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Sample records for chronic copper poisoning

  1. Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: I. Copper intoxications with predominantly gastointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eife, R; Weiss, M; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Goriup, U; Komb, D; Wolf, W; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

    1999-06-28

    Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (copper induced liver cirrhosis). Besides cirrhosis, another type of disease with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms has occurred which likewise appeared to be induced by copper in tap water. - In a retrospective investigation we looked for additional indications and proof that chronic copper poisoning has been the cause of the observed gastrointestinal diseases. All patients suffering from this type of disease had copper plumbing in their houses. - The patients (children and adults) suffered from nausea, vomiting, colic, and diarrhoea. In the group of infants, one refused formula milk (prepared with tap water) and the others suffered from persistent restlessness, unexplainable screaming (especially at night) and/or long lasting diaper rash. - We accept the diagnosis of chronic copper intoxication as the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms when at least one of the following criteria were fulfilled: 1. first manifestation, remission and relapse of the disease depend on intake and a non-intake of water containing copper, respectively. 2. hypercupric state of the patients (i.e. pathological high concentrations of the non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper in serum and/or elevated copper levels in urine) 3. signs of systemic copper intoxication in the same patient 4. signs of systemic copper intoxication or hypercupric states in members of the patient s family or in his neighbourhood (non-relatives) - We found that the disease can even be caused by copper concentrations below the allowed concentration given by the German Guidelines for Drinking Water (Trinkwasserverordnung). - The data prove that copper in drinking water can cause gastrointestinal diseases and not only the better known systemic diseases (i.e. copper induced liver cirrhosis). Copper poisoning must be considered as a possible cause of chronic

  2. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  3. Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures fertilized with swine manure

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, L.A.; McGavin, H.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Several pregnant ewes developed an acute hemolytic crisis and died. Liver and kidney copper concentrations were high, confirming chronic copper poisoning as the cause of death. Feed and water samples that the affected ewes had been consuming did not contain excess copper. Because swine manure slurry had been applied to the pasture where the sheep had grazed, a copper analysis was conducted on soil and forage samples from this field. High copper concentrations were detected in the soil and forage samples from the slurry pasture. Most sheep producers are aware of the catastrophic consequences that result when feeds containing copper and insufficient amounts of molybdenum are fed to sheep. However, producers and veterinarians often are unaware of some of the subtle sources of copper. Most of the copper that is added to swine and poultry feeds as growth promotants passes through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed and remains in the waste material. Pastures that have copper-containing waste material, but no molybdenum applied, can produce the same fatal results as giving sheep feed supplemented with copper but containing no molybdenum.

  4. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  5. Sunflower meal as cause of chronic copper poisoning in lambs in southeastern Spain.

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, A J; Motas-Guzmán, M; Navas, I; María-Mojica, P; Romero, D

    1999-01-01

    Sunflower meal with a copper/molybdenum ratio of 10 caused copper toxicosis in lambs. Copper must be analyzed on a dry matter basis in liver and renal cortex. Oral administration of molybdenum and thiosulfate had a certain effectiveness in sick animals. Care must be taken with feedstuffs made from copper-dependent plants. PMID:10563240

  6. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  7. Chronic Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Tasnim; Zehra, Kaneez; Munshi, Alia; Ahsan, Samiah

    2009-02-01

    Chronic Arsenic Toxicity may have varied clinical presentations ranging from non-cancerous manifestations to malignancy of skin and different internal organs. Dermal lesions such as hyper pigmentation and hyperkeratosis, predominantly over palms and soles are diagnostic of Chronic Arsenicosis. We report two cases from a family living in Sukkur who presented with classical skin lesions described in Chronic Arsenicosis. The urine, nail and hair samples of these patients contained markedly elevated levels of arsenic. Also the water samples from their household and the neighbouring households were found to have alarming levels of inorganic Arsenic.

  8. [Chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Lozano Armando, V; Ochoa Angel, A

    1979-01-01

    A case of chronic arsenic intoxication due to ingestion of contaminated water for several years is reported. The main symptoms were keratosis palmaris et plantaris, confetti - Like dyschromias in chest, post - necrotic liver cirrhosis multiple intraepithelial epidermoid carcinomas and invasive epidermoid carcinoma. The epidemiologic study showed high concentration of arsenic in the water of the well used by the patient; likewise, chronic arsenicalism was found in the whole family and in several neighbors who consumed water from the same well.

  9. [Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

    1993-04-30

    Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water.

  10. Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia

  11. [Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning].

    PubMed

    Andujar, P; Bensefa-Colas, L; Descatha, A

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated.

  12. A series of patients in the emergency department diagnosed with copper poisoning: recognition equals treatment.

    PubMed

    Gunay, Nurullah; Yildirim, Cuma; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Gunay, Nahide Ekici; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Usalan, Celalettin; Kose, Ataman; Togun, Ismail

    2006-07-01

    Only scarce data are available on chronic copper poisoning in general toxicology literature. This paper reports four patients with chronic copper poisoning and one patient with acute poisoning. The cases with chronic poisoning in our study consisted of four members of a farmer family presenting to the emergency department (ED) with malaise, weakness, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, tightness in the chest, leg and back pain, accompanied by significant anemia (hemoglobin [Hb]: 8.7 - 9.5 g/dl). They were hospitalized and investigated thoroughly, although there were no other findings or clues enlightening the etiology of anemia. The anemia was attributed to chronic copper exposure acquired from vegetables containing copper. The diagnosis was established by ruling out other possible etiologies and history coupled with laboratory findings. The patients were discharged with the recommendation on diet to avoid consumption of pesticide-treated vegetables. Their Hb values were between 10 and 11.4 g/dl on the 15th day, and between 12 and 14 g/dl after two months. Their symptoms had also resolved completely in two months. The patient with acute intoxication (5th case) had ingested copper oxychloride with suicidal intent. He was admitted with anuria and hemolytic anemia. After being hospitalized for fifteen days, he was diagnosed with chronic renal failure and was scheduled for a dialysis program. Acute poisoning is more deliberate, while chronic exposure may result in atypical findings. In conclusion, physicians working in primary care and EDs should consider copper poisoning in patients presenting with anemia, abdominal pain, headache, tightness in the chest, and leg and back pain.

  13. Case study of copper poisoning in a British dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Bidewell, C A; Drew, J R; Payne, J H; Sayers, A R; Higgins, R J; Livesey, C T

    2012-05-01

    Following the initial diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning (CCP), the copper (Cu) status of a British dairy herd was investigated. Eight fatal cases of CCP were identified over a 17-month period, from December 1999 to May 2001, involving seven Jersey cows and one Holstein-Friesian; seven cows were dry when CCP occurred. Case diagnostic criteria were necrotising hepatopathy associated with abnormally high liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Analysis of the ration for the high-yielding Jersey cow group revealed about 50 mg Cu/kg dry matter intake (DMI). Risk factors predisposing to fatal CCP were Jersey breed, previous high yield, first two weeks of the dry period and moderately high dietary Cu (greater than 40 mg Cu/kg DMI). PMID:22562897

  14. [Noncirrhotic liver fibrosis after chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Piontek, M; Hengels, K J; Borchard, F; Strohmeyer, G

    1989-10-27

    A 67-year-old woman with portal hypertension, splenomegaly without portal vein thrombosis, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia of splenic origin had repeated episodes of life-threatening haemorrhage from esophageal varices. Since childhood she had suffered from psoriasis and had been treated over a period of 15 years with Fowler's solution (in all about 25 g of arsenic trioxide). She had the characteristic skin lesions of arsenical poisoning-palmar hyperkeratoses and two basal cell carcinomas on the trunk. Histological examination of a wedge biopsy from the liver showed definite structural changes with fibrosis around the central veins and in the portal tracts. There was no evidence of cirrhotic alteration. The hepatocytes were normal by light microscopy and electron microscopy. This case of noncirrhotic hepatic fibrosis is considered to have been caused by chronic arsenical poisoning.

  15. Copper poisoning in a dairy herd fed a mineral supplement

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Charles H.

    1993-01-01

    Copper poisoning in a dairy herd resulted in the death of 9 of 63 (14%) adult Holstein cows. Clinical signs were acute anorexia, weakness, mental dullness, poor pupillary light reflexes, and scant nasal discharge. These were followed by recumbency, chocolate-colored blood, jaundice, and death. Four animals exhibited signs of hyperesthesia and/or rumen stasis prior to death. At necropsy there was generalized icterus of body tissues, with the liver appearing orange and the kidneys dark blue. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells, and severe to moderate hepatocellular necrosis in all cases. Ammonium molybdate added to the ration, combined with the cessation of mineral supplementation, arrested the outbreak. These cases illustrate significant mortality, due to copper poisoning, in adult cattle fed a low-dose mineral dietary supplement for over two years. Dietary copper intake of the herd (on a dry matter basis) was 37.5 mg/kg for lactating cows and 22.6 mg/kg for dry cows. PMID:17424221

  16. CSF copper concentrations in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shore, D; Potkin, S G; Weinberger, D R; Torrey, E F; Henkin, R I; Agarwal, R P; Gillin, J C; Wyatt, R J

    1983-06-01

    The authors used a sensitive flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedure to measure CSF copper concentrations in normal controls, former heroin addicts, and unmedicated and medicated chronic schizophrenic patients and found no significant differences in CSF copper levels between these groups. Schizophrenic women had significantly lower CSF copper levels than schizophrenic men, but no significant differences were found between control men and control women. There were no differences in CSF copper levels between patient subgroups with respect to diagnostic subtype (acute versus chronic, paranoid versus chronic undifferentiated), length of hospitalization, race, medication status, platelet monoamine oxidase values, or CAT scan abnormalities.

  17. Hypogonadism in chronically lead-poisoned men.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, G D; Dahlgren, J; Loriaux, D L

    1978-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in 10 men with occupational lead exposure, 9 of whom had noted a decrease in libido and frequency of intercourse following this exposure. 6 of these men had clinically apparent lead poisoning while 4 were classified as being only lead-exposed. Results of the endocrine evaluation of these patients were compared to those obtained on 9 age and socioeconomically matched control patients. Both lead poisoned and lead-exposed patients had reduced basal serum testosterone levels and normal basal serum testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin capacity, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin levels. Both groups demonstrated an appropriate rise in serum testosterone following hCG stimulation and a normal increment in serum FSH in response to clomiphene citrate and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in comparison to the control group. The lead poisoned patients demonstrated a significantly reduced increment in serum LH after clomiphene citrate and gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration while the lead-exposed patients had normal LH dynamics. Testicular biopsies carried out on the 2 most severely lead-poisoned men showed peritubular fibrosis, oligospermia, and vacuolization of the Sertoli cells. These results suggest that lead poisoning may lead to a pituitary-hypothalamic defect in LH secretion and may also result in direct testicular seminiferous tubular injury.

  18. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning. PMID:16329618

  19. [Significance of field epidemiologic study to identification of chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Qin; Jin, Yin-Long

    2005-09-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning has serious and extensive impact on human health, which attracts wide attention worldwide. Bases on vast public survey, this article introduces recent field studies on chronic arsenic poisoning from three aspects: exposure history, clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences, and also explains the meaning of each index to the determination of chronic arsenic poisoning, then bring forward some considerations on further epidemiological studies on chronic arsenic poisoning.

  20. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, David J.; Schiefer, H. Bruno; Blakley, Barry R.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of excessive copper to a commercially prepared dairy ration caused chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd. A formulation error by a feed company resulted in copper levels of 800 to 1,000 mg/kg in the “as fed concentrate,” amounting to about 400-500 mg copper/kg of the whole ration. Five animals died with typical signs of acute copper toxicity, including intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. A further 39 cows died on the farm from a combination of debilitation and secondary infectious causes, and 215 were sent to slaughter because of debilitation and poor milk production. The mortality of calves born to dams that had been fed the toxic concentrate was approximately 50%. We postulate that dairy cows, particularly pregnant cows, may be more susceptible to copper toxicity than other cattle, and suggest reexamination of the presently allowable maximum levels of copper supplementation of diets for dairy cattle. PMID:17423660

  1. Chronic cyanide poisoning: unifying concept for alcoholic and tropical pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pitchumoni, C S; Jain, N K; Lowenfels, A B; DiMagno, E P

    1988-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic cyanide toxicity may explain the occurrence of calcific pancreatitis in chronic alcoholic individuals in affluent Western nations and malnourished children and young adults in developing tropical regions. In alcoholic persons the source of cyanide is cigarette smoke, and in tropical countries the source could be cassava or other plants. The cyanide hypothesis is consistent with the known epidemiologic and metabolic characteristics of these two contrasting forms of pancreatitis. We believe that continued chronic cyanide poisoning could reinforce any independent effect of alcohol or malnutrition on the pancreas, resulting in an exaggerated and perhaps irreversible form of the disease.

  2. Aberrant miRNA profiles associated with chronic benzene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenlin; Chen, Yujiao; Yang, Jing; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, miRNA profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic benzene poisoning patients and health controls matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the Exiqon miRNA PCR ARRAY and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. Totally, 6 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-205, miR-10b, let-7d, miR-185 and miR-423-5p-2) and 7 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-133a, miR-543, hsa-miR-130a, miR-27b,miR-223, miR-142-5p and miR-320b) were found in chronic benzene poisoning group compared to health controls (P ≤ 0.05). By integrating miRNA and mRNA expression data, these differential miRNAs were mainly involved in regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, axon guidance, regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, nervous system development, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization. Further, pathway analysis indicated that SMAD4, PLCB1, NFAT5, GNAI2, PTEN, VEGFA, BCL2, CTNNB1 and CCND1 were key target genes of differential miRNAs which were implicated in Adherens junction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, tight junction and Pathways in cancer. In conclusion, the aberrant miRNAs might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

  3. Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, M

    1983-01-01

    We report 7 infants suffering from seizures induced by chronic boric acid ingestion. The boric acid was given by dipping a soother in a proprietary borax and honey mixture. The babies have remained well since the mixture was withheld. PMID:6625636

  4. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, M E; Albores, A; Aguilar, M; Blakely, E

    1983-01-01

    1 We compared the prevalence of signs and symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning in two rural populations. 2 The arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the exposed population was 0.41 mg/l, and 0.007 mg/l in the control population. 3 The arsenic was present mainly (70%) in its pentavalent form. 4 The objective was to quantitate health effects and risks derived from chronic ingestion of arsenic in contaminated water. 5 In the exposed population, 21.6% of the sample, showed at least one of the cutaneous signs of chronic arsenic poisoning against 2.2% in the control town. 6 Non-specific symptoms were more prevalent in the exposed population and they occurred more frequently in those individuals with skin signs. 7 The relative risk of suffering a particular manifestation of poisoning, ranged from 1.9 to 36 times higher in the exposed population. 8 We estimated the risks above mentioned, which were derived from exposure to minute quantities of arsenic in a known proportion of its oxidation states during a life time period.

  5. Host-Imposed Copper Poisoning Impacts Fungal Micronutrient Acquisition during Systemic Candida albicans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Joanna; Ballou, Elizabeth R.; Childers, Delma S.; MacCallum, Donna M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional immunity is a process whereby an infected host manipulates essential micronutrients to defend against an invading pathogen. We reveal a dynamic aspect of nutritional immunity during infection that involves copper assimilation. Using a combination of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) and metal mapping, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression profiling from infected tissues, we show that readjustments in hepatic, splenic and renal copper homeostasis accompany disseminated Candida albicans infections in the mouse model. Localized host-imposed copper poisoning manifests itself as a transient increase in copper early in the kidney infection. Changes in renal copper are detected by the fungus, as revealed by gene expression profiling and fungal virulence studies. The fungus responds by differentially regulating the Crp1 copper efflux pump (higher expression during early infection and down-regulation late in infection) and the Ctr1 copper importer (lower expression during early infection, and subsequent up-regulation late in infection) to maintain copper homeostasis during disease progression. Both Crp1 and Ctr1 are required for full fungal virulence. Importantly, copper homeostasis influences other virulence traits—metabolic flexibility and oxidative stress resistance. Our study highlights the importance of copper homeostasis for host defence and fungal virulence during systemic disease. PMID:27362522

  6. Host-Imposed Copper Poisoning Impacts Fungal Micronutrient Acquisition during Systemic Candida albicans Infections.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Joanna; Szabo, Edina K; Urgast, Dagmar S; Ballou, Elizabeth R; Childers, Delma S; MacCallum, Donna M; Feldmann, Joerg; Brown, Alistair J P

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional immunity is a process whereby an infected host manipulates essential micronutrients to defend against an invading pathogen. We reveal a dynamic aspect of nutritional immunity during infection that involves copper assimilation. Using a combination of laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) and metal mapping, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression profiling from infected tissues, we show that readjustments in hepatic, splenic and renal copper homeostasis accompany disseminated Candida albicans infections in the mouse model. Localized host-imposed copper poisoning manifests itself as a transient increase in copper early in the kidney infection. Changes in renal copper are detected by the fungus, as revealed by gene expression profiling and fungal virulence studies. The fungus responds by differentially regulating the Crp1 copper efflux pump (higher expression during early infection and down-regulation late in infection) and the Ctr1 copper importer (lower expression during early infection, and subsequent up-regulation late in infection) to maintain copper homeostasis during disease progression. Both Crp1 and Ctr1 are required for full fungal virulence. Importantly, copper homeostasis influences other virulence traits-metabolic flexibility and oxidative stress resistance. Our study highlights the importance of copper homeostasis for host defence and fungal virulence during systemic disease. PMID:27362522

  7. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... gas heater and any other gas-, oil- or wood-fueled appliances serviced regularly. Be sure these appliances ... on the skin, rinse it off with running water and remove any poisoned clothing. If the poison ...

  8. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  9. Peripheral vascular diseases resulting from chronic arsenical poisoning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2002-03-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic remains a major public health problem. Long-term arsenic exposure has been found to be associated with peripheral vascular diseases in a variety of studies. Reports of vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water, which span almost 100 years, have been published in Taiwan, Chile, Mexico, and China. This paper reviewed the association of peripheral vascular diseases resulting from arsenic exposure to drinking water from the clinical and pathological points of view. An endemic peripheral vascular disorder called "blackfoot disease" has been noticed in a limited area in Taiwan. This disease results in gangrene in the extremities. It has been associated with the ingestion of high concentrations of arsenic-tainted artesian well water. Epidemiological studies confirmed a dose-response relationship between long-term arsenic exposure and the occurrence of blackfoot disease. Whereas arsenic has induced various clinical manifestations of vascular effects in Chile, Mexico and China, they do not compare in magnitude or severity to the blackfoot disease found in Taiwan. The pathogenesis of vascular effects induced by arsenic is still controversial. The possible mechanisms include endothelial cell destruction, arsenic-associated atherogenesis, carotene and zinc deficiency, and/or some immunological mechanism. Microcirculatory assessments revealed that deficits of capillary blood flow and permeability exist in clinically normal skin of patients with chronic arsenical poisoning. The vascular effects of chronic arsenic poisoning may involve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems as well. In view of the increasing public health problems caused by arsenic exposure, vascular effects should be included in the future study of health effects of arsenic.

  10. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry

    PubMed Central

    Emara, A. M.; El-Ghawabi, S. H.; Madkour, O. I.; El-Samra, G. H.

    1971-01-01

    Emara, A. M., El-Ghawabi, S. H., Madkour, O. I., and El-Samra, G. H. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 78-82. Chronic manganese poisoning in the dry battery industry. A survey was carried out on 36 workers in the dry battery industry exposed to dust containing 65 to 70% manganese oxide. Eight (22·2%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations, six (16·6%) had chronic manganese psychosis, one had left hemi-parkinsonism, and one had left choreoathetosis. An environmental study revealed a high concentration of manganese dust at the main working areas, far exceeding the accepted MAC. The manganese level in blood was almost within the normal range. Coproporphyrin in urine was normal. The electroencephalogram was abnormal in only two of the affected workers (25%) but there was no association between this and the clinical manifestations or duration of exposure. The concentration of manganese dust in air showed some association with the prevalence and rapidity of effect on workers according to their occupation. However, individual susceptibility was apparent. The shortest latent period was one year. PMID:5101169

  11. Human health effects from chronic arsenic poisoning--a review.

    PubMed

    Kapaj, Simon; Peterson, Hans; Liber, Karsten; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2006-01-01

    The ill effects of human exposure to arsenic (As) have recently been reevaluated by government agencies around the world. This has lead to a lowering of As guidelines in drinking water, with Canada decreasing the maximum allowable level from 50 to 25 microg/L and the U.S. from 50 to 10 microg/L. Canada is currently contemplating a further decrease to 5 microg/L. The reason for these regulatory changes is the realization that As can cause deleterious effects at lower concentrations than was previously thought. There is a strong relationship between chronic ingestion of As and deleterious human health effects and here we provide an overview of some of the major effects documented in the scientific literature. As regulatory levels of As have been decreased, an increasing number of water supplies will now require removal of As before the water can be used for human consumption. While As exposure can occur from food, air and water, all major chronic As poisonings have stemmed from water and this is usually the predominant exposure route. Exposure to As leads to an accumulation of As in tissues such as skin, hair and nails, resulting in various clinical symptoms such as hyperpigmentation and keratosis. There is also an increased risk of skin, internal organ, and lung cancers. Cardiovascular disease and neuropathy have also been linked to As consumption. Verbal IQ and long term memory can also be affected, and As can suppress hormone regulation and hormone mediated gene transcription. Increases in fetal loss and premature delivery, and decreased birth weights of infants, can occur even at low (<10 microg/L) exposure levels. Malnourished people have been shown to be more predisposed to As-related skin lesions. A large percentage of the population (30-40%) that is using As-contaminated drinking water can have elevated As levels in urine, hair and nails, while showing no noticeable clinical symptoms, such as skin lesions. It is therefore important to carry out clinical tests

  12. Skin cancer caused by chronic arsenical poisoning--a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, R; Omar, I; Jidon, A J; Wan-Khamizar, B W; Siti-Aishah, B M; Sharifah-Noor-Akmal, S H

    1993-03-01

    The association of arsenical poisoning with the development of skin cancer is well-known. In Malaysia, arsenic has been shown to coexist with tin in tin-mining land. Our preliminary investigation has shown that the level of arsenic in well water from a tin-mining area is high. We report 3 patients with cutaneous lesions typical of chronic arsenical poisoning such as hyperpigmentation, keratoses and skin cancer. These patients have positive histories of previous domicility in tin-mining areas. We conclude that these patients developed chronic arsenical poisoning from drinking well water polluted with arsenic from the tin-mining soil.

  13. Idiopathic portal hypertension and chronic arsenic poisoning. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Chainuvati, T; Viranuvatti, V

    1979-01-01

    We report a case of idiopathic portal hypertension which is related to chronic arsenic poisoning. Only 7 cases have been reported previously. The patient presented with bleeding esophageal varices. Splenomegaly and hyperkeratosis of palms and soles were later noted and led to the discovery of chronic arsenic poisoning. The hemodynamic studies revealed a gradient between the splenic pulp pressure and hepatic wedge pressure which is consistent with presinusoidal hypertension. The liver histology revealed only mild portal fibrosis. Arsenic poisoning is one cause of idiopathic protal hypertension.

  14. Ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of mice ovaries following experimentally induced copper poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, H; Roshangar, L; Sakhaee, E; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Dehghani, R

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in normal reproduction but its overexposure may produce some detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper sulfate poisoning on morphometery of mice ovarian structures and probable intracellular changes. Methods Thirty mature female mice were randomly allocated to control and two treatment groups. In treatment groups, two different doses of copper sulfate including 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in 0.2 cc were applied once a day for 35 consecutive days by gavage. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar method. Animals from each experimental group were sacrificed 14 and 35 days after the beginning of drug administration and the left ovaries were removed for stereological evaluations by light microscopy and right ovaries were obtained for preparing electron microscopic sections. Results The morphometrical results showed that only the number of antral follicles was decreased by 100 mg/kg copper sulfate on day 14 compared to the control group (P=0.043). Hence, higher copper dose or longer consumption period significantly reduced different classes of follicles and corpora lutea. With 100 mg/kg copper sulfate some mild ultrastructural cell damages such as decrease of zona pellucida thickness, limited vacuolated areas and nuclear envelop dilation were seen on day 14. Higher or longer Cu administration produced more detrimental effects including more vacuolated areas, presence of secondary lysosomes, irregularity in cell shape and segmented nuclei with condensed and marginated chromatin and more enlarged and damaged mitochondria. Conclusion New evidences of early as well as late intracellular damages of copper has been presented by accurate stereological and ultrastructural methods. Antral follicles was the most susceptible cells with the lower and shorter copper consumption and long term or higher dose of copper affected the whole of ovarian

  15. [Chronic CO poisoning. Use of generator gas during the second world war and recent research].

    PubMed

    Tvedt, B; Kjuus, H

    1997-06-30

    The consequences of long-lasting and low-grade exposure to carbon monoxide are a matter of debate. During the second world war, lack of petrol led to widespread use of wood as fuel (generator gas vehicles), especially in the Nordic countries. This caused many cases of "acute" or "chronic" carbon monoxide poisoning. Typical symptoms of "chronic poisoning" were headache, dizziness and tiredness. Usually the symptoms disappeared after some weeks or month, but in some patients probably became permanent. The experiences from the generator gas era are now almost forgotten, and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is easily overlooked. The authors describe two cases of such poisoning. A crane driver at a smelting works developed permanent symptoms after twenty years of exposure. A faulty oil-fired central heating system caused long-lasting symptoms in four members of a family.

  16. [Investigation of chronic arsenic poisoning caused by high arsenic coal pollution].

    PubMed

    Zhou, D X

    1993-05-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation on environmental arsenic pollution and chronic arsenic poisoning in a rural area. Exploitation of high arsenic coal caused drinking and irrigating water to be polluted by arsenic and burning of this coal caused severe environmental arsenic pollution including air, food, soil and drinking well water. 1548 villagers in 47 villages suffered from chronic arsenic poisoning who used this coal in daily life. The polluted air and food were mainly responsible, while the polluted drinking water and skin absorption played some part in poisoning. When arsenic level in coal is as high as 100mg/kg, we should consider the possibility of environmental arsenic pollution and chronic arsenic poisoning in exposed population. The high arsenic coal's distribution is very uneven. When controlling the disease, it is important to remember monitoring the quantity of arsenic coal outside the arsenic coal mining area. PMID:8243176

  17. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  18. Chronic renal failure with gout: a marker of chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Craswell, P.W.; Price, J.; Boyle, P.D.; Heazlewood, V.J.; Baddeley, H.; Lloyd, H.M.; Thomas, B.J.; Thomas, B.W.

    1984-09-01

    EDTA (calcium disodium edetate) lead mobilization and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) finger bone lead tests were done in 42 patients with chronic renal failure and without persisting lead intoxication. Nineteen of 23 patients with gout and 8 of 19 without gout had positive EDTA lead mobilization tests. Those patients with gout excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than those without gout. In the gout group 17 patients denied any childhood or industrial exposure to lead. They had a greater number of positive tests and excreted significantly more excess lead chelate than 14 patients with neither gout nor lead exposure. These results confirm that gout in the presence of chronic renal failure is a useful marker of chronic lead poisoning. Of 27 patients with positive lead mobilization tests, only 13 had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (sensitivity 48%). Three of 15 patients with negative lead mobilization tests had elevated XRF finger bone lead concentrations (specificity 80%). Although the XRF finger bone lead test is a convenient noninvasive addition to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic renal failure and gout, its application is limited due to the lack of sensitivity of the method.

  19. [Occupational chronic arsenical poisoning. On the cutaneous manifestations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hamada, T; Horiguchi, S

    1976-03-01

    A physical examination with detailed dermatological examination was made on 28 Japanese male workers, 22 to 63 years old, who had been exposed to arsenic for one to 24 years, in processes manufacturing lead arsenate, calcium arsenate and so on to be used as insecticides. Many corn-like punctate keratoses were seen on the palms and soles of 7 workers. The histopathological features in 6 specimens of punctate keratoses of palms and other regions of 4 workers were hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and elongation of rete ridge, but no malignant changes, although there were mild disorderly arrangements in part of stratum malpighii. Multiple lesions of sharply demarcated dullred patch with scale were found on the trunk and extremities of 3 workers. These lesions histopathologically showed the typical feature of Bowen's disease. Characteristic bronze pigmentation on the trunk and extremities was seen in 6 workers, and 5 of these 6 workers showed tiny normal or depigmented skin (raindrops) throughout the involved areas. These corn-like punctate keratoses mainly on the palms and soles, multiple Bowen's disease and diffuse bronze pigmentation with raindrop areas of hypopigmentation on the trunk and extremities were manifest almost in the same individuals, and it was concluded that they were characteristic cutaneous symptoms of chronic arsenical poisoning. There was no correlation between the intensity of cutaneous manifestations and the term of exposure to arsenic. Cutaneous manifestations due to arsenic were generally recognized as follows: diffuse pigmentation appears at first in one to two years after exposure to arsenic, then punctate hyperkeratotic lesions appear mainly on the palms and soles, and Bowen's lesions occur after several years or more. The use of arsenic has been abandoned in this factory since January, 1971. Diffuse bronze pigmentation now seems to be considerably lightened, as long time has passed after exposure to arsenic. However, since punctate hyperkeratotic

  20. Rehabilitation in an individual with chronic arsenic poisoning: medical, psychological, and social implications.

    PubMed

    McFall, T L; Richards, J S; Matthews, G

    1998-04-01

    Although arsenic poisoning was a common cause of homicide in the past, it is seldom suspected today; thus there may be serious delays in diagnosis and treatment of arsenic ingestion. Rehabilitation specialists have traditionally dealt with the debilitating consequences of the classic arsenic-induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy; however, a knowledge of the presentation of acute toxicity combined with the effects of chronic exposure is essential for proper treatment, particularly in the event of ongoing exposure. This case report demonstrates the wide spectrum of medical complications associated with arsenic poisoning and briefly reviews its pathophysiology and treatment from both the medical and psychosocial perspective.

  1. A report of two cases of chronic serious manganese poisoning treated with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ky, S Q; Deng, H S; Xie, P Y; Hu, W

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of chronic manganese poisoning were treated with sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na; 6 g/day in 500 ml of 10% glucose solution by intravenous drip). The results indicated that one had been clinically cured and that the other had obviously improved in clinical symptoms and signs. Thus PAS-Na appears to be an effective drug for treatment of serious chronic manganese poisoning. Images PMID:1733459

  2. Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Kiran; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals remains a widespread occupational and environmental problem in world. There have been a number of reports in the recent past suggesting an incidence of childhood lead poisoning and chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated drinking water in many areas of West Bengal in India and Bangladesh has become a national calamity. Low level metal exposure in humans is caused by air, food and water intake. Lead and arsenic generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the central nervous system (CNS), the haematopoietic system, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there has been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at a lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research, we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic plumbism and arsenicosis. Medical treatment of acute and chronic lead and arsenic toxicity is furnished by chelating agents. Chelating agents are organic compounds capable of linking together metal ions to form complex ring-like structures called chelates. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL) has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been tried successfully in animals as well as in a few cases of human lead and arsenic poisoning. DMSA could be a safe and effective method for treating lead or arsenic poisoning, but one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove lead from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy is to use combined treatment. This includes the use of structurally different chelators or a combination of an adjuvant and a chelator to

  3. Chronic arsenic poisoning: a global health issue -- a report of multiple primary cancers.

    PubMed

    Walvekar, R R; Kane, S V; Nadkarni, M S; Bagwan, I N; Chaukar, D A; D'Cruz, A K

    2007-02-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning is a worldwide public health problem. Effects of prolonged exposure to high levels of As in drinking water have been observed and documented in various epidemiological studies from all over the world. The non-malignant cutaneous effects of chronic exposure to inorganic As are well known. A case presenting with multiple cutaneous cancers as well as an internal lung primary in a patient exposed to toxic levels of As in the drinking water is discussed along with a review of literature.

  4. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.

    PubMed

    Dhatrak, Sarang V; Nandi, Subroto S

    2009-08-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.

  5. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners

    PubMed Central

    Dhatrak, Sarang V.; Nandi, Subroto S.

    2009-01-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants. PMID:20386621

  6. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners.

    PubMed

    Dhatrak, Sarang V; Nandi, Subroto S

    2009-08-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants. PMID:20386621

  7. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  8. Evaluation of Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Due to Consumption of Contaminated Ground Water in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asutosh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic arsenic poisoning is an important public health problem and most notable in West Bengal and Bangladesh. In this study different systemic manifestations in chronic arsenic poisoning were evaluated. Methods: A nonrandomized, controlled, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in Arsenic Clinic, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, over a period of 1 year 4 months. Seventy-three cases diagnosed clinically, consuming water containing arsenic ≥50 μg/L and having hair and nail arsenic level >0.6 μg/L, were included. Special investigations included routine parameters and organ-specific tests. Arsenic levels in the drinking water, hair, and nail were measured in all. Twenty-five nonsmoker healthy controls were evaluated. Results: Murshidabad and districts adjacent to Kolkata, West Bengal, were mostly affected. Middle-aged males were the common sufferers. Skin involvement was the commonest manifestation (100%), followed by hepatomegaly [23 (31.5%)] with or without transaminitis [7 (9.58%)]/portal hypertension [9 (12.33%)]. Restrictive abnormality in spirometry [11 (15.06%)], bronchiectasis [4 (5.47%)], interstitial fibrosis [2 (2.73%)], bronchogenic carcinoma [2 (2.73%)], oromucosal plaque [7 (9.58%)], nail hypertrophy [10 (13.69%)], alopecia [8 (10.95%)], neuropathy [5 (6.84%)], and Electrocardiography abnormalities [5 (6.84%)] were also observed. Conclusions: Mucocutaneous and nail lesions, hepatomegaly, and restrictive change in spirometry were the common and significant findings. Other manifestations were characteristic but insignificant. PMID:24049627

  9. All-E lutein and 3'-epilutein in the epidermis of chronic arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Momin, A; Al-Amin, Mohammad

    2008-02-01

    Identification and quantification of carotenoids in the epidermis of nine patients of chronic arsenic poisoning were done using isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major carotenoids in all the skin biopsies were all-E lutein and 3'-epilutein. Small amount of 2',3'-anhydrolutein, all-E zeaxanthin, and 13-Z zeaxanthin were also present in some of the biopsy samples. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene were not detected in any sample. The mean (+/- SD) concentration of all-E lutein in the epidermis of healthy volunteers was 1.09 +/- 0.26 microgram/g of wet tissue, whereas it was only 0.29 +/- 0.10 microgram/g in the diffuse dark brown spots of chronic arsenic poisoning. In raindrop-shaped discoloration spots of skin the mean concentration of all-E lutein was 0.86 +/- 0.29 microgram/g of wet tissue. The difference between the concentrations of all-E lutein in the epidermis of healthy volunteers versus patients was for the diffuse dark brown spots statistically significantly (p < 0.05) lower, while this was not significant for the raindrop-shaped discoloration spots. This study suggests that arsenic exposure reduces the number, as well as concentrations of, carotenoids in skin.

  10. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... Symptoms of lanolin poisoning include: Diarrhea Rash Swelling and redness of skin Vomiting

  11. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources. PMID:24552958

  12. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  13. Puerarin protects against damage to spatial learning and memory ability in mice with chronic alcohol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cui, S Q; Wang, Q; Zheng, Y; Xiao, B; Sun, H W; Gu, X L; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C H; Dong, P X; Wang, X M

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of puerarin on spatial learning and memory ability of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. A total of 30 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into model, puerarin, and control groups (n=10 each). The model group received 60% (v/v) ethanol by intragastric administration followed by intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 30 min later. The puerarin group received intragastric 60% ethanol followed by intraperitoneal puerarin 30 min later, and the control group received intragastric saline followed by intraperitoneal saline. Six weeks after treatment, the Morris water maze and Tru Scan behavioral tests and immunofluorescence staining of cerebral cortex and hippocampal neurons (by Neu-N) and microglia (by Ib1) were conducted. Glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex and hippocampus were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were determined by ELISA. Compared with mice in the control group, escape latency and distance were prolonged, and spontaneous movement distance was shortened (P<0.05) by puerarin. The number of microglia was increased in both the cortex and hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01), and neurons were reduced only in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (P<0.01) in puerarin-treated mice. In the model group, Glu and GABA levels decreased (P<0.05), and Glu/GABA, TNF-α, and IL-1β increased (P<0.01) with puerarin treatment, returning to near normal levels. In conclusion, puerarin protected against the effects of chronic alcohol poisoning on spatial learning and memory ability primarily because of anti-inflammatory activity and regulation of the balance of Glu and GABA.

  14. A Potentiometric Cu Assay in Normal and Copper-Poisoned Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, Ian A.; Williams, David R.

    1973-01-01

    A new method of copper analysis is presented which is more reliable, when used by students, than the IUPAC recommended spectral method, and the electrode is suitable for the copper assay of mains tap water, soft drinks, urine, and blood. (DF)

  15. [The morphofunctional features of the heart associated with acute morphine poisoning during the period of chronic drug intoxication].

    PubMed

    Altaeva, A Zh; Galitsky, F A; Zhakupova, T Z; Aidarkulov, A Sh; Selivokhina, N V; Zhunisov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve forensic medical diagnostics of the cases of death associated with morphine poisoning based on the investigation into the biochemical changes in blood and pericardial fluid as well as morphological changes in the myocardial structures. The studies were carried out with the use of thin-layer chromatography, colorimetric and morphological methods including hematoxylin and eosin, Lee's methylene blue, and van Gieson's picrofuscin staining. These techniques were supplemented by light and polarization microscopy. The study has demonstrated the presence of morphine in 99.16% of the blood and pericardial samples obtained in the cases of poisoning. The comparison of the results of biochemical and pathomorphological studies of the myocardium made it possible to evaluate the functional and morphological conditions of the heart in the case of acute morphine poisoning during the period of chronic drug intoxication.

  16. Multiple primary cancers in a case of chronic arsenic poisoning--an autopsy report.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, A; Hamada, T; Kanesaki, H; Matsuno, K; Koide, O

    1990-03-01

    This is an autopsy report of multiple primary cancers observed in a patient who had clinically been diagnosed as chronic arsenic poisoning. An 88-year-old man, non-smoker, had worked in an arsenic mine for 6 years from the age of 47. He had undergone operations for Bowen's disease and gastric cancer at ages 80 and 86, respectively. At autopsy, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and a polypoid lesion in the piriform recess were found. Furthermore, microscopic examination revealed latent prostatic adenocarcinoma and oncocytoma in the kidney. The polypoid lesion of the piriform recess appeared to originate from the duct of the minor salivary gland in the pharynx, showing an adenoid cystic carcinoma-like pattern with squamous cell carcinoma in part. The cause of death was thought to be respiratory failure due to bronchopneumonia and pulmonary edema as well as hydrothorax, and chronic heart failure following ischemic heart disease. Bowen's disease was followed by four internal malignant tumors, even though the etiological relation between these cancers and arsenic is not clear.

  17. The efficacy of monoisoamyl ester of dimercaptosuccinic acid in chronic experimental arsenic poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Kannan, G M; Pant, B P; Jaiswal, D K

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new monoester of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver and kidneys, alterations in hematopoietic system and depletion of arsenic burden was assessed, in mice. Three different doses of MiADMSA (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) for five consecutive days were administered in chronically arsenic exposed mice (10 ppm in drinking water for six months). Oral administration of MiADMSA particularly at a dose of 50 mg/kg, produced relatively more pronounced beneficial effects on the inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), biochemical variables indicative of hepatic and renal oxidative stress and depletion of arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidneys, compared with intraperitoneal administration of the drug. The treatment with MiADMSA although, produced essential metals imbalance which could be a restrictive factor for the possible therapeutic use of this compound in chronic arsenic poisoning and thus require further exploration.

  18. Acute and chronic methyl mercury poisoning impairs rat adrenal and testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.V.; Meikle, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    Animals poisoned with methyl mercury (CH/sub 3/Hg) exhibit stress intolerance and decreased sexual activity, which suggest both adrenal and testicular dysfunction. Adrenal and testicular function was studied in male rats after treatment with CH/sub 3/Hg. In animals treated chronically, the adrenal glands were markedly hyperplastic with enlargement of the zona fasciculata. The mean basal serum levels of corticosterone were similar in experimental (17.8 ..mu..g/dl) and control (16.8 ..mu..g/dl) groups. However, with ether stress, experimental animals had a subnormal response, and the mean serum levels of corticosterone increased to only 23.9 ..mu../dl compared to 40.6 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. Exogenous ACTH stimulation produced a mean level of 19.0 ..mu..g/dl in the CH/sub 3/Hg-treated animals and 49.7 ..mu..g/dl in the controls. In vitro studies demonstrated a defect in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. A profound impairment in swimming was partially reversed with glucocorticoid therapy. In animals treated with CH/sub 3/Hg, serum testosterone was lower than normal in the basal state. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation increased the mean serum concentration of testosterone to 23.4 ng/ml in controls, but it was only 4.50 ng/ml in experimental animals. The data indicate that CH/sub 3/Hg poisoning impairs adrenal and testicular steroid hormone secretion, which accounts in part for the diminished stress tolerance and decreased sexual activity observed in CH/sub 3/Hg-intoxicated animals.

  19. [Growth and metabolism of calcium in rats chronically poisoned with aluminium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L; Millen, N; Gonzalez, M; Contini, M C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of aluminum on growth have been studied in rats chronically poisoned with aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w.-i.p.-three times a week, during 6 months) and in control rats, between 3 and 26 weeks of age. The growth data was evaluated according to Parks 'theory of feeding an growth. At the end of the poisoning period, the calcium metabolism was studied through a balance of calcium and the determination of bone Ca++ accretion and resorption rates with the aid of 45Ca++. The parathyroid glands function was studied using an indirect method. Treated rats showed a significant decrease in asymptotic weights and in the initial efficiency of food conversion into biomass regarding controls. No differences were observed in food intake between both group. Aluminum affected neither the peak growth rate nor the time necessary to attain maturity. The calcium balance in treated rats was significantly less than in the control group. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the calcium excreted by faces, caused perhaps by a less intestinal absorption. An important amount of aluminum on the surface of the trabecular bone and a reduction in the skeletal Ca++ mass, was observed in all treated rats. Nevertheless there are no differences in the latter when expressed for 100 g of body weight. The rate of skeletal Ca++ accretion was found to be significantly decreased in treated group with respect to controls, without any changes in the bone Ca resorption rate. The reduction in bone turnover revealed by the decrease of Vo+/Vo- was accompanied by less recovery velocity of calcemia in the aluminum treated group, being indirectly related to the parathyroid gland response to calcium depletion. In the model that we studied the decreased bone turnover could have been caused by deposits of aluminum in bone; however there could exist associated factors such as dysfunction in the secretion of PTH, or less affinity between its receptors at the bone level. PMID:9504191

  20. [Growth and metabolism of calcium in rats chronically poisoned with aluminium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L; Millen, N; Gonzalez, M; Contini, M C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of aluminum on growth have been studied in rats chronically poisoned with aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w.-i.p.-three times a week, during 6 months) and in control rats, between 3 and 26 weeks of age. The growth data was evaluated according to Parks 'theory of feeding an growth. At the end of the poisoning period, the calcium metabolism was studied through a balance of calcium and the determination of bone Ca++ accretion and resorption rates with the aid of 45Ca++. The parathyroid glands function was studied using an indirect method. Treated rats showed a significant decrease in asymptotic weights and in the initial efficiency of food conversion into biomass regarding controls. No differences were observed in food intake between both group. Aluminum affected neither the peak growth rate nor the time necessary to attain maturity. The calcium balance in treated rats was significantly less than in the control group. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the calcium excreted by faces, caused perhaps by a less intestinal absorption. An important amount of aluminum on the surface of the trabecular bone and a reduction in the skeletal Ca++ mass, was observed in all treated rats. Nevertheless there are no differences in the latter when expressed for 100 g of body weight. The rate of skeletal Ca++ accretion was found to be significantly decreased in treated group with respect to controls, without any changes in the bone Ca resorption rate. The reduction in bone turnover revealed by the decrease of Vo+/Vo- was accompanied by less recovery velocity of calcemia in the aluminum treated group, being indirectly related to the parathyroid gland response to calcium depletion. In the model that we studied the decreased bone turnover could have been caused by deposits of aluminum in bone; however there could exist associated factors such as dysfunction in the secretion of PTH, or less affinity between its receptors at the bone level.

  1. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  2. Chronic arsenic poisoning in drinking water in Inner Mongolia and its associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan X; Hu, Lin; Yand, Peng Z; Tanabe, Kimiko; Miyatalre, Munetoshi; Chen, Yao

    2007-10-01

    Since 1990, a large number of people have been experiencing various health problems from drinking arsenic contaminated water (50-1860 microg/L) in 13 counties of Inner Mongolia, China, most of which are located in the Hetao Plain area. It is calculated that 411,243 people are currently at risk from arsenic poisoning. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were carried out on 13,021 people to ascertain the nature and degree of morbidity that occurred due to chronic arsenic toxicity. In all of the studied patients, 22% had typical hyperkeratosis on the palms or soles and some had raindrop-like hyperpigmentation and depigmentation on the trunk. Other data recorded included subjective and objective symptoms, such as chronic cough (35.0%) and insomnia (37.5%). During physical checkups of 680 villagers in arsenic affected areas, liver function tests showed elevated globulin levels in 6.8% (P value=0.006) of the subjects. Neurotoxicity manifesting as loss of hearing 5.88 (P value=0.005), loss of taste 5.44% (P value=0.001), blurred vision 17.35% (P value=0.000), tingling and numbness of the limbs 33.53% (P value=0.000) and hypertension 8.09% (P value=0.000) were significantly higher in the arsenic affected villages and arsenic pollution also seemed to affect patients' social life and mental health. To solve the problem of arsenic exposure, the quality of drinking water needs to be improved by reducing the arsenic content. We also plan to carry out a survey to detect the incidence and types of cancer among this population.

  3. Copper toxicity in confinement-housed ram lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, N J; Fallah-Rad, A H; Connor, M L

    1997-01-01

    Fourteen Suffolk rams (6 mo) were diagnosed with chronic copper poisoning. Preliminary results indicated that a combination of serum aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, and copper could be used as a test so that high risk lambs could be treated more aggressively. PMID:9262859

  4. Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Wiebecke, B; Hübner, G; Eife, R; Kellner, M; Schramel, P

    1988-02-01

    A severe copper storage disease of the liver with micronodular cirrhosis resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) was found in two siblings of a German family leading to death in one infant at the age of 13 months. The fatal outcome correlated with severe ballooning of hepatocytes and excessive formation of Mallory bodies. The copper content of the liver was 698 micrograms per gramme wet weight (control 5 micrograms) in the living patient and 2154 micrograms per gramme dry weight (controls 39, 54 micrograms) in the dead infant. In both cases copper was stored not only in hepatocytes but also to a high degree in mesenchymal cells. Chronic contamination of drinking water supplied from a well via copper pipes could be verified as the cause of copper intoxication, lending further support to ICC as an environmental, acquired disorder. Accumulation of exogenic copper already very early in infancy appears most important for the development of the disease, as both the parents and one child not exposed to copper intoxication during the first 9 months of its life are clinically healthy.

  5. Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Wiebecke, B; Hübner, G; Eife, R; Kellner, M; Schramel, P

    1988-02-01

    A severe copper storage disease of the liver with micronodular cirrhosis resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) was found in two siblings of a German family leading to death in one infant at the age of 13 months. The fatal outcome correlated with severe ballooning of hepatocytes and excessive formation of Mallory bodies. The copper content of the liver was 698 micrograms per gramme wet weight (control 5 micrograms) in the living patient and 2154 micrograms per gramme dry weight (controls 39, 54 micrograms) in the dead infant. In both cases copper was stored not only in hepatocytes but also to a high degree in mesenchymal cells. Chronic contamination of drinking water supplied from a well via copper pipes could be verified as the cause of copper intoxication, lending further support to ICC as an environmental, acquired disorder. Accumulation of exogenic copper already very early in infancy appears most important for the development of the disease, as both the parents and one child not exposed to copper intoxication during the first 9 months of its life are clinically healthy. PMID:3362750

  6. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  7. Temperature modulates phototrophic periphyton response to chronic copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Anne Sophie; Dabrin, Aymeric; Morin, Soizic; Gahou, Josiane; Foulquier, Arnaud; Coquery, Marina; Pesce, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Streams located in vineyard areas are highly prone to metal pollution. In a context of global change, aquatic systems are generally subjected to multi-stress conditions due to multiple chemical and/or physical pressures. Among various environmental factors that modulate the ecological effects of toxicants, special attention should be paid to climate change, which is driving an increase in extreme climate events such as sharp temperature rises. In lotic ecosystems, periphyton ensures key ecological functions such as primary production and nutrient cycling. However, although the effects of metals on microbial communities are relatively well known, there is scant data on possible interactions between temperature increase and metal pollution. Here we led a study to evaluate the influence of temperature on the response of phototrophic periphyton to copper (Cu) exposure. Winter communities, collected in a 8 °C river water, were subjected for six weeks to four thermal conditions in microcosms in presence or not of Cu (nominal concentration of 15 μg L(-1)). At the initial river temperature (8 °C), our results confirmed the chronic impact of Cu on periphyton, both in terms of structure (biomass, distribution of algal groups, diatomic composition) and function (photosynthetic efficiency). At higher temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C), Cu effects were modulated. Indeed, temperature increase reduced Cu effects on algal biomass, algal class proportions, diatom assemblage composition and photosynthetic efficiency. This reduction of Cu effects on periphyton may be related to lower bioaccumulation of Cu and/or to selection of more Cu-tolerant species at higher temperatures. PMID:26608872

  8. Temperature modulates phototrophic periphyton response to chronic copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Anne Sophie; Dabrin, Aymeric; Morin, Soizic; Gahou, Josiane; Foulquier, Arnaud; Coquery, Marina; Pesce, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Streams located in vineyard areas are highly prone to metal pollution. In a context of global change, aquatic systems are generally subjected to multi-stress conditions due to multiple chemical and/or physical pressures. Among various environmental factors that modulate the ecological effects of toxicants, special attention should be paid to climate change, which is driving an increase in extreme climate events such as sharp temperature rises. In lotic ecosystems, periphyton ensures key ecological functions such as primary production and nutrient cycling. However, although the effects of metals on microbial communities are relatively well known, there is scant data on possible interactions between temperature increase and metal pollution. Here we led a study to evaluate the influence of temperature on the response of phototrophic periphyton to copper (Cu) exposure. Winter communities, collected in a 8 °C river water, were subjected for six weeks to four thermal conditions in microcosms in presence or not of Cu (nominal concentration of 15 μg L(-1)). At the initial river temperature (8 °C), our results confirmed the chronic impact of Cu on periphyton, both in terms of structure (biomass, distribution of algal groups, diatomic composition) and function (photosynthetic efficiency). At higher temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C), Cu effects were modulated. Indeed, temperature increase reduced Cu effects on algal biomass, algal class proportions, diatom assemblage composition and photosynthetic efficiency. This reduction of Cu effects on periphyton may be related to lower bioaccumulation of Cu and/or to selection of more Cu-tolerant species at higher temperatures.

  9. Aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 was identified as a biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning through integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Bai, Wenlin; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    Chronic occupational benzene exposure is associated with an increased risk of hematological malignancies such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. The new biomarker and action mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning are still required to be explored. Aberrant DNA methylation, which may lead to genomic instability and the altered gene expression, is frequently observed in hematological cancers. To gain an insight into the new biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of chronic benzene poisoning, DNA methylation profiles and mRNA expression pattern from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of four chronic benzene poisoning patients and four health controls that matched age and gender without benzene exposure were performed using the high resolution Infinium 450K methylation array and Gene Chip Human Gene 2.0ST Arrays, respectively. By integrating DNA methylation and mRNA expression data, we identified 3 hypermethylated genes showing concurrent down-regulation (PRKG1, PARD3, EPHA8) and 2 hypomethylated genes showing increased expression (STAT3, IFNGR1). Signal net analysis of differential methylation genes associated with chronic benzene poisoning showed that two key hypomethylated STAT3 and hypermethylated GNAI1 were identified. Further GO analysis and pathway analysis indicated that hypomethylated STAT3 played central roles through regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, JAK-STAT cascade and adipocytokine signaling pathway, Acute myeloid leukemia, and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, the aberrant hypomethylated STAT3 might be a potential biomarker of chronic benzene poisoning.

  10. Chronic methyl mercury poisoning may trigger endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem".

    PubMed

    Robledo, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    In endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) or "fogo selvagem" the epidemiological evidence shows that all the described outbreaks occur on the banks of rivers where there is mercury contamination from alluvium gold mining and deforestation. Pathophysiological evidence shows a similarity to pemphigus induced by sulphydryl (SH-) drugs that act by denaturing cadherins at the desmosomal level, which are the pemphigus antigens. The sulfhydryl radical (SH-) call also thiol or mercaptans from the SH-drugs, act at the level of SH-groups of cystein as would the methyl mercury from the contaminated animals and fish in the diet of humans from endemic areas of pemphigus foliaceus. The methyl mercury would join the SH-groups from the cysteines amino acids from cadherin proteins in the skin. The autoimmune disease would only be triggered in genetically susceptible individuals with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB 1 haplotypes, just as Brown-Norway (BN) rats which are susceptible to develop Th2-dependent autoimmunity induced by metals. Immunological evidence from all the seroepidemiological studies could also be explained by binding mechanism of the methyl mercury to the SH-groups from the cysteines in the desmosomal cadherins proteins. The conclusion is that chronic methyl mercury poisoning is the most likely trigger of endemic pemphigus foliaceus "fogo selvagem". To reduce the contamination of methyl mercury in the animals of the polluted rivers is pertinent to the design of campaigns and education programs with the population. Implement reforestation and biological control measures like phytoremediation technologies using decontaminant plants to decrease the methylation, and the process of biomagnifications of the methyl mercury in the Latin-America EPF foci. PMID:22000710

  11. Chronic lead poisoning magnifies bone detrimental effects in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching Ming; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; Bozzini, Clarisa; Piñeiro, Adriana Emilce; Conti, María Inés; Martínez, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is mainly stored in bones being an important source of endogenous lead exposure during periods of increased bone resorption as occurs in menopause. As no evidence exists of which bone biomechanical properties are impaired in those elderly women who had been exposed to Pb during their lifetime, the aim of the present study is to discern whether chronic lead poisoning magnifies the deterioration of bone biology that occurs in later stages of life. We investigated the effect of Pb in the femora of ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats who had been intoxicated with 1000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water for 8 months. Structural properties were determined using a three-point bending mechanical test, and geometrical and material properties were evaluated after obtaining the load/deformation curve. Areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated using a bone densitometer. Femoral histomorphometry was carried out on slices dyed with H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). Pb and OVX decreased all structural properties with a higher effect when both treatments were applied together. Medullar and cortical area of femurs under OVX increased, allowing the bone to accommodate its architecture, which was not observed under Pb intoxication. Pb and OVX significantly decreased BMD, showing lead treated ovariectomized rats (PbOVX) animals the lowest BMD levels. Trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV%) was decreased in OVX and PbOVX animals in 54% compared to the control animals (p<0.001). Pb femurs also showed 28% less trabeculae than the control (p<0.05). We demonstrated that Pb intoxication magnifies the impairment in bone biomechanics of OVX rats with a consequent enhancement of the risk of fracture. These results enable the discussion of the detrimental effects of lead intoxication in bone biology in elderly women.

  12. Chronic lead poisoning magnifies bone detrimental effects in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching Ming; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; Bozzini, Clarisa; Piñeiro, Adriana Emilce; Conti, María Inés; Martínez, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is mainly stored in bones being an important source of endogenous lead exposure during periods of increased bone resorption as occurs in menopause. As no evidence exists of which bone biomechanical properties are impaired in those elderly women who had been exposed to Pb during their lifetime, the aim of the present study is to discern whether chronic lead poisoning magnifies the deterioration of bone biology that occurs in later stages of life. We investigated the effect of Pb in the femora of ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats who had been intoxicated with 1000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water for 8 months. Structural properties were determined using a three-point bending mechanical test, and geometrical and material properties were evaluated after obtaining the load/deformation curve. Areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated using a bone densitometer. Femoral histomorphometry was carried out on slices dyed with H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). Pb and OVX decreased all structural properties with a higher effect when both treatments were applied together. Medullar and cortical area of femurs under OVX increased, allowing the bone to accommodate its architecture, which was not observed under Pb intoxication. Pb and OVX significantly decreased BMD, showing lead treated ovariectomized rats (PbOVX) animals the lowest BMD levels. Trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV%) was decreased in OVX and PbOVX animals in 54% compared to the control animals (p<0.001). Pb femurs also showed 28% less trabeculae than the control (p<0.05). We demonstrated that Pb intoxication magnifies the impairment in bone biomechanics of OVX rats with a consequent enhancement of the risk of fracture. These results enable the discussion of the detrimental effects of lead intoxication in bone biology in elderly women. PMID:26422677

  13. Fatal cardiac arrhythmia in a patient with interstitial myocarditis related to chronic arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hall, J C; Harruff, R

    1989-12-01

    We have reported the case of a 42-year-old man exposed to arsenic at least three times over a ten-month period from an agricultural source. He showed classical symptoms and signs of arsenic poisoning. During chelation therapy and apparent recovery from the poisoning, he suddenly and unexpectedly died; postmortem examination revealed a myocarditis similar to that reported previously. The case demonstrates the need for electrocardiographic monitoring of all patients with arsenic poisoning, during both the initial phase of the illness and convalescence.

  14. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Bazinon poisoning; Diazol poisoning; Gardentox poisoning; Knox-Out poisoning; Spectracide poisoning ... Below are symptoms of diazinon poisoning in different parts of the ... No breathing Bladder and kidneys: Increased urination Eyes, ...

  15. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Carbofos poisoning; Compound 4049 poisoning; Cythion poisoning; Fosfothion poisoning; Mercaptothion poisoning ... Below are symptoms of malathion poisoning in different parts of the ... No breathing Bladder and kidneys Increased urination Eyes, ...

  16. Chronic toxicity of dietary copper to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    De Schamphelaere, K A C; Forrez, I; Dierckens, K; Sorgeloos, P; Janssen, C R

    2007-03-30

    There is a growing concern that dietborne metal toxicity might be important in aquatic ecosystems. However, the science behind this matter is insufficiently developed to explicitly and accurately account for this in metal regulation or risk assessment. We investigated the effects of a chronic exposure of Daphnia magna to an elevated level of Cu (3000 microg Cu/g dry wt) in their diet (the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Compared to daphnids fed with P. subcapitata containing a background of 10.6 microg Cu/g dry wt, daphnids fed for 21 days with this Cu-contaminated food accumulated a total copper body burden of 325 microg Cu/g dry wt, which is about 30-fold higher than the control body burden of 12.1 microg/g dry wt. The exposed daphnids experienced a 38% reduction of growth (measured as final dry body weight), a 50% reduction of reproduction (total number of juveniles produced per daphnid), and only produced three broods versus four broods by the control daphnids. Unlike most other studies, we were able to demonstrate that these effects were most likely not due to a reduced nutritional quality of the food, based on C:P ratios and fatty acid content and composition of the Cu-contaminated algae. Life-history analysis showed that time to first brood was not affected by dietary Cu, while the second and third broods were significantly delayed by 0.7 and 1.5 days, respectively. On the other hand, brood sizes of all three broods were significantly lower in Cu exposed daphnids, i.e. by 32-55%. The variety of effects observed suggest the possible, and perhaps simultaneous, involvement of several toxicity mechanisms such as increased metabolic cost, reduced energy acquisition (potentially via inhibition of digestive enzyme activity), targeted inhibition of reproduction (potentially via inhibition of vitellogenesis), and/or direct inhibition of molting. Further research is needed to differentiate between these postulated mechanisms of dietary Cu toxicity and to

  17. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  18. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-07-24

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

  19. Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on some epididymal sperm parameters and histopathology of testes following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Azari, O; Kheirandish, R; Esmaili Nejad, M R; Shafiei Bafti, H

    2016-06-01

    Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group.

  20. Effects of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil on some epididymal sperm parameters and histopathology of testes following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakhaee, E; Emadi, L; Azari, O; Kheirandish, R; Esmaili Nejad, M R; Shafiei Bafti, H

    2016-06-01

    Copper overload can cause sperm cell damage by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, cumin has a good antioxidant potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cumin on sperm quality and testicular tissue following experimentally induced copper poisoning in mice. Forty-eight mature male mice were divided into four equal groups as follows: group Cu which received 0.1 ml copper sulphate at dose of 100 mg kg(-1) , group Cc which received Cuminum cyminum at dose of 1 mg kg(-1) , treatment group which received copper sulphate (100 mg kg(-1) ) and treated with Cuminum cyminum (1 mg kg(-1) ), and control group which received the same volume of normal saline. Six mice in each group were sacrificed at week 4 and week 6. The results showed that sperm concentration, motility and viability in group Cu were significantly decreased at weeks 4 and 6, and severe degenerative changes were observed in testicular tissues in comparison with the control group. In treatment group, significant improvement in the sperm count, motility and viability, and normal architecture in most seminiferous tubules with organised epithelium was observed compared to the group Cu. The sperm quality parameters in the treatment group approached those of the control group. PMID:26332396

  1. Chronic arsenic poisoning from well water in a mining area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Foy, H M; Tarmapai, S; Eamchan, P; Metdilogkul, O

    Endemic arsenic poisoning manifested by palmoplantar keratoderma and hyperpigmentation was surveyed in a village in a tin and wolfram mining area in southern Thailand where two cases of Bowen's carcinoma had occurred. Nine percent of examined adults randomly selected from 58 households were found to have skin manifestations of arsenic poisoning. Also, children with typical palmoplantar keratoderma were recognized, the youngest being four years old. A seven-year-old with severe keratoderma also had neurological manifestations and appeared mentally retarded. Arsenic concentration in shallow wells varied between 0.02-2.7 mg/l (average 0.82), and piped water had 0.07 mg/l. A major source of the contamination of ground water probably was slag heaps positioned next to a stream that fed the village.

  2. Chronic lead poisoning in steers eating silage contaminated with lead shot - diagnostic criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.A.; McLoughlin, M.F.; Blanchflower, W.J.; Thompson, T.R.

    1987-10-01

    Lead ingestion is one of the most common causes of poisoning in cattle. Toxicity results most commonly from the consumption of a single high dose of lead although cumulative toxicity resulting from the ingestion of small doses over a prolonged time also occurs. The sources of lead most commonly involved in disease outbreaks are paint, batteries, felt, linoleum and oil. It has traditionally been held that ingested metallic lead does not present a major toxicity risk to cattle because of its low solubility in the rumen and reticulum. More recent evidence suggests that lead shot, if present in silage, can induce toxicity when such silage is eaten by cattle. This communication describes a poisoning outbreak in steers eating lead shot contaminated grass silage. It presents and discusses the limitations of the criteria used for arriving at a diagnosis, including the use of whole blood amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentrations in fresh whole blood and after reactivation with dithiothreitol. Three are differences of opinion, in the literature, regarding the response of erythrocyte ALAD to ingested lead in the bovine. Consequently the results of a small lead feeding trial are also reported here. These results demonstrate a large ALAD response to lead ingestion and justify the use of this test in the confirmation of field cases of lead poisoning in cattle such as the one reported here.

  3. Effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on neurobehavioral, neurochemical and oxidative changes caused by sub-chronic cyanide poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Shyamala, R; Vijayashree, R; Rao, K R; Ruckmani, A; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) alone or with sodium thiosulfate (STS) provide significant protection against acute and sub-acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. This study addresses the protective effect of A-KG and/or STS in sub-chronic (90 days) cyanide poisoning. Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): Control animals, potassium cyanide (KCN) A-KG, STS, KCN + A-KG, KCN + STS and KCN + A-KG + STS. Spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination were recorded every 15th day. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in blood, brain, liver and kidney, and glutamate, aspartate and dopamine in discrete regions of brain were measured following 90 days exposure. Cyanide significantly decreased motor coordination, accompanied by increase in LPO (blood, brain and liver) and dopamine (corpus striatum and cerebral cortex) levels, and depletion in GSH (blood, brain and liver), GPx (brain and liver), SOD (brain and liver), and CAT (blood and brain) levels. Although treatment of A-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both afforded the maximum protection. This study shows a promising role of A-KG and STS as treatment regime for long term cyanide exposure.

  4. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Greer, I Eugene; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; Brumbaugh, William G; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (>or=90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 microg Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 microg Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 microg/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20 degrees C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. PMID:17867874

  5. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  7. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  8. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wood alcohol poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. You can call 24 hours ...

  9. The consequences of chronic arsenic poisoning among Moselle wine growers. Pathoanatomical investigations of post-mortem examinations performed between 1960 and 1977.

    PubMed

    Lüchtrath, H

    1983-01-01

    From post-mortem examinations performed at the Pathology Institute at Koblenz, 163 cases of wine growers affected by chronic arsenic poisoning were analyzed. While a reduction could be seen in the number of cases of liver cirrhosis, the carcinoma rate was still high and even increased when compared to earlier reports. Lung cancers were identified in 66% of all wine growers affected and are thus the leading form of the skin were observed. A particular characteristic of amount of carcinomas or precarcinogenic alterations of arsenic carcinoma. However, nearly the same amount of carcinomas or precarcinogenic alterations of the skin were observed. A particular characteristic of cases. Among the multiple tumors, up to six different carcinomas were found. As arsenic is no longer detectable by toxicologic-chemical means the deposits of arsenic have been depleted and excreted long ago and so the diagnosis of chronic poisoning today depends on morphological changes of the skin (arsenic hyperkeratosis, melanosis and M. Bowen) which have been shown to be reliable. A comparison of our analysis with much more extensive material collected by the trade association supports our experience and the determined case rates. Furthermore modern theories on the carcinogenic action of arsenic, the question of the tumor latency and the relation of specific cancers to the poison are presented. In addition medical opinions on chronic arsenic poisoning are discussed.

  10. [Basal cell epithelioma of the vulva in chronic endemic regional arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, H N; Cuda, G; López, M; Costa, J A

    1984-01-01

    A 65 years old patient with vulvar basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous manifestations of chronic arsenicism is reported; by its endemic origin is considered as hidroarsenicism ( ERCHA = endemic regional chronic hidroarsenicism ). The unusual presentation of this type of cancer is resalted , and it's attributed to its general disease . The principal characteristics of arsenical skin cancer are considered.

  11. Newer aspects of micronutrients in chronic disease: copper.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J

    1994-11-01

    Cu ions are pro-oxidants when added to biological material in vitro and excessive levels of Cu in the body, such as in Wilson's Disease (Yarze et al. 1992) promote oxidant-related pathologies. In contrast there is now substantial evidence that an optimum level of Cu is required to maintain antioxidant defence and that Cu deficiency in animals increases oxidant stress. There are abundant mechanistic relationships linking Cu deficiency and processes associated with IHD, some of which do not directly involve oxidant damage. These mechanistic relationships, however, have mostly been demonstrated in animal models and more information is urgently required concerning possible chronic mild Cu deficiencies in human populations. A major hurdle to advances in this area is the lack of indices of Cu status which are sensitive enough to detect marginal Cu deficiency in humans. The question, therefore, of whether or not there is a role for mild Cu deficiency in the onset of chronic disease processes, including IHD, remains unanswered.

  12. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  13. Outbreak of chronic arsenic poisoning among retired workers from an arsenic mine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishinishi, N; Kodama, Y; Nobutomo, K; Inamasu, T; Kunitake, E; Suenaga, Y

    1977-08-01

    Retired former workers of Matsuo Arsenic Mine of Miyazaki prefecture in Japan were subjected to extensive medical examination. The number of retired workers subjected to examination were 61 of 208 workers who were engaged in the works of the mine and were tracked down by the work rolls. These workers left the mine more than 15 years prior to the time of the examination. The main works in the mine were classified as mining, dressing of ores, refining, and clerical work. Several findings such as arsenodermatitis, depigmentation, performation of nasal septum, hyposmia, anosmia, and peripheral nervous disturbance attributed to exposure to arsenic were observed in 9 of 21 roasters who often worked in the arsenic kitchen. No characteristic findings of arsenic poisoning, that is, gastrointestinal disturbance, disorder of the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic disorders, or liver disturbance were observed in the retired workers. Another notable finding was that 8 cases diagnosed as pneumoconiosis were found in 18 miners.

  14. Role of phospholipids in destabilization of lysosomal membranes in chronic alcohol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Tadevosyan, Y.V.; Batikyan, T.B.; Gevorkyan, G.A.; Karagezyan, K.G.

    1986-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study changes in the phospholipids (PL) spectrum and possible activity of membrane-bound phospholipase A/sub 2/ in lysosomal membranes from albino rat liver under conditions of the normally metabolizing tissue and during long-term alcohol poisoning. Changes in stability of the lysosomal membranes were determined by measuring nonsedimented acid phosphatase (AP) activity. The substance 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline (/sup 14/C-PCh) was synthesized by an enzymic method. Phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity was determined in an incubation medium of Tris-Maleate buffer containing 20 nanomoles (/sup 14/C)-PCH, 8 mM CaC1/sub 2/, and about 100 micrograms protein.

  15. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area. PMID:11836136

  16. Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Baoshan; Aposhian, H Vasken; Zhou, Yunshu; Chen, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Aihua; Waalkes, Michael P

    2002-02-01

    Arsenic is an environmental hazard and the reduction of drinking water arsenic levels is under consideration. People are exposed to arsenic not only through drinking water but also through arsenic-contaminated air and food. Here we report the health effects of arsenic exposure from burning high arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou, China. Coal in this region has undergone mineralization and thus produces high concentrations of arsenic. Coal is burned inside the home in open pits for daily cooking and crop drying, producing a high concentration of arsenic in indoor air. Arsenic in the air coats and permeates food being dried producing high concentrations in food; however, arsenic concentrations in the drinking water are in the normal range. The estimated sources of total arsenic exposure in this area are from arsenic-contaminated food (50-80%), air (10-20%), water (1-5%), and direct contact in coal-mining workers (1%). At least 3,000 patients with arsenic poisoning were found in the Southwest Prefecture of Guizhou, and approximately 200,000 people are at risk for such overexposures. Skin lesions are common, including keratosis of the hands and feet, pigmentation on the trunk, skin ulceration, and skin cancers. Toxicities to internal organs, including lung dysfunction, neuropathy, and nephrotoxicity, are clinically evident. The prevalence of hepatomegaly was 20%, and cirrhosis, ascites, and liver cancer are the most serious outcomes of arsenic poisoning. The Chinese government and international organizations are attempting to improve the house conditions and the coal source, and thereby protect human health in this area.

  17. [Interactive relations between copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead in the liver in sheep after experimental poisoning with copper oxide].

    PubMed

    Bíres, J

    1989-11-01

    The interactions between copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead were studied in the livers of 12 ewes of the Improved Wallachian breed after experimentally induced intoxication with cuprous oxide from industrial emission. The highest correlation coefficient was recorded between the concentrations of copper and zinc in the livers of the experimental ewes (r = 0.916) and its value was at a significance level of p less than 0.05. The interaction between copper and arsenic in the liver of the experimental animals corresponded to a correlation coefficient of r = 0.359 and that between copper and cadmium corresponded to r = 0.129. The lowest correlation coefficient in the livers of the experimental animals was recorded between copper and lead (r = 0.073). As to the relationships between the remaining elements, the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.667) was obtained between the contents of zinc and cadmium in the livers of the experimental ewes. The interaction of copper with the other risky metals after experimental intoxication was limited by the concentration of the studied elements in the industrial emission as well as by the course of the disease itself.

  18. Subchronic and chronic developmental effects of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nations, Shawna; Long, Monique; Wages, Mike; Maul, Jonathan D; Theodorakis, Christopher W; Cobb, George P

    2015-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as copper oxide (CuO), are mass produced for use in a variety of products like coatings and ceramics. Acute exposure to CuO nanoparticles has caused toxicity to many aquatic organisms, yet there is no information on the effect of prolonged CuO nanomaterial exposures. This study examined effects of chronic exposure to CuO nanoparticles on Xenopus laevis growth and development. Experiments included a 14 d subchronic exposure and a 47 d chronic exposure throughout metamorphosis. The subchronic exposure caused mortality in all tested CuO concentrations, and significant growth effects occurred after exposure to 2.5 mg L(-1) CuO. Chronic exposure to 0.3 mg L(-1) CuO elicited significant mortality and affected the rate of metamorphosis. Exposure to lower concentrations of CuO stimulated metamorphosis and growth, indicating that low dose exposure can have hormetic effects. PMID:25950410

  19. Serum copper is a simple but valuable prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Labib, Hany A; Hassanein, Mona; Etewa, Rasha L

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum copper and various prognostic factors, time to start treatment, and treatment response in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and related disorders. Fifty newly diagnosed CLL patients aged 36-70 years were included. Patients were studied for serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum copper, direct Coombs' test, serum β(2) microglobulin (β(2)M), immunophenotyping for diagnosis of B-CLL, evaluation of CD38 and zeta-associated protein (ZAP-70) expression, and fluorescence in situ hybridization technique for cytogenetic analysis. Fourteen of 50 patients had high serum copper level; they had a significant increase in LDH, serum β(2)M, incidence of positive Coombs' test, CD38 and ZAP-70, incidence of 17p del, and a decrease in hemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte doubling time and time to start treatment with a lower treatment response rate. No significant difference was found with regard to Rai staging for CLL. These results indicate that serum copper level, a cheap and simple laboratory test, is of great value in CLL patients as it showed a significant association with some important adverse prognostic markers such as increased expression of ZAP-70 and CD38, shorter time to start treatment and poor response to treatment.

  20. Chronic arsenicism: criminal poisoning or drug-intoxication? Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sass, U; Grosshans, E; Simonart, J M

    1993-01-01

    We report two cases with chronic arsenicism. The first one is a young 37-year-old woman who presents leucomelanoderma, plantar keratoderma, polyneuropathy of the legs and transversal striae of the nails. After investigations, criminal intoxication with arsenic caused by her own sister was discovered. The second case is a 42-year-old man who had developed plantar keratoderma, arsenical keratoses and two squamous cell epitheliomas 10 years after a 2-year treatment with Fowler's solution for androgenetic alopecia.

  1. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water].

    PubMed

    Grinspan, D; Biagini, R

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  2. [Level of heavy metals in the liver of sheep in experimental poisoning with copper oxide from industrial emissions].

    PubMed

    Vrzgula, L; Bíres, J; Hojerová, A; Vrzgulová, N

    1989-05-01

    The life span and cumulation of heavy metals in the liver of 12 ewes of the Improved Wallachian breed were investigated in relation to feeding pollutants from a copper works. The total intake of copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead was 466.8; 1253.93; 111.67; 34.75; 0.091; 2.13 mg per experimental animal/day, respectively. The average life span of ewes in the experimental group was 77 days. The difference between the first and the last animal which died from copper intoxication was 18 days. The concentration of copper in the liver of sheep who died from intoxication by this metal (2138.28 +/- 1090.96 mg. kg-1 in dry matter) was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) if compared with the control ewes (212.9 +/- 58.33 mg. .kg-1 in dry matter). In the course of observations no direct dependence between the concentration of copper in the liver and the life span of experimental animals was confirmed. The content of iron and zinc in the liver of experimental animals was within the reference range; the difference in zinc was statistically significant when compared with the control group (p less than 0.01). The intake of pollutants from the copper works increased significantly the concentration of arsenic and lead in the liver of experimental animals (p less than 0.01) if compared with the control group. The amount of cadmium in the liver of experimental ewes was 0.304 +/- 0.22 mg. .kg-1 and in the control ewes 0.285 +/- 0.10 mg.kg-1 in dry matter; no significant difference was determined at the same time.

  3. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  5. Acetone poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Dimethyl formaldehyde poisoning; Dimethyl ketone poisoning; Nail polish remover poisoning ... Acetone can be found in: Nail polish remover Some cleaning solutions Some glues, including rubber cement Some lacquers Other products may also contain acetone.

  6. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  7. Evaluation of biochemical changes in chronic arsenic poisoning among Bangladeshi patients.

    PubMed

    Nabi, A H M Nurun; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Islam, Laila N

    2005-12-01

    An estimated 40 million people in Bangladesh have been suffering from arsenic toxicity-related diseases because of drinking water contamination with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. To evaluate the biochemical changes in chronic arsenic exposure, a total of 115 exposed subjects diagnosed as arsenicosis patients were examined and interviewed, and 120 unexposed volunteers were enrolled in this study. Drinking water, urine and peripheral blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed. The average levels of arsenic in the drinking water and spot urine samples of the arsenicosis patients were 218.1 microg/L and 234.6 microg/L, respectively, and duration of exposure was 7.6 +/- 5.2 yrs that ranged from 1-25 yrs. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among chronic arsenic-exposed subjects was about 2.8 times higher than the unexposed subjects. The activities of alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated in the patients, 197 U/L compared to 149 U/L in the controls, but alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were mostly normal. The patients had significantly lower levels of serum creatinine, 0.97 mg/dL compared to 1.15 mg/dL in the controls; but had significantly elevated levels of total protein, 84 g/L and 77 g/L respectively. The mean level of inorganic phosphate in the serum of arsenicosis patients was 6.4 mg/dL compared to 4.6 mg/dL in the unexposed subjects and the level was significantly higher, indicating substitution of the pentavalent arsenate for the phosphate ion causing underutilization of the latter. Evaluation of the lipid profiles showed while the levels of triacylglycerol were not much different, the patients had significantly lower levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the unexposed subjects. These findings suggest significant changes in biochemical parameters in human arsenic toxicity.

  8. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the rat: treatment with combined administration of succimers and an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Gurusamy M; Flora, Swaran J S

    2004-05-01

    The influence of the coadministration of vitamin C or vitamin E on the efficacy of two thiol chelators, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or monoisoamyl DMSA, in counteracting chronic arsenic toxicity was investigated in rats. Vitamin C and vitamin E were only mildly effective when given alone or in combination with the above chelators in mobilizing arsenic from the target tissues. However, combined administration of vitamin C plus DMSA and vitamin E plus MiADMSA led to a more pronounced depletion of brain arsenic. The supplementation of vitamins was significantly effective in restoring inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) oxidative stress in liver, kidneys, and brain as reflected by reduced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and oxidized and reduced glutathione levels. The results thus lead us to suggest that coadministration of vitamin E or vitamin C may be useful in the restoration of altered biochemical variables (particularly the effects on heme biosynthesis and oxidative injury) although it has only a limited role in depleting arsenic burden.

  9. Lethal and sublethal measures of chronic copper toxicity in the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E; Kuhne, Wendy; Soteropoulos, Diana; Lance, Stacey L

    2015-03-01

    Many metals are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and for some metals, such as copper (Cu), even low-level chronic contamination may be cause for conservation concern. Amphibian susceptibility to Cu has been examined in only a few species, and susceptibility is highly variable. The lethal and sublethal effects were examined of chronic aqueous Cu exposure on embryonic and larval eastern narrowmouth toads, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copper levels as low as 10 μg Cu/L reduced embryonic and larval survival. Embryonic survivorship varied within- and between-source populations, with embryos derived from uncontaminated-wetland parents having greater survival at lower Cu levels than embryos from parents from a metal-contaminated constructed wetland. At 30 μg/L, embryos from the contaminated site had greater survival. Overall survival from oviposition to metamorphosis was 68.9% at 0 μg/L and 5.4% at 10 μg/L. Similarly, embryos exposed to ≥50 μg/L demonstrated developmental delays in transition from embryo to free-swimming larva. These results demonstrate a negative population-specific response to environmentally relevant levels of Cu. PMID:25475581

  10. Experimental Induction of Morphological Deformities in Chironomus riparius Larvae by Chronic Exposure to Copper and Lead

    PubMed

    Janssens de Bisthoven L; Vermeulen; Ollevier

    1998-08-01

    Five consecutive generations of Chironomus riparius Meigen larvae were chronically exposed from egg to fourth instar to four sublethal concentrations of copper (0, 1, 10, 100 µg L-1) and lead (0, 5, 50, 500 µg L-1) in artificially spiked water (static with renewal), with diatomaceous earth as substrate and tetraphyl(R) as food, in order to test the induction of morphological deformities by these metals. The use of diatomaceous earth was suboptimal because it caused high mortalities (>60%), independent of metal stress. The higher copper concentrations had a positive effect on the survivals relative to the control. Split medial mentum teeth were recorded in more than 10% of the larvae, but could not be related to metal stress. Deformities of the mentum and the mandibles were recorded in second, third, and fourth instars exposed to both metals. Concentration and generation effects were noted for unusual number of mentum teeth (0-5.3%, lead), unusual number of mandible inner teeth (0-10.4%, copper and lead), and small open mentum gap (0-6.5%, copper). These experiments demonstrated the potential of both an essential and a non-essential metal to induce weak deformities in a small proportion of a C. riparius population as well as the induction of deformities which are independent of metal stress or fluctuating over the generations. The study shows the potential of midge deformities as a biomonitoring tool, but at the same time warns for a careful interpretation of deformity scores because of the influence of population dynamics on the final outcome of deformity frequencies and of the existence of deformities not related to pollution. PMID:9680517

  11. Effect of chronic poisoning with aluminum on the renal handling of phosphate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L

    1998-01-16

    The effects of aluminum on renal function and phosphate handling were studied using clearance techniques in chronically-intoxicated rats. Rats were given aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w., i.p.), three times per week during 6 months. The phosphate tubular transport capacity was evaluated by determining the maximum tubular transport (TmRPi) and the fractional excretion of phosphate (FE% Pi) during the infusion of phosphate solutions with increasing concentrations (0, 9, 18, 33 mM). Parathyroid gland function was studied using indirect methods: calcemia recovery after EDTA administration and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP as indicative of renal PTH actions, by RIA. The systemic acid base status was determined and food intake and rat growth were controlled in both groups. No changes were observed in the renal function. Pi reabsorption values per ml glomerular filtration rate (TRPi/GFR microg/ml) for different Pi plasmatic concentrations were distributed following a saturation curve compatible with a saturation kinetics. Aluminum increased TmRPi/GFR in treated animals (T) 76+/-4 as compared with control animals (C) 57+/-7 microg/ml, without a statistical modification in the apparent affinity. The FE% Pi and FE% Na were significantly lower in treated animals than in control animals. There were neither systemic variations in the acid-base balance nor in the Ca and Pi concentrations in plasma. The calcemia recovery following a hypocalcemic stimulus and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP (T: 44+/-4; C: 91+/-7 pmol/min) were diminished. Considering all these facts, it can be postulated that the aluminum renal effect is associated from a decrease in PTH phosphaturic capacity. Nevertheless, other associated factors like minor phosphate intestinal absorption rate may not be disregarded, even though there were no significant intake variations. PMID:9544698

  12. Effect of chronic poisoning with aluminum on the renal handling of phosphate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L

    1998-01-16

    The effects of aluminum on renal function and phosphate handling were studied using clearance techniques in chronically-intoxicated rats. Rats were given aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w., i.p.), three times per week during 6 months. The phosphate tubular transport capacity was evaluated by determining the maximum tubular transport (TmRPi) and the fractional excretion of phosphate (FE% Pi) during the infusion of phosphate solutions with increasing concentrations (0, 9, 18, 33 mM). Parathyroid gland function was studied using indirect methods: calcemia recovery after EDTA administration and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP as indicative of renal PTH actions, by RIA. The systemic acid base status was determined and food intake and rat growth were controlled in both groups. No changes were observed in the renal function. Pi reabsorption values per ml glomerular filtration rate (TRPi/GFR microg/ml) for different Pi plasmatic concentrations were distributed following a saturation curve compatible with a saturation kinetics. Aluminum increased TmRPi/GFR in treated animals (T) 76+/-4 as compared with control animals (C) 57+/-7 microg/ml, without a statistical modification in the apparent affinity. The FE% Pi and FE% Na were significantly lower in treated animals than in control animals. There were neither systemic variations in the acid-base balance nor in the Ca and Pi concentrations in plasma. The calcemia recovery following a hypocalcemic stimulus and the nephrogenic excretion of cAMP (T: 44+/-4; C: 91+/-7 pmol/min) were diminished. Considering all these facts, it can be postulated that the aluminum renal effect is associated from a decrease in PTH phosphaturic capacity. Nevertheless, other associated factors like minor phosphate intestinal absorption rate may not be disregarded, even though there were no significant intake variations.

  13. Chronic Neuropsychological Sequelae of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in the Absence of Structural Brain Damage: Two Cases of Acute Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Tapia, Lola; Leyva, Antonia; Laynez, Francisco; Santed, Fernando Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Here we describe two cases of carbamate poisoning. Patients AMF and PVM were accidentally poisoned by cholinesterase inhibitors. The medical diagnosis in both cases was overcholinergic syndrome, as demonstrated by exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors. The widespread use of cholinesterase inhibitors, especially as pesticides, produces a great number of human poisoning events annually. The main known neurotoxic effect of these substances is cholinesterase inhibition, which causes cholinergic overstimulation. Once AMF and PVM had recovered from acute intoxication, they were subjected to extensive neuropsychological evaluation 3 and 12 months after the poisoning event. These assessments point to a cognitive deficit in attention, memory, perceptual, and motor domains 3 months after intoxication. One year later these sequelae remained, even though the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans were interpreted as being within normal limits. We present these cases as examples of neuropsychological profiles of long-term sequelae related to acute poisoning by cholinesterase inhibitor pesticides and show the usefulness of neuropsychological assessment in detecting central nervous system dysfunction in the absence of biochemical or structural markers. PMID:15929901

  14. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  15. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant Heart medicine (digitalis glycoside)

  16. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  17. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  18. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  19. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  20. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sal soda poisoning; Soda ash poisoning; Disodium salt poisoning; Carbonic acid poisoning; Washing soda poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  1. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nightshade poisoning; Morelle noire poisoning; Wonderberry poisoning ... Black nightshade poisoning can affect many areas of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Dry mouth Enlarged (dilated) pupils ...

  2. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Bittersweet poisoning; Bitter nightshade poisoning; Scarlet berry poisoning; Weedy nightshade poisoning ... slow Shock LUNGS Slow breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Delirium Fever Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Paralysis WHOLE BODY ...

  3. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  4. Consumption of poisonous plants (Senecio jacobaea, Symphytum officinale, Pteridium aquilinum, Hypericum perforatum) by rats: chronic toxicity, mineral metabolism, and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Garrett, B J; Cheeke, P R; Miranda, C L; Goeger, D E; Buhler, D R

    1982-02-01

    Effect of dietary tancy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), comfrey (Symphytum officinale), bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats were measured. Tansy ragwort and bracken increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of glutathione transferase and epoxide hydrolase. Comfrey and alfalfa increased (P less than 0.05) the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase. Feeding bracken or St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) in conjunction with tansy ragwort did not influence chronic toxicity of tansy ragwort as assessed by rat survival time. Dietary tansy ragwort resulted in increased (P less than 0.05) hepatic copper levels; the other plants did not affect copper levels. The results do not suggest any major interaction in the toxicity of tansy ragwort with bracken or St. John's wort. PMID:7080084

  5. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  6. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain.

  7. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A.; Spraker, Terry R.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Zabel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  8. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  9. Identification of the key molecules involved in chronic copper exposure-aggravated memory impairment in transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease using proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Luo, Xiaobin; Xu, Hua; Ma, Quan; Yuan, Jianhui; Li, Xuling; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Qu, Zhongsen; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive impairment of cognitive functions including spatial learning and memory. Excess copper exposure accelerates the development of AD; however, the potential mechanisms by which copper exacerbates the symptoms of AD remain unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of chronic copper exposure on cognitive function by treating 6 month-old triple AD transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice with 250 ppm copper sulfate in drinking water for 6 months, and identified several potential key molecules involved in the effects of chronic copper exposure on memory by proteomic analysis. The behavioral test showed that chronic copper exposure aggravated memory impairment of 3xTg-AD mice. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry revealed a total of 44 differentially expressed proteins (18 upregulated and 26 down-regulated) in hippocampus between the wild-type (WT) mice and non-exposed 3xTg-AD mice. A total of 40 differentially expressed proteins were revealed (20 upregulated and 20 down-regulated) in hippocampus between copper exposed and non-exposed 3xTg-AD mice. Among these differentially expressed proteins, complexin-1 and complexin-2, two memory associated proteins, were significantly decreased in hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice compared with the WT mice. Furthermore, the expression of these two proteins was further down-regulated in 3xTg-AD mice when exposed to copper. The abnormal expression of complexin-1 and complexin-2 identified by proteomic analysis was verified by western blot analysis. Taken together, our data showed that chronic copper exposure accelerated memory impairment and altered the expression of proteins in hippocampus in 3xTg-AD mice. The functional analysis on the differentially expressed proteins suggested that complexin-1 and complexin-2 may be the key molecules involved in chronic copper exposure

  10. Identification of the key molecules involved in chronic copper exposure-aggravated memory impairment in transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease using proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Luo, Xiaobin; Xu, Hua; Ma, Quan; Yuan, Jianhui; Li, Xuling; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Qu, Zhongsen; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive impairment of cognitive functions including spatial learning and memory. Excess copper exposure accelerates the development of AD; however, the potential mechanisms by which copper exacerbates the symptoms of AD remain unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of chronic copper exposure on cognitive function by treating 6 month-old triple AD transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice with 250 ppm copper sulfate in drinking water for 6 months, and identified several potential key molecules involved in the effects of chronic copper exposure on memory by proteomic analysis. The behavioral test showed that chronic copper exposure aggravated memory impairment of 3xTg-AD mice. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry revealed a total of 44 differentially expressed proteins (18 upregulated and 26 down-regulated) in hippocampus between the wild-type (WT) mice and non-exposed 3xTg-AD mice. A total of 40 differentially expressed proteins were revealed (20 upregulated and 20 down-regulated) in hippocampus between copper exposed and non-exposed 3xTg-AD mice. Among these differentially expressed proteins, complexin-1 and complexin-2, two memory associated proteins, were significantly decreased in hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice compared with the WT mice. Furthermore, the expression of these two proteins was further down-regulated in 3xTg-AD mice when exposed to copper. The abnormal expression of complexin-1 and complexin-2 identified by proteomic analysis was verified by western blot analysis. Taken together, our data showed that chronic copper exposure accelerated memory impairment and altered the expression of proteins in hippocampus in 3xTg-AD mice. The functional analysis on the differentially expressed proteins suggested that complexin-1 and complexin-2 may be the key molecules involved in chronic copper exposure

  11. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  12. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas cherry poisoning; Winter cherry poisoning; Ground cherry poisoning ... The effects of Jerusalem cherry poisoning mostly affect the primarily gastrointestinal (often delayed 8 to10 hours), and central nervous system. This type of poisoning can be very ...

  13. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  14. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  15. Epidemiological investigation on chronic copper toxicity to children exposed via the public drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Björn P; Dieter, Hermann H; Lakomek, Max; Schneider, Heide; Kessler-Gaedtke, Barabara; Dunkelberg, Hartmut

    2003-01-20

    Copper in drinking water has been associated with Non-Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NICC), a form of early childhood liver cirrhosis. This epidemiological study examines the exposition of infants to increased copper concentrations through drinking water from public water supplies in Berlin, Germany, and if this dietary copper intake can cause liver damage in early childhood. In total, water samples from 2944 households with infants were tested for copper. Mean copper concentrations in the two different types of collected composite samples were 0.44 and 0.56 mg/l, respectively. Families having a copper concentration at or above 0.8 mg/l in one or both of the composite samples (29.9% of all sampled households) and a defined minimum ingestion of tap water of their infant were recommended to undergo a paediatric examination. Nearly every of the 541 recommended infants were examined by a local paediatrician and of these 183 received a blood serum analysis, too. None of the infants had clear signs of a liver disease although a few serum parameters lay outside the accompanying reference range and abdominal ultrasound imaging gave slightly unusual results in five cases. Additionally, no signs of a negative health effect could be found in the statistical analysis of the serum parameters GOT, GPT, GGT, total bilirubin, serum copper, or ceruloplasmin in relation to estimated daily and total copper intakes of the infants from tap water. No dose relation of serum parameters and estimated copper intakes could be established. From the results of the study, no confirmed indication of a liver malfunction in infants whose food had been prepared using tap water with an elevated copper concentration could be found and, therefore, no indication of a hazard due to copper pipes connected to public water supplies could be detected. PMID:12526904

  16. Protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage and oxidative stress related gene expression in rat liver under chronic poisoning of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao; Wang, Zhou; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ping-chuan; Dong, Lu; Chen, Jing-hong; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiao-tian; Wang, Zhi-lun

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and chronic exposure to it through contaminated drinking water has become a global problem of public health. The present study focused on the protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage of chronic arsenic poisoning in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups at random and given designed treatments for 20 weeks. The oxidative damage of liver tissue was evaluated by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress related genes were detected to reflect the liver stress state at the molecular level. Compared to the control and Na2SeO3 groups, the MDA content in liver tissue was decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the Na2SeO3 intervention group. The mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx and Txnrd1 were increased significantly (P<0.05) in the combined Na2SeO3+NaAsO2 treatment group. The expressions of HSP70 and HO-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the NaAsO2 group and reduced in the combined treatment group. The results indicate that long-term intake of NaAsO2 causes oxidative damage in the rat liver, and Na2SeO3 protects liver cells by adjusting the expression of oxidative stress related genes to improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23603382

  17. Protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage and oxidative stress related gene expression in rat liver under chronic poisoning of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao; Wang, Zhou; Li, Jian-jun; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ping-chuan; Dong, Lu; Chen, Jing-hong; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiao-tian; Wang, Zhi-lun

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid existing widely in the environment, and chronic exposure to it through contaminated drinking water has become a global problem of public health. The present study focused on the protective effects of selenium on oxidative damage of chronic arsenic poisoning in rat liver. Rats were divided into four groups at random and given designed treatments for 20 weeks. The oxidative damage of liver tissue was evaluated by lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative stress related genes were detected to reflect the liver stress state at the molecular level. Compared to the control and Na2SeO3 groups, the MDA content in liver tissue was decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the Na2SeO3 intervention group. The mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx and Txnrd1 were increased significantly (P<0.05) in the combined Na2SeO3+NaAsO2 treatment group. The expressions of HSP70 and HO-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the NaAsO2 group and reduced in the combined treatment group. The results indicate that long-term intake of NaAsO2 causes oxidative damage in the rat liver, and Na2SeO3 protects liver cells by adjusting the expression of oxidative stress related genes to improve the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  18. Association of genetic polymorphisms in GADD45A, MDM2, and p14{sup ARF} with the risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Pin; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Zhao Naiqing; Jin Xipeng; Xia Zhaolin

    2009-10-01

    Benzene reactive metabolites can lead to DNA damage and trigger the p53-dependent defense responses to maintain genomic stability. We hypothesized that the p53-dependent genes may play a role in the development of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). In a case-control study of 303 patients with benzene poisoning and 295 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we investigated associations between the risk of CBP and polymorphisms in three p53-dependent genes. Potential interactions of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors were also explored. We found p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 polymorphism was associated with risk of CBP (P = 0.014). Compared with those carrying the GG genotype, individuals carrying p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a reduced risk of CBP ([adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}) = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.36-0.89]. Further analysis showed p14{sup ARF} TGA/TAG diplotype was associated with an increased risk of CBP (P = 0.0006), whereas p14{sup ARF} TGG/TAA diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of CBP (P = 0.0000001). In addition, we found individuals carrying both MDM2 Del1518 WW genotype and p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a lower risk of CBP (OR{sub adj} = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.10-0.62; P = 0.003). Although these results require confirmation and extension, our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in p14{sup ARF} may have an impact on the risk of CBP in the study population.

  19. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  20. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  1. Pokeweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest amounts of poison are found in the roots, leaves, and stems. Small amounts are in the ... is no guarantee that they are safe. The roots should never be eaten. Symptoms most often appear ...

  2. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  3. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  4. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  6. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get into the food, it is ... an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating ...

  7. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002883.htm Mistletoe poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe ...

  8. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... once widely used as germ-killer and a preservative in many different products, including vaccines. Merthiolate poisoning ... the throat (endoscopy) to see burns in the food pipe (esophagus) and stomach Chest x-ray EKG ( ...

  9. [Mechanism of the membrane stabilizing action of vitamins K and E under conditions of chronic phenol poisoning in albino rats].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, P V; Lider, V A

    1996-01-01

    In experiment with white male-rats the influence of membranotropic phenol-poison on the qualitative composition of phospholipids of liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles as well as biomembranes of erythrocytes and mitochondria of liver was investigates. Along with these investigations the possibility of preventing from supposed changes of qualitative composition of phospholipids has also been studied by additional injection K and K vitamins as minor lipid components. As the result of this research it was stated that when phenol (per, os) was repeatedly injected the content of lysophospholipids, phosphatidic acids in phospholipid composition increased and the content of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin simultaneous decreased. Additional injection E and K vitamins (50 mg/kg by weight and 20 mg/kg accordingly) prevented to a greater extent the changes of fractional composition of the lipid phase of biomembranes. The mechanism of protective action of K and E vitamins is probably connected with spatial screening of pi-bonds in the radicals of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid composition from reoxidation and on the hand the competitive interrelations may exist between minor lipid components and on the other hand between the ethers of cholesterol. These conclusions agree with hypothesis that K and E vitamins are the natural modifiers of the membranes of different types of structure. PMID:8967049

  10. Acute and chronic toxicities of Irgarol alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert C S; Lam, Michael H W

    2013-01-01

    Irgarol 1051 has been widely used as a booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints. The combined toxicity of Irgarol with Cu on marine organisms, however, has not been fully investigated. This study investigated the acute and chronic toxicities of binary mixtures of Irgarol and CuSO(4) to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The acute combined toxicity of Irgarol and Cu was simple additive as revealed by two response surface models and their contours. However, based on chronic full life-cycle tests, when Irgarol was combined with Cu at an environmentally realistic concentration (10 μg L(-1)), a slightly synergistic effect was observed at a high Irgarol concentration (940 μg L(-1)), as shown by a significant increase in larval mortality. As Cu contamination is widespread in coastal environments, our results entail the importance of considering the combined toxic effect of the booster biocide and Cu for setting ecologically realistic water quality criteria.

  11. Effect of chronic cadmium administration on liver and kidney concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Friel, J.K.; Borgman, R.F.; Chandra, R.K.

    1987-04-01

    Chronic Cd exposure in animals brings about significant morphological and functional changes in both liver and kidney. Most studies of cadmium effects on essential metal tissue distribution involve large concentrations of either Cd or essential metals added to the diet. The effect of Cd ingestion on trace metal metabolism of animals consuming usual diets may be marked, as elements whose physical and chemical properties are enough alike...will act antagonistically to each other biologically. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of a chronic low dose of Cd added to an otherwise normal diet on the liver and kidney accumulation of zinc, copper, iron, manganese and chromium in the mouse at different times after the cessation of cadmium ingestion.

  12. Could chronic wounds not heal due to too low local copper levels?

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey; Zatcoff, Richard C

    2008-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element involved in numerous human physiological and metabolic processes. It plays a key role in many of the processes that together comprise wound healing, including induction of endothelial growth factor, angiogenesis and expression and stabilization of extracellular skin proteins. We hypothesize that in individuals with diabetic ulcers, decubitus, peripheral vascular, or other wounds which might have compromised circulation to the wound site, that part of the incapacity of the wounds to heal is due to low local copper levels. Contamination of wounds is also an important factor causing impaired wound healing. Importantly, copper has potent broad biocidal properties. In contrast, the risk of adverse skin reactions due to exposure to copper is extremely low. We thus hypothesize that introducing copper into wound dressings would not only reduce the risk of wound and dressing contamination, as silver does but, more importantly, would stimulate faster wound repair directly. This would be done by the release of copper from the wound dressings directly into the wound site inducing angiogenesis and skin regeneration. PMID:17689198

  13. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Shaving lotion poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  14. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chapstick poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  15. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  16. Neurological abnormalities in chronic benzene poisoning. A study of six patients with aplastic anemia and two with preleukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Baslo, A.; Aksoy, M.

    1982-04-01

    Neurological, electromyographical and motor conduction velocity examinations were applied to 6 patients with aplastic anemia and two cases of preleukemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. In addition, sensory conduction velocities were measured in three patients. Neurological abnormalities were found in four out of six pancytopenic individuals. There was a certain relationship between the presence of neurological abnormalities and the period of cessation of the exposure. In the two patients with preleukemia similar neurologic abnormalities were found.

  17. Anti-endothelial cell IgG from patients with chronic arsenic poisoning induces endothelial proliferation and VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Chang, Louis W; Chiou, Min-Hsi; Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2008-11-01

    An endemic peripheral vascular disorder due to chronic arsenic poisoning, named Blackfoot disease (BFD), occurs in Taiwan. BFD causes destruction of vascular endothelial cells, and an anti-endothelial cell IgG antibody was found in the sera of BFD patients. We studied the role of this IgG antibody (BFD-IgG) in modulating proliferation and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and found that a low concentration of BFD-IgG (200 microg/mL) stimulated endothelial cell growth and increased expressions of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The apoptosis events appeared not altered by addition of BFD-IgG. An in vitro neoangiogenesis assay demonstrated that BFD-IgG promoted the formation of tube-like structures, which was completely abrogated by anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody and partially by NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. We conclude that BFD-IgG at 200 microg/mL results in cell proliferation and enhanced VEGF-dependent angiogenesis in vitro. Those results suggested that a low concentration of BFD-IgG plays a protective role in the pathogenesis or the progression of BFD.

  18. Effects of chronic exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium on biomarkers of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Capela, Ricardo Campinho; Sérgio, Tânia; Caldeira, Carina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to specific metallic compounds can cause severe deleterious modifications in organisms. Fishes are particularly prone to toxic effects from exposure to metallic compounds via their environment. Species that inhabit estuaries or freshwater environments can be chronically affected by persistent exposure to a large number of metallic compounds, particularly those released by industrial activities. In this study, we exposed yellow eels (European eel, Anguilla anguilla) for 28 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of four specific metals; lead (300, 600, and 1,200 μg/l), copper (40, 120, and 360 μg/l), zinc (30, 60, and 120 μg/l) and cadmium (50, 150, and 450 μg/l). The selected endpoints to assess the toxicological effects were neurotransmission (cholinesterasic activity in nervous tissue), antioxidant defense, and phase II metabolism (glutathione-S-transferase [GST] activity, in both gills and liver tissues), and peroxidative damage. The results showed an overall lack of effects on acetylcholinesterase for all tested metals. Lead, copper, and cadmium exposure caused a significant, dose-dependent, increase in GST activity in gill tissue. However, liver GST only significantly increased following zinc exposure. No statistically significant effects were observed for the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, indicating the absence of peroxidative damage. These findings suggest that, despite the occurrence of an oxidative-based response after exposure to lead, copper, and cadmium, this had no consequence in terms of peroxidative membrane damage; furthermore, cholinergic neurotoxicity caused by lead, copper, and cadmium did not occur. The implications of these results are further discussed.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH and risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Fen; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Gu Shouyong; Liu Weiwei; Jin Xipeng; Xia Zhaolin

    2008-12-15

    Oxidative damage to DNA induced by benzene is an important mechanism of its genotoxicity, which leads to chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). Therefore, genetic variation in DNA repair genes may contribute to susceptibility to CBP in the exposed population. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hMTH1, hOGG1 and hMYH genes are associated with risk of CBP. We genotyped SNPs at codon 83 of hMTH1, codon 326 of hOGG1, and codon 324 of hMYH in 152 CBP patients and 152 healthy workers occupationally exposed to benzene without poisoning manifestations. The genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restrained fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. There were 2.51-fold [adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}), 2.51; 95% CI, 1.14-5.49; P = 0.02] and 2.49-fold (OR{sub adj}, 2.49; 95% CI: 1.52-4.07; P < 0.01) increased risk of CBP for individuals carrying genotypes of hMTH1 83Val/Met + Met/Met and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys, respectively. Compared with individuals carrying genotypes of hOGG1 326Cys/Cys and hMYH 324His/His at the same time, there was a 0.33-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15-0.72; P < 0.05) decreased risk of CBP for those with genotypes of hOGG1 326Ser/Cys + Ser/Ser and hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln. In the smoking group, there was a 0.15-fold (OR{sub adj}, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.68; P = 0.01) decreased risk of CBP for subjects carrying genotypes of hMYH 324His/Gln + Gln/Gln compared with those of genotype of hMYH 324His/His. Therefore, our results suggested that polymorphisms at codons 83 of hMTH1 and codon 326 of hOGG1 might contribute to CBP in a Chinese occupational population.

  20. Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO₄∙7H₂O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO₄ and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO₄∙7H₂O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO₄ with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD.

  1. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  2. Response of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and metal imbalance to combined administration of DMSA and monoisoamyl-DMSA during chronic arsenic poisoning in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, S; Flora, S J S

    2007-03-01

    Arsenic and its compounds cause adverse health effects in humans. Current treatment employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), which facilitate its excretion from the body. However, these chelating agents are compromised by number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature, particularly in case of chronic poisoning. Combination therapy is a new approach to ensure enhanced removal of metal from the body, reduced doses of potentially toxic chelators, and no redistribution of metal from one organ to another, following chronic metal exposure. The present study attempts to investigate dose-related effects of two thiol chelators, DMSA and one of its new analogues, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), when administered in combination with the aim of achieving normalization of altered biochemical parameters suggestive of oxidative stress and depletion of inorganic arsenic following chronic arsenic exposure. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were given 25 ppm arsenic for 10 weeks followed by chelation therapy with the above chelating agents at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg (orally) when administered individually or 0.15 mmol/kg and 0.3 mmol/kg (once daily for 5 consecutive days), respectively, when administered in combination. Arsenic exposure led to the inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and depletion of glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by significant depletion of hemoglobin, RBC and Hct as well as blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) acitivity. There was an increase in hepatic and renal levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, while GSH:GSSG ratio decreased significantly, accompanied by a significant increase in metallothionein (MT) in hepatocytes. DNA damage based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significant loss in the integrity of DNA extracted from the liver of arsenic

  3. Dietary copper supplementation reverses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy induced by chronic pressure overload in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy and the transition to heart failure. We show here that dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper (Cu) reverses pre-established hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the presence of pressure overload induced by ascending aor...

  4. Effect of chronic copper and pentachlorophenol exposure to early life stages of Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratagenesis Assay Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Continuous exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5/{micro}g/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.

  5. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  6. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... level of alertness). Before Calling Emergency Have this information ready: Person's age, weight, and condition (for example, is the person awake or alert?) Name of the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed However, DO NOT delay calling ... Poison Control Your local ...

  7. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  8. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing machine Chest x-ray CT scan (advanced brain imaging) EKG (electrocardiogram or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to reverse the effects of the poison Tube placed ... Sometimes the person will need it for the rest of their life.

  9. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  10. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ground. It is usually found in groups of many plants and looks like weeds growing from 6 inches ... or anything else that may have touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If you develop a poison ivy rash, it will go away on its own in 1 to 3 ...

  11. Relative and combined effects of chronic alcohol consumption and HCV infection on serum zinc, copper, and selenium.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Martín-González, M Candelaria; Alemán-Valls, M Remedios; de la Vega-Prieto, María José; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Abreu-González, Pedro; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    In alcoholic hepatitis, Kupffer cells are activated by intestinal gram-bacteria, leading to cytokine production and free radicals release, which, enhancing cytokine secretion, create a positive feedback loop which contributes to liver inflammation. Free radicals also damage the liver in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a condition frequently associated to alcohol consumption. In both situations, activity of antioxidant enzymes and of its cofactors zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and copper (Cu) is important. This study was performed to assess the relative and combined effects of chronic alcoholism and HCV infection on serum Se, Zn, and Cu, and its relation with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukins (IL) 4, 6, and 8, in 19 HCV- alcoholic patients, 12 HCV+ alcoholic patients, nine HCV+ non-alcoholic patients, and 20 controls. Serum Zn and Se were lower in both HCV+ and HCV- alcoholic patients, whereas serum Cu was lower in HCV+ individuals. Serum Zn and Se were related to liver function derangement. MDA levels were higher in alcoholics, but no relation was observed between trace elements and MDA or cytokines, so that our results do not support a relevant role of the analyzed trace elements in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

  12. [Arsenic poisoning: a special gastroenteritis...].

    PubMed

    Ganster, F; Kuteifan, K; Mootien, Y; Harry, P; Guiot, P

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic (As) intoxication is nowadays extremely rare. Two cases of acute and chronic As criminal poisoning leading to death of a couple of retired people, are reported. Clinical presentation was simulating a gastro-enteritidis with fast evolution to refractory shock. Toxicological analysis confirmed this diagnostic, with respectively blood As concentrations at 579 and 21 765 microg/l for our two patients.

  13. Chronic copper exposure causes spatial memory impairment, selective loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins, and activation of PKR/eIF2α pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Sui, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huimin; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Linqing; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

    2015-01-01

    Copper is an essential element for human growth and development; however, excessive intake of copper could contribute to neurotoxicity. Here we show that chronic exposure to copper in drinking water impaired spatial memory with simultaneous selective loss of hippocampal pre-synaptic protein synapsin 1, and post-synaptic density protein (PSD)-93/95 in mice. Copper exposure was shown to elevate the levels of nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampus, two markers of oxidative stress. Concurrently, we also found that copper exposure activated double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as evidenced by increased ratio of phosphorylated PKR at Thr451 and total PKR and increased the phosphorylation of its downstream signaling molecule eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) at Ser51 in hippocampus. Consistent with activation of PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway which was shown to mediate synaptic deficit and cognitive impairment, the levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a downstream signaling molecule of eIF2α and a repressor of CREB-mediated gene expression, were significantly increased, while the activity of cAMP response elements binding protein (CREB) was inactivated as suggested by decreased phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 by copper exposure. In addition, the expression of the pro-apoptotic target molecule C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) of ATF-4 was upregulated and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis was induced by copper exposure. Taken together, we propose that chronic copper exposure might cause spatial memory impairment, selective loss of synaptic proteins, and neuronal apoptosis through the mechanisms involving activation of PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway.

  14. Chronic copper exposure causes spatial memory impairment, selective loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins, and activation of PKR/eIF2α pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Quan; Ying, Ming; Sui, Xiaojing; Zhang, Huimin; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Linqing; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun; Yang, Xifei

    2015-01-01

    Copper is an essential element for human growth and development; however, excessive intake of copper could contribute to neurotoxicity. Here we show that chronic exposure to copper in drinking water impaired spatial memory with simultaneous selective loss of hippocampal pre-synaptic protein synapsin 1, and post-synaptic density protein (PSD)-93/95 in mice. Copper exposure was shown to elevate the levels of nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampus, two markers of oxidative stress. Concurrently, we also found that copper exposure activated double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as evidenced by increased ratio of phosphorylated PKR at Thr451 and total PKR and increased the phosphorylation of its downstream signaling molecule eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) at Ser51 in hippocampus. Consistent with activation of PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway which was shown to mediate synaptic deficit and cognitive impairment, the levels of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a downstream signaling molecule of eIF2α and a repressor of CREB-mediated gene expression, were significantly increased, while the activity of cAMP response elements binding protein (CREB) was inactivated as suggested by decreased phosphorylation of CREB at Ser133 by copper exposure. In addition, the expression of the pro-apoptotic target molecule C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) of ATF-4 was upregulated and hippocampal neuronal apoptosis was induced by copper exposure. Taken together, we propose that chronic copper exposure might cause spatial memory impairment, selective loss of synaptic proteins, and neuronal apoptosis through the mechanisms involving activation of PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway. PMID:25159668

  15. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-12-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity.

  16. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-01-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity. PMID:11748034

  17. Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

    2014-03-01

    This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects.

  18. Zinc therapy improves deleterious effects of chronic copper administration on mice testes: histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, R; Askari, N; Babaei, H

    2014-03-01

    This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long-term copper (Cu) consumption on testicular tissue could be prevented by zinc (Zn) administration. Forty-five mature male mice were randomly divided into one control and two treatment groups. The first treatment group received copper sulphate (Cu experimental group). The second treatment group was given combined treatment of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate (ZC experimental group). Control animals received normal saline using the same volume. Five mice from each group were sacrificed on day 14, 28 and 56 from the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed for histopathological and histomorphometrical evaluations. Morphometrically, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cell nuclei, epithelial height, meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis in Cu groups showed significant decrease compared to those of the control groups (P < 0.05). A partial improvement was seen in the percentage of spermatogenesis and meiotic index (P < 0.05) in ZC groups, whereas a complete recovery was observed in the rest of parameters in ZC group after 56 days compared to the control group (P > 0.05). Results showed that long-term administration of Cu leads to histological impairments of testis and zinc supplementation might offset these damaging effects. PMID:23137167

  19. Comparison of the capacity of two biotic ligand models to predict chronic copper toxicity to two Daphnia magna clones and formulation of a generalized bioavailability model.

    PubMed

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-07-01

    Although it is increasingly recognized that biotic ligand models (BLMs) are valuable in the risk assessment of metals in aquatic systems, the use of 2 differently structured and parameterized BLMs (1 in the United States and another in the European Union) to obtain bioavailability-based chronic water quality criteria for copper is worthy of further investigation. In the present study, the authors evaluated the predictive capacity of these 2 BLMs for a large dataset of chronic copper toxicity data with 2 Daphnia magna clones, termed K6 and ARO. One BLM performed best with clone K6 data, whereas the other performed best with clone ARO data. In addition, there was an important difference between the 2 BLMs in how they predicted the bioavailability of copper as a function of pH. These modeling results suggested that the effect of pH on chronic copper toxicity is different between the 2 clones considered, which was confirmed with additional chronic toxicity experiments. Finally, because fundamental differences in model structure between the 2 BLMs made it impossible to create an average BLM, a generalized bioavailability model (gBAM) was developed. Of the 3 gBAMs developed, the authors recommend the use of model gBAM-C(uni), which combines a log-linear relation between the 21-d median effective concentration (expressed as free Cu(2+) ion activity) and pH, with more conventional BLM-type competition constants for sodium, calcium, and magnesium. This model can be considered a first step in further improving the accuracy of chronic toxicity predictions of copper as a function of water chemistry (for a variety of Daphnia magna clones), even beyond the robustness of the current BLMs used in regulatory applications.

  20. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  1. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response. PMID:26421794

  2. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  3. [Drug poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gainza, I; Nogué, S; Martínez Velasco, C; Hoffman, R S; Burillo-Putze, G; Dueñas, A; Gómez, J; Pinillos, M A

    2003-01-01

    A review is made of acute poisoning by opiates and its treatment in the emergency services, bearing in mind the progressive decline in the number of cases presented with the arrival of new forms of their administration, as well as the presence of new addictive drugs that have resulted in a shift in consumption habits. Reference is also made to the way in which the different types of existing substances originated, with the aim of achieving a better understanding of their use and in order to administer the most suitable treatment when poisoning occurs. Cocaine poisoning is discussed, with reference to its clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. The consumption of illegal drugs in our country has undergone a notable change in recent years, with heroin being relegated and the incorporation of cocaine, amphetamine derivatives such as "ecstasy" (MDMA), "liquid ecstasy" (GHB) and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. A review is made of cannabis and its derivates, from the history of its consumption and the preparations employed to the effects produced in the different bodily systems. A brief explanation is also given of its metabolites and its principal mechanisms of action. Finally, we comment on the effects of LSD and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  4. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  5. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Mebane, Christopher A; Mount, David R; Ivey, Chris D; Kunz, James L; Greer, I Eugene; May, Thomas W; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2007-08-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 microg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 microg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 microg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 microg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 microg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 microg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  7. Clinitest tablets poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar reagent poisoning; Anhydrous Benedict's reagent poisoning ... Symptoms of poisoning from Clinitest tablets are: Blood in urine Burns and burning pain in the mouth and throat Collapse Convulsions ...

  8. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  9. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and

  11. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and

  12. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  13. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  14. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles in a Chinese population occupationally exposed to benzene and in a population with chronic benzene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Xianwen; Bian, Qian; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNA (miRNA) has attractive interests as a non-invasive biomarker of physiological and pathological conditions. Our study aimed to investigate the potential effects of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP) and benzene exposure on miRNA expression, and identify CBP-related miRNAs. Methods In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles among pooled plasma samples from ten CBP patients, ten healthy benzene-exposed individuals and ten non-benzene exposed individuals. Subsequently, we conducted an expanded validation of six candidate miRNAs in 27 CBP patients- low blood counts, 54 healthy benzene-exposed individuals and 54 non-exposed individuals. Moreover, we predicted the biological functions of putative target genes using a Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. Results In the discovery stage, compared with non-exposures, 36 and 12 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients and the benzene exposures, respectively. And compared with benzene exposures, 58 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients. In the expanded validation stage, compared with non-exposures as well as exposures, miR-24-3p and miR-221-3p were significantly up-regulated (1.99- and 2.06-fold for miR-24-3p, 2.19- and 3.93-fold for miR-221-3p, P<0.01) while miR-122-5p and miR-638 were significantly down-regulated (−3.45- and −2.60-fold for miR-122-5p, −1.82- and −3.20-fold for miR-638, P<0.001) in the CBP patients; compared with non-exposures, the plasma level of miR-638 was significantly up-regulated (1.38-fold, P<0.01) while the plasma levels miR-122-5p and miR-221-3p were significantly down-regulated (−0.85- and −1.74-fold, P<0.01) in the exposures, which were consistent with the results of microarray analysis. Conclusions The four indicated plasma miRNAs may be biomarkers of indicating responses to benzene

  15. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  16. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  17. Poisons information in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chao, T C; Tay, M K; Bloodworth, B C; Lim, K H

    1993-03-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) provides viral and timely information to prevent and manage poisoning episodes. Comprehensive information on household, agricultural and industrial chemicals, natural toxins, pharmaceuticals, local antidote stocks and local poisons experts is retrieved from the Centre's computerised information system and printed literature. Public subscribers can obtain poisons information through Teleview.

  18. Chronic contamination decreases disease spread: a Daphnia–fungus–copper case study

    PubMed Central

    Civitello, David J.; Forys, Philip; Johnson, Adam P.; Hall, Spencer R.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contamination and disease outbreaks have increased in many ecosystems. However, connecting pollution to disease spread remains difficult, in part, because contaminants can simultaneously exert direct and multi-generational effects on several host and parasite traits. To address these challenges, we parametrized a model using a zooplankton–fungus–copper system. In individual-level assays, we considered three sublethal contamination scenarios: no contamination, single-generation contamination (hosts and parasites exposed only during the assays) and multi-generational contamination (hosts and parasites exposed for several generations prior to and during the assays). Contamination boosted transmission by increasing contact of hosts with parasites. However, it diminished parasite reproduction by reducing the size and lifespan of infected hosts. Multi-generational contamination further reduced parasite reproduction. The parametrized model predicted that a single generation of contamination would enhance disease spread (via enhanced transmission), whereas multi-generational contamination would inhibit epidemics relative to unpolluted conditions (through greatly depressed parasite reproduction). In a population-level experiment, multi-generational contamination reduced the size of experimental epidemics but did not affect Daphnia populations without disease. This result highlights the importance of multi-generational effects for disease dynamics. Such integration of models with experiments can provide predictive power for disease problems in contaminated environments. PMID:22593104

  19. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. . Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  20. Neurotoxic marine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2005-04-01

    Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals that contain toxic substances and causes substantial illness in coastal regions. Three main clinical syndromes of marine poisoning have important neurological symptoms-ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning and is characterised by moderate to severe gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps) and neurological effects (myalgia, paraesthesia, cold allodynia, and ataxia), but is rarely lethal. Tetrodotoxin poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Mild gastrointestinal effects and a descending paralysis are characteristic of these types of poisoning. In severe poisoning, paralysis rapidly progresses to respiratory failure. Diagnosis of all types of marine poisoning is made from the circumstances of ingestion (type of fish and location) and the clinical effects. Because there are no antidotes, supportive care, including mechanical ventilation in patients with severe paralysis, is the mainstay of treatment.

  1. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  2. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  3. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  4. Recent Advances in the Clinical Management of Lead Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a historic universal disease. Acute or chronic lead exposure may cause reversible or even permanent damages in human beings. Environmental lead exposure is a global health concern in children. Occupational lead poisoning is still a health issue, particularly in developing countries. During the last decades, new methods and medications have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of lead poisoning. This review deals mainly with recent developments in the management of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure are introduced, and methods for the primary prevention of lead poisoning are discussed. Details for the screening of adults and children are also explained to serve as a practical guideline for the secondary prevention. Standard chelation therapy in different groups and up-to-date less toxic new medications for the treatment of lead poisoning are finally discussed. Our published clinical research on the therapeutic effects of garlic tablets in mild to moderate occupational lead poisoning will also be discussed.

  5. Hematologic effects of heavy metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C; Patterson, W P; Perry, M C; Yarbro, J W

    1988-09-01

    Heavy metal poisoning can cause a variety of hematologic disorders. Exposure to heavy metals is ubiquitous in the industrial environment and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many types of anemia. The heavy metals most commonly associated with hematologic toxicity are arsenic and its derivative arsine, copper, gold, lead, and zinc. A few distinctive clinical features characterize the hematologic manifestations of many occult heavy metal poisonings. These features have a limited differential diagnosis. A knowledge of these clinical features can assist the astute clinician in making the correct diagnosis.

  6. Chronic toxicity bioassay and effect of endosulfan, HCH, copper and zinc on the survival and intermoult duration of larvae of mangrove crab Macrophthalmus erato De Man.

    PubMed

    Kannupandi, T; Pasupathi, K; Soundarapandian, P

    2001-08-01

    The effects of insecticides (endosulfan, HCH) and heavy metals (copper and zinc) were studied on survival and duration of the moult cycle of larvae and megalopa of a common mangrove crab, Macrophthalmus erato, that inhabits Pitchavaram mangroves, southeast coast of India. In chronic toxicity test, percentage of survival from hatchling to megalopa stage at different concentrations of endosulfan (0.048 to 0.36 microg/L), HCH (0.32 to 2.4 microg/L), copper (9.0 to 67.5 microg/L) and zinc (15.2 to 139.0 microg/L) were 6, 12, 8 and 12 respectively. Endosulfan, HCH, copper and zinc considerably increased the total period in development from first zoea to megalopa stage from 18 days in the control to 23, 21, 20 and 22 days in the treated specimens. It is concluded that concentrations well below the observed chronic concentrations, may prove to be more deleterious to larva of this species in natural environment leading to reduction in the success of recruitment to the adult population. PMID:12018587

  7. Arsenic poisoning in central Kentucky: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kelafant, G A; Kasarskis, E J; Horstman, S W; Cohen, C; Frank, A L

    1993-12-01

    A recent case of chronic arsenic intoxication due to prolonged accidental ingestion of a commercially available crabgrass killer illustrates one of the more common etiologies of present day arsenic poisoning. A review of 20 years of arsenic poisoning at the University of Kentucky (21 cases) revealed no cases attributable to an industrial source. A tabulation of the 21 most recent cases is included.

  8. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Zosel AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ...

  9. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  10. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  11. Furniture polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, or ears Severe stomach pain Throat swelling Vomiting, possibly bloody Blood in your stools If the poison touched your skin or eyes you may have: Skin burns and irritation Vision loss If the poison is ...

  12. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  13. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Xylene poisoning ... Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Blurred vision Burning pain Hearing loss STOMACH AND INTESTINES Bloody stools Abdominal ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... them in. The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are Headache Dizziness Weakness Nausea Vomiting Chest pain ... often hard to tell if someone has CO poisoning, because the symptoms may be like those of ...

  15. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Thioglycolate poisoning ... Below are symptoms of cold wave lotion poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Mouth irritation Burning and redness of the eyes Possibly serious damage to ...

  16. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  17. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  18. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  19. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  20. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  1. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  2. Sources, symptoms, and signs of arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hutton, J T; Christians, B L

    1983-09-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to be a serious medical problem that may easily be overlooked or misdiagnosed. The broad constellation of symptoms and signs in arsenic poisoning, along with changing sources of this toxin, contributes to misdiagnosis. A re-examination of current potential sources was carried out. Sources were determined in 17 of 20 documented cases of arsenic poisoning. Fourteen cases resulted from ingestion of a single, commonly available, arsenic-containing ant killer. In contrast to earlier reports, this survey found that agricultural and industrial sources were relatively uncommon. A peculiar posturing of the hand is commonly seen in the early stages of arsenic poisoning prior to the development of Mee's lines or palmar hyperkeratosis. An illustrative case is reported that resulted from intermittent self-administration of an arsenic-containing ant killer in order to maintain a state of chronic invalidism.

  3. Arsenic poisoning. Ongoing diagnostic and social problem.

    PubMed

    Fuortes, L

    1988-01-01

    Arsenic, commonly found in insecticides, herbicides, and industrial materials, is involved in the majority of heavy metal poisonings reported in the United States. Accidental poisoning appears to be most common in the pediatric age-group, whereas intentional and covert poisonings predominate in adults. Diagnosis is often difficult. The clinical presentations of arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic types, represent a wide spectrum, largely dependent on route of exposure, chemical form, and dose. Because the patient or others providing the history may suppress information on exposure and because toxic levels of arsenic in the system drop rapidly in the first 24 hours, swift administration of diagnostic tests is important. Physician follow-up is determined by the route of exposure to arsenic and may involve referral to a social service network or a mental health facility.

  4. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    PubMed Central

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

  5. [Natural toxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan.

  6. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  7. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  8. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  9. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  10. Poison centers, poison prevention, and the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, F H; Robertson, W O; Woolf, A D

    1994-08-01

    The first poison centers were established in the United States in the early 1950s, stimulated by an American Academy of Pediatrics' survey of office-based pediatric practices which ascertained that its members had no place to turn for ingredient information on medications and household products. With the help of the Academy, pediatrician Dr. Edward Press, the Illinois Department of Health, and several community hospitals, the first poison center emerged. Over the subsequent 40 years, remarkable progress has occurred in the fields of clinical toxicology, poison control, and poison prevention. Yet despite these accomplishments, challenging clouds are appearing on the horizon which threaten these gains. This commentary, by the authors who have viewed and participated in a large part of the history of this progress, will focus on these major accomplishments with an emphasis on (a) poison prevention utilizing the pre-event (primary prevention), (b) the event (secondary prevention), and (c) the postevent (tertiary prevention) model.

  11. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  12. Occupational and environmental exposures reported to Poison enters

    SciTech Connect

    Litovitz, T.; Oderda, G.; White, J.D.; Sheridan, M.J. )

    1993-05-01

    This analysis of 25,368 occupational and 7,565 environmental exposure cases characterizes the occupational and environmental exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Compared with other poisonings, occupational and environmental exposures were predominantly inhalation exposures rather than ingestions, were more often subacute or chronic, and demonstrated greater morbidity, mortality, and increased use of health care resources. As regional poison centers evolve to fill a critical information void in the management and assessment of environmental and occupational exposures, the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System provides an important, untapped passive surveillance mechanism.

  13. Multisystem failure of the arsenic-poisoned patient.

    PubMed

    Hall, D; Beattie, D; Grossman, S; Campbell, C

    1991-01-01

    Due to the physiologic effects of arsenic on all body systems, the chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  14. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  15. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  16. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  17. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  18. Scombroid poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2010-08-15

    Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used in regulation until more is known about the mechanism of scombroid poisoning. Scombroid poisoning and histamine are correlated but complicated. Victims of scombroid poisoning respond well to antihistamines, and chemical analyses of fish implicated in scombroid poisoning generally reveal elevated levels of histamine. Scombroid poisoning is unique among the seafood toxins since it results from product mishandling rather than contamination from other trophic levels. Inadequate cooling following harvest promotes bacterial histamine production, and can result in outbreaks of scombroid poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Laboratory methods and screening methods for detecting histamine are available in abundance, but need to be compared and validated to harmonize testing. Successful field testing, including dockside or on-board testing needed to augment HACCP efforts will have to integrate rapid and simplified detection methods with simplified and rapid sampling and extraction. Otherwise, time-consuming sample preparation reduces the impact of gains in detection speed on the overall analysis time.

  19. Clinical manifestations and arsenic methylation after a rare subacute arsenic poisoning accident.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Quanmei; Li, Bing; Li, Xin; Jin, Yaping; Lv, Xiuqiang; Qu, Guang; Sun, Guifan

    2008-06-01

    One hundred and four workers ingested excessive levels of arsenic in an accident caused by leakage of pipeline in a copper-smelting factory. Clinical examinations were performed by physicians in a local hospital. Excreted urinary arsenic species were determined by cold trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial toxic phase, gastrointestinal symptoms were predominant (83 people, 79.8%). Most patients showed leucopenia (72 people, 69.2%), and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (84 people, 80.8%) and aspartate aminotransferase (58 people, 55.8%). Thirty-five patients (33.6%) had elevated red blood cells in urine. After 17 days of admission, many subjects (45 people, 43.3%) developed peripheral neuropathy and 25 of these 45 patients (24.0%) showed a decrease in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity. In the comparison of urinary arsenic metabolites among subacute arsenic-poisoned, chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects, we found that subacute arsenic-poisoned patients had significantly elevated proportions of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylarsonic acid (MMA) but reduced proportion of urinary dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) compared with chronic high arsenic-exposed and control subjects. Chronic exposed subjects excreted higher proportions of iAs and MMA but lower proportions of DMA in urine compared with control subjects. These results suggest that gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and hepatic and urinary injury are predominant in the initial phase of subacute arsenic poisoning. Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent manifestation after the initial phase. The biomethylation of arsenic decreases in a dose rate-dependent manner.

  20. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  1. [Pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, A

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides em leader ) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts em leader ). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented. PMID:12813483

  2. Copper: Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutis, Elizabeth; Jantzen, Jonathan Landis, Ed.

    Although copper is a widespread and useful metal, the process of mining and refining copper can have severe detrimental impacts on humans, plants, and animals. The most serious impacts from copper production are the release of sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants and the poisoning of water supplies. These impacts occur in both the mining and…

  3. [Acute salicylate poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2006-01-01

    Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis.

  4. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Santore, Robert C.; Gorsuch, Joseph W.; Arnold, W. Ray

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were determined in water exposures at four concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; nominally 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L as carbon [C]). Test waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg C/L were prepared by mixing a concentrate of natural organic matter (Suwannee River, GA, USA) in diluted well water (hardness 100 mg/L as CaCO3, pH 8.3, DOC 0.5 mg C/L). Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved Cu increased approximately fivefold (15–72 μg Cu/L) for mussel survival in 4-d exposures and increased about 11-fold (25–267 μg Cu/L) for cladoceran survival in 2-d exposures across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg C/L. Similarly, chronic 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for the mussel in 28-d exposures increased about fivefold (13–61 μg Cu/L for survival; 8.8–38 μg Cu/L for biomass), and the EC20s for the cladoceran in 7-d exposures increased approximately 17-fold (13–215 μg Cu/L) for survival or approximately fourfold (12–42 μg Cu/L) for reproduction across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10 mg C/L. The acute and chronic values for the mussel were less than or approximately equal to the values for the cladoceran. Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for Cu explained more than 90% of the variation in the acute and chronic endpoints for the two species, with the exception of the EC20 for cladoceran reproduction (only 46% of variation explained). The BLM-normalized acute EC50s and chronic EC20s for the mussel and BLM-normalized chronic EC20s for the cladoceran in waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10 mg C/L were equal to or less than the final acute value and final chronic value in the BLM-based AWQC for Cu, respectively, indicating that the Cu AWQC might not adequately protect the mussel from acute and

  5. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Mebane, C.A.; Kunz, J.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Santore, R.C.; Gorsuch, J.W.; Arnold, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of copper (Cu) to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) were determined in water exposures at four concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; nominally 0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10mg/L as carbon [C]). Test waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10mgC/L were prepared by mixing a concentrate of natural organic matter (Suwannee River, GA, USA) in diluted well water (hardness 100mg/L as CaCO3, pH 8.3, DOC 0.5mgC/L). Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved Cu increased approximately fivefold (15-72??gCu/L) for mussel survival in 4-d exposures and increased about 11-fold (25-267??gCu/L) for cladoceran survival in 2-d exposures across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10mgC/L. Similarly, chronic 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for the mussel in 28-d exposures increased about fivefold (13-61??gCu/L for survival; 8.8-38??gCu/L for biomass), and the EC20s for the cladoceran in 7-d exposures increased approximately 17-fold (13-215??gCu/L) for survival or approximately fourfold (12-42??gCu/L) for reproduction across DOC concentrations from 0.5 to 10mgC/L. The acute and chronic values for the mussel were less than or approximately equal to the values for the cladoceran. Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for Cu explained more than 90% of the variation in the acute and chronic endpoints for the two species, with the exception of the EC20 for cladoceran reproduction (only 46% of variation explained). The BLM-normalized acute EC50s and chronic EC20s for the mussel and BLM-normalized chronic EC20s for the cladoceran in waters with DOC concentrations of 2.5 to 10mgC/L were equal to or less than the final acute value and final chronic value in the BLM-based AWQC for Cu, respectively, indicating that the Cu AWQC might not adequately protect the mussel from acute and chronic exposure, and the cladoceran

  6. Zinc deficiency in molybdenum poisoned cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Parada, R.

    1981-02-01

    Clinical signs ascribable to zinc deficiency were noted in a group of Friesian cows industrially poisoned with molybdenum. Zinc, copper, and molybdenum were determined in blood serum and black hair, and in the contaminated alfalfa pasture the group grazed on. Hematological parameters, and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity, were also determined. Pooled samples of alfalfa from 2 uncontaminated pastures, and of blood, serum and black hair of clinically normal Friesian cattle grazing on these were used as controls. A mixed contamination of the polluted pasture with molybdenum and copper was found, both metals being inversely correlated with he distance to the polluting chimney. Zinc concentrations were normal and not significantly correlated with the distance to the chimney very high molybdenum was found in serum and hair of the poisoned animals; copper was normal in serum and hair. Low calcium and Alkaline phosphatase activity were found in serum, both variables being significantly correlated with serum zinc. Reduced red blood cell number, packed cell volumes and hemoglobin concentrations were also found, but no significant correlation of these parameters with any of the trace metals in serum or hair was found. Signs ascribed to zinc deficiency were consistent with the reduction of zinc in serum and hair and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in serum. A zinc deficiency conditioned by a simultaneous increased intake of molybdenum and copper is proposed.

  7. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Weedoff poisoning; Roundup poisoning ... Glyphosate is the poisonous ingredient in some weed killers. ... Glyphosate is in weed killers with these brand names: Roundup Bronco Glifonox Kleen-up Rodeo Weedoff Other ...

  8. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  9. Organophosphate Poisoning and Subsequent Acute Kidney Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI. The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000–2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk. The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI. The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function. PMID:26632728

  10. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  11. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  12. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

  13. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  14. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on the metabolism of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in an animal model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Al-Rabiai, S.; Gilani, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (AC) is one of the diseases caused by alcohol abuse, and there has been considerable debate about the possibility that nutritional factors may be important in the etiology of AC. In addition, there is evidence that ethanol may affect the metabolism of trace elements. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if chronic ethanol administration produces changes in the metabolism of the essential metals copper, iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium using an animal model of AC. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; an ad libitum control group (AL), a pair-fed control group (PF), and an ethanol-dosed group (ETOH). The latter group received gradually increasing concentrations (5-25%) of ethanol in the drinking water for 15 wk. Food intake was monitored and urine and feces collected for a 4-d period during the study to determine ethanol effects on trace-element balance. Growth of both the PF and ETOH animals was inhibited. Ethanol produced substantial increases in liver manganese and decreases in liver copper and zinc. Metal concentrations in heart and concentrations in other tissues studied (spleen, testes, brain, bone, kidney, and muscle) did not differ significantly among the groups, except for testes selenium and kidney zinc. Reduced food intake and ethanol ingestion were associated with a reduced percentage of ingested selenium excreted in the urine. Deficiencies of copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in myocardial tissue are not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of AC in the rat. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  15. Variability in the management of lithium poisoning.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Darren M; Gosselin, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Three patterns of lithium poisoning are recognized: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Intravenous fluids with or without an extracorporeal treatment are the mainstay of treatment; their respective roles may differ depending on the mode of poisoning being treated. Recommendations for treatment selection are available but these are based on a small number of observational studies and their uptake by clinicians is not known. Clinician decision-making in the treatment of four cases of lithium poisoning was assessed at a recent clinical toxicology meeting using an audience response system. Variability in treatment decisions was evident in addition to discordance with published recommendations. Participants did not consistently indicate that hemodialysis was the first-line treatment, instead opting for a conservative approach, and continuous modalities were viewed favorably; this is in contrast to recommendations in some references. The development of multidisciplinary consensus guidelines may improve the management of patients with lithium poisoning but prospective randomized controlled trials are required to more clearly define the role of extracorporeal treatments.

  16. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  17. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campos, J; Ramos-Peek, J; Martínez-Barros, M; Zamora-Peralta, M; Martínez-Cerrato, J

    1998-01-01

    Although peripheral neuropathy is a fairly common finding in chronic arsenic poisoning, little is known about the acute effects of this metal on peripheral nerves. This report shows clinical and electrophysiological findings in a patient who developed peripheral neuropathy only three days after a high-dose ingestion of this metal due to a failed suicide attempt. We speculate that peripheral nerves and some cranial nerves can show not only clinical but also subclinical involvement that can only be detected by neurophysiological studies.

  18. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, you may receive: Blood and urine tests EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids by IV (through ... and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids by IV (through ...

  20. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  1. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisonous ingredient in most household cloth dyes. Most common household cloth dyes are made from nonpoisonous substances, such as: Mild soaps Pigments Salts Although these substances are generally considered not dangerous, ...

  2. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar skin rash. No one is born with sensitivity to Poison ivy, but if exposed enough most ... sensitized at some time and remain allergic. A sensitivity can change at any time. There's no way ...

  3. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  4. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... local take back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

  5. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  6. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  7. Poison plants (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to sunlight, or by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called urushiol, produces an ...

  8. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  9. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  10. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  11. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  12. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other harmful ... bleeding and infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ...

  13. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-11-21

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

  14. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  15. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  16. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  17. How copper corrosion can be retarded--New ways investigating a chronic problem for cellulose in paper.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kyujin; Hofmann, Christa; Horsky, Monika; Potthast, Antje

    2015-12-10

    To better assess the stabilization effects of chemical treatments on Cu(II)-catalyzed cellulose degradation, we developed Cu(II)-containing model rag paper with typical copper corrosion characteristics using e-beam radiation. The paper can be prepared homogeneously and quickly compared to tedious pre-aging methods. Using the Cu(II)-containing model rag paper, the stabilization effects of various chemicals on Cu(II)-catalyzed degradation of cellulose were tested. Benzotriazol was highly effective in retarding the degradation of the Cu(II)-containing model rag paper under hot and humid aging condition, as well as under photo-oxidative stress. Tetrabutylammonium bromide reduced Cu(II)-catalyzed degradation of cellulose, but its efficacy was dependent on the accelerated aging conditions. The results with the alkaline treatments and gelatin treatment suggested that their roles in the degradation mechanisms of cellulose in the presence of Cu(II) differ from those of benzotriazol and tetrabutylammonium bromide.

  18. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... View all alerts right left National Poison Prevention Week is March 20-26! Be a part of ... is poison-proof. Read more › National Poison Prevention Week Congress established National Poison Prevention Week (NPPW) on ...

  19. Acute Oral Poisoning Due to Chloracetanilide Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO3 ¯ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure. PMID:22323855

  20. Acute oral poisoning due to chloracetanilide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Seok, Su-Jin; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ho-Yeon; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Chloracetanilide herbicides (alachlor, butachlor, metachlor) are used widely. Although there are much data about chronic low dose exposure to chloracetanilide in humans and animals, there are few data about acute chloracetanilide poisoning in humans. This study investigated the clinical feature of patients following acute oral exposure to chloracetanilide. We retrospectively reviewed the data on the patients who were admitted to two university hospitals from January 2006 to December 2010. Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Among them, 28, 5, and 2 cases of acute alachlor, metachlor, butachlor poisoning were included. The mean age was 49.8 ± 15.4 yr. The poison severity score (PSS) was 17 (48.6%), 10 (28.6%), 5 (14.3%), 2 (5.7%), and 1 (2.9%) patients with a PSS of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The age was higher for the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that for the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS) (43.6 ± 15.2 vs 55.7 ± 13.5). The arterial blood HCO₃⁻ was lower in the symptomatic patients (1-4 PSS) than that in the asymptomatic patients (0 PSS). Three patients were a comatous. One patient died 24 hr after the exposure. In conclusion, although chloracetanilide poisoning is usually of low toxicity, elder patients with central nervous system symptoms should be closely monitored and cared after oral exposure.

  1. Evaluation of DNA damage in patients with arsenic poisoning: urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Aminaka, Yoshito; Yoshida, Katsumi; Sun, Guifan; Pi, Jingbo; Waalkes, Michael P

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between arsenic exposure and DNA damage in patients with acute or chronic arsenic poisoning was analyzed. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) concentrations were measured as an indication of oxidative DNA damage. A remarkable increase in 8-OHdG in the urine was observed in 60% of 52 patients with acute arsenic poisoning from the accidental oral intake of the arsenic trioxide. This was two- to threefold higher than levels in normal healthy subjects (n = 248). There was a clear relationship between arsenic concentrations in urine after acute poisoning and elevated levels of 8-OHdG. Levels of urinary 8-OHdG returned to normal within 180 days after the acute arsenic poisoning event. In patients chronically poisoned by the consumption of well water with elevated levels of arsenate [As(V)], elevated 8-OHdG concentrations in urine were also observed. A significant correlation between the 8-OHdG levels and arsenic levels in the urine was observed in 82 patients with chronic poisoning. Thus, evidence of oxidative DNA damage occurred in acute arsenic poisoning by arsenite [As(III)] and in chronic arsenic poisoning by As(V). In chronic poisoning patients provided low-arsenic drinking water, evidence of DNA damage subsided between 9 months and 1 year after the high levels of arsenic intake were reduced. The initial level of arsenic exposure appeared to dictate the length of this recovery period. These data indicate that some aspects of chronic and acute arsenic poisoning may be reversible with the cessation of exposure. This knowledge may contribute to our understanding of the risk elevation from arsenic carcinogenesis and perhaps be used in a prospective fashion to assess individual risk.

  2. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Matthews, Amber L; Raine, Jason C; Niyogi, Som

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Trios (1 male: 2 female; n=5) of fish were exposed for 21days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (75μg/L), (iii) waterborne Cd (5μg/L), and (iv) Cu and Cd mixture (75 and 5μg/L, respectively). Reproductive output (cumulative egg production) was significantly reduced by Cu but not by Cd. Interestingly however, no spawning occurred in fish exposed to the mixture of waterborne Cu and Cd. In general, both Cu and Cd accumulation in target tissues (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) increased significantly in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, and no interaction between Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in any tissues, except in the liver where Cu accumulation was significantly reduced by Cd. The expression of female hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) was most significantly elevated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, whereas vitellogenin gene expression was reduced maximally in the same exposure. Similarly, the hepatic expression of the metallothionein gene was most significantly upregulated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture. Moreover, the circulating estradiol level in females was significantly decreased only during the co-exposure of waterborne Cu and Cd. Overall, the present study indicates that the interaction of chronic waterborne Cu and Cd exposure may elicit greater than additive effect on reproductive output in fish. PMID:26498072

  3. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Matthews, Amber L; Raine, Jason C; Niyogi, Som

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Trios (1 male: 2 female; n=5) of fish were exposed for 21days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (75μg/L), (iii) waterborne Cd (5μg/L), and (iv) Cu and Cd mixture (75 and 5μg/L, respectively). Reproductive output (cumulative egg production) was significantly reduced by Cu but not by Cd. Interestingly however, no spawning occurred in fish exposed to the mixture of waterborne Cu and Cd. In general, both Cu and Cd accumulation in target tissues (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) increased significantly in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, and no interaction between Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in any tissues, except in the liver where Cu accumulation was significantly reduced by Cd. The expression of female hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) was most significantly elevated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, whereas vitellogenin gene expression was reduced maximally in the same exposure. Similarly, the hepatic expression of the metallothionein gene was most significantly upregulated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture. Moreover, the circulating estradiol level in females was significantly decreased only during the co-exposure of waterborne Cu and Cd. Overall, the present study indicates that the interaction of chronic waterborne Cu and Cd exposure may elicit greater than additive effect on reproductive output in fish.

  4. Copper-induced hepatitis: the COMMD1 deficient dog as a translational animal model for human chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Favier, R P; Spee, B; Penning, L C; Rothuizen, J

    2011-03-01

    Chronic inflammatory liver disease regardless of aetiology leads to failing regeneration and fibrosis, ending in cirrhosis. Both in man and in animals this worldwide health problem has no definitive cure. Chronic liver injury causes hepatic stellate cells to proliferate and differentiate into matrix-producing cells. New therapeutic options will be developed upon detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving liver fibrosis. This may lead to new anti-fibrotic therapies which need to be tested in suitable models before application in the veterinary and human clinic. On the other side, to restore the failing regenerative capacity of the diseased liver cells, adult progenitor cells are of interest, as an alternative to whole organ transplantation. In order to find the most suitable large animal model it is important to recognise that the typical histopathological reaction pattern of the liver can differ between mammalian species. It is therefore imperative that specialists in veterinary internal medicine and pathology, being familiar with the diseases and pathologies of the liver in different animal species, are teaming-up in finding the best models for veterinary and human liver diseases. Several large animal models have been mentioned, like pigs, sheep, and dogs. Based on the observations that man and dog share the same hepatopathies and have identical clinical, pathological and pathogenetic reaction patterns during the development of liver disease, the dog seems to be a properly suited species to test new therapeutic strategies for pets and their best friends. PMID:22029820

  5. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems.

  6. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

  7. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  8. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p <  0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p <  0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability.

  9. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  10. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  11. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

  12. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  13. Predicting chronic copper and nickel reproductive toxicity to Daphnia pulex-pulicaria from whole-animal metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nadine S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Johnson, Craig; Yan, Norman D; Viant, Mark R; Gunn, John M; McGeer, James C

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of omics approaches in environmental research has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying toxicity; however, extrapolation from molecular effects to whole-organism and population level outcomes remains a considerable challenge. Using environmentally relevant, sublethal, concentrations of two metals (Cu and Ni), both singly and in binary mixtures, we integrated data from traditional chronic, partial life-cycle toxicity testing and metabolomics to generate a statistical model that was predictive of reproductive impairment in a Daphnia pulex-pulicaria hybrid that was isolated from an historically metal-stressed lake. Furthermore, we determined that the metabolic profiles of organisms exposed in a separate acute assay were also predictive of impaired reproduction following metal exposure. Thus we were able to directly associate molecular profiles to a key population response - reproduction, a key step towards improving environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:26854702

  14. Predicting chronic copper and nickel reproductive toxicity to Daphnia pulex-pulicaria from whole-animal metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nadine S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Johnson, Craig; Yan, Norman D; Viant, Mark R; Gunn, John M; McGeer, James C

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of omics approaches in environmental research has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying toxicity; however, extrapolation from molecular effects to whole-organism and population level outcomes remains a considerable challenge. Using environmentally relevant, sublethal, concentrations of two metals (Cu and Ni), both singly and in binary mixtures, we integrated data from traditional chronic, partial life-cycle toxicity testing and metabolomics to generate a statistical model that was predictive of reproductive impairment in a Daphnia pulex-pulicaria hybrid that was isolated from an historically metal-stressed lake. Furthermore, we determined that the metabolic profiles of organisms exposed in a separate acute assay were also predictive of impaired reproduction following metal exposure. Thus we were able to directly associate molecular profiles to a key population response - reproduction, a key step towards improving environmental risk assessment and management.

  15. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  16. Nail polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Organic solvent syndrome; Psychoorganic syndrome; Chronic solvent encephalopathy ... memory loss. Painter syndrome may also be called organic solvent syndrome, psychoorganic syndrome, and chronic solvent encephalopathy ( ...

  17. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  18. Effects of chronic aluminum and copper exposure on growth and development of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) larvae.

    PubMed

    Peles, John D

    2013-09-15

    Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) were exposed to aluminum (Al; 10, 100, 500, 1000, or 2000 μgL(-1)) or copper (Cu; 1, 10, 50, 100, 200 μgL(-1)) at a pH of 4.70 from the beginning of the larval period through the completion of metamorphosis (range=43-102 days). Observations on mortality, malformation, time to reach specific developmental stages, body mass at these stages, and metamorphic success were made throughout the larval developmental period. Only one case of malformation was observed and mortality was ≤ 10% at all concentrations except the highest Cu concentration where the rate was 33%. All larvae that survived the experiment successfully completed metamorphosis, but significant effects on growth and development occurred for both metals and these were most prominent for Cu. At the highest Al concentration (2000 μgL(-1)), body mass of larvae was significantly lower (reduced by 17% compared to the control) at 20 days post hatching (DPH) and the time to reach the hind-limb (HL), front-limb (FL), and tail resorption (TR) stages was significantly increased (9-10 days longer than the control). Body mass of larvae exposed to the three highest concentrations of Cu (50, 100, 200 μgL(-1)) was reduced by 30-34% at 20 DPH. Exposure to these concentrations also resulted in increased time to reach the HL, FL, and TR stages with larvae in the highest concentration taking 21-29 days longer to reach these stages. Larvae exposed to 10 μgL(-1) Cu also took longer to reach the FL and TR stages of development, and exposure to all Cu concentrations increased tail resorption time by more than two days compared to the control. Although the only observed effects of Al were for a concentration that is probably not ecologically relevant, results demonstrate that environmentally-realistic levels of Cu may have significant biological effects that could influence individual fitness and population-level processes.

  19. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae. PMID:19918480

  20. Haemolytic anaemia secondary to arsenic poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed

    Correia, Nuno; Carvalho, Catarina; Friões, Fernando; Araújo, José P; Almeida, Jorge; Azevedo, Ana

    2009-08-11

    We report the case of a 56-year-old white man who presented at the Emergency Department for evaluation of dark-red urine. Rapid development of acute renal failure and haemolytic anaemia initially elicited the hypothesis of a haemolytic-uremic syndrome. A previous exposure to a gas mixture containing arsenic and copper was later recognized as the probable aetiology while other differential diagnoses were excluded. Chelating treatment was promptly initiated before laboratorial confirmation of arsenic and copper poisoning. Renal and haematological recovery was gradually observed and the patient survived with no sequelae.

  1. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  2. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  3. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  4. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  5. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  6. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  7. [Amitriptyline and imipramine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Paul, H; Ehrenthal, W; Wahlen, W

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of severe poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants (Amitriptylin, Imipramin) are reported. Both patients 3 and 11 years old children, developed a typical clinical picture with cardiovascular, neurological and atropine features. Beside a general supportive management, in one case physostigmin was used as antidote. Alternative treatments of enuresis in childhood are recommended.

  8. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  9. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  10. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  11. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.C.; Gregory, D.G. )

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  12. [Experimental chronic phenylmercuric chloride poisoning in pigs].

    PubMed

    Raszyk, J; Docekalová, H; Rubes, J; Navrátil, S; Masek, J; Rodák, L

    1992-07-01

    Four gilts, sisters from one litter, aged 70 days and weighing 20-24 kg, were used for a trial. Two experimental gilts (P) were administered an experimental feed mixture containing phenylmercury chloride (40 mg/kg). Two control gilts (K) were fed the same mixture but without phenylmercury chloride. P gilts began to lag behind in their growth from day 60 of the experiment, they manifested nonphysiological postures (dog's sitting posture), paresis of hind limbs and uncoordinated movements. P gilts had cloudy, orange-brown urine from day 70 and from day 75 they began to suffer from diarrhoea. Mercury (Hg) contents in urine and blood serum of P gilts were irregularly variable: urine 0.58-2.15 mg/l, blood serum 0.02-0.37 mg/l. Hg content in excrements of P gilts fluctuated from 23 to 26 mg/kg. Vitamin A concentrations in blood serum and liver decreased in P gilts. Phenylmercury chloride feeding caused mutagenic changes in peripheral lymphocytes of P gilts (an increase in the number of aberrant cells from 2-3% to 8-9%) and reduced IgA, IgM and IgG immunoglobulin levels in blood serum. Pathological lesions were observed in the colon, kidneys and liver. None of the above-mentioned changes were observed in K gilts. Increased resistance to the negative effects of Hg was found in one experimental gilt. In comparison with K gilts, Hg concentrations in P gilts after 130 days of the experiment increased as follows: 427 times in kidneys, 333 times in liver, 106 times in guts, 71 times in pancreas, 53 times in ovaries, 50 times in muscles, 47 times in bristles and 16 times in the brain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. A chronic toxicity test for the tropical marine snail Nassarius dorsatus to assess the toxicity of copper, aluminium, gallium, and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Joost W; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; Streten, Claire; Gibb, Karen; van Dam, Rick A

    2016-07-01

    Chronic toxicity test methods for assessing the toxicity of contaminants to tropical marine organisms are generally lacking. A 96-h chronic growth rate toxicity test was developed for the larval stage of the tropical dogwhelk, Nassarius dorsatus. Growth rates of N. dorsatus larvae were assessed following exposures to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), and molybdenum (Mo). Exposure to Cu at 28 °C validated the sensitivity of the test method, with 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) effect concentrations of 4.2 μg/L and 7.3 μg/L Cu, respectively. The EC10 and EC50 values for Al (<0.45-μm filtered fraction) at 28 °C were 115 μg/L and 185 μg/L, respectively. The toxicity of Cu and Al was also assessed at 24 °C and 31 °C, representing average year-round water temperatures for subtropical and tropical Australian coastal environments. At 24 °C, the growth rate of control larvae was reduced by 52% compared with the growth rate at 28 °C and there was an increase in sensitivity to Cu (EC50 = 4.7 μg/L) but a similar sensitivity to Al (EC50 = 180 μg/L). At 31 °C the control growth rate increased by 35% from that measured at 28 °C and there was reduced sensitivity to both Cu and Al (EC50s = 8.5 μg/L and 642 μg/L, respectively). There was minimal toxicity resulting from Ga (EC50 = 4560 μg/L) and Mo (no effect at ≤7000 μg/L Mo). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1788-1795. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26643415

  14. A chronic toxicity test for the tropical marine snail Nassarius dorsatus to assess the toxicity of copper, aluminium, gallium, and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Joost W; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; Streten, Claire; Gibb, Karen; van Dam, Rick A

    2016-07-01

    Chronic toxicity test methods for assessing the toxicity of contaminants to tropical marine organisms are generally lacking. A 96-h chronic growth rate toxicity test was developed for the larval stage of the tropical dogwhelk, Nassarius dorsatus. Growth rates of N. dorsatus larvae were assessed following exposures to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), and molybdenum (Mo). Exposure to Cu at 28 °C validated the sensitivity of the test method, with 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) effect concentrations of 4.2 μg/L and 7.3 μg/L Cu, respectively. The EC10 and EC50 values for Al (<0.45-μm filtered fraction) at 28 °C were 115 μg/L and 185 μg/L, respectively. The toxicity of Cu and Al was also assessed at 24 °C and 31 °C, representing average year-round water temperatures for subtropical and tropical Australian coastal environments. At 24 °C, the growth rate of control larvae was reduced by 52% compared with the growth rate at 28 °C and there was an increase in sensitivity to Cu (EC50 = 4.7 μg/L) but a similar sensitivity to Al (EC50 = 180 μg/L). At 31 °C the control growth rate increased by 35% from that measured at 28 °C and there was reduced sensitivity to both Cu and Al (EC50s = 8.5 μg/L and 642 μg/L, respectively). There was minimal toxicity resulting from Ga (EC50 = 4560 μg/L) and Mo (no effect at ≤7000 μg/L Mo). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1788-1795. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Long-term neurobehavioral effects of mild poisonings with organophosphate and n-methyl carbamate pesticides among banana workers.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Catharina; Keifer, Matthew; Ahlbom, Anders; McConnell, Rob; Moon, Jai-Dong; Rosenstock, Linda; Hogstedt, Christer

    2002-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning has been associated with chronic neurobehavioral dysfunction, but no epidemiologic data exist with regard to long-term consequences from carbamate poisoning. This cross-sectional study evaluated the neurobehavioral performances of 81 banana workers who, on average 27 months earlier, had received medical attention not requiring hospitalization for mild occupational poisoning by either an organophosphate or a carbamate pesticide. These performances were compared with those of 130 banana workers who had never sought medical attention for pesticide poisoning. Poisoned subjects did less well than controls on tests measuring psychomotor and visuomotor skills, language function, and affect, the differences being significant for coding skills on the Digit-Symbol test and two tests of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These deficits, in particular a marked increase of neuropsychiatric symptoms, occurred among the organophosphate-poisoned subjects, but small deficits in performance were also seen in the carbamate-poisoned subjects. The performances of the previously poisoned subjects who had had contact with cholinesterase inhibitors within three months before testing were particularly poor. These findings in workers with mild poisoning are consistent with previous findings of persistent damage to the central nervous system from organophosphate poisoning. The possibility of persistent neurobehavioral effects associated with poisonings by nmethyl carbamate insecticides cannot be excluded. Workers with histories of poisoning may be more susceptible to neurobehavioral effects with subsequent exposures.

  16. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... or breathes in its fumes. These cleaners contain chlorine and acids. Chlorine is more likely than the acids to cause ... are: Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  17. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bardin, P G; van Eeden, S F; Moolman, J A; Foden, A P; Joubert, J R

    1994-07-11

    Organophosphate insecticides may cause serious poisoning either accidentally or by deliberate ingestion. Toxic symptoms are produced by acetylcholine accumulation at cholinergic receptors. Diagnosis is based on history of exposure or ingestion, symptoms and signs of cholinergic overactivity and a decrease in serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Following diagnosis, grading of disease severity may identify patients with serious poisoning who should receive treatment in intensive care using adequate doses of anticholinergic drugs. Complications, particularly ventricular arrhythmias, central nervous system depression or seizures, and respiratory failure, should be anticipated and treated. Relapse may occur after seemingly successful treatment. Public education with regard to symptoms of toxicity must be encouraged, and physicians must provide skilled treatment for a potentially lethal condition.

  18. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  19. Lead poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  20. Poisons and fever.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1998-02-01

    1. Dysfunction of the thermoregulatory system is one of many pathologies documented in experimental animals and humans exposed to toxic chemicals. The mechanism of action responsible for many types of poison-induced fevers is not understood. Some elevations in body temperature are attributed to the peripheral actions of some poisons that stimulate metabolic rate and cause a forced hyperthermia. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and certain metal fumes appears to cause a prolonged, regulated elevation in body temperature (Tb). 2. Activation of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in central nervous system (CNS) thermoregulatory centres is required to elicit a fever. Activating the COX-PGE2 pathway by a poison may occur by one of three mechanisms: (i) induction of cell-mediated immune responses and the subsequent release of cytokines; (ii) induction of lipid peroxidation in the CNS; and (iii) direct neurochemical activation. 3. Radiotelemetric monitoring of core temperature in unstressed rodents has led to an experimental animal model of poison-induced fever. Rats administered the OP agents chlorpyrifos and diisopropyl fluorophosphate display an initial hypothermic response lasting approximately 24 h, followed by an elevation in diurnal core temperature for 24-72 h after exposure. The hyperthermia is apparently a result of the activation of the COX-PGE2 pathway because it is blocked by the anti-pyretic sodium salicylate. Overall, the delayed hyperthermia resulting from OP exposure involves activation of thermoregulatory pathways that may be similar to infection-mediated fever. PMID:9493505

  1. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  2. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  3. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales. PMID:7761363

  4. Endrin-food-poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

  5. OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Binger, C A; Faulkner, J M; Moore, R L

    1927-04-30

    1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

  6. [Cases of poisoning in Germany. Disease entity, documentation, and aspects of the event].

    PubMed

    Hahn, A; Begemann, K; Stürer, A

    2014-06-01

    Cases of poisoning account for a distinct share of accidents in Germany, which is particularly high for accidents involving children. Cases of poisoning resulting from suicidal intent or abuse are not counted as accidents. Compared to other cases of disease and accidents, the numerical documentation of cases of poisoning is inadequate. Presently, there is no institution in Germany that could make available representative and meaningful data on the current state of poisoning. Owing to intensive scientific cooperation between the poison information centers (funded by the federal states) and the Poison and Product Documentation Center at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR DocCenter) as well as to international cooperation, harmonized and standardized tools have been developed for the appropriate documentation and reporting of procedures to account for poisoning accidents. The first evaluation for 2005-2012 based on published and processed figures for the Federal Republic of Germany yielded the following results: Of approximately 230,000 telephone inquiries received in 2012, about 207,000 involved exposure of humans to different noxae. An annual increase of 3-5 % was recorded. For 2011, analyses of subsets processed by means of standardized methods yielded the following results: Medicines were involved in about 39 % of the cases recorded (of these, medicinal products for humans in 99 %); chemical/physicochemical agents in about 26 % (of these, cleaning and maintenance products in 46 %); products of daily use in about 14 % (of these, cosmetics in 40 %); and plants in about 10 %. More than 90 % of cases were acute poisoning and less than 5 %, chronic poisoning. Regarding the degree of severity of poisoning, an asymptomatic course was reported for 44 % of the cases; minor manifestations were experienced in 30 %, moderate ones in 6 %, and severe manifestations in 2 % of the cases recorded. Fatal cases were rare (< 0.1 %). The

  7. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  8. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  9. The affliction of Job: poisoned!

    PubMed

    Gorman, S; Kaplan, D L

    1999-01-01

    The story of Job has been an inspiration for centuries to those familiar with the story. It has also been a source of curiosity as to what affliction he suffered. A critical reappraisal of the clinical manifestations of his illness support the contention that he was a victim of poisoning. There is historical evidence to support that the poison was available in his time and already in use for poisoning. Finally, there is even documentation in the story of Job as to the identity of his poisoner. PMID:9922031

  10. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? What You Need to Know in an Emergency ... Aid: Poisoning First-Aid Kit Emergency Contact Sheet Lead Poisoning Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  11. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats. PMID:9587137

  12. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  13. Organophosphate Poisoning and Subsequent Acute Kidney Injury Risk: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lai, Ching-Yuan; Wu, Yung-Shun; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Small numbers of the papers have studied the association between organophosphate (OP) poisoning and the subsequent acute kidney injury (AKI). Therefore, we used the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to study whether patients with OP poisoning are associated with a higher risk to have subsequent AKI.The retrospective cohort study comprised patients aged ≥20 years with OP poisoning and hospitalized diagnosis during 2000-2011 (N = 8924). Each OP poisoning patient was frequency-matched to 4 control patients based on age, sex, index year, and comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and stroke (N = 35,696). We conducted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of OP poisoning on AKI risk.The overall incidence of AKI was higher in the patients with OP poisoning than in the controls (4.85 vs 3.47/1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and interaction terms, patients with OP poisoning were associated with a 6.17-fold higher risk of AKI compared with the comparison cohort. Patients with highly severe OP poisoning were associated with a substantially increased risk of AKI.The study found OP poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent AKI. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate whether long-term effects exist and the best guideline to prevent the continuously impaired renal function.

  14. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  15. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  16. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  17. Pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide. A valuable agent for phosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    PAYNE, J R; ROBINSON, B R

    1962-05-01

    Phosphate insecticide use is increasing as is concomitant human poisoning. Home insecticide bomb as well as agricultural, crop contamination and suicidal exposure are noted. Clinical poisoning may be chronic and severe. It may follow long exposure or short exposure with heavy dosages. Manifestations are those of excessive cholinergic activity.Adequate laboratory means for early, rapid diagnosis and screen testings are available.PAM is a valuable agent for this type of poisoning and is a much more adequate and complete antidote than atropine. It is available (under certain restrictive conditions presently). It is being widely used elsewhere in the world but with limited education and use in this country. Morbidity and mortality continue at a rate that could probably be corrected. Case reports, describing the use of this antidote in our hands, are included. Government and industry responsibility as well as physician education must be more clearly defined in prevention, recognition and treatment in what is often a life threatening situation.

  18. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. PMID:8553638

  19. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  20. Complications of quinine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Boland, M E; Roper, S M; Henry, J A

    1985-02-16

    Of 165 patients admitted to hospital with acute quinine poisoning 70 (42%) had visual symptoms. 19 were left with a permanent visual deficit, though none was left completely blind. 5 patients died. Bilateral stellate ganglion block was carried out on 34 patients with impaired visual acuity or blindness, but an improvement of symptoms was reported in only 4 cases. It is concluded that stellate ganglion blockade is not effective enough to justify its regular use in quinine-induced amblyopia. Quinine overdose can have serious consequences, and the drug should not be prescribed indiscriminately. PMID:2857431

  1. [Bromadiolone poisoning in foxes].

    PubMed

    Kupper, J; Grobosch, T; Kistler, R; Sydler, T; Naegeli, H

    2006-08-01

    Bromadiolone is an anticoagulant rodenticide that inhibits the reactivation of vitamin K1 by the enzyme vitamin K1-epoxide reductase. The present case report originated from the application of bromadiolone against water voles (Arvicola terrestris) in northeastern Switzerland. At least 40 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were found dead after the inappropriate use of a bait that contained 0.02 % bromadiolone. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of the postmortem examination and subsequently confirmed by the detection ofbromadiolone both in the blood and in samples from thoracic and abdominal fluids. PMID:16933704

  2. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  3. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists.

  4. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  5. Anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mackey, C L

    1982-01-01

    Anticholinesterase insecticides can be lethal, especially to small children. Prevention, not treatment, is the key to lowering the mortality rate. However, treatment, when necessary, can be effective if the poisoning agent is identified quickly as an anticholinesterase insecticide and therapy is begun immediately and aggressively. Large doses (up to 5 gm) of atropine, which block the parasympathetic effects of the poison, in conjunction with pralidoxime, a cholinesterase regenerator, need to be administered, second only in priority to establishing an airway. The second line of attack after adequate atropinization is supportive. Assistance with ventilation is individualized according to the degree of patient need. Intake with cautiously vigorous fluid therapy and output via Foley catheter are essential. Gastric lavage, seizure precautions and control as necessary, good body hygiene, and frequent turning are also part of necessary nursing intervention. Prognosis is fairly good if improvement is shown after therapy is begun. Maintaining adequate atropinization seems to be difficult yet essential to the success of the treatment and a good prognosis for the patient. PMID:6921196

  6. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  7. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  8. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  9. [Implication of lead poisoning in psychopathology of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    González Luque, F J; Montejo González, A L

    1997-01-01

    The authors, by means of documental research, study the possibility that the physical and psychic symptoms of Vincent van Gogh may have been due to chronic lead poisoning. The technique and materials used by Van Gogh are analysed as the cause of repeated exposure to lead as well as the possible means of penetration of the metal. Through historical-biographical analysis, the progressive symptoms of the illness are compared with those of lead poisoning. The authors conclude that the excessive and continuous use by Van Gogh of pigments which were highly toxic due to their high lead content, such as white lead (lead carbonate) and yellow chrome (lead chromium), could have penetrated his organism by digestive system (primarily) in minimal daily amounts, giving rise to a clinical condition of chronic lead poisoning. This type of poisoning coincides with the clinical symptoms Van Gogh describes in his autographed letters: initial debilitation, stomatitis with loss of teeth, recurring abdominal pains, anaemia (with a "plumbic" skin tone), neuropathy of the radial and saturnine encephalopathy including epileptic crises, progressive character changes and periods of delirium. The clinical symptoms shown by Van Gogh meet present criteria for diagnosis of Organic Mental Disorder due to cerebral lesion or somatic illness (F.06; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R), and Organic Character Disorder (F.07; CIE-10) (DSM-IV-R).

  10. Aspects on antidote therapy in acute poisoning affecting the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Persson, H

    1984-01-01

    The number of toxic substances affecting the nervous system through acute or chronic exposure is overwhelming. This survey will elucidate the possibilities of antidote therapy in some acute cases of poisoning, caused by nervous system toxicants. Antidotes exert their therapeutic effects through a variety of mechanisms: Adsorption, formation of inert complexes, inhibited conversion to toxic metabolites, enhancement of endogenous detoxification, interference at receptor sites, and physiological antagonism. The application of these principles in treating some poisonings caused by important nervous system toxicants will be considered. This survey is by no means comprehensive, but rather gives some relevant examples and deals only with acute poisoning.

  11. [Subacute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ghariani, M; Adrien, M L; Raucoules, M; Bayle, J; Jacomet, Y; Grimaud, D

    1991-01-01

    A cas is reported of a 23-year-old man who voluntarily took a massive dose of arsenic (at least 8 g). In spite of the ingested amount and the acute nature of the poisoning, the patient survived 8 days. Gastrointestinal, neurologic and cardiac features were predominant including nausea, vomiting, choleroid diarrhoea, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and finally a fatal toxic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic acidosis, moderate cytolysis and an anticoagulant effect were also observed. This unique characteristic was partly due to a circulating anticoagulant with prothrombinase activity, as well as direct antivitamin K activity. Postmortem examination revealed: a congestive oesophagitis; a necrosing gastritis involving all the stomach wall; diffuse hepatic steatosis; skin lesions with vascular congestion and dermoepidermal detachment; discrete subepicardial congestive lesions. Arsenic was found in all tissues.

  12. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

  13. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  14. [Intermittent hemodialysis, irreplaceable in specific cases of severe poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ventresca, M; Teta, D; Burnier, M; Kissling, S

    2015-02-25

    The medical practitioner is in general well aware of the indications for hemodialysis in severe, acute or chronic renal insufficiency. Apart from the traditional indications for renal replacement therapy, there are some cases such as metfomin and ethylene glycol poisoning, lithium intoxication severe hypercalcemia and tumor lysis syndrome, in which intermittent hemodialysis is the most effective treatment, or sometimes the only effective one. Although these situations remain infrequent, it is crucial to recognize them as quickly as possible. PMID:25898458

  15. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, et al., eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ed. New York, NY: ...

  16. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  18. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  19. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    PubMed

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  20. Accidental poisoning in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

    1982-01-01

    Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

  1. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-12-15

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  2. Lead poisoning in China: a health and human rights crisis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jane E; Amon, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning is occurring throughout China and is a major cause of childhood morbidity. The Chinese government's emphasis on industrial development and poverty reduction has, over the past three decades, decreased by 500 million the number of people surviving on less than one dollar per day, but has caused significant environmental degradation that threatens public health. Drawing upon in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 and 2010 with families affected by lead poisoning, environmental activists, journalists, government and civil society organization officials in Shaanxi, Henan, Hunan, and Yunnan provinces, as well as a review of scientific and Chinese media, and health and environmental legal and policy analysis, we examine the intersection of civil, political, economic, and social rights related to access to information, screening, treatment, and remediation related to lead poisoning. In-depth interviews in each province uncovered: censorship and intimidation of journalists, environmental activists, and parents seeking information about sources and prevention of lead poisoning; denial of screening for lead poisoning, often based upon arbitrary eligibility criteria; and inadequate and inappropriate treatment being promoted and provided by health facilities. Over the past decade, the Chinese government has prioritized health care and invested billions of dollars towards universal health coverage, and strengthened environmental to address industrial pollution and guarantee access to information on the environment. Yet, despite these reforms, information remains constrained and citizens seeking information and redress are sometimes arrested, in violation of Chinese and international law. Local government officials and national environmental policies continue to prioritize economic development over environmental protection. To effectively address lead poisoning requires an emphasis on prevention, and to combat industrial pollution requires

  3. Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

  4. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  5. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  6. Copper Metallochaperones

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

  7. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  8. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  9. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  10. Fatal poisoning by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Boulassel, Brahim; Sadeg, Nouredine; Roussel, Olivier; Perrin, Martine; Belhadj-Tahar, Hafid

    2011-03-20

    We report here a fatal intoxication case involving ammonium vanadate. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, multiple daily diarrheas, hypoglycaemia (0.2g/L) and severe acute renal failure with glomerular filtration rate estimated at 21 ml/min. This patient had taken an undetermined amount of ammonium vanadate 12h after ingesting. She died next morning in the context of respiratory distress despite intensive care and oxygen therapy. The autopsy revealed widespread asphyxia syndrome and erosive gastritis. Determination of vanadium concentration in blood was carried out by means of mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using rhodium ((103)Rh) as the internal standard. The vanadium concentration was 6.22 mg/L, corresponding to 6000 times higher than normal concentration in the general population. The latency and the brutality of clinical picture degradation seem to be in consideration of systemic poisoning by vanadium leading to inhibition of the cellular respiratory process.

  11. Serial cholinesterase estimation in carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pinakini, K S; Kumar, T S Mohan

    2006-07-01

    Poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. Anticholinesterase compounds like organophosphates (OP) and carbamates account for the majority of these poisoning cases because of their easy availability and agricultural use. Carbamates are as popular as OPs as insecticides that often go undiagnosed. A fatal case of carbofuran poisoning is presented where serial cholinesterase estimation played a major role in the diagnosis of the same. The pertinent medical literature on carbofuran poisoning is reviewed. The establishment of poison information center in each state is needed for proper diagnosis and management of poisoning cases.

  12. Arsenic poisoning from anti-asthmatic herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Tay, C H; Seah, C S

    1975-09-13

    Arsenic poisoning, a disease of the past, was recently found in 74 patients in Singapore over a 15-month period. Most victims (70%) had a chronic form of poisoning and 64% of the cases were caused by a local anti-asthmatic herbal preparation containing 12,000 ppm of inorganic arsenic sulphide. The other patients were poisoned by six other brands of herbal preparations used for the treatment of asthma and a variety of other illnesses. Subsequent investigations revealed another 22 other brands of Chinese herbal preparations containing high concentrations of inorganic arsenic ranging from 25 to 107,000 ppm, of which most were imported. Nearly 40% of the patients had taken the medicine for less than six months, but the others had a longer history of exposure ranging from one to 15 years. Systemic involvement was confined mainly to the skin (91%), nervous system (51%), gastrointestinal system (23%) and blood (23%). Malignancy of the skin was present in six patients, and of the visceral samples, toxicological confirmation was found in half of the cases investigated. There was no correlation between the clinical status of the patients and their tissue arsenic content. The importance of arsenic poisoning by herbal preparations is discussed, as there are no known reports of their association.

  13. A Case of Superwarfarin Poisoning Due to Repetitive Occupational Dermal Rodenticide Exposure in a Worker.

    PubMed

    Narlı Özdemir, Zehra; Şahin, Uğur; Merter, Mustafa; Gündüz, Mehmet; Ateşağaoğlu, Berna; Beksaç, Meral

    2016-09-01

    Superwarfarin poisoning is usually due to chronic occult small-dose exposures and can easily be misdiagnosed and may lead to serious complications. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a concordant history and analyses of blood and urine specimens with the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Several months of continuous treatment with high doses of daily oral vitamin K, as well as other supportive measures, are warranted, especially when repeated laboratory measurements to help predict the treatment period are not available. In this paper, a case of superwarfarin poisoning due to chronic repetitive occupational dermal exposure to commercial rodenticides is presented. PMID:27093901

  14. Histamine poisoning (scombroid fish poisoning): an allergy-like intoxication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Stratton, J E; Nordlee, J A

    1989-01-01

    Histamine poisoning results from the consumption of foods, typically certain types of fish and cheeses, that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Spoiled fish of the families, Scombridae and Scomberesocidae (e.g. tuna, mackerel, bonito), are commonly implicated in incidents of histamine poisoning, which leads to the common usage of the term, "scombroid fish poisoning", to describe this illness. However, certain non-scombroid fish, most notably mahi-mahi, bluefish, and sardines, when spoiled are also commonly implicated in histamine poisoning. Also, on rare occasions, cheeses especially Swiss cheese, can be implicated in histamine poisoning. The symptoms of histamine poisoning generally resemble the symptoms encountered with IgE-mediated food allergies. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, an oral burning sensation or peppery taste, hives, itching, red rash, and hypotension. The onset of the symptoms usually occurs within a few minutes after ingestion of the implicated food, and the duration of symptoms ranges from a few hours to 24 h. Antihistamines can be used effectively to treat this intoxication. Histamine is formed in foods by certain bacteria that are able to decarboxylate the amino acid, histidine. However, foods containing unusually high levels of histamine may not appear to be outwardly spoiled. Foods with histamine concentrations exceeding 50 mg per 100 g of food are generally considered to be hazardous. Histamine formation in fish can be prevented by proper handling and refrigerated storage while the control of histamine formation in cheese seems dependent on insuring that histamine-producing bacteria are not present in significant numbers in the raw milk.

  15. Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings.

  16. Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Clark, Richard F; Machado, Carol; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin poisoning still remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, digoxin-specific Fab fragments are commercially available as an antidote. However, these Fab fragments are several thousand dollars per vial. There is a standardized formula to calculate appropriate Fab fragment dosage based on the serum digoxin concentration. This can greatly reduce the amount of Fab fragment administered. There is also an empiric dosing guideline recommending 6-10 vials be given; however, this may result in higher amounts of Fab fragments being administered than required. We performed this study to assess the amounts of digoxin-specific Fab fragments administered in the treatment of digoxin poisonings recorded in a poison control system database from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009, in which digoxin serum concentrations were available. This was a retrospective study of 278 patients, 107 with acute poisonings (group A) and 171 following chronic poisoning (group B). In group A, the calculated Fab dose was higher than the calculated dose based on available concentrations in 39 (36%) of group A and 15 (9%) of group B patients. The average wholesale price cost of the excessive dosages ranged from $4818 to as high as $50,589 per patient. Our data suggests that clinician education on digoxin poisoning and the use of the standardized formula to calculate the Fab dose may decrease over utilization and decrease costs associated with the administration of digoxin-specific Fab fragments in the treatment of digoxin poisonings.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... less binge drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

  18. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  19. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint remover poisoning ... Paint lacquer and varnish remover poisoning can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. AIRWAYS AND LUNGS Breathing difficulty (from inhalation) Throat swelling (may also cause ...

  1. Non-accidental salt poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features of 12 children who incurred non-accidental salt poisoning are reported. The children usually presented to hospital in the first six months of life with unexplained hypernatraemia and associated illness. Most of the children suffered repetitive poisoning before detection. The perpetrator was believed to the mother for 10 children, the father for one, and either parent for one. Four children had serum sodium concentrations above 200 mmol/l. Seven children had incurred other fabricated illness, drug ingestion, physical abuse, or failure to thrive/neglect. Two children died; the other 10 remained healthy in alternative care. Features are described that should lead to earlier detection of salt poisoning; the importance of checking urine sodium excretion, whenever hypernatraemia occurs, is stressed. PMID:8503665

  2. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  3. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  4. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident.

  5. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  6. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  7. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  8. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  9. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  10. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries.

  11. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  12. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  13. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  14. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and...

  15. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  16. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  19. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  20. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. An epidemiological study of poisoning cases reported to the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amita; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Kaleekal, Thomas; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2005-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of poisoning calls received by the National Poisons Information Centre showed a total of 2719 calls over a period of three years (April 1999-March 2002). The queries were made on poisoning management (92%) and information (8%) about various products and functioning of the centre. The data were analysed with respect to age, sex, mode and type of poisoning. The agents belonged to various groups: household products, agricultural pesticides, industrial chemicals, drugs, plants, animal bites and stings, miscellaneous and unknown groups respectively. The age ranged from less than 1 to 70 years, with the highest incidence in the range of 14-40 years, with males (57%) outnumbering females (43%). The most common mode of poisoning was suicidal (53%), followed by accidental (47%). The route of exposure was mainly oral (88%). Dermal (5%), inhalation and ocular exposure contributed 7% to the total. The highest incidence of poisoning was due to household agents (44.1%) followed by drugs (18.8%), agricultural pesticides (12.8%), industrial chemicals (8.9%), animals bites and stings (4.7%), plants (1.7%), unknown (2.9%) and miscellaneous groups (5.6%). Household products mainly comprised of pyrethroids, rodenticides, carbamates, phenyl, detergents, corrosives etc. Drugs implicated included benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, analgesics, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, thyroid hormones and oral contraceptives. Among the agricultural pesticides, aluminium phosphide was the most commonly consumed followed by organochlorines, organophosphates, ethylene dibromide, herbicides and fungicides. Copper sulphate and nitrobenzene were common among industrial chemicals. The bites and stings group comprised of snake bites, scorpion, wasp and bee stings. Poisoning due to plants was low, but datura was the most commonly ingested. An alarming feature of the study was the high incidence of poisoning in children (36.5%). The age ranged from less than 1 to 18 years

  3. Strong poison revisited.

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C; Gailer, Jürgen; Gunson, Diane E; Turner, Raymond J; George, Graham N; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2007-11-01

    Selenium in the form of selenocysteine plays an essential role in a number of proteins, but its role in non-enzymatic biochemistry is also important. In this short review we discuss the interactions between inorganic selenium, arsenic and mercury under physiological conditions, especially in the presence of glutathione. This chemistry is obviously important in making the arsenic and mercury unavailable for more toxic interactions, but in the process it suggests that a side-effect of chronic arsenic and/or mercury exposure is likely to be functional selenium deficiency.

  4. Strong Poison Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Gailer, J.; Gunson, D.E.; Turner, R.J.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-06-04

    Selenium in the form of selenocysteine plays an essential role in a number of proteins, but its role in non-enzymatic biochemistry is also important. In this short review we discuss the interactions between inorganic selenium, arsenic and mercury under physiological conditions, especially in the presence of glutathione. This chemistry is obviously important in making the arsenic and mercury unavailable for more toxic interactions, but in the process it suggests that a side-effect of chronic arsenic and/or mercury exposure is likely to be functional selenium deficiency.

  5. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p < .05). Digit span, digit symbol, Benton visual retention and pursuit aiming scores were all significantly lower among the recently poisoned group compared to the controls (p < .05). Two-way ANCOVA indicated significantly lower performance in correct pursuit aiming and higher error pursuit aiming amongst the recently poisoned group and those who had worked for more than 30 years in agriculture (p < .05). These findings provide

  6. The amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease in the reduction of copper(II) to copper(I)

    PubMed

    Multhaup, G; Schlicksupp, A; Hesse, L; Beher, D; Ruppert, T; Masters, C L; Beyreuther, K

    1996-03-01

    The transition metal ion copper(II) has a critical role in chronic neurologic diseases. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease or a synthetic peptide representing its copper-binding site reduced bound copper(II) to copper(I). This copper ion-mediated redox reaction led to disulfide bond formation in APP, which indicated that free sulfhydryl groups of APP were involved. Neither superoxide nor hydrogen peroxide had an effect on the kinetics of copper(II) reduction. The reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by APP involves an electron-transfer reaction and could enhance the production of hydroxyl radicals, which could then attack nearby sites. Thus, copper-mediated toxicity may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:8596911

  7. The Amyloid Precursor Protein of Alzheimer's Disease in the Reduction of Copper(II) to Copper(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multhaup, Gerd; Schlicksupp, Andrea; Hesse, Lars; Beher, Dirk; Ruppert, Thomas; Masters, Colin L.; Beyreuther, Konrad

    1996-03-01

    The transition metal ion copper(II) has a critical role in chronic neurologic diseases. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) of Alzheimer's disease or a synthetic peptide representing its copper-binding site reduced bound copper(II) to copper(I). This copper ion-mediated redox reaction led to disulfide bond formation in APP, which indicated that free sulfhydryl groups of APP were involved. Neither superoxide nor hydrogen peroxide had an effect on the kinetics of copper(II) reduction. The reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by APP involves an electron-transfer reaction and could enhance the production of hydroxyl radicals, which could then attack nearby sites. Thus, copper-mediated toxicity may contribute to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Evidence for metal poisoning in acute deaths of large red drum (Scianeops ocellata)

    SciTech Connect

    Cardeihac, P.T.; Simpson, C.F.; White, F.H.; Thompson, N.P.; Carr, W.E.

    1981-12-01

    Two of the approximately 100 large, mature, red drum found dead or dying in Florida's Indian River and Mosquito Lagoon were examined. Determinations were made of serum electrolyte concentrations, total proteins, albumins, globulins, creatinine values, and enzyme activity. Concentrations of copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, lead, and selenium were determined by atomic aborption. The outstanding histological lesions were found in the gills of a moribund specimen. Results indicate that the acute episode was triggered by ingestion of copper, zinc, and arsenic. However, cadmium, mercury and chromium may have been contributory by binding with metallothionein and thus lowering tolerance to metal poisoning. (JMT)

  9. Acute arsenical poisoning in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A J; Taylor, A J

    1979-05-23

    Four cases of acute poisoning with arsenic are described. Although no new approach to therapy is proposed it is suggested from the data of arsenic recovery from the dialysate of one of the patients studied, that peritoneal dialysis is unlikely to be satisfactory.

  10. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  11. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    PubMed

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  12. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  13. Lead Poisoning in Jewellery Enamellers

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, R.; Kipling, M. D.; Weber, A. B.

    1967-01-01

    Lead poisoning in jewellery enamellers in Birmingham has been described both at the beginning of this century and again in recent years. The condition arises from the habit of some workers of placing the enamel applicator in the mouth. The history of the hazard is reviewed and an investigation described. PMID:6073093

  14. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  15. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  16. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  17. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew M; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals. In the setting of toxicity from either agent class, clinical syndromes result from excessive nicotinic and muscarinic neurostimulation. The toxic effects from OPs and carbamates differ with respect to reversibility, subacute, and chronic effects. Decontamination, meticulous supportive care, aggressive antimuscarinic therapy, seizure control, and administration of oximes are cornerstones of management.

  18. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P < 0.05.Of the 315 eligible cases, (72%) were toddlers with equal gender distribution, (58%) had normal BMI, and (77%) were previously healthy. Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned

  19. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P < 0.05.Of the 315 eligible cases, (72%) were toddlers with equal gender distribution, (58%) had normal BMI, and (77%) were previously healthy. Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned

  20. Choice of poison for intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; Weerakoon, Manjula; Kumarasinghe, Subashini; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Although intentional self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural parts of the Asia-Pacific region, relatively little is known of its epidemiology. We aimed to determine why Sri Lankan self-poisoning patients choose particular poisons, and whether acts of self-harm with highly dangerous poisons were associated with more premeditation and effort. Methods We interviewed 268 self-poisoning patients presenting to two district general hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. Results 85% of patients cited easy availability as the basis for their choice of poison. There was little premeditation: more than 50% ingested the poison less than 30 minutes after deciding to self-harm. Patients had little knowledge about treatment options or lethality of the poison chosen. We found no difference in reasons for choice of poison between people ingesting different poisons, despite marked differences in toxicity, and between people who died and those who survived. Conclusions Poisons were chosen on the basis of availability, often at short notice. There was no evidence that people using highly toxic poisons made a more serious or premeditated attempt. Restrictions on availability of highly toxic poisons in rural communities must be considered in strategies to reduce the number of intentional self-poisoning deaths in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:16749546

  1. Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera pascuori was recently reported in horses in the state of Roraima. It causes chronic signs of sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, and progressive weight loss. Some animals are blind. Young horses are more affected than adults. After the end of plant consumption the anima...

  2. An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R. C.; Saunders, P. J.; Smith, G.

    1998-01-01

    programme. Further work is needed to establish the extent of the burden of chronic CO poisoning and the impact of catalytic converters on suicides.   PMID:9924447

  3. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Morvan's fibrillary chorea. A case with possible manganese poisoning.

    PubMed

    Haug, B A; Schoenle, P W; Karch, B J; Bardosi, A; Holzgraefe, M

    1989-01-01

    The clinical picture of Morvan's fibrillary chorea includes a. spontaneous muscular activity resulting from repetitive motor unit action potentials of peripheral origin (multiplets), b. autonomic dysregulation with profuse hyperhidrosis, and c. central nervous system involvement as shown by severe insomnia and hallucinosis. A case featuring all these symptoms is presented. Whereas known causative factors range from gold or mercury poisoning to autoimmune disorders, the presented case is the first one in which chronic manganese intoxication (occupational exposure) seems to be implicated. Manganese has been found to inhibit acetylcholine esterase, and, as a consequence, may produce peripheral and central cholinergic hyperactivity. PMID:2538282

  5. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium, and lead in the liver and kidneys of dogs according to age, gender, and the occurrence of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in canine liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla, and the association of these concentrations with age, gender, and occurrence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissues from 50 dogs were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cu, Zn, and Mn levels were highest in the liver followed by the renal cortex and renal medulla. The highest Sr, Cd, and Se concentrations were measured in the renal cortex while lower levels were found in the renal medulla and liver. Female dogs had higher tissue concentrations of Sr (liver and renal medulla), Cd (liver), Zn (liver and renal cortex), Cr (liver, renal cortex, and renal medulla), and Pb (liver) than male animals. Except for Mn and Sb, age-dependent variations were observed for all element concentrations in the canine tissues. Hepatic Cd and Cr concentrations were higher in dogs with CKD. In conclusion, the present results provide new knowledge about the storage of specific elements in canine liver and kidneys, and can be considered important reference data for diagnostic methods and further investigations. PMID:25234328

  6. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

  7. Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

  8. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  9. Poisoning severity score, APACHE II and GCS: effective clinical indices for estimating severity and predicting outcome of acute organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sam, Kishore Gnana; Kondabolu, Krishnakanth; Pati, Dipanwita; Kamath, Asha; Pradeep Kumar, G; Rao, Padma G M

    2009-07-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) compounds is a major cause of morbidity and mortality across South Asian countries. To develop uniform and effective management guidelines, the severity of acute OP poisoning should be assessed through scientific methods and a clinical database should be maintained. A prospective descriptive survey was carried out to assess the utility of severity scales in predicting the outcome of 71 organophosphate (OP) and carbamate poisoning patients admitted during a one year period at the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, predicted mortality rate (PMR) and Poisoning severity score (PSS) were estimated within 24h of admission. Significant correlation (P<0.05) between PSS and GCS and APACHE II and PMR scores were observed with the PSS scores predicting mortality significantly (P< or =0.001). A total of 84.5% patients improved after treatment while 8.5% of the patients were discharged with severe morbidity. The mortality rate was 7.0%. Suicidal poisoning was observed to be the major cause (80.2%), while other reasons attributed were occupational (9.1%), accidental (6.6%), homicidal (1.6%) and unknown (2.5%) reasons. This study highlights the application of clinical indices like GCS, APACHE, PMR and severity scores in predicting mortality and may be considered for planning standard treatment guidelines.

  10. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  11. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-01

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  12. Metabolic complications of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, A M

    2001-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of acute organophosphate (OP) and carbamate poisoning have already been well described. Most of these reports were on the cardiac, neurologic, respiratory and other clinical complications of these compounds. However, very little attention has been given to the metabolic aspects of this problem, particularly those accompanying carbamate poisoning. This paper describes the metabolic complications seen in 84 adult patients after acute poisoning with these compounds.

  13. Uncommon Sources and Some Unsual Manifestations of Lead Poisoning in a Tropical Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, David D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Lead-containing cooking utensils, sometimes used in South Indian homes, and indigenous medications, widely used in India and increasingly in developed countries, may be responsible for lead intoxication in adults. We report chronic lead poisoning in five adult patients. Not all patients had abdominal colic, while dramatic weight loss, depression and encephalopathy were seen. Once recognized, lead poisoning is treatable and sometimes preventable. Response to chelation therapy with agents such as calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) is impressive, although several courses of therapy may be necessary. PMID:22438702

  14. Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2007-02-01

    We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling. PMID:17405745

  15. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    PubMed

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  16. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajasuriar, R; Awang, R; Hashim, S B H; Rahmat, H R B H

    2007-02-01

    We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in adults. Some 55.1% of all admissions were female, mostly involving pharmaceutical agents. Male poisoning admissions were more often due to chemical substances. The prevalence of poisoning and death was highest among Indians compared to all other races in Malaysia. Overall, the majority of poisoning admissions were due to pharmaceutical agents, with agents classified as non-opioid analgesics, anti-pyretics and anti-rheumatics the most common. Pesticides accounted for the largest number of fatalities. It was also the commonest substance reported in cases of intentional self-harm. Most cases of poisoning admissions occurred due to accidental exposure (47%), followed by cases of intentional self-harm (20.7%). Overall, this study has managed to contribute substantial additional information regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Malaysia, highlighting important issues, such as the rampant poisonings involving pesticides and analgesics, as well as the high prevalence of poisoning among Indians in Malaysia.

  17. [Senecio jacobaea: deceiving beauty. Senecio jacobaea poisoning].

    PubMed

    Vos, J H; Geerts, A A J; Borgers, J W; Mars, M H; Muskens, J A M; van Wuijckhuise-Sjouke, L A

    2002-12-15

    In a cattle herd problems were noticed during 1.5 years, characterised by emaciation and loss of milk production with lower fat- and protein%, tenesmus, central nervous symptoms (aggression, circling and blindness), diarrhoea, eczema solare and death. Clinical, laboratory and post mortem examinations did not reveal a specific cause at first. An intoxication was suspected based on the clinical symptoms, the course of the disease in sick animals and severe liver cirrhosis found in a sudden death cow: The animals were fed grassilage derived from an air force base on which an overwhelming amount of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) was present. On subsequent microscopic examination of the livers of 11 slaughtered clinically healthy animals all of these showed fibrosis in varying extension. Cirrhosis and fibrosis of the liver and the clinical symptoms are all features of chronic pyrrolyzidine alkaloidosis. Tansy ragwort poisoning has not been diagnosed in the Netherlands for years. The rise in cases is due to more extensive use of land.

  18. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  19. Copper urine test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The copper urine test is performed by collecting urine at specific times for a 24-hour period. The urine is tested for the amount of copper present. The copper urine test is used to determine the presence of Wilson ...

  20. Elevated copper impairs hepatic nuclear receptor function in Wilson's disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in accumulation of copper in the liver as a consequence of mutations in the gene encoding the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). WD is a chronic liver disorder, and individuals with the disease present with a variety of co...

  1. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    PubMed

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  2. Five cases of Thermopsis poisoning.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D G; Murphy, M M; Wruk, K M; Rumack, B H

    1988-01-01

    Various Thermopsis species are found in the foothills and plains of the Rocky Mountains. There are no reported cases of human ingestion to Thermopsis reported in the literature. We report 5 cases of ingestion of seeds or flowers where the primary symptoms were nausea, vomiting and headache of several hours duration. As few as 6 seeds produced symptoms. The common names used by parents when calling the poison center could have easily lead to misidentification and a careful history and subsequent professional identification were required to ascertain the actual plant involved. PMID:3193493

  3. [Occupational arsine poisoning: description of a case].

    PubMed

    Marchiori, L; Rozio, L; Bressan, A; Biasoli, S; Cesaro, A; Peretti, A; Tommasi, I; Perbellini, L

    1989-01-01

    A case of occupational arsine poisoning is described that occurred in a small family workshop during blackening operations on zinc/aluminium alloy manufactured parts with acid solutions. This report shows that occupational poisonings wrongly believed to have disappeared can still occur, especially in small and often unsafe working environments.

  4. Acute arsenic toxicity--an opaque poison.

    PubMed

    Gray, J R; Khalil, A; Prior, J C

    1989-08-01

    We report a patient with fatal acute arsenic poisoning presenting as vomiting and diarrhea with the finding of intra-abdominal radiopacities on radiographs. These represent the classic features of acute arsenic toxicity and are detailed here as a reminder to others facing a similar puzzling patient with this potentially treatable poisoning.

  5. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  6. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  7. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  8. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  9. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  10. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  11. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  12. Poison control centers in developing countries and Asia's need for toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Makalinao, Irma R. . E-mail: docirma@mydestiny.net; Awang, Rahmat

    2005-09-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) in developing countries have been set up in response to the challenge of decreasing mortality and morbidity from poisoning. The services range from poison information to actual clinical treatment mostly of acute cases. Lately, PCCs have expanded from their traditional role to one that actively engages in community health studies, toxicovigilance along with treatment of chronic poisoning. Recognizing that types of poisoning and specific needs may vary from country to country, toxicology education that addresses these unique regional issues has become more necessary. Toxicology education, both formal and informal, exists in various stages of development in Asia. Clearly, there are gaps that need to be addressed especially in areas where there are no poison centers or where strengthening is necessary. Collaboration between PCCs in developing countries can help augment available resources including human, analytical and technical expertise. The critical mass of trained toxicologists will fill in the demand for clinical and regulatory specialists and educators as well. This paper highlights the experiences and resources available to the Philippine and Malaysian poison centers and the strengths generated by networking and collaboration. The role of Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology (APAMT) as the Science NGO representative to the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) forum standing committee in promoting chemical safety at the regional level will be discussed. The 'Clearinghouse on the Sound Management of Chemicals', a platform for engaging multi-stakeholder and interdisciplinary partnerships, will be described as a possible model for capacity building to advance chemical safety through education and training not only in developing countries in Asia but globally as well.

  13. Severe oral and intravenous insecticide mixture poisoning with diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The widespread use of pesticides in public health protection and agricultural pest control has caused severe environmental pollution and health hazards, especially in developing countries, including cases of severe acute and chronic human poisoning. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon manifestation of acute pesticide poisoning. Suicidal pesticide poisoning by injection is also an unusual way to take poison. We report a severe pesticide mixture poisoning case with diabetic ketoacidosis in an adult with improved outcome after supportive treatment and large doses of atropine. Case presentation A 30-year-old unmarried Moroccan Arab male with a previous history of active polysubstance abuse and behavior disorders had ingested and self injected intravenously into his forearm an unknown amount of a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. He developed muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms with hypothermia, inflammation in the site of the pesticide injection without necrosis. Red blood cell cholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were very low (<10%). By day 3, the patient developed stroke with hypotension (80/50 mmHg) and tachycardia (143 pulses /min). Laboratory tests showed severe hyperglycemia (4.49 g/dL), hypokaliemia (2.4 mEq/L), glycosuria, ketonuria and low bicarbonate levels (12 mEq/L) with improvement after intensive medical treatment and treatment by atropine. Conclusion Suicidal poisonings with self-injection of insecticide were rarely reported but could be associated with severe local and systemic complications. The oxidative stress caused by pyrethroids and organophosphates poisoning could explain the occurrence of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. PMID:25078103

  14. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  15. Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy.

  16. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  17. Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Seiko; Andreux, Pénélope; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Auwerx, Johan; Hanahan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element, the imbalances of which are associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, albeit via largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that levels of bioavailable copper modulate tumor growth. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of copper in drinking water, corresponding to the maximum allowed in public water supplies, stimulated proliferation of cancer cells and de novo pancreatic tumor growth in mice. Conversely, reducing systemic copper levels with a chelating drug, clinically used to treat copper disorders, impaired both. Under such copper limitation, tumors displayed decreased activity of the copper-binding mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase and reduced ATP levels, despite enhanced glycolysis, which was not accompanied by increased invasiveness of tumors. The antiproliferative effect of copper chelation was enhanced when combined with inhibitors of glycolysis. Interestingly, larger tumors contained less copper than smaller tumors and exhibited comparatively lower activity of cytochrome c oxidase and increased glucose uptake. These results establish copper as a tumor promoter and reveal that varying levels of copper serves to regulate oxidative phosphorylation in rapidly proliferating cancer cells inside solid tumors. Thus, activation of glycolysis in tumors may in part reflect insufficient copper bioavailability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24218578

  18. Bioavailable copper modulates oxidative phosphorylation and growth of tumors.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Seiko; Andreux, Pénélope; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Auwerx, Johan; Hanahan, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Copper is an essential trace element, the imbalances of which are associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, albeit via largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. Here we provide evidence that levels of bioavailable copper modulate tumor growth. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of copper in drinking water, corresponding to the maximum allowed in public water supplies, stimulated proliferation of cancer cells and de novo pancreatic tumor growth in mice. Conversely, reducing systemic copper levels with a chelating drug, clinically used to treat copper disorders, impaired both. Under such copper limitation, tumors displayed decreased activity of the copper-binding mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase and reduced ATP levels, despite enhanced glycolysis, which was not accompanied by increased invasiveness of tumors. The antiproliferative effect of copper chelation was enhanced when combined with inhibitors of glycolysis. Interestingly, larger tumors contained less copper than smaller tumors and exhibited comparatively lower activity of cytochrome c oxidase and increased glucose uptake. These results establish copper as a tumor promoter and reveal that varying levels of copper serves to regulate oxidative phosphorylation in rapidly proliferating cancer cells inside solid tumors. Thus, activation of glycolysis in tumors may in part reflect insufficient copper bioavailability in the tumor microenvironment.

  19. Density functional theory study of sulfur tolerance of copper: New copper-sulfur phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Bai, Kewu; Kulish, Vadym V.; Wu, Ping; Chen, Zhong

    2012-04-01

    We study two possible mechanisms of sulfur (S) poisoning of copper (Cu) surfaces: S adsorption and formation of Cu-S compounds. Based on the performed calculations, we predict new Cu-S phase diagram that not only describes the formation of Cu-S compounds but also predicts a dependence of the transition temperature between clean and contaminated Cu surfaces on partial pressure ratio of H2 and H2S (PH2/PH2S). Since conditions under which sulfur sorbs and desorbs at Cu surfaces cannot be predicted directly from the classical thermodynamic database, our study enhances current understanding of Cu-S interaction and mechanisms of S poisoning of Cu-based catalysts.

  20. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  1. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity.

  2. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  3. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  4. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  5. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities.

  6. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  7. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome. PMID:24592666

  8. CO hydrogenation on nickel-based catalysts: Effects of copper addition

    SciTech Connect

    Agnelli, M.; Mirodatos, C.

    2000-05-15

    The effect of copper addition on the catalytic properties of silica-supported nickel catalysts for the reaction of CO hydrogenation in the temperature range of 200--500 C has been investigated. Different effects, positive or negative, depending on the temperature and the copper content, are described and explained. At low temperature (230 C), the addition of low copper content prevents the loss of the active surface by sintering without inhibiting the rate of CO hydrogenation too much. At high temperatures (450 C), high copper content is necessary to limit the accumulation of poisonous carbon products, but at the expense of CO conversion. On the basis of the various kinetic and morphologic effects of copper addition, an advanced description of the CO hydrogenation mechanism is also provided, assuming an active site formed by 2--3 adjacent Ni atoms, whatever the temperature or the copper content may be.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  11. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  12. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  13. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  14. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  15. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  16. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  17. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  18. The spectrum of cutaneous and internal malignancies in chronic arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wong, S T; Chan, H L; Teo, S K

    1998-04-01

    We report 3 patients of chronic arsenic poisoning with characteristic skin changes. All 3 patients had a past history of asthma and were treated with Traditional Chinese Medication. We believe that the Chinese medications were the source of arsenic poisoning. Two of the 3 patients also had internal malignancy. The association of arsenic with internal malignancy is reviewed.

  19. Recognition and management of acute pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William M; Schuman, Stanley H

    2002-04-15

    Most poisonings from pesticides do not have a specific antidote, making decontamination the most important intervention. For maximal benefit to the patient, skin, eye, and gastric decontamination should be undertaken while specifics of the poisoning are being determined. As in most illnesses and injuries, the history of the poisoning is of great importance and will determine specific needs for decontamination and therapy, if any exist. Protection of health care workers during the decontamination process is important and frequently overlooked. Skin decontamination is primarily accomplished with large volumes of water, soap, and shampoo. Gastric decontamination by lavage is indicated if ingestion of the poisoning has occurred within 60 minutes of patient presentation. Activated charcoal, combined with a cathartic, is also indicated in most poisonings presenting within 60 minutes of ingestion. With large volume ingestion poisonings, activated charcoal may be used after 60 minutes, but little data exist to support this practice. Syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended for routine use. The cholinergic syndrome "all faucets on" characterizes poisoning by organophosphates and carbamates. Organochlorine insecticides (lindane and other treatments for scabies and lice) can produce seizures with excessive use or use on large areas of nonintact skin. Non-dipyridyl herbicides, biocides (including pyrethrins, pyrethroids, and Bacillus thuringiensis) rarely produce anything other than mild skin, eye, and/or gastrointestinal irritation on topical exposure or ingestion.

  20. [Descriptive epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Yamaura, Y

    1992-02-01

    The Incidence of mushroom poisoning was surveyed statistically from 1959 to 1988 in Japan. The results are summarized as follows: 1. During the past three decades, the total number of incidents of mushroom poisoning was 2,096, which involved 10,924 patients and 72 deaths. The average number of incidents was 70 cases per year, involving 364 patients and 2.4 deaths, and the number of incidents decreased gradually every year. Mushroom poisoning usually happened most frequently in September and October. 2. Considering regional differences, the incidence of mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan than in the southwestern part. The incidences of mushroom poisoning in the prefectures of Nagano, Hokkaido, Niigata, Iwate and Fukushima were relatively high. 3. Three species of mushrooms, L. japonicus, R. rhodopolius (R. sinuatus) and T. ustale caused the majority of all poisonings. 4. The rates of total patients and fatalities for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to the symptoms caused, were 90.3% and 10.7% in the type with cholera-like symptoms, 90.2% and 0.2% in that with gastro-intestinal irritation, and 74.1% and 0% in that with neurological symptoms, respectively. PMID:1556831

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-01-01

    Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation.

  2. Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning. PMID:24991620

  3. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'. PMID:25987217

  4. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'.

  5. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./ Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997, Volume 4, Part 8 - Neutron Poison Plates in Assemblies Containing Homogeneous Mixtures of Polystyrene-Moderated Plutonium and Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the 1970s at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a series of critical experiments using a remotely operated Split-Table Machine was performed with homogeneous mixtures of (Pu-U)O{sub 2}-polystyrene fuels in the form of square compacts having different heights. The experiments determined the critical geometric configurations of MOX fuel assemblies with and without neutron poison plates. With respect to PuO{sub 2} content and moderation [H/(Pu+U)atomic] ratio (MR), two different homogeneous (Pu-U) O{sub 2}-polystyrene mixtures were considered: Mixture (1) 14.62 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 30.6 MR, and Mixture (2) 30.3 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 2.8 MR. In all mixtures, the uranium was depleted to about O.151 wt% U{sup 235}. Assemblies contained copper, copper-cadmium or aluminum neutron poison plates having thicknesses up to {approximately}2.5 cm. This evaluation contains 22 experiments for Mixture 1, and 10 for Mixture 2 compacts. For Mixture 1, there are 10 configurations with copper plates, 6 with aluminum, and 5 with copper-cadmium. One experiment contained no poison plate. For Mixture 2 compacts, there are 3 configurations with copper, 3 with aluminum, and 3 with copper-cadmium poison plates. One experiment contained no poison plate.

  6. [Copper and copper alloys. Technology updates].

    PubMed

    Loconsolo, V; Crespi, M

    2012-01-01

    The correlations between copper and copper alloys and human health have been the subject of some recent and extensive scientific researches. The voluntary risks evaluation, which anticipated the EU REACH Directive application, has shown that copper is a "safe" product for human health and for environment. In addition, it could be of great help thanks to its antibacterial properties. Copper tube can contribute in a relevant way to the prevention of water systems pollution by Legionella. Also the spreading of nosocomial infections is significantly contrasted by the use of copper and copper alloys for the production of articles intended for being frequently touched by people. The Environmental Protection Agency of the United States has in fact "registered" as antibacterial over 350 of copper alloys. PMID:23213799

  7. Five cases of arsine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H; Chan, M O; Goh, C H; Edmondson, R P; Kwek, Y K; Gan, S L; Ngui, S J; Kwok, S F

    1984-04-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent haemolytic agents found in industry. Four workers presented with abdominal pain, jaundice and passing tea-coloured urine. A fifth worker also passed dark urine but had no other symptoms. Investigation revealed that all five workers were from a tin smelting plant where they were involved in mixing tin ore with dross. They were exposed to arsine gas after mixing a particularly large quantity of dross with tin ore which was wet because of rain. Three of the cases developed renal impairment and also a mild sensory neuropathy. All survived with proper management in hospital which included exchange blood transfusions, and peritoneal dialysis where indicated. Prevention of such poisoning includes keeping dross away from all moisture, good ventilation in work areas, and adding dross directly to the furnace.

  8. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  9. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  10. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  11. Childhood poisoning: the scope for prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y

    1998-12-01

    Many deaths and disabling sequelae in children following poisoning could be prevented if more attention were given to implementing preventive measures at home. Medications and chemicals should always be safely packed and stored. Education on which products are highly dangerous and the giving of precautionary advice to parents would also help to reduce the incidence of childhood poisoning. In Hong Kong, imported vegetables (contaminated by methamidophos) and coral reef fish (containing ciguatoxins) cause poisoning in both children and adults. Advice on preventive measures should be given to the public.

  12. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides.

  13. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism: a challenge for diagnosis and prevention].

    PubMed

    Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning.

  14. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism: a challenge for diagnosis and prevention].

    PubMed

    Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning. PMID:19809771

  15. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and chronic occupational arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, D; Hamada, T; Mochida, K; Nakagawa, K; Kobayashi, H; Ishii, M

    1998-08-01

    We diagnosed a unique case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) coexisting with Bowen's disease on the sole of the foot of a 72-year-old man who had worked for about 4 years in a factory handling inorganic arsenic. He had a past history of arsenical keratosis and multiple Bowen's disease. The tumour first appeared as a reddish macule and then showed marked growth over the next month. The tumour was excised and the specimen was examined histopathologically. The tumour consisted of two components: a group of atypical cells representing Bowen's disease in the epidermis and another group of atypical cells with a trabecular pattern characteristic of MCC in the dermis. Neither group of cells showed transitional findings, and the tumour elements were divided by a clear basement membrane. The tumour cells in the dermis were positive for neurone-specific enolase, and on electron microscopy had dense core granules in the cytoplasm. Inorganic arsenic can cause various cutaneous neoplasms, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of MCC associated with Bowen's disease.

  17. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

  18. Poison oak rash on the arm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... appearance of poison oak dermatitis. Note the typical linear streaks produced either by scratching or brushing against the plant. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  19. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  20. Clinical manifestations of tansy ragwort poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pearson, E G

    1977-05-01

    The clinical signs of tansy ragwort poisoning are variable and in 5 cases included diarrhea, tenesmus, ascites, bloody feces, icterus, paresis, CNS involvement, rectal prolapse, poor appetite and weight loss. It is thus apparent that the disease can be confused clinically with many others, and tansy ragwort poisoning should be considered in animals exhibiting ascites, diarrhea and rectal prolapse. Several cases of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) poisoning occurring from 1969 to 1976 are reported to illustrate the numerous clinical pictures that might confront a practitioner. The disease is sporadic in this area. The poisonous principles in tansy ragwort are pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which cause gradual alteration and necrosis of liver cells with replacement by fibrous tissue. The development of signs in all of these cases could be attributed to failure of one or more liver functions.