unraveled myelin in ascending and descending tracts and astrogliosis were also observed. Evans Blue dye extravasation was maximal at 7 days. There was immunofluorescence evidence of reduction of microvascular expression of tight junction occludin, upregulation of Beclin-1 and LC3B immunoreactivities at 7 days and a reduction of the latter at 30 days post-ischemia. These novel pathological alterations on the cervical spinal cord microvasculature in rats after tMCAO suggest pervasive and long-lasting BSCB damage after focal cerebral ischemia, and that spinal cord ischemic diaschisis should be considered in the pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches in patients with ischemic cerebral infarction. PMID:27283328

  13. Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

  14. The effectiveness of simple drainage technique in improvement of cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic subdural hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Metin; Erol, Fatih Serhat; Bozgeyik, Zülküf; Koparan, Mehmet

    2007-07-01

    In the present study, the clinical effectiveness of a surgical procedure in which no draining tubes are installed following simple burr hole drainage and saline irrigation is investigated. 10 patients, having undergone operative intervention for unilateral chronic subdural hemorrhage, having a clinical grade of 2 and a hemorrhage thickness of 2 cm, were included in the study. The cerebral blood flow rates of middle cerebral artery were evaluated bilaterally with Doppler before and after the surgery. All the cases underwent the operation using the simple burr hole drainage technique without the drain and consequent saline irrigation. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon signed rank test (p<0.05). There was a pronounced decrease in the preoperative MCA blood flow in the hemisphere the hemorrhage had occurred (p=0.008). An increased PI value on the side of the hemorrhage drew our attention (p=0.005). Postoperative MCA blood flow measurements showed a statistically significant improvement (p=0.005). Furthermore, the PI value showed normalization (p<0.05). The paresis and the level of consciousness improved in all cases. Simple burr hole drainage technique is sufficient for the improvement of cerebral blood flow and clinical recovery in patients with chronic subdural hemorrhage.

  15. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2013-02-28

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 January 2012), PubMed (1966 to 15 January 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 15 January 2012), CINAHL (1982 to 15 January 2012), LILACS (1982 to 15 January 2012), IMEMR (1984 to 15 January 2012), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were included. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and study quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. The authors did not report measure of association but only provided P values (P less than 0.05) for all outcomes. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a significant effect

  16. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  17. Intensity, perception, and descriptive characteristics of chronic pain in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Christine M; Hanson, Amber; Quinlan, Nicole; Puryear, Carol; Stevenson, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) experience bodily pain, leading to functional impairment and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study is to characterize subjective descriptors of chronic pain in children with CP. One hundred fifty-seven children were invited to participate in a quantitative pilot survey. Parents were mailed the Varni-Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaire, designed to assess three dimensions of pain: sensory (physical aspects), affective (emotional response), and evaluative (the combined intensity of the emotional and physical responses). Parents assessed their child's pain using non-verbal and verbal cues. Fifty-two families responded (33% return rate). Thirty-eight children ages 6-8 years with CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V were included. Ninety percent of families reported that their child was experiencing some pain at the time of the survey. At the time of assessment the children's pain was mild. Their pain, at its worst, was in the distressing range. The two largest GMFCS groups of children, levels I and IV, were compared in both severity and intensity of pain experienced. Increasing intensity of pain was reported in children in the level IV group compared to children classified as level I. Pain severity in all dimensions was reported as increasing in Level IV children compared to Level I. Children with CP experience frequent pain, which increases with worsening impairment. Descriptive qualifiers of pain help to elucidate the etiology of various types of pain which would lead to the development of more effective approaches to pain management and treatment.

  18. Postoperative hematoma involving brainstem, peduncles, cerebellum, deep subcortical white matter, cerebral hemispheres following chronic subdural hematoma evacuation

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Thotakura, Amit K.; Shukla, Dinesh; Purohit, Anirudh K.; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary; Nukavarapu, Manisha

    2017-01-01

    Among the intracranial hematomas, chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are the most benign with a mortality rate of 0.5-4.0%. The elderly and alcoholics are commonly affected by CSDH. Even though high percentage of CSDH patients improves after the evacuation, there are some unexpected potential complications altering the postoperative course with neurological deterioration. Poor outcome in postoperative period is due to complications like failure of brain to re-expand, recurrence of hematoma and tension pneumocephalus. We present a case report with multiple intraparenchymal hemorrhages in various locations like brainstem, cerebral and cerebellar peduncles, right cerebellar hemisphere, right thalamus, right capsulo-ganglionic region, right corona radiata and cerebral hemispheres after CSDH evacuation. Awareness of this potential problem and the immediate use of imaging if the patient does not awake from anesthesia or if he develops new onset focal neurological deficits, are the most important concerns to the early diagnosis of this rare complication. PMID:28484546

  19. [Ocular toxoplasmosis developed after liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Avkan Oğuz, Vildan; Koçak, Nilüfer; Köse, Hatice; Unek, Tarkan; Ozbilgin, Mücahit; Karademir, Sedat; Kaynak, Süleyman

    2012-10-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis after solid organ transplantation occurs usually within the first three months of primary infection or reactivation of latent infection. There are a few reports of ocular toxoplasmosis following liver transplantation in the literature, however, no reports were detected in the national data. In this report a 35-year-old female patient diagnosed as ocular toxoplasmosis following reactivation in the second year after liver transplantation, was presented. The case was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin. This case was presented to emphasize late presentation of toxoplasmosis in transplantation patients and to withdraw attention to the importance of serological investigations done before transplantation.

  20. Ocular manifestations of systemic disease: toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel V

    2012-11-01

    To provide an overview of ocular toxoplasmosis, the leading cause of infectious posterior uveitis, focusing on recent trends of disease epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Novel aspects of epidemiology, including growing importance of water transmission are discussed. The historical controversy of congenital versus postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis is revisited. Recent insights into pathogenesis of ocular toxoplasmosis are also reviewed, tipping the delicate balance between parasite virulence and host immunity. Diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis is also discussed in the light of serological, molecular and imaging tools. Finally, a critical analysis of current and emerging therapies for ocular toxoplasmosis is made. Preventive aspects are also commented upon. Waterborne toxoplasmosis is increasingly recognized in outbreaks and in endemic areas. The importance of postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis is now well established, but should not lead to underestimation of congenital disease. Genetic determination of parasite virulence/individual susceptibility might correlate with disease outcomes. Serological, molecular and imaging tools may improve the diagnosis and follow-up of individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis. Despite emergence of alternative therapeutic regimens, including intravitreal antibiotics, classical therapy with sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine is still standard for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Adequate prophylaxis is expected to have an effect in ocular burden of toxoplasmosis.

  1. [Ophthalmic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Description of a case].

    PubMed

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernandez, Á; Sobenes Gutierrez, R

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection of worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and infects a large proportion of the world population. Only under certain circumstances of severe immunosuppression can the parasite reactivate and cause disease. The most common form of presentation of this pathology in patients with positive HIV is the brain abscess. One of the extra-cerebral forms is toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, which could lead to a chronic active form of a slowly progressive retinitis. Diagnosis is made by observing the eye fundus and confirmed by the scarring obtained after specific treatment. We report a case of a patient with diabetes and positive HIV, in whom a toxoplasmic scar injury was detected in the annual retinography follow-up. A conservative therapeutic approach was decided, with regular check-ups for possible detection of disease activation. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Roth Spots in Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Toscano, Marcelo; Castro, Vinicius; Rodrigues, Murilo W

    2016-10-01

    To report a case with unilateral preexisting ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) and newly occurred active retinochoroidal inflammation associated with white-centered retinal hemorrhages (Roth spots) in the healthy eye. Case report. A 20 year-old man presented with a decrease of visual acuity in his right eye associated with 2+ cells in the anterior chamber. Ophthalmoscopy revealed an active retinochoroidal lesion on the upper nasal border of the optic disc associated with local hemorrhage and vitritis. The posterior pole presented white-centered flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages. Toxoplasmosis serology showed an IgG titer >300IU/ml and a negative IgM titer. A complete blood count revealed no abnormalities; other serologies were negative. After 2 weeks of treatment with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, folinic acid and prednisone, although the peripapillary lesion was still active, the Roth spots disappeared. OT may be one differential diagnosis of patients suffering Roth spots in association with retinochoroidal inflammation.

  3. [Effect of antenatal spiramycin treatment on the frequency of retinochoroiditis due to congenital toxoplasmosis in a Colombian cohort].

    PubMed

    Zuluaga, Liliana María; Hernández, John Camilo; Castaño, Carlos Felipe; Donado, Jorge Hernando

    2017-04-01

    Gestational toxoplasmosis is frequent and severe. There is still debate about the benefits of treatment against ocular manifestations in the newborn. Spiramycin treatment is used for this purpose, unfortunately prenatal diagnosis is sometimes delayed and pregnant women are not treated. To describe the relationship between treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy in mothers with gestational toxoplasmosis and development of ocular toxoplasmosis in newborns. We conducted a descriptive study of a case series. We evaluated a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with gestational toxoplasmosis during three years at the Retinology Service at the Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in Medellín. Gestational toxoplasmosis was found in 23 mothers; 15 (65%) were treated during pregnancy with 3 g per day of spiramycin, eight (35%) patients were untreated. In the treated group just one newborn developed ocular toxoplasmosis (6.6%), in contrast with five (62.5%) of the eight patients who did not receive treatment. These results suggest that pregnancy treatment reduces the relative risk of ocular toxoplasmosis in the newborn by 96% (95% CI: 33 - 100%). Only two (14%) of the patients who were evaluated, had nervous system involvement related to toxoplasmosis in CT scan or cerebral ultrasound. These two patients also developed ocular pathology and were diagnosed at the time of birth, so they did not received antenatal treatment. A protective effect was found against the ocular involvement in patients whose mother received treatment with spiramycin (OR=0.04;95% CI: 0.00-0.67), p<0.01 (Fisher's Exact Test).

  4. Toxoplasmosis in pregnant Sudanese women.

    PubMed

    Elnahas, Amir; Gerais, Abd S; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Eldien, Eltoum S; Adam, Ishag

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a sero-epidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Sudanese women. Four hundred and eighty-seven pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum and Omdurman, Maternity Hospitals, Sudan during the period June through to December 2000 were counselled for socio-demographic and obstetrical risk factors for toxoplasmosis, and screened for immunoglobin G (IgG) and IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies using enzyme linked immunoassay. Immunoglobin G anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive (titre > 11 IU/ml) in 166/487 (34.1%), while 321/487(65.9%) were sero-negative. The sera of 35 women showed very high titres (>100 IU/ml), 5/35 (14.3%) were IgM-positive. The risk factors for IgG anti-toxoplasma seropositivity were; Southern ethnic origin and consumption of raw meat. Thirty (18.1%) out of 166 women who were IgG anti-toxoplasma seropositive gave history of intrauterine fetal death, while 31 (9.7%) out of 321 women who were sero-negative gave history of intrauterine fetal death, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Over 65% Sudanese women screened for anti-toxoplasma IgG antibodies were sero-negative and they were at risk of sero-conversion during pregnancy. Southers and eating raw meat were the risk factors for toxoplasmosis in Sudanese pregnant women.

  5. MRI Shows that Exhaustion Syndrome Due to Chronic Occupational Stress is Associated with Partially Reversible Cerebral Changes.

    PubMed

    Savic, I; Perski, A; Osika, W

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the cerebral effects of chronic occupational stress and its possible reversibility. Forty-eight patients with occupational exhaustion syndrome (29 women) and 80 controls (47 women) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing. Forty-four participants (25 patients, 19 controls) also completed a second MRI scan after 1-2 years. Only patients received cognitive therapy. The stressed group at intake had reduced thickness in the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) and left superior temporal gyrus (STG), enlarged amygdala volumes, and reduced caudate volumes. Except for the caudate volume, these abnormalities were more pronounced in females. They were all related to perceived stress, which was similar for both genders. Thickness of the PFC also correlated with an impaired ability to down-modulate negative emotions. Thinning of PFC and reduction of caudate volume normalized in the follow-up. The amygdala enlargement and the left STG thinning remained. Longitudinal changes were not detected among controls. Chronic occupational stress was associated with partially reversible structural abnormalities in key regions for stress processing. These changes were dynamically correlated with the degree of perceived stress, highlighting a possible causal link. They seem more pronounced in women, and could be a substrate for an increased cerebral vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Symptomatic Acute Toxoplasmosis in Returning Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Henao-Martínez, Andrés F; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Palestine, Alan G; Montoya, Jose G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We report a family who acquired acute toxoplasmosis after a trip to Central America. One member developed severe clinical manifestations including bilateral chorioretinitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis requiring therapy. Symptomatic acute toxoplasmosis is unusual and possesses a diagnostic challenge. We discuss the clinical and epidemiological implications, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment plan. PMID:29644250

  7. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  8. Roflumilast promotes memory recovery and attenuates white matter injury in aged rats subjected to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Amanda; Soares, Lígia Mendes; Schepers, Melissa; Milani, Humberto; Vanmierlo, Tim; Prickaerts, Jos; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia M

    2018-06-19

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been associated with aging-related vascular dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. It can be induced by the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4VO/ICA) model in aged rats, resulting in persistent memory deficits, white matter injury, and significant neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I) roflumilast has been reported to have pro-cognitive effects in several behavioral paradigms. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated roflumilast treatment in aged rats that were subjected to CCH. After surgery, roflumilast (0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 29 days. Memory performance was assessed in the aversive radial maze (AvRM) 7, 14, and 21 days after CCH. The effects of roflumilast on hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter injury were investigated using Nissl and Kluver-Barrera staining, respectively. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to explore microglial polarization using M1 (Iba-1 and iNOS) and M2 (Arginase-1) markers. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion caused persistent memory deficits, hippocampal neurodegeneration, and vacuolization and fiber disarrangement in white matter. Repeated roflumilast treatment restored CCH-induced cognitive impairments in aged rats but in the absence of the rescue of hippocampal neurons. Attenuation of white matter injury was detected in the optic tract in aged CCH rats that were treated with roflumilast. In vitro, roflumilast increased Arg-1 gene expression in myelin-laden primary microglia. The present data suggest that roflumilast might be useful for the treatment of cognitive sequelae associated with CCH. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. B-mode sonographic criteria for differential diagnosis of cervicofacial lymphadenopathy in cat-scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Ridder, Gerd Jürgen; Boedeker, Carsten Christof; Lee, Tao-Kwang Kevin; Sander, Anna

    2003-04-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate different sonographic parameters of cervicofacial lymphadenopathy caused by cat-scratch disease (CSD) and toxoplasmosis. By use of high-resolution B-mode sonography a total of 552 lymph nodes in the head and neck were detected between January 1997 and December 2001. There were 71 patients (422 lymph nodes) with CSD and 19 patients (130 lymph nodes) with toxoplasmosis. Sonographic variables, including 20 sonomorphologic features along with age and gender, were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Heterogenous lymph nodes were more often found in CSD (p =.003), and nonsharp nodal borders showed a significant association with CSD (p =.0005). Multivariate analysis identified sharpness of borders (p =.0001), S/L ratio (p =.0006), and type of lymphadenopathy (acute, abscessed, chronic) (p =.0006) as most significant for differentiating between CSD and toxoplasmosis. These results provide significant and useful criteria for ultrasonographic differentiation between CSD and toxoplasmosis. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Posterior Cervical Lymph Node in Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, George F.; Kimball, Anne C.; Kean, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    Posterior cervical node enlargement is characteristic of clinical toxoplasmosis in adults. Lymph node biopsies from 37 patients, who were tested for toxoplasmosis by serologic and isolation studies, were examined. A characteristic pattern of sinus histiocytosis was seen in 17 of 18 posterior cervical nodes and in only 1 of 4 lymph nodes from other sites from patients with toxoplasmosis. The characteristic pattern was not seen in posterior cervical nodes or in lymph nodes from other sites from patients with other diseases. Lymphoma obscured the characteristic changes of toxoplasmosis in the posterior cervical nodes and other nodes of 5 patients with these coexisting diseases. Organisms were seen in tissue sections in only 2 instances. T gondii was isolated from mice in 14 of 17 attempts using nodes from patients with toxoplasmosis, but from none of 8 attempts using nodes from patients with other diseases. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 1Fig 2 PMID:4634739

  11. The posterior cervical lymph node in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Gray, G F; Kimball, A C; Kean, B H

    1972-11-01

    Posterior cervical node enlargement is characteristic of clinical toxoplasmosis in adults. Lymph node biopsies from 37 patients, who were tested for toxoplasmosis by serologic and isolation studies, were examined. A characteristic pattern of sinus histiocytosis was seen in 17 of 18 posterior cervical nodes and in only 1 of 4 lymph nodes from other sites from patients with toxoplasmosis. The characteristic pattern was not seen in posterior cervical nodes or in lymph nodes from other sites from patients with other diseases. Lymphoma obscured the characteristic changes of toxoplasmosis in the posterior cervical nodes and other nodes of 5 patients with these coexisting diseases. Organisms were seen in tissue sections in only 2 instances. T gondii was isolated from mice in 14 of 17 attempts using nodes from patients with toxoplasmosis, but from none of 8 attempts using nodes from patients with other diseases.

  12. Chronic photoperiod disruption does not increase vulnerability to focal cerebral ischemia in young normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ku Mohd Noor, Ku Mastura; Wyse, Cathy; Roy, Lisa A; Biello, Stephany M; McCabe, Christopher; Dewar, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Photoperiod disruption, which occurs during shift work, is associated with changes in metabolism or physiology (e.g. hypertension and hyperglycaemia) that have the potential to adversely affect stroke outcome. We sought to investigate if photoperiod disruption affects vulnerability to stroke by determining the impact of photoperiod disruption on infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult male Wistar rats (210-290 g) were housed singly under two different light/dark cycle conditions ( n = 12 each). Controls were maintained on a standard 12:12 light/dark cycle for nine weeks. For rats exposed to photoperiod disruption, every three days for nine weeks, the lights were switched on 6 h earlier than in the previous photoperiod. T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 48 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Disruption of photoperiod in young healthy rats for nine weeks did not alter key physiological variables that can impact on ischaemic damage, e.g. blood pressure and blood glucose immediately prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no effect of photoperiod disruption on infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion. We conclude that any potentially adverse effect of photoperiod disruption on stroke outcome may require additional factors such as high fat/high sugar diet or pre-existing co-morbidities.

  13. [Congenital toxoplasmosis. 5 cases of mother-to-child transmission of pre-pregnancy infection].

    PubMed

    Desmonts, G; Couvreur, J; Thulliez, P

    1990-09-29

    Five cases of congenital toxoplasmosis consecutive to a maternal toxoplasma infection that had preceded pregnancy were observed. One woman with normal immune system had developed a well-documented lymph node toxoplasmosis 2 months before conceiving. Four women had chronic toxoplasmosis diagnosed in the course of an immunosuppressive disease: Hodgkin's disease in 1 case, systemic lupus erythematosus in 2 cases and pancytopenia in 1 case. Toxoplasmosis had been recognized 3, 5 and 10 years respectively before conception in 3 women, and at an uncertain date in 1 woman. Three women had received corticosteroids during pregnancy, and 2 had undergone splenectomy. Among the 6 children (2 were twins), 1 presented with severe foetal disease at birth, 1 developed lethal systemic toxoplasmosis after birth, 1 showed hydrocephalus with therapeutically well-controlled chorioretinitis, 1 had isolated eye lesion and 2 had asymptomatic infection. The parasite seems to have been transmitted after the 20th week of pregnancy in all cases. The physiopathology of mother-to child toxoplasma transmission, the role played by maternal immunodeficiency and the practical implications of these exceptional cases are discussed.

  14. Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials. PMID:25104952

  15. Potential role of IgG avidity for diagnosing toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Joynson, D H; Payne, R A; Rawal, B K

    1990-01-01

    Sera from 20 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy were examined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay toxoplasma IgG avidity (ELISA) at two laboratories. The results obtained were largely in agreement and showed that sera from patients with acute infection had low avidity IgG (30% or less), whereas sera from patients with chronic infection had high avidity IgG (40% or more). It is suggested that this type of assay could have a useful complementary role in antenatal testing for toxoplasmosis. PMID:2132560

  16. Potential role of IgG avidity for diagnosing toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Joynson, D H; Payne, R A; Rawal, B K

    1990-12-01

    Sera from 20 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy were examined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay toxoplasma IgG avidity (ELISA) at two laboratories. The results obtained were largely in agreement and showed that sera from patients with acute infection had low avidity IgG (30% or less), whereas sera from patients with chronic infection had high avidity IgG (40% or more). It is suggested that this type of assay could have a useful complementary role in antenatal testing for toxoplasmosis.

  17. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Vojvodina].

    PubMed

    Brkić, Snezana; Gajski, Gorana; Bogavac, Mirjana; Marić, Daniela; Turkulov, Vesna; Tomić, Slavica

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an acute infectious anthropozoonotic disease with mild asymptomatic clinical manifestations in immunocompetent persons and more severe in immunocompromised patients. Acute infection in pregnancy can result in severe congenital toxoplasmosis with severe sequels. Aims of study were to detect Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in general population of Vojvodina, Serbia, differences between genders and determination of seroprevalence in women of reproductive age and pregnant women. Our retrospective study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 including 625 immunocompetent patients, hospitalized or observed as outpatients at the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, Novi Sad. We performed commercial ELISA kits SERION - ELISA classic test by VIRION for the presence of specific IgG and IgM antibodies. According to seroepidemiological aim of the study, our results were presented only in qualitative values. We observed 173 male and 452 female patients. Seroprevalence in general population of Vojvodina was 38.1%. In male population seroprevalence was 45.7%, and in female population it was 35.2%, the difference which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Seroprevalence increased with age and seroconversion was detected to occur in persons aged about 20 years. In all female patients, 353 (78.1%) were in reproductive age with seroprevalence of 30%. In 161 pregnant women seroprevalence was 31.7%. In this study we screened actual seroepidemiological situation to Toxoplasma gondii in Vojvodina, thus giving a contribution to the continuous epidemiological screening done in this region and in the country. According to our results, almost 70% of women in reproductive age were sensitive to primary acute infection during further pregnancies, which is highly important for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Although not routinely conducted in many countries, routine serological testing to Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women and their education about preventive measures

  18. [Effect of Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets on learning and memory dysfunction in rats with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Ju, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Yin-Jie; Xiong, Min; Xu, Shi-Jun; Ma, Yun-Tong; Zhong, Zhen-Dong

    2014-05-01

    To study the effect of Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets on learning and memory capacity and expression of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in hippocampus of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia-induced learning and memory dysfunction model. The 2-VO method was used to establish sd rat model learning and memory dysfunction induced by chronic cerebral ischemia. The 50 rats in the successfully established model were randomly divided into the model control group, the Dihydroergotoxine Mesylate tablets group (0.7 mg x kg(-1), Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets high dose (7.56 g x kg(-1)), middle dose (3.78 g x kg(-1)) and low dose (1.59 g x kg(-1)) groups and the sham operation group (n = 10) as the control group. The groups were orally given 10 ml x kg(-1) x d(-1) drugs for consecutively 90 days. On the 86th day, Morris water maze was adopted for them. On the 90th day, a leaning and memory capacity test was held. The brain tissues were fixed with 10% formaldehyde and observed for pathomorphism after routine slide preparation and staining. The expression of hippocampal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was detected with immunohistochemistry and image quantitative analysis. Compared with the model group, all of Tongluo Xingnao effervescent tablets groups showed significant decrease in the escape latency at the 5th day in the Morris water maze, and notable increase in the frequency of the first quadrant dwell, the frequency passing the escape platform and the frequency entering effective area (p < 0.05). According to the pathomorphological detection, the control group showed a significantly higher pathological score than the sham operation group (p < 0.01), the middle dose group showed a significantly lower pathological score than the model group (p < 0.05). According to the immunohistochemistical detection, the model control group showed a remarkably lower mean OD value of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase than the sham operation group (p < 0.05), high and middle dose groups showed a significantly higher mean od

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting as central diabetes insipidus in an infant: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital toxoplasmosis has a wide range of presentation at birth varying from severe neurological features such as hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis to a well appearing baby, who may develop complications late in infancy. While neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with congenital toxoplasmosis are uncommon, isolated central diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Case presentation Here, we report on a female infant who presented with fever, convulsions, and polyuria. Examination revealed weight and length below the 3rd centile along with signs of severe dehydration. Fundal examination showed bilateral chorioretinitis. This infant developed hypernatremia together with increased serum osmolality and decreased both urine osmolality and specific gravity consistent with central diabetes insipidus. Serology for toxoplasma specific immunoglobulin M was high for both the mother and the baby and polymerase chain reaction for toxoplasma deoxyribonucleic acid was positive in the infant confirming congenital toxoplasmosis. Brain computerized tomography scans demonstrated ventriculomegaly associated with cerebral and cortical calcifications. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities responded to nasal vasopressin therapy. Conclusion This report highlights central diabetes inspidus as a rare presentation of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:24674575

  20. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting as central diabetes insipidus in an infant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sarar; Osman, Abdaldafae; Al Jurayyan, Nasir A; Al Nemri, Abdulrahman; Salih, Mustafa A M

    2014-03-28

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has a wide range of presentation at birth varying from severe neurological features such as hydrocephalus and chorioretinitis to a well appearing baby, who may develop complications late in infancy. While neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with congenital toxoplasmosis are uncommon, isolated central diabetes insipidus is extremely rare. Here, we report on a female infant who presented with fever, convulsions, and polyuria. Examination revealed weight and length below the 3rd centile along with signs of severe dehydration. Fundal examination showed bilateral chorioretinitis. This infant developed hypernatremia together with increased serum osmolality and decreased both urine osmolality and specific gravity consistent with central diabetes insipidus. Serology for toxoplasma specific immunoglobulin M was high for both the mother and the baby and polymerase chain reaction for toxoplasma deoxyribonucleic acid was positive in the infant confirming congenital toxoplasmosis. Brain computerized tomography scans demonstrated ventriculomegaly associated with cerebral and cortical calcifications. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities responded to nasal vasopressin therapy. This report highlights central diabetes inspidus as a rare presentation of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  1. Malignant lymphoma simulating lymph node toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M; Franssila, K

    1982-03-01

    On histological examination of 667 cases originally suspected of lymph node toxoplasmosis, 12 cases were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma and 15 cases as atypical hyperplasia (AH), suspicious of malignant lymphoma. All 12 malignant cases were of Hodgkin's disease: eight of the lymphocyte predominant nodular type, two of lymphocyte predominant diffuse type, and two of the nodular sclerosis type. In all cases, the lymph nodes contained small groups of epithelioid cells which were virtually indistinguishable from those seen in toxoplasmosis. In the differential diagnosis between lymph node toxoplasmosis and malignant lymphoma, the following features were found helpful. In toxoplasmosis the general structure is preserved and germinal centres are frequent, while in malignant lymphoma and in AH the general structure is destroyed. However, in some cases of toxoplasmosis germinal centres may be difficult to identify because their margins are indistinct due to clusters of epithelioid cells. Also, in some types of Hodgkin's disease and in some cases of AH with epithelioid cells, the general structure of the lymph node may be partially preserved. The occurrence of epithelioid cells within germinal centres seems to be a specific feature for toxoplasmosis; it was never seen in malignant lymphoma nor in AH. The occurrence of strands of monocytoid cells (unreife Sinushistiocytose) though a fairly typical feature of toxoplasmosis, was also occasionally seen in Hodgkin's disease or AH.

  2. Targeting chronic inflammation in cerebral aneurysms: focusing on NF-kappaB as a putative target of medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Nishimura, M

    2010-03-01

    Cerebral aneurysms (CAs) are the main cause of life-threatening subarachnoid hemorrhage. Given its prevalence and endpoint, CA treatment is a public health issue. Effective medical treatment of CAs is lacking because the detailed mechanisms of CA formation are incompletely understood. The aim of this contribution is to review recent articles about CA formation, to suggest the underlying mechanisms of CA formation, and to discuss potential therapeutic targets for treatment. Articles were collected by an internet search of PubMed using the keywords 'intracranial' or 'cerebral aneurysm'. A review of articles about the pathogenesis of CA formation focusing on inflammation. Recent articles demonstrate that inflammation-related-molecule induction and inflammatory cell infiltration in CA walls and the close relationship between inflammatory responses and CA formation. From studies in experimental models, chronic inflammation triggered primarily by NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells and subsequent macrophage infiltration have critical roles in CA formation. Inhibition of inflammation-related molecules in CA walls results in the decreased incidence of CA formation. Agents with anti-inflammatory activity (particularly anti- NF-kappaB effects) have potential as therapeutic drugs for CAs.

  3. Effect of combination therapy with the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide on brain perfusion in patients with both hypertension and cerebral hemodynamic impairment due to symptomatic chronic major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease: a SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Saura, Hiroaki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Taro; Kuroda, Hiroki; Yamashita, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Terasaki, Kazunori; Ogawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    While the combination of an angiotensin receptor blocker with thiazide diuretics produces a clinically beneficial reduction in blood pressure in patients who otherwise only partially respond to monotherapy with an angiotensin receptor blocker, blood pressure-lowering therapy with combination antihypertensive drug regimens in patients with cerebral hemodynamic impairment may adversely affect cerebral hemodynamics. The purpose of the present exploratory study was to determine whether blood pressure-lowering therapy with the combination of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (LPH) worsens brain perfusion in patients with both hypertension and cerebral hemodynamic impairment due to symptomatic chronic major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease. Patients with losartan-resistant hypertension and reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide due to symptomatic chronic internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) steno-occlusive disease were prospectively entered into the present study and received 50 mg/day of losartan plus 12.5 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazideat 14 weeks after the last ischemic event. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CVR were measured before and 12 weeks after initiating LPH using N-isopropyl-p-[(123)I]-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the MCA territory on each SPECT image using a three-dimensional stereotactic ROI template. None of the 18 patients who participated in the study experienced any new neurological symptoms or adverse effects related to antihypertensive drugs. Systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p < 0.001) blood pressures were significantly reduced after the administration of LPH, with average reductions of 11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. While in the affected hemisphere CBF did not differ between measurements taken before and after the administration

  4. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun-De; Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Xian-Hu; Yu, Yan; Kang, Zhao-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  5. Toxoplasmosis: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nissapatorn, V; Noor Azmi, M A; Cho, S M; Fong, M Y; Init, I; Rohela, M; Khairul Anuar, A; Quek, K F; Latt, H M

    2003-11-01

    A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be 49%, in which 39%, 4% and 6% for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. We found the differences in Toxoplasma seroprevalence rates among the races were significant: the highest rate was in the Malays (55.7%), followed by the Indian (55.3%) and the Chinese (19.4%) (P<0.05) populations. An increase in Toxoplasma seroprevalence with increasing parity was detected (P<0.05). Women with no children had a prevalence of 39.7%, while women with one or more than two children had a prevalence of 44.2% and 62.9%, respectively. In this study, there was no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and various possible risk factors in pregnant women (P>0.05). When multivariate analysis was performed, no significant association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and history of contact with cats, consumption of undercooked meat and blood transfusion was found (P>0.05). We did not find any newly diagnosed cases of acute acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy during the study period.

  6. Monoclonal immunoglobulins in congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oxelius, Vivi-Anne

    1972-01-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found in newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis. The M-components were of IgG-class and of both κ and λ type. The monoclonal proteins were found in the serum of newborns but not in the serum of their mothers. The monoclonal immunoglobulins were therefore selectively transferred or synthesized by the newborn. There was a local production or selective local accumulation of immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid. The M-components disappeared and the IgM level in serum and cerebrospinal fluid decreased after therapy. IgA was found to be elevated between 2–4 months of age. CRP was elevated in the first weeks after birth but afterwards returned to normal. The Dye test localized antibody activity to the site of the M-components in the electrophoresis of both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The Dye test antibodies of mothers' sera also showed restricted heterogeneity with about the same electrophoretic localization as in the children's sera. Rheumatoid factors were found in serum and CSF of newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, but not in serum of their mothers. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5042919

  7. EEG patterns from acute to chronic stroke phases in focal cerebral ischemic rats: correlations with functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-jie; Ke, Zheng; Li, Le; Yip, Shea-ping; Tong, Kai-yu

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the neural activities from the ischemic penumbra provides critical information on neurological recovery after stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal alterations of neural activities using electroencephalography (EEG) from the acute phase to the chronic phase, and to compare EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery followed by reperfusion for seven days (n = 58). The EEG signals were recorded at the pre-stroke phase (0 h), acute phase (3, 6 h), subacute phase (12, 24, 48, 72 h) and chronic phase (96, 120, 144, 168 h) (n = 8). This study analyzed post-stroke seizures and polymorphic delta activities (PDAs) and calculated quantitative EEG parameters such as the alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR). The ADR represented the ratio between alpha power and delta power, which indicated how fast the EEG activities were. Forelimb and hindlimb motor functions were measured by De Ryck's test and the beam walking test, respectively. In the acute phase, delta power increased fourfold with the occurrence of PDAs, and the histological staining showed that the infarct was limited to the striatum and secondary sensory cortex. In the subacute phase, the alpha power reduced to 50% of the baseline, and the infarct progressed to the forelimb cortical region. ADRs reduced from 0.23 ± 0.09 to 0.04 ± 0.01 at 3 h in the acute phase and gradually recovered to 0.22 ± 0.08 at 168 h in the chronic phase. In the comparison of correlations between the EEG parameters and the limb motor function from the acute phase to the chronic phase, ADRs were found to have the highest correlation coefficients with the beam walking test (r = 0.9524, p < 0.05) and De Ryck's test (r = 0.8077, p < 0.05). This study measured EEG activities after focal cerebral ischemia and showed that functional recovery was closely

  8. Help in the Choice of Automated or Semiautomated Immunoassays for Serological Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis: Evaluation of Nine Immunoassays by the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a benign infection, is asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic in over 80% of cases, except in immunocompetent patients suffering from ocular toxoplasmosis or in immunocompromised patients with opportunistic or congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis is based mainly on serology testing. Thus, we compared the performance of the nine most commonly used commercial automated or semiautomated immunoassays for IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii antibody detection, that is, the Advia Centaur, Architect, AxSYM, Elecsys, Enzygnost, Liaison, Platelia, VIDAS, and VIDIA assays. The assays were conducted on four panels of serum samples derived during routine testing from patients with an interfering disease and who exhibited a low IgG antibody level in one of two clinical settings, namely, acute or chronic toxoplasmosis. As a result, IgG sensitivities ranged from 97.1% to 100%, and IgG specificities ranged from 99.5% to 100%. For IgG quantification, strong differences in IgG titers (expressed in IU/ml) were noted depending on the assay used. IgM sensitivities ranged from 65% to 97.9%, and IgM specificities ranged from 92.6% to 100%. For defining the best serological strategies to be implemented, it appears crucial to compare the diagnostic performance of the different tests with respect to their specificity and sensitivity in detecting the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Help in the Choice of Automated or Semiautomated Immunoassays for Serological Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis: Evaluation of Nine Immunoassays by the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Cimon, B.; L'Ollivier, C.; Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Pelloux, H.; Villena, I.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a benign infection, is asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic in over 80% of cases, except in immunocompetent patients suffering from ocular toxoplasmosis or in immunocompromised patients with opportunistic or congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis is based mainly on serology testing. Thus, we compared the performance of the nine most commonly used commercial automated or semiautomated immunoassays for IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii antibody detection, that is, the Advia Centaur, Architect, AxSYM, Elecsys, Enzygnost, Liaison, Platelia, VIDAS, and VIDIA assays. The assays were conducted on four panels of serum samples derived during routine testing from patients with an interfering disease and who exhibited a low IgG antibody level in one of two clinical settings, namely, acute or chronic toxoplasmosis. As a result, IgG sensitivities ranged from 97.1% to 100%, and IgG specificities ranged from 99.5% to 100%. For IgG quantification, strong differences in IgG titers (expressed in IU/ml) were noted depending on the assay used. IgM sensitivities ranged from 65% to 97.9%, and IgM specificities ranged from 92.6% to 100%. For defining the best serological strategies to be implemented, it appears crucial to compare the diagnostic performance of the different tests with respect to their specificity and sensitivity in detecting the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:27733631

  10. Prevalence of Cerebral Microhemorrhage following Chronic Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Service Members Using Susceptibility-Weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Lotan, E; Morley, C; Newman, J; Qian, M; Abu-Amara, D; Marmar, C; Lui, Y W

    2018-05-24

    Cerebral microhemorrhages are a known marker of mild traumatic brain injury. Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury relates to a propagating pressure wave, and there is evidence that the mechanism of injury in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury may be different from that in blunt head trauma. Two recent reports in mixed cohorts of blunt and blast-related traumatic brain injury in military personnel suggest that the prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhages is lower than in civilian head injury. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prevalence of cerebral microhemorrhages in military service members specifically with chronic blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. Participants were prospectively recruited and underwent 3T MR imaging. Susceptibility-weighted images were assessed by 2 neuroradiologists independently for the presence of cerebral microhemorrhages. Our cohort included 146 veterans (132 men) who experienced remote blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mean, 9.4 years; median, 9 years after injury). Twenty-one (14.4%) reported loss of consciousness for <30 minutes. Seventy-seven subjects (52.7%) had 1 episode of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury; 41 (28.1%) had 2 episodes; and 28 (19.2%) had >2 episodes. No cerebral microhemorrhages were identified in any subject, as opposed to the frequency of SWI-detectable cerebral microhemorrhages following blunt-related mild traumatic brain injury in the civilian population, which has been reported to be as high as 28% in the acute and subacute stages. Our results may reflect differences in pathophysiology and the mechanism of injury between blast- and blunt-related mild traumatic brain injury. Additionally, the chronicity of injury may play a role in the detection of cerebral microhemorrhages. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Chronicity and a low anteroposterior gradient of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.

    1990-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with the 133xenon inhalation technique in 27 patients with schizophrenia of less than 5 years' duration and in 27 patients with schizophrenia of more than 12 years' duration, under resting conditions. Similar measurements were also performed in 54 normal control subjects matched for age and sex. Patients with schizophrenia of long duration had lower anteroposterior gradients of CBF than patients with schizophrenia of short duration and matched control subjects. Covarying out age and end-tidal levels of CO2 did not alter the results.

  12. MVA ROP2 vaccinia virus recombinant as a vaccine candidate for toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Roque-Reséndiz, J L; Rosales, R; Herion, P

    2004-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of toxoplasmosis and is the most frequent and best known of the parasitic diseases. In the United States, a serological survey from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that an estimated 23% of adolescents and adults have laboratory evidence of infection with T. gondii. Although toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic or shows self-limited symptoms in adults, in pregnant women infections can cause severe health problems to the fetus if the parasites are transmitted. Also, in immunodeficient patients, chronic infection with T. gondii can reactivate and produce encephalitis, which is frequently lethal. In addition, in veterinary medicine, T. gondii infection is of economic importance due to abortion and neonatal loss in sheep and goats. Recently, the development of vaccines against toxoplasmosis has progressed considerably. The live attenuated S48 strain of Toxoplasma has been broadly used for veterinary purposes. DNA vaccines containing the full-length of SAG1/P30, ROP2 or ROP1 genes have proved to be a promising candidate to induce protection against toxoplasmosis. Viral vectors have proved to be the best candidates for vaccination in different diseases. A recombinant Herpes virus carrying the ROP2 gene is able to induce protective immunity in cats. In the present work we describe the potential of the MVA ROP2 recombinant vaccinia virus as a vaccine against toxoplasmosis. MVA ROP2 induces antibodies against the ROP2 protein in similar amount and types as the thermo-sensible strain ts-4 of T. gondii, which is able to fully protect mice against challenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. Also, the life-span of mice is increased in MVA ROP2 vaccinated animals. We conclude that MVA ROP2 vaccine can possibly generate an immune response, which could be useful in protection against toxoplasmosis.

  13. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state cerebral activity in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yusong; Bai, Yan; Liu, Peng; Yang, Xuejuan; Qin, Wei; Gu, Jianqin; Ding, Degang; Tian, Jie; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the neural mechanism in Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 31 male CP/CPPS-patients and 31 age and education matched male healthy controls on a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging unit. A two-sample t-test was adopted to reveal the regional homogeneity between the patients and healthy controls. The mean regional homogeneity values in the alerted brain regions of patients were correlated with the clinical measurements by using Pearson's correlation analyses. The CP/CPPS-patients had significantly decreased regional homogeneity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, insular cortices and right medial prefrontal cortex, while significantly increased regional homogeneity in the brainstem and right thalamus compared with the healthy controls. In the CP/CPPS-patients, the mean regional homogeneity value in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insular cortices and brainstem were respectively correlated with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total score and pain subscale. These brain regions are important in the pain modulation process. Therefore, an impaired pain modulatory system, either by decreased descending pain inhibition or enhanced pain facilitation, may explain the pain symptoms in CP/CPPS.

  14. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register, 1992-2008.

    PubMed

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Pollak, Arnold; Gleiss, Andreas; Waldhoer, Thomas; Hayde, Michael

    2015-01-15

    We aimed to determine the incidence of primary gestational infections with Toxoplasma gondii and congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria, a country with a nationwide prenatal serological screening program since 1974. We analyzed retrospective data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register of pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection and their offspring with births between 1992 and 2008, identified by the prenatal mandatory screening program. Treatment was administered to women from diagnosis of a Toxoplasma infection until delivery. Infected infants were treated up to 1 year of life routinely. Clinical manifestations in infected infants were monitored at least for 1 year and documented in the register. The Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register included 2147 pregnant women with suspected Toxoplasma infection. Annually, 8.5 per 10 000 women acquired Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy, and 1.0 per 10 000 infants had congenital toxoplasmosis (13% mean transmission rate). Our data showed that women treated according to the Austrian scheme had a 6-fold decrease in the maternofetal transmission rate compared to women without treatment. Results from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register show the efficiency of the prenatal screening program. Our results are of clinical relevance for infants, healthcare systems, and policy makers to consider preventive Toxoplasma screening as a potential tool to reduce the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Birth prevalence and characteristics of congenital toxoplasmosis in Sergipe, North-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo Inagaki, Ana Dorcas; Carvalheiro, Cristina Gardonyi; Cipolotti, Rosana; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Rocha, Dayse Alves; Pinheiro, Kariny Souza; Araújo, Raquel Melo; Lima, Dorothy Ribeiro Resende; Winandy, Jacques Leon; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Márcia

    2012-11-01

    To estimate, by neonatal screening, the birth prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis among live-born infants in Sergipe state, Brazil, and to investigate the clinical features of affected infants. Dried blood spot specimens obtained from 15 204 neonates were assayed for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Duplicate retesting was done in infants with positive and borderline results. Confirmatory testing in peripheral blood samples consisted of testing for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM in infants and mothers. Those with possible congenital toxoplasmosis were evaluated and followed up to a median age of 20 months. Congenital infection was confirmed in the presence of persisting anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies beyond 12 months of age. All infants with confirmed infection were treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid for 1 year.   Fifty-three infants had detectable IgM in dried blood spot specimens. Confirmatory testing was reactive in 39/50, of which, 38 completed follow-up. Six of 15 204 newborns were diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of four per 10 000 [CI 95% 1.4-8.0]. Four infants (67%) showed signs of congenital toxoplasmosis in their first year of life; three (75%) had retinochoroidal scars, and one had cerebral calcifications. Two infants remained asymptomatic until 20 months of age. The birth prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis is high in the Brazilian state of Sergipe, with most of the infants showing ocular lesions. Preventive measures are strongly warranted. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Clinical features and outcomes in patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis admitted to intensive care: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthieu; Sonneville, Romain; Schnell, David; Bigé, Naike; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Mongardon, Nicolas; Castelain, Vincent; Razazi, Keyvan; Marty, Antoine; Vincent, François; Dres, Martin; Gaudry, Stephane; Luyt, Charles Edouard; Das, Vincent; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Demoule, Alexandre; Mayaux, Julien

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics and outcomes of adult patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have rarely been described. We performed a retrospective study on consecutive adult patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis who were admitted from January 2002 through December 2012 to the ICUs of 14 university-affiliated hospitals in France. Disseminated toxoplasmosis was defined as microbiological or histological evidence of disease affecting >1 organ in immunosuppressed patients. Isolated cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis were excluded. Clinical data on admission and risk factors for 60-day mortality were collected. Thirty-eight patients were identified during the study period. Twenty-two (58%) had received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (median, 61 [interquartile range {IQR}, 43-175] days before ICU admission), 4 (10%) were solid organ transplant recipients, and 10 (27%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (median CD4 cell count, 14 [IQR, 6-33] cells/µL). The main indications for ICU admission were acute respiratory failure (89%) and shock (53%). The 60-day mortality rate was 82%. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-5.35; P = .04) and systolic cardiac dysfunction (HR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.60-8.10; P < .01) within 48 hours of ICU admission were associated with mortality. Severe disseminated toxoplasmosis leading to ICU admission has a poor prognosis. Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant appear to have the highest risk of mortality. We identified systolic cardiac dysfunction as a major determinant of outcome. Strategies aimed at preventing this fatal opportunistic infection may improve outcomes.

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  19. The International Congress on Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Louis M; Kim, Kami

    2004-03-09

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in both veterinary and human medicine. Infection during pregnancy can result in fetal transmission and a congenital infection syndrome. In immune-compromised hosts reactivation of latent infection can result in encephalitis. It has been estimated that as many as one-third of the human population harbours this zoonosis. The Seventh International Congress on Toxoplasmosis, organised by Louis M. Weiss and Kami Kim (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY) was held on 23-27 May 2003 in Tarrytown, New York. At this meeting 133 investigators from 14 countries presented 102 papers on research involving this model Apicomplexan parasite. The presented research covered the epidemiology, immunology, cellular biology and molecular biology of this pathogen.

  20. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic Approach to Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Garweg, Justus G; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda DF; Montoya, Jose G

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is deemed a local event, which may fail to evoke a detectable systemic immune response. A correct diagnosis of the disease is a necessary basis for estimating its clinical burden. This is not so difficult in a typical clinical picture. In atypical cases, further diagnostic efforts are to be installed. Although the aqueous humor may be analyzed for specific antibodies or the presence of parasitic DNA, the DNA burden therein is low, and in rare instances a confirmation would necessitate vitreous sampling. A laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is frustrated by individual differences in the time elapsing between clinical symptoms and activation of specific antibody production, which may result in false negatives. In congenital ocular toxoplasmosis, a delay in the onset of specific local antibody production could reflect immune tolerance. Herein, the authors attempt to provide a simple and practicable algorithm for a clinically tailored diagnostic approach in atypical instances. PMID:21770803

  2. Remote and chronic access to the third cerebral ventricle of the unrestrained prepubertal rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Gay, V L; Mikuma, N; Plant, T M

    1993-03-01

    One channel of a commercially available standard-size three-channel fluid swivel was modified to permit continuous access to the brain of unrestrained prepubertal rhesus monkeys via a continuous length of small-bore Teflon tube originating from a swivel device on top of the animal's cage and terminating in the third cerebral ventricle. This system was employed to achieve continuous access to the third cerebroventricle in four monkeys for periods of up to 12 mo. The value of the system for studies of the neurochemical control of hypothalamic-releasing factor secretion was established by monitoring adenohypophysial responses to neurotransmitter receptor agonists infused into the third ventricle. Specifically, repetitive infusions of morphine (30 micrograms/infusion) elicited a robust train of prolactin discharges, and third ventricular administration of N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMA; 20 micrograms) resulted in striking discharges of LH.

  3. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... common in the United States. Use contaminated knives, cutting boards or other utensils. Kitchen utensils that come ... kitchen utensils thoroughly. After preparing raw meat, wash cutting boards, knives and other utensils in hot, soapy ...

  4. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid organ transplants Handling cat litter Eating contaminated soil Eating raw or undercooked meat (lamb, pork, and ... dog feces. Wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil that may be contaminated with animal feces. Pregnant ...

  5. Toxoplasmosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Sarcocystis sp, which also can mimic T. gondii, form sarcocysts that contain various stages of the parasite (Figs 12.90 &12.91), including mature, banana ... Flowers SA. Global protein expression analysis in apicomplexan parasites: current status. Proteomics. 2005;5:918-924. Acknowledgements The authors

  6. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in Macaca fascicularis: acute and chronic stroke evolution.

    PubMed

    D'Arceuil, Helen E; Duggan, Michael; He, Julian; Pryor, Johnny; de Crespigny, Alex

    2006-04-01

    An intravascular stroke model designed for magnetic resonance imaging was developed in Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) to characterize serial stroke lesion evolution. This model produces a range of stroke lesion sizes which closely mimics human stroke evolution. This paper describes the care of animals undergoing this stroke procedure, the range of outcomes we experienced and the cause of mortality in this model. Anesthesia was induced with atropine and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane or propofol. Non-invasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate, temperature and end tidal CO2 were monitored continuously. The stroke was created by occluding a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery. During catheter placement animals were heparinized and vasospasm was minimized using verapamil. Anesthetic induction and maintenance were smooth. Animals with small strokes showed very rapid recovery, were able to ambulate and self-feed within 2 hours of recovery. Animals with strokes of >or=4% of the hemispheric volume required lengthy observation during recovery and parenteral nutrition. Large strokes resulted in significant brain edema, herniation and brainstem compression. Intracerebral hemorrhage and or subarachnoid hemorrhage coupled with a stroke of any size was acutely fatal. In the absence of an effective acute stroke therapy, the spectrum of outcomes seen in our primate model is very similar to that observed in human stroke patients.

  7. Novel Synergistic Protective Efficacy of Atovaquone and Diclazuril on Fetal-Maternal Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Over 1 billion people globally are estimated to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii with severe or unknown consequences and no safe and effective therapies are available against congenital or persistent chronic infection. We propose that atovaquone and diclazuril synergistically protect against fetal-maternal toxoplasmosis. Methods Programmed pregnant mice were treated with atovaquone and diclazuril monotherapy, or combined (atovaquone + diclazuril) therapy and infected with tachyzoites (0, 300, 600) and the course of infection was studied. Results Infected dams with low dose (300) developed moderate toxoplasmosis complications and treatments were similarly effective with minor differences between monotherapies. In contrast, major differences were observed amongst varied treatments during high-dose (600) infection and severe related- toxoplasmosis complications as follows. Dams developed hydrothorax, ascities and excess weight gain. Combined therapy (P < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril monotherapy (P < 0.05) protected dams from excess weight, hydrothorax, and ascities. Infected dams exhibited splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and severe hepatitis. Combined therapy synergistically normalized pathology (P < 0.001) and to a lesser degree monotherapy (diclazuril P < 0.01, and atovaquone P < 0.05) protected dams from hepatitis and splemomegaly. Additionally, behavioral response to pain stimuli and fetal weight and fetal numbers were significantly preserved in treated dams Conclusions This is the first report describing combined atovaquone and diclazuril therapy (a) to be safe in pregnancy, (b) to exert novel synergistic effects, and (c) to protect dams and their nested fetuses against adverse effects of severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:25210646

  8. Toxoplasmosis in the fetus and newborn: an update on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Pablo A; Montoya, Jose G

    2012-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an unicellular coccidian parasite with worldwide distribution. It is estimated that more than a third of the world's population has been infected with the parasite, but seroprevalence is unevenly distributed across countries and different socioeconomic strata. The majority of newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis do not have any clinical signs of the disease at birth; however, 30-70% of those with clinical abnormalities were not detected initially, and are found to have new retinal lesions consistent with toxoplasmicchorioretinitis later in life. Congenital toxoplasmosis can also cause fetal death, stillbirths or long-term disabling sequelae, particularly among untreated infants. The disease appears to be more frequent and severe at certain latitudes. Congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented and treated during gestation. Less severe disease is commonly reported in countries where prenatal screening and treatment have been systematically implemented. By contrast, severe disease appears to be observed primarily in infants born to untreated mothers. For definition purposes, it is best to use the term toxoplasma or Toxoplasma gondii infection when referring to asymptomatic patients with primary or chronic infection, and toxoplasmosis when referring to patients with symptoms or signs.

  9. IgG Avidity Test in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Diagnoses in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso Fonseca, Zulmirene; Xavier Rodrigues, Isolina Maria; Cruz e Melo, Natália; Boaventura Avelar, Juliana; Castro, Ana Maria; Martins Avelino, Mariza

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs) diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP) and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP)), from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated using chemiluminescence. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in 66.66% (n = 32) of NBs with AIP, 94.1% presenting low avidity (LA) and 51.61% presenting high avidity (HA) test results. The IgG and IgM levels of NBs with LA and their puerperae were higher in comparison with HA NBs and puerperae (p = 0.0001). The avidity tests showed 100% specificity and 50% sensitivity (p = 0.0001). NBs with LA had a 15-fold increased risk of developing congenital toxoplasmosis in comparison with HA NBs. The IgG avidity test could be used to assist in early congenital toxoplasmosis diagnoses in NBs and LA, identifying a greater probability of vertical transmission. PMID:28629167

  10. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in children with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, N I; Abdel Latif, M M; Abdel Aaty, H E

    2000-08-01

    The study aimed at the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in 73 children with malignancy; 31 with lymphoma (22 with Hodgkin's and 9 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and 42 with leukemia (34 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 8 with acute myelogenic leukemia). In positive cases toxoplasmosis was manifested by any of the following; fever, lymph node enlargement, neurological manifestations and/or hepatosplenomegaly. The indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for toxoplasmosis detected 4 (5.4%) positive cases with malignancy, 2 with Hodgkin's lymphoma, one with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA) detected only one (1.4%) case with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA detected 6 (8.2%) positive cases, 3 with Hodgkin's lymphoma, one with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 2 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of parasite DNA in blood (PCR) was the most useful in diagnosing toxoplasmosis with malignancy, as it was able to detect 9 (12.3%) positive cases; 5 (6.8%) with Hodgkin's lymphoma, one (1.4%) with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 3 (4.1%) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. No positive toxoplasmosis cases were detected with acute myelogenic leukemia by any of the above methods.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Belaz, Sorya

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients is associated with a high mortality rate. Molecular techniques are important tools to diagnose acute disease in immunocompromised patients, but there are various methods with variable efficiency. Some of them have been validated for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, but the impact of their use has not been evaluated in immunocompromised patients. Toxoplasmosis is of increasing importance in non-HIV immunocompromised patients. In addition, the picture of disease shows greater severity in South America, both in immunocompetent study participants and in congenitally infected infants. These epidemiological differences could influence the sensitivity of diagnostic methods. This review analyzes recent data on molecular diagnosis and compares them with older ones, in light of progress gained in molecular techniques and of recent epidemiological findings. Most recent studies were conducted in South America and used PCR targeting the B1 gene. PCR on blood could allow diagnosing a significant proportion of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Quantitative PCR methods with specific probes should be used to improve sensitivity and warrant specificity. Performance of quantitative PCR targeting the repeated 529 bp sequence for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients needs evaluation in field studies in South America and in western countries.

  12. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  13. Prenatal therapy with pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine versus spiramycin to reduce placental transmission of toxoplasmosis : A multicenter, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, Laurent; Kieffer, François; Sitta, Rémi; Laurichesse-Delmas, Hélène; Winer, Norbert; Mesnard, Louis; Berrebi, Alain; Le Bouar, Gwenaëlle; Bory, Jean-Paul; Cordier, Anne-Gaëlle; Ville, Yves; Perrotin, Franck; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Biquard, Florence; d'Ercole, Claude; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Villena, Isabelle; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2018-06-02

    The efficacy of prophylaxis to prevent prenatal toxoplasmosis transmission is controversial, without any previous randomized clinical trial. In France, spiramycin (S) is usually prescribed for maternal seroconversions. A more potent pyrimethamine + sulfadiazine (PS) regimen is used to treat congenital toxoplasmosis and is offered in some countries as prophylaxis. To compare the efficacy and tolerance of PS vs S to reduce placental transmission. A randomized, open-label trial in 36 French centers, comparing pyrimethamine (50 mg qd) + sulfadiazine (1g tid) with folinic acid vs spiramycin (1g tid) following toxoplasmosis seroconversion. 143 women were randomized from 11/2010 to 01/2014. An amniocentesis was later performed in 131 cases, with a positive T. gondii PCR in 7/67 (10.4%) in the PS group vs. 13/64 (20.3%) in the S group. Cerebral ultrasound anomalies appeared in 0/73 fetuses in the PS group, vs 6/70 in the S group (p=0.01). Two of these pregnancies were terminated. Transmission rates, excluding 18 children with undefined status, were 12/65 in the PS group (18.5%), vs 18/60 in the S group (30%, p = 0.147), equivalent to an Odds ratio = 0.53 (95% CI 0.23-1.22) and which after adjustment tended to be stronger (p=0.03 for interaction) when treatment started within 3 weeks of seroconversion (95% CI 0.00-1.63). Two women had severe rashes, both with PS. There was a trend towards lower transmission with PS, but it did not reach statistical significance, possibly for lack of statistical power because enrollment was discontinued. There were also no fetal cerebral toxoplasmosis lesions in the PS group. These promising results encourage further research on chemoprophylaxis to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Chronic lead exposure reduces doublecortin-expressing immature neurons in young adult guinea pig cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, JuFang; Huang, Kai; Shang, Lei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Mengqi; Fan, Chun-Ling; Chen, Dan; Yan, Xiaoxin; Xiong, Kun

    2012-07-19

    Chronic lead (Pb) poisoning remains an environmental risk especially for the pediatric population, and it may affect brain development. Immature neurons expressing doublecortin (DCX+) exist around cortical layer II in various mammals, including adult guinea pigs and humans. Using young adult guinea pigs as an experimental model, the present study explored if chronic Pb exposure affects cortical DCX + immature neurons and those around the subventricular and subgranular zones (SVZ, SGZ). Two month-old guinea pigs were treated with 0.2% lead acetate in drinking water for 2, 4 and 6 months. Blood Pb levels in these animals reached 10.27 ± 0.62, 16.25 ± 0.78 and 19.03 ± 0.86 μg/dL at the above time points, respectively, relative to ~3 μg/dL in vehicle controls. The density of DCX + neurons was significantly reduced around cortical layer II, SVZ and SGZ in Pb-treated animals surviving 4 and 6 months relative to controls. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chasing studies failed to find cellular colocalization of this DNA synthesis indicator in DCX + cells around layer II in Pb-treated and control animals. These cortical immature neurons were not found to coexist with active caspase-3 or Fluoro-Jade C labeling. Chronic Pb exposure can lead to significant reduction in the number of the immature neurons around cortical layer II and in the conventional neurogenic sites in young adult guinea pigs. No direct evidence could be identified to link the reduced cortical DCX expression with alteration in local neurogenesis or neuronal death.

  15. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p < 0.005, cluster size ≥10). Regional CBF was increased 18 ± 17 % and reduced 8 ± 12 % following moderate- and low-intensity cycling, respectively. In contrast, CBF changes were similar between sessions in the right lentiform nucleus and mid-frontal gyrus, as well as the left temporal and parietal gyri. Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  16. Chronic kidney disease, cerebral blood flow, and white matter volume in hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Bryan, R Nick; Weiner, Daniel E; Diamond, Matthew; Van Buren, Peter; Taylor, Addison; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Rosendorff, Clive; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-03-29

    To determine the relation between markers of kidney disease-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR)-with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and white matter volume (WMV) in hypertensive adults. We used baseline data collected from 665 nondiabetic hypertensive adults aged ≥50 years participating in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). We used arterial spin labeling to measure CBF and structural 3T images to segment tissue into normal and abnormal WMV. We used quantile regression to estimate the association between eGFR and UACR with CBF and abnormal WMV, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. There were 218 participants (33%) with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 146 participants (22%) with UACR ≥30 mg/g. Reduced eGFR was independently associated with higher adjusted median CBF, but not with abnormal WMV. Conversely, in adjusted analyses, there was a linear independent association between UACR and larger abnormal WMV, but not with CBF. Compared to participants with neither marker of CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR <30 mg/g), median CBF was 5.03 mL/100 g/min higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 9.29) and abnormal WMV was 0.63 cm(3) larger (95% CI 0.08, 1.17) among participants with both markers of CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR ≥30 mg/g). Among nondiabetic hypertensive adults, reduced eGFR was associated with higher CBF and higher UACR was associated with larger abnormal WMV. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Cerebral asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in rats chronically lacking n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vancassel, Sylvie; Aïd, Sabah; Pifferi, Fabien; Morice, Elise; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Chalon, Sylvie; Lavialle, Monique

    2005-11-15

    Anatomic and functional brain lateralization underlies hemisphere specialization for cognitive and motor control, and deviations from the normal patterns of asymmetry appear to be related to behavioral deficits. Studies on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency and behavioral impairments led us to postulate that a chronic lack of n-3 PUFA can lead to changes in lateralized behavior by affecting structural or neurochemical patterns of asymmetry in motor-related brain structures. We compared the effects of a chronic n-3 PUFA deficient diet with a balanced diet on membrane phospholipid fatty acids composition and immunolabeling of choline acetyltransferase (ChAt), as a marker of cholinergic neurons, in left and right striatum of rats. Lateral motor behavior was assessed by rotation and paw preference. Control rats had an asymmetric PUFA distribution with a right behavioral preference, whereas ChAt density was symmetrical. In deficient rats, the cholinergic neuron density was 30% lower on the right side, associated with a loss of PUFA asymmetry and behavior laterality. They present higher rotation behavior, and significantly more of them failed the handedness test. These results indicate that a lack of n-3 PUFA is linked with a lateral behavior deficit, possibly leading to cognitive disturbances.

  18. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Subramaniam; Nor-Masniwati, Saidin; Nor-Idahriani, Muhd Nor; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan-Hitam; Zeehaida, Mohamed; Zunaina, Embong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig) G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis. A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed. A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6-83) years. Seventy-one patients (54.6%) were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8%) were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis) while one (0.8%) showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis) and 65 patients (50.0%) showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection). Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036). Eighteen patients (13.8%) were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing. Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

  19. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  20. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Korean pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Jong-Chul; Shin, Ho-Joon; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2005-06-01

    This study was performed in order to evaluate the sero-epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Korean women. Among 5,175 sera and 750 amniotic fluid samples obtained from pregnant women, 41 serum samples (0.79%) and 10 (1.33%) amniotic fluid samples tested positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA. Fifty one cases showing a score more than 0.25 on ELISA were tested for PCR reaction against the SAG1 gene. Only one case of the 51 ELISA positive cases exhibited a positive reaction on all tests. This case had a history of acute nephropyelitis during early pregnancy, but fortunately, had delivered a phenotypically healthy baby. In this study, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be comparatively low, consistent with previous reports from Korea. However our trials, performed with a variety of diagnostic tools, were considered to be useful for the precise diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  1. [Ocular toxoplasmosis: from pathophysiology to microbiological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Sauer, A; Villard, O; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C; Candolfi, E

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects: 30% of the world population may be affected, with wide variability. However, despite high seroprevalence, the incidence of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is limited to about 2% of infected patients; thus, about one million patients in France may be estimated to have active or cicatricial OT. Microbiological tools available to the clinician have considerably advanced over the last two decades, allowing the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis to be confirmed in the vast majority of suspected cases. Regardless of the route of infection (congenital or acquired), laboratory confirmation of OT plays a major role in the patient's management, particularly in atypical cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Features and Treatment of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the infection with Toxoplasma gondii through congenital or acquired routes. Once the parasite reaches the retina, it proliferates within host cells followed by rupture of the host cells and invasion into neighboring cells to make primary lesions. Sometimes the restricted parasite by the host immunity in the first scar is activated to infect another lesion nearby the scar. Blurred vision is the main complaint of ocular toxoplasmic patients and can be diagnosed by detection of antibodies or parasite DNA. Ocular toxoplasmosis needs therapy with several combinations of drugs to eliminate the parasite and accompanying inflammation; if not treated it sometimes leads to loss of vision. We describe here clinical features and currently available chemotherapy of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:24039281

  3. Clinical features and treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Hoon; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2013-08-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the infection with Toxoplasma gondii through congenital or acquired routes. Once the parasite reaches the retina, it proliferates within host cells followed by rupture of the host cells and invasion into neighboring cells to make primary lesions. Sometimes the restricted parasite by the host immunity in the first scar is activated to infect another lesion nearby the scar. Blurred vision is the main complaint of ocular toxoplasmic patients and can be diagnosed by detection of antibodies or parasite DNA. Ocular toxoplasmosis needs therapy with several combinations of drugs to eliminate the parasite and accompanying inflammation; if not treated it sometimes leads to loss of vision. We describe here clinical features and currently available chemotherapy of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  4. [Ocular toxoplasmosis - seeking a strategy for treatment].

    PubMed

    Prášil, Petr; Plíšek, Stanislav; Boštík, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness of treatment for ocular toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine + clindamycin (or sulfadiazine) + a corticoid (Group 1), or azithromycin or a combination of azithromycin with a corticoid or a corticoid alone (Group 2). To determine the relapse rate depending on the treatment approach. A total of 25 patients treated for ocular toxoplasmosis over the last five years (2008-2013) were analyzed. Group 1 comprised 16 patients (3 were excluded) and Group 2 consisted of 6 patients. Visual improvement was more rapid in Group 1 (day 10.7) than in Group 2 (significant improvement on day 29.6). There were 5 cases of relapse in Group 1; in 13 cases, no relapse was noted; all patients in Group 2 relapsed (a total of 13 relapses). Twenty-three patients were positive for specific IgG antibodies. According to our experiences, pyrimethamine + clindamycin (or sulfadiazine) + a corticoid should be the treatment of choice in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.

  5. Ocular toxoplasmosis: clinical characteristics in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Garza-Leon, Manuel; Garcia, Lourdes Arellanes

    2012-04-01

    To describe the clinical features of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients. A retrospective, non-comparative series of cases was studied. We reviewed the clinical records of patients 16 year old or younger diagnosed with Ocular Toxoplasmosis. Forty patients (56 eyes) were included. The mean age was 9.5 yrs old. Twenty were female. Unilateral involvement was noticed in 60% of patients. The most common symptoms were strabismus (32.1%) and reduced VA in (23.2%). An inactive retinal scar was observed in most cases (71.4%). Panuveitis was found in 8 eyes (14.2%), and posterior uveitis in 7 eyes of 7 patients (12.5%); one eye presented neuroretinitis. The most frequent location of retinochoroidal lesions was the posterior pole (72.7%). In children, ocular toxoplasmosis is most commonly diagnosed during the inactive stage. When inflammation is present, it can be severe and frequently associated with other complications such vasculitis and papillitis.

  6. Analgesic efficacy of cerebral and peripheral electrical stimulation in chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized, double-blind, factorial clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Maretto, Rafaela Lasso; Carvalho, Nilza Aparecida de Almeida; Hasue, Renata Hydee; João, Silvia Maria Amado

    2015-01-31

    Chronic non-specific low back pain is a major socioeconomic public health issue worldwide and, despite the volume of research in the area, it is still a difficult-to-treat condition. The conservative analgesic therapy usually comprises a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The neuromatrix pain model and the new findings on the process of chronicity of pain point to a higher effectiveness of treatments that address central rather than peripheral structures. The transcranial direct current stimulation is a noninvasive technique of neuromodulation that has made recent advances in the treatment of chronic pain. The simultaneous combination of these two electrostimulation techniques (cerebral and peripheral) can provide an analgesic effect superior to isolated interventions. However, all the evidence on the analgesic efficacy of these techniques, alone or combined, is still fragmented. This is a protocol for a randomized clinical trial to investigate whether cerebral electrical stimulation combined with peripheral electrical stimulation is more effective in relieving pain than the isolated application of electrical stimulations in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Ninety-two patients will be randomized into four groups to receive transcranial direct current stimulation (real/sham) + transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (real/sham) for 12 sessions over a period of four weeks. The primary clinical outcome (pain intensity) and the secondary ones (sensory and affective aspects of pain, physical functioning and global perceived effect) will be recorded before treatment, after four weeks, in Month 3 and in Month 6 after randomization. Confounding factors such as anxiety and depression, the patient's satisfaction with treatment and adverse effects will also be listed. Data will be collected by an examiner unaware of (blind to) the treatment allocation. The results of this

  7. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) of cerebral activity in chronic depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lubar, Joel F; Congedo, Marco; Askew, John H

    2003-09-01

    In this study we compared the current density power and power asymmetry in 15 right-handed, medication-free chronically depressed females (of the unipolar type) and age-matched non-clinical female controls. We used frequency domain LORETA (Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography). In the interhemispheric asymmetry analysis, compared with the control group, the depression group exhibited a left-to-right Alpha2 (10-12 Hz) current density dominance in the left postcentral gyrus. The pattern of left-to-right dominance included frontal (especially medial and middle frontal gyri) and temporal locations. The between groups comparison of spectral power revealed decreased activity in the right middle temporal gyrus in the depressed group. The decrease emerged in the whole frequency spectrum analyzed (2-32 Hz), although it reached significance in the Delta (2-3.5 Hz) band only. These findings are discussed in terms of the existing literature on affect using EEG, PET and SPECT.

  8. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and standardization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Han, Yanxi; Li, Jinming

    2016-10-01

    Humans can be infected by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease. Although the infection is generally asymptomatic for most adults, severe complications may occur in some individuals, especially women in early pregnancy. Serologic diagnosis is used as a routine practice to determine the immune status for infection by T. gondii. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, including diagnostic strategy, current problems in detection with specific antibodies, and the standardization of T. gondii serological detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion: a key mechanism leading to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia. Closing the translational gap between rodent models and human vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Jessica; Kitamura, Akihiro; Hase, Yoshiki; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N; Horsburgh, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that vascular risk factors contribute to neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment and dementia. While there is considerable overlap between features of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), it appears that cerebral hypoperfusion is the common underlying pathophysiological mechanism which is a major contributor to cognitive decline and degenerative processes leading to dementia. Sustained cerebral hypoperfusion is suggested to be the cause of white matter attenuation, a key feature common to both AD and dementia associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). White matter changes increase the risk for stroke, dementia and disability. A major gap has been the lack of mechanistic insights into the evolution and progress of VCID. However, this gap is closing with the recent refinement of rodent models which replicate chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In this review, we discuss the relevance and advantages of these models in elucidating the pathogenesis of VCID and explore the interplay between hypoperfusion and the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) protein, as it relates to AD. We use examples of our recent investigations to illustrate the utility of the model in preclinical testing of candidate drugs and lifestyle factors. We propose that the use of such models is necessary for tackling the urgently needed translational gap from preclinical models to clinical treatments. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  11. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bossart, Gregory D; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M; Camus, Alvin C; Bonde, Robert K; Dubey, Jitender P; Reif, John S

    2012-11-08

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondii suggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  12. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  13. Evaluation of the Western blotting method for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    To evaluate the Western blotting method for the detection of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) (IgG-WB) in the serum of children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. We accompanied 47 mothers with acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and their children, between June of 2011 and June of 2014. The IgG-WB was done in house and the test was considered positive if the child had antibodies that recognized at least one band on IgG blots different from the mother's or with greater intensity than the corresponding maternal band, during the first three months of life. 15 children (15.1%) met the criteria for congenital toxoplasmosis and 32 (32.3%) had the diagnosis excluded. The symptoms were observed in 12 (80.0%) children and the most frequent were cerebral calcification in 9 (60.0%), chorioretinitis in 8 (53.3%), and hydrocephalus in 4 (26.6%). IgM antibodies anti-T. gondii detected by chemiluminescence (CL) were found in 6 (40.0%) children and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of T. gondii DNA was positive in 5 of 7 performed (71.4%). The sensitivity of IgG-WB was of 60.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.3-83.7%] and specificity 43.7% (95% CI 26.7-62.3%). The sensitivity of IgG-WB increased to 76.0 and 89.1% when associated to the research of IgM anti-T. gondii or PCR, respectively. The IgG-WB showed greater sensitivity than the detection of IgM anti-T. gondii; therefore, it can be used for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in association with other congenital infection markers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral gray matter volume in patients with chronic migraine: correlations with clinical features.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Gianluca; Petolicchio, Barbara; Di Renzo, Antonio; Tinelli, Emanuele; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Parisi, Vincenzo; Serrao, Mariano; Calistri, Valentina; Tardioli, Stefano; Cartocci, Gaia; Ambrosini, Anna; Caramia, Francesca; Di Piero, Vittorio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2017-12-08

    To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs). We used SPM12 and the CAT12 toolbox to process the MRI data and to perform VBM analyses of the structural T1-weighted MRI scans. The GM volume of patients was compared to that of HCs with various corrected and uncorrected thresholds. To check for possible correlations, patients' clinical features and GM maps were regressed. Initially, we did not find significant differences in the GM volume between patients with CM and HCs (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). However, using more-liberal uncorrected statistical thresholds, we noted that compared to HCs, patients with CM exhibited clusters of regions with lower GM volumes including the cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, left temporal pole/amygdala/hippocampus/pallidum/orbitofrontal cortex, and left occipital areas (Brodmann areas 17/18). The GM volume of the cerebellar hemispheres was negatively correlated with the disease duration and positively correlated with the number of tablets taken per month. No gross morphometric changes were observed in patients with CM when compared with HCs. However, using more-liberal uncorrected statistical thresholds, we observed that CM is associated with subtle GM volume changes in several brain areas known to be involved in nociception/antinociception, multisensory integration, and analgesic dependence. We speculate that these slight morphometric impairments could lead

  15. ALOX12 in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Witola, William H; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N; Heydemann, Peter T; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P; McLeod, Rima

    2014-07-01

    ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  16. ALOX12 in Human Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Witola, William H.; Liu, Susan Ruosu; Montpetit, Alexandre; Welti, Ruth; Hypolite, Magali; Roth, Mary; Zhou, Ying; Mui, Ernest; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Fournie, Gilbert J.; Cavailles, Pierre; Bisanz, Cordelia; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Swisher, Charles N.; Heydemann, Peter T.; Rabiah, Peter; Muench, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    ALOX12 is a gene encoding arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), a member of a nonheme lipoxygenase family of dioxygenases. ALOX12 catalyzes the addition of oxygen to arachidonic acid, producing 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE), which can be reduced to the eicosanoid 12-HETE (12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). 12-HETE acts in diverse cellular processes, including catecholamine synthesis, vasoconstriction, neuronal function, and inflammation. Consistent with effects on these fundamental mechanisms, allelic variants of ALOX12 are associated with diseases including schizophrenia, atherosclerosis, and cancers, but the mechanisms have not been defined. Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes morbidity and mortality and stimulates an innate and adaptive immune inflammatory reaction. Recently, it has been shown that a gene region known as Toxo1 is critical for susceptibility or resistance to T. gondii infection in rats. An orthologous gene region with ALOX12 centromeric is also present in humans. Here we report that the human ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles for human congenital toxoplasmosis (rs6502997 [P, <0.000309], rs312462 [P, <0.028499], rs6502998 [P, <0.029794], and rs434473 [P, <0.038516]). A human monocytic cell line was genetically engineered using lentivirus RNA interference to knock down ALOX12. In ALOX12 knockdown cells, ALOX12 RNA expression decreased and levels of the ALOX12 substrate, arachidonic acid, increased. ALOX12 knockdown attenuated the progression of T. gondii infection and resulted in greater parasite burdens but decreased consequent late cell death of the human monocytic cell line. These findings suggest that ALOX12 influences host responses to T. gondii infection in human cells. ALOX12 has been shown in other studies to be important in numerous diseases. Here we demonstrate the critical role ALOX12 plays in T. gondii infection in humans. PMID:24686056

  17. Postoperative intermittent fasting prevents hippocampal oxidative stress and memory deficits in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yunyun; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Jun-Jian

    2018-01-11

    Whether intermittent fasting (IF) treatment after stroke can prevent its long-term detrimental effects remains unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of postoperative IF on cognitive deficits and its underlying mechanisms in a permanent two-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model. Rats were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding 1 week after 2VO surgery. The cognition of rats was assessed using the novel object recognition (NOR) task and Morris water maze (MWM) 8 weeks after surgery. After behavioral testing, hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, gene expression of antioxidative enzymes, inflammatory protein levels, and microglia density were determined. Postoperative IF significantly ameliorated the cognitive performance of 2VO rats in the NOR and MWM tests. Cognitive enhancement paralleled preservation of the PSD95 and BDNF levels in the 2VO rat hippocampus. Mechanistically, postoperative IF mitigated hippocampal oxidative stress in 2VO rats, as indicated by the reduced MDA concentration and mRNA and the protein levels of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1. IF treatment also preserved the GSH level and SOD activity, as well as the levels of their upstream regulating enzymes, resulting in preserved antioxidative capability. In addition, postoperative IF prevented hippocampal microglial activation and elevation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 and inflammatory cytokines in 2VO rats. Our results suggest that postoperative IF suppresses neuroinflammation and oxidative stress induced by chronic cerebral ischemia, thereby preserving cognitive function in a vascular dementia rat model.

  18. Task Related Cerebral Blood Flow Changes of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Arterial Spin Labeling Study.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland; Boissoneault, Jeff; Craggs, Jason G; Lai, Song; Robinson, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    One hallmark of chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is task related worsening of fatigue. Global brain hypoperfusion, abnormal regional activation, and altered functional connectivity of brain areas associated with cognition and memory have been reported but remain controversial. We enrolled 17 female participants fulfilling the CDC Criteria for ME/CFS and 16 matched healthy controls (HC). Using a 3T-Phillips Achieva MRI-scanner, pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling (pCASL), was used to study the dynamics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and their relationship to mental fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC during a demanding cognitive task, i.e. modified Paced-Auditory-Serial-Addition-Testing (PASAT). ME/CFS subjects reported more fatigue than HC at baseline (p < .01). Global brain perfusion of ME/CFS and HC subjects was similar at rest. The PASAT resulted in significantly increased fatigue in ME/CFS participants and HC. Although not different between groups, overall CBF significantly increased over the first 3 min of the PASAT and then decreased thereafter. Regional CBF (rCBF) changes were significantly different between groups during the post-task recovery period. Whereas improvement of fatigue of ME/CFS subjects was associated with decreased rCBF in both superior temporal gyri (STG), precuneus, and fusiform gyrus, it was associated with increased rCBF in the same areas in HC. Our results suggest that ME/CFS is associated with normal global CBF at rest and during a strenuous task (PASAT); however rCBF of several brain regions associated with memory, goal-oriented attention, and visual function was differentially associated with recovery from fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC.

  19. Task Related Cerebral Blood Flow Changes of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Arterial Spin Labeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Staud, Roland; Boissoneault, Jeff; Craggs, Jason G.; Lai, Song; Robinson, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose One hallmark of chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is task related worsening of fatigue. Global brain hypoperfusion, abnormal regional activation, and altered functional connectivity of brain areas associated with cognition and memory have been reported but remain controversial. Methods We enrolled 17 female participants fulfilling the CDC Criteria for ME/CFS and 16 matched healthy controls (HC). Using a 3T-Phillips Achieva MRI-scanner, pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling (pCASL), was used to study the dynamics of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and their relationship to mental fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC during a demanding cognitive task, i.e. modified Paced-Auditory-Serial-Addition-Testing (PASAT). Results ME/CFS subjects reported more fatigue than HC at baseline (p < .01). Global brain perfusion of ME/CFS and HC subjects was similar at rest. The PASAT resulted in significantly increased fatigue in ME/CFS participants and HC. Although not different between groups, overall CBF significantly increased over the first 3 min of the PASAT and then decreased thereafter. Regional CBF (rCBF) changes were significantly different between groups during the post-task recovery period. Whereas improvement of fatigue of ME/CFS subjects was associated with decreased rCBF in both superior temporal gyri (STG), precuneus, and fusiform gyrus, it was associated with increased rCBF in the same areas in HC. Conclusions Our results suggest that ME/CFS is associated with normal global CBF at rest and during a strenuous task (PASAT); however rCBF of several brain regions associated with memory, goal-oriented attention, and visual function was differentially associated with recovery from fatigue in ME/CFS patients and HC. PMID:29707427

  20. S-nitrosoglutathione reduces tau hyper-phosphorylation and provides neuroprotection in rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Won, Je-Seong; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Choi, Seungho; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K

    2015-10-22

    We have previously reported that treatment of rats subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (pBCCAO), a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an endogenous nitric oxide carrier, improved cognitive functions and decreased amyloid-β accumulation in the brains. Since CCH has been implicated in tau hyperphosphorylation induced neurodegeneration, we investigated the role of GSNO in regulation of tau hyperphosphorylation in rat pBCCAO model. The rats subjected to pBCCAO had a significant increase in tau hyperphosphorylation with increased neuronal loss in hippocampal/cortical areas. GSNO treatment attenuated not only the tau hyperphosphorylation, but also the neurodegeneration in pBCCAO rat brains. The pBCCAO rat brains also showed increased activities of GSK-3β and Cdk5 (major tau kinases) and GSNO treatment significantly attenuated their activities. GSNO attenuated the increased calpain activities and calpain-mediated cleavage of p35 leading to production of p25 and aberrant Cdk5 activation. In in vitro studies using purified calpain protein, GSNO treatment inhibited calpain activities while 3-morpholinosydnonimine (a donor of peroxynitrite) treatment increased its activities, suggesting the opposing role of GSNO vs. peroxynitrite in regulation of calpain activities. In pBCCAO rat brains, GSNO treatment attenuated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and also reduced the brain levels of nitro-tyrosine formation, thereby indicating the protective role of GSNO in iNOS/nitrosative-stress mediated calpain/tau pathologies under CCH conditions. Taken together with our previous report, these data support the therapeutic potential of GSNO, a biological NO carrier, as a neuro- and cognitive-protective agent under conditions of CCH. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. RECURRENCE RATES OF OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Braakenburg, Arthur M.D.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Holland, Gary N.; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy among women of childbearing age. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (16–42 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incident rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk of recurrence. Results Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. Youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. Incident rate ratios for pregnant versus non-pregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under two different approaches, but ratios were not significantly different from the null value (p-values of 0.16 and 0.55). Conclusions Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are likely not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. PMID:24412127

  2. Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Braakenburg, Arthur M D; Crespi, Catherine M; Holland, Gary N; Wu, Sheng; Yu, Fei; Rothova, Aniki

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are higher during pregnancy in women of childbearing age. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. We reviewed medical records of all women seen at a university eye clinic (Utrecht, Netherlands) during episodes of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis that occurred while the women were of childbearing age (16-42 years). Each woman was sent a questionnaire requesting information regarding all pregnancies and episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis, whether or not episodes were observed at the eye clinic. Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to model incidence rate ratios of recurrence during pregnant versus nonpregnant intervals, adjusted for potential confounders, including age at time of active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and interval since last episode of active disease, which are known to influence risk for recurrence. Questionnaires were returned by 50 (58%) of 86 women, 34 of whom had had 69 pregnancies during 584 person-years of study. There were 128 episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis during the study period (6 during pregnancy). First episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis occurred between ages 9.6 and 38.5 years. The youngest age at pregnancy was 16.1 years; the oldest age at childbirth was 40.9 years. The incidence-rate ratios for pregnant versus nonpregnant intervals were in the direction of lower recurrence rates during pregnancy, with point estimates of 0.54 and 0.75 under 2 different approaches, but the ratios were not significantly different from the null value (P values of 0.16 and 0.55). Recurrence rates of ocular toxoplasmosis are probably not higher during pregnancy, in contrast to traditional beliefs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of specific immunoglobulin E in diagnosis of acute toxoplasma infection and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, S Y; Hajdu, M P; Ramirez, R; Thulliez, P; McLeod, R; Remington, J S

    1993-11-01

    Toxoplasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies were evaluated in an immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine their usefulness in the diagnosis of acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. IgE antibodies were not detected in serum specimens from otherwise seronegative individuals, individuals with chronic toxoplasma infection, or infants without congenital toxoplasmosis. In contrast, they were detected in pregnant women who seroconverted during gestation (100% by ELISA, 63% by ISAGA), patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy (96% by ELISA, 88% by ISAGA), infants with signs of congenital toxoplasmosis which prompted serologic testing in the postnatal period (92% by ELISA, 67% by ISAGA), children and adults with toxoplasmic chorioretinitis (36% by ELISA, 18% by ISAGA), and adult patients with AIDS and toxoplasmic encephalitis (33% by ELISA, 25% by ISAGA). In many of the serum specimens, the titer of IgE antibodies detected by the ISAGA were close to or at the positive cutoff value. The duration of detectable IgE antibodies in patients with acute infections varied considerably among individuals but showed a trend toward a briefer duration by the ISAGA than by the ELISA. These results reveal that recrudescence of IgE antibodies in patients with reactivated chronic infection (toxoplasmic chorioretinitis and toxoplasmic encephalitis) may be useful diagnostically and that demonstration of toxoplasma IgE antibodies is a useful adjunct to currently available serologic tests for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasma infection and toxoplasmosis.

  4. Role of specific immunoglobulin E in diagnosis of acute toxoplasma infection and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S Y; Hajdu, M P; Ramirez, R; Thulliez, P; McLeod, R; Remington, J S

    1993-01-01

    Toxoplasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies were evaluated in an immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine their usefulness in the diagnosis of acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. IgE antibodies were not detected in serum specimens from otherwise seronegative individuals, individuals with chronic toxoplasma infection, or infants without congenital toxoplasmosis. In contrast, they were detected in pregnant women who seroconverted during gestation (100% by ELISA, 63% by ISAGA), patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy (96% by ELISA, 88% by ISAGA), infants with signs of congenital toxoplasmosis which prompted serologic testing in the postnatal period (92% by ELISA, 67% by ISAGA), children and adults with toxoplasmic chorioretinitis (36% by ELISA, 18% by ISAGA), and adult patients with AIDS and toxoplasmic encephalitis (33% by ELISA, 25% by ISAGA). In many of the serum specimens, the titer of IgE antibodies detected by the ISAGA were close to or at the positive cutoff value. The duration of detectable IgE antibodies in patients with acute infections varied considerably among individuals but showed a trend toward a briefer duration by the ISAGA than by the ELISA. These results reveal that recrudescence of IgE antibodies in patients with reactivated chronic infection (toxoplasmic chorioretinitis and toxoplasmic encephalitis) may be useful diagnostically and that demonstration of toxoplasma IgE antibodies is a useful adjunct to currently available serologic tests for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasma infection and toxoplasmosis. PMID:8263181

  5. Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Expression of Spleen Dendritic Cells in Mouse Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Ahn, Hye-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells have been known as a member of strong innate immune cells against infectious organelles. In this study, we evaluated the cytokine expression of splenic dendritic cells in chronic mouse toxoplasmosis by tissue cyst-forming Me49 strain and demonstrated the distribution of lymphoid dendritic cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 increased rapidly at week 1 post-infection (PI) and peaked at week 3 PI. Serum IL-10 level followed the similar patterns. FACS analysis showed that the number of CD8α+/CD11c+ splenic dendritic cells increased at week 1 and peaked at week 3 PI. In conclusion, mouse splenic dendritic cells showed early and rapid cytokine changes and may have important protective roles in early phases of murine toxoplasmosis. PMID:21738265

  6. Evaluation of the usefulness of six commercial agglutination assays for serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Villard, Odile; Cimon, Bernard; Franck, Jacqueline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Godineau, Nadine; Houze, Sandrine; Paris, Luc; Pelloux, Hervé; Villena, Isabelle; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2012-07-01

    Six agglutination tests for detecting Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies (immunoglobulin G or M) in serum were performed and compared. In total, 599 sera were examined using direct and indirect agglutination assays. Sensitivity varied from 93.7% to 100% and specificity from 97.1% to 99.2%. In a selected population with interfering diseases, the percentage of false positives ranged from 4.3% to 10.9%. Although an overall agreement of 100% was found for chronic toxoplasmosis, sensitivity for the detection of confirmed acute toxoplasmosis ranged from 86.4% to 97.3%. Regarding the large variability in terms of the performance of the 6 assays, tests based on the hemagglutination principle were found to be better than the other agglutination tests for all the panels evaluated, meaning that they could be used as qualitative or semiquantitative low-cost screening assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolated central diabetes insipidus in a newborn with congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ahmet; Erdeve, Omer; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet; Deda, Gulhis; Ince, Erdal; Ocal, Gonul; Berberoglu, Merih

    2006-02-01

    We present a 5 day-old male newborn with isolated central diabetes insipidus due to congenital toxoplasmosis. This patient was referred to us for hydrocephalus. As we investigated the aetiology of the hydrocephalus, the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for toxoplasmosis via ELISA and polymerase chain reaction. Computed tomography showed obstructive hydrocephalus and disseminated cranial calcifications. Central diabetes insipidus developed on the 10th day, apparently as a result of the toxoplasmosis infection, and was treated successfully with oral desmopressin.

  8. Annual Burden of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Gary N.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common retinal infection in the United States, and it can severely impact vision. We used data from population-based studies, outbreaks, and the U.S. census to estimate the burden of Toxoplasma gondii infection and ocular toxoplasmosis. We estimate that 1,075,242 persons are infected with T. gondii, 21,505 persons have ocular lesions (both asymptomatic and symptomatic), and 4,839 (range = 2,150–7,527) persons develop symptomatic ocular toxoplasmosis each year in the United States. Toxoplasmosis contributes a significant burden to eye disease in the United States. PMID:20207874

  9. Retinitis pigmentosa and congenital toxoplasmosis: a rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Manpreet S; Prakash, Gunjan; Vashisht, Nagender; Garg, S P

    2007-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported co-existence of retinitis pigmentosa and congenital toxoplasmosis. An eight year old male presented to our center with complaints of decreased night vision. Fundus evaluations in both the eyes demonstrated features typical of retinitis pigmentosa. There were well-defined punched out healed chorio-retinal scars suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. On the basis of history, clinical findings and reduction of a and b wave amplitudes on scotopic and photopic electroretinograph, a diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa with congenital toxoplasmosis was made. Retinitis pigmentosa may co-exist with congenital toxoplasmosis that may affect the patient's overall ocular morbidity and visual acuity.

  10. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status.

    PubMed

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis.

  11. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    PubMed Central

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  12. White matter lesions characterise brain involvement in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but cerebral atrophy does not.

    PubMed

    Spilling, Catherine A; Jones, Paul W; Dodd, James W; Barrick, Thomas R

    2017-06-19

    Brain pathology is relatively unexplored in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is a comprehensive investigation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes and how these relate to disease severity and cognitive function. T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired for 31 stable COPD patients (FEV 1 52.1% pred., PaO 2 10.1 kPa) and 24 age, gender-matched controls. T1-weighted images were segmented into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissue classes using a semi-automated procedure optimised for use with this cohort. This procedure allows, cohort-specific anatomical features to be captured, white matter lesions (WMLs) to be identified and includes a tissue repair step to correct for misclassification caused by WMLs. Tissue volumes and cortical thickness were calculated from the resulting segmentations. Additionally, a fully-automated pipeline was used to calculate localised cortical surface and gyrification. WM and GM tissue volumes, the tissue volume ratio (indicator of atrophy), average cortical thickness, and the number, size, and volume of white matter lesions (WMLs) were analysed across the whole-brain and regionally - for each anatomical lobe and the deep-GM. The hippocampus was investigated as a region-of-interest. Localised (voxel-wise and vertex-wise) variations in cortical gyrification, GM density and cortical thickness, were also investigated. Statistical models controlling for age and gender were used to test for between-group differences and within-group correlations. Robust statistical approaches ensured the family-wise error rate was controlled in regional and local analyses. There were no significant differences in global, regional, or local measures of GM between patients and controls, however, patients had an increased volume (p = 0.02) and size (p = 0.04) of WMLs. In patients, greater normalised hippocampal volume positively correlated with exacerbation frequency (p = 0

  13. Middle-aged, but not young, rats develop cognitive impairment and cortical neurodegeneration following the four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Emilene D Fiuza; Romanini, Cássia V; Mori, Marco A; de Oliveira, Rúbia M Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2011-10-01

    Permanent, stepwise occlusion of the vertebral arteries (VAs) and internal carotid arteries (ICAs) following the sequence VA→ICA→ICA, with an interstage interval (ISI, →) of 7 days, has been investigated as a four-vessel occlusion (4-VO)/ICA model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. This model has the advantage of not causing retinal damage. In young rats, however, 4-VO/ICA with an ISI of 7 days fails to cause behavioral sequelae. We hypothesized that such a long ISI would allow the brain to efficiently compensate for cerebral hypoperfusion, preventing the occurrence of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. The present study evaluated whether brain neurodegeneration and learning/memory deficits can be expressed by reducing the length of the ISI and whether aging influences the outcome. Young, male Wistar rats were subjected to 4-VO/ICA with different ISIs (5, 4, 3 or 2 days). An ISI of 4 days was used in middle-aged rats. Ninety days after 4-VO/ICA, the rats were tested for learning/memory impairment in a modified radial maze and then examined for neurodegeneration of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Regardless of the ISI, young rats were not cognitively impaired, although hippocampal damage was evident. Learning/memory deficits and hippocampal and cortical neurodegeneration occurred in middle-aged rats. The data indicate that 4-VO/ICA has no impact on the capacity of young rats to learn the radial maze task, despite 51% hippocampal cell death. Such resistance is lost in middle-aged animals, for which the most extensive neurodegeneration observed in both the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be responsible. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli).

    PubMed

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P

    2008-08-01

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in the intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and heart. Tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 8 captive V. rueppelli assayed by the modified direct agglutination test in titers of 1:800 or higher.

  15. Retinal detachment associated with ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Ambar; Yeh, Steven; Suhler, Eric B; Smith, Justine R; Flaxel, Christina J

    2015-02-01

    To assess the frequency of retinal detachment (RD) and associated clinical features in ocular toxoplasmosis. A review of the medical records of patients diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis and follow-up of 6 months or more was conducted. All patients were seen at the Casey Eye Institute at the Oregon Health & Science University over a 9-year period (2003-2012). Demographic data, presence of RD and/or vitritis, and treatments were reviewed. Main outcome measures were the rate of RD in ocular toxoplasmosis, degree of vision loss, and final anatomical status of the retina. Disease- and treatment-related factors associated with poor visual outcome were also analyzed. Thirty-five eyes of 28 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis and sufficient follow-up were studied. Median age of patients was 40 years (range, 7-93 years). Median follow-up time was 22.5 months (range, 6-96 months). Four of thirty-five eyes (11.4%) developed RD with a frequency of 0.06 RD events per patient-year of follow-up in this sample in a single center. Of four patients with RD, three underwent pars plana vitrectomy and one underwent laser retinopexy. Two of the 4 patients had recurrent RD requiring scleral buckle. At final follow-up, all patients who underwent surgical repair had attached retinas; however, 3 of 4 patients had severe vision loss (20/200 or worse). Retinal detachment occurred in 11% of eyes in this study that led to severe vision loss despite successful RD repair.

  16. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. Results A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Conclusion Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the

  17. Fluoxetine ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via down-regulation of HCN2 surface expression in the hippocampal CA1 area in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Lu, Yun; Chen, Cheng; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Shen, Guanxin; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), could play a neuroprotective role against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion injury and to clarify underlying mechanisms of its efficacy. Rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO). Two weeks later, rats were treated with 30 mg/kg fluoxetine (intragastric injection, i.g.) for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and novel objects recognition (NOR) test. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein levels. Our results showed that fluoxetine treatment significantly improved the cognitive impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced inhibitory of LTP. Furthermore, 2VO caused an up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) surface expressions in the hippocampal CA1 area and fluoxetine also effectively recovered the disorder of HCN2 surface expressions, which may be a possible mechanism that fluoxetine treatment ameliorates cognitive impairments in rats with CCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nianhong; Liu, Caihong; Wang, Jiangyuan; Ding, Ying; Ai, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week's duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic), without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival.

  19. Human toxoplasmosis-Searching for novel chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Magdalena; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Długońska, Henryka

    2016-08-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, is an etiological agent of human and animal toxoplasmosis. Treatment regimens for T. gondii-infected patients have not essentially changed for years. The most common chemotherapeutics used in the therapy of symptomatic toxoplasmosis are a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine plus folinic acid or a combination of pyrimethamine with lincosamide or macrolide antibiotics. To protect a fetus from parasite transplacental transmission, therapy of pregnant women is usually based on spiramycin, which is quite safe for the organism, but not efficient in the treatment of infected children. Application of recommended drugs limits replication of T. gondii, however, it may be associated with numerous an severe adverse effects. Moreover, medicines have no impact on the tissue cysts of the parasite located predominantly in a brain and muscles. Thus, there is urgent need to develop new drugs and establish "gold standard" treatment. In this review classical treatment of toxoplasmosis as well as potential compounds active against T. gondii have been discussed. For two last decades studies on the development of new anti-T. gondii medications have been focused on both natural and novel synthetic compounds based on existing chemical scaffolds. They have revealed several promising drug candidates characterized by a high selectivity, the low IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) and low cytotoxicity towards host cells. These drugs are expected to replace or supplement current anti-T. gondii drug arsenal soon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Toxoplasmosis in patients with lymphoid hyperplasia of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Yariktaş, Murat; Demirci, Mustafa; Döner, Fehmi; Kaya, Selçuk; Doğru, Harun

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of toxoplasmosis in patients with lymphoid hyperplasia of the head and neck. In this study, 53 patients (32 males, 21 females; mean age 11.2+/-4.3 years, range 5 to 22) were investigated. There were hypertrophic tonsillitis in 13 patients, hypertrophic tonsillitis and adenoid hyperplasia in 22 patients, adenoid hyperplasia in 10 patients, and lymphadenopathy of the neck in eight patients. In venous blood samples, IgM and IgG antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii were investigated with the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (Axsym, Abbott). Positive IgG was determined in 23 patients (48%) with hypertrophic tonsillitis (n=6), hypertrophic tonsillitis and adenoid hyperplasia (n=10), adenoid hyperplasia (n=3), and lymphadenopathy of the neck (n=4). Positive IgM was determined in 5 patients (9.4%) with hypertrophic tonsillitis (n=1), hypertrophic tonsillitis and adenoid hyperplasia (n=1), and lymphadenopathy of the neck (n=3). Toxoplasmosis, which is known to cause lymphadenopathy, may be a reason for lymphadenopathy of the neck. Toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of untreated patients with tonsillitis, adenoid hyperplasia, and chronic neck lymphadenopathy.

  1. Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Tropical Areas: Analysis and Outcome of 190 Patients from a Multicenter Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Philemon K; Jianping, Chen; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Arruda, Jacqueline Souza Dutra; Dutta Majumder, Parthopratim; Anthony, Eliza; Ganesh, Sudha K; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Ling, Ho Su; Teoh, Stephen C; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2017-10-11

    To describe clinical findings and outcomes for ocular toxoplasmosis in an international multicenter collaborative study. Retrospective analysis of 190 patients diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis from three study sites (Brazil, India, and Singapore). There were 93 (48.9%) females with a mean age of 32.8 years. The most common symptoms were isolated blurring of vision (36.8%), followed by blurring of vision with floaters (21.1%). Treatment regimens varied largely from monotherapy to multiple combination therapies. Final visual acuity of ≥20/40 was achieved in 106 (74.2%) patients. In a median follow-up period of 31 weeks (range 12-749 weeks), 83/190 (43.7%) patients suffered a relapse. There appears to be geographical variation in the presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis. Compared to previous studies, we did not observe the '"dual peak" phenomenon of chronic and active disease based on age at presentation, and there was less bilateral and macular involvement (but more peripheral involvement).

  2. Contribution of laboratory methods in diagnosing clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Cinara C B; Meira, Cristina S; Ferreira, Ana I C; Frederico, Fábio B; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Almeida, Gildásio C; Mattos, Luiz C; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2011-07-01

    This prospective study evaluated the value of laboratorial diagnosis in ocular toxoplasmosis analyzing peripheral blood samples from a group of Brazilian patients by immunologic and molecular methods. We analyzed blood samples from 184 immunocompetent patients with ocular disorders divided into 2 groups: Group I, composed of samples from 49 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis diagnosed by clinical features; Group II, samples from 135 patients with other ocular diseases. Samples were assayed by conventional polymerase chain reaction (cnPCR), real-time PCR (qPCR) for Toxoplasma gondii, indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IF), avidity test (crude tachyzoite lysate as antigen), and excreted-secreted tachyzoite proteins as antigen (ESA-ELISA). cnPCR and qPCR profiles were concordant in all samples. Positive PCR was shown in 40.8% of group I patients. The majority of the positive blood samples (75%) were taken from patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis scars, and the others (25%), from patients with retinal exudative lesions. Despite that 86 of the 135 patients from Group II had asymptomatic toxoplasmosis, all DNA blood samples had negative PCR. Concordant results were shown in the data obtained by serologic methods. Around 24% of the patients with ocular toxoplasmosis had high antibody titers determined by ESA-ELISA and IF. Anti-ESA antibodies are shown principally in patients with active infection. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of tachyzoites in the blood of patients with chronic infection, supporting the idea of recurrent disease. Circulating parasites in blood of immunocompetent individuals may be associated with the reactivation of the ocular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute toxoplasmosis-etiological factor for development of Hodgkin's lymphoma?

    PubMed

    Snopkova, Svatava; Pohanka, Miroslav; Polak, Pavel; Havlickova, Katerina; Jarkovsky, Jiři; Moulis, Mojmir; Stroblova, Hana; Husa, Petr

    2013-12-01

    The case of an HIV-positive man treated for acute toxoplasmosis with no traces of malignancy is reported. A second lymph node extirpation was performed after 5 months, which identified the presence of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. This case suggests that toxoplasmosis may cause changes in the regulation of surrounding cells and induce neoplastic proliferation.

  4. Macrophage activation syndrome triggered by primary disseminated toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ferhat; Batirel, Ayse; Ramazan, Mehmet; Ozer, Serdar; Mert, Ali

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a patient with disseminated toxoplasmosis who presented with cervical lymphadenopathies and pneumonia. Although the infection was successfully treated with co-trimoxazole, the patient developed reactive macrophage activation syndrome (rMAS). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rMAS triggered by toxoplasmosis in the medical literature.

  5. Lympho-glandular toxoplasmosis. A diagnosis often missed.

    PubMed

    Lake, K B; Van Dyke, J J; Abts, R M; Moyes, D R

    1979-01-01

    Lymphoglandular toxoplasmosis has a reputation for mimicking several other diseases, especially infectious mononucleosis. Thus, the correct diagnosis often is not discovered until common conditions have been ruled out and the patient has been subjected to excisional lymph node biopsy. The physician who considers toxoplasmosis early and orders appropriate serologic tests can spare the patient unnecessary surgery.

  6. Influence of chronic nicotine administration on cerebral type 1 cannabinoid receptor binding: an in vivo micro-PET study in the rat using [18F]MK-9470.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Nathalie; Ceccarini, Jenny; Bormans, Guy; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Goffin, Karolien; Bosier, Barbara; Lambert, Didier M; Van Laere, Koen

    2010-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a functional interaction between central nicotinic and endocannabinoid systems. Furthermore, type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) antagonism is evaluated as antismoking therapy, and nicotine usage can be an important confound in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of the CB1R. We evaluated CB1R binding in the rat brain using the PET radioligand [(18)F]MK-9470 after chronic administration of nicotine. Twelve female Wistar rats were scanned at baseline and after chronic administration of either nicotine (1 mg/kg; 2 weeks daily intraperitoneal (IP)) or saline as control. In vivo micro-PET images of CB1R binding were anatomically standardized and analyzed by voxel-based statistical parametric mapping and a predefined volume-of-interest approach. We did not observe changes in [(18)F]MK-9470 binding (p (height) < 0.001 level; uncorrected) on a group basis in either condition. Only at a less stringent threshold of p (height) < 0.005 (uncorrected) was a modest increase observed in tracer binding in the cerebellum for nicotine (peak voxel value + 6.8%, p (cluster) = 0.002 corrected). In conclusion, chronic IP administration of nicotine does not produce major cerebral changes in CB1R binding of [(18)F]MK-9470 in the rat. These results also suggest that chronic nicotine usage is unlikely to interfere with human PET imaging using this radioligand.

  7. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    buphthalmos (1 patient), or as a later-onset, aphakic glaucoma many months or years following cataract aspiration in 11 eyes of 6 patients. Rubella retinopathy was present in the majority of patients, although an accurate estimate of its incidence or laterality was not possible because of the frequency of cataracts and nystagmus and the difficulty in obtaining adequate fundus examination. TOXOPLASMOSIS: Twenty-one patients with congenital toxoplasmosis have been examined and followed for varying time periods, 7 for 20 years or more. The major reason for initial examination was parental awareness of an ocular deviation. Twelve children (57%) presented between the ages of 3 months and 4 years with an initial diagnosis of strabismus, 9 of whom had minor complaints or were diagnosed as part of routine examinations. All cases in this study have had evidence of retinochoroiditis, the primary ocular pathology of congenital toxoplasmosis. Two patients had chronic and recurrent inflammation with progressive vitreal traction bands, retinal detachments, and bilateral blindness. Macular lesions were always associated with central vision loss; however, over a period of years visual acuity gradually improved in several patients. Individuals with more severe ocular involvement were also afflicted with the most extensive central nervous system deficits, which occurred following exposure during the earliest weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Although congenital infection due to rubella virus has been almost completely eradicated in the United States, the long-term survivors from the prevaccination period continue to experience major complications from their early ocular and cerebral defects. They may be afflicted by the persistence of virus in their affected organs and the development of late manifestations of their congenital infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be the source of major defects for 3,000 to 4,100 infants in the United States each year; the spectrum of defects is wide

  8. Relevance of and New Developments in Serology for Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dard, Céline; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a widespread parasitic disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii with a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is often difficult and of paramount importance because clinical features are not sufficient to discriminate between toxoplasmosis and other illnesses. Serological tests are the most widely used biological tools for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis worldwide. This review focuses on the crucial role of serology in providing answers to the most important questions related to the epidemiology and diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in human pathology. Notwithstanding their undeniable importance, serological tools need to be continuously improved and the interpretation of the ensuing results remains complex in many circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocular toxoplasmosis and retinal detachment: five case reports.

    PubMed

    Kianersi, F; Naderi Beni, A; Ghanbari, H; Fazel, F

    2012-10-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a potentially blinding cause of posterior uveitis. Retinal detachment is rare complication of ocular toxoplasmosis. To report the clinical course and prognosis of retinal breaks and detachments occurring in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. This study was a retrospective, non-comparative case series of five patients with ocular toxoplasmosis who had consulted us with retinal detachment. All of the participants had retinal detachment after severe and treatment resistant toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, leaving one of them with decreased visual acuity to light perception in spite of treatment and final visual acuity was 20/100 or better in four patients. The functional prognosis for the patients with retinal detachment was poor. Careful retinal examination in ocular toxoplasmosis is warranted, especially in patients with severe intraocular inflammation.

  10. Time-course of neurodegeneration and memory impairment following the 4-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Francine Martins; Ferreira, Emilene Dias Fiuza; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2012-04-15

    The present work extends previous studies with the aim of developing the 4-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4-VO/ICA) model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The permanent occlusion of the vertebral arteries (VAs) and internal carotid arteries (ICAs) followed the sequence VA→ICA→ICA. The interstage interval (ISI, →), chronicity of 4-VO/ICA, and age of the animals may determine the success of the model with regard to neurohistological and behavioral outcomes. Using middle-aged rats, the present study evaluated (i) how brain damage evolves as the ISI is reduced and duration (i.e., "chronicity") of 4-VO/ICA is prolonged and (ii) how the duration of 4-VO/ICA affects retrograde memory performance. Male Wistar rats (12-15 months of age) were subjected to 4-VO/ICA with an ISI of 7, 5, 4, or 3 days, and hippocampal and cortical damage was examined 7, 30, and 90 days later. Using an ISI of 4 days, retrograde memory performance was assessed in the aversive radial maze after 4-VO/ICA with a duration of 7, 30, and 90 days. The severity of brain neurodegeneration and rate of mortality progressively increased as the ISI length decreased from 7 to 3 days, an effect that was not significantly altered by the chronicity of 4-VO/ICA. Permanent 4-VO/ICA effectively caused retrograde amnesia, an effect that worsened as the chronicity of 4-VO/ICA was prolonged. The findings confirm and expand the notion that permanent, 3-stage 4-VO/ICA effectively produces extensive neurodegeneration and persistent learning/memory impairment in middle-aged rats and that the ISI length, more than the chronicity of 4-VO/ICA, determines the final results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A case of recurrence of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis (ocular toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Onouchi, Hiromi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Oohashi, Hideki; Kaiken, Han; Kawai, Kenji

    2010-12-20

    To describe a case of recurrence of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis. A 24-year-old woman presented with hyperemia in her right eye. Medical history included epilepsy at age 14 and mild mental retardation. Iridocyclitis and vitreous opacity were observed in the right eye, and furthermore widespread retinal vessel sheathing due to frosted branch angiitis was seen. Acyclovir was initiated for acute retinal necrosis with frosted branch angiitis. One week later, serologic tests showed elevated toxoplasma antibody level and toxoplasma antibody IgG level, and a white retinal exudative lesion with unclear margins was noted. Therefore, acetylspiramycin and prednisolone were initiated for a recurrence of congenital ocular toxoplasmosis. After treatment, inflammation subsided, the exudative lesion shrank, and the frosted branch angiitis improved. We encountered a case of ocular toxoplasmosis due to recurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis with frosted branch angiitis. The clinical symptoms of ocular toxoplasmosis can be varied and the diagnosis should be kept in mind.

  12. Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) improved novel object recognition task and increased cerebral vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 in sub-chronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Piyabhan, Pritsana; Wannasiri, Supaporn; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn

    2016-12-01

    Reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2) indicate glutamatergic hypofunction leading to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, VGLUT3 involvement in cognitive dysfunction has not been reported in schizophrenia. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) might be a new treatment and prevention for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia by acting on cerebral VGLUT3 density. We aimed to study cognitive enhancement- and neuroprotective-effects of Brahmi on novel object recognition and cerebral VGLUT3 immunodensity in sub-chronic (2 mg/kg, Bid, ip) phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. Rats were assigned to three groups for cognitive enhancement effect study: Group 1, Control; Group 2, PCP administration; Group 3, PCP+Brahmi. A neuroprotective-effect study was also carried out. Rats were again assigned to three groups: Group 1, Control; Group 2, PCP administration; Group 3, Brahmi+PCP. Discrimination ratio (DR) representing cognitive ability was obtained from a novel object recognition task. VGLUT3 immunodensity was measured in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cornu ammonis fields 1-3 (CA1-3) using immunohistochemistry. We found reduced DR in the PCP group, which occurred alongside VGLUT3 reduction in all brain areas. PCP+Brahmi showed higher DR score with increased VGLUT3 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Brahmi+PCP group showed a higher DR score with increased VGLUT3 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and CA1-3. We concluded that reduced cerebral VGLUT3 was involved in cognitive deficit in PCP-administrated rats. Receiving Brahmi after PCP restored cognitive deficit by increasing VGLUT3 in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Receiving Brahmi before PCP prevented cognitive impairment by elevating VGLUT3 in prefrontal cortex, striatum and CA1-3. Therefore, Brahmi could be a new frontier of restoration and prevention of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. [Toxoplasmosis. Anatomo clinical characteristics and morphological indentification of the parasite using the silver-impregnation technic].

    PubMed

    Villegas González, J; Fastag de Shor, A; Villegas Silva, R

    1977-01-01

    The clinical and anatomicopathological characteristics of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis are described as they affect different structures and systems. The lesion to adrenal glands is compared to that seen in disseminated herpes simplex; however, the question remains as to why in both congenital infections, necrosis of adrenal glands appears without inflammatory reaction. The investigation of special techniques for localization and identification of Toxoplasma gondii "groups" or cysts, leads to the conclusion that Grocott's silver impregnation technique used for the identification of Entamoeba histolytica is also useful to discover Toxoplasma in tissues.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in ocular and ganglionar toxoplasmosis and the effect of therapeutics for prevention of ocular involvement in South American setting.

    PubMed

    Gómez Marín, Jorge Enrique; Zuluaga, Juan David; Pechené Campo, Eunice Julied; Triviño, Jessica; de-la-Torre, Alejandra

    2018-08-01

    Cases of toxoplasmosis present in South America tend to be more severe than that found in other continents. Here, we present our clinical experience of ocular and ganglionar toxoplasmosis in the use of PCR, and of the treatment to prevent ocular involvement. Retrospective analysis of clinical charts of patients with ocular and lymphadenitic toxoplasmosis at the parasitology and tropical medicine consultation in the "Universidad del Quindio" in Colombia. In total, 91 records of cases with ocular toxoplasmosis and 17 with lymphadenitis that underwent PCR analysis for B1 repeated sequence in blood, were compared to the results of 104 people with chronic asymptomatic toxoplasmosis. In addition, 41 clinical records were included from patients with confirmed toxoplasmic lymphadenitis: 10 untreated, 6 that begun treatment after four months of symptoms, and 25 that were treated during the first four months of symptoms and had a follow-up during at least one year. Patients with ocular toxoplasmosis or lymphadenitis had a higher probability of PCR positivity in peripheral blood than chronic asymptomatic people. There were no cases of retinochoroiditis in 25 patients with toxoplasmic lymphadenitis treated before 4 months of symptoms and followed during at least 12 months. In four out of ten untreated cases, new lesions of retinochoroiditis presented after the symptoms of lymphadenitis. Toxoplasmosisin South America exhibits different clinical behavior and this influences the laboratory results as well as the need for treatment in the case of lymphadenitis. Clinicians should be aware of the geographical origin of the infection in order to adopt different therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  16. Chotosan, a kampo formula, ameliorates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced deficits in object recognition behaviors and central cholinergic systems in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Murakami, Yukihisa; Tohda, Michihisa; Obi, Ryosuke; Shimada, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2007-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that the Kampo formula chotosan (CTS) ameliorated spatial cognitive impairment via central cholinergic systems in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (P2VO) mouse model. In this study, the object discrimination tasks were used to determine if the ameliorative effects of CTS on P2VO-induced cognitive deficits are a characteristic pharmacological profile of this formula, with the aim of clarifying the mechanisms by which CTS enhances central cholinergic function in P2VO mice. The cholinesterase inhibitor tacrine (THA) and Kampo formula saikokeishito (SKT) were used as controls. P2VO impaired object discrimination performance in the object recognition, location, and context tests. Daily administration of CTS (750 mg/kg, p.o.) and THA (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) improved the object discrimination deficits, whereas SKT (750 mg/kg, p.o.) did not. In ex vivo assays, tacrine but not CTS or SKT inhibited cortical cholinesterase activity. P2VO reduced the mRNA expression of m(3) and m(5) muscarinic receptors and choline acetyltransferase but not that of other muscarinic receptor subtypes in the cerebral cortex. Daily administration of CTS and THA but not SKT reversed these expression changes. These results suggest that CTS and THA improve P2VO-induced cognitive impairment by normalizing the deficit of central cholinergic systems and that the beneficial effect on P2VO-induced cognitive deficits is a distinctive pharmacological characteristic of CTS.

  17. [Interleukin 8 and interferon gamma in ocular toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Czepiel, Jacek; Biesiada, Grazyna; Sobczyk-Krupiarz, Iwona; Miklasszewska, Grazyna; Fedak, Danuta; Solnica, Bogdan; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections in the world, it is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is typically asymptomatic or the symptoms are very mild. Approximately 10% patients have limphadenopathy, involvement of the others organs, like eyes, nervous system, liver, heart, are observed more rarely. The aim of our study was to assess the level of selected cytokines in blood among patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. We have enrolled in the study 30 patients, 19-42 years old, treated for ocular toxoplasmosis, and 20 healthy volunteers, 20-48 years old, to the control group. Tests for blood morphology, C-reactive protein, the level of IL-8 and IFN-gamma were performed in all patients. The blood parameters in toxoplasmosis group were performed before antiparasitic treatment was given. The level of IFN-gamma in blood was lower among patients with ocular toxoplasmosis comparing with control group (1.52 vs. 4.18 pg/ml; p = 0.002). The level of IL-8 in blood was lower among patients with ocular toxoplasmosis comparing with control group (22.96 vs. 94.3 pg/ml; p = 0,007). There were no correlations between analyzed cytokines and blood morphology or CRP. The low level of IFN-gamma and IL-8 in blood is important factor leading to reactivation of the ocular toxoplasmosis.

  18. Metabolic, Immune, Epigenetic, Endocrine and Phenotypic Abnormalities Found in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Down Syndrome and Alzheimer Disease May Be Caused by Congenital and/or Acquired Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandota, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    "Toxoplasma gondii" is a protozoan parasite that infects about a third of human population. It is generally believed that in immunocompetent hosts, the parasite infection takes usually asymptomatic course and induces self-limiting disease, but in immunocompromised individuals may cause significant morbidity and mortality. "T. gondii" uses sulfated…

  19. [Acquired toxoplasmosis of ocular or neurologic site: 49 cases].

    PubMed

    Couvreur, J; Thulliez, P

    1996-03-16

    Over a period of 13 years (1982-1995), 49 cases of acquired toxoplasmosis complicated with ocular and/or neurologic or meningeal involvement were observed in our toxoplasmosis laboratory. This series includes 43 cases of isolated ocular lesions, 3 cases of meningoencephalitis (associated with retinochoroiditis in 1 case), 1 case of meningitis with uveitis, 1 case of polyradiculoneuritis and 1 case of facial nerve palsy. The patients were aged 1 to 62 years. None had either spontaneous or iatrogenic immunodeficiency. There were two steps in the diagnosis. First congenital infection was eliminated on one or several of the following criteria: any possibility of maternal infection during pregnancy ruled out in 26 cases, evidence of recent acquired infection (i.e. clinical and/or serological evidence of recent acquired toxoplasmosis in 17 cases, retinochoroiditis in non-twin siblings in 3 cases). The second step was to confirm the diagnosis of toxoplasma infection. Apart from serological evidence of recent infection, confirmation included specific local antibody synthesis in the aqueous humor of the eye and/or in cerebro-spinal fluid or ocular lesions characteristic of toxoplasmosis and absence of other etiology. Ocular lesions were unilateral in 43 cases among 45. A mean follow-up of 37.9 months revealed relapses in 14 among 36 patients (39%). As routine serological examination for toxoplasmosis is compulsory in France since 1978, it was possible to document retrospectively the immune status of the mothers of many of the patients of the present series during pregnancy and to rule out congenital toxoplasmosis in a number of cases. This might explain the discrepancy between the relatively large number of cases in the present series and the fact that complicated acquired toxoplasmosis has been considered hitherto as relatively rare in immunocompetent patients. Based on the epidemiology of ocular toxoplasmosis and the data obtained here, it is suggested that the acquired

  20. Diarrhea as a Presenting Symptom of Disseminated Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhouwen; Sealock, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated toxoplasmosis is uncommon in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts with gastrointestinal involvement being rarely described. We report a case of disseminated gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis in an immunocompromised man who presented with one month of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Imaging showed thickening of the ascending colon and cecum. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy biopsies revealed Toxoplasma gondii, confirmed by immunostain. Symptoms completely resolved following treatment with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin. This case highlights the importance of including toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of any immunocompromised individual presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:28713605

  1. [Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Roqueplo, C; Perret, C; Demoncheaux, J-P; Sambou, M; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal.

  2. Serologic diagnosis of acute lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Welch, P C; Masur, H; Jones, T C; Remington, J S

    1980-08-01

    The diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis usually depends on serology, yet little data are available to compare the relative usefulness of various serologic tests after the onset of illness. The Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT), the IgM immunofluorescent antibody (IgM-IFA) test, the soluble antigen complement-fixation (CF) test, and the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test were performed on serial serum specimens from 27 previously healthy patients, each of whom could identify the date of onset of illness within two weeks. IgM-IFA titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 were the best indicators of infection acquired in the past two to four months. The DT was useful for screening, but two-tube rises in titer were rarely documented, and absolute titers were imprecise indicators of the recentness of infection. Although two-tube rises in titer in CF and IHA tests could be seen in the majority of patients, the rises were so slow that both tests were less useful than the IgM-IFA test in documenting the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.

  3. Chronic, long-term social stress can cause decreased microtubule protein network activity and dynamics in cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Eskandari Sedighi, Ghazaleh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Cheraghi, Tayebe; Atarod, Deyhim; Rafiei, Shahrbanoo

    2015-03-01

    Social stress is viewed as a factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. Animal models of social stress are well developed and widely used in studying clinical and physiological effects of stress. Stress is known to significantly affect learning and memory, and this effect strongly depends on the type of stress, its intensity, and duration. It has been demonstrated that chronic and acute stress conditions can change neuronal plasticity, characterized by retraction of apical dendrites, reduction in axonogenesis, and decreased neurogenesis. Various behavioral studies have also confirmed a decrease in learning and memory upon exposure of animals to long-term chronic stress. On the other hand, the close relationship between microtubule (MT) protein network and neuroplasticity controlling system suggests the possibility of MT protein alterations in high stressful conditions. In this work, we have studied the kinetics, activity, and dynamicity changes of MT proteins in the cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats that were subjected to social instability for 35 and 100 days. Our results indicate that MT protein network dynamicity and polymerization ability is decreased under long-term (100 days) social stress conditions.

  4. Chronic Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Mouzon, Benoit; Algamal, Moustafa; Leary, Paige; Lynch, Cillian; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Mullan, Michael; Bachmeier, Corbin; Stewart, William; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is characterized by patchy deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in neurons and astrocytes at the depths of cortical sulci. We developed an mTBI paradigm to explore effects of repetitive concussive-type injury over several months in mice with a human tau genetic background (hTau). Two injuries were induced in the hTau mice weekly over a period of 3 or 4 months and the effects were compared with those in noninjured sham animals. Behavioral and in vivo measures and detailed neuropathological assessments were conducted 6 months after the first injury. Our data confirm impairment in cerebral blood flow and white matter damage. This was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in total tau levels and mild increases in tau oligomers/conformers and pTau (Thr231) species in brain gray matter. There was no evidence of neurofibrillary/astroglial tangles, neuropil threads, or perivascular foci of tau immunoreactivity. There were neurobehavioral deficits (ie, disinhibition and impaired cognitive performance) in the mTBI animals. These data support the relevance of this new mTBI injury model for studying the consequences of chronic repetitive mTBI in humans, and the role of tau in TBI. PMID:27251042

  5. Chronic Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Reduced Cerebral Blood Flow, Axonal Injury, Gliosis, and Increased T-Tau and Tau Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Joseph O; Mouzon, Benoit; Algamal, Moustafa; Leary, Paige; Lynch, Cillian; Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James; Mullan, Michael; Bachmeier, Corbin; Stewart, William; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is characterized by patchy deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates in neurons and astrocytes at the depths of cortical sulci. We developed an mTBI paradigm to explore effects of repetitive concussive-type injury over several months in mice with a human tau genetic background (hTau). Two injuries were induced in the hTau mice weekly over a period of 3 or 4 months and the effects were compared with those in noninjured sham animals. Behavioral and in vivo measures and detailed neuropathological assessments were conducted 6 months after the first injury. Our data confirm impairment in cerebral blood flow and white matter damage. This was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in total tau levels and mild increases in tau oligomers/conformers and pTau (Thr231) species in brain gray matter. There was no evidence of neurofibrillary/astroglial tangles, neuropil threads, or perivascular foci of tau immunoreactivity. There were neurobehavioral deficits (ie, disinhibition and impaired cognitive performance) in the mTBI animals. These data support the relevance of this new mTBI injury model for studying the consequences of chronic repetitive mTBI in humans, and the role of tau in TBI. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serologic evaluation of toxoplasmosis in matrimonial women in Babol, Iran.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, M R; Sefidgar, A A; Mostafazadeh, A; Omran, S Mahdavi

    2007-05-01

    To investigate anti-toxoplasmosis in matrimonial women, samples collected from who referred to Babol health center, that is the only pre-marriage laboratory guide center in Babol. This descriptive-cross sectional study has carried out on 241 matrimonial women to consider anti toxoplasmosis antibodies (IgG, IgM) by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay). In this study, 241 women between 13 to 40 years old were considered. The average age was 20.98 years. Of these cases, 47.3% were urban and 52.7% were rural. 63.9% had IgG and 12.4% had IgM anti-toxoplasmosis antibody. This study carried out to determine anti toxoplasmosis antibodies in Babol in the first half of 2004. Dispersed studies have been done to determine the prevalence oftoxoplasmosis in Iran and mostly have reported a high and different prevalence oftoxoplasmosis in different parts of country.

  7. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herold, M A; Kühne, R; Vosberg, M; Ostheeren-Michaelis, S; Vogt, P; Karrer, U

    2009-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well-recognized opportunistic disease in HIV-infected individuals that is caused by the reactivation of a previous infection, primarily in the central nervous system, during profound immunodeficiency. Toxoplasmosis has been described more rarely in patients with cancer and chemotherapy. We report a case of a patient with a history of chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed pain and progressive paresthesia of the right arm 6 weeks after remission. Relapsing lymphoma was suspected, and steroid and radiation treatment were initiated, but the patient died 5 days later due to multiple organ failure. Autopsy revealed disseminated toxoplasmosis. This case illustrates that toxoplasmosis should be suspected in patients with neoplastic disease, especially lymphomas, who present with unexplained neurologic, pulmonary, or febrile symptoms during or after chemotherapy.

  8. Acquired toxoplasmosis. A neglected cause of treatable nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Townsend, J J; Wolinsky, J S; Baringer, J R; Johnson, P C

    1975-05-01

    The neurological manifestations of six cases of acquired central nervous system toxoplasmosis are compared with the 39 well-documented cases from the literature. Half of the patients had underlying systemic diseases (18 malignant neoplasms, two renal transplants, three collagen vascular diseases) treated with intensive immunosuppressive therapy. The remainder had primary toxoplasmosis. Three major neurological patterns were seen: (1) diffuse encephalopathy with or without seizures, (2) meningoencephalitis, and (3) singular or multiple progressive mass lesions. Routine neurological diagnostic studies were not helpful. The Sabin-Feldman dye test or IgM indirect fluorescent antibody test or both were effective in confirming the diagnosis. Twenty-seven patients died without a clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis was made terminally in four additional patients. Thirteen of fourteen patients who received a full course of sulfadiazine or pyrimethamine or both did well. Toxoplasmosis should be considered in the immunosuppressed patient who appears with neurological involvement.

  9. Recent Developments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Ozgonul, Cem; Besirli, Cagri Giray

    2017-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis, a chorioretinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii, is the most common etiology of posterior uveitis in many countries. Accurate diagnosis depends heavily on the characteristic clinical features of this disease, but atypical presentations, especially in immunocompromised patients, may create diagnostic challenges and lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Molecular biology techniques to diagnose ocular toxoplasmosis have been available for many years and are now accessible as standard laboratory tests in many countries. Aqueous humor or vitreous evaluation to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or specific antibody may provide definitive evidence for rapid diagnosis. Oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine plus systemic corticosteroids are an effective therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis. Recent data supports the use of other treatment approaches, including intravitreal antibiotics. The aim of the present review is to discuss briefly the new diagnostic tools and treatment options for ocular toxoplasmosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Contribution of anti-Hsp70.1 IgG antibody levels to the diagnostic certainty of clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bernabé F F; Bouillet, Laurence; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Lacharme, Tiffany; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Massot, Christian; Chiquet, Christophe; Pelloux, Hervé

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis, the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide, can be improved. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is involved in cellular infection by Toxoplasma gondii but also in the immune response to this parasite. The authors postulate that infected patients may exhibit serum IgG anti-Hsp70.1 antibodies and that determining the presence of these antibodies could improve the diagnosis of suspected ocular toxoplasmosis. This retrospective case-control study included 26 laboratory-confirmed cases of ocular toxoplasmosis (group A), 41 clinically suspected cases (group B), and 67 currently healthy blood donors who were chronically infected with T. gondii (group C). Laboratory and clinical data were analyzed according to the ocular presentation and Goldmann-Witmer's coefficient. Serum and aqueous humor were sampled at the time of uveitis. Serum anti-Hsp70.1 antibody levels were obtained by ELISA. The probability of ocular toxoplasmosis was estimated by a logistic regression analysis that combined data from serum IgG anti-Hsp70.1 and aqueous-humor IgG anti-T. gondii antibody levels. Serum IgG anti-Hsp70.1 antibody levels were significantly increased in groups A and B when compared to the levels in control group C (P ≤ 0.0034). These levels correlated with the retinal lesion size (r = 0.301; P < 0.0349). Logistic probability and anti-Hsp70.1 antibodies in sera confirmed that 10 of 23 cases in group B were true ocular toxoplasmosis. Anti-Hsp70 may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of ocular Toxoplasma infection. This study showed that the anti-Hsp70.1 antibody and the logistic probability test can confirm clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis.

  11. Toxoplasmosis Presenting as Hyper Viscosity Syndrome due to Polyclonal Gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Shaila C; Rathod, Kalpana B; Kudrimoti, Jyoti K

    2014-03-01

    We are presenting a rare case of toxoplasma lymphadenopathy with hyper viscosity syndrome due to polyclonal gammopathy. A 30 year old female presented with generalized lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy findings suggestive of toxoplasmosis were confirmed on serology. Bone marrow aspiration showed 50 % plasma cells. On serum electrophoresis broad, diffuse band noted, indicative of polyclonal gammopathy. M band was absent. The patient was immunocompetent and presented with hyper viscosity syndrome masking the symptoms of underlying toxoplasmosis.

  12. Toxoplasmosis as an unusual cause of massive lymph node enlargement.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P

    1981-11-14

    An immunologically competent adult with acquired toxoplasmosis presented with inguinal lymphadenopathy and associated lymphatic and venous obstruction. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was made by demonstration the presence of the trophozoite, and response to therapy, while satisfactory, was slow. Recrudescence of lymphadenopathy was associated with a change from reactive lymphadenitis to angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. There was a dramatic improvement following local therapy and systemic corticosteroids and chlorambucil. The patient remains well.

  13. Toxoplasmosis masking non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mighell, A; Carton, A; Carey, P; High, A

    1995-12-01

    A 39-year-old female with persistent cervical lymphadenopathy is reported. Initial investigations resulted in a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, but subsequently the patient proved to have high grade immunoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This paper highlights the difficulties in accurately diagnosing some cases of either toxoplasmosis or lymphoma, and briefly mentions some of the ongoing technical advances which will increase diagnostic specificity and sensitivity by early detection of genetic mutations.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis and Pregnancy: Reliability of Internet Sources of Information].

    PubMed

    Bobić, Branko; Štajner, Tijana; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Klun, Ivana; Srbljanović, Jelena; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-01-01

    Health education of women of childbearing age has been shown to be an acceptable approach to the prevention of toxoplasmosis, the most frequent congenitally transmitted parasitic infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Internet as a source of health education on toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. A group of 100 pregnant women examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis was surveyed by a questionnaire on the source of their information on toxoplasmosis. We also analyzed information offered by websites in the Serbian and Croatian languages through the Google search engine, using "toxoplasmosis" as a keyword. The 23 top websites were evaluated for comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on the impact of toxoplasmosis on the course of pregnancy, diagnosis and prevention. Having knowledge on toxoplasmosis was confirmed by 64 (64.0%) examined women, 40.6% (26/64) of whom learned about toxoplasmosis through the Internet, 48.4% from physicians, and 10.9% from friends. Increase in the degree of education was found to be associated with the probability that pregnant women would be informed via the Internet (RR=3.15, 95% CI=1.27-7.82, p=0.013). Analysis of four interactive websites (allowing users to ask questions) showed that routes of infection were the most common concern, particularly the risk presented by pet cats and dogs, followed by the diagnosis of infection (who and when should be tested, and how should the results be interpreted). Of 20 sites containing educational articles, only seven were authorized and two listed sources. Evaluation confirmed that information relevant to pregnant women was significantly more accurate than comprehensive, but no site gave both comprehensive and completely accurate information. Only four sites (20%) were good sources of information for pregnant women. Internet has proved itself as an important source of information. However, despite numerous websites, only a few offer reliable information to the

  15. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti–T. gondii–specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  16. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-26

    Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 December 2016. We had planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved through the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text reports of studies categorized as 'unsure' or 'include' after we reviewed the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text report for eligibility. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified no completed or ongoing trial that was eligible for this Cochrane review. Although research has identified a wide

  17. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. Objectives The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 December 2016. Selection criteria We had planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved through the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text reports of studies categorized as ’unsure’ or ’include’ after we reviewed the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text report for eligibility. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Main results We identified no completed

  18. [The evaluation of patients with ischemic cerebral lesions by CT, SPECT and qEEG in acute, subacute and chronic phases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, J J; Barroso, E; Cubero, L; González-González, J; Farach, M

    1998-08-01

    SPECT, EEG AND CT scan offer information with several pathophysiologic meanings. Their results vary with time and according to the vascular affected territory. We wanted to study how the sensibility varies and the relationship with the clinic of SPECT, qEEG and CT scan in the acute, subacute and chronic stages and according to the vascular affected territory. We also wanted to analyze the several pathophysiologic aspects of the cerebral ischemia. Thirty-six patients with symptoms of hemispheric stroke were evaluated with CT scan, qEEG, SPECT99mTc-HMPAO during the acute (0-5 days), subacute (0-15 days) and chronic (16 days to 1 year) stages. The decrease of ipsilateral CBF depend on the time (p = 0.0061), being not very frequent during the two first weeks. The qEEG was the most sensitive study in the first phase, its sensibility did not depend on the vascular affected territory and was dependent on the time (p = 0.0011), diminishing in the chronic phase. The slow activity was habitually ipsilateral. The CT scan was the less sensitive study. After 24 hours and until the second week, there is habitually an increase of the ipsilateral rCBF. The luxury perfusion could explain the fogging effect in the CT scan. The slow activity of the qEEG represents the alteration of the oxygen metabolism. The interpretation of the variation of the CBF and the qEEG allow us to define oligemia of the ischemia and between reactive hyperemia and the increase of CBF due to the necrotic tissue.

  19. Toxoplasmosis--a global threat. Correlation of latent toxoplasmosis with specific disease burden in a set of 88 countries.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30-50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this 'asymptomatic infection' may also lead to development of other human pathologies. The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Prevalence data published between 1995-2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering factor responsible for development of several clinical entities deserves

  20. Toxoplasmosis – A Global Threat. Correlation of Latent Toxoplasmosis with Specific Disease Burden in a Set of 88 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Prandota, Joseph; Sovičková, Michaela; Israili, Zafar H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is becoming a global health hazard as it infects 30–50% of the world human population. Clinically, the life-long presence of the parasite in tissues of a majority of infected individuals is usually considered asymptomatic. However, a number of studies show that this ‘asymptomatic infection’ may also lead to development of other human pathologies. Aims of the Study The purpose of the study was to collect available geoepidemiological data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and search for its relationship with mortality and disability rates in different countries. Methods and Findings Prevalence data published between 1995–2008 for women in child-bearing age were collected for 88 countries (29 European). The association between prevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific disease burden estimated with age-standardized Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) or with mortality, was calculated using General Linear Method with Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP), geolatitude and humidity as covariates, and also using nonparametric partial Kendall correlation test with GDP as a covariate. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with specific disease burden in particular countries explaining 23% of variability in disease burden in Europe. The analyses revealed that for example, DALY of 23 of 128 analyzed diseases and disease categories on the WHO list showed correlations (18 positive, 5 negative) with prevalence of toxoplasmosis and another 12 diseases showed positive trends (p<0.1). For several obtained significant correlations between the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and specific diseases/clinical entities, possible pathophysiological, biochemical and molecular explanations are presented. Conclusions The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis correlated with various disease burden. Statistical associations does not necessarily mean causality. The precautionary principle suggests however that possible role of toxoplasmosis as a triggering

  1. Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Louis M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2009-07-01

    It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations.

  2. Toxoplasmosis: a history of clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Louis M.; Dubey, Jitender. P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations. PMID:19217908

  3. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  4. Decline in Ocular Toxoplasmosis over 40 Years at a Tertiary Referral Practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hou, Joshua H; Patel, Sarju S; Farooq, Asim V; Qadir, Asad A; Tessler, Howard H; Goldstein, Debra A

    2018-01-01

    To identify whether there has been a decline in ocular toxoplasmosis at a tertiary uveitis practice. Retrospective review of new patients at the University of Illinois Uveitis Service from 1973 to 2012. There were 6820 patients with adequate records for inclusion; 323 (4.7%) were diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis. There was a 78.0% decline in prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis from 2008 to 2012 compared with 1973 to 1977. Compared with the aggregate uveitis population, toxoplasmosis patients were more likely to be Hispanic (p<0.0001) and less likely to be African American (p<0.0001). Ocular toxoplasmosis in Hispanics commonly occurred in foreign-born patients (85.3%). The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis at our clinic declined, with Hispanics accounting for an increasing proportion of cases. These trends are consistent with the decreasing toxoplasmosis seropositivity in the United States, but may also reflect decreased referrals due to improved management of ocular toxoplasmosis in primary clinics.

  5. [Some aspects of immune response in toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Dziubek, Z; Zarnowska, H; Basiak, W; Górski, A; Kajfasz, P

    2001-01-01

    The study was performed to determine cell-mediated and humoral responses related to the clinical course of disease in adults with different forms of toxoplasmosis. The cellular response was estimated by blastogenic transformation of T-lymphocytes induced by OKT3 mitogenic stimulus, as well as by a specific soluble toxoplasmic antigen. The phenotype analysis of T-lymphocytes was performed using monoclonal antibody on FACS flow cytometer. The humoral response was examined by determining the levels of toxoplasma-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies and total serum immunoglobulins. Significant disruption of the cell-mediated response was not observed (T-lymphocyte proliferation test). In the group of patients with lymphadenopathy, an increased proportion of CD8+ lymphocytes was only noted in the first month of the disease, although enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes was observed for up to a year. The individuals in question were found to have IgA antibodies against the p30 antigen of T. gondii, mainly in the period of disease up to 7 months. The proportion of CD4+ lymphocytes was sub-normal in all patients of this group who were studied in the first two months of the disease, and in most of those studied later. Three out of 14 patients with the ocular form of toxoplasmosis only had recent foci of inflammation in the retina, and were also found to have specific IgM. These patients had depressed CD4+ levels, and showed no reaction from CD8+ lymphocytes. Sub-normal CD4+ population could have been the cause of the weak stimulation of CD8+ cells and an expression of this is the long course of disease. Sub-normal CD4+ cells may be also results the suppressing effect of the parasite.

  6. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  7. Effects of latent toxoplasmosis on autoimmune thyroid diseases in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaňková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9-12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009). Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  8. Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

  9. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kaňková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9–12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25350671

  10. Cerebral aneurysm

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The tissue of the brain is supplied by a network of cerebral arteries. If the wall of a cerebral artery becomes weakened, a portion of the wall may balloon out forming an aneurysm. A cerebral aneurysm may enlarge until it bursts, sending blood ...

  11. The effects of chronic trans-resveratrol supplementation on aspects of cognitive function, mood, sleep, health and cerebral blood flow in healthy, young humans.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Emma L; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Reay, Jonathon L; Williamson, Gary; Dew, Tristan; Zhang, Wei; Kennedy, David O

    2015-11-14

    Single doses of resveratrol have previously been shown to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) with no clear effect on cognitive function or mood in healthy adults. Chronic resveratrol consumption may increase the poor bioavailability of resveratrol or otherwise potentiate its psychological effects. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study, a total of sixty adults aged between 18 and 30 years received either placebo or resveratrol for 28 d. On the 1st and 28th day of treatment, the performance of cognitively demanding tasks (serial subtractions, rapid visual information processing and 3-Back) (n 41 complete data sets) was assessed, alongside blood pressure (n 26) and acute (near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS)) and chronic (transcranial Doppler) measures of CBF (n 46). Subjective mood, sleep quality and health questionnaires were completed at weekly intervals (n 53/54). The results showed that the cognitive effects of resveratrol on day 1 were restricted to more accurate but slower serial subtraction task performance. The only cognitive finding on day 28 was a beneficial effect of resveratrol on the accuracy of the 3-Back task before treatment consumption. Subjective ratings of 'fatigue' were significantly lower across the entire 28 d in the resveratrol condition. Resveratrol also resulted in modulation of CBF parameters on day 1, as assessed by NIRS, and significantly increased diastolic blood pressure on day 28. Levels of resveratrol metabolites were significantly higher both before and after the day's treatment on day 28, in comparison with day 1. These results confirm the acute CBF effects of resveratrol and the lack of interpretable cognitive effects.

  12. The ameliorative effects of exercise on cognitive impairment and white matter injury from blood-brain barrier disruption induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Song, Min Kyung; Oh, Yoo Joung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jung

    2017-01-18

    Vascular dementia is the progressive change in blood vessels that leads to neuronal injuries in vulnerable areas induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). CCH induces disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and this BBB disruption can initiate the cognitive impairment and white matter injury. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the cognitive impairment, white matter injury, and BBB disruption induced by CCH. Vascular dementia was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) in rats. The rats in the exercise group were made to run on a treadmill for 30min once a day for 14 weeks, starting 4 weeks after birth. Our results revealed that treadmill exercise group was alleviated the cognitive impairment and myelin degradation induced by CCH. The disruption of BBB after CCH indicates degradation of occludin, zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Treadmill exercise may provide protective effects on BBB disruption from degradation of occludin, ZO-1, and overexpression of MMP-9 after CCH. These findings suggest that treadmill exercise ameliorates cognitive impairment and white matter injury from BBB disruption induced by CCH in rats. The present study will be valuable for means of prophylactic and therapeutic intervention for patients with CCH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a chronic exposure to a highly palatable diet and its withdrawal, in adulthood, on cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase and plasma S100B in neonatally handled rats.

    PubMed

    da S Benetti, Carla; Silveira, Patrícia P; Matté, Cristiane; Stefanello, Francieli M; Leite, Marina C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla; Goldani, Marcelo Z

    2010-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that early environment influences the metabolic response, affecting abdominal fat deposition in adult female rats exposed to a long-term highly caloric diet. In the present study, our goal was to verify the effects of the chronic exposure, in adulthood, to a highly palatable diet (chocolate) on cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase activity and S100B protein concentrations, and the response to its withdrawal in neonatally handled and non-handled rats. We measured the consumption of foods (standard lab chow and chocolate), body weight gain, S100B protein concentrations, as well as cerebral Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity during chronic exposure and after chocolate withdrawal in adult female rats that had been exposed or not to neonatal handling (10 min/day, 10 first days of life). Non-handled rats chronically exposed to chocolate exhibited increased plasma S100B levels, but there was no difference in abdominal fat S100B concentration between groups. Chronic chocolate consumption decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity in both amygdala and hippocampus in non-handled, but not in handled rats, and this effect disappeared after chocolate withdrawal. Non-handled animals also demonstrated increased frequency of head shaking in the open field after 24h of chocolate withdrawal in comparison to handled ones. These findings suggest that neonatal handling modifies the vulnerability to metabolic and brain alterations induced by chronic exposure to a highly palatable diet in adulthood. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards vaccine against toxoplasmosis: evaluation of the immunogenic and protective activity of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 Toxoplasma gondii proteins.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Marcin M; Dziadek, Bożena; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Długońska, Henryka

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. An effective vaccine against human and animal toxoplasmosis is still needed to control this parasitosis. The polymorphic rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, secreted by Toxoplasma gondii during the invasion of the host cell have been recently considered as promising vaccine antigens, as they appear to be the major determinants of T. gondii virulence in mice. The goal of this study was to evaluate their immunogenic and immunoprotective activity after their administration (separately or both recombinant proteins together) with the poly I:C as an adjuvant. Immunization of BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ mice generated both cellular and humoral specific immune responses with some predominance of IgG1 antibodies. The spleen cells derived from vaccinated animals reacted to the parasite's native antigens. Furthermore, the immunization led to a partial protection against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. These findings confirm the previous assumptions about ROP5 and ROP18 antigens as valuable components of a subunit vaccine against toxoplasmosis.

  15. Effect of electrical stimulation therapy on upper extremity functional recovery and cerebral cortical changes in patients with chronic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kana; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Tomite, Takenori; Yoshikawa, Takayuki; Shimada, Yoichi

    2012-04-01

    Hemiplegia is a common sequel of stroke and assisted living care is needed in many cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of using surface electrode stimulation device in rehabilitation, in terms of functional improvement in upper limb and the changes in brain activation related to central nervous system reconstruction. Five patients with chronic hemiplegia received electrical stimulation therapy using the orthosis-type surface electrode stimulation device for 12 weeks. Training time was 30 min/day for the first weeks, and increased 30 min/day in every 4 weeks. Upper limb outcome measures included Brunnstrom stage, range of motion, Fugl-Meyer assessment and manual function test. Brain activation was measured using functional MRI. After therapy with therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) for 12 weeks upper limb function improved in all cases. The results of brain activation showed two patterns. In the first, the stimulation produced an activity in the bilateral somatosensory cortices (SMC), which was seen to continue over time. The second, activation was bilateral and extensive before stimulation, but localized to the SMC after intervention. Treatment with TES using an orthosis-type electrode stimulation device improves upper limb function in chronic hemiplegia patients. The present findings suggest that there are not only efferent but also afferent effects that may promote central nervous system remodeling.

  16. [Significance of the complement fixation reaction in the diagnosis of the acute phase of lymphatic toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Sýkora, J; Pokorný, J; Zástĕra, M

    1992-03-27

    In a group of 300 sera of subjects with clinically suspect nodular toxoplasmosis the authors tested by the IgM ELISA reaction in the reverse order the importance of the complement-fixation reaction for assessment of the acute stage of the infection. In view of the revealed prolonged detection of IgM antibodies the authors used quantitative evaluation of the reaction; they consider based on a probability pattern of antibody response coefficients of 10 and above important for differentiation of a recent infection. For the suggested method of evaluation it was confirmed that low CFR titres (1:8, 1:16, 1:32) imply usually (89.5%) latent infection, titres of 1:64 chronic (42.8%) and latent infection (57.2%); in no instance onset of the disease was involved. From the titre of 1:128 onwards there is a proportional increase of the probable detection of acute infections (titre 1:1024 as much as 72.7%. However, even high titres are not unequivocal evidence of recent infection. In view of the equivocal interpretation of results of the CFR the authors recommend for assessment of the acute stage of the nodular form of toxoplasmosis examination of the suspect subject by the CFR and in case of a medium or high level assessment of IgM by the ELISA method focused on the level and dynamics of the coefficient.

  17. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Evaluation of latex-protein complexes by immnunoagglutination.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain a reagent based on latex particles for ruling out acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women by immunoagglutination (IA). Latex-protein complexes (LPC) were previously synthesized coupling the recombinant protein of Toxoplasma gondii P22Ag and the homogenate of the parasite to latex particles with different size, chemical functionality and charge density. LPC were tested in IA assays against a panel of 72 pregnant women serum samples. Results were analysed through receiver operating characteristic curves, determining area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively). It was observed that the antigenicity of proteins was not affected during sensitization by either physical adsorption or covalent coupling. The best results in the sense of maximizing discrimination of low avidity sera from chronic ones were observed for the IA test based on latex particles with carboxyl functionality and the recombinant P22Ag, obtaining an AUC of 0·94, a sensitivity of 100% and a NPV of 100%. In this way, the proposed test could be useful for the toxoplasmosis diagnosis in pregnant women, with the advantages of being cheap, rapid and easy to be implemented.

  18. Fatal toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed domestic cat from Brazil caused by Toxoplasma gondii clonal type I.

    PubMed

    Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Evangelista, Camila Mariellen; Casagrande, Renata Assis; Biezus, Giovana; Wisser, Claudia Salete; Ferian, Paulo Eduardo; Moura, Anderson Barbosa de; Rolim, Veronica Machado; Driemeier, David; Oliveira, Solange; Alves, Bruna Farias; Gennari, Solange Maria; Traverso, Sandra Davi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T. gondii immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation. The bone marrow showed chronic myeloid leukemia and the neoplastic cells were positive by anti-FeLV IHC evaluation. DNA extracted from lungs was positive for T. gondii by PCR targeting REP-529. T. gondii was characterized by PCR-RFLP and by the microsatellites technique. ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #10, i.e. the archetypal type I, was identified. Microsatellite analysis showed that the strain was a variant of type I with two atypical alleles. This was the first time that a T. gondii clonal type I genotype was correlated with a case of acute toxoplasmosis in a host in Brazil.

  19. Branch retinal artery occlusion caused by toxoplasmosis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Debra A; Shapiro, Michael J; Mets, Marilyn B

    2012-09-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P < 0.001), daily contact with raw meat (OR = 1.8; P = 0.001), unfiltered water (OR = 1.7; P = 0.003), and density of cats (OR = 1.4; P = 0.045). Visualizing the spatial distribution of seropositive respondents highlighted clustering in lowland areas. This study highlighted that Middle Java has a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  1. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-05-28

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

  2. Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2014-04-01

    The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis. © 2013.

  3. Ocular toxoplasmosis I: parasitology, epidemiology and public health.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Butler, Nicholas J; Smith, Justine R

    2013-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis results from retinal infection with the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite, which exists as multiple clonal subpopulations and in three stages, is capable of replication in any nucleated cell of its primary feline or multiple paratenic hosts. Human seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is high across the globe, but with geographic variation. While prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis is not well documented, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is the commonest form of posterior uveitis in many countries. Correlation of parasite genotype with disease is an important area of new research. Ocular infection with T. gondii often follows ingestion of bradyzoites in undercooked infected meat. Oocysts may survive for an extended period in the environment, and water contaminated with oocysts is an important source in toxoplasmosis epidemics. Ocular toxoplasmosis is preventable by a combination of community activities and personal measures. Public health action is well justified by the considerable burden of congenital and postnatal infections. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management.

    PubMed

    Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

    2013-01-01

    The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Nicholas J; Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Smith, Justine R

    2014-01-01

    The term, ocular toxoplasmosis, refers to eye disease related to infection with the parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Recurrent posterior uveitis is the typical form of this disease, characterized by unilateral, necrotizing retinitis with secondary choroiditis, occurring adjacent to a pigmented retinochoroidal scar and associated with retinal vasculitis and vitritis. Multiple atypical presentations are also described, and severe inflammation is observed in immunocompromised patients. Histopathological correlations demonstrate focal coagulative retinal necrosis, and early in the course of the disease, this inflammation is based in the inner retina. For typical ocular toxoplasmosis, a diagnosis is easily made on clinical examination. In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular production of specific antibody may be extremely helpful for establishing aetiology. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in most communities, serological testing for T. gondii antibodies is generally not useful. Despite a lack of published evidence for effectiveness of current therapies, most ophthalmologists elect to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis that reduces or threatens to impact vision. Classic therapy consists of oral pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, plus systemic corticosteroid. Substantial toxicity of this drug combination has spurred interest in alternative antimicrobials, as well as local forms of drug delivery. At this time, however, no therapeutic approach is curative of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:22712598

  6. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-04-30

    Ocular infestation with Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids for ocular toxoplasmosis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We searched the reference lists of included studies for any additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 October 2012. We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with active ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, or different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved from the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text articles of studies categorized as 'unsure' or 'include' after review of the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text article. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. The electronic searches retrieved 368 titles and abstracts. We

  7. Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Patient With Chronic Catatonia: Clinical Outcomes and Cerebral 18[F]Fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Findings.

    PubMed

    Pigato, Giorgio; Roiter, Beatrice; Cecchin, Diego; Morbelli, Silvia; Tenconi, Elena; Minelli, Alessandra; Bortolomasi, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that can be associated with both psychiatric diseases (mainly mood disorders, but also psychotic disorders) and medical conditions. Lorazepam (6-21 mg/day, occasionally up to 30 md/day) is the first choice treatment and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the second line, regardless of the underlying clinical condition. There are some evidences also for effectiveness of other medications. Patients treated acutely usually show rapid and full therapeutic response but even longstanding catatonia can improve. However, some authors suggested that chronic catatonia in the context of schizophrenia is phenomenologically different and less responsive to lorazepam and ECT, especially if associated with echophenomena. We present here the case of a patient with longstanding catatonic schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics who significantly improved after ECT. Improvement regarded mainly catatonia, but also negative symptoms, cognition and psychosocial functioning. A slight amelioration in prefrontal metabolism (Brain[F]FDG PET) one month following the ECT course was also noted.

  8. Juvenile polyarteritis nodosa associated with toxoplasmosis presenting as Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Özge; Çakar, Nilgün; Gür, Gökçe; Kocabaş, Abdullah; Gülhan, Belgin; Çaycı, Fatma Şemsa; Çelikel, Banu Acar

    2014-04-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium-sized arteries. Juvenile PAN and Kawasaki disease (KD) both cause vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries, and share common features. They have overlapping clinical features. Treatment should be managed according to the severity of symptoms and persistence of clinical manifestations. Herein is described the case of a 14-year-old boy first diagnosed with KD, who then fulfilled the criteria for juvenile PAN due to the development of severe myalgia, persistent fever, polyneuropathy and coronary arterial dilatation. He also had acute toxoplasmosis at the onset of vasculitis symptoms. The final diagnosis was of juvenile PAN associated with toxoplasmosis infection. Toxoplasma infection can be considered as an etiological agent for PAN and other vasculitis syndromes. Awareness of toxoplasmosis-related PAN facilitates early diagnosis, and instigation of appropriate treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.

  10. Ocular sarcoidosis masked by positive IgM for toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Peres, Murilo Bertazzo; Sousa, Jacqueline Martins de; Nascimento, Heloisa

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of ocular sarcoidosis with positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG serology for toxoplasmosis. The patient was a young female with red painful eyes, bilateral eyelid edema, and panuveitis with periphlebitis. In laboratory testing, she was IgM and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis and anergic in the tuberculin test. Topical treatment for anterior uveitis and oral antibiotics for toxoplasmosis were started, without improvement. Orbit tomography showed increased lacrimal glands bilaterally, and chest X-ray radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary sarcoidosis, which supported the presumed ocular sarcoidosis diagnosis. The patient was treated with oral prednisone and methotrexate without antibiotics. She showed clinical and vision improvement without recurrences during the 1-year follow-up. Ocular sarcoidosis is an important differential diagnosis requiring careful anamnesis and ophthalmological examinations. Ancillary tests, such as X-ray radiography, tomography, and clinical and laboratory evaluations may help rule out other causes. Treatment mainly consists of corticosteroids and immunosuppression.

  11. Severe ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: huge macular scar.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Fadoua; Abdellaoui, Meriem; Younes, Samar; Benatiya, Idriss A; Tahri, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis is the most common ocular manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis, but other associated ophthalmological pathologies can also occur. Ophthalmologists are rarely able to distinguish between toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis due to infection acquired before or after birth, unless other clinical or serological indications are present. This article reports a case of a 3-year-old boy with abnormalities suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. The clinical and complementary examinations are discussed. The education of pregnant women is crucial for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Awareness of antenatal and postnatal presenting signs and symptoms is important for clinicians, because early diagnosis and treatment may minimize sequelae. Untreated, the majority of affected infants will develop chorioretinitis, deafness and/or neurological symptoms.

  12. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeffrey L.; Parise, Monica E.; Fiore, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  13. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Meenken, C; Assies, J; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Holwerda-van der Maat, W G; van Schooneveld, M J; Delleman, W J; Kinds, G; Rothova, A

    1995-06-01

    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features were optic nerve atrophy (83%), visual acuity of less than 0.1 (85%), strabismus, and microphthalmos. In 50% of cases we observed iridic abnormalities and about 40% developed a cataract. Overt endocrinological disease, diagnosed in five of 15 patients, included panhypopituitarism (n = 2), gonadal failure with dwarfism (n = 1), precocious puberty with dwarfism and thyroid deficiency (n = 1), and diabetes mellitus and thyroid deficiency (n = 1). The observed endocrinological involvement was associated in all cases with obstructive hydrocephalus with a dilated third ventricle and optic nerve atrophy. The recognition of long term ocular, neurological, and endocrinological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis is important for medical management of these severely handicapped patients.

  14. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving.

    PubMed

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2017-07-01

    Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Cost savings under a national program of prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection and treatment are

  15. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Tunisia: Prenatal and Neonatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Follow-up of 35 Cases.

    PubMed

    Boudaouara, Yosr; Aoun, Karim; Maatoug, Rania; Souissi, Olfa; Bouratbine, Aïda; Abdallah, Rym Ben

    2018-06-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations. polymerase chain reaction analysis on amniotic fluid, performed only in 15 cases, detected Toxoplasma 's DNA in five cases (33.3%). Ultrasound examination did not reveal any morphological abnormalities. Thirty newborns had serological criteria of Toxoplasma infection. Congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis was confirmed in 23 cases (76.6%) by immunoblot. Among the 35 born-infants, five (14.3%) were symptomatic: three had chorioretinitis at the first clinical ocular examination, one had neurological symptoms (seizures) with positive parasite DNA in cerebral spinal fluid, and one had both ophthalmological and neurological damages- chorioretinitis and intracranial calcifications in the computed tomography scan. Thirty-four of 35 infected children were treated with pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination. Four (11.7%) of the treated infants showed abnormal hematological values because of the treatment side effect. Serological rebound was observed in seven infants. A screening program and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented in Tunisia to improve the follow-up of seronegative ones and to prevent CT cases.

  16. Toxoplasmosis Update and Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Fayer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a coccidian life cycle in the intestine of domestic and wild felids that includes a series of asexual and sexual stages and an oocyst stage that is shed in the feces. Oocysts complete their development outside the body, eventually becoming infective for about 350 species of vertebrates including cats and man. The effects of climate on oocyst survival and the physical and biological means of oocyst dispersal are discussed. Infectivity and pathogenicity for livestock species vary. Acute disease results from rapidly multiplying tachyzoites that may be transmitted by carnivorism, transfusion, vertical transmission and other routes. Patent infections may persist for the life of a host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. Bradyzoites initiate acute infection in other hosts after carnivorism or organ transplantation or in the same host after immunosuppression. Also discussed are: (a) prevalence of T. gondii in livestock as determined by digestion and serological techniques, (b) identification in humans as accomplished by isolation, serological and skin test techniques and (c) identification in cats as accomplished primarily by fecal examinations for oocysts infective for mice. Source of human infections, major outbreaks, treatment, effects on mental health and methods for preventing toxoplasmosis in man and livestock are listed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:7337909

  17. Immune response and immunopathology during toxoplasmosis1

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Christopher D.; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary significance that is able to infect any warm-blooded vertebrate host. In addition to its importance to public health, several inherent features of the biology of T. gondii have made it an important model organism to study host-pathogen interactions. One factor is the genetic tractability of the parasite, which allows studies on the microbial factors that affect virulence and allows the development of tools that facilitate immune studies. Additionally, mice are natural hosts for T. gondii, and the availability of numerous reagents to study the murine immune system makes this an ideal experimental system to understand the functions of cytokines and effector mechanisms involved in immunity to intracellular microorganisms. In this article, we will review current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses required for resistance to toxoplasmosis, the events that lead to the development of immunopathology, and the natural regulatory mechanisms that limit excessive inflammation during this infection. PMID:22955326

  18. Lesions of neonatally induced toxoplasmosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Mattix, M E; Lipscomb, T P

    1996-05-01

    Five pregnant queens were inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts. Twenty-two live and three dead kittens were born 16 to 31 days after inoculation. Four kittens were eaten by queens and, thus, were not available for histologic examination. Twenty-one kittens that died or were euthanatized on day 2 (two kittens), 4 (one kitten), 5 (five kittens), 6 (five kittens), 7 (one kitten), 8 (four kittens), 16 (two kittens), and 29 (one kitten) after birth were studied histologically. T gondii was detected by bioassay and was seen in histologic sections of tissues from all 21 kittens. The histologic lesions associated with neonatal toxoplasmosis were widely disseminated infiltrates of macrophages and neutrophils often accompanied by necrosis; lymphocytes and plasma cells were occasionally present. The most consistent lesions were proliferative interstitial pneumonia (21/21); necrotizing hepatitis (20/21); myocarditis (21/21); skeletal myositis (21/21); glossal myositis (19/19); nonsuppurative encephalitis affecting the cerebrum (18/18), brain stem (15/15), and spinal cord (9/9); uveitis (19/19); necrotizing adrenal adenitis (18/18); and interstitial nephritis (16/21). Placental lesions (2/2) consisted of grossly visible areas of necrosis and mineralization.

  19. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  20. Cerebral metabolic alterations and cognitive dysfunction in children with chronic kidney disease using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Wechsler intelligence scale.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Mohamed, Ahmed Hosny; Kamel Attia, Wafaa Mahmoud; Mohammad, Faten Fawzy; El Fatah, Nelly Rafaat Abd; Elshal, Amal Saeed

    2017-06-16

    Many studies described Impaired intelligence, attention, memory and executive function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialyzed and non-dialyzed, but there is still lacking the early and sensitive method of detection of these deficits. The purpose of this study is to investigate relation between the brain metabolic alteration [measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)] and cognitive dysfunction in CKD children (detected by psychometric analysis). One hundred and forty patients with CKD were included [ 40 patients with stage 5 CKD on dialysis, 30 patients with stage 4 to 5 CKD without dialysis, and 70 patients with stage 1 to 3 CKD]. All patients with previous neurological disorders were excluded. Conventional MRI, MRS and psychometric assessment by using Wechsler intelligence scale for children third edition was done in all subjects. We found a significant negative correlation between MRS abnormalities and Wechsler IQ Test scores. But there was a significantly positive correlation between the CKD stages and MRS abnormalities in patients with CKD and negative significant correlation between CKD stages and Wechsler IQ test scores in patients with CKD. There were correlations between "the electrolyte disturbance, blood hemoglobin and hypertension" and "the CKD staging, cognitive functions IQ scores and MRS parameter changes". We concluded that both MRS and psychometric tests are sensitive methods for detection of cognitive function affection in CKD children, particularly in dialyzed group and these findings appears before the clinical diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. [Toxoplasmosis and cancer: Current knowledge and research perspectives].

    PubMed

    Vittecoq, M; Thomas, F

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases; it is estimated to affect a third of the world's human population. Many studies showed that latent toxoplasmosis may cause in some patients significant adverse effects including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. In addition, two recent studies highlighted a positive correlation between the prevalence of brain tumors and that of T. gondii at national and international scale. These studies are correlative, thus they do not demonstrate a causal link between T. gondii and brain tumors. Yet, they call for further research that could shed light on the possible mechanisms underlying this association.

  2. [Nodular toxoplasmosis as a diagnostic and therapeutic problem].

    PubMed

    Zaorski, P; Kozłowski, J

    1999-01-01

    Enlargement of lymph nodes of the neck, slightly elevated body temperature and discomfort are symptoms characteristic of many illnesses. One of these can be toxoplasmosis. Because the rarity of its occurrence, sometimes toxoplasmosis may be last to be recognized. In many cases absence of specific additional examination guidelines can contribute to several problems with correct diagnosis. At the present time, the most reliable sample analysis methods are the examination of levels of antibodies IgG and IgM, and the histopathological verification. The authors also indicate that varying therapeutic effects using prophilactic treatment and insufficient additional examination could lead to diagnostic problems.

  3. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.

  4. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii: DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from AIDS patients who died by severe disseminated toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Bastos da Silva, Inara; Batista, Tatiana Pimental de Andrade; Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Kanamura, Cristina Takami; Ferreira, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro; Vidal, Jose Ernesto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the genetic features of Toxoplasma gondii isolated directly in autopsies of HIV-infected patients who died with severe disseminated toxoplasmosis. This retrospective analysis was conducted in a cohort of 15 HIV-infected patients with clinical and laboratory data. They had previous cerebral toxoplasmosis at least 6 months before the disseminated toxoplasmosis episode. The hypothesis was that they were infected with highly virulent parasites due to the condition in which they died. T. gondii genotyping was done directly in DNA extracted from 30 autopsy brain and lung samples (2 per patient) and mutilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping was done using 12 molecular markers. The 30 clinical samples were genotyped successfully in 8 or more loci and six suggestive genotypes were identified. One of them was Toxo DB #11, previously identified in different domestic animals and virulent in experimental animals. The other five suggestive genotypes identified in 14 patients were not described. TgHuDis1 was the most frequent and was determined in 8 patients. TgHuDis3 and TgHuDis5 were identified in two patients each. TgHuDis2 and TgHuDis4 have been identified in one patient each. These suggestive genotypes could be considered as virulent, since they caused severe tissue damage and had similar characteristics as Toxo # DB 11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-1-infected and uninfected pregnant women and the impact on congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Márcia Antunes; Batista, Giovanni Inácio; Carlos, Juliano da Costa Silveira; Gomes, Ivete Martins; Azevedo, Kátia Martins Lopes de; Setúbal, Sérgio; Oliveira, Solange Artimos de; Velarde, Luis Guilhermo Coca; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women. This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG), including 82 HIV-1 infected and 2,188 non-infected women. The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 for the 2,188 non-HIV-1 infected women, and 227 for the 82 HIV-1-infected women (p = 0,007). These results suggested that higher anti-T. gondii IgG titers in HIV-1-infected pregnant women may not be indicative of an elevated risk for fetal infection. In this study three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis that resulted from infection reactivation during pregnancy of HIV-1-infected women were manifested by fetal death, symptomatic infection, and infant without symptoms, respectively. In two of these women, a ten-fold increase in IgG levels above used cutoff was observed (2,320 UI/mL and 3,613 UI/mL, respectively). In the third pregnant women anti-T. gondii IgG titers during pregnancy did not rise despite the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis (204; 198; 172 UI/mL). Congenital toxoplasmosis resulting reactivation of infection during pregnancy in the studied group leads us to believe that it is a public health problem, especially in our population, in which seroprevalence of T. gondii infections is high. These findings also suggest that special attention is necessary during pregnancy, because the serologic diagnosis may not be indicative of toxoplasmosis reactivation.

  6. Baclofen ameliorates spatial working memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via up-regulation of HCN2 expression in the PFC in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Yun; Fu, TianLi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Li, Changjun; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-07-15

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes memory deficits and increases the risk of vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways. However, whether CCH causes prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent spatial working memory impairments and Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, could ameliorate the impairments is still not clear especially the mechanisms underlying the process. In this study, rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. Two weeks later, rats were treated with 25mg/kg Baclofen (intraperitioneal injection, i.p.) for 3 weeks. Spatial working memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze using a modified delayed matching-to-place (DMP) procedure. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify the protein levels and protein localization. Our results showed that 2VO caused striking spatial working memory impairments, accompanied with a decreased HCN2 expression in PFC, but the protein levels of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5, a neuron specific protein), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin (SYP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), parvalbumin (PV) and HCN1 were not distinguishably changed as compared with sham-operated rats. Baclofen treatment significantly improved the spatial working memory impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced down-regulation of HCN2. Furthermore, there was a co-localization of HCN2 subunits and parvalbumin-positive neurons in PFC. Therefore, HCN2 may target inhibitory interneurons that is implicated in working memory processes, which may be a possible mechanism of the up-regulation of HCN2 by Baclofen treatment that reliefs spatial working memory deficits in rats with CCH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DL-3-n-butylphthalide alleviates vascular cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by activating the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qianqian; Xu, Jing; Lv, Peiyuan; Dong, Yanhong; Liu, Zhijuan; Hu, Ming; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Jin, Wei; Fan, Mingyue; Zhang, Dandan; Meng, Nan

    2018-04-13

    Oxidative stress induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). The Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway is one of the most important antioxidative stress pathways. To explore whether NBP (DL-3-n-butylphthalide) could alleviate VCI induced by CCH via activating the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway and modifying the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCAO) and treated either with vehicle or NBP (applied in two doses, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) while sham operated animals were treated with vehicle. Treatments were administered daily for 28 days. The obtained results indicate that both administrated doses of NBP significantly ameliorated the spatial learning and memory impairments as indicated by the Morris water maze test while Hematoxylin-Eosin staining revealed that morphological defects in the CA1 area of hippocampus were improved. Moreover, NBP reversed the BCCAO-induced downregulation of investigated oxidative stress-related proteins (p-Akt, t-Nrf2, n-Nrf2 and HO-1) along with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecule, Bax and reduction of the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. According to presented results, NBP may have a protective effect against cognitive and morphological impairments induced by CCH via activation of Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibition of apoptotic cascade. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Investigation of tissue cysts in the retina in a mouse model of ocular toxoplasmosis: distribution and interaction with glial cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Young-Ha; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2018-06-02

    The conversion of tachyzoites into bradyzoites is a way for Toxoplasma gondii to establish a chronic and asymptomatic infection and achieve lifelong persistence in the host. The bradyzoites form tissue cysts in the retina, but not much is known about the horizontal distribution of the cysts or their interactions with glial cells in the retina. A chronic ocular toxoplasmosis model was induced by per oral administration of T. gondii Me49 strain cysts to BALB/c mice. Two months after the infection, retinas were flat-mounted and immunostained to detect cysts, ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells, followed by observation under fluorescence and confocal microscope. The horizontal distribution showed a rather clustered pattern, but the clusters were not restricted to certain location of the retina. Axial distribution was confined to the inner retina, mostly in ganglion cell layer or the inner plexiform layer. Both ganglion cells, a type of retinal neurons, and Müller cells, predominant retinal glial cells, could harbor cysts. The cysts were spatially separated from astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the ganglion cell layer, while close spatial distribution of microglial cells was observed in two thirds of retinal cysts. In this study, we demonstrated that the retinal cysts were not evenly distributed horizontally and were confined to the inner retina axially. Both neurons and one type of glial cells could harbor cysts, and topographic analysis of other glial cells suggests role of microglial cells in chronic ocular toxoplasmosis.

  9. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  10. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.

  11. Cerebral Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ...

  12. Paradoxical effect of clindamycin in experimental, acute toxoplasmosis in cats.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, M G; Lappin, M R; Rottman, J R; Tompkins, M B; English, R V; Bruce, A T; Jayawickrama, J

    1996-01-01

    Cats were experimentally inoculated parenterally with the ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to characterize the efficacies of two different dosages of orally administered clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Concentrations of clindamycin hydrochloride at levels previously suggested to be inhibitory to T. gondii replication in vitro were achieved in the serum and aqueous humor but not in the cerebrospinal fluid. Antibiotic therapy, initiated 7 days after inoculation, resulted in no significant difference in the morphometric severity of ocular posterior segment lesions compared with that in the control groups. Treatment appeared to blunt T. gondii-specific immunoglobulin M production but had no significant effect on immunoglobulin G titers. Paradoxically, clindamycin administration was associated with increased morbidity and mortality from hepatitis and interstitial pneumonia, which are characteristic of generalized toxoplasmosis. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha activity was detected at moderate levels in all groups of cats and correlated with the severity of clinical disease. The results of the study suggest that clindamycin, when administered at this specific time interval following inoculation, does not ameliorate ocular lesions and has a detrimental effect on the clinical course of acute, experimental toxoplasmosis in cats. The factors responsible for and the relevance of this detrimental effect to naturally occurring toxoplasmosis in humans and pet cats were not clear from the study but may relate to an antibiotic-associated decrease in the antitoxoplasmic activity of phagocytic cells responsible for the control of T. gondii. PMID:8726000

  13. Is there any role of latent toxoplasmosis in schizophrenia disease?

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Nuran; Bilgiç, Serkan; Gürok, Mehmet Gürkan; Karaboğa, Fatih

    2015-09-01

    A large number of studies have hypothesized that Toxoplasma gondii is a potentially relevant etiological factor in some cases of schizophrenia. By contrast, some studies have disproved this association. The aim of this study was to investigate whether latent toxoplasmosis has any role in schizophrenia disease. Additionally, the association between T. gondii and subtypes of schizophrenia, and the impacts of toxoplasmosis on psychopathology were examined in the study. A total of 85 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy volunteers were included in this prospective study. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to T. gondii was examined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay method. Seropositivity rates were 43.5% for the patients with schizophrenia and 43.3% for the healthy controls (odds ratio: 1.008, 95% confidence interval: 0.517-1.964, p = 0.981).There was no significant difference in T. gondii IgG positivity between the schizophrenia and control groups with respect to sex and age. The difference in seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibodies among the schizophrenia subtypes was not statistically significant (p = 0.934). No significant difference was found in Positive and Negative Syndrome Subscales between Toxoplasma-infected and Toxoplasma-free patients. In the study area with a high prevalence of T. gondii, no association between toxoplasmosis and schizophrenia was detected. These findings showed that toxoplasmosis has no role in the risk of schizophrenia disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. [Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in a Buenos Aires hospital].

    PubMed

    Carral, Liliana; Kaufer, Federico; Olejnik, Patricia; Freuler, Cristina; Durlach, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis is based on providing information to women, serologic diagnosis and treatment of the infected mother and child. In this article we present the results of 12 years of implementation of a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention program in which we measured the mother's infection incidence rate, the transmission rate and the number and severity of infection in newborns. The study was performed on 12035 pregnant women in the period 2000-2011. The prevalence rate of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was 18.33% (2206/12035). Thirty-seven out of 9792 susceptible women presented acute infection and the mother's infection incidence rate was 3.78 per 1000 births. The transplacental transmission rate was 5.4% (2/37). Two newborns presented congenital toxoplasmosis infection, one had no clinical signs while the other presented strabismus and chorioretinitis. Thirty-five infected mothers and the two children with congenital infection were treated. The transmission rates obtained allow consider this prevention program as a valid resource to minimize the impact of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  15. Clinical manifestation and prognosis of active ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kianersi, Farzan; Naderi Beni, Afsaneh; Naderi Beni, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in the world. This study described the clinical characteristics and visual outcome of 193 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis at Feiz Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during the last six years. The setting and design used was a retrospective non-comparative observational case series. In this study, 193 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (111 female, 82 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and fundoscopic findings were studied. The most-reported chief complaint was blurred vision in 96 % (184 patients) and floaters in 13.47 % (25 patients) of cases and most frequent clinical manifestations were chorioretinitis 98.48 % (190 patients), macular scars 50.7 % (98 patients), and atrophic optic papilla two (1.03 %) patients. Primary retinal lesions were observed in 16 (8.2 %) and combination of active lesions and old retinochoroidal scars in 177 (91.7 %) of the patients. Retinal detachment occurred in 11 (5.69 %) patients. Bilateral involvement was found in 27 % of patients. Blindness was 0.05 % after treatment. Recurrence rate was 14.5 %. In conclusion, ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, site of lesion and other factors. Suddenly blurred vision, floater, and pain could be caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination.

  16. Retinal tear: an unusual complication of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, Ugur Emrah; Cosar, Cemile Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    It is aimed to report on a 16-year-old patient with acquired ocular toxoplasmosis complicated by a retinal tear. Retrospective medical chart review. A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented with vision loss in her right eye. In addition to a white active lesion between the fovea and the optic nerve head, marked vitreous opacification was noted. She was diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis. The patient was treated with oral azithromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One month later, retinochoroiditis resolved and vitreous cleared. Three months after onset, patient presented with floaters in the right eye and a retinal tear was located at the temporal region of the retina. Prophylactic argon laser treatment that encircled the retinal tear was performed. No other abnormalities were noted during 6 months of follow-up. Retinal tear associated with ocular toxoplasmosis is rare; however, a retinal tear can occur due to vitreoretinal traction following post-inflammatory structural alteration of the vitreous. Retinal tears may be seen during the healing phase, when the inflammation turns into tightening of vitreous substance. Careful retinal examination in cases of ocular toxoplasmosis is warranted, especially in patients with severe vitreous inflammation.

  17. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    de Souza Giassi, Karina; Costa, Andre Nathan; Apanavicius, Andre; Teixeira, Fernando Bin; Fernandes, Caio Julio Cesar; Helito, Alfredo Salim; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib

    2014-11-25

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals. Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. From 2009 to 2013, three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. Tomographic findings were bilateral smooth septal and peribronchovascular thickening (100%), ground-glass opacities (100%), atelectasis (33%), random nodules (33%), lymph node enlargement (33%) and pleural effusion (66%). All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup. These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis. The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion

  18. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Suryamani; Padmaja, I Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of fetal death is one of the tragedies that confront the physician providing obstetric care. Among the various agents associated with infections of pregnancy, viruses are the most important followed by bacteria and protozoa. Among protozoal infections in pregnancy, toxoplasmosis is reported to have a high incidence, sometimes causing fetal death. The study was intended to observe the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presenting with bad obstetric history (BOH). A total of 92 antenatal women were included in the study (80 in the study group and 12 in control group). The study group comprised of antenatal women with BOH in the age group of 20-35 years. Antenatal women with Rh incompatibility, pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal disorders and syphilis were not included in the study. The control group included women in reproductive age group without BOH. All the samples were screened by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for Toxoplasma specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Of the 80 antenatal women in the study group, 36 (45%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgG antibodies (P < 0.005), 16 (20%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgM antibodies (P < 0.005) and 8 (10%) were seropositive for both IgG and IgM antibodies (P < 0.005). Various predisposing factors for acquiring Toxoplasmosis such as contact with cats, contact with soil, food habits, illiteracy, socio-economic status and residential status were also studied. We conclude that toxoplasmosis during pregnancy causes congenital fetal infection with possible fetal loss. ELISA was found to be a sensitive serological test for diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women with BOH. Major cause of fetal loss in BOH cases in the study group was abortion.

  19. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  20. Toxoplasmosis – Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Elikwu, Charles John

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite causing high disease burden worldwide. A One Health approach is needed to understand, prevent, and control toxoplasmosis, while knowledge gaps in the One Health aspects have been identified among medical professionals in earlier studies. As a One Health collaboration between veterinary and medical fields, we surveyed the knowledge on toxoplasmosis among medical doctors in Nigeria. The knowledge questions, which the participants answered without consulting literature and colleagues, covered epidemiological One Health aspects as well as clinical interspecialty aspects of T. gondii infections. Altogether 522 medical doctors from four tertiary hospitals completed the questionnaire. The mean number of correct answers in the knowledge questions was 7.5, and 8.4% of the participants selected at least 12 of the 17 correct answers. The proportion of medical doctors scoring such a high score was significantly higher among those who reported having seen a case of clinical toxoplasmosis than in those who did not. While 62% of the medical doctors participating in our study knew that cats can shed T. gondii in their feces, 36% incorrectly suggested that humans could do that too. That T. gondii infection can be meatborne was known by 69%, but that it can be also waterborne only by 28% of the medical doctors participating in our study. Most of the medical doctors, 78%, knew that clinical toxoplasmosis may involve the central nervous system, while only 37% answered that it can involve the eyes. Our results suggested knowledge gaps, which need to be addressed in Continuous Medical Education. The identified gaps included both intersectoral One Health aspects and interspecialty aspects: For prevention and management of toxoplasmosis, knowing the main transmission routes and that the parasite can affect several organs is relevant. PMID:29261738

  1. Understanding Toxoplasmosis in the United States Through "Large Data" Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lykins, Joseph; Wang, Kanix; Wheeler, Kelsey; Clouser, Fatima; Dixon, Ashtyn; El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Lyttle, Christopher; Rzhetsky, Andrey; McLeod, Rima

    2016-08-15

    Toxoplasma gondii infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, and infects approximately one-third of persons globally. Clinical manifestations vary. Seropositivity is associated with neurologic diseases and malignancies. There are few objective data concerning US incidence and distribution of toxoplasmosis. Truven Health MarketScan Database and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, including treatment specific to toxoplasmosis, identified patients with this disease. Spatiotemporal distribution and patterns of disease manifestation were analyzed. Comorbidities between patients and matched controls were compared. Between 2003 and 2012, 9260 patients had ICD-9 codes for toxoplasmosis. This database of patients with ICD-9 codes includes 15% of those in the United States, excluding patients with no or public insurance. Thus, assuming that demographics do not change incidence, the calculated total is 61 700 or 6856 patients per year. Disease was more prevalent in the South. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.5 ± 15.5 years; 2.4% were children aged 0-2 years, likely congenitally infected. Forty-one percent were male, and 73% of women were of reproductive age. Of identified patients, 38% had eye disease and 12% presented with other serious manifestations, including central nervous system and visceral organ damage. Toxoplasmosis was statistically associated with substantial comorbidities, including human immunodeficiency virus, autoimmune diseases, and neurologic diseases. Toxoplasmosis causes morbidity and mortality in the United States. Our analysis of private insurance records missed certain at-risk populations and revealed fewer cases of retinal disease than previously estimated, suggesting undercoding, underreporting, undertreating, or differing demographics of those with eye disease. Mandatory reporting of infection to health departments and gestational screening could improve care and facilitate detection of

  2. Toxoplasmosis - Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Elikwu, Charles John; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite causing high disease burden worldwide. A One Health approach is needed to understand, prevent, and control toxoplasmosis, while knowledge gaps in the One Health aspects have been identified among medical professionals in earlier studies. As a One Health collaboration between veterinary and medical fields, we surveyed the knowledge on toxoplasmosis among medical doctors in Nigeria. The knowledge questions, which the participants answered without consulting literature and colleagues, covered epidemiological One Health aspects as well as clinical interspecialty aspects of T. gondii infections. Altogether 522 medical doctors from four tertiary hospitals completed the questionnaire. The mean number of correct answers in the knowledge questions was 7.5, and 8.4% of the participants selected at least 12 of the 17 correct answers. The proportion of medical doctors scoring such a high score was significantly higher among those who reported having seen a case of clinical toxoplasmosis than in those who did not. While 62% of the medical doctors participating in our study knew that cats can shed T. gondii in their feces, 36% incorrectly suggested that humans could do that too. That T. gondii infection can be meatborne was known by 69%, but that it can be also waterborne only by 28% of the medical doctors participating in our study. Most of the medical doctors, 78%, knew that clinical toxoplasmosis may involve the central nervous system, while only 37% answered that it can involve the eyes. Our results suggested knowledge gaps, which need to be addressed in Continuous Medical Education. The identified gaps included both intersectoral One Health aspects and interspecialty aspects: For prevention and management of toxoplasmosis, knowing the main transmission routes and that the parasite can affect several organs is relevant.

  3. Management of giant retinal tear and retinal detachment in a patient with active toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nathan L; Sridhar, Jayanth; Flynn, Harry W

    2018-06-01

    To describe the management of a giant retinal tear with retinal detachment in a patient with active toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. While receiving systemic medications for toxoplasmosis, the patient underwent scleral buckling, pars plana vitrectomy, and C3F8 gas tamponade without removal of the lens. At last follow-up, best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 with an attached retina and the toxoplasmosis lesion was inactive. and Importance: Using modern surgical techniques, anatomic and clinical success is possible during active retinochoroiditis.

  4. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse.

  5. Interferon-gamma receptor-deficiency renders mice highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis by decreased macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Deckert-Schlüter, M; Rang, A; Weiner, D; Huang, S; Wiestler, O D; Hof, H; Schlüter, D

    1996-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii may cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients including fetuses and those with AIDS. Among the factors mediating protection against T. gondii, IFN-gamma has gained special attention. To analyze the role of IFN-gamma in the early phase of toxoplasmosis, IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gamma R0/0) mice were orally infected with low-virulent toxoplasms. IFN-gamma R0/0 mice died of the disease up to day 10 postinfection, whereas immunocompetent wild-type (WT) mice developed a chronic toxoplasmosis. Histopathology revealed that in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice, the parasite multiplied unrestrictedly in the small intestine, the intestinal lymphatic tissue, the liver, and the spleen. Ultimately, animals died of a necrotizing hepatitis. In WT mice, the same organs were effected, but multiplication of the parasite was effectively limited. Compared with WT mice, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry demonstrated that in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice, macrophages were only marginally activated in response to the infection, as evidenced by a reduced expression of major histocompatability complex class II antigens. In addition, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR showed a reduced production of the macrophage-derived cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-1 beta in the liver of IFN-gamma R0/0 mice. In contrast, activation of T cells, recruitment of immune cells to inflammatory foci, and anti-T. gondii IgM antibody production were unaffected by the mutation of the IFN-gamma R. Moreover, induction of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA transcripts in the liver was normal in IFN-gamma R0/0 mice. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that the immune T cells of WT animals did not protect IFN-gamma R0/0 mice from lethal infection with highly virulent toxoplasms, whereas WT mice were significantly protected by the adoptive transfer. Based on these studies, we conclude that IFN-gamma is absolutely required for an efficient activation of

  6. Critical role of matrix metalloprotease-9 in chronic high fat diet-induced cerebral vascular remodelling and increase of ischaemic brain injury in mice†

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jiao; Zhang, Junfeng; Feng, Chenzhuo; Xiong, Lize; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    Aims About one-third of American adults and 20% of teenagers are obese. Obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances including hyperlipidaemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases including stroke. They can worsen neurological outcome after stroke. We determined whether obesity and hyperlipidaemia could induce cerebral vascular remodelling via matrix metalloproteases (MMP) and whether this remodelling affected neurological outcome after brain ischaemia. Methods and results Six-week-old male CD1, C57BL/6J, and MMP-9−/− mice were fed regular diet (RD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. They were subjected to vascular casting or a 90 min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). Mice on HFD were heavier and had higher blood glucose and lipid levels than those on RD. HFD-fed CD1 and C57BL/6J mice had an increased cerebral vascular tortuosity index and decreased inner diameters of the middle cerebral arterial root. HFD increased microvessel density in CD1 mouse cerebral cortex. After MCAO, CD1 and C57BL/6J mice on HFD had a bigger infarct volume, more severe brain oedema and blood–brain barrier damage, higher haemorrhagic transformation rate, greater haemorrhagic volume, and worse neurological function. HFD increased MMP-9 activity in the ischaemic and non-ischaemic brain tissues. Although HFD increased the body weights, blood glucose, and lipid levels in the MMP-9−/− mice on a C57BL/6J genetic background, the HFD-induced cerebral vascular remodelling and worsening of neurological outcome did not occur in these mice. Conclusion HFD induces cerebral vascular remodelling and worsens neurological outcome after transient focal brain ischaemia. MMP-9 activation plays a critical role in these HFD effects. PMID:24935427

  7. Cerebral Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... her strength. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a ... ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. ...

  8. Cerebral palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Cerebral palsy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  9. Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C.

    1991-05-01

    A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

  10. Extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions associated with toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, Folusakin; Todd, John; Al-Delfi, Firas; King, John

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of enhancing brain lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is typically associated with low CD4-lymphocyte counts. Extensive toxoplasma encephalitis when the CD4-lymphocyte count is above 100 cells/µl is unusual. Cavitary lung lesions are also not typically associated with toxoplasmosis. Here, we present a case of toxoplasmosis associated with extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions, both of which improved with directed toxoplasmosis therapy, in an AIDS patient with a CD4 cell count of 120 cells/µl.

  11. Toxoplasmosis presenting as panhypopituitarism in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milligan, S A; Katz, M S; Craven, P C; Strandberg, D A; Russell, I J; Becker, R A

    1984-10-01

    A 57-year-old man with a prior episode of lymphatic toxoplasmosis presented with signs of anterior panhypopituitarism, which was confirmed by standard endocrinologic evaluation. The diagnosis of central nervous system toxoplasmosis was established by brain biopsy after nondiagnostic serologic and radiographic studies. At autopsy, the anterior pituitary was necrotic, with Toxoplasma abscesses in neighboring brain structures. Clinical and laboratory data met the criteria for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Although this is the first reported case of toxoplasmosis presenting as panhypopituitarism, future cases may be identified since central nervous system toxoplasmosis is being recognized more frequently in patients with immunodeficiency.

  12. Use of CD25 as an immunohistochemical marker for acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Cristina; Mattos Neto, Rubens Belfort; Cesare, Sebastian Di; Belfort Junior, Rubens; Burnier, Miguel N

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior infectious uveitis worldwide. It is often impossible to determine its congenital or acquired nature. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) in peripheral blood has been described as a possible marker for acquired toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of ocular toxoplasmosis cases using CD25 as a marker for the expression of interleukin-2. Ten formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded enucleated globes from ten immunocompetent patients with clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were evaluated. Four patients had the acquired form of ocular toxoplasmosis (positive IgM) while six were IgM negative and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis. Histopathological slides were reviewed for the extension of the retinal necrosis, number of toxo cysts, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction, the presence of T and B cells within the choroid and the IL-2 expression. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies was performed to observe the expression of CD4, CD8, CD20, CD25, and CD68. The histopathological evaluation disclosed no differences between acquired and the other ocular toxoplasmosis cases regarding the characteristics studied. However, CD25 showed a higher expression of IL-2 on the 4 acquired cases of ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the remainders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the use of CD25 as a marker for interleukin-2 could differentiate acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

  13. Toxoplasmosis with hemophagocytic syndrome after bone marrow transplantation: diagnosis at autopsy.

    PubMed

    Duband, S; Cornillon, J; Tavernier, E; Dumollard, J-M; Guyotat, D; Péoc'h, M

    2008-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare but well recognized opportunistic infection that can occur after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Besides encephalitis, other common presentations of Toxoplasma gondii infection are interstitial pneumonitis and myocarditis. Because of its non-specific clinical and biological signs and its lethal outcome, toxoplasmosis is often misdiagnosed and only revealed at autopsy. We report a case of a postmortem diagnosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis associated with hemophagocytic syndrome, which underlines the value of necropsy in cases of death after transplantation. We also discuss clinical presentations and risk factors that lead to toxoplasmosis in allo-HSCT recipients.

  14. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the future of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Aize; Petersen, Eskild

    2014-04-01

    Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about its exact prevalence and how it affects the quality of life. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis depends on local habits throughout the globe, and changes are likely in view of increased meat consumption in developing countries and demands for higher animal welfare in the Western world. Water is increasingly seen as an important risk factor and more studies are needed to quantitate and control the role of water exposure (drinking, swimming). Tools are now becoming available to study both the human host as well as parasite genetic factors in the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Further research on the role of Toxoplasma strains as well as basic studies on parasite virulence is needed to explain why Toxoplasma associated eye disease is so severe in some countries, such as Brazil. Although genetic analysis of the parasite represents the gold standard, further developments in serotyping using peptide arrays may offer practical solutions to study the role of parasite strains in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. More research is needed concerning the pathways whereby the parasite can infect the retina. Once in the retina further tissue damage may be due to parasite virulence factors or could be caused by an aberrant host immune response. Local intraocular immune responses are nowadays used for diagnostic procedures. Future developments may include the use of Raman technology or the direct visualization of a Toxoplasma cyst by optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the availability of ocular fluid specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and the development of advanced proteomic techniques, a biomarker fingerprint that is unique for an eye with

  15. Trends, Productivity Losses, and Associated Medical Conditions Among Toxoplasmosis Deaths in the United States, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000–2010. A matched case–control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

  16. [The results of Russian multicenter open-label observational study of the efficacy and safety of мelaxen (melatonin) for the treatment of disordered sleep in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Poluéktov, M G; Levin, Ia I; Boĭko, A N; Skoromets, A A; Bel'skaia, G N; Gustov, A V; Doronin, B M; Poverennova, I E; Spirin, N N; Iakupov, E Z

    2012-01-01

    The results of the multicenter open-label observational study of the efficacy and safety of the Melaxen (melatonin) for the treatment of disordered sleep in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia are presented. 2062 patients were studied with the use of subjective psychometric scales: subjective sleep characteristics scale, sleep apnea screening questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness scale, hospital anxiety and depression scale. Mean age of patients was 55.7±9.0 years, there were 74.1% females and 25.9% males. Melaxen was given in dosage of 3 mg. before sleep for 24 days. The use of Melaxen leads to the increase of subjective sleep quality by the subjective sleep characteristics scale from 19.7±3.1 points to и 22.7±3.4 points on day 14 and 22.7±3.4 on day 24 (differences are significant at p<0.0001). There was the decrease of the relative number of patients with frequent night awakenings, prolonged sleep latency, short night sleep, poor quality of morning awakening and multiple bothering dreams. Authors conclude that the use of Melaxen in dosage of 3 mg before sleep is effective and safe insomnia treatment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia.

  17. Identification of Potential Serodiagnostic and Subunit Vaccine Antigens by Antibody Profiling of Toxoplasmosis Cases in Turkey*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Döşkaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ayşe; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E.; Bradley, Peter J.; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L.; Davies, D. Huw

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a ‘tier-1′ test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a ‘tier-2′ test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of

  18. Identification of potential serodiagnostic and subunit vaccine antigens by antibody profiling of toxoplasmosis cases in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li; Döşkaya, Mert; Juarez, Silvia; Caner, Ayşe; Jasinskas, Algis; Tan, Xiaolin; Hajagos, Bettina E; Bradley, Peter J; Korkmaz, Metin; Gürüz, Yüksel; Felgner, Philip L; Davies, D Huw

    2011-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by infection of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is associated with mild disease in healthy individuals, whereas individuals with depressed immunity may develop encephalitis, neurologic disorders, and other organ diseases. Women who develop acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy are at risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus, which may lead to fetal damage. A diagnosis is usually confirmed by measuring IgG, or IgM where it is important to determine the onset of infection. A negative IgM result essentially excludes acute infection, whereas a positive IgM test is largely uninterpretable because IgM can persist for up to 18 months after infection. To identify antigens for improved diagnosis of acute infection, we probed protein microarrays displaying the polypeptide products of 1357 Toxoplasma exons with well-characterized sera from Turkey. The sera were classified according to conventional assays into (1) seronegative individuals with no history of T. gondii infection; (2) acute infections defined by clinical symptoms, high IgM titers, and low avidity IgG; (3) chronic/convalescent cases with high avidity IgG but persisting IgM; (iv) true chronic infections, defined by high avidity IgG and no IgM. We have identified 38 IgG target antigens and 108 IgM target antigens that can discriminate infected patients from healthy controls, one or more of which could form the basis of a 'tier-1' test to determine current or previous exposure. Of these, three IgG antigens and five IgM antigens have the potential to discriminate chronic/IgM persisting or true chronics from recent acutely infected patients (a 'tier-2' test). Our analysis of the antigens revealed several enriched features relative to the whole proteome, which include transmembrane domains, signal peptides, or predicted localization at the outer membrane. This is the first protein microarray survey of the antibody response to T. gondii, and will help in the development of improved

  19. Real-time PCR using the 529 bp repeat element for the diagnosis of atypical ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Steeples, Laura R; Guiver, Malcolm; Jones, Nicholas P

    2016-02-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis may present in atypical fashion, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, and PCR is an important diagnostic tool especially when differentiating from other infectious causes. A descriptive case-series demonstrating the use of a novel real-time PCR protocol targeting 529 bp repeat element, a multicopy and highly conserved fragment, in Toxoplasma gondii genome. This was designed and established by our microbiology service following independent, external validation. Three immunosuppressed patients presenting to a tertiary uveitis referral centre with unilateral, severe, sight-threatening uveitis are described. One patient presented with a large focus of sight-threatening retinitis and occlusive vasculitis while on systemic immunosuppression with azathioprine and adalimumab for Crohn's disease. One patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia presented with severe posterior uveitis and total retinal detachment. Finally, the third patient presented with severe retinitis adjacent to the optic nerve and vitritis causing acute vision loss. HIV infection was subsequently identified. In all three cases, the cause of inflammation was not clear from clinical examination alone and prompt treatment was required to prevent permanent vision loss. Intraocular sampling and PCR testing was performed including testing for toxoplasmosis, herpesviruses and syphilis. The novel real-time PCR assay described is more sensitive than those targeting the Toxoplasma B1 gene owing to the higher number of repeats and highly conserved sequence level. This technique can be applied in clinical practice and provides a valuable tool for the rapid diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Influence of Intradialytic Aerobic Training in Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stringuetta Belik, Fernanda; Oliveira E Silva, Viviana Rugolo; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Bazan, Rodrigo; Perez Vogt, Barbara; Costa Teixeira Caramori, Jacqueline; Barretti, Pasqual; de Souza Gonçalves, Renato; Fortes Villas Bôas, Paulo José; Hueb, João Carlos; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; da Silva Franco, Roberto Jorge

    2018-06-07

    Changes in cerebral blood flow may play an important role in cognitive impairment among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical activity has a promising role in delaying cognitive impairment in general population, but there are only a few studies in HD to confirm this finding. We aimed to evaluate the effects of intradialytic aerobic training on cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in HD. This is a pilot, controlled, randomized trial. Fifteen patients underwent intradialytic aerobic training 3 times a week for 4 months. The control group was comprised of another 15 patients. Trained patients had a statistically significant improvement of cognitive impairment and basilar maximum blood flow velocity. The proportion of arteries with increased flow velocity was statistically significant between groups. Intradialytic aerobic training improves cognitive impairment and cerebral blood flow of patients in HD, suggesting a possible mechanism improving cognitive impairment by physical training in HD. These data still need to be confirmed by major trials. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii antigens abbreviate regions to diagnose acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy: toward single-sample assays.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juan G; Peretti, Leandro E; García, Valeria S; Peverengo, Luz; González, Verónica D G; Gugliotta, Luis M; Dalla Fontana, Maria L; Lagier, Claudia M; Marcipar, Iván S

    2017-03-01

    P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii proteins are recognized by specific IgG at the early infection stage, making them ideal for acute toxoplasmosis pregnancy control. Both proteins have been studied to discriminate between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. However, results were hardly comparable because different protein obtainment procedures led to different antigens, the reference panels used were not optimally typified, and avidity tests were either not performed or narrowly examined. We bioinformatically predicted P35 and P22 regions with the highest density of epitopes, and expressed them in pET32/BL21DE3 alternative expression system, obtaining the soluble proteins rP35a and rP22a. We assessed their diagnostic performance using pregnant woman serum samples typified as: not infected, NI (IgG-, IgM-), typical-chronic, TC (IgM-, IgG+), presumably acute, A (IgG+, IgM+, low-avidity IgG), and recently chronic, RC (IgG+, IgM+, high-avidity IgG). rP35a performed better than rP22a to differentiate A from RC, the areas under the curve (AUC) being 0.911 and 0.818, respectively. They, however, performed similarly to differentiate A from TC+RC (AUC: 0.915 and 0.907, respectively). rP35a and rP22a evaluation by avidity ELISA to discriminate A from RC rendered AUC values of 0.974 and 0.921, respectively. The indirect ELISA and avidity ELISA results analyzed in tandem were consistent with those obtained using commercial kits. rP35a and rP22a features suggest that, with complementary use, they could replace parasite lysate for toxoplasmosis infection screening and for acute toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Our proposal should be validated by a longitudinal study and may lead to a reliable toxoplasmosis pregnancy control, performing tests in only one serum sample.

  2. Toxoplasmosis: the innocent suspect of pregnancy wastage in Duhok, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Razzak, A H; Wais, S A; Saeid, A Y

    2005-07-01

    To identify the true contribution of toxoplasmosis to fetal loss and bad obstetric history, we tested 310 women, 77.4% of whom had had single or multiple fetal loss, for evidence of infection. The study was conducted in Duhok, northern Iraq, from July 2002 till September 2003. All the women were examined for the presence of toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay; only 3 (0.97%) tested positive. We also tested 187 of the women by latex agglutination test; 55 tested positive. Histopathological examination was done for 9 pregnant women who tested positive by the latex agglutination test but we found no evidence of toxoplasma infection. The results indicate that the contribution of toxoplasmosis to fetal loss in our region is greatly overestimated.

  3. Detection of toxoplasmosis in experimentally infected goats by PCR.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, C; Rao, J R; Mishra, A K; Ray, D; Joshi, P; Singh, R K

    2004-05-15

    PCR was used to diagnose toxoplasmosis in two pairs of Barbari goats infected by oral administration of doses of either 10(4) or 10(5) oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Blood and lymph node aspirates were collected from the infected goats and control goat at intervals, and tissues were also collected from a fetus that was aborted and a doe that died during the trial. Both processed and unprocessed samples were used for the PCR, using primers directed to the multicopy B1 gene. None of the blood samples was positive, but a specific signal was obtained from the lymph node aspirates after partial DNA extraction. Direct PCR of the lung, muscle and mesenteric lymph node of the doe and lung tissue of the aborted fetus yielded the target fragment. The simplified PCR protocols, including partial DNA extraction and direct assay of lung tissue, were effective for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  4. Combined branch retinal vein and artery occlusion in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Fabio Bom; Novelli, Fernando José de; Rosa, Evandro Luis; Nobrega, Mário Junqueira

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old man complained of low visual acuity and pain in his left eye for five days. His ophthalmological examination revealed 2+ anterior chamber reaction and a white, poorly defined retinal lesion at the proximal portion of the inferotemporal vascular arcade. There were retinal hemorrhages in the inferotemporal region extending to the retinal periphery. In addition, venous dilation, increased tortuosity, and ischemic retinal whitening along the inferotemporal vascular arcade were also observed. A proper systemic work-up was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis. He was treated with an anti-toxoplasma medication, and his condition slowly improved. Inferior macular inner and middle retinal atrophy could be observed on optical coherence tomography as a sequela of ischemic injury. To our knowledge, this is the first report of combined retinal branch vein and artery occlusion in toxoplasmosis resulting in a striking and unusual macular appearance.

  5. Clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Hoon; Han, Jae-Hyung; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2011-06-01

    We report here the records of 10 consecutive Korean patients (10 eyes) with ocular toxoplasmosis which showed the typical clinical manifestations with seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies by micro-ELISA between 2006 and 2010. Nine patients were males and 1 was female; their age was 50.5 ± 13.8 years. The most common accompanying signs were vitritis (100%), anterior uveitis (70%), and scattered white deposit (80%). Pre-existing retinochoroidal scar was found in 1 (10%) patient. All patients received antiparasitic chemotherapy and systemic corticosteroid treatment, which resolved the presenting attack and recovered the visual acuity better than initial one in 9 patients and worse in 1. Optic atrophy, cataract, and retinal neovascularization were observed during the follow-up period and recurrence was detected in 3 eyes (30%) 6 to 20 months after the initial attack. In Korea, although rarely detected and reported, ocular toxoplasmosis needs more attention in clinical field of retinal diseases.

  6. Toxoplasmosis preventive behavior and related knowledge among Saudi pregnant women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Al-Agnam, Amena Ahmed; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-06-21

    Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ? two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to < 30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ? secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are

  7. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  8. [Protocols for the diagnostic verification of lymph node toxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Carosi, G; Ghezzi, L G; Filice, G; Maccabruni, A; Parisi, A; Carnevale, G

    1983-05-31

    The protocol we have fixed for the diagnosis of lymphonodal toxoplasmosis includes a precise succession of tests: 1) specific repeated serological tests (I.H.A.T., I.F.A.T., IgM--I.F.A.T. on total serum and on pure IgM fraction); 2) lymphonodal biopsy for histological examination and biological test (isolation procedure in mouse). We have evaluated the effectiveness of our protocol in 20 cases that we observed during 1980.

  9. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

    PubMed

    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. New antibacterials for the treatment of toxoplasmosis; a patent review.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Juan Bautista; Szajnman, Sergio Hernán

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis. T. gondii is able to infect a wide range of hosts, particularly humans and warm-blooded animals. Toxoplasmosis can be considered as one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases affecting close to one billion people worldwide, but its current chemotherapy is still deficient and is only effective in the acute phase of the disease. This review covers different approaches to toxoplasmosis chemotherapy focused on the metabolic differences between the host and the parasite. Selective action on different targets such as the isoprenoid pathway, dihydrofolate reductase, T. gondii adenosine kinase, different antibacterials, T. gondii histone deacetylase and calcium-dependent protein kinases is discussed. A new and safe chemotherapy is needed, as T. gondii causes serious morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and immunodeficient patients undergoing chemotherapy. A particular drawback of the available treatments is the lack of efficacy against the tissue cyst of the parasite. During this review a broad scope of several attractive targets for drug design have been presented. In this context, the isoprenoid pathway, dihydrofolate reductase, T. gondii histone deacetylase are promising molecular targets.

  11. [Toxoplasmosis-antibody seroprevalence in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, K; Hülsse, C; Straube, W; Briese, V

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get a general idea of the antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis within the different agegroups of the population of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. 4854 serums (collected between 1994 and 1996) from different institutions of the federal state were investigated with the "Toxo-Competitions Test LTXC)" at the Mini-Vidas divice (bio Merieux). An antibody prevalence rate of 59% was found. As expected, with rising age a continuing increase was recognisable. The antibody prevalence rate with the male test persons amounted to 58.5%, with the female test persons to 59.3%, and within the pregnant women 63.2%. Therefore 36.8% of pregnant women have got no toxoplasmosis antibodies, i.e. they are exposed to the danger of a primary infection. Within pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 an increase of antibody prevalence of 1% per year of age was recognisable. There was only a small share of pregnant women (10.5%), but they confirm the facts known from literature. More than 1/3 of our test persons hadn't had toxoplasmosis antibodies. Therefore in order to reduce the danger of a primary infection in pregnant women a screening before pregnancy in recommendable.

  12. Toxoplasmosis-associated abortion and stillbirth in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh Sadat; Rasti, Sima; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Kazemi, Bahram; Mousavi, Seyed Gholam Abbas; Abdoli, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the role of toxoplasmosis in etiology of abortion and stillbirth based on molecular and serological techniques. A total of 110 pregnant women with abortion and stillbirth were enrolled as the case group, and 110 pregnant women with normal delivery were enrolled as the control group. Serological and molecular detections of Toxoplasma gondii were assessed by ELISA and PCR methods. The seroprevalence of IgG was 25.5% in the case group (26.8% in abortion and 21.4% in stillbirth) and 26.4% in the control group. IgM seropositivity was detected in 2.7% of the case group (3.6% in abortion and 0% in stillbirth) and 0.9% of the control group (p = 0.37). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 6.4% of the case group (7.3% in abortion and 3.6% in stillbirth) and 1.8% of the control group by PCR (p = 0.17). The major risk factor of congenital toxoplasmosis was the history of eating undercooked meat (p = 0.06). Results of this study revealed that the rate of PCR positive in women with abortion and stillbirth was 3.7 times higher than that in normal delivery, but the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that toxoplasmosis can be involved in etiology of abortion and stillbirth.

  13. Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Carme, B.; Bissuel, F.; Ajzenberg, D.; Bouyne, R.; Aznar, C.; Demar, M.; Bichat, S.; Louvel, D.; Bourbigot, A. M.; Peneau, C.; Neron, P.; Dardé, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, nonspecific infectious syndrome accompanied by an altered general status with at least one visceral localization, mainly pulmonary involvement (14 cases). Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. Recovery was rapid following specific antitoxoplasmosis treatment. Thirteen of the 16 patients had consumed game in the 2 weeks before the onset of the symptoms, and in eight cases the game was considered to have been undercooked. Toxoplasma strains, which were virulent in mice, were isolated from three patients. Microsatellite analysis showed that all of these isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype, with one allele found only for isolates of this region. PMID:12409371

  14. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a patient with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pastorello, Ricardo Garcia; Costa, Anderson da Costa Lino; Sawamura, Marcio Valente Yamada; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Extracerebral toxoplasmosis, with pulmonary involvement and shock, is a rare form of toxoplasmosis in patients with advanced AIDS. It can mimic pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, and disseminated tuberculosis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes of respiratory failure and fulminant disease in this group of individuals, especially in areas where the Toxoplasma gondii infection is highly prevalent and in those without proper use of antimicrobial prophylaxis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with uremia, requiring urgent dialysis. During the laboratorial investigation, the patient had confirmed HIV infection, with a low CD4+ peripheral T-cell count (74 cells/µL). During hospitalization, the patient presented drug-induced hepatitis due to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in a prophylactic dose, requiring interruption of this medication. On the 55th day of hospitalization, the patient developed refractory shock and died. At the autopsy, disseminated toxoplasmosis with encephalitis and severe necrotizing pneumonia were diagnosed, with numerous tachyzoites in the areas of pulmonary necrosis. PMID:29588907

  15. [Acute toxoplasmosis in coexistent non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Welge-Lüssen, A; Hauser, R

    1999-06-01

    There are many reasons for cervical lymph node enlargement. In particular, the large group of infectious diseases must be considered along with malignant diseases. The coexistence of an uncommon infectious disease with malignant disease is a rare event. We report the case of an otherwise healthy 69-year-old man with marked enlargement of his cervical lymph nodes. A diagnosis of a recent toxoplasmosis infection was made based on positive IgG and IgM toxoplasma titers and the results of fine-needle aspiration from a lymph node. Since the enlarged lymph nodes persisted for more than weeks, the lymph node was excised. Histological examination revealed a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. IgM titers in toxoplasmosis can persist up to 1 year. In cases with rare infectious diseases like toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients, swollen lymph nodes that persist or grow should lead to the suspicion of additional disease. A diagnosis can be confirmed by removing a lymph node for histology.

  16. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Meenken, C; Assies, J; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Holwerda-van der Maat, W G; van Schooneveld, M J; Delleman, W J; Kinds, G; Rothova, A

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS--Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. RESULTS--In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features were optic nerve atrophy (83%), visual acuity of less than 0.1 (85%), strabismus, and microphthalmos. In 50% of cases we observed iridic abnormalities and about 40% developed a cataract. Overt endocrinological disease, diagnosed in five of 15 patients, included panhypopituitarism (n = 2), gonadal failure with dwarfism (n = 1), precocious puberty with dwarfism and thyroid deficiency (n = 1), and diabetes mellitus and thyroid deficiency (n = 1). The observed endocrinological involvement was associated in all cases with obstructive hydrocephalus with a dilated third ventricle and optic nerve atrophy. CONCLUSION--The recognition of long term ocular, neurological, and endocrinological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis is important for medical management of these severely handicapped patients. PMID:7626575

  17. Case-control study of an outbreak of acute toxoplasmosis in an industrial plant in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Claudio Cesar Jaguaribe; Chiossi, Maria Fernanda do Valle; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de; Figueiredo, Walter Manso; Marciano, Maria Aparecida Moraes; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne diseases represent operational risks in industrial restaurants. We described an outbreak of nine clustered cases of acute illness resembling acute toxoplasmosis in an industrial plant with 2300 employees. These patients and another 36 similar asymptomatic employees were diagnosed with anti-T. gondii IgG titer and avidity by ELISA. We excluded 14 patients based on high IgG avidity and chronic toxoplasmosis: 13 from controls and one from acute disease other than T. gondii infection. We also identified another three asymptomatic employees with T.gondii acute infection and also anti-T. gondii IgM positive as remaining acute cases. Case control study was conducted by interview in 11 acute infections and 20 negative controls. The ingestion of green vegetables, but not meat or water, was observed to be associated with the incidence of acute disease. These data reinforce the importance of sanitation control in industrial restaurants and also demonstrate the need for improvement in quality control regarding vegetables at risk for T. gondii oocyst contamination. We emphasized the accurate diagnosis of indexed cases and the detection of asymptomatic infections to determine the extent of the toxoplasmosis outbreak.

  18. Analysis of cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and nitric oxide in amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant women with toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Ariella Andrade; Colli, Cristiane Maria; de Souza, Carla Zangari; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Tiyo, Bruna Tiaki; Evangelista, Fernanda F; Higa, Lourenco; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2018-06-01

    This study detected and compared the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β and nitric oxide (NO) in amniotic fluid (AF) and serum of pregnancies with acute toxoplasmosis, Southern Brazil. It also was compared the levels of the same mediators in the serum of pregnancies in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis with non-infected. Serological investigation, anti-T gondii IgM and IgG, of the 67 pregnancies was determined by Elisa MEIA. Forty two were uninfected, eight in chronic phase and 17 in acute phase. Among the acute phase, seven agreed to amniocentesis. The cytokines, in serum and in AF, were assessed by sandwich ELISA, and NO was estimated from the nitrite measurement with Griess reagent. The IFN-γ and TGF-β levels in the AF and blood were similar, while TNF-α levels was lower in the AF. On the other hand, NO was higher in the AF. Chronically infected pregnant women have showed lower levels of INF-γ than those in acute and uninfected pregnancies. The serological levels of TNF-α were lower in pregnancies with toxoplasmosis, when compared with non-infected. TGF-β levels were higher in pregnancies in acute phase when compared with uninfected or chronically infected. NO in the serum of the infected had lower levels than those non-infected. In summary, higher concentrations of NO and lower levels of TNF-α were observed in the AF than in the serum of acute pregnancies, while TGF-β e INF-γ levels were similar in both biological material. In the serum of infected pregnancies was observed decrease in inflammatory mediators and increase of TGF-β. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving

    PubMed Central

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C.; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. Methodology/Principal findings We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Conclusions/Significance Cost savings under a national program of

  20. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: value of the buffy coat for the detection of circulating Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Capderou, Elodie; Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bailly, Sébastien; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Sterkers, Yvon; Touafek, Fériel; Bastien, Patrick; Pelloux, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites circulating in blood using PCR is recommended for immunosuppressed patients at high risk for disseminated toxoplasmosis. Using a toxoplasmosis mouse model, we show that the sensitivity of detection is higher using buffy coat isolated from a large blood volume than using whole blood for this molecular monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting with fetal atrial flutter after maternal ingestion of infected moose meat.

    PubMed

    Colosimo, Sarah M; Montoya, Jose G; Westley, Benjamin P; Jacob, Jack; Isada, Nelson B

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of undercooked game meat during pregnancy is considered a risk factor for congenital toxoplasmosis, but cases definitively linking ingestion of infected meat to clinical disease are lacking. We report a confirmed case of congenital toxoplasmosis identified because of atrial flutter in the fetus and linked to maternal consumption of Toxoplasma gondii PCR-positive moose meat.

  2. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.

  3. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and cognition in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gale, S D; Brown, B L; Erickson, L D; Berrett, A; Hedges, D W

    2015-04-01

    Latent infection from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is widespread worldwide and has been associated with cognitive deficits in some but not all animal models and in humans. We tested the hypothesis that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased cognitive function in a large cross-sectional dataset, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). There were 4178 participants aged 20-59 years, of whom 19.1% had IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Two ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models adjusted for the NHANES complex sampling design and weighted to represent the US population were estimated for simple reaction time, processing speed and short-term memory or attention. The first model included only main effects of latent toxoplasmosis and demographic control variables, and the second added interaction terms between latent toxoplasmosis and the poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), educational attainment and race-ethnicity. We also used multivariate models to assess all three cognitive outcomes in the same model. Although the models evaluating main effects only demonstrated no association between latent toxoplasmosis and the cognitive outcomes, significant interactions between latent toxoplasmosis and the PIR, between latent toxoplasmosis and educational attainment, and between latent toxoplasmosis and race-ethnicity indicated that latent toxoplasmosis may adversely affect cognitive function in certain groups.

  4. Clinical characteristics and computed tomography findings of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Masahiko; Norose, Kazumi; Hikosaka, Kenji; Kaiume, Hiroko; Takeda, Wataru; Kirihara, Takehiko; Kurihara, Taro; Sato, Keijiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahide; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2016-12-01

    The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) findings revealed centrilobular, patchy ground-glass opacities (n = 3), diffuse ground-glass opacities (n = 2), ground-glass opacities with septal thickening (n = 1), and marked pleural effusion (n = 1). All cases died, except for one with suspected pulmonary toxoplasmosis who was diagnosed by a polymerase chain reaction assay 2 days after the onset of symptoms. In pulmonary toxoplasmosis, CT findings are non-specific and may mimic pulmonary congestion, atypical pneumonia, viral pneumonitis, and bronchopneumonia. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for overcoming this serious infectious complication. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered during differential diagnosis in a recipient with otherwise unexplained signs of infection and CT findings with ground-glass opacities, regardless of the distribution.

  5. [Cerebral protection].

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  6. Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Pagliari, Sthefany; Pasquali, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi; Nino, Beatriz; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Monica, Thaís Cabral; Tschurtschenthaler, Nely Norder; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detect Toxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%, specificity of 62.8%, predictive positive value of 76.6% and predictive negative value of 45.4% (p = 0.0002). The ELISA-rROP2 reacted with 62.5% of the samples from pregnant women with probable acute infection and 40% of the samples from pregnant women with previous exposure (p = 0.0180). Seropositivity was observed in 50/57 (87.7%) pregnant women with possible infection. The results underscored that T. gondii rROP2 is recognised by specific IgG antibodies in both the acute and chronic phases of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy. However, the sensitivity of the ELISA-rROP2 was higher in the pregnant women with probable and possible acute infections and IgM reactivity.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigens as Tools for Serodiagnosis of Human Toxoplasmosis: Current Status of Studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum sample. The specificities and sensitivities of serology tests depend mostly on the diagnostic antigen(s) used. Most of the commercial serological kits currently available are based on Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). In recent years, many studies showed that recombinant antigenic proteins of T. gondii may be an alternative source of antigens which are very useful for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This article presents a review of current studies on the application and usefulness of different T. gondii recombinant antigens in serological tests for the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. PMID:23784855

  8. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26045858

  9. Acquired toxoplasmosis of the buccal area with extranodular involvement: report of an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Köybaşi, Serap; Süslü, Ahmet Emre; Yigit, Beyhan; Boran, Cetin

    2009-12-01

    Acquired toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in humans. It can be caused by ingestion of infected meat or other food that has been contaminated by the feces of infected cats. Approximately 90% of immunocompetent patients with acquired toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic and undiagnosed; in the other 10%, toxoplasmosis manifests as a nonspecific, self-limited illness that usually does not require treatment. In symptomatic cases, cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the most common clinical findings. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who experienced unilateral facial swelling secondary to toxoplasmosis. In addition to the atypical location of her disease (i.e., the buccal area), the atypical histopathologic findings in this case (e.g., extranodular involvement) constituted a very unusual presentation of toxoplasmosis.

  10. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis.

  11. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Smit, G Suzanne A; Vu, Thi Lam Binh; Do, Trung Dung; Speybroeck, Niko; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Padalko, Elizaveta; Roets, Ellen; Dorny, Pierre

    2017-05-25

    In Vietnam, no systematic prenatal toxoplasmosis screening is in place, and only few studies have assessed the prevalence and importance of this zoonotic parasite infection. In addition, no studies have been conducted to assess the risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. This study protocol was developed to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hanoi and Thai Binh, Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the association with risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis. The protocol was developed in a way that it could potentially evolve into a countrywide prenatal diagnosis and prevention program, with the main focus on primary prevention. The collaborating gynaecologists will invite eligible pregnant women attending antenatal care for the first time to participate in the study. At first consult, information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention will be provided. All participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire, which is designed to analyse socio-demographic and biologically plausible risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis, and blood samples will be collected to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. In case there is suspicion of a primary infection during pregnancy, the concerned women will be followed-up by the gynaecologists according to a predefined protocol. Every participant will be informed on her serological status, risk factors and prevention measures and is offered appropriate medical information and medical follow-up if required. The hypothesis is that congenital toxoplasmosis is an important but currently under-diagnosed public health problem in Vietnam. This study can strengthen sustainable control of toxoplasmosis in Vietnam, provide a protocol for prenatal diagnosis, boost overall awareness, improve the knowledge about toxoplasmosis prevention and can be essential for evidence-based health policy.

  13. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Annaba, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Distal polyneuropathy in an adult Birman cat with toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Mari, Lorenzo; Shelton, G Diane; De Risio, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    A 6-year-old female spayed Birman cat presented with a history of weight loss, stiff and short-strided gait in the pelvic limbs and reluctance to jump, progressing to non-ambulatory tetraparesis over 6 weeks. Poor body condition, dehydration and generalised muscle wastage were evident on general examination. Neurological examination revealed mildly depressed mental status, non-ambulatory flaccid tetraparesis and severely decreased proprioception and spinal reflexes in all four limbs. The neuroanatomical localisation was to the peripheral nervous system. Haematology, feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus serology, serum biochemistry, including creatine kinase and thyroxine, thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound did not reveal significant abnormalities. Electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in axial and appendicular muscles. Decreased motor conduction velocities and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were detected in ulnar and sciatic-tibial nerves. Residual latency was increased in the sciatic-tibial nerve. Histologically, several intramuscular nerve branches were depleted of myelinated fibres and a few showed mononuclear infiltrations. Toxoplasma gondii serology titres were compatible with active toxoplasmosis. Four days after treatment initiation with oral clindamycin the cat recovered the ability to walk. T gondii serology titres and neurological examination were normal after 11 and 16 weeks, respectively. Clindamycin was discontinued after 16 weeks. One year after presentation the cat showed mild relapse of clinical signs and seroconversion, which again resolved following treatment with clindamycin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of distal polyneuropathy associated with toxoplasmosis in a cat. This case suggests the inclusion of toxoplasmosis as a possible differential diagnosis for acquired polyneuropathies in cats.

  15. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... Ahead Print en español Parálisis cerebral What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects ...

  16. [Intramedullary toxoplasmosis in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patient].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lazo, Giancarlo; Castillo-Córdova, Raúl; Maquera-Afaray, Julio

    2017-02-01

    The most common clinical presentation of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients is encephalitis; however, the intramedullary involvement has been reported in a few cases. We report a case of intramedullary toxoplasmosis in a female patient diagnosed with HIV/tuberculosis co-infection, and history of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. The patient developed subacute paraparesis with compromise of sensory function and urinary sphincter. The nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation showed a single intramedullary ring-enhanced lesion at the T-8 level which was solved after an anti-Toxoplasma therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  17. CCR5 chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Faria Junior, Geraldo M; Ayo, Christiane M; de Oliveira, Amanda P; Lopes, Alessandro G; Frederico, Fábio B; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida P; Previato, Mariana; Barbosa, Amanda P; Murata, Fernando H A; de Almeida Junior, Gildásio Castello; Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; de Mattos, Luiz C; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara C

    2018-02-01

    CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms are associated with the development of ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Patients with positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and grouped as 'with ocular toxoplasmosis' (G1: n=160) or 'without ocular toxoplasmosis' (G2: n=160). A control group (G3) consisted of 160 individuals with negative serology. The characterization of the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms was by PCR and by PCR-RFLP, respectively. The difference between the groups with respect to the mean age (G1: mean age: 47.3, SD±19.3, median: 46 [range: 18-95]; G2: mean age: 61.3, SD±13.7, median: 61 [range: 21-87]; G3: mean age: 38.8, SD±17.9, median: 34 [range: 18-80]) was statistically significant (G1 vs.G2: p-value <0.0001; t=7.21; DF=318; G1 vs.G3: p-value <0.0001; t=4.32; DF=318; G2 vs. G3: p-value <0.0001; t=9.62; DF=318). The Nagelkerke r 2 value was 0.040. There were statistically significant differences for the CCR5/CCR5 (p-value=0.008; OR=0.261), AA (p-value=0.007; OR=2.974) and AG genotypes (p-value=0.018; OR=2.447) between G1 and G2. Individuals with the CCR5/CCR5 genotype and simultaneously the CCR5-59029 AA or AG genotypes have a greater risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (4% greater), which may be associated with a strong and persistent inflammatory response in ocular tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ocular toxoplasmosis in the United States: recent and remote infections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Bonetti, Valerie; Holland, Gary N; Press, Cindy; Sanislo, Steven R; Khurana, Rahul N; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-01-15

    We tested all samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis sent to the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory from June 2004 through August 2010 for serologic evidence of recent Toxoplasma gondii infection. Of 205 patients aged 10-96 years, 11.7% had recent infection. Many people develop ocular disease soon after T. gondii infection. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Current Therapy of Acquired Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme Sturzeneker Cerqueira; Saraiva, Patricia Grativol Costa; Saraiva, Fábio Petersen

    2015-11-01

    Caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most common form of posterior infectious uveitis. Combined antiparasitic therapy is the standard treatment for OT, but several other schemes have been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature on the treatment of OT and provide ophthalmologists with up-to-date information to help reduce OT-related visual morbidity. In conclusion, no ideal treatment scheme was identified; currently prescribed therapeutic schemes yield statistically similar functional outcomes.

  20. Late diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis based on serological follow-up: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dard, Céline; Chemla, Cathy; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Baret, Marie; Mzabi, Alexandre; Villena, Isabelle; Pelloux, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite infecting up to one third of the world's population. T. gondii infection is usually benign in immunocompetent patients but can be life-threatening when congenitally transmitted. Congenital toxoplasmosis presentation ranges from severe central nervous system and ocular features, to a well appearing newborn with onset of complications late in childhood. The diagnosis of subclinical form remains important since early treatment reduces later complications such as chorioretinitis. We report an atypical case of congenital toxoplasmosis with a delayed diagnosis, based on Toxoplasma-specific serological follow-up. The infant was born to a mother who became infected during pregnancy, thus inducing infant biological and clinical follow-up. Neither biological nor clinical arguments favored a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis until ten months of life. Congenital toxoplasmosis was then suspected because of an unusual increase of specific IgG levels. Diagnosis was confirmed by detection of newly synthesized newborn Ig isotypes using complementary comparative mother-to-child immunological profile techniques and specific treatment therefore administered. This report highlights the importance to follow up newborns at risk of congenital toxoplasmosis with specific and newborn-appropriate techniques until Toxoplasma-IgG titers are completely negative. This allows not only the exclusion of congenital toxoplasmosis when serology becomes negative, but also the diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis when infection is detected later in development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The IFN-gamma +874T/A gene polymorphism is associated with retinochoroiditis toxoplasmosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Maíra Cavalcanti de; Aleixo, Ana Luisa Quintella do Couto; Benchimol, Eliezer Israel; Leandro, Ana Cristina Câmara S; das Neves, Leandro Batista; Vicente, Regiane Trigueiro; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Glória; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2009-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that generally produces an asymptomatic infection. In some cases, however, toxoplasmosis infection can lead to ocular damage. The immune system has a crucial role in both the course of the infection and in the evolution of toxoplasmosis disease. In particular, IFN-gamma plays an important role in resistance to toxoplasmosis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines have been shown to have an association with susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The aim of this work was to analyse the occurrence of polymorphisms in the gene encoding IFN-gamma (+874T/A) among Toxoplasma gondii seropositive individuals, including those with ocular lesions caused by the parasite, from a rural population of Santa Rita de Cássia, Barra Mansa, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Further, we verified which of these polymorphisms could be related to susceptibility to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. This study included 34 individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis (ocular group) and 134 without ocular lesions (control group). The differences between A and T allele distributions were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, we observed that a higher frequency of individuals from the ocular group possessed the A/A genotype, when compared with the control group, suggesting that homozygocity for the A allele could enhance susceptibility to ocular toxoplasmosis in T. gondii infection.

  2. [Knowledge and practices on toxoplasmosis in physicians attending pregnant women in Durango, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Álvarez, Antonio; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Rojas-Rivera, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    To determine the level of knowledge and practices about toxoplasmosis in physicians attending pregnant women in Durango, Mexico. One hundred physicians attending pregnant women in Durango,Mexico were surveyed. Of them, 67 were general practitioners, 17 family physicians, and 16 obstetricians. They were asked about (i) the parasite Toxoplasma gondii; (ii) general aspects about toxoplasmosis including clinical manifestations,diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiology; and (iii) their practices and experiences on toxoplasmosis. From 66 to 89% (mean 78.5%) of physicians answered correctly about the parasite; 25 to 63% (mean 46.9%) answered correctly about clinical manifestations; and 36 to 45% (mean 40.5%) answered correctly about the serological diagnosis. Only 7% knew about the use of avidity test. Few physicians (23%) knew what medicaments are used against toxoplasmosis.From 12 to 86% (mean 40.3%) of participants answered correctly about transmission routes and only 7% got the right answer about susceptibility of infection. Fifty-nine percent of physicians never requested laboratory tests for detecting toxoplasmosis, and only 31% provide information for preventing infection to all their patients. Sixteen (16%) physicians had detected at least one case of Toxoplasma infection acquired during pregnancy. The physicians surveyed showed an incomplete knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis. Results are useful for optimal design of strategies in the medical education about toxoplasmosis.

  3. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Gontijo da Silva, Marcos; Clare Vinaud, Marina; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease. To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH) from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil. A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG), Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%. The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62-72.86). The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74-67.32). The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3-7.3) suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4-45.6). These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of T

  4. Varicella-Like Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with Aplastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Stefan; Hadaschik, Eva; Dalpke, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Lehners, Nicola; Kapaun, Annette

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old patient with aplastic anemia presented with vesicular varicella-like skin lesions on her face, arms, legs, back, and abdomen. However, diagnosis for herpetic infection was negative. Findings of a skin biopsy led to a tentative histologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and infection with Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare finding in immunocompromised patients and might mimic other infectious diseases, and vesicular lesions associated with toxoplasmosis have not been reported previously. PMID:23390283

  5. Acquired toxoplasmosis of a submandibular lymph node in a 13-year-old boy: case report.

    PubMed

    Azaz, B; Milhem, I; Hasson, O; Kirsch, G

    1994-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection divided into congenital and acquired forms. In the latter form, malaise, fatigue, and lymphadenopathy are commonly found, and submandibular lymphadenopathy is sometimes a manifestation. In children, cervical lymph nodes usually are affected. This is a case of a 13-year-old boy suffering from acquired toxoplasmosis, in which submandibular lymphadenopathy was the only clinical sign of the disease. Meticulous history taking, clinical examination, and specific serological tests should be performed in these cases. Positive serological results will confirm toxoplasmosis infections. Conservative treatment must be attempted initially.

  6. Studies on Toxoplasmosis in Animals in Association with Man in Egypt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    A0 A067 320 AIN SHAMS ISUV CAIRO (EGYPT) FACULTY OF ICOICINC F/$ 6~ 13STUDIES ON TOXOPLASMOSIS IN ANIMALS IN ASSOCIATION W ITH MAN IN —— ETC ( u At...128). - - Sero].~ogioal results for sara of cows( ~ sara showed negative pe.c$**s reactions -for toxoplasmosis and 11 sara were positive for Toxoplasma...1/32 and two sara at a titr. of 1/64. - Concerning cows ’ sara from Rashid ~ 13 ape cimene out .ot 1 procured wer e eeronegative for toxoplasmosis

  7. Vaccination with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii ROP54 induces protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Yang; Chen, Kai; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which infects most of the warm-blooded animals, causing serious public health problems and enormous economic losses worldwide. The rhoptry effector protein 54 (ROP54) has been indicated as a virulence factor that promotes Toxoplasma infection by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles, which can modulate some aspects of the host immune response. In order to evaluate the immuno-protective value of ROP54, we constructed a eukaryotic recombinant plasmid expressing T. gondii ROP54 and intramuscularly immunized Kunming mice with this recombinant plasmid against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. All mice immunized with pVAX-ROP54 elicited a high level of specific antibody responses, a significant increase of lymphocyte proliferation, and a significant level of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p70), in addition to an increased production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). These results demonstrated that pVAX-ROP54 induced significant cellular and humoral (Th1/Th2) immune responses, which extended the survival time (13.0±1.15days for pVAX-ROP54 vs 6.7±0.48days for pVAX I, 6.8±0.42days for PBS and 6.5±0.53 for blank control) and significantly reduced cyst burden (35.9% for pVAX-ROP54, 1% for pVAX I and 2% for PBS, compared with blank control) of immunized mice. These results indicate that the recombinant ROP54 plasmid can provide partial protection and might be a potential vaccine candidate against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of socioeconomic factors on the efficiency of voluntary toxoplasmosis screening during pregnancy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lange, A E; Thyrian, J R; Wetzka, S; Flessa, S; Hoffmann, W; Zygmunt, M; Fusch, C; Lode, H N; Heckmann, M

    2016-07-29

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with severe complications. German state health insurance covers rubella, but not toxoplasmosis, immunity screening. We analysed the effect of socioeconomic factors on the efficiency of private toxoplasmosis screening during pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis and rubella screening data (n = 5402 mothers) were collected within the population-based Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP). At the first-trimester screening, 34.4 % (88.1 %) of expecting mothers were immune to toxoplasmosis (rubella). Susceptibility for toxoplasmosis (rubella) was observed in 39.6 % (8.9 %) and 25.8 % (2.95 %) were not tested. Data on a 2(nd) screening were available in a subgroup of women with negative immunity showing less than 45 % participation rate. Active toxoplasmosis (no rubella) infection was observed in 0.3 % (n = 17) of pregnant women. A multiple logistic regression model (AIC = 719.67; AUC = 0.725) revealed that the likelihood of participating in a second toxoplasmosis screening increased among women with a good level of education and a steady partnership and decreased with paternal unemployment and the absence of breastfeeding. The highest probability of non-participation in toxoplasmosis screening was found among women with temporal burden and family responsibilities. A cost-benefit analysis showed that covering general screening for toxoplasmosis with health insurance saved costs. Toxoplasmosis carried a substantial risk of infection during pregnancy. Although increased socioeconomic status was positively associated with the participation in toxoplasmosis screening, this was not the case when pregnant women had strong temporal burden and family responsibilities. This data supports the need for toxoplasmosis screening among pregnant women as a general healthcare benefit covered by insurance.

  9. Successful Treatment of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Using Pyrimethamine Oral Solution Compounded From Inexpensive Bulk Powder.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Hayley A; Sim, Taeyong; Gonzalez, Hemil; Aziz, Mariam; Rhee, Yoona; Lewis, Paul O; Jhobalia, Neel; Shields, Beth; Wang, Sheila K

    2018-04-01

    A price increase of pyrimethamine tablets in the United States has made the life-saving drug difficult to acquire for hospitalized patients who need it most. We report the successful use of a pyrimethamine oral suspension compounded from an economical bulk powder in a patient with acute toxoplasmic encephalitis.

  10. [Problems of congenital toxoplasmosis. Evolution over four decades].

    PubMed

    Couvreur, J

    1999-04-10

    EFFECT OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES: The development of reliable routine serology tests and the demonstration of the high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in France led to mandatory prospective screening of pregnant women in 1978, followed by prenatal screening in 1985. In addition, in utero diagnosis, first on fetal blood and now with the reliable and safe method using polymerase chain reaction on amniotic fluid, formally identifies the parasite. THE SITUATION TODAY: A comparison of the experience of a specialized center in Paris during three different periods over the last 40 years showed that currently 71% of all cases of congenital toxoplasmosis are infraclinical at birth and only 5% are severe. Mean incidence of seroconversion during pregnancy is 1.48%, with a 40% risk of fetal contamination if no treatment is given. The risk of overt fetopathy predominantly concerns maternal infections occurring prior to 26 weeks gestation. IN UTERO TREATMENT: Positive PCR diagnosis on amniotic fluid imposes serial ultrasound examinations to identify any fetopathy and an in utero treatment by giving the mother the pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination. Biological results are favorable. POST-NATAL TREATMENT: Post-natal treatment is indicated even in latent forms and should be continued for the first year of life. The pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination is the only pharmaceutical regimen with well-proven efficacy. New compounds should allow better prophylaxis against maternofetal contamination or improved post-natal treatment. RECURRENCE: In 70% of the cases, serology tests become positive again, but are not associated with significantly increased risk of ocular recurrence.

  11. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Qualyobia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gozamy, Bothina R; Mohamed, Sabry Abdel-fattah; Mansour, Hadil Ahmad M

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted between August 2007 and October 2008 to identify the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women of different ages and stages of gestation. Latex agglutination test was used as screening test. ELISA-IgG & IgM tests measured for the Toxo-Latex positive cases to identify toxoplasmosis clinical status. The results indicated that the prevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women was relatively high in the rural (57.6%) than urban (46.5%) areas. The positivity was correlated, in general, with age as it was higher in the older age groups. No specific clinical pictures were noticed in different patients with variable proportions, as well as a less marked correlation between Toxo-latex positive cases and having toxoplasmic congenital babies. But, neither correlation was detected between the history of congenital toxoplasmosis, or contact with cats and the Toxo-latex out-come results. An acute newly infected pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy that represents the rate of incidence of T. gondii in which ELISA-IgM positive and ELISA-IgG negative, was 23 cases (27.05%) and v.v. was 20 (23.54). The interpretation of IgM and IgG was given.

  12. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV(+)/AIDS patients in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohraz, Minoo; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Jam, Sara; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Sabzvari, Duman; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Jabbari, Hossain; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has arisen as an important opportunistic agent especially in the central nervous system and in advanced HIV disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients in Iran. Blood samples were collected from 201 HIV-positive patients and anti-toxoplasma antibodies were detected by using conventional ELISA. An antibody titer of >3 IU/ml was considered positive. The majority of studied patients were male (male to female ratio: 5 to 1) with the mean age of 36 ± 1 yrs. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients was 49.75%. The mean CD4 count in HIV patients with positive toxoplasma serology was 332.5 ± 22.4 cells/µl. Only 1% of the patients had IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies and 10% of the patients had clinical toxoplasma encephalitis. The mean CD4 count in this group was 66.4 ± 15.5 cells/µl and there was a significant association between CD4 count and rate of toxoplasma encephalitis (P<0.001). Previous reports suggested that toxoplasma encephalitis could be prevented by appropriate chemoprophylaxis. In view of the relatively high prevalence of toxoplasma infection found among the HIV-infected patients in our study, we suggest that routine screening for toxoplasma should be undertaken for all HIV-infected patients in Iran.

  13. [Acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and immunosuppression of tumoral thymic origin].

    PubMed

    Figuier, P; Saragoussi, J J; Cavaillé-Coll, M; Le Hoang, P; Offret, H

    1984-01-01

    A rare case of acute bilateral unifocal chorioretinitis in a 24 years old man is described. The patient had been followed for more than 3 years for a benign thymoma, detected by systematic radiography, that was initially operated on with success. Later, after recurrence of clinical signs a second operation was performed that revealed local invasion of the tumor which was histologically identified as a benign, lymphoid thymoma. Serological data permitted us to attribute the lesions to a sub-acute ganglionary toxoplasmosis, contracted five months before any ocular localization. A treatment including local corticotherapy and oral pyrimethamine and sulfonamide was undertaken. Healing of the retinal lesions occurred slowly. A complete study of the patient's immunity revealed an important deficiency of cell-mediated functions. The problem of diagnosis of opportunistic chorioretinitis is discussed. In patients with impairment of cellular-type immunity, the following are commonly observed: herpes group viral diseases (including cytomegalic inclusion disease), fungus diseases (candida, aspergillus, mucormycosis, cryptococcus), and, rarely, toxoplasmosis. The presence of specific serum antibodies is the most important element in making a diagnosis, considering that the ophthalmoscopic appearance and clinical course may vary.

  14. Ocular toxoplasmosis: background and evidence for an antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Reich, Michael; Mackensen, Friederike

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of current data on antibiotic prophylaxis in ocular toxoplasmosis. Studies showing the prophylactic effect of long-term antibiotics are discussed. Prophylaxis seems to be justified in patients with a high risk of recurrence because of antibiotic's potential side-effects. Therefore, predisposing factors leading to a higher risk of recurrence and the time period during which an antibiotic prophylaxis is most appropriate are reviewed. Finally, a patient-individualized treatment recommendation is summarized. In the current literature, two prospective, randomized case-control studies exist, which show the protective effect of an antibiotic prophylaxis. Hematologic, gastrointestinal and dermatologic complications are potential side-effects. Especially during the first year after suffering a recurrence, an antibiotic prophylaxis seems to be justified. The risk of a recurrence is inter alia influenced by the duration of the disease, the immune status of the host and the patient's age. Therefore, an antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered for patients who have recently been infected with ocular toxoplasmosis, for middle-aged and elderly patients and patients with a compromised immune system. This should be discussed with each patient individually, especially if the lesion is close to the macula.

  15. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

  16. Cerebral responses to innocuous somatic pressure stimulation following aerobic exercise rehabilitation in chronic pain patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Micalos, Peter S; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cannon, Jack; Marino, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to assess the functional brain activity and perceptual rating of innocuous somatic pressure stimulation before and after exercise rehabilitation in patients with chronic pain. Materials and methods Eleven chronic pain patients and eight healthy pain-free controls completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise intervention. Perceptual rating of standardized somatic pressure stimulation (2 kg) on the right anterior mid-thigh and brain responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were assessed at pre- and postexercise rehabilitation. Results There was a significant difference in the perceptual rating of innocuous somatic pressure stimulation between the chronic pain and control groups (P=0.02) but no difference following exercise rehabilitation. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis with correction for multiple comparisons revealed trends for differences in fMRI responses between the chronic pain and control groups in the superior temporal gyrus (chronic pain > control, corrected P=0.30), thalamus, and caudate (control > chronic, corrected P=0.23). Repeated measures of the regions of interest (5 mm radius) for blood oxygen level-dependent signal response revealed trend differences for superior temporal gyrus (P=0.06), thalamus (P=0.04), and caudate (P=0.21). Group-by-time interactions revealed trend differences in the caudate (P=0.10) and superior temporal gyrus (P=0.29). Conclusion Augmented perceptual and brain responses to innocuous somatic pressure stimulation were shown in the chronic pain group compared to the control group; however, 12-weeks of exercise rehabilitation did not significantly attenuate these responses. PMID:25210471

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis: continued parasite proliferation in the fetal brain despite maternal immunological control in other tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J P; Bowker, Colene; Jeffery, Katie J M; Chamberlain, Paul; Squier, Waney

    2013-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a serious condition but little is known of the natural history of parasite development and associated fetal tissue destruction. Two cases identified by ultrasound underwent induced abortion at 21 and 30 weeks' gestation. At autopsy, the placenta and fetal organs were examined by histology and immunocytochemistry employing anti-Toxoplasma stage-specific antibodies to confirm diagnosis and also provide information on the stage of parasite development. In both cases, maternal serology prior to termination showed both specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), whereas retrospective analysis of an earlier sample (12-14 weeks' gestation) showed only IgM reactivity consistent with infection occurring in the first trimester. The finding of a number of tissue cysts but few or no tachyzoites within the placenta and fetal adrenal and heart is characteristic of a chronic infection. However, in contrast, there were still areas of the fetal brain with large numbers of actively dividing, tissue-destructive tachyzoites. These observations show that continued parasite proliferation and tissue destruction can occur within the fetal brain even when there is a marked maternal immune response including maternal IgG. This finding strongly suggests that there may be benefits from treating cases of recently acquired congenital infection to destroy any remaining proliferating parasites located in immunologically protected sites such as the fetal brain.

  18. Targeted Delivery of Toxoplasma gondii Antigens to Dendritic Cells Promote Immunogenicity and Protective Efficiency against Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakhrif, Zineb; Moreau, Alexis; Hérault, Bruno; Di-Tommaso, Anne; Juste, Matthieu; Moiré, Nathalie; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Mévélec, Marie-Noëlle; Aubrey, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem and the development of a human vaccine is of high priority. Efficient vaccination against Toxoplasma gondii requires both a mucosal and systemic Th1 immune response. Moreover, dendritic cells play a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune functions and driving specific adaptive immunity to T. gondii. In this study, we explore an original vaccination strategy that combines administration via mucosal and systemic routes of fusion proteins able to target the major T. gondii surface antigen SAG1 to DCs using an antibody fragment single-chain fragment variable (scFv) directed against DEC205 endocytic receptor. Our results show that SAG1 targeting to DCs by scFv via intranasal and subcutaneous administration improved protection against chronic T. gondii infection. A marked reduction in brain parasite burden is observed when compared with the intranasal or the subcutaneous route alone. DC targeting improved both local and systemic humoral and cellular immune responses and potentiated more specifically the Th1 response profile by more efficient production of IFN-γ, interleukin-2, IgG2a, and nasal IgA. This study provides evidence of the potential of DC targeting for the development of new vaccines against a range of Apicomplexa parasites. PMID:29515595

  19. Semiquantitative Dot Blot with the GRA8 antigen to differentiate the stages of toxoplasmosis infection.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juan Gabriel; Vilariño, María Julia

    2018-06-01

    In this work we present a novel methodology to differentiate the phases of toxoplasmosis infection: the "semiquantitative Dot Blot". It is a simple technique that does not require expensive equipment, does not involve a long technique development, and can be used in a low-complexity laboratory. In this study, two recombinant sequences of Toxoplasma gondii GRA8 antigen were used, and specific IgG antibodies were detected in selected patient samples. This method makes it possible to obtain a score for each serum and define whether the patient is in the acute or chronic phase of the infection. The sensitivity and specificity results varied depending on the antigenic sequence used. With GRA8A, 62.1% and 72.7% were obtained, while with GRA8B, 82.8% and 72.1% were obtained, respectively. Although the sensitivity and specificity values were not close to 100%, they were similar to those reported with the same antigens in ELISA. Therefore, this quantitative technique would be a good alternative to ELISA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxoplasmosis and anti-Toxoplasma effects of medicinal plant extracts-A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Pullishery, Fawaz; El-Ashram, Saeed; Ramaiah, Vardharajula Venkata

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The infection can result in more severe symptoms with potentially life-threatening in case of immunocompromised individuals. Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine are the two drugs used as a part of standard therapy for toxoplasmosis. Researchers have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants for toxoplasmosis, which can be used as an alternative to standard drug therapy with reduced side effects. Traditional herbal plants are used by people to cure a large number of parasitic disorders. This review provides new insights into various medicinal plants that are used traditionally for the treatment of toxoplasmosis and other parasitic infections, which can be useful as an alternative treatment option for Toxoplasma gondii infections. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nursing infant with acquired toxoplasmosis in the first months of life – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Hanstter Hallison Alves; Storchilo, Heloísa Ribeiro; Lima, Jaqueline Ataíde Silva; Gomes, Antônio Roberto; Gomes, Taynara Cristina; de Souza, Jéssica Yonara; Avelino, Mariza Martins; do Amaral, Waldemar Naves; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Castro, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii and the probability of this infection occurring in the first months of life is usually low because its transmission is related to eating habits. A 6-month-old nursing infant was diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis, which was identified through anti- T. gondii IgA, IgM and low-avidity IgG serologic assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mouse bioassay test although its mother was seronegative. This serological divergence between mother and child led us to interview the mother regarding epidemiological factors. During this interview, she reported that she had given her 2-month-old baby a piece of undercooked beef to suck on. After some time, the baby presented fever and cervical lymphadenitis. This report emphasizes the importance of serological surveys of toxoplasmosis in nursing infants presenting with fever and lymphadenitis, in view of the possible acquisition of toxoplasmosis in the first months of life. PMID:28902298

  2. Nursing infant with acquired toxoplasmosis in the first months of life - a case report.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Hanstter Hallison Alves; Storchilo, Heloísa Ribeiro; Lima, Jaqueline Ataíde Silva; Gomes, Antônio Roberto; Gomes, Taynara Cristina; Souza, Jéssica Yonara de; Avelino, Mariza Martins; Amaral, Waldemar Naves do; Vinaud, Marina Clare; Castro, Ana Maria de

    2017-08-24

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii and the probability of this infection occurring in the first months of life is usually low because its transmission is related to eating habits. A 6-month-old nursing infant was diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis, which was identified through anti- T. gondii IgA, IgM and low-avidity IgG serologic assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mouse bioassay test although its mother was seronegative. This serological divergence between mother and child led us to interview the mother regarding epidemiological factors. During this interview, she reported that she had given her 2-month-old baby a piece of undercooked beef to suck on. After some time, the baby presented fever and cervical lymphadenitis. This report emphasizes the importance of serological surveys of toxoplasmosis in nursing infants presenting with fever and lymphadenitis, in view of the possible acquisition of toxoplasmosis in the first months of life.

  3. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  4. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: results of DNA detection and serological techniques.

    PubMed

    Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Bulabois, Claude-Eric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Garban, Frédéric; Brion, Jean-Paul; Timsit, Jean-François; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Pelloux, Hervé

    2009-01-15

    The biological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is based on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in blood specimens or other samples. Serological testing is used mainly to define the immunity status of the patient before HSCT. The aim of our study was to examine the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological techniques in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis after HSCT. Seventy patients underwent allogeneic HSCT from September 2004 through September 2006. DNA was detected by PCR, and immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results of immunoglobulin G detection before allogeneic HSCT were positive in 40 (57.1%) of the patients and negative in 30 (42.9%). After HSCT, 57 patients (81.4%) had test results that were negative for immunoglobulin M and had negative results of DNA detection, without toxoplasmosis infection. Four patients (5.7%) had at least 4 samples with positive PCR results and/or test results positive for immunoglobulin M against T. gondii; toxoplasmosis was then confirmed by clinical symptoms. Nine patients (12.9%) with positive PCR results and 1 or 2 samples with test results negative for immunoglobulin M were considered to have asymptomatic T. gondii infection. Reactivation of latent infection was the cause of toxoplasmosis in 3 of the 4 patients, and toxoplasmosis occurred as a primary infection in 1 patient. The detection of specific anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin M was the only biological evidence of toxoplasmosis in 2 patients, and samples were positive for immunoglobulin M before PCR was performed in 1 patient. Thus, after HSCT, all patients were at risk for toxoplasmosis; all patients who receive HSCTs should be followed up with biological testing that combines PCR and serological techniques.

  5. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  6. Studies on the lymphoid system of mice with lethal acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Szeri, I; Csóka, R

    1976-01-01

    Acute toxoplasmosis was induced in CFLP mice by infecting them intraperitoneally with the 25 x 10(3) multiplicity of the virulent RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii. The lymphoid system of mice succumbing to acute toxoplasmosis showed characteristic changes. Significant spleen hypertrophy (spleen index: 1.76), severe thymus atrophy (thymus index: 0.27) and a striking decrease of the lymphocyte count in blood (86%) was found as compared with the uninfected controls.

  7. Atypical Presentation of Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report of Exudative Retinal Detachment and Choroidal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Yahya A; Al-Dhibi, Hassan A; Al-Abdullah, Abdulelah A

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid.

  8. Severe congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States: clinical and serologic findings in untreated infants.

    PubMed

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Remington, Jack S; McLeod, Rima; Alam, Ambereen; Montoya, Jose G

    2011-12-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause significant neurologic manifestations and other untoward sequelae. The Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory database was searched for data on infants 0 to 180 days old, in whom congenital toxoplasmosis had been confirmed and who had been tested for Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, between 1991 and 2005. Their clinical findings were confirmed at the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study center. We reviewed available clinical data and laboratory profiles of 164 infants with congenital toxoplasmosis whose mothers had not been treated for the parasite during gestation. One or more severe clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis were reported in 84% of the infants and included eye disease (92.2%), brain calcifications (79.6%), and hydrocephalus (67.7%). In 61.6% of the infants, eye disease, brain calcifications, and hydrocephalus were present concurrently. T. gondii-specific IgM, IgA, and IgE antibodies were demonstrable in 86.6%, 77.4%, and 40.2% of the infants, respectively. Testing for IgM and IgA antibodies increased the sensitivity of making the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis to 93% compared with testing for IgM or IgA individually. IgM and IgA antibodies were still present in 43.9% of infants diagnosed between 1 and 6 months of life. Our study reveals that severe clinical signs of congenital toxoplasmosis including hydrocephalus, eye disease, or intracranial calcifications occurred in 85% infants whose sera were referred to our reference Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory during a period of 15 years. Laboratory tests, including serologic and polymerase chain reaction tests, were critical for diagnosis in the infants. Our results contrast remarkably with those of European investigators who rarely observe severe clinical signs in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis.

  9. Recovery of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in experimentally mummified skin and bones: Prospects for paleoparasitological studies to unveil the origin of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Leles, Daniela; Lobo, Amanda; Rhodes, Taís; Millar, Patrícia Riddell; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Araújo, Adauto

    2016-09-01

    Paleoparasitology studies parasite infections by finding the parasites' remains in preserved organic remains such as natural or artificial mummy tissues, skeletons, teeth, and coprolites, among others. However, some currently important infections like toxoplasmosis have not been studied by paleoparasitology. The reasons include this parasite's complex life cycle, the resulting difficulties in locating this protozoan in the intermediate host tissues, and the limitation of coprolite studies to felines, the protozoan's definitive host. The current study thus aimed to produce an experimental model for molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, prioritizing its study in bones and skin, the most abundant materials in archeological collections and sites. The study demonstrated the feasibility of recovering Toxoplasma gondii DNA from desiccated material, including bones and skin, in experimental models both with circulating tachyzoites (RH strain), characteristic of acute infection, and with cysts (ME49 cystogenic strain), characteristic of chronic infection. At present, most individuals with T. gondii infection are in the chronic phase, and the same was probably true in the past. The current study thus expands the odds of finding the parasite in archeological material, enhanced by the nature of the material in which the diagnosis was made. Finding the parasite may help answer questions that are widely debated in the literature on this protozoan's origin (Old World versus New World). In addition, when conditions do not allow ideal storage of samples for molecular tests, the methodology creates the possibility of testing oven-dried samples transported at room temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Cerebellar toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS infant: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ibebuike, Kaunda; Mantanga, Leo; Emereole, Obioma; Ndolo, Patrice; Kajee, Afsana; Gopal, Rasik; Pather, Sugeshnee

    2012-12-01

    Cerebellar mass lesion is an uncommon presentation of toxoplasmosis. The authors report one rare case in an 11-month-old HIV/AIDS female infant who presented with deterioration in her developmental milestones. CT scan revealed a ring-enhancing mass lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted prior to posterior fossa decompression and biopsy of the lesion. The specimens obtained were divided into two. One specimen was sent for histological diagnosis immediately after surgery while the second specimen was preserved until the release of the histology report. The initial histopathology report indicated a neoplastic process. Immunohistochemical stains were attempted but interpreted with difficulty due to severe tissue necrosis. After waiting for close to 6 weeks without a definite histological diagnosis, the preserved second specimen was sent for histological analysis as a fresh specimen, and reported a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This case presented diagnostic challenges to the authors whose radiological impressions of either a neoplastic lesion or a tuberculoma (based on our local neuroepidemiology) were reinforced by intraoperative findings highly suggestive of tuberculoma but which contrasted with the histological report, first as a neoplastic lesion and later toxoplasmosis. Although cerebellar toxoplasmosis is a rare complication of HIV/AIDS, this case report shows that toxoplasmosis should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis of ring-enhancing cerebellar masses in HIV/AIDS patients irrespective of the patient's age and the absence of constitutional symptoms of toxoplasmosis.

  12. Knowledge and perceptions on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and nurses who provide prenatal in primary care.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Jayra Adrianna da Silva; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women's care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child's life. This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary - prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women's guidance. The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.

  13. [Serologic profile of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women attended at a teaching-hospital in Recife].

    PubMed

    Porto, Ana Maria Feitosa; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Coelho, Isabela Coutinho Neiva; Santos, Luiz Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To determine the serologic profile of toxoplasmosis and the main factors associated with susceptibility (patients without IgM and IgG antibodies) in pregnant women attended at a teaching-hospital in Recife, Brasil. A cross-sectional study was carried out, enrolling 503 pregnant women submitted to serology for toxoplasmosis at IMIP (Recife) from October 2004 to April 2005. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were studied by IFA. A short questionnaire was administered to patients to provide identification, demographic and obstetrical characteristics, past history of morbidity, habits and dwelling conditions. The chi-square and Fisher-exact tests were used at a 5% level of significance. Immunity for toxoplasmosis was present in 74.7%, susceptibility in 22.5% and "possible" active infection in 2.8% of patients. No significant associations were observed between toxoplasmosis susceptibility and age, location, conditions of morbidity, habits, dwelling conditions and sewage system, living with animals, pregnancy and gestational age. A significant association between toxoplasmosis susceptibility and schooling was found, with a higher frequency of susceptibility among women with eight or more years of schooling. Susceptibility for toxoplasmosis was relatively low in these prenatal patients and schooling was the only identifiable predictive factor.

  14. Evaluation of Pregnant and Postpartum Women's Knowledge about Toxoplasmosis in Rio Grande - RS, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Lis Maurente; Santos, Paula Costa; Scaini, Carlos James

    2016-11-01

    Introduction  Toxoplasmosis a parasitic zoonosis of global distribution, responsible for disorders during gestation can cause fetal death or congenital anomalies. Objective  To evaluate the knowledge of toxoplasmosis among pregnant and postpartum women treated at the University Hospital of the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods  This was a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant and postpartum women at the University Hospital. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire and gave consent for data relating to serological examinations to be abstracted from their medical records. Results  The proportion of women who received information about toxoplasmosis was higher among those who received care in the private health care system (52.9%) than among those cared for in the public health care system (25.0%). Only 55.7% of women reported having some knowledge about toxoplasmosis. Of these, 53.7% received information during the prenatal period. However, most participants were unable to answer questions about preventive measures and modes of infection. Of the 100 patients in the study, only 46 underwent serologic testing for toxoplasmosis, 65.2% of whom tested negative (IgG). Conclusion  Findings from this study are relevant to the training of health professionals regarding toxoplasmosis education and prevention. Improved education for health care providers and patients can lead to earlier diagnoses and reductions in adverse outcomes. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. First case report of M1 macrophage polarization in an untreated symptomatic patient with toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Graziano; Di Lisio, Chiara; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Liberatore, Marcella; Aiello, Francesca Bianca

    2018-03-27

    In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease. Following laboratory, radiological, and pathological analyses, she was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on lymph node sections. More than 50% of the macrophages in the lymph node microgranulomas were M1 macrophages, defined by CD68 + /p-Stat1 + staining, and the presence of T helper 1 lymphocytes indicated an immune response known to induce M1 macrophage polarization. Activated endothelial cells were found only in inflamed areas. No therapy was administered before or after diagnosis, and the lymphadenopathy resolved after a follow-up of 5 months. This is the first report to demonstrate the presence of M1 macrophages in human toxoplasmosis. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and encourage further studies on the role of macrophage polarization in human toxoplasmosis.

  16. Atovaquone for Prophylaxis of Toxoplasmosis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mendorf, Alexander; Klyuchnikov, Evgeny; Langebrake, Claudia; Rohde, Holger; Ayuk, Francis; Regier, Marc; Christopeit, Maximilian; Zabelina, Tatjana; Bacher, Adelbert; Stübig, Thomas; Wolschke, Christine; Bacher, Ulrike; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis and infections by other opportunistic agents such as Pneumocystis jirovecii constitute life-threatening risks for patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been well established for post-transplant toxoplasmosis and pneumocystis prophylaxis, but treatment may be limited due to toxicity. We explored atovaquone as an alternative and compared it with TMP-SMX regarding toxicity and efficacy during the first 100 days after transplantation in 155 consecutive adult stem cell recipients. Eight patients with a prior history of TMP-SMX intolerance received atovaquone as first-line prophylaxis. TMP-SMX was used for 141 patients as first-line strategy, but 13 patients (9.2%) were later switched to atovaquone due to TMP-SMX toxicity or gastrointestinal symptoms. No active toxoplasmosis or active P. jirovecii infection developed under continued prophylaxis with either TMP-SMX or atovaquone. However, for reasons of TMP-SMX and/or atovaquone toxicity, 7 patients were unable to tolerate any efficacious toxoplasmosis prophylaxis and therefore obtained inhalative pentamidine as P. jirovecii prophylaxis but no toxoplasmosis prophylaxis. Importantly, 2 of these patients developed severe toxoplasmosis. In summary, atovaquone appears as a valid alternative for at least some post-transplant patients who cannot tolerate TMP-SMX. This should be further confirmed by multicenter trials. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  18. Chronic Supplementation of Paeonol Combined with Danshensu for the Improvement of Vascular Reactivity in the Cerebral Basilar Artery of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Li, Ya-Ling; Li, Zi-Lin; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuan-Xuan; Qiu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Qian; Wang, Si-Wang

    2012-01-01

    One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew) and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae) and danshensu (DSS), should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh) which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl2-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS treated diabetic

  19. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using a synthetic glycosylphosphatidylinositol glycan.

    PubMed

    Götze, Sebastian; Azzouz, Nahid; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Groß, Uwe; Reinhardt, Anika; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H; Varón Silva, Daniel

    2014-12-08

    Around 2 billion people worldwide are infected with the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii which induces a variety of medical conditions. For example, primary infection during pregnancy can result in fetal death or mental retardation of the child. Diagnosis of acute infections in pregnant women is challenging but crucially important as the drugs used to treat T. gondii infections are potentially harmful to the unborn child. Better, faster, more reliable, and cheaper means of diagnosis by using defined antigens for accurate serological tests are highly desirable. Synthetic pathogen-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycan antigens are diagnostic markers and have been used to distinguish between toxoplasmosis disease states using human sera. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco Carlos; Donatti, Rogerio Venâncio; Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred Sales; Shivaprasad, H L; Vilela, Daniel Ambrózio da Rocha; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous Amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. Necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. Histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. The heart had mild multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and free tachyzoites in the muscle fibers, and the kidneys had mild interstitial nephritis and a few cysts containing bradyzoites of T. gondii. Immunohistochemistry was negative for Sarcocystis falcatula and Neospora caninum and confirmed the protozoa as T. gondii. This is the first description of T. gondii in an endangered species ofa Brazilian psittacine.

  1. Severe congenital toxoplasmosis: a case report and strain characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Bahador; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    We report a fatal congenital toxoplasmosis case in an Iranian woman in the south of Iran. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 15th week of her pregnancy on account of a febrile illness, symptoms of common cold, and enlargement of submandibular lymph nodes. Serological testing of the mother's serum revealed positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Amniotic fluid was taken and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a direct amplification of the Toxoplasma URPT gene which was found to be positive. Sequencing and analysis of PCR product revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with type I of Toxoplasma gondii. Fetal scan showed anomaly in fetus including mild hydrocephaly. Termination of the pregnancy was suggested by the physician and pregnancy was terminated 178 days after conception.

  2. Fulminant Ocular Toxoplasmosis: The Hazards of Corticosteroid Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Oray, Merih; Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Cebeci, Zafer; Kir, Nur; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2016-12-01

    To describe fulminant toxoplasma retinochoroiditis induced by corticosteroid monotherapy. Clinical records of nine patients were reviewed. All patients (five female, four male; aged 15-64 years) had been misdiagnosed as unilateral non-infectious uveitis and given systemic and/or local corticosteroid injections elsewhere. Mean disease duration before referral was 105.6 ± 71 (45-240) days. Visual acuity at presentation was <20/200 in six eyes. Average lesion size was 6.6 disc areas in eight eyes and all four quadrants were involved in one. Toxoplasma DNA was detected in eight tested eyes. Mean duration of anti-toxoplasmic therapy was 92.5 ± 37.1 days. Three eyes developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Four patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Final visual acuity was <20/200 in five eyes. Iatrogenic immunosuppression due to initial misdiagnosis may lead to an aggressive course and serious complications of ocular toxoplasmosis, a potentially self-limiting infection.

  3. [Congenital toxoplasmosis with ocular involvment--case report].

    PubMed

    Constantin, Farah; Denislam, Dogan

    2014-01-01

    Two thirds of the congenital toxoplasmosis cases describe minimal or inapparent symptoms present at birth, being diagnosed from a psychomotor retard. The forms of chorioretinitis may be described by repeated outbursts in the first years of life. Chorioretinitis or focal necrotizing retinitis usually develops in a bilateral way, being progressive and leading to blindness. Usually there is only one focal inflammatory beginning at the edge of a pigmented scar and the local inflammatory process may extend through successive spikes in other regions of the retina. Active chorioretinitis is expressed clinically by a blurred misty eyesight, with the advent of scotomas, photophobia, and if the macula is involved, the loss of the central eyesight may occur. In this paper I present the patient R.A., 6 years old from Constanta who is hospitalized in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases for investigations and treatment continuity because positive IgG Toxoplasma was previously found. The child has spastic quadriplegia and profound mental retardation.

  4. Ocular toxoplasmosis: recent aspects of pathophysiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Uwe; Schlüter, Dirk; Mänz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely successful opportunistic parasite which infects approximately one third of the human population worldwide. The impact of this parasite on human health becomes particularly manifest in congenital damage with infection and subsequent inflammation of neuronal tissues including the retina. Although advances in our understanding could be achieved in ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist on factors influencing the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding disease. We are only at the beginning of understanding the complex biology of this parasite and its mechanisms of invasion, virulence and interaction with the host's immune response. Since it is a preventable cause of blindness, it is necessary to assess factors that have the potential to control this disease in the future. This mini review will focus on recent advances in postnatal acquired ocular infection and the factors that may influence its prevalence and functional outcome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Wnt-Spectrum Vitreoretinopathy Masquerading as Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Natalia F; Berrocal, Audina M

    2018-06-01

    Wnt-spectrum vitreoretinopathies are a group of rare inherited disorders of retinal angiogenesis that include familial exudative vitreoretinopathy/Norrie disease and are most commonly autosomal dominant; however, they can rarely present with other inheritance patterns that are more difficult to diagnose. The authors describe a case of an uncle misdiagnosed as congenital toxoplasmosis for decades and his 2-month-old nephew presenting with bilateral retinal detachments. Genetic analysis revealed an NDP gene mutation in the child and the uncle, as well as heterozygosity of the mother confirming a Wnt-spectrum vitreoretinopathy. This report describes the evaluation, diagnosis, and importance of early laser stabilization of this disorder. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:446-450.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Controlled study on the effect of pentoxifylline and an ergot alkaloid derivative on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, A.; Tsuda, Y.

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 90 patients with CBF decreased due to vascular diseases was studied by using the xenon 133 inhalation technique and a 32-detector setup. Whereas 30 patients received their standard basic therapy only and were regarded as controls, 30 others received 3 x 2 mg/day of an ergot alkaloid (co-dergocrine mesylate), and 30 others received 3 x 400 mg pentoxifylline (slow-release formulation)/day orally. Therapy was performed for eight weeks and CBF measured before start of treatment, after a four-week treatment period, and at the end of the study. CBF did not change significantly in the controlmore » group; both the pentoxifylline and the ergot alkaloid group presented with a significant increase in the CBF. This positive effect was significantly more pronounced in the pentoxifylline group and affected more ischemic than other brain tissues. In addition, symptoms like sleep disturbances, vertigo, and tinnitus improved significantly during the pentoxifylline observation period.« less

  7. Cerebral Dysfunctions Related to Perinatal Organic Damage: Clinical-Neuropathologic Correlations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towbin, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Recent neuropathology studies identify hypoxia as the main cause of perinatal cerebral damage. Cerebral lesions present at birth, with transition to chronic scar lesions, are correlated to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and minimal brain dysfunction. Gestation age and severity of hypoxic exposure essentially determine the cerebral…

  8. Cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 ameliorate neuroinflammatory responses in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model by blocking NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yi-Fang; Lin, Qi; Hai, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored the protective effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (URB) against neuroinflammation in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). Activated microglia, astrocytes, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65-positive cells were measured by immunofluorescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed by dihydroethidium staining. The protein levels of cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (OX-42), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NF-κB p65, inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκB-a), IκB kinase a/β (IKK a/β), phosphorylated IKK a/β (p-IKK a/β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were examined by western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All the protein levels of OX-42, GFAP, TNF-a, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS are increased in CCH rats. WIN and URB downregulated the levels of OX-42, GFAP, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and iNOS and inhibited CCH-induced ROS accumulation in CCH rats, indicating that WIN and URB might exert their neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the neuroinflammatory response. In addition, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated by CCH in frontal cortex and hippocampus, while the aforementioned changes were reversed by WIN and URB treatment. These findings suggest that WIN and URB treatment ameliorated CCH-induced neuroinflammation through inhibition of the classical pathway of NF-κB activation, resulting in mitigation of chronic ischemic injury.

  9. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cerebral glucose uptake in patients with chronic mental and cognitive sequelae following a single blunt mild TBI without visible brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Komura, Akifumi; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Yamada, Yuichi; Uzuyama, Shiho; Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun

    2018-06-19

    The aim of this study is to investigate glucose uptake on FDG-PET in patients with chronic mental and cognitive symptoms following a single blunt mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and without visible brain lesions on CT/MRI. Eighty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 43.8±10.75) who had a single blunt mild TBI from a traffic accident and suffering from chronic mental and cognitive symptoms without visible brain lesions on CT/MRI were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent FDG-PET imaging, and the mean interval between the TBI and FDG-PET was 50.0 months. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale version III testing was performed within one month of the FDG-PET. A control group consisting of 93 healthy adult volunteers (mean age 42.2±14.3 years) also underwent FDG-PET. The glucose uptake pattern from FDG-PET in the patient group was compared to that from normal controls using statistical parametric mapping. Glucose uptake was significantly decreased in the bilateral prefrontal area and significantly increased around the limbic system in the patient group compared to normal controls. This topographical pattern of glucose uptake is different from that reported previously in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), but may be similar to that seen in patients with major depression disorder. These results suggest that the pathological mechanism causing chronic mental and cognitive symptoms in patients with a single blunt mild TBI and without visible brain lesions might be different from that due to primary axonopathy in patients with DAI.

  11. A Singular Case of Neurosyphilis Manifesting Through a Meningovascular Chronic Inflammatory Process in Association with the Occurrence of Two Aneurysms Involving the Distal A2 Segment of Both Anterior Cerebral Arteries: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Bagatti, Davide; Mazibrada, Jasenka; Ligarotti, Gianfranco Kim Innocente; Nazzi, Vittoria; Franzini, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    Although syphilis has become a rare disease in the Western world since the Second World War, it is believed to have infected 12 million people in 1999, with greater than 90% of cases occurring in the developing world. Moreover, since the year 2000, the rates of syphilis have been increasing in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Europe. Because of the mimic nature of the disease and the overall low rate of occurrence of its manifestations in advanced stages, a proper diagnosis may prove difficult. We report the case of a 41-year-old African man affected by neurosyphilis that manifested itself through a meningovascular chronic inflammatory process, with the peculiar feature of a bilateral aneurysm of probable mycotic origin involving the distal tract of A2 segment of both anterior cerebral arteries. Because of the mostly nonspecific nature of clinical manifestations of syphilis (particularly advanced syphilis) and its consequent tendency to masquerade as many other diseases, even a skilled physician may find its diagnosis quite challenging; thus, thorough clinical and radiologic investigations should be supported by serologic testing for syphilis in all cases of cognitive impairment. Mycotic intracranial aneurysms in association with neurosyphilis rarely are reported; however, they require early diagnosis and meticulous, individualized treatment. Because syphilis appears to be on the raise, further studies on the topic are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Practices Among Pregnant Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Lopez, Adriana; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    Background: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can lead to severe illness in the fetus. Many T. gondii infections are preventable by simple hygienic measures. Methods: We surveyed pregnant women in the US to determine their knowledge about toxoplasmosis and their practices to prevent infection. Volunteer obstetricians selected to be demographically representative of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recruited the participants. Results: Of 403 women responding to the survey, 48% indicated that they had heard or seen information about toxoplasmosis; however, only 7% were aware of being tested for the disease. Forty percent of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection, but 21% thought that a poison causes it. The highest level of knowledge was about cats and T. gondii ; 61% responded that the organism is shed in the feces of infected cats and 60% responded that people could acquire toxoplasmosis by changing cat litter. There was a low level of knowledge about other risk factors; only 30% of the women were aware that T. gondii may be found in raw or undercooked meat. Nevertheless, a high percentage of women indicated that they do not eat undercooked meat during pregnancy and that they practice good hygienic measures such as washing their hands after handling raw meat, gardening or changing cat litter. Conclusion: Except for the risk of transmission from cats, knowledge among pregnant women about toxoplasmosis is low. However, toxoplasmosis-preventive practices are generally good, suggesting that providers should continue to offer education about practices that help prevent foodborne diseases in general as well as information about preventing toxoplasmosis specifically. PMID:15022874

  13. Assessment of ocular toxoplasmosis patients reported at a tertiary center in the northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Maryam; Moghaddas, Elham; Sharifi, Karim; Dadgar Moghaddam, Malihe; Shamsian, Seyed Aliakbar

    2018-01-15

    Ocular toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is currently the most significant cause of posterior uveitis in the world. No previous studies have described the prevalence and clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran. The purpose of the current study was to address this gap. In this retrospective study, the medical records of 488 uveitis patients who presented to the Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, a tertiary ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran, between January 2013 and December 2015 were evaluated. The clinical features and risk factors of 99 (20%) consecutive patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were extracted. Ninety-nine including 53 (53.5%) female and 46 (46.5%) male patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were included in the analysis. Reduced vision (77%) and floaters (15.2%) were the most common presenting symptoms. The age category that was most affected by ocular toxoplasmosis was 20-40 years (range: 11-65 years) with a mean age of 27.2. All patients had retinochoroiditis, but just two had anterior uveitis. All of the extracted patients, with the exception of three patients, had unilateral involvement. None of the patients had any other medical disorders with the exception of one woman, who had diabetes. Only four recurring ocular toxoplasmosis patients were referred to the education hospital during the study. Serology data were available for just 32 patients, of which 31 (96.8%) were IgG positive, and 1 (3.2%) was IgM positive. Toxoplasma gondii was responsible for 20% of the patients of uveitis that presented to the largest ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran. There is a high incidence of patients of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran, and it is a significant cause of uveitis and visual impairment in this area.

  14. Cytokine profiling reveals decreased serum levels of CCL2 in active ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rey, Amanda; Molins, Blanca; Llorenç, Victor; Pelegrín, Laura; Mesquida, Marina; Adán, Alfredo

    2013-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is an important cause of ocular disease. Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is probably the principal cause of tissue destruction in immunodeficiency states, hypersensitivity and inflammatory responses may underlie severe disease in otherwise immunocompetent individuals. The purpose of the current investigation was to study the cytokine profiles in serum from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis and to compare them with those obtained from healthy control subjects. Using a multiplex assay, we determined the serum concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in patients with inactive ocular toxoplasmosis (n=48), active ocular toxoplasmosis (n=21), and an age-matched and sex-matched healthy control group (n=25). In a subgroup of 17 patients with active disease, a second serum sample was obtained when the disease was inactive. Cytokine profiles were correlated with disease activity, severity and visual outcome. Levels of CCL2 were significantly reduced in patients with active ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the control group (564 ± 42 pg/mL vs 455 ± 35 pg/mL, p<0.05). Moreover, CCL2 levels were significantly lower during active ocular toxoplasmosis compared to inactive disease (569 ± 32 pg/mL vs 433 ± 32 pg/mL, p<0.01). GCSF and TNFα were elevated in patients with toxoplasmosis with poor visual outcome. No significant correlations were found with specific cytokine profiles and disease severity. Decreased serum levels of CCL2 may be associated with active ocular toxoplasmosis and could therefore serve as a marker of disease activity.

  15. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  16. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxoplasmosis-associated IRIS involving the CNS: a case report with longitudinal analysis of T cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Rb-Silva, Rita; Nobrega, Claudia; Reiriz, Eugénia; Almeida, Soraia; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Horta, Ana

    2017-01-13

    HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality. Hence, a deeper knowledge of CNS-IRIS pathogenesis is needed. A 37-year-old man was diagnosed with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis. Anti-toxoplasma treatment was initiated immediately, followed by active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) 1 month later. At 2 months of HAART, he presented with progressive hyposensitivity of the right lower limb associated with brain and dorsal spinal cord lesions, compatible with paradoxical toxoplasmosis-associated CNS-IRIS, a condition with very few reported cases. A stereotactic biopsy was planned but was postponed based on its inherent risks. Patient showed clinical improvement with no requirement of corticosteroid therapy. Routine laboratorial analysis was complemented with longitudinal evaluation of blood T cell subsets at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months upon HAART initiation. A control group composed by 9 HIV-infected patients from the same hospital but with no IRIS was analysed for comparison. The CNS-IRIS patient showed lower percentage of memory CD4 + T cells and higher percentage of activated CD4 + T cells at HAART initiation. The percentage of memory CD4 + T cells drastically increased at 1 month after HAART initiation and became higher in comparison to the control group until clinical recovery onset; the percentage of memory CD8 + T cells was consistently lower throughout follow-up. Interestingly, the percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) on the CNS-IRIS patient reached a minimum around 1

  18. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  19. Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  1. Retinal vascular changes are a marker for cerebral vascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    The retinal circulation is a potential marker of cerebral vascular disease because it shares origin and drainage with the intracranial circulation and because it can be directly visualized using ophthalmoscopy. Cross sectional and cohort studies have demonstrated associations between chronic retinal and cerebral vascular disease, acute retinal and cerebral vascular disease and chronic retinal vascular disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. In particular, certain qualitative features of retinopathy, retinal artery occlusion and increased retinal vein caliber are associated with concurrent and future cerebrovascular events. These associations persist after accounting for confounding variables known to be disease-causing in both circulations, which supports the potential use of retinal vasculature findings to stratify individuals with regards to cerebral vascular disease risk. PMID:26008809

  2. Serologic Tests of IgG and IgM Antibodies and IgG Avidity for Diagnosis of Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Zarei, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Valian, Hossein Keshavarz; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mahmoudzadeh, Raziyeh; Salabati, Mirataollah

    2018-04-01

    This prospective study was aimed to detect acute and chronic ocular toxoplasmosis by comparison of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibody levels and IgG avidity test. One hundred and seventeen patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) who referred to the Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were included in this study. Of the patients, 77 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgG, and 8 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgM. IgG avidity test revealed 11, 4, and 102 cases were low, intermediate, and high, respectively, and 6.8% and 9.4% of cases were positive for IgM and IgG avidity tests, respectively ( P =0.632). Agreement (Kappa value) between paired tests IgG-IgM, IgG-IgG avidity, and IgM-IgG avidity was 0.080, 0.099, and 0.721, respectively ( P <0.05). This study showed that conventional serologic tests (IgM and IgG levels) and IgG avidity correlate well each other and can be used to differentiate recent infections from old OT. It seems that reactivated old infections rather than recently acquired infections are majority of Iranian OT patients.

  3. Knowledge of Toxoplasmosis among Doctors and Nurses Who Provide Prenatal Care in an Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; Neves, Elizabeth de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. PMID:21747644

  4. Toxoplasmosis screening and risk factors amongst pregnant females in Natal, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; de Carvalho Xavier Holanda, Cecília Maria; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis results in systemic disease, and if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, the fetus may suffer substantial damage. Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in most states of northeastern Brazil. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant woman was studied in Natal, capital of Rio Grande do Norte State, in northeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. The sera were tested for IgM and avidity of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence was high [126/190 (66.3%)]; prevalence increased with age indicating that in this setting most infections occur in adulthood (third decade of life). Only one pregnant woman was IgM positive and had high-avidity antibodies. The high percentage of pregnant women who are vulnerable to this parasite (33.1%) favors primary infection during pregnancy. Our studies show that direct contact with cats or dogs was highly associated with toxoplasmosis (odds ratio 2.72, P<0.001, 95% CI 1.46-5.02). The number of years in school (P<0.001), precarious socioeconomic status and limited knowledge about the disease (Ptoxoplasmosis infection. The pattern of risk factors for infection corroborate other studies in Brazil.

  5. [Determination of the incidence of toxoplasmosis and cystic echinococcosis in Kocaeli].

    PubMed

    Sönmez Tamer, Gülden

    2009-01-01

    We determined the incidence of toxoplasmosis and cystic echinococcosis (CE) in 388 healthy high school students who reside in Kocaeli region and were not previously diagnosed as toxoplasmosis and CE positive. The collected serum samples were tested with ELISA for the presence of toxoplasmosis and CE. Toxoplasmosis serology was positive at 61 people (18%). Among them, 90% had the raw meat consumption habit and 81.7% had the history of close contact with cats. There was a statistically positive correlation between the raw-meat-consuming females and toxoplasmosis seropositivity (p < 0.05). The serology of CE was positive in 30 (8.9%) samples. Eighty percent of these, eozinophili was detected and a positive correlation was observed with CE (p < 0.05). Also, a positive relationship was detected between CE and males who had close contact with dogs (p < 0.05). Two students who were serologically positive with high titrations and one of them had the ultrasound test. A cyst with a diameter of 4-cm was observed in his liver. The results of this study led us conclude that the real incidence of the parasitic diseases and the endemic sites should be determined with seroepidemiological studies and the citizens, especially students should be informed about the contagion ways and precautions.

  6. Toxoplasmosis myelopathy and myopathy in an AIDS patient: a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kung, Doris Hichi; Hubenthal, Erica A; Kwan, Justin Y; Shelburne, Samuel A; Goodman, Jerry C; Kass, Joseph S

    2011-01-01

    concurrent toxoplasmosis infection of the brain, spinal cord, and muscle has never been reported together in a patient antemortem. Toxoplasma gondii is the most common focal central nervous system opportunistic infection in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population. Despite this fact, isolated toxoplasmosis infection in the spinal cord is rarely reported. In addition, toxoplasmic myositis is also rarely diagnosed and Toxoplasma cysts are seldom found on biopsy. We present a patient with AIDS and toxoplasmosis resistant to standard anti-Toxoplasma therapy. a 34-year-old man with a history of untreated AIDS presented with symptoms of myelopathy. Pathologically proven toxoplasmosis of the spinal cord was diagnosed and no brain lesions were found. However, despite appropriate treatment and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patient developed worsening symptoms, including myopathy and autonomic instability. Muscle biopsy revealed Toxoplasma cysts, and there was laboratory evidence of a restored immune system. we report the first case of toxoplasmosis presenting initially with myelitis in the absence of encephalitis that subsequently progressed to myositis despite antiparasitic treatment. We also discuss the possibility of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome as a cause of his deterioration.

  7. Lymph node toxoplasmosis. Follow-up of 237 histologically diagnosed and serologically verified cases.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, M; Saxén, L; Saxén, E

    1980-01-01

    The clinical features, histology and follow-up of lymph node toxoplasmosis are presented in the light of 237 histologically and serologically verified cases. Lymph node toxoplasmosis is a disease with mild symptoms, and in most patients the enlarged lymph nodes were the only sign. Three fourths of the patients were women and the majority were under 40 years of age. The clinical picture was not specific, but suggestive features included a relatively short history, presence of the nodes in the neck and relative lymphocytosis in peripheral blood. Histological changes in the lymph nodes were characteristic. The most important features were strong hyperplasia but preserved general structure with small groups of epithelioid cells both in the paracortical area and in the germinal centers. Strands of monocytoid cells were usually found. 80% of the cases with typical histology also had high antibody titers, and in more than 85% of the cases with high antibodies, the lymph nodes presented a typical picture of toxoplasmosis. The follow-up revealed that lymph node toxoplasmosis. The follow-up revealed that lymph node toxoplasmosis is a disease without complications, nor is there any connection with malignant lymphomas.

  8. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    PubMed

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  9. Utility of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using PCR.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Norose, Kazumi; Li, Kexin; Hikosaka, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. To do this, we compared its copy number per haploid nuclear genome and the detection sensitivity of cox1-PCR with the previously reported target genes B1 and 18S rRNA and the AF146527 repeat element. We found that the copy number of cox1 was high and that the PCR using cox1 primers was more efficient at amplifying Toxoplasma DNA than the other PCR targets examined. In addition, PCR using clinical samples indicated that the cox1 gene would be useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that use of cox1-PCR would facilitate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Kent, United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, J. Q.; Chissel, S.; Jones, J.; Warburton, F.; Verlander, N. Q.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relative importance of various risk factors for toxoplasmosis in a United Kingdom antenatal population. Toxoplasma immune status was determined by an immunoassay and linked to a questionnaire exploring dietary and environmental exposure to toxoplasmosis. The overall seroprevalence found was 9.1% (172/1897). A significantly higher seroprevalence was associated with rural location of the childhood home, childhood home in Europe excluding the United Kingdom, feeding a dog raw meat and increased age. A non-significant higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in women who had lived with a cat or kitten as a child. In contrast to recent European studies only weak associations between diet and toxoplasmosis were found. Gardening activity was not associated with seropositivity but a non-significant lower seroprevalence was seen in gardeners who always wore gloves. This study confirms that toxoplasma prevalence in the United Kingdom has continued to decline since the 1960s. The increasing seroprevalence with age found in this study, highlights the continuing need to educate women of childbearing age about the risk factors for toxoplasmosis. PMID:15962554

  11. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  12. Evidence for host genetic regulation of altered lipid metabolism in experimental toxoplasmosis supported with gene data mining results

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful parasites on Earth, infecting a wide array of mammals including one third of the global human population. The obligate intracellular protozoon is not capable of synthesizing cholesterol (Chl), and thus depends on uptake of host Chl for its own development. To explore the genetic regulation of previously observed lipid metabolism alterations during acute murine T. gondii infection, we here assessed total Chl and its fractions in serum and selected tissues at the pathophysiological and molecular level, and integrated the observed gene expression of selected molecules relevant for Chl metabolism, including its biosynthetic and export KEGG pathways, with the results of published transcriptomes obtained in similar murine models of T. gondii infection. The serum lipid status as well as the transcript levels of relevant genes in the brain and the liver were assessed in experimental models of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in wild-type mice. The results showed that acute infection was associated with a decrease in Chl content in both the liver and periphery (brain, peripheral lymphocytes), and a decrease in Chl reverse transport. In contrast, in chronic infection, a return to normal levels of Chl metabolism has been noted. These changes corresponded to the brain and liver gene expression results as well as to data obtained via mining. We propose that the observed changes in Chl metabolism are part of the host defense response. Further insight into the lipid metabolism in T. gondii infection may provide novel targets for therapeutic agents. PMID:28459857

  13. Cerebral palsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope- ...

  14. Cerebral Palsy (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Kids / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... the things that kids do every day. What's CP? Some kids with CP use wheelchairs and others ...

  15. Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    MedlinePlus

    AVM - cerebral; Arteriovenous hemangioma; Stroke - AVM; Hemorrhagic stroke - AVM ... The cause of cerebral AVM is unknown. An AVM occurs when arteries in the brain connect directly to nearby veins without having the ...

  16. The relationship of resting cerebral blood flow and brain activation during a social cognition task in adolescents with chronic moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Chu, Zili; Hunter, Jill V; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Lu, Hanzhang; Wang, Zhiyue J; Lin, Xiaodi; Steinberg, Joel L; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Levin, Harvey S

    2012-05-01

    Alterations in cerebrovascular function are evident acutely in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although less is known about their chronic effects. Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because fMRI is a measure related to blood flow, it is possible that any deficits in blood flow may alter activation. An arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion sequence was performed on seven adolescents with chronic moderate to severe TBI and seven typically developing (TD) adolescents during the same session in which they had performed a social cognition task during fMRI. In the TD group, prefrontal CBF was positively related to prefrontal activation and negatively related to non-prefrontal, posterior, brain activation. This relationship was not seen in the TBI group, who demonstrated a greater positive relationship between prefrontal CBF and non-prefrontal activation than the TD group. An analysis of CBF data independent of fMRI showed reduced CBF in the right non-prefrontal region (p<.055) in the TBI group. To understand any role reduced CBF may play in diffuse extra-activation, we then related the right non-prefrontal CBF to activation. CBF in the right non-prefrontal region in the TD group was positively associated with prefrontal activation, suggesting an interactive role of non-prefrontal and prefrontal blood flow throughout the right hemisphere in healthy brains. However, the TBI group demonstrated a positive association with activation constrained to the right non-prefrontal region. These data suggest a relationship between impaired non-prefrontal CBF and the presence of non-prefrontal extra-activation, where the region with more limited blood flow is associated with activation limited to that region. In a secondary analysis, pathology associated with hyperintensities on T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over the whole

  17. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  18. Development of touch down-multiplex PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Hallur, V; Sehgal, R; Khurana, S

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is challenging since conventional methods like culture and immunofluorescence are not universally available. Serology, which is used regularly might be negative during early phase of infection and in immunosuppressed patients or may remain positive for a long time. Several molecular tests have been used for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, but none of them have an internal control which would inform us regarding the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors thus, undermining the confidence of a laboratory physician. We designed a multiplex PCR containing primers targeting human beta globin gene which would act as internal control and two primers against the B1 gene and 5s gene which aid in sensitive detection of T. gondii. Multiplex PCR had a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 100%. Multiplex PCR may provide a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

  19. Quality of life assessment in ocular toxoplasmosis in a Colombian population.

    PubMed

    de-la-Torre, Alejandra; González-López, Gilberto; Montoya-Gutiérrez, Johanna Milena; Marín-Arango, Viviana; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2011-08-01

    To assess the quality of life in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. The participants were 29 otherwise healthy patients with retinochoroidal lesions consistent with Toxoplasma infection. The controls were 29 gender and age-matched people with normal visual function who came from the same socioeconomic and educational background as the participants. The authors used the version of the National Eye Institute 25-item visual function questionnaire (NEI VFQ25). Patients with ocular toxoplasmosis had statistically significant lower scores than controls for all the subscales, except for color vision. Patients with bilateral lesions were more affected in the mental health, difficulties role, and specific vision subscales. The median of the compound score for the participants was 79 (range 35-99) and for the controls was 95 (range 72-98). People with ocular toxoplasmosis have worse vision-related quality of life than people without the condition, especially if they have bilateral lesions and more recurrences.

  20. [Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic zoonoses prevalent in Chile: count and challenges].

    PubMed

    Mimica, Francisco; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Torres, Marisa; Padilla, Oslando

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis, cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis often found in humans, is transmitted mainly by food and water, and is considered a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, newborns and immunocompromised patients. To identify the information about this zoonosis and its first reports in Chile. Review of publications in Pubmed, Mesh search of systematic reviews, case studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and specialty publications. In addition, other publications in parasitology journals were analyzed. There are reports of the presence of this dis