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Sample records for chronic exertional compartment

  1. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity.

  2. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

  3. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in adductor pollicis muscle: case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Yee-Suk; Chung, Ung-Seo

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the adductor pollicis that was confirmed by measuring elevated compartment pressure. Specific finding of magnetic resonance imaging, increased T2 signal intensity in the involved compartment, was also useful for the diagnosis. Pain was relieved by fasciotomy through a volar approach. PMID:23040640

  4. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment. PMID:26538766

  5. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  6. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome after minor injury to the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Tubb, C C; Vermillion, D

    2001-04-01

    Since the 1950s, chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg has been thoroughly reported in the literature. The predisposing factors and pathophysiology of this condition, however, still are not fully understood. We present a case of a well-conditioned individual who developed a chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the left lower leg anterior compartment after a direct blow injury during a softball game. Trauma is not routinely implicated as a risk factor for chronic compartment syndrome, and the literature on this topic is scarce. We suggest that trauma, even low-velocity trauma, may precipitate a chronic exertional compartment syndrome. We review the literature regarding chronic exertional compartment syndromes preceded by trauma and offer explanations regarding the mechanisms by which a traumatic event may induce a chronic compartment syndrome.

  7. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg in the military.

    PubMed

    Dunn, John C; Waterman, Brian R

    2014-10-01

    CECS is a common source of lower extremity disability among young athletic cohorts and military personnel. The five cardinal symptoms are pain, tightness, cramps, weakness, and diminished sensation. History and clinical examination remain the hallmarks for identifying CECS, although ICP measurements during exercise stress testing may be used to confirm diagnosis. Nonsurgical management is generally unsuccessful, although gait retraining may have benefits in selected individuals. When conservative measures have failed, operative management may be considered with fascial release of all affected compartments. Although clinical success has been documented in civilian cohorts, the results of surgical treatment in military service members have been far less reliable. Only approximately half of the military service members experience complete resolution of symptoms and at least 25% are unable to return to full duty. PMID:25280617

  8. Motorcycle racer with unilateral forearm flexor and extensor chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winkes, Michiel B; Teijink, Joep A; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a case of a 26-year-old man, a motorcycle racer, who presented with progressive pain, weakness and swelling of his right forearm and loss of power in his index finger, experienced during motor racing. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of both flexor and extensor compartments of his forearm was diagnosed by dynamic intracompartmental muscle pressure measurements. After fasciotomies, all symptoms were resolved and the patient was able to improve on his preinjury racing skills, without any limitations. A literature review and a surgical 'how-to' for correct release of the extensor and deep flexor compartments of the forearm are provided. PMID:27080851

  9. Exertional compartment syndromes of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Schepsis, A A; Lynch, G

    1996-03-01

    Compartment syndromes may be acute or chronic secondary to exertion or exercise. The chronic or exertional type most commonly involves the lower extremity, particularly the anterior compartment of the lower leg, and is the subject of this review. Rarely, an exertional compartment syndrome may become acute. The diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and compartment pressure measurements. The differential diagnosis of exertional leg pain includes stress fractures, stress reaction, periostitis, claudication, popliteal artery entrapment, and peripheral nerve entrapment. Unusual causes, such as a ganglion of the proximal tibiofibular joint causing an anterior compartment syndrome, have recently been reported.

  10. POST‐SURGICAL REHABILITATION FOLLOWING FASCIOTOMIES FOR BILATERAL CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN A SPECIAL FORCES SOLDIER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The etiology of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS) is still unclear. The most commonly accepted theory suggests that it is a transient but debilitating process where there is an abnormally increased intracompartmental pressure during exercise/exertion due to non‐compliant expansion of the osteofascial tissues. This most commonly occurs in the lower leg. Surgical intervention is often performed for symptom relief. However, there has been limited scientifically‐based publication on post‐surgical rehabilitation, especially with regard to return to function in the military population. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the utilization of a recommended post‐operative protocol in a Special Forces Soldier. Case Description: The subject presented as a 25‐year‐old US Army Special Forces Soldier, who failed 8 weeks of conservative management for the diagnosis of CECS and subsequently underwent bilateral lower leg fasciotomies of the anterior and lateral compartments. Outcomes: Following recommended protocol guidelines he was progressed rapidly and within three months deployed without restriction or complications in a demanding combat zone. Discussion: This case report illustrates that following clearly defined, scientifically‐based rehabilitation guidelines helped in addressing all of the involved structures and musculoskeletal dysfunctions that presented following the surgical intervention for CECS in a unique subject. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175149

  11. Unrecognized acute exertional compartment syndrome of the leg and treatment.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Nebojsa; Bottoni, Craig; Cassidy, Charles

    2011-04-01

    Acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome is rare and may be easily missed without a high degree of awareness and clinical suspicion. We report a case of unrecognized acute-on-chronic exertional compartment syndrome in a recreational soccer player. The late sequela of this condition, foot drop, was successfully treated with transfer of the peroneus longus tendon.

  12. Exertional compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Botte, M J; Fronek, J; Pedowitz, R A; Hoenecke, H R; Abrams, R A; Hamer, M L

    1998-08-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome is characterized by intracompartmental pressures that rise transiently following repetitive motion or exercise, thereby producing temporary, reversible ischemia, pain, weakness, and, occasionally, neurologic deficits. The exact cause or pathogenesis remains unclear; a disturbance of microvascular flow caused by elevated intramuscular pressure leads to tissue ischemia, depletion of high-energy phosphate stores, and cellular acidosis. Anatomic contributing factors may include a limited compartment size, increased intracompartmental volume, constricted fascia, loss of compartment elasticity, poor venous return, or increased muscle bulk. The diagnosis is suspected based on history and confirmed with physical examination and intramuscular pressure evaluation before and after exercise (stress test). Differential diagnosis includes claudication or other vascular abnormalities, myositis, tendinitis, periostitis, chronic strains or sprains, stress fracture, other compression or systemic neuropathies, and cardiac abnormalities with angina or referred extremity pain. Initial treatment includes activity modification; refractory symptoms can be managed with elective fasciotomy.

  13. Acute exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot.

    PubMed

    Blacklidge, D K; Kurek, J B; Soto, A D; Kissel, C G

    1996-01-01

    A review of compartment syndrome, both acute and chronic, is presented. The pathophysiology, anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment are presented in relation to a unique case report. The case is one of acute exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot treated by fasciotomy. This condition is uncommon in both its nature and location.

  14. The Effectiveness of a 6-Week Intervention Program Aimed at Modifying Running Style in Patients With Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Helmhout, Pieter H.; Diebal, Angela R.; van der Kaaden, Lisanne; Harts, Chris C.; Beutler, Anthony; Zimmermann, Wes O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported on the promising effects of changing running style in patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) using a 6-week training program aimed at adopting a forefoot strike technique. This study expands that work by comparing a 6-week in-house, center-based run training program with a less extensive, supervised, home-based run training program (50% home training). Hypothesis: An alteration in running technique will lead to improvements in CECS complaints and running performance, with the less supervised program producing less dramatic results. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Nineteen patients with CECS were prospectively enrolled. Postrunning intracompartmental pressure (ICP), run performance, and self-reported questionnaires were taken for all patients at baseline and after 6 weeks of running intervention. Questionnaires were also taken from 14 patients (7 center-based, 6 home-based) 4 months posttreatment. Results: Significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention rates was found for running distance (43%), ICP values (36%), and scores on the questionnaires Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE; 36%), Lower Leg Outcome Survey (LLOS; 18%), and Patient Specific Complaints (PSC; 60%). The mean posttreatment score on the Global Rating of Change (GROC) was between +4 and +5 (“somewhat better” to “moderately better”). In 14 participants (74%), no elevation of pain was reported posttreatment, compared with 3 participants (16%) at baseline; in all these cases, the running test was aborted because of a lack of cardiorespiratory fitness. Self-reported scores continued to improve 4 months after the end of the intervention program, with mean improvement rates of 48% (SANE), 26% (LLOS), and 81% (PSC). The mean GROC score improved to +6 points (“a great deal better”). Conclusion: In 19 patients diagnosed with CECS, a 6-week forefoot running intervention performed

  15. Time-dependent diffusion in skeletal muscle with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM): Application to normal controls and chronic exertional compartment syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Eric E.; Novikov, Dmitry S.; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Babb, James S.; Liu, Kecheng; Feiweier, Thorsten; Kwon, Jane; Mcgorty, KellyAnne; Bencardino, Jenny; Fieremans, Els

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To collect diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at multiple diffusion times Td in skeletal muscle in normal subjects and chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) patients and analyze the data with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM) for biophysical specificity. Materials and Methods Using an IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant protocol, seven patients with clinical suspicion of CECS and eight healthy volunteers underwent DTI of the calf muscle in a Siemens MAGNETOM Verio 3-T scanner at rest and after treadmill exertion at 4 different diffusion times. Radial diffusion values λrad were computed for each of 7 different muscle compartments and analyzed with RPBM to produce estimates of free diffusivity D0, fiber diameter a, and permeability κ. Fiber diameter estimates were compared with measurements from literature autopsy reference for several compartments. Response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) were computed and compared between normal controls and CECS patients using a mixed-model two-way analysis of variance. Results All subjects and muscle compartments showed nearly time-independent diffusion along and strongly time-dependent diffusion transverse to the muscle fibers. RPBM estimates of fiber diameter correlated well with corresponding autopsy reference. D0 showed significant (p<0.05) increases with exercise for volunteers, and a increased significantly (p<0.05) in volunteers. At the group level, response factors of all three parameters showed trends differentiating controls from CECS patients, with patients showing smaller diameter changes (p=0.07), and larger permeability increases (p=0.07) than controls. Conclusions Time-dependent diffusion measurements combined with appropriate tissue modeling can provide enhanced microstructural specificity for in vivo tissue characterization. In CECS patients, our results suggest that high-pressure interfiber edema elevates free diffusion and restricts exercise-induced fiber dilation. Such specificity may be

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in elite rowers: a technique for mini-open fasciotomy and a report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John W K; Thomas, Philip; Aster, Asir; Wilkes, Graeme; Hayton, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm may occur in sports requiring prolonged grip strength. CECS is a function of increasing pressure following muscle expansion within an inelastic tissue envelope resulting in compromise of perfusion and tissue function. Typical symptoms are pain, distal paraesthesia and loss of function. The condition is self-limiting and resolves completely between periods of activity. With no effective medical treatment, the gold standard remains four compartment open fasciotomy (Söderberg, J Bone Joint Surg Br 78(5):780-2, 1996; Wasilewski and Asdourian, Am J Sports Med 19(6):665-7, 1991). Minimally invasive techniques have been described (Croutzet et al., Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg 13(3):137-40, 2009) but have a risk of neuro-vascular injury, especially to the ulnar nerve while releasing the deep flexor compartment. We present a safe technique used with six elite rowers for mini-open fasciotomy to minimise scarring and time away from training while reducing the risk of neurovascular injury. PMID:24426965

  17. Time-dependent diffusion in skeletal muscle with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM): application to normal controls and chronic exertional compartment syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Eric E; Novikov, Dmitry S; Sui, Dabang; Ukpebor, Obehi; Baete, Steven; Babb, James S; Liu, Kecheng; Feiweier, Thorsten; Kwon, Jane; McGorty, Kellyanne; Bencardino, Jenny; Fieremans, Els

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to carry out diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at multiple diffusion times Td in skeletal muscle in normal subjects and chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) patients and analyze the data with the random permeable barrier model (RPBM) for biophysical specificity. Using an institutional review board approved HIPAA-compliant protocol, seven patients with clinical suspicion of CECS and eight healthy volunteers underwent DTI of the calf muscle in a Siemens MAGNETOM Verio 3 T scanner at rest and after treadmill exertion at four different T(d) values. Radial diffusion values λ(rad) were computed for each of seven different muscle compartments and analyzed with RPBM to produce estimates of free diffusivity D(0), fiber diameter a, and permeability κ. Fiber diameter estimates were compared with measurements from literature autopsy reference for several compartments. Response factors (post/pre-exercise ratios) were computed and compared between normal controls and CECS patients using a mixed-model two-way analysis of variance. All subjects and muscle compartments showed nearly time-independent diffusion along and strongly time-dependent diffusion transverse to the muscle fibers. RPBM estimates of fiber diameter correlated well with corresponding autopsy reference. D(0) showed significant (p < 0.05) increases with exercise for volunteers, and a increased significantly (p < 0.05) in volunteers. At the group level, response factors of all three parameters showed trends differentiating controls from CECS patients, with patients showing smaller diameter changes (p = 0.07), and larger permeability increases (p = 0.07) than controls. Time-dependent diffusion measurements combined with appropriate tissue modeling can provide enhanced microstructural specificity for in vivo tissue characterization. In CECS patients, our results suggest that high-pressure interfiber edema elevates free diffusion and restricts exercise

  18. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  19. Chronic compartment syndrome: diagnosis, management, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E; Sharpe, K; Sufit, R L; Girdley, F M

    1985-01-01

    A consecutive operative series of 100 patients with chronic compartment syndrome involving 233 compartments is reported. Seven of every eight were athletes, and runners predominated. Exercise-induced symptoms of consistently recurring tightness, aching (in some, sharp pains) in anatomically defined compartments were pathognomonic. Mean months of symptoms prior to operation was 22; median age was 26 years. Bilaterality occurred in 82. The distribution of compartments was: anterior, 39%; lateral, 12%; and posterior, 48%. Incidental compartment pressures were elevated (mean = 23 mmHg). Fasciotomy using local anesthesia was performed on 70 outpatients. At a median of 4.5 months, over 90% were cured or significantly improved in symptoms and/or function. Median time to walking unassisted was 2 days, and to resumption of conditioned running 21 days. Fasciotomy can be a safe, effective, and economical treatment for chronic compartment syndrome.

  20. Exertional compartment syndrome in covert mild hemophilia. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tountas, C P; Ferris, F O; Cobb, S W

    1992-07-01

    A 37-year-old white male experienced unexpected postoperative bleeding after fasciotomy and decompression for left pronator and compartment syndromes of the forearm. He was subsequently diagnosed with a mild form of hemophilia A. One year later, surgery was required for right pronator and compartment syndromes. Pre- and postoperative cryoprecipitate infusions controlled bleeding following the second operation until the patient discontinued his infusions, resulting in a wound hematoma. Covert mild hemophilia is implicated in the pathogenesis of his compartment syndromes.

  1. Overuse injuries of the lower extremity: shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jones, D C; James, S L

    1987-04-01

    The authors' discussion of overuse injuries of the lower extremity encompasses shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are considered for each disorder.

  2. Acute exertional medial compartment syndrome of the foot after playing basketball.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lauchlan; Hame, Sharon L; Levine, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot is an uncommon event. The most common cause of compartment syndrome of the foot is a crush injury. Exceedingly rare is acute compartment syndrome of the foot occurring in the absence of trauma. We describe the clinical scenario involving a 23-year-old healthy male who developed acute exertional compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after playing basketball. The patient had no evidence of injury nor trauma, and the diagnosis was made based on physical exam, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compartment pressure measurements. The patient did undergo successful fasciotomy on the day of presentation to the emergency department and has since completely recovered. We found four cases reported in the literature of acute exertional medial compartment syndrome of the foot in the absence of trauma or injury. This is the second case reported after playing basketball, while the others occurred after aerobics, a long distance run, and football. The most recent case was reported by Miozzari et al. [Am J Sports Med. 36(5):983-6, 2008] and involved a marathon runner who developed an isolated medial compartment syndrome of the foot. We would like to increase awareness of this uncommon clinical presentation in the absence of trauma and present the dramatic radiographic findings.

  3. Acute and chronic compartment syndromes: know when to act fast.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Heard, Hank; Kelham, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Compartment syndrome is a fairly common condition noted in patients with fractures or crush injuries to the extremities (acute compartment syndrome) and in athletes (chronic compartment syndrome). Compartments bound by fascia are found in the extremities, buttocks, and abdomen; conditions that cause intracompartmental swelling and hypertension can lead to ischemia and limb loss. This article reviews diagnosis of the problem, monitoring of compartment pressure, and appropriate treatment.

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

  5. Lower extremity compartment syndrome. When to suspect acute or chronic pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Swain, R; Ross, D

    1999-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. A high index of suspicion is needed in cases of severe contusion, especially if patient complaints seem to outweigh physical findings. Acute surgical fasciotomy is an effective treatment and should be carried out expeditiously if compartment pressures are elevated over 70 mm Hg in order to avoid complications such as chronic disability due to contractures or rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome most often occurs in the anterior or the lateral compartment. Patients have only exercise-related symptoms and recover quickly after resting from the inciting activity. Diagnosis is difficult, but the anterior compartment pressure may be checked fairly readily with a handheld pressure catheter. Deep posterior compartment problems are harder to check because of the difficulty in reaching this area. Thallium stress testing appears promising for diagnosing both anterior and posterior problems and may augment, or even replace, the catheter measurement in the deep posterior and perhaps even the anterior compartment. Thallium stress testing is noninvasive and may be a more physiologic measurement. Fasciotomy may be indicated if conservative treatment lacks efficacy. For unknown reasons, the deep posterior compartment does not respond as quickly, or as well, to fasciotomy as the anterior compartment.

  6. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios. PMID:25361367

  7. Acute pediatric leg compartment syndrome in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric; Truntzer, Jeremy; Trunzter, Jeremy; Klinge, Steve; Schwartz, Kevin; Schiller, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is an orthopedic surgical emergency and may result in devastating complications in the setting of delayed or missed diagnosis. Compartment syndrome has a variety of causes, including posttraumatic or postoperative swelling, external compression, burns, bleeding disorders, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rare cases of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in the setting of acute myeloid leukemia and, even less commonly, chronic myeloid leukemia have been reported. The authors report the first known case of pediatric acute compartment syndrome in a patient without a previously known diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. On initial examination, an 11-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of progressive left calf pain and swelling after playing soccer. Magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a hematoma in the left superficial posterior compartment. The patient had unrelenting pain, intermittent lateral foot parethesias, and inability to bear weight. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome and underwent fasciotomy and evacuation of a hematoma. Laboratory results showed an abnormal white blood cell count of 440×10(9)/L (normal, 4.4-11×10(9)) and international normalized ratio of 1.3 (normal, 0.8-1.2). Further testing included the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene located on the Philadelphia chromosome, leading to a diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Monotherapy with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) was initiated. This report adds another unique case to the growing literature on compartment syndrome in the pediatric population and reinforces the need to consider compartment syndrome, even in unlikely clinical scenarios.

  8. Exertional compartment syndrome of the thigh: a rare diagnosis and literature review.

    PubMed

    King, Timothy W; Lerman, Oren Z; Carter, Joseph J; Warren, Stephen M

    2010-08-01

    Exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is an uncommon entity. We present a rare case of bilateral exercise-induced three-compartment syndrome of the thighs that required fasciotomies. The objective of this study was to understand the history, physical examination, signs, symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. A 42-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) complaining of worsening pain and swelling in both thighs 45 h after performing a lower extremity exercise regimen. The patient's thighs were tender and swollen, but there was no ecchymosis or evidence of trauma. Admitting serum creatinine kinase (CK) was 106,289 U/L. Treatment for rhabdomyolysis was initiated. The next day, he complained of escalating bilateral thigh pain. Repeat serum CK was 346,580 U/L. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral thigh compartment syndrome and immediately taken to the operating room for fasciotomies. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly and his serum CK quickly returned to normal. His incisions were closed and he returned to normal activities of daily living. Because exercise-induced compartment syndrome is an extremely rare diagnosis with a high risk of poor outcome, this article serves to emphasize the importance of considering this diagnosis during the work-up of patients presenting to the ED with rhabdomyolysis.

  9. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  10. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome versus Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle; Vernon, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine has recommended a change in the name and criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), renaming the illness Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). The new SEID case definition requires substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre-illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, post-exertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Purpose In the current study, samples were generated through several different methods and were used to compare this new case definition to previous case definitions for CFS, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME-ICC), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), as well as a case definition developed through empirical methods. Methods We used a cross-sectional design with samples from tertiary care settings, a biobank sample, and other forums. 796 patients from the US, Great Britain, and Norway completed the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire. Results Findings indicated that the SEID criteria identified 88% of participants in the samples analyzed, which is comparable to the 92% that met the Fukuda criteria. The SEID case definition was compared to a four item empiric criteria, and findings indicated that the four item empiric criteria identified a smaller, more functionally limited and symptomatic group of patients. Conclusion The recently developed SEID criteria appears to identify a group comparable in size to the Fukuda et al. criteria, but a larger group of patients than the Canadian ME/CFS and ME criteria, and selects more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than a four item empiric criteria. PMID:26345409

  11. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  12. Exertional Leg Pain.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-02-01

    Exertional leg pain is a common condition seen in runners and the general population. Given the broad differential diagnosis of this complaint, this article focuses on the incidence, anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of common causes that include medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial bone stress injury, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, arterial endofibrosis, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, and entrapment of the common peroneal, superficial peroneal, and saphenous nerves. Successful diagnosis of these conditions hinges on performing a thorough history and physical examination followed by proper diagnostic testing and appropriate management. PMID:26616179

  13. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

  14. Exertional dyspnoea in chronic heart failure: the role of the lung and respiratory mechanical factors.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2016-09-01

    Exertional dyspnoea is among the dominant symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure and progresses relentlessly as the disease advances, leading to reduced ability to function and engage in activities of daily living. Effective management of this disabling symptom awaits a better understanding of its underlying physiology.Cardiovascular factors are believed to play a major role in dyspnoea in heart failure patients. However, despite pharmacological interventions, such as vasodilators or inotropes that improve central haemodynamics, patients with heart failure still complain of exertional dyspnoea. Clearly, dyspnoea is not determined by cardiac factors alone, but likely depends on complex, integrated cardio-pulmonary interactions.A growing body of evidence suggests that excessively increased ventilatory demand and abnormal "restrictive" constraints on tidal volume expansion with development of critical mechanical limitation of ventilation, contribute to exertional dyspnoea in heart failure. This article will offer new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with chronic heart failure by exploring the potential role of the various constituents of the physiological response to exercise and particularly the role of abnormal ventilatory and respiratory mechanics responses to exercise in the perception of dyspnoea in patients with heart failure. PMID:27581831

  15. Tianeptine exerts neuroprotective effects in the brain tissue of rats exposed to the chronic stress model.

    PubMed

    Della, Franciela P; Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Antunes, Altamir R; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Zappelinni, Giovanni; Steckert, Amanda V; Vuolo, Francieli; Galant, Letícia S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2012-12-01

    Animal models of chronic stress represent valuable tools by which to investigate the behavioral, endocrine and neurobiological changes underlying stress-related psychopathologies, such as major depression, and the efficacy of antidepressant therapies. The present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical effects of the antidepressant tianeptine in rats exposed to the chronic stress model. To this aim, rats were subjected to 40days of chronic unpredictable stressful stimuli, after which the animals received saline or tianeptine (15mg/kg) once a day for 7days. Additionally, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α levels and oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC), amygdala (AMY) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in all of the experimental groups studied. The results indicated that chronic mild stress and tianeptine did not exercise any effects on cytokines in all of the structures studied; in the PFC and AMY thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were decreased in control rats treated with tianeptine in the HPC; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found to have decreased in stressed rats treated with saline in the PFC, HPC, AMY and NAc, and tianeptine reversed this effect; catalase (CAT) activity was found to have decreased in the PFC, HPC and NAc of stressed rats treated with saline, but was shown to have increased in stressed rats treated with tianeptine, and tianeptine also reversed the decreases in CAT activity in stressed rats treated with saline, suggesting that tianeptine exerted antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the present findings open new vistas on the pharmacological activity of tianeptine, in particular, concerning its ability to attenuate oxidative stress.

  16. Tianeptine exerts neuroprotective effects in the brain tissue of rats exposed to the chronic stress model.

    PubMed

    Della, Franciela P; Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Antunes, Altamir R; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Zappelinni, Giovanni; Steckert, Amanda V; Vuolo, Francieli; Galant, Letícia S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2012-12-01

    Animal models of chronic stress represent valuable tools by which to investigate the behavioral, endocrine and neurobiological changes underlying stress-related psychopathologies, such as major depression, and the efficacy of antidepressant therapies. The present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical effects of the antidepressant tianeptine in rats exposed to the chronic stress model. To this aim, rats were subjected to 40days of chronic unpredictable stressful stimuli, after which the animals received saline or tianeptine (15mg/kg) once a day for 7days. Additionally, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α levels and oxidative stress parameters were assessed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC), amygdala (AMY) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in all of the experimental groups studied. The results indicated that chronic mild stress and tianeptine did not exercise any effects on cytokines in all of the structures studied; in the PFC and AMY thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were decreased in control rats treated with tianeptine in the HPC; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found to have decreased in stressed rats treated with saline in the PFC, HPC, AMY and NAc, and tianeptine reversed this effect; catalase (CAT) activity was found to have decreased in the PFC, HPC and NAc of stressed rats treated with saline, but was shown to have increased in stressed rats treated with tianeptine, and tianeptine also reversed the decreases in CAT activity in stressed rats treated with saline, suggesting that tianeptine exerted antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the present findings open new vistas on the pharmacological activity of tianeptine, in particular, concerning its ability to attenuate oxidative stress. PMID:23036485

  17. Chronic compartment syndrome of the lower leg: a new diagnostic method using near-infrared spectroscopy and a new technique of endoscopic fasciotomy.

    PubMed

    Ota, Y; Senda, M; Hashizume, H; Inoue, H

    1999-05-01

    A 19-year-old female basketball player had chronic compartment syndrome. During basketball playing, she complained of bilateral lower leg pain that disappeared after several minutes of rest. The intracompartmental pressure in the anterior compartment was 41 mm Hg on the right side and 29 mm Hg on the left side immediately after playing. Prolonged ischemia of the anterior compartment was observed in comparison with four normal controls using near-infrared spectroscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging also revealed that the anterior compartment was mainly affected. Endoscopic fasciotomy was performed using an arthroscope, a transparent outer tube, and a retrograde blade. After the operation, her symptoms disappeared. Three months postoperatively, the anterior compartment pressure decreased and prolonged tissue ischemia improved. Endoscopic fasciotomy allowed us to cut the fascia safely and less invasively. We concluded that this technique is useful in treating chronic compartment syndrome in the anterior compartment of the lower leg.

  18. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Amanda Blanski; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation.

  19. Inter- and intra-patient clonal and subclonal heterogeneity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: evidences from circulating and lymph nodal compartments.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Ilaria; Marinelli, Marilisa; Wang, Jiguang; Bonina, Silvia; Messina, Monica; Chiaretti, Sabina; Ilari, Caterina; Cafforio, Luciana; Raponi, Sara; Mauro, Francesca R; Di Maio, Valeria; De Propris, Maria S; Nanni, Mauro; Ciardullo, Carmela; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Guarini, Anna; Rabadan, Raul; Foà, Robin

    2016-02-01

    Whole exome sequencing and copy number aberration (CNA) analysis were performed on cells taken from peripheral blood (PB) and lymph nodes (LN) of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Of 64 non-silent somatic mutations, 54 (84·4%) were clonal in both compartments, 3 (4·7%) were PB-specific and 7 (10·9%) were LN-specific. Most of the LN- or PB-specific mutations were subclonal in the other corresponding compartment (variant frequency 0·5-5·3%). Of 41 CNAs, 27 (65·8%) were shared by both compartments and 7 (17·1%) were LN- or PB-specific. Overall, 6 of 9 cases (66·7%) showed genomic differences between the compartments. At subsequent relapse, Case 10, with 6 LN-specific lesions, and Case 100, with 6 LN-specific and 8 PB-specific lesions, showed, in the PB, the clonal expansion of LN-derived lesions with an adverse impact: SF3B1 mutation, BIRC3 deletion, del8(p23·3-p11·1), del9(p24·3-p13·1) and gain 2(p25·3-p14). CLL shows an intra-patient clonal heterogeneity according to the disease compartment, with both LN and PB-specific mutations/CNAs. The LN microenvironment might contribute to the clonal selection of unfavourable lesions, as LN-derived mutations/CNAs can appear in the PB at relapse.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring of tissue oxygenation of exercising skeletal muscle in a chronic compartment syndrome model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Variations in the levels of muscle hemoglobin and of myoglobin oxygen saturation can be detected non-invasively with near-infrared spectroscopy. This technique could be applied to the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome, in which invasive testing has shown increased intramuscular pressure associated with ischemia and pain during exercise. We simulated chronic compartment syndrome in ten healthy subjects (seven men and three women) by applying external compression, through a wide inflatable cuff, to increase the intramuscular pressure in the anterior compartment of the leg. The tissue oxygenation of the tibialis anterior muscle was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy during gradual inflation of the cuff to a pressure of forty millimeters of mercury (5.33 kilopascals) during fourteen minutes of cyclic isokinetic dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle. The subjects exercised with and without external compression. The data on tissue oxygenation for each subject then were normalized to a scale of 100 per cent (the baseline value, or the value at rest) to 0 per cent (the physiological minimum, or the level of oxygenation achieved by exercise to exhaustion during arterial occlusion of the lower extremity). With external compression, tissue oxygenation declined at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.3 per cent per minute (mean and standard error) during exercise. After an initial decrease at the onset, tissue oxygenation did not decline during exercise without compression. The recovery of tissue oxygenation after exercise was twice as slow with compression (2.5 +/- 0.6 minutes) than it was without the use of compression (1.3 +/- 0.2 minutes).

  1. Chronic antidepressant treatment exerts sexually dimorphic immunomodulatory effects in an experimental model of major depression: do females lack an advantage?

    PubMed

    Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Griva, Eirini; Ioannou, Kyriaki; Tsitsilonis, Ourania E; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta

    2009-10-01

    Major depression is a stress-related disorder that affects about 20% of the population, with women outnumbering men by 2:1. However, research focusing on stress/antidepressant-related immunomodulation overlooks sex differences, although an established sexual dimorphism also characterizes the immune system. We report for the first time that both chronic clomipramine treatment (10 mg/kg, twice daily) and chronic mild stress (CMS) application in rats, exert sexually dimorphic effects on cellular immunoreactivity (natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity and interleukin-2-induced T-cell proliferation), with females presenting a relatively immunosuppressed phenotype compared to males. Moreover, following chronic antidepressant treatment, thymic monoamines presented sex-related alterations, as well as intriguing associations with peripheral T-cell responses. This study highlights the sex-related effects of chronic clomipramine treatment and CMS application on the cellular arm of immunity, and represents a preliminary exposé of a thymus-dependent route pertaining to the interactions between antidepressants and the immune system.

  2. Vitexin exerts cardioprotective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via inhibiting myocardial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xia; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Junyan; Peng, Chengfeng; Zhen, Yilan; Shao, Xu; Zhang, Gongliang; Dong, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the cardioprotective effect of vitexin on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and potential mechanisms. Methods: A chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary for 60 minutes, and followed by reperfusion for 14 days. After 2 weeks ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac function was measured to assess myocardial injury. The level of ST segment was recorded in different periods by electrocardiograph. The change of left ventricular function and myocardial reaction degree of fibrosis of heart was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Sirius red staining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations due to acetylcholine were observed in isolated rat thoracic aortic ring preparation. The blood samples were collected to measure the levels of MDA, the activities of SOD and NADPH in serum. Epac1, Rap1, Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by using Western Blotting. Results: Vitexin exerted significant protective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, improved obviously left ventricular diastolic function and reduced myocardial reactive fibrosis degree in rats of myocardial ischemia. Medium and high-dose vitexin groups presented a significant decrease in Bax, Epac1 and Rap1 production and increase in Bcl-2 compared to the I/R group. It may be related to preventing myocardial cells from apoptosis, improving myocardial diastolic function and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Vitexin is a cardioprotective herb, which may be a promising useful complementary and alternative medicine for patients with coronary heart disease.

  3. Injury of the human diaphragm associated with exertion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Levi, M; Lloreta, J; Minguella, J; Serrano, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J

    2001-11-01

    Injury of the diaphragm may have clinical relevance having been reported in cases of sudden infant death syndrome or fatal asthma. However, examination of diaphragm injury after acute inspiratory loading has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an acute inspiratory overload induces injury of the human diaphragm and to determine if diaphragm from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is more susceptible to injury. Eighteen patients with COPD and 11 control patients with normal pulmonary function (62 +/- 10 yr) undergoing thoracotomy or laparotomy were studied. A threshold inspiratory loading test was performed prior to surgery in a subset of seven patients with COPD and five control patients. Samples of the costal diaphragm were obtained during surgery and processed for electron microscopy analysis. Signs of sarcomere disruption were found in all diaphragm samples. The range of values of sarcomere disruption was wide (density: 2-45 abnormal areas/100 microm(2); area fractions: 1.3-17.3%), significantly higher in diaphragm from patients with COPD (p < 0.05) and with the greatest injury after inspiratory loading. We conclude that sarcomere disruption is common in the human diaphragm, is more evident in patients with COPD, and is higher after inspiratory loading, especially in the diaphragm of those with COPD. PMID:11719318

  4. Vitexin exerts cardioprotective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via inhibiting myocardial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xia; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Junyan; Peng, Chengfeng; Zhen, Yilan; Shao, Xu; Zhang, Gongliang; Dong, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the cardioprotective effect of vitexin on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats and potential mechanisms. Methods: A chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary for 60 minutes, and followed by reperfusion for 14 days. After 2 weeks ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac function was measured to assess myocardial injury. The level of ST segment was recorded in different periods by electrocardiograph. The change of left ventricular function and myocardial reaction degree of fibrosis of heart was investigated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Sirius red staining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations due to acetylcholine were observed in isolated rat thoracic aortic ring preparation. The blood samples were collected to measure the levels of MDA, the activities of SOD and NADPH in serum. Epac1, Rap1, Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by using Western Blotting. Results: Vitexin exerted significant protective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, improved obviously left ventricular diastolic function and reduced myocardial reactive fibrosis degree in rats of myocardial ischemia. Medium and high-dose vitexin groups presented a significant decrease in Bax, Epac1 and Rap1 production and increase in Bcl-2 compared to the I/R group. It may be related to preventing myocardial cells from apoptosis, improving myocardial diastolic function and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Vitexin is a cardioprotective herb, which may be a promising useful complementary and alternative medicine for patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:27648122

  5. Acute bilateral spontaneous forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalton, David M; Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Subramaniam, Tava; McCabe, John P

    2014-01-01

    Acute spontaneous compartment syndrome of the forearm is rarely reported in the literature. It is typically associated with trauma or thromboembolism in the acute setting and repetitive exertional stress in the chronic setting. However it is rare for it to present bilaterally with no apparent underlying cause. We report the case of a young 31-year-old lady who presented to our Emergency Department with bilateral compartment syndrome of the forearm. Her presenting complaints included acute severe pain and swelling of the forearms bilaterally, with a decreased range of movement of the wrist and fingers. She also complained of numbness in all fingers. She had no history of recent trauma and ultrasound scans showed no evidence of vascular compromise. Past medical history was notable only for idiopathic hypertension and coeliac disease. The patient was taken to theatre urgently where flexor and extensor compartments and carpal tunnel were decompressed. Pronator Teres was found to be dusky initially but turned pink after decompression. All other muscles were normal. An interesting fact of this case was that combination of the high compartment pressures and anaesthetic related hypotension caused the forearm pulses to become impalpable at induction, these returned intra-operatively. The patient has been seen in the outpatient department following discharge. She is well apart from some mildly reduced grip strength in her right hand likely due to carpal tunnel decompression. No cause was found for the scenario after extensive medical investigation.

  6. Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Hislop, M; Tierney, P

    2004-09-01

    The management of musculoskeletal conditions makes up a large part of a sports medicine practitioner's practice. A thorough knowledge of anatomy is an essential component of the armament necessary to decipher the large number of potential conditions that may confront these practitioners. To cloud the issue further, anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity. There are a number of contentious areas within the literature surrounding the anatomy of the leg, particularly involving the deep posterior compartment. Conditions such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial periostitis (shin splints), peripheral nerve entrapment and tarsal tunnel syndrome may all be affected by subtle anatomical variations. This paper primarily focuses on the deep posterior compartment of the leg and uses the gross dissection of cadaveric specimens to describe definitively the anatomy of the deep posterior compartment. Variant fascial attachments of flexor digitorum longus are documented and potential clinical sequelae such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed.

  7. Quantitative assessment of the CD26+ leukemic stem cell compartment in chronic myeloid leukemia: patient-subgroups, prognostic impact, and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Culen, Martin; Borsky, Marek; Nemethova, Veronika; Razga, Filip; Smejkal, Jiri; Jurcek, Tomas; Dvorakova, Dana; Zackova, Daniela; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Semerad, Lukas; Sadovnik, Irina; Eisenwort, Gregor; Herrmann, Harald; Valent, Peter; Mayer, Jiri; Racil, Zdenek

    2016-05-31

    Little is known about the function and phenotype of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or about specific markers that discriminate LSCs from normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). CD26 has recently been described as a specific marker of CML LSCs. In the current study, we investigated this marker in a cohort of 31 unselected CML patients. BCR/ABL1 positivity was analyzed in highly enriched stem cell fractions using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The proportion of CD26+ LSCs and CD26- HSCs varied considerably among the patients analyzed, and the percentage of CD26+ cells correlated with leukocyte count. The CD26 expression robustly discriminated LSCs from HSCs. This required a strict gating of the stem cell compartment. Thus, in patients with very low LSC or HSC numbers, only the highly sensitive RT-PCR method discriminated between clonal and non-clonal cells, while a robust FISH analysis required larger numbers of cells in both compartments. Finally, our data show that the numbers of CD26+ CML LSCs correlate with responses to treatment with BCR-ABL1 inhibitors. PMID:27145281

  8. Chronic ibuprofen administration reduces neuropathic pain but does not exert neuroprotection after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Castro, Elena; Navarro, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Ibuprofen is commonly used as an anti-inflammatory analgesic drug, although it is not amongst the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Its main effects are mediated by non-specific inhibition of COX enzymes, but it also exerts some COX-independent effects, such as the inhibition of RhoA signaling and the modulation of glial activity. These effects have boosted the use of ibuprofen as a tool to promote axonal regeneration and to increase functional recovery after neural injuries, although with controversial results showing positive and negative outcomes of ibuprofen treatment in several experimental models. We have evaluated the effects of ibuprofen administered at 60 mg/kg twice a day to rats subjected to a mild spinal cord contusion. Our results indicate that ibuprofen ameliorates mechanical hyperalgesia in rats by reducing central hyperexcitability, but failed to produce improvements in the recovery of locomotion. Despite an early effect on reducing microglial reactivity, the ibuprofen treatment did not provide histological evidence of neuroprotection; indeed the volume of cord tissue spared rostral to the lesion was decreased in ibuprofen treated rats. In summary, the early modulation of neuroinflammation produced by the administration of ibuprofen seems to eventually lead to a worse resolution of detrimental events occurring in the secondary injury phase, but also to reduce the development of neuropathic pain.

  9. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  10. Statins Dose-Dependently Exert Significant Chemopreventive Effects Against Various Cancers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Ju-Chi; Kao, Pai-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Lin, Chao-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased cancer risk. We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of statins against all cancers in COPD patients and identified the statin with the strongest chemopreventive effect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012, were recruited. Each patient was followed to assess the following protective and risk factors for all cancers: age; sex; comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and the Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]); urbanization level; monthly income; and nonstatin drug use. The index date of statins use was the date of COPD confirmation. Propensity scores (PSs) were derived using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of statins by considering the covariates predicting intervention (statins) receipt. To examine the dose-response relationship, we categorized statin use into four groups in each cohort (<28 [statin nonusers], 28-90, 91-365, and >365 cumulative defined daily dose). RESULTS: After PS adjustment for age, sex, CCI, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urbanization level, and monthly income, we analyzed the all-cancer risk. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the all-cancer risk were lower among statin users than among statin nonusers (aHR = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.50). The aHRs for the all-cancer risk were lower among patients using rosuvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin than among statin nonusers (aHRs = 0.42, 0.55, 0.59, 0.66, and 0.78, respectively). Sensitivity analysis indicated that statins dose-dependently reduced the all-cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Statins dose-dependently exert a significant chemopreventive effect against various cancers in COPD patients. In particular, rosuvastatin has the strongest chemopreventive effect.

  11. Statins Dose-Dependently Exert Significant Chemopreventive Effects Against Various Cancers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Ju-Chi; Kao, Pai-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Lin, Chao-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased cancer risk. We evaluated the chemopreventive effect of statins against all cancers in COPD patients and identified the statin with the strongest chemopreventive effect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2012, were recruited. Each patient was followed to assess the following protective and risk factors for all cancers: age; sex; comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and the Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]); urbanization level; monthly income; and nonstatin drug use. The index date of statins use was the date of COPD confirmation. Propensity scores (PSs) were derived using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of statins by considering the covariates predicting intervention (statins) receipt. To examine the dose-response relationship, we categorized statin use into four groups in each cohort (<28 [statin nonusers], 28-90, 91-365, and >365 cumulative defined daily dose). RESULTS: After PS adjustment for age, sex, CCI, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urbanization level, and monthly income, we analyzed the all-cancer risk. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the all-cancer risk were lower among statin users than among statin nonusers (aHR = 0.46, 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 0.50). The aHRs for the all-cancer risk were lower among patients using rosuvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin than among statin nonusers (aHRs = 0.42, 0.55, 0.59, 0.66, and 0.78, respectively). Sensitivity analysis indicated that statins dose-dependently reduced the all-cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Statins dose-dependently exert a significant chemopreventive effect against various cancers in COPD patients. In particular, rosuvastatin has the strongest chemopreventive effect. PMID:27698930

  12. Chronic leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Starman, Jim S; Gwathmey, F Winston; Carson, Eric W; Wilder, Robert P; Diduch, David R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn. PMID:25157051

  13. Fasciotomy of the posterior femoral muscle compartment in athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Rantanen, J; Kujala, U M

    1998-01-01

    Over a period of 13 years fasciotomy was performed on 46 athletes with chronic pain located at the posterior femoral muscle compartment. The patients could be divided, according to the etiology, in two groups: exertion (26 patients) and trauma (20 patients). In the first group the symptoms appeared without any sudden trauma and most of the athletes competed in endurance sports (e.g. 16 long distance runners). In the second group there was a history of hamstring muscle rupture or recurrent injuries. The symptoms were dull pain, stiffness, cramps and weakness of the posterior thigh during and after training. Conservative treatment methods did not help to eliminate the symptoms during a long preoperative follow-up period. Posterior fasciotomy (minimum 20 cm) to the thigh was performed through one or two incisions. In four patients a simultaneous liberation, division or suturation of the muscle scar was done. The patients were followed up for 19 months and the results of the fasciotomy were good or excellent in 39 cases. Pain at the posterior thigh muscle compartment may sometimes become chronic and hamper the training of athletes. Fasciotomy seems to be an effective method to help these patients return to their previous level of sports.

  14. Overuse injuries: tendinopathies, stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

  15. Anterior compartment syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pearl, A J

    1981-01-01

    The chronic form of the anterior compartment syndrome can be overlooked if the symptoms of leg pain are attributed to shin splints. Herein is presented a case report which I feel represents an acute exacerbation of the chronic form of anterior compartment syndrome in a long-distance runner secondary to bleeding into the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Chronic anterior compartment syndrome can be a disabling injury which may require a fasciotomy, depending upon the severity and duration of the patient's symptoms and the intracompartmental pressures. The lay term "shin splints" should be separated from medical use, and a more reliable assessment of the etiology of the patient's symptoms should be made. The term shin splints should be utilized only for pain localized to the posterior medial border of the tibia at the origin of the posterior tibialis muscle.

  16. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  17. Exercise-induced compartment syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Klodell, C T; Pokorny, R; Carrillo, E H; Heniford, B T

    1996-06-01

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis is a frequent event occurring after severe forms of exercise. This is usually a short-lived, uncomplicated phenomenon that is seldom of any clinical significance. The rare progression of this muscle injury to compartment syndrome is, however, a limb- and life-threatening condition that typically presents in the anterior compartment of the lower leg. A case is reported of a young man who participated in physical activity well beyond his normal level of exertion and subsequently developed bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome requiring surgical decompression. To our knowledge, this is the only description of this complication occurring in a multicompartment, bilateral distribution. The combination of the rarity and morbidity of this condition, as well as the multitude of very common benign injuries that present in the same manner as the problem discussed, make this insult especially dangerous.

  18. TG1050, an immunotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis B, induces robust T cells and exerts an antiviral effect in HBV-persistent mice

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Perrine; Dubois, Clarisse; Jacquier, Emilie; Dion, Sarah; Mancini-Bourgine, Maryline; Godon, Ophélie; Kratzer, Roland; Lelu-Santolaria, Karine; Evlachev, Alexei; Meritet, Jean-François; Schlesinger, Yasmin; Villeval, Dominique; Strub, Jean-Marc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Marchand, Jean-Baptiste; Geist, Michel; Brandely, Renée; Findeli, Annie; Boukhebza, Houda; Menguy, Thierry; Silvestre, Nathalie; Michel, Marie-Louise; Inchauspé, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess a new adenovirus-based immunotherapy as a novel treatment approach to chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods TG1050 is a non-replicative adenovirus serotype 5 encoding a unique large fusion protein composed of a truncated HBV Core, a modified HBV Polymerase and two HBV Envelope domains. We used a recently described HBV-persistent mouse model based on a recombinant adenovirus-associated virus encoding an over length genome of HBV that induces the chronic production of HBsAg, HBeAg and infectious HBV particles to assess the ability of TG1050 to induce functional T cells in face of a chronic status. Results In in vitro studies, TG1050 was shown to express the expected large polyprotein together with a dominant, smaller by-product. Following a single administration in mice, TG1050 induced robust, multispecific and long-lasting HBV-specific T cells detectable up to 1 year post-injection. These cells target all three encoded immunogens and display bifunctionality (ie, capacity to produce both interferon γ and tumour necrosis factor α as well as cytolytic functions). In addition, control of circulating levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg was observed while alanine aminotransferase levels remain in the normal range. Conclusions Injection of TG1050 induced both splenic and intrahepatic functional T cells producing cytokines and displaying cytolytic activity in HBV-naïve and HBV-persistent mouse models together with significant reduction of circulating viral parameters. These results warrant clinical evaluation of TG1050 in the treatment of CHB. PMID:25429051

  19. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  20. Acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, C

    2000-01-01

    Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome is a disorder, which can cause loss of limb if left untreated. Compartment syndrome develops when pressures within the fascial compartments become elevated, resulting in decreased perfusion to muscles and nerves. Left untreated, tissue death occurs. Rapid identification of clinical signs can decrease severity of symptoms. Diligent nursing assessment and monitoring of clinical signs, with communication to the physician, will facilitate rapid treatment by the physician. The primary treatment option is early identification and intervention through performance of a fasciotomy.

  1. Comparative effects of propranolol and verapamil alone and in combination on left ventricular function and volumes in patients with chronic exertional angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study with radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.L.; Gebhardt, V.A.; Donald, A.; Kostuk, W.J.

    1983-12-01

    With the use of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography the effects on left ventricular (LV) function of 160 mg oral propranolol daily and 360 mg verapamil daily alone and in combination were compared in 18 patients with chronic exertional angina. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol was used. The reduction in exercise rate-pressure product induced by the combination (118 +/- 28 mm Hg/min) was significantly greater than that by propranolol (135 +/- 27 mm Hg/min) or verapamil alone (163 +/- 28 mm Hg/min). In patients at rest, neither single nor combined therapy altered global or regional left ventricular ejection fractions (EFs). Verapamil, but not propranolol, increased cardiac volumes of resting subjects; used in combination, no further increase in LV volume occurred. With placebo, exercise global EF did not decrease from the level at rest and therefore no drug effect could be demonstrated for this parameter of LV function. By an evaluation of normalized regional EF measurements the combination was shown to reduce exercise-induced hypokinesis (placebo 52 +/- 20%, combination 61 +/- 23%. No significant improvement was noted with propranolol or verapamil alone; only the combination prevented a significant increase in end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes during exercise. Thus, propranolol and verapamil, used alone in moderate doses, exert no beneficial effect on exercise LV function as measured by EF and volume changes, and resting function deteriorates slightly with verapamil.

  2. A critical analysis of the proposal of the Institute of Medicine to replace myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome by a new diagnostic entity called systemic exertion intolerance disease.

    PubMed

    Twisk, Frank N M

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published their report in response to an assignment "to define diagnostic criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), to propose a process for reevaluation of these criteria in the future, and to consider whether a new name for this disease is warranted". The basic pre-assumption of the IOM committee for the development of evidence-based diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS was that ME and CFS denote conditions with similar symptoms, hence ME/CFS. The IOM committee recommends: (1) that ME/CFS will be renamed 'systemic exertion intolerance disease' (SEID); and that a new code should be assigned to SEID in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), replacing the existing codes for ME (a neurological disease: G93.3) and CFS ('signs, symptoms, and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified': R53.82); (2) that a diagnosis of SEID should be made if the new diagnostic criteria are met; (3) that the Department of Health and Human Services develops a toolkit appropriate for screening and diagnosing patients; and (4) that a multidisciplinary group re-examines the new diagnostic criteria when necessary. This editorial reviews the working procedure of the IOM and two of the outcomes: the recommendation to introduce a new clinical entity (SEID) and new diagnostic criteria. Based upon the contents of the report, and the arguments of the IOM, a search of PubMed and the archive of the Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome using the search terms ME (and old synonyms) and CFS, and a search of PubMed related to the five core symptoms of SEID was conducted. Reviewing the working method and the recommendations, it is concluded that the new diagnostic criteria for SEID are based upon important methodological shortcomings and that the introduction of SEID to replace both ME and CFS has several profound negative consequences outweighing the advantages.

  3. Enriched Flavonoid Fraction from Cecropia pachystachya Trécul Leaves Exerts Antidepressant-like Behavior and Protects Brain Against Oxidative Stress in Rats Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Caroline F; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ignácio, Zuleide M; Abelaira, Helena M; Titus, Stephanie E; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Arent, Camila O; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Matias, Beatriz I; Martins, Maryane M; de Campos, Angela M; Petronilho, Fabricia; Teixeira, Leticia J; Morais, Meline O S; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João; Reginatto, Flávio H

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an enriched C-glycosyl flavonoids fraction (EFF-Cp) from Cecropia Pachystachya leaves on behavior, mitochondrial chain function, and oxidative balance in the brain of rats subjected to chronic mild stress. Male Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups (saline/no stress, saline/stress, EFF-Cp/no stress, and EFF-Cp/stress). ECM groups were submitted to stress for 40 days. On the 35th ECM day, EFF-Cp (50 mg/kg) or saline was administrated and the treatments lasted until the 42nd day. On the 41st and 42nd days, the animals were submitted to the splash test and the forced swim test. After these behavioral tests, the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial chain complexes and oxidative stress were analyzed. EFF-Cp reversed the depressive-like behavior induced by ECM. It also reversed the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in some brain regions. The reduced activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase in some brain regions were also reversed by EFF-Cp. The most pronounced effect of EFF-Cp on mitochondrial complexes was an increase in complex IV activity in all studied regions. Thus, it is can be concluded that EFF-Cp exerts an antidepressant-like effect and that oxidative balance may be an important physiological process underlying these effects. PMID:26762362

  4. Resveratrol exerts antidepressant properties in the chronic unpredictable mild stress model through the regulation of oxidative stress and mTOR pathway in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    liu, Song; Li, Tong; Liu, Hansen; Wang, Xueer; Bo, Shishi; Xie, Yunkai; Bai, Xuemei; Wu, Lin; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Dexiang

    2016-04-01

    Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders and has been associated with oxidative stress and brain protein alterations. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in Polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities including potent antidepressant-like effects. The present study attempts to explore the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like action of resveratrol by measuring oxidative stress parameters and phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR pathway in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) exposed to the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Male Wistar rats were subjected to CUMS protocol for a period of 4 weeks to induce depressive-like behavior. The results showed that resveratrol treatment (80 mg/kg/i.p. 4 weeks) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities (reduced sucrose preference, increased immobility time and decreased locomotor activity) and biochemical changes (increased lipid peroxidation and decreased superoxide dismutase). Additionally, CUMS exposure significantly decreased phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in the hippocampus and PFC, while resveratrol treatment normalized these parameters. In conclusion, our study showed that resveratrol exerted antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats, which was mediated in part by its antioxidant action, up-regulation of phosphor-Akt and mTOR levels in the hippocampus and PFC. PMID:26801825

  5. Multiple compartment syndrome in a pediatric patient with CML.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyuck

    2011-12-01

    Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening and life-threatening emergency resulting from elevated intracompartmental pressure. Prompt surgical intervention and treatment are necessary to prevent irreparable damage to muscle and nerve tissues. Leukemic infiltration of the muscle is an unusual cause of compartment syndrome and has been documented to occur secondary to hyperleukocytic leukemias, most commonly in acute myeloid leukemia. We present a rare case of multiple compartment syndrome in the buttock and thigh of an 11-year-old male patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was delayed, causing irreversible tissue damage. Physicians are generally unfamiliar with leukemia-induced complications and may not initially suspect leukemic compartment syndrome because of its rarity. Awareness of its clinical features is critical, because early diagnosis and prompt surgical debridement can prevent significant morbidity and even death.

  6. Bacterial translocation - impact on the adipocyte compartment.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat." The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system.

  7. [Abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pottecher, T; Segura, P; Launoy, A

    2001-04-01

    French physicians dealing with abdominal emergencies are not very familiar with the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Increased abdominal pressure has deleterious consequences on local (intestine, liver, kidney) circulation, leading to death in the absence of correct treatment. Abdominal trauma and ruptured aortic aneurism are the main causes of ACS. Clinical presentation may be misleading: respiratory failure, oliguria or circulatory symptoms are often predominant. Abdominal palpation is inefficient for evaluating intra-abdominal pressure (IAP); only measurement of cystic pressure allows precise evaluation of IAP. Abdominal decompression is the treatment of choice. It must be performed as soon as IAP exceeds 25 mmHg. The procedure may be risky with a high incidence of severe complications when ischaemic territories are reperfused. Recent data underline the importance of compensation of hypovolemia before decompression. Abdominal closure may necessitate various techniques (aponevrotomy, Bogota bags, etc.). At any rate, IAP must remain low at the end of the procedure. In case of suspicion of ACS, early measurement of IAP is mandatory. If pressure is over 25 mmHg, a decompressive procedure must be initiated. PMID:11340703

  8. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  9. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  10. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  11. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  12. Compartment syndrome following intraosseous infusion.

    PubMed

    Moen, Todd C; Sarwark, John F

    2008-08-01

    Intraosseous infusion is a valuable technique in the resuscitation of critically ill pediatric patients in whom vascular access has proved otherwise impossible. Although it is well established as a safe and reliable means of emergent access, intraosseous infusion is not without danger, nor complication. One of the rare yet most grave complications of intraosseous access is compartment syndrome. We report a case of compartment syndrome as a result of intraosseous infusion that serves to remind of the potential pitfalls of this technique. An otherwise healthy 6-year-old girl presented to our institution's pediatric intensive care unit following emergent resuscitation for a prolonged cardiac arrest. Approximately 1 hour following an uneventful soccer practice, without any antecedent cardiopulmonary symptoms or complaints, the patient collapsed and was unresponsive, not breathing, and pulseless. In the course of resuscitation, right and left tibial intraosseous lines were started. After 30 minutes of resuscitation, with multiple rounds of lidocaine and epinephrine infused through the intraosseous lines, a sustained perfusing rhythm was established. Acute compartment syndrome was diagnosed, and through anterolateral and posteromedial incisions, all 4 fascial compartments were released. While the condition of the patient's extremity improved, the overall clinical condition of the patient did not. This case highlights the fundamental principles regarding the use of intraosseous infusion and the diagnosis and management of compartment syndrome in critically ill patients. PMID:19292404

  13. 14 CFR 25.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Compartment interiors. For each compartment occupied by the crew or passengers, the following apply: (a... and the cavity walls that are exposed when a full complement of such carts or containers is not... compartments, galleys, lavatories, crew rest quarters, cabinets and stowage compartments, need not meet...

  14. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, David C.; Borchers, James

    2014-01-01

    Context: Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a relatively uncommon but potentially fatal condition affecting athletes that requires prompt recognition and appropriate management. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the PubMed database from 2003 to 2013 using the term exertional rhabdomyolysis was performed. Further evaluation of the bibliographies of articles expanded the evidence. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a relatively uncommon condition with an incidence of approximately 29.9 per 100,000 patient years but can have very serious consequences of muscle ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia, and death. The athlete will have pain, weakness, and swelling in the muscles affected as well as significantly elevated levels of creatine kinase (CK). Hydration is the foundation for any athlete with ER; management can also include dialysis or surgery. Stratifying the athlete into high- or low-risk categories can determine if further workup is warranted. Conclusion: Exertional rhabdomyolysis evaluation requires a history, physical examination, and serology for definitive diagnosis. Treatment modalities should include rest and hydration. Return to play and future workup should be determined by the risk stratification of the athlete. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:24982707

  15. Exploring Water-Tight Compartments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Steve

    John Dewey employed the phrase "water-tight compartments" to mark deficiencies of integration within an individual's personality. For Dewey, the self is complex, but a strong personality integrates its various habits so that they reinforce rather than conflict with one another. Dewey's focus on this problem of personality has relevance for…

  16. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated. PMID:27186379

  17. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This photograph shows technicians performing a checkout of the Metabolic Analyzer (center background) and the Ergometer (foreground) in the Orbital Workshop (OWS). The shower compartment is at right. The Ergometer (Skylab Experiment M171) evaluated man's metabolic effectiveness and cost of work in space environment. Located in the experiment and work area of the OWS, the shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  18. The Orbital Workshop Shower Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this photograph, the Orbital Workshop shower compartment was unfolded by technicians for inspection. The shower compartment was a cylindrical cloth enclosure that was folded flat when not in use. The bottom ring of the shower was fastened to the floor and contained foot restraints. The upper ring contained the shower head and hose. To use the shower, the astronaut filled a pressurized portable bottle with heated water and attached the bottle to the ceiling. A flexible hose cornected the water bottle to a handheld shower head. The astronaut pulled the cylindrical shower wall up into position and bathed, using liquid soap. Both soap and water were carefully rationed, having been premeasured for economical use.

  19. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  3. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  4. Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L. Gary

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

  5. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  6. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  7. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  8. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  9. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  10. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  11. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  12. 14 CFR 27.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 27.771 Section 27.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  13. 14 CFR 29.771 - Pilot compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment. 29.771 Section 29.771... Pilot compartment. For each pilot compartment— (a) The compartment and its equipment must allow each pilot to perform his duties without unreasonable concentration or fatigue; (b) If there is provision...

  14. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or passengers— (a) The materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the following test criteria as... walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other...

  15. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Compartment interiors. For each compartment to be used by the crew or passengers— (a) The materials (including finishes or decorative surfaces applied to the materials) must meet the following test criteria as... walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other...

  16. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    PubMed Central

    Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

  17. Intracellular secretory leukoprotease inhibitor modulates inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate generation and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on neutrophils of individuals with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Emer P; Banville, Nessa; Ryan, Dorothy M; O'Reilly, Niamh; Bergin, David A; Pohl, Kerstin; Molloy, Kevin; McElvaney, Oliver J; Alsaleh, Khalifah; Aljorfi, Ahmed; Kandalaft, Osama; O'Flynn, Eimear; Geraghty, Patrick; O'Neill, Shane J; McElvaney, Noel G

    2013-01-01

    Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is an anti-inflammatory protein present in respiratory secretions. Whilst epithelial cell SLPI is extensively studied, neutrophil associated SLPI is poorly characterised. Neutrophil function including chemotaxis and degranulation of proteolytic enzymes involves changes in cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) levels which is mediated by production of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) in response to G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular function of SLPI and the mechanism-based modulation of neutrophil function by this antiprotease. Neutrophils were isolated from healthy controls (n = 10), individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 5) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 5). Recombinant human SLPI significantly inhibited fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and interleukin(IL)-8 induced neutrophil chemotaxis (P < 0.05) and decreased degranulation of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), hCAP-18, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) (P < 0.05). The mechanism of inhibition involved modulation of cytosolic IP3 production and downstream Ca(2+) flux. The described attenuation of Ca(2+) flux was overcome by inclusion of exogenous IP3 in electropermeabilized cells. Inhibition of IP3 generation and Ca(2+) flux by SLPI may represent a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism, thus strengthening the attractiveness of SLPI as a potential therapeutic molecule in inflammatory airway disease associated with excessive neutrophil influx including CF, non-CF bronchiectasis, and COPD.

  18. Bacterial Translocation – Impact on the Adipocyte Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, Tassilo; Batra, Arvind; Siegmund, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade it became broadly recognized that adipokines and thus the fat tissue compartment exert a regulatory function on the immune system. Our own group described the pro-inflammatory function of the adipokine leptin within intestinal inflammation in a variety of animal models. Following-up on this initial work, the aim was to reveal stimuli and mechanisms involved in the activation of the fat tissue compartment and the subsequent release of adipokines and other mediators paralleled by the infiltration of immune cells. This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called “creeping fat.” The review will address three consecutive questions: (i) What is inducing adipocyte activation, (ii) which factors are released after activation and what are the consequences for the local fat tissue compartment and infiltrating cells; (iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? With this review we will provide a working model indicating a close interaction in between bacterial translocation, activation of the adipocytes, and subsequent direction of the infiltrating immune cells. In summary, the models system mesenteric fat indicates a unique way how adipocytes can directly interact with the immune system. PMID:24432024

  19. [Compartment pressure of the anterior tibial area in jogging].

    PubMed

    Jerosch, J; Geske, B; Castro, W H; Hille, E

    1989-01-01

    31 healthy persons had to run on a treadmill under defined conditions at a constant speed of 8 km/h. Pressure in the anterior flexor-muscles compartment was measured regulary in time before, during and after running; the size of the compartment was documented by sonography. The measured pressure was attached to the respective compartment size. The runners were divided into three groups based on characteristic pressure-courses: the normal-type with average values below 50 mmHg, the indifference-type with a distinctly higher pressure than 50 mmHg and the risk-type with values more than 70 mmHg. A correlation between exercise-pressure and time of post-exercising decrease of pressure was found. While the normal type reached the starting pressure within 6 minutes the indifference and risk type didn't succeed in decreasing after this period of time. No change of compartmental size was measured while the pressure increased on exertion. PMID:2655333

  20. Selective autophagy against membranous compartments

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel-Muiños, Felipe X; Boada-Romero, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Selective autophagic degradation of cellular components underlies many of the important physiological and pathological implications that autophagy has for mammalian cells. Cytoplasmic vesicles, just like other intracellular items, can be subjected to conventional autophagic events where double-membrane autophagosomes specifically isolate and deliver them for lysosomal destruction. However, intracellular membranes appear to constitute common platforms for unconventional versions of the autophagic pathway, a notion that has become apparent during the past few years. For instance, in many cases of autophagy directed against bacterial phagosomes, subversion of the process results in multimembrane vacuoles that promote bacterial replication instead of the usual degradative outcome. In a different atypical modality, single-membrane vesicles can be labeled with LC3 to direct their contents for lysosomal degradation. In fact, single-membrane compartments of various kinds often provide an assembly site for the autophagic machinery to perform unanticipated nondegradative activities that range from localized secretion of lysosomal contents to melanosome function. Interestingly, many of these unconventional processes seem to be initiated through engagement of relevant nodes of the autophagic signaling network that, once activated, promote LC3 decoration of the targeted membrane, and some cases of inducer/receptor proteins that specifically engage those important signaling hubs have recently been described. Here we review the available examples of all autophagic variants involving membranous compartments, with a main focus on the more recently discovered unconventional phenomena where the usual degradation purpose of autophagy or its canonical mechanistic features are not completely conserved. PMID:24419294

  1. Acute lower-leg compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mauser, Nathan; Gissel, Hannah; Henderson, Corey; Hao, Jiandong; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2013-08-01

    Acute compartment syndrome remains a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons because its diagnosis is not always straightforward and it has a high risk of associated limb morbidity if left undiagnosed or untreated. Failure to diagnose and treat acute compartment syndrome is one of the most common causes of successful medical liability claims. The authors review the current literature concerning the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome and discuss new non-invasive technologies that may allow for earlier and more accurate diagnosis of impending acute compartment syndrome.

  2. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  3. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... equipment (such as life rafts), and any other stowage compartment must be designed for its placarded...

  4. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage compartments. 25.787 Section 25.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a)...

  5. Cell communication compartments in molluscan embryos.

    PubMed

    Serras, F; Kühtreiber, W M; Krul, M R; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1985-08-01

    Early embryos of Patella vulgata have been injected with Lucifer Yellow. No restriction of dye spread was found. We show that later in the development, the larval trochophore stage present evidence of compartments of cell communication. These dye compartments coincide with different presumptive regions. PMID:4028198

  6. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  7. Bilateral compartment syndrome of the anterior thigh following functional fitness exercises: a case report.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Lucas S; Mitchell, Ronald J; Deaton, Travis G

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of delayed, acute bilateral exertional compartment syndrome of the anterior thigh induced by callisthenic exercise. Symptoms consisted of pain out of proportion to examination findings, inability to ambulate, and severe pain with knee flexion. Treatment consisted of bilateral thigh fasciotomies and supportive therapy for concomitant rhabdomyolysis. Full strength, range of motion, and return to all military duties were achieved by 4 months postinjury.

  8. Compartment syndrome complicating tibial tubercle avulsion.

    PubMed

    Pape, J M; Goulet, J A; Hensinger, R N

    1993-10-01

    Avulsion of the tibial tubercle is an uncommon physeal injury. Complications from this fracture are infrequent. Adolescent boys developed compartment syndrome after tibial tubercle avulsion. Injury to the soft tissue surrounding the tibial tubercle avulsion may be more extensive than is usually appreciated. The anatomy of the proximal tibia and the tibial tubercle with nearby branches of the anterior tibial recurrent artery suggest a predisposing factor for the development of compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome should be added to the list of possible complications of tibial tubercle avulsion fractures.

  9. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... corresponding to the specified flight and ground load conditions, and to the emergency landing conditions of... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has...

  10. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... corresponding to the specified flight and ground load conditions, and to the emergency landing conditions of... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has...

  11. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  12. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  13. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and nondecorative coated fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets, cargo covers, and transparencies, molded and thermoformed parts,...

  14. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a...., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall...

  15. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a...., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall...

  16. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  17. Acute compartment syndrome of the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Ouellette, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when pressure within a fibro-osseous space increases to a level that results in a decreased perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds. Compartment syndromes of the hand, forearm, and upper arm can result in tissue necrosis, which can lead to devastating loss of function. The etiology of acute compartment syndrome in the upper extremity is diverse, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Pain out of proportion to injury is the most reliable early symptom of impending compartment syndrome. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in obtunded patients and in young children. Early recognition and expeditious surgical treatment are essential to obtain a good clinical outcome and prevent permanent disability.

  18. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  19. Intracellular potassium compartments in Nitella axillaris.

    PubMed

    DIAMOND, J M; SOLOMON, A K

    1959-05-20

    Three intracellular compartments for potassium exchange have been observed in intact cells of the giant-celled alga, Nitella axillaris. These compartments have been compared with the exchange properties of isolated subcellular structures. The smallest and fastest compartment (apparent half-time, 23 seconds) appears to involve passive absorption on the cell wall. The next largest (apparent half-time, 5 hours) may represent exchange with the cytoplasmic layer through the plasma membrane, the chloroplasts being in rapid equilibrium with the surrounding cytoplasm. The largest and slowest compartment (apparent half-time, 40 days) has been identified with the central vacuole. The vacuolar membrane and the plasma membrane have similar properties with respect to K permeability. Thus, the experimental data from the whole cell can be accounted for by a structural model of the compartments. Cyanide in concentrations up to 10(-3)M causes no net loss of K. The fastest compartment in Nitella and in higher plants is compared, and the ecological significance of the slow rate of potassium transport in Nitella is discussed.

  20. Reflections on the Design of Exertion Games.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Florian Floyd; Altimira, David; Khot, Rohit Ashot

    2015-02-01

    The design of exertion games (i.e., digital games that require physical effort from players) is a difficult intertwined challenge of combining digital games and physical effort. To aid designers in facing this challenge, we describe our experiences of designing exertion games. We outline personal reflections on our design processes and articulate analyses of players' experiences. These reflections and analyses serve to highlight the unique opportunities of combining digital games and physical effort. The insights we seek aim to enhance the understanding of exertion game design, contributing to the advancement of the field, and ultimately resulting in better games and associated player experiences.

  1. Review of treatment and diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome of the calf: current evidence and best practices.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, John T; Roberts, Craig S; Pugh, Kevin J; Ring, David

    2011-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the calf has received a great deal of attention in the literature. A MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English-language publications pertaining to compartment syndrome of the leg and calf so that principles, recent evidence, and best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome could be reviewed. Clinical series that reported outcomes and diagnostic criteria were reviewed and summarized. The currently available evidence is limited to level IV and V studies. Early diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndromes is associated with better results; however, many patients have chronic symptoms after treatment, even when the diagnosis is made promptly and fasciotomy is performed early. Although compartment syndrome of the leg and calf often has been described in the literature, prospective clinical series are lacking, and meaningful outcomes data are scarce. There is a need for further study on functional outcomes of acute compartment syndrome of the calf, with particular attention to diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Gender and contraction mode on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Pincivero, D M; Polen, R R; Byrd, B N

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived exertion responses during concentric and eccentric elbow flexor contractions between young adult men and women. Thirty healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions. During the first session, subjects performed five concentric isokinetic maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of elbow flexion, followed by nine, randomly-ordered sub-maximal contractions (10-90% MVC). The same procedures were repeated during the second session, with the exception that eccentric contractions were performed. Subjects rated their perceived exertion following the sub-maximal contractions with the Borg category-ratio scale. Perceived exertion was significantly (p<0.05) less than equivalent values on the CR-10 scale at intensities greater than, and equal to, 30% MVC. A three-factor interaction between 30-40% MVC indicated that perceived exertion increased more during the eccentric, than concentric, contractions in women, while the opposite pattern was evident for the men. There were no significant contraction mode or gender differences. Power function modeling revealed that perceived exertion increased in a negatively accelerating manner, except for the men performing eccentric exercise. Perceived exertion increases in a similar non-linear manner between men and women during concentric contractions, while men exhibited a statistically linear pattern during eccentric contractions. PMID:20148376

  3. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasch, James J.; Misodi, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Gluteal fasciotomy Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. Case Report: We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. Conclusions: This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome. PMID:27432320

  4. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, N. S. Ahmad; Ibrahim, N.

    2014-11-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model.

  5. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... equipment is not required. (b) No compartment may contain any controls, wiring, lines, equipment, or... to contain compartment fires until a landing and safe evacuation can be made. (d) Each cargo and baggage compartment that is not sealed so as to contain cargo compartment fires completely...

  6. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (e) No compartment may contain any controls, lines, equipment, or accessories whose damage or failure... protective features of the compartment. (g) Sources of heat within the compartment must be shielded and... fire contained in any other compartment, either during or after extinguishment, unless...

  7. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions. PMID:25696976

  8. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  9. Respiratory and leg muscles perceived exertion during exercise at altitude.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G

    2011-07-31

    We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.

  10. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations §...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations §...

  12. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  13. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Diaz Dilernia, Fernando; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Gamsie, Sebastian; Taype Zamboni, Danilo E R; Carabelli, Guido S; Barla, Jorge D; Sancineto, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  14. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.111... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.111 - Toilet compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.111... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toilet compartments. 3280.111 Section 3280.111 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  16. Delayed Presentation of Acute Gluteal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tasch, James J; Misodi, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute gluteal compartment syndrome is a rare condition that usually results from prolonged immobilization following a traumatic event, conventionally involving the presence of compounding factors such as alcohol or opioid intoxication. If delay in medical treatment is prolonged, severe rhabdomyolysis may ensue, leading to acute renal failure and potentially death. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a recent history of incarceration and recreational drug use, who presented with reports of severe right-sided buttock pain and profound right-sided neurological loss following a questionable history involving prolonged immobilization after a fall from a standing position. The patient required an emergent gluteal fasciotomy immediately upon admission and required temporary hemodialysis. After an extended hospital stay, he ultimately recovered with only mild deficits in muscular strength in the right lower extremity. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates the importance of early recognition of gluteal compartment syndrome to prevent morbidity and mortality. Compartment syndrome presents in many unique ways, and healthcare practitioners must have a keen diagnostic sense to allow for early surgical intervention. Proper wick catheter measurements should be utilized more frequently, instead of relying on clinical symptomatology such as loss of peripheral pulses for diagnosis of compartment syndrome.

  17. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  18. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments. PMID:26203364

  19. Extraocular Muscle Compartments in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Clark, Robert A.; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls. Medial and lateral compartmental volumes of the SO muscle were compared in patients with isotropic (round shape) versus anisotropic (elongated shape) SO atrophy. Results The medial and lateral compartments of the ipsilesional SO muscles were equally atrophic in isotropic SO palsy, whereas the lateral compartment was significantly smaller than the medial in anisotropic SO palsy (P = 0.01). In contrast to the SO, there were no differential compartmental volume changes in rectus EOMs; however, there was significant total muscle hypertrophy in the ipsilesional inferior rectus (IR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles and contralesional superior rectus (SR) muscles. Medial rectus (MR) volume was normal both ipsi- and contralesionally. Conclusions A subset of patients with SO palsy exhibit selective atrophy of the lateral, predominantly vertically acting SO compartment. Superior oblique atrophy is associated with whole-muscle volume changes in the ipsilesional IR, ipsilesional LR, and contralesional SR; however, SO muscle atrophy is not associated with compartmentally selective volume changes in the rectus EOMs. Selective compartmental SO pathology may provide an anatomic mechanism that explains some of the variability in clinical presentations of SO palsy. PMID:27768791

  20. Vicarious perception of postural discomfort and exertion.

    PubMed

    Drury, Colin G; Atiles, Moises; Chaitanya, Mohan; Lin, Jui-Feng; Marin, Clara; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paluszak, Doug; Russell, Casey; Stone, Richard; Sunm, Michelle

    2006-11-15

    Perceived exertion and discomfort have been used extensively in ergonomics practice. Job incumbents typically rate their exertion on scales such as Borg's rated perceived effort (RPE) and their discomfort on scales such as Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort scales (BPD). This study asks whether exertion and discomfort can be perceived by an external observer, i.e. is vicarious perception possible? Four participants (targets) performed 20 postural holding tasks selected from Ovako Working Posture Analysing System postures and gave RPE and BPD scores for each posture. Video clips of each target in each posture were shown to four expert ergonomists and 23 novices, who also gave RPE and BPD scores. Correlations between targets and observers scores were high, with significance exceeding p = 0.01. Observers were generally conservative, rating easy postures too high and difficult postures too low. All observers rated female targets higher than male targets. Female observers rated all targets higher then male observers. Vicarious perception of discomfort and exertion was possible, but there was not a one-to-one correspondence to ratings given by those experiencing the posture.

  1. Exertion and acute coronary artery injury.

    PubMed

    Black, A; Black, M M; Gensini, G

    1975-12-01

    Twelve cases of myocardial infarction as related to strenuous exertion are presented with the pathological findings in several of these cases. Three cases with coronary arteriography are also presented. The pathology of coronary arteriosclerotic plaques and the vulnerability to acute injury is reviewed and discussed. It is concluded that strenuous exertion can cause acute injury to coronary artery plaques due to the unusual stressful whip-like action to which coronary arteries are subject. These injuries may initiate as cracks in the plaques or subintimal hemorrhages and proceed to coronary occlusion and ultimate myocardial infarction. With this concept in mind we use the term of "crack in the plaque" (Black's Crack in the Plaque) to account for the sudden appearance of clinical coronary artery disease appearing during or shortly after exertion, or other stressful situations in patients without previous existing evidence of clinical coronary artery disease. This could also account for exacerbation of symptoms or death occurring after exertion in previously quiescent asymptomatic known coronary artery disease subjects. This concept may explain some of the puzzling features of coronary disease.

  2. Physical exertion may cause high troponin levels.

    PubMed

    Agewall, Stefan; Tjora, Solve

    2011-11-15

    It is important to measure troponin levels when acute myocardial infarct is suspected. Many other factors that affect the heart can cause an increase in troponin levels, for example extreme physical exertion. Recent studies have shown that more normal physical activity can also lead to increase in troponin levels in healthy individuals.

  3. Compartment syndrome in patients with massive venous thrombosis after inferior vena cava filter placement.

    PubMed

    Mesfin, Addisu; Lum, Ying Wei; Nayfeh, Tariq; Mears, Simon C

    2011-03-11

    Massive venous thrombosis, which can occur acutely after inferior vena cava filter placement, has 2 forms: phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens. In phlegmasia cerulea dolens, complete occlusion of venous outflow occurs. In the milder phlegmasia alba dolens version, collateral venous flow out of the limb remains despite the venous thrombosis. This article presents, to our knowledge, the first 2 cases of massive venous thrombosis (1 phlegmasia cerulea dolens, 1 phlegmasia alba dolens) below inferior vena cava filters occurring after the acute period. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens can present as compartment syndrome. Prompt fasciotomies were performed, but the underlying massive venous thrombosis was not addressed surgically. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens have high morbidity and mortality. The patient with phlegmasia alba dolens required leg and thigh fasciotomies and eventually required an above-knee amputation. The patient with phlegmasia cerulea dolens developed compartment syndrome in the left leg, right leg, and right thigh. Although he underwent decompression of all of these compartments, he died from multiple organ failure. A multidisciplinary approach with the vascular service and the intensivists is required in the treatment of patients with massive venous thrombosis. Treatment goals include preventing additional propagation of the thrombus via anticoagulation, with strong consideration for catheter-directed thrombolysis or thrombectomy and fasciotomies for compartment syndrome. The orthopedic surgeon should keep phlegmasia cerulea dolens and phlegmasia alba dolens in the differential for compartment syndrome, especially in patients who have had a history of acute or chronic inferior vena cava filter placement.

  4. The force exerted by a fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.

    2014-02-15

    The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

  5. The force exerted by a fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.

    2014-02-01

    The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

  6. Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Michael; Jockusch, Brigitte M

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days' knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin.

  7. [The anterior compartment syndrome of the leg].

    PubMed

    Parca, S; Tobaldi, F; Palego, E; Galante, V; Bonfili, G F

    1981-09-15

    The Authors define the compartment syndrome as a pathological condition collecting various clinical pictures constantly characterized by a rise of pressure in a restricted and inextensible not modifiable space, with circulatory difficulty and suffering of the tissues in this district. The only diagnosis is clinic. Functional and instrumental semiotics aren't of great aid. The quickly evolving clinical picture commands a timely diagnosis and a precocious intervention to reduce compartmental pressure by fasciotomy and eventual epimysiotomy effectual in the first twelve hours.

  8. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  9. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  10. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  11. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Units § 174.075 Compartments assumed flooded: general. The individual flooding of each of the... § 174.065 (a). Simultaneous flooding of more than one compartment must be assumed only when indicated...

  12. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, R H; Haverkamp, D; Campo, M M; van der Vis, H M

    2012-03-01

    A 62year old man developed a compartment syndrome of the thigh after total knee arthroplasty. Twelve years previously he had a HTO of the same knee complicated by a compartment syndrome of the calf. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed with intracompartmental pressure measurement. Following fasciotomy pressures were normalized and further course was uncomplicated. Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare, but potentially devastating, complication following total knee arthroplasty. A previous compartment syndrome of the calf is identified as a risk factor.

  13. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  16. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  17. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. PMID:27293917

  18. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  19. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... pilot compartment if the cockpit door becomes jammed. (c) There must be an emergency means to enable...

  20. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  1. 14 CFR 27.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 27.773 Section 27... § 27.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be free from glare and reflections that could interfere with the pilot's view, and designed so that— (1) Each pilot's view is...

  2. 14 CFR 23.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 23.773 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Each pilot compartment must be— (1) Arranged with sufficiently extensive, clear and undistorted view to enable the pilot to safely...

  3. 14 CFR 29.773 - Pilot compartment view.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment view. 29.773 Section 29... Accommodations § 29.773 Pilot compartment view. (a) Nonprecipitation conditions. For nonprecipitation conditions, the following apply: (1) Each pilot compartment must be arranged to give the pilots a...

  4. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... pilot compartment if the cockpit door becomes jammed. (c) There must be an emergency means to enable...

  5. Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

    2004-04-01

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described.

  6. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  7. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  8. Acute compartment syndrome of the leg: pressure measurement and fasciotomy.

    PubMed

    Masquelet, A-C

    2010-12-01

    Compartment syndrome involves a conflicting situation between an unyielding space, the compartment, and its increasing tissue content secondary to traumatic ischemia. Rapidly irreversible damages occur without treatment. Although the diagnosis approach to leg compartment syndrome is clinical in priority, pressure measurements should be systematically produced: first to confirm the presence of this condition and define optimal surgical strategies and second to provide the only objective available criteria in case of a debatable diagnosis. In practice, two schematic situations can be distinguished, which do not cover the many different cases: leg compartment syndrome without a fracture in which the four leg compartments are affected and which requires a fasciotomy using two surgical approaches, the lateral and the medial; leg compartment syndrome associated with a fracture: fasciotomy of the four compartments may be performed by a single lateral approach distant from the fracture site and its fixation hardware. It should be noted that this approach is easy, effective and safe.

  9. Exertional rhabdomyolysis after spinning: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ramme, Austin J; Vira, Shaleen; Alaia, Michael J; VAN DE Leuv, Jonathan; Rothberg, Robert C

    2016-06-01

    Spinning is a popular indoor stationary cycling program that uses group classes as a motivational tool. Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is frequently reported in athletes and military recruits; however, infrequently it has been reported after spinning class. ER is diagnosed by clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory values. Hydration, electrolyte management, and pain control are key components to treatment of this condition. Severe cases can be complicated by acute renal failure, compartment syndrome, arrhythmia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We describe three cases of admission due to rhabdomyolysis after spinning. The diagnosis, admission criteria, and medical treatment of ER are presented in the context of a literature review. A retrospective review of three cases with review of the current literature. The medical and laboratory records of three patient cases were reviewed. A search of the PubMed database was used to perform a comprehensive review of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Our institution's IRB reviewed this study. We report three cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis after spinning and describe the diagnostic workup and medical management of these patients. The diagnosis of ER is made by clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory values. The disease spectrum ranges from mild to severe with the potential of serious complications in some patients. We demonstrate three cases of ER in deconditioned individuals who presented to the emergency department for evaluation. Careful medical management and patient monitoring resulted in improved patient symptomatology and eventual return to physical activity.

  10. Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

  11. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  12. Anger, Heavy Exertion: Fast Track to A Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Anger, Heavy Exertion: Fast Track to a Heart Attack? But researchers suggest that artery-clogging plaque has ... physical exertion may be triggers for a first heart attack in some people, new research suggests. In the ...

  13. Activity of neuromuscular compartments in lateral gastrocnemius evoked by postural corrections during stance.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, D C; Macpherson, J M

    1993-12-01

    1. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of the four neuromuscular compartments in lateral gastrocnemius (LG) of cats was investigated to determine whether these intramuscular subdivisions could be activated differentially during automatic postural corrections. EMG electrodes were surgically implanted into each of the four compartments of left LG-LG1, LG2, LG3, and LGm--in two cats. Electrodes were also implanted into soleus and gluteus medius for comparative purposes. 2. Quiet quadrupedal stance was disturbed first by linearly translating the cats on a movable platform in each of 16 different horizontal directions. Mechanical events during corrections were characterized in terms of the three-dimensional forces exerted by each paw on the platform. EMG and force traces were quantified (area under the curve) and normalized, and tuning curves were constructed that relate muscle response and force change to direction of platform movement. 3. In a second series of trials, translations were presented along one direction only over a series of six velocities ranging from 5 to 16 cm/s. The third series of perturbations, termed the pop-up, consisted of a rapid upward displacement of the support under the left hindlimb only over a series of six amplitudes ranging from 1 to 10 mm. Evoked EMG activity and average change in force were normalized and regressions were computed onto velocity and amplitude, respectively. The slopes of the regressions were compared. 4. EMG tuning curves associated with the multidirectional horizontal translations revealed no differential activity across LG compartments. Similarly, there was no statistical difference among the slopes of the regressions within LG. In contrast, soleus exhibited significantly different slopes from LG for the regressions. Thus it is concluded that LG compartments are not differentially activated during automatic postural responses to perturbations of the support surface.

  14. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  15. Perceived Exertion of the PACER in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John D.; Holmes, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore high school students' perceived exertion after participating in the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Immediately after completing the PACER, students (N = 792) indicated their perceived exertion on the OMNI rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for children (1-10 scale). All students,…

  16. Designing the Space Station Crew Compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitmacher, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Design of the crew compartment in the modules of the International Space Station began in the mid-1980s and was influenced by past experiences as well as new and innovative designs. This paper will trace some of the alternative configurations that were considered during the early Phase B studies and the trade studies, design and modeling activities which led to the configuration as it is being flown today. Design of the core systems, lofts, and rack-based modules will all be reviewed. Based upon crew feedback and experiences in the integration of space station missions over the years of operation, problems that have been experienced in planning and implementation will be reviewed.

  17. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  18. cAMP signalling meets mitochondrial compartments.

    PubMed

    Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles comprising at least three distinct areas, the OMM (outer mitochondrial membrane), the IMS (intermembrane space) and the mitochondrial matrix. Physical compartmentalization allows these organelles to host different functional domains and therefore participate in a variety of important cellular actions such as ATP synthesis and programmed cell death. In a surprising homology, it is now widely accepted that the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP uses the same stratagem, compartmentalization, in order to achieve the characteristic functional pleiotropy of its pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that all the main mitochondrial compartments contain segregated cAMP cascades; however, the regulatory properties and functional significance of such domains are not fully understood and often remain controversial issues. The present mini-review discusses our current knowledge of how the marriage between mitochondrial and cAMP compartmentalization is achieved and its effects on the biology of the cell. PMID:24646228

  19. The extracellular compartments of frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, M C; Mathias, R T

    1979-01-01

    1. Detailed studies of solute efflux from frog sartorius muscle and single muscle fibres were carried out in order to characterize a 'special region' (Harris, 1963) in the extracellular space of muscle and determine whether this 'special region' is the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 2. The efflux of radioactive Na, Cl, glusose, 3-O-methylglucose, xylose, glycine, leucine, cycloleucine, Rb, K, inulin (mol. wt. 5000) and dextran (mol. wt. 17,000) from previously loaded muscles was studied. In all cases except dextran the curve had three components, a rapid (A) component which could be equated with efflux from the extracellular space proper, a slow (C) component representing cellular solute and an intermediate (B) component. The distribution space for the B component was 8% of muscle volume in summer frogs and 12% in winter frogs and appeared to be equal for all compounds studied. We tested the hypothesis that the B component originated from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The C component was missing from the dextran curves. Both dextran and inulin entered the compartment of origin of the B component (compartment B) to the same extent as small molecules. 4. For all compounds studies, the efflux rate constant for the A component could be predicted from the diffusion coefficient. For the B component the efflux rate constant was 6--10 times slower than that for the A component but was still proportional to the diffusion coefficient for the solute in question. 5. When Na and sucrose efflux from single fibres was followed, a B component was usually observed. The average distribution space for this component was small, averaging 1.5% of fibre volume. There was no difference between the average efflux rate constants for Na and sucrose. 6. In an appendix, the constraints placed on the properties of a hypothetical channel between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the T-system by the linear electrical parameters of frog skeletal muscle are derived. It is shown that the conductance of such

  20. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Methods Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3–7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Results Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Conclusions Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process

  1. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  2. Dynamic Compartments in the Imperative π-Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Mathias; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim

    Dynamic compartments with mutable configurations and variable volumes are of basic interest for the stochastic modeling of biochemistry in cells. We propose a new language to express dynamic compartments that we call the imperative π -calculus. It is obtained from the attributed π -calculus by adding imperative assignment operations to a global store. Previous approaches to dynamic compartments are improved in flexibility or efficiency. This is illustrated by an appropriate model of osmosis and a correct encoding of bioambBioAmbients.

  3. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  4. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  5. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  6. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  7. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne bacterial contaminants, prevent undue condensation of water vapor and minimize or eliminate...

  8. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  9. Acute compartment syndrome in lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma.

    PubMed

    Olson, Steven A; Glasgow, Robert R

    2005-11-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a potentially devastating condition in which the pressure within an osseofascial compartment rises to a level that decreases the perfusion gradient across tissue capillary beds, leading to cellular anoxia, muscle ischemia, and death. A variety of injuries and medical conditions may initiate acute compartment syndrome, including fractures, contusions, bleeding disorders, burns, trauma, postischemic swelling, and gunshot wounds. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, supplemented by compartment pressure measurements. Certain anesthetic techniques, such as nerve blocks and other forms of regional and epidural anesthesia, reportedly contribute to a delay in diagnosis. Basic science data suggest that the ischemic threshold of normal muscle is reached when pressure within the compartment is elevated to 20 mm Hg below the diastolic pressure or 30 mm Hg below the mean arterial blood pressure. On diagnosis of impending or true compartment syndrome, immediate measures must be taken. Complete fasciotomy of all compartments involved is required to reliably normalize compartment pressures and restore perfusion to the affected tissues. Recognizing compartment syndromes requires having and maintaining a high index of suspicion, performing serial examinations in patients at risk, and carefully documenting changes over time.

  10. Delayed onset thigh compartment syndrome secondary to contusion.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Rehman, Saqib

    2009-08-01

    While thigh compartment syndrome is relatively uncommon, it can occur in various situations. Multiple reports document thigh contusions as a cause of acute compartment syndrome; however, compartment syndrome of the thigh presenting primarily in a delayed fashion secondary to a contusion has not been described. This article reports a case of thigh compartment syndrome. A 39-year-old man sustained a left thigh contusion while playing basketball. He continued to play and also worked at the office over the next 2 days. Fifty-two hours postinjury, he developed severe pain in the thigh after a long walk. Increased swelling of the thigh followed, with numbness in the anterolateral thigh and pain with knee motion. He presented 60 hours postinjury with a compartment syndrome, and a lateral decompressive fasciotomy of the thigh was performed 62 hours postinjury. The wound was closed after 5 days. Three months postoperatively, the patient returned to playing basketball with no deficits. Treatment of established compartment syndrome in such cases is controversial, with some reports recommending nonoperative management. Contusion-related compartment syndromes are frequently associated with intramuscular bleeding in the involved compartment, which may accumulate slowly or worsen with further activity. Guidelines regarding return to sports need to be established in individuals sustaining severe contusions during sports-related activities to prevent compartment syndrome. Any individual sustaining such an injury should be under surveillance for delayed onset symptoms or signs of this potentially devastating syndrome.

  11. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  13. The definition of exertion-related cardiac events.

    PubMed

    Rai, M; Thompson, P D

    2011-02-01

    Vigorous physical activity increases the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but there is no standard definition as to what constitutes an exertion-related cardiac event, specifically the time interval between physical exertion and cardiac event. A systematic review of studies related to exertion-related cardiac events was performed and the time interval between exertion and the event or the symptoms leading to the event was looked for in all the articles selected for inclusion. A total of 12 of 26 articles "suggested" or "defined" exertion-related events as those events whose symptoms started during or within 1 h of exertion. Others used definitions of 0.5 h, 2 h, "during exertion", "during or immediately post exertion" and "during or within several hours after exertion". It is suggested, therefore, that the definition of an exertion-related cardiac event be established as a cardiac event in which symptoms started during or within 1 h of physical exertion.

  14. Epinephrine exerts anticoagulant effects during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Levi, M; Dentener, M; Jansen, P M; Coyle, S M; Braxton, C C; Buurman, W A; Hack, C E; ten Cate, J W; Lowry, S F

    1997-03-17

    To determine the effect of a physiologically relevant elevation in the plasma concentrations of epinephrine on the activation of the hemostatic mechanism during endotoxemia, 17 healthy men were studied after intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 ng/kg), while receiving a continuous infusion of epinephrine (30 ng/kg/min) started either 3 h (n = 5) or 24 h (n = 6) before LPS injection, or an infusion of normal saline (n = 6). Activation of the coagulation system (plasma concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes and prothrombin fragment F1+2) was significantly attenuated in the groups treated with epinephrine when compared with subjects injected with LPS only (P <0.05). Epinephrine enhanced LPS-induced activation of fibrinolysis (plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complexes; P <0.05), but did not influence inhibition of fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor type I). In subjects infused with epinephrine, the ratio of maximal activation of coagulation and maximal activation of fibrinolysis was reduced by >50%. Hence, epinephrine exerts antithrombotic effects during endotoxemia by concurrent inhibition of coagulation, and stimulation of fibrinolysis. Epinephrine, whether endogenously produced or administered as a component of treatment, may limit the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation during systemic infection.

  15. Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2008-06-01

    The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is pulled towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the ϕ4 model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the ϕ4 model. In the sine-Gordon (SG) model the time-averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the SG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a SG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton’s law.

  16. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses.

    PubMed

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-12-01

    Exertional fatigue early in exercise is a clinical hallmark of muscle glycogenoses, which is often coupled with painful muscle contractures and episodes of myoglobinuria. A fundamental biochemical problem in these conditions is the impaired generation of ATP to fuel muscle contractions, which relates directly to the metabolic defect, but also to substrate-limited energy deficiency, as exemplified by the "second wind" phenomenon in McArdle disease. A number of secondary events may also play a role in inducing premature fatigue in glycogenoses, including (1) absent or blunted muscle acidosis, which may be important for maintaining muscle membrane excitability by decreasing chloride permeability, (2) loss of the osmotic effect related to lactate accumulation, which may account for absence of the normal increase in water content of exercised muscle, and thus promote higher than normal concentrations of extracellular potassium in exercising muscle and (3) exaggerated accumulation of ADP during exercise that may inhibit sodium-potassium and calcium-ATPases. Disorders of muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis reveal the crucial role of these metabolic processes for supplying both anaerobic and aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue. PMID:23182633

  17. Negative radiation pressure exerted on kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Forgacs, Peter; Lukacs, Arpad; Romanczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2008-06-15

    The interaction of a kink and a monochromatic plane wave in one dimensional scalar field theories is studied. It is shown that in a large class of models the radiation pressure exerted on the kink is negative, i.e. the kink is pulled towards the source of the radiation. This effect has been observed by numerical simulations in the {phi}{sup 4} model, and it is explained by a perturbative calculation assuming that the amplitude of the incoming wave is small. Quite importantly the effect is shown to be robust against small perturbations of the {phi}{sup 4} model. In the sine-Gordon (SG) model the time-averaged radiation pressure acting on the kink turns out to be zero. The results of the perturbative computations in the SG model are shown to be in full agreement with an analytical solution corresponding to the superposition of a SG kink with a cnoidal wave. It is also demonstrated that the acceleration of the kink satisfies Newton's law.

  18. Exercise Device Would Exert Selectable Constant Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus called the resistive exercise device (RED) has been proposed to satisfy a requirement for exercise equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that could passively exert a selectable constant load on both the outward and return strokes. The RED could be used alone; alternatively, the RED could be used in combination with another apparatus called the treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization (TVIS), in which case the combination would be called the subject load device (SLD). The basic RED would be a passive device, but it could incorporate an electric motor to provide eccentric augmentation (augmentation to make the load during inward movement greater than the load during outward movement). The RED concept represents a unique approach to providing a constant but selectable resistive load for exercise for the maintenance and development of muscles. Going beyond the original ISS application, the RED could be used on Earth as resistive weight training equipment. The advantage of the RED over conventional weight-lifting equipment is that it could be made portable and lightweight.

  19. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-03-12

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain.

  20. Validity and reliability of rating perceived exertion in women with fibromyalgia: exertion-pain discrimination.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed (1) to assess the validity and reliability of the Borg category-ratio (CR-10) scale for monitoring exercise intensity in women with fibromyalgia (FM) and (2) to examine whether women with FM can discriminate between perceived exertion and exercise-induced pain. Thirty-three women with FM performed two incremental treadmill tests (1 week separated). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, minute ventilation and respiratory quotient were measured. The ratings of perceived exertion (RPE: CR-10 scale) and exercise-induced pain were obtained at each workload. The Spearman's correlation of RPE with the physiological responses ranged from 0.69 to 0.79. The regression models explained ~50% of the variability of the studied physiological responses. We found "perfect acceptable" agreement in 69% of the observations. Weighted Kappa was 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.72). There were differences between RPE and pain at workloads 3 (1.50; 95% CI: 0.85-2.16), 4 (2.10; 95% CI: 1.23-2.96), 5 (3.40; 95% CI: 1.29-5.51) and 6 (3.97; 95% CI: 1.61-6.33). The main findings of the present study suggest that the Borg CR-10 scale is valid and moderately reliable for monitoring exercise intensity in women with FM, and these patients were able to discriminate between exertion and exercise-induced pain. PMID:25537003

  1. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Maintenance of... compartments. Rooms, compartments, or other parts of the official plant shall be kept clean and in sanitary... light fixtures in the official plant shall be kept clean. (c) All docks and rooms shall be kept...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  4. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  5. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  6. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627 Section 169.627 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel...

  7. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel...

  8. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel machinery. 169.625 Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel...

  9. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.855 Section 29.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.855 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... control any fire that may start within the compartment. (d) (e) Class E. A Class E cargo compartment is... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... which— (1) The presence of a fire would be easily discovered by a crewmember while at his station;...

  11. Compartment syndrome presenting as ischemia following extravasation of contrast material

    PubMed Central

    Grand, Aaron; Yeager, Brian; Wollstein, Ronit

    2008-01-01

    A case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm, resulting from contrast dye extravasation that presented as upper extremity ischemia, is described. Timely surgical intervention resulted in an excellent outcome. When extravasation of dye occurs, the patient should be evaluated for compartment syndrome despite the possible lack of typical symptoms. PMID:19721799

  12. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... (2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight. (b) Class B. A Class B cargo or baggage compartment is one in which— (1) There is sufficient access in flight to enable a crewmember...

  13. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... (2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight. (b) Class B. A Class B cargo or baggage compartment is one in which— (1) There is sufficient access in flight to enable a crewmember...

  14. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-9 Compartment tanks....

  16. Spontaneous sequential compartment syndrome of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Abisi, Said; Yong, Yao Pey; Beech, Andrew; Oluwole, Akin; Tennant, William

    2013-10-01

    Spontaneous compartment syndrome is a rare condition and requires urgent surgical treatment to achieve favorable outcome. Several cases have been reported in the literature, and it has been associated with patients with diabetes. We present a case of acute spontaneous sequential compartment syndrome of the lower limbs in a patient with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.

  17. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  18. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered.

  19. Acute compartment syndrome in children: contemporary diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Bae, D S; Kadiyala, R K; Waters, P M

    2001-01-01

    Compartment syndrome can be difficult to diagnose in a child, with delays in diagnosis leading to disastrous outcomes. Thirty-six cases of compartment syndrome in 33 pediatric patients were treated at the authors' institution from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 1997. There were 27 boys and 6 girls, with nearly equal upper and lower extremity involvement. Approximately 75% of these patients developed compartment syndrome in the setting of fracture. Pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness were relatively unreliable signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome in these children. An increasing analgesia requirement in combination with other clinical signs, however, was a more sensitive indicator of compartment syndrome: all 10 patients with access to patient-controlled or nurse-administered analgesia during their initial evaluation demonstrated an increasing requirement for pain medication. With early diagnosis and expeditious treatment, >90% of the patients studied achieved full restoration of function.

  20. The Effect of Exertion on Heart Rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Acutely Concussed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea; Leddy, John; Freitas, Michael; Czuczman, Natalie; Willer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population. Methods We compared changes in heart rate and perceived effort during graded treadmill exertion in recently concussed patients to elucidate the effect of brain injury on cardiovascular response to exercise. Resting HR, HR on exercise initiation, and changes in HR and RPE during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) were compared on two test visits: When patients were symptomatic (acute) and after recovery. Results were compared with the test-retest results obtained from a control group consisting of healthy, non-concussed individuals. Results Patients had a significantly lower HR at onset of exercise when acutely concussed as compared to when recovered and reported greater perceived exertion at every exercise intensity level when symptomatic, despite exercising at lower workloads, than when recovered. Sympathetic response to increased exertion was not affected by concussion - HR increased in response to exercise at a comparable rate in both tests. These differences observed in response to exercise between the first BCTT and follow-up evaluation in initially concussed patients were not present in non-concussed individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest that during the acute phase after concussion, acutely concussed patients demonstrated an impaired ability to shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic control over heart rate at the onset of exercise. Changes in the autonomic nervous system after concussion may be more complex than previously reported. Continued evaluation of

  1. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA.

  2. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  3. Targeting intracellular compartments by magnetic polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kocbek, Petra; Kralj, Slavko; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kristl, Julijana

    2013-09-27

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show a great promise for a wide specter of bioapplications, due to their characteristic magnetic properties exhibited only in the presence of magnetic field. Their advantages in the fields of magnetic drug targeting and imaging are well established and their safety is assumed, since iron oxide nanoparticles have already been approved for in vivo application, however, according to many literature reports the bare metal oxide nanoparticles may cause toxic effects on treated cells. Therefore, it is reasonable to prevent the direct interactions between metal oxide core and surrounding environment. In the current research ricinoleic acid coated maghemite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized, characterized and incorporated in the polymeric matrix, resulting in nanosized magnetic polymeric particles. The carrier system was shown to exhibit superparamagnetic properties and was therefore responsive towards external magnetic field. Bioevaluation using T47-D breast cancer cells confirmed internalization of magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (MNPs) and their intracellular localization in various subcellular compartments, depending on presence/absence of external magnetic field. However, the number of internalized MNPs observed by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy was relatively low, making such way of targeting effective only for delivery of highly potent drugs. The scanning electron microscopy of treated cells revealed that MNPs influenced the cell adhesion, when external magnetic field was applied, and that treatment resulted in damaged apical plasma membrane right after exposure to the magnetic carrier. On the other hand, MNPs showed only reversibly reduced cellular metabolic activity in concentrations up to 200 μg/ml and, in the tested concentration the cell cycle distribution was within the normal range, indicating safety of the established magnetic carrier system for the treated cells.

  4. Exertion-induced fatigue and thermoregulation in the cold.

    PubMed

    Young, A J; Castellani, J W

    2001-04-01

    Cold exposure facilitates body heat loss which can reduce body temperature, unless mitigated by enhanced heat conservation or increased heat production. When behavioral strategies inadequately defend body temperature, vasomotor and thermogenic responses are elicited, both of which are modulated if not mediated by sympathetic nervous activation. Both exercise and shivering increase metabolic heat production which helps offset body heat losses in the cold. However, exercise also increases peripheral blood flow, in turn facilitating heat loss, an effect that can persist for some time after exercise ceases. Whether exercise alleviates or exacerbates heat debt during cold exposure depends on the heat transfer coefficient of the environment, mode of activity and exercise intensity. Prolonged exhaustive exercise leading to energy substrate depletion could compromise maintenance of thermal balance in the cold simply by precluding continuation of further exercise and the associated thermogenesis. Hypoglycemia impairs shivering, but this appears to be centrally mediated, rather than a limitation to peripheral energy metabolism. Research is equivocal regarding the importance of muscle glycogen depletion in explaining shivering impairments. Recent research suggests that when acute exercise leads to fatigue without depleting energy stores, vasoconstrictor responses to cold are impaired, thus body heat conservation becomes degraded. Fatigue that was induced by chronic overexertion sustained over many weeks, appeared to delay the onset of shivering until body temperature fell lower than when subjects were rested, as well as impair vasoconstrictor responses. When heavy physical activity is coupled with underfeeding for prolonged periods, the resulting negative energy balance leads to loss of body mass, and the corresponding reduction in tissue insulation, in turn, compromises thermal balance by facilitating conductive transfer of body heat from core to shell. The possibility that

  5. Mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in symptomatic smokers without COPD.

    PubMed

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Guenette, Jordan A; Faisal, Azmy; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Webb, Katherine A; Jensen, Dennis; Ramsook, Andrew H; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-09-01

    Dyspnoea and activity limitation can occur in smokers who do not meet spirometric criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Detailed pulmonary function tests and sensory-mechanical relationships during incremental exercise with respiratory pressure measurements and diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi) were compared in 20 smokers without spirometric COPD and 20 age-matched healthy controls.Smokers (mean±sd post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity 75±4%, mean±sd FEV1 104±14% predicted) had greater activity-related dyspnoea, poorer health status and lower physical activity than controls. Smokers had peripheral airway dysfunction: higher phase-III nitrogen slopes (3.8±1.8 versus 2.6±1.1%·L(-1)) and airway resistance (difference between airway resistance measured at 5 Hz and 20 Hz 19±11 versus 12±7% at 5 Hz) than controls (p<0.05). Smokers had significantly (p<0.05) lower peak oxygen uptake (78±40 versus 107±45% predicted) and ventilation (61±26 versus 97±29 L·min(-1)). Exercise ventilatory requirements, operating lung volumes and cardio-circulatory responses were similar. However, submaximal dyspnoea ratings, resistive and total work of breathing were increased in smokers compared with controls (p<0.05); diaphragmatic effort (transdiaphragmatic pressure/maximumal transdiaphragmatic pressure) and fractional inspiratory neural drive to the diaphragm (EMGdi/maximal EMGdi) were also increased (p<0.05) mainly reflecting the reduced denominator.Symptomatic smokers at risk for COPD had greater exertional dyspnoea and lower exercise tolerance compared with healthy controls in association with greater airways resistance, contractile diaphragmatic effort and fractional inspiratory neural drive to the diaphragm. PMID:27492828

  6. Stochastic Turing patterns: analysis of compartment-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-12-01

    Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  7. Lateral compartment cartilage changes and lateral elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Aysha; Pooley, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    The aim of our study is to document the arthroscopic findings in resistant lateral elbow pain. We have reviewed the findings in a consecutive series of 117 elbow arthroscopies performed on patients with lateral elbow pain resistant to conservative treatment. We found established degenerative changes involving articular cartilage in 68 patients (59%). In 60 of these 68 patients (88%) the degenerative changes were confined to the lateral compartment and contrasted with a normal appearance of the articular cartilage of the medial compartment. Primary lateral compartment arthritis is more common than previously thought, it mostly affects a young population and could easily be misdiagnosed as lateral epicondylitis.

  8. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Shadgan, Babak; Menon, Matthew; Sanders, David; Berry, Gregg; Martin, Claude; Duffy, Paul; Stephen, David; O'Brien, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make. In this article, we review the clinical risk factors of acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity, identify the current concepts of diagnosis and discuss appropriate treatment plans. We also describe the Canadian medicolegal environment in regard to compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

  9. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  10. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  11. Using Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagally, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion have been shown to be a valid method of monitoring physical activity intensity for both adults and children. As such, this subjective method may serve as an alternative to objective measurements for assessing students' performance on national standards 2 and 4. The OMNI-Child perceived exertion scales were…

  12. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  13. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  14. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b) Exertional limitations. When... pain, affect only the claimant's ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  15. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis: What Is It and Why Should We Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David Q.; Carlson, Kelli A.; Marzano, Amy; Garrahy, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis gained increased attention recently when 13 football players from the University of Iowa developed this condition after an especially demanding practice session and were hospitalized. Exertional rhabdomyolysis may lead to severe kidney stress, kidney failure, and even sudden death. Anyone who does physical exercise at a…

  16. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... limitations. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, may cause... classification of a limitation as exertional is related to the United States Department of Labor's classification... Department of Labor, to determine the exertional requirements of work which exists in the national...

  17. Reactive oxygen species exert opposite effects on Tyr23 phosphorylation of the nuclear and cortical pools of annexin A2

    PubMed Central

    Grindheim, Ann Kari; Hollås, Hanne; Raddum, Aase M.; Saraste, Jaakko; Vedeler, Anni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multi-functional and -compartmental protein whose subcellular localisation and functions are tightly regulated by its post-translational modifications. AnxA2 and its Tyr23-phosphorylated form (pTyr23AnxA2) are involved in malignant cell transformation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Here, we show that H2O2 exerts rapid, simultaneous and opposite effects on the Tyr23 phosphorylation status of AnxA2 in two distinct compartments of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Reactive oxygen species induce dephosphorylation of pTyr23AnxA2 located in the PML bodies of the nucleus, whereas AnxA2 associated with F-actin at the cell cortex is Tyr23 phosphorylated. The H2O2-induced responses in both compartments are transient and the pTyr23AnxA2 accumulating at the cell cortex is subsequently incorporated into vesicles and then released to the extracellular space. Blocking nuclear export by leptomycin B does not affect the nuclear pool of pTyr23AnxA2, but increases the amount of total AnxA2 in this compartment, indicating that the protein might have several functions in the nucleus. These results suggest that Tyr23 phosphorylation can regulate the function of AnxA2 at distinct subcellular sites. PMID:26644180

  18. Exertional myopathy in whooping cranes (Grus americana) with prognostic guidlelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanley, C.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Paul-Murphy, P.; Hartup, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    Exertional myopathy developed in three whooping cranes (Grus americana) secondary to routine capture, handling, and trauma. Presumptive diagnosis of exertional myopathy was based on history of recent capture or trauma, clinical signs, and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum potassium. Treatments were attempted in each case, but ultimately were not successful. Gross and microscopic lesions at necropsy confirmed the diagnosis in each case, with the leg musculature most severely affected. Guidelines for determining prognosis of exertional myopathy in cranes have been included based on the analysis of these cases and others in the literature. As treatment is largely unrewarding, prevention remains the key in controlling exertional myopathy. Identification of predisposing factors and proper handling, immobilization, and transportation techniques can help prevent development of exertional myopathy in cranes.

  19. 3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INCLINE PLANE CAR INTERIOR, UPPER COMPARTMENT. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the flight and ground... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate...

  4. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the flight and ground... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate...

  5. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... critical load distributions at the appropriate maximum load factors corresponding to the flight and ground... any compartment, located aft of the occupants and separated by structure, when the ultimate...

  6. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fabrics, leather, trays and galley furnishings, electrical conduit, thermal and acoustical insulation and insulation covering, air ducting, joint and edge covering, cargo compartment liners, insulation blankets... cable insulation, and for small parts (such as knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips, grommets,...

  7. 113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING MASTER GYRO AND INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  10. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  11. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  12. Two clinical tests for assessing lateral compartment arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David

    2006-08-01

    Two clinical tests, the valgus tap test and the valgus skid test, are described which detect bone contact in the lateral compartment of the knee. They are useful in planning surgical intervention. PMID:16632364

  13. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  14. Compartment syndrome: a complication of acute extremity trauma.

    PubMed

    Mabee, J R

    1994-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of trauma to the extremities. Fractures, crush injuries, burns, and arterial injuries, among others, can result in increased tissue pressure within closed osseofascial or compartmental spaces. Prolonged exposure to elevated pressure can result in nerve and muscle necrosis. Extreme pain unrelieved with analgesia, subjective complaint of pressure, pain with passive muscle stretching, paresis, paresthesia, and intact pulses, in the presence of a physically tight compartment, should alert the physician to the presence of a compartment syndrome. The diagnosis is a clinical one, but it may be aided by measurements of intracompartmental tissue pressures. Compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency requiring prompt treatment by fasciotomy. Time is a critical factor; the longer the duration of elevated tissue pressure, the greater the potential for disastrous sequelae. Emergency medicine providers must be cognizant of this clinical syndrome so that early emergent surgical consultation can be obtained to avoid complications.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    von Keudell, Arvind G; Weaver, Michael J; Appleton, Paul T; Appelton, Paul T; Bae, Donald S; Dyer, George S M; Heng, Marilyn; Jupiter, Jesse B; Vrahas, Mark S

    2015-09-26

    Acute compartment syndrome of the extremities is well known, but diagnosis can be challenging. Ineffective treatment can have devastating consequences, such as permanent dysaesthesia, ischaemic contractures, muscle dysfunction, loss of limb, and even loss of life. Despite many studies, there is no consensus about the way in which acute extremity compartment syndromes should be diagnosed. Many surgeons suggest continuous monitoring of intracompartmental pressure for all patients who have high-risk extremity injuries, whereas others suggest aggressive surgical intervention if acute compartment syndrome is even suspected. Although surgical fasciotomy might reduce intracompartmental pressure, this procedure also carries the risk of long-term complications. In this paper in The Lancet Series about emergency surgery we summarise the available data on acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children, discuss the underlying pathophysiology, and propose a clinical guideline based on the available data.

  16. Propofol extravasation: a rare cause of compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalraiya, Ashish Jain; Madanipour, Suroosh; Colaco, Henry; Cobiella, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We detail a rare cause of forearm compartment syndrome that occurred in an 18-year-old patient who presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 13/15 after a mixed drug overdose and subsequently required intubation. She suffered extravasation of her propofol infusion, which resulted in intrinsic compression within her forearm muscle compartments. Fortunately, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made swiftly and the patient was taken to theatre within 3 h where she underwent an emergency forearm fasciotomy. She made an uneventful recovery and at follow-up her wounds had healed well with no associated morbidity or loss of function. The learning points of this study highlight the importance of thoroughly understanding the signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome while maintaining a high index of suspicion. In addition to a thorough history and examination, consideration of the potential underlying causes allows for a swifter diagnosis and a quicker transition to theatre.

  17. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Current Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luckianow, Gina M.; Ellis, Matthew; Governale, Deborah; Kaplan, Lewis J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome's manifestations are difficult to definitively detect on physical examination alone. Therefore, objective criteria have been articulated that aid the bedside clinician in detecting intra-abdominal hypertension as well as the abdominal compartment syndrome to initiate prompt and potentially life-saving intervention. At-risk patient populations should be routinely monitored and tiered interventions should be undertaken as a team approach to management. PMID:22720147

  18. The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.

    PubMed

    Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

    2014-10-01

    A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. PMID:24929991

  19. CHRONIC LEG PAIN IN A DIVISION II FIELD HOCKEY PLAYER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Julie; Becker, Jonathan A.; Hazle, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Exertional compartment syndromes in athletes represent a diagnostic and management challenge for clinicians. The clinical presentation of exertional compartment syndrome is similar to other more common musculoskeletal disorders. A lack of special tests or unique diagnostic identifiers for use in decision making by out‐patient clinicians complicates early recognition of this disorder and may delay optimal management. The purpose of this case report is to retrospectively explore the clinical presentation and the decision‐making during the course of care of a field hockey athlete eventually determined to have exertional compartment syndrome. Suggestions to assist in recognition and guidance in patient management are included as well as the procedures required for differential diagnosis. Procedures utilized during conservative care are also described in detail. Level of Evidence: 5 (Single Case Report) PMID:24567863

  20. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  1. NSort/DB: an intranuclear compartment protein database.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, Kai; Mohamad, Nurul; Bodén, Mikael

    2012-08-01

    Distinct substructures within the nucleus are associated with a wide variety of important nuclear processes. Structures such as chromatin and nuclear pores have specific roles, while others such as Cajal bodies are more functionally varied. Understanding the roles of these membraneless intra-nuclear compartments requires extensive data sets covering nuclear and compartment-associated proteins. NSort/DB is a database providing access to intra- or sub-nuclear compartment associations for the mouse nuclear proteome. Based on resources ranging from large-scale curated data sets to detailed experiments, this data set provides a high-quality set of annotations of non-exclusive association of nuclear proteins with structures such as promyelocytic leukaemia bodies and chromatin. The database is searchable by protein identifier or compartment, and has a documented web service API. The search interface, web service and data download are all freely available online at http://www.nsort.org/db/. Availability of this data set will enable systematic analyses of the protein complements of nuclear compartments, improving our understanding of the diverse functional repertoire of these structures.

  2. Numerical modelling of crural fascia mechanical interaction with muscular compartments.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Natali, Arturo N

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of the crural fascia with muscular compartments and surrounding tissues can be at the origin of different pathologies, such as compartment syndrome. This pathology consists in the onset of excessive intracompartmental pressure, which can have serious consequences for the patient, compromising blood circulation. The investigation of compartment syndrome etiology also takes into account the alteration of crural fascia mechanical properties as a cause of the syndrome, where the fascial stiffening would result in the rise of intracompartmental pressure. This work presents a computational approach toward evaluating some biomechanical aspects of the problem, within the context of a more global viewpoint. Finite element analyses of the interaction phenomena of the crural fascia with adjacent regions are reported here. This study includes the effects of a fascial stiffness increase along the proximal-distal direction and their possible clinical implications. Furthermore, the relationship between different pre-strain levels of the crural fascia in the proximal-distal direction and the rise of internal pressure in muscular compartments are considered. The numerical analyses can clarify which aspects could be directly implied in the rise of compartment syndrome, leading to greater insight into muscle-fascia mechanical phenomena, as well as promoting experimental investigation and clinical analysis of the syndrome.

  3. Bilaterally Symmetrical Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome following Massive Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Karaoren, Gulsah; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Senay Goksu; Topaç, Zelin; Kurtulmuş, Tuhan; Irkören, Saime

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a serious condition characterized by raised intracompartmental pressure, which develops following trauma. Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a term reserved for compartment syndrome in a nontraumatic setting, usually resulting from prolonged lithotomy position during surgery. In literature, 8 cases have been reported regarding well leg compartment syndrome in a supine position and bilateral symmetrical involvement was observed in only 2 cases. In WLCS etiology, lengthy surgery, lengthy hypotension, and extremity malpositioning have been held responsible but one of the factors with a role in the etiology may have been the tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation formed from the effect of vasoactive mediators expressed into the circulation associated with the massive blood transfusion. The case is presented here regarding symmetrical lower extremity compartment syndrome after surgery in which massive transfusion was made for gross haemorrhage from an abdominal injury. In conclusion, blood transfusion applied at the required time is life-saving but potential risks must always be considered. PMID:26885421

  4. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot in a 17-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio; Roda, Simone; Florschutz, Anthony Vatroslav

    2012-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is both a life and limb threatening surgical emergency, caused by an increase in compartment contents due to either trauma or surgery. We illustrate a foot compartment syndrome, clinically diagnosed, that took place after direct injury during a football match. Compartments release through fasciotomies promptly relieved symptoms. Educational images are furnished.

  5. Intense basketball-simulated exercise induces muscle damage in men with elevated anterior compartment pressure.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, Nikos; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Siatitsas, Ioannis; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Kambas, Antonios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Fotinakis, Panagiotis

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the levels of muscle soreness, muscle damage, and performance output in men with (S, n = 24) or without (A, n = 24) chronic compartment syndrome (CACS)-related symptoms after an intense 10-minute basketball-simulated exercise. Anterior compartment pressure (ICP), muscle soreness perception, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, myoglobin (Mb) concentration, leg strength, and knee joint range of motion (KJRM) were measured at rest, immediately after exercise, and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours postexercise (ICP was also measured at 5, 15, and 30 minutes postexercise). ICP, muscle soreness, CK, LDH, and myoglobin increased (p < 0.05) immediately postexercise and during the next 4 days of recovery in both groups. However, S demonstrated a far more pronounced and prolonged (p < 0.05) response than A. Leg strength and KJRM declined (p < 0.05) in both groups, but S demonstrated a greater (p < 0.05) performance deterioration than A. The results of this study suggest that intense basketball-simulated exercise increases ICP, muscle soreness, and indices of muscle damage with a concomitant decrease of performance. Men with CACS-related symptoms and/or history appear more sensitive to muscle damage and soreness than asymptomatic men, probably due to a compromised blood flow to the muscle producing fluid shifts from vascular to interstitial space and further increasing compartment pressure and muscle cell disruption. Results of the present investigation provide evidence to support proper diagnosis, monitoring, care, and preventive measures for symptomatic individuals prior to participation in activities such as basketball.

  6. On the origin of genomes and cells within inorganic compartments.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Martin, William

    2005-12-01

    Building on the model of Russell and Hall for the emergence of life at a warm submarine hydrothermal vent, we suggest that, within a hydrothermally formed system of contiguous iron-sulfide (FeS) compartments, populations of virus-like RNA molecules, which eventually encoded one or a few proteins each, became the agents of both variation and selection. The initial darwinian selection was for molecular self-replication. Combinatorial sorting of genetic elements among compartments would have resulted in preferred proliferation and selection of increasingly complex molecular ensembles--those compartment contents that achieved replication advantages. The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) we propose was not free-living but an inorganically housed assemblage of expressed and replicable genetic elements. The evolution of the enzymatic systems for (i) DNA replication; and (ii) membrane and cell wall biosynthesis, enabled independent escape of the first archaebacterial and eubacterial cells from their hydrothermal hatchery, within which the LUCA itself remained confined. PMID:16223546

  7. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT.

  8. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  9. Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures. PMID:24048681

  10. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard David James; Rust-March, Holly; Kluzek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of obvious trauma, diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh can easily be delayed, as disproportional pain is not always present. We present a case of ACS of the anterior right thigh compartment in a healthy, semiprofessional rugby player with normal coagulation, who sustained a seemingly innocuous blow during a rugby match. Following early surgical fasciotomy, he returned to his preinjury playing standards within 12 months. Our literature review suggests that high muscle mass, young, athletic males participating in a contact sport are mostly at risk of developing ACS of the thigh.

  11. Muscle activation characteristics in cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain.

    PubMed

    Federolf, Peter; Bakker, Emily

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of elite cross-country skiers suffer from chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). This study used surface electromyograms (EMGs) to investigate whether differences existed in the activation characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle between elite cross-country skiers with a history of anterior compartment pain (symptomatic group) and a pain-free control group. Based on self-reported pain symptoms, twelve young, national-level cross-country ski athletes were assigned to a symptomatic group (N = 5), a control group (N = 4), or analyzed individually if their diagnosis was not certain (N = 3). During skating, EMGs were recorded on five lower leg muscles. The relative increase in EMG power per step when increasing the effort level of skating was larger in the symptomatic group than in the control group for tibialis anterior (143 +/- 12% vs. 125 +/- 23%; Cohen's d = 1.17), peroneus longus (123 +/- 24% vs. 107 +/- 6%; d = 0.91), and gastrocnemius lateralis (167 +/- 51% vs. 117 +/- 12%; d = 1.64). The symptomatic group showed more power in the lower frequency bands of the tibialis anterior's EMG spectra (p < 0.001), whereas no group differences were found in other muscles (all p > 0.2). Within the step cycle, these differences appeared in the swing phase and in the gliding phase during single leg support. The observed differences in the EMG spectra may serve as an early identification of athletes who are at risk of developing CACS.

  12. Persulfate activation during exertion of total oxidant demand.

    PubMed

    Teel, Amy L; Elloy, Farah C; Watts, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Total oxidant demand (TOD) is a parameter that is often measured during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatability studies. The importance of TOD is based on the concept that the oxidant demand created by soil organic matter and other reduced species must be overcome before contaminant oxidation can proceed. TOD testing was originally designed for permanganate ISCO, but has also recently been applied to activated persulfate ISCO. Recent studies have documented that phenoxides activate persulfate; because soil organic matter is rich in phenolic moieties, it may activate persulfate rather than simply exerting TOD. Therefore, the generation of reactive oxygen species was investigated in three soil horizons of varied soil organic carbon content over 5-day TOD testing. Hydroxyl radical may have been generated during TOD exertion, but was likely scavenged by soil organic matter. A high flux of reductants + nucleophiles (e.g. alkyl radicals + superoxide) was generated as TOD was exerted, resulting in the rapid destruction of the probe compound hexachloroethane and the common groundwater contaminant trichloroethylene (TCE). The results of this research document that, unlike permanganate TOD, contaminant destruction does occur as TOD is exerted in persulfate ISCO systems and is promoted by the activation of persulfate by soil organic matter. Future treatability studies for persulfate ISCO should consider contaminant destruction as TOD is exerted, and the potential for persulfate activation by soil organic matter. PMID:27269993

  13. Arthroscopic Bullet Removal From the Central and Peripheral Compartments of the Hip Joint.

    PubMed

    Howse, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Jason P; Stone, Austin V; Mannava, Sandeep; Stubbs, Allston J

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in hip arthroscopy offer an approach for treating an uncommon but highly disabling injury from intra-articular missile injury to the hip. Hip arthroscopy affords the patient the benefit of minimally invasive surgery while allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of concomitant pathology, which may be either acute, from the trauma of the missile, or chronic. We present a technique for the removal of projectiles from the central and peripheral compartments of the hip joint. Through a surgical series of a variety of gunshot wounds, we detail the unique aspects of retrieval for the various missile endpoints. We describe this technique for bullets or pieces of bullets lodged within the hip joint space, bone of the acetabulum, or femoral head. Furthermore, we provide an example in which hip arthroscopy is not a suitable option for treatment because of the resulting fracture pattern, which necessitates open reduction along with internal fixation. PMID:27489755

  14. Arthroscopic Bullet Removal From the Central and Peripheral Compartments of the Hip Joint.

    PubMed

    Howse, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Jason P; Stone, Austin V; Mannava, Sandeep; Stubbs, Allston J

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in hip arthroscopy offer an approach for treating an uncommon but highly disabling injury from intra-articular missile injury to the hip. Hip arthroscopy affords the patient the benefit of minimally invasive surgery while allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of concomitant pathology, which may be either acute, from the trauma of the missile, or chronic. We present a technique for the removal of projectiles from the central and peripheral compartments of the hip joint. Through a surgical series of a variety of gunshot wounds, we detail the unique aspects of retrieval for the various missile endpoints. We describe this technique for bullets or pieces of bullets lodged within the hip joint space, bone of the acetabulum, or femoral head. Furthermore, we provide an example in which hip arthroscopy is not a suitable option for treatment because of the resulting fracture pattern, which necessitates open reduction along with internal fixation.

  15. A case of mitochondrial cytopathy with exertion induced dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonias are a group of relatively benign hyperkinetic childhood movement disorders of varied etiology. Mitochondrial diseases are well known to produce persistent dystonias as sequelae, but paroxysmal exertion induced dystonia has been reported in only one case to the best of our knowledge. Two siblings born to consanguineous parents presented with early-onset exertion induced dystonia, which was unresponsive to diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine. A trial with valproate in one of the siblings turned fatal within 24 h. Based on this clue, the second child was investigated and found to suffer from complex I deficiency with a paternally inherited dominant nuclear DNA mutation, which is responsive to the mitochondrial cocktail. Exertion induced dystonia can be a rare manifestation of complex I deficiency. PMID:26557169

  16. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  17. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F.; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  18. In a rat model of panic, corticotropin responses to dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation depend on physical exertion.

    PubMed

    de Souza Armini, Rubia; Bernabé, Cristian Setúbal; Rosa, Caroline Azevedo; Siller, Carlos Antônio; Schimitel, Fagna Giacomin; Tufik, Sérgio; Klein, Donald Franklin; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Panic disorder patients are exquisitely and specifically sensitive to hypercapnia. The demonstration that carbon dioxide provokes panic in fear-unresponsive amygdala-calcified Urbach-Wiethe patients emphasizes that panic is not fear nor does it require the activation of the amygdala. This is consonant with increasing evidence suggesting that panic is mediated caudally at midbrain's dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG). Another startling feature of the apparently spontaneous clinical panic is the counterintuitive lack of increments in corticotropin, cortisol and prolactin, generally considered 'stress hormones'. Here we show that the stress hormones are not changed during DPAG-evoked panic when escape is prevented by stimulating the rat in a small compartment. Neither did the corticotropin increase when physical exertion was statistically adjusted to the same degree as non-stimulated controls, as measured by lactate plasma levels. Conversely, neuroendocrine responses to foot-shocks were independent from muscular effort. Data are consonant with DPAG mediation of panic attacks. PMID:25618592

  19. In a rat model of panic, corticotropin responses to dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation depend on physical exertion.

    PubMed

    de Souza Armini, Rubia; Bernabé, Cristian Setúbal; Rosa, Caroline Azevedo; Siller, Carlos Antônio; Schimitel, Fagna Giacomin; Tufik, Sérgio; Klein, Donald Franklin; Schenberg, Luiz Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Panic disorder patients are exquisitely and specifically sensitive to hypercapnia. The demonstration that carbon dioxide provokes panic in fear-unresponsive amygdala-calcified Urbach-Wiethe patients emphasizes that panic is not fear nor does it require the activation of the amygdala. This is consonant with increasing evidence suggesting that panic is mediated caudally at midbrain's dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG). Another startling feature of the apparently spontaneous clinical panic is the counterintuitive lack of increments in corticotropin, cortisol and prolactin, generally considered 'stress hormones'. Here we show that the stress hormones are not changed during DPAG-evoked panic when escape is prevented by stimulating the rat in a small compartment. Neither did the corticotropin increase when physical exertion was statistically adjusted to the same degree as non-stimulated controls, as measured by lactate plasma levels. Conversely, neuroendocrine responses to foot-shocks were independent from muscular effort. Data are consonant with DPAG mediation of panic attacks.

  20. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... rabbits are prepared, processed, handled, and stored. (g) Inspector's office. Furnished office...

  1. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... rabbits are prepared, processed, handled, and stored. (g) Inspector's office. Furnished office...

  2. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.787 Section 27.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and...

  3. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.787 Section 29.787 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and...

  4. Regulating mechanical tension at compartment boundaries in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Marcus; Dahmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During animal development, cells with similar function and fate often stay together and sort out from cells with different fates. In Drosophila wing imaginal discs, cells of anterior and posterior fates are separated by a straight compartment boundary. Separation of anterior and posterior cells requires the homeodomain-containing protein Engrailed, which is expressed in posterior cells. Engrailed induces the expression of the short-range signaling molecule Hedgehog in posterior cells and confines Hedgehog signal transduction to anterior cells. Transduction of the Hedgehog signal in anterior cells is required for the separation of anterior and posterior cells. Previous work showed that this separation of cells involves a local increase in mechanical tension at cell junctions along the compartment boundary. However, how mechanical tension was locally increased along the compartment boundary remained unknown. A recent paper now shows that the difference in Hedgehog signal transduction between anterior and posterior cells is necessary and sufficient to increase mechanical tension. The local increase in mechanical tension biases junctional rearrangements during cell intercalations to maintain the straight shape of the compartment boundary. These data highlight how developmental signals can generate patterns of mechanical tension important for tissue organization. PMID:27362651

  5. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Gluteal compartment syndrome after prostatectomy caused by incorrect positioning.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Jens; Ladurner, R; Ozimek, A; Vogel, T; Hallfeldt, K K; Mussack, T

    2006-04-28

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is an uncommon and rare disease. Most reasonable causes for the development of this disease are trauma, drug induced coma, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, sickle cell associated muscle infarction, incorrect positioning during surgical procedures and prolonged pressure in patients with altered consciousness levels. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, especially in postoperative patient where sedation or peridural anaesthesia can confound the neurological examination. Early signs include gluteal tenderness, decrease in vibratory sensation during clinical examination and increasing CK in laboratory findings. We present a case of a 52 year-old patient, who developed gluteal compartment syndrome after radical prostatectomy in lithotomic position. After operation, diuresis decreased [<50 ml/h] and CK [93927 U/l], LDH [1528 U/l], creatinin [1.5 mg/dl] and urea [20 mg/dl] increased in laboratory findings. Despite peridural anaesthesia, the patient complained about increasing pain in the gluteal region and both thighs. His thighs and the gluteal region were swollen. Passive stretch of the thighs caused enormous pain. The compartment pressure was 92 mmHg. Therefore, emergency fasciotomy was performed successfully. The gluteal compartment syndrome was most likely caused by elevated pressure on the gluteal muscle during operation. We suggest heightened awareness of positioning the patient on the operating table is important especially in obese patients with lengthy operating procedures. PMID:16720283

  7. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  8. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... live rabbits or killing operations be permitted in rooms in which eviscerating operations are...

  9. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments. 354.241 Section 354.241 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... such regularity as may be necessary to maintain them in a sanitary condition. (f) The killing...

  10. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery..., and be installed so that the ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not trap the duct....

  11. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery..., and be installed so that the ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not trap the duct....

  12. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 169.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.625 Compartments containing diesel machinery..., and be installed so that the ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not trap the duct....

  13. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station. (c) Class C. A... approved smoke or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station; (3) There... (2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight. (b) Class B. A Class B cargo...

  14. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... detector or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station. (c) Class C. A... approved smoke or fire detector system to give warning at the pilot or flight engineer station; (3) There... (2) Each part of the compartment is easily accessible in flight. (b) Class B. A Class B cargo...

  15. Miniature galvanic cell construction providing gas channels between electrode compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Urry, L. F.

    1985-03-26

    An improved miniature galvanic cell construction having a sealing gasket with channels defined through the base of the gasket. The channels provide means for the exchange of gaseous products around the cell separator and between the electrode compartments so as to reduce the overall internal pressure of the cell.

  16. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  17. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  18. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  19. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  20. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  1. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  2. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  3. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  4. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  5. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  6. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  7. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Regulating mechanical tension at compartment boundaries in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Michel, Marcus; Dahmann, Christian

    2016-10-01

    During animal development, cells with similar function and fate often stay together and sort out from cells with different fates. In Drosophila wing imaginal discs, cells of anterior and posterior fates are separated by a straight compartment boundary. Separation of anterior and posterior cells requires the homeodomain-containing protein Engrailed, which is expressed in posterior cells. Engrailed induces the expression of the short-range signaling molecule Hedgehog in posterior cells and confines Hedgehog signal transduction to anterior cells. Transduction of the Hedgehog signal in anterior cells is required for the separation of anterior and posterior cells. Previous work showed that this separation of cells involves a local increase in mechanical tension at cell junctions along the compartment boundary. However, how mechanical tension was locally increased along the compartment boundary remained unknown. A recent paper now shows that the difference in Hedgehog signal transduction between anterior and posterior cells is necessary and sufficient to increase mechanical tension. The local increase in mechanical tension biases junctional rearrangements during cell intercalations to maintain the straight shape of the compartment boundary. These data highlight how developmental signals can generate patterns of mechanical tension important for tissue organization.

  9. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.853 Passenger and crew compartment interiors. For each... least fire resistant materials and must contain fires likely to occur in it under normal use. The ability of the disposal receptacle to contain those fires under all probable conditions of...

  10. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  11. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  12. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... rabbits are prepared, processed, handled, and stored. (g) Inspector's office. Furnished office...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1193 - Cowling and engine compartment covering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must be constructed and supported so that it can resist the vibration, inertia, and air loads to which... least fire resistant. (e) Each part of the cowling or engine compartment covering subject to high temperatures due to its nearness to exhaust system parts or exhaust gas impingement must be fireproof. (f)...

  18. Is a mosaic embryo also a mosaic of communication compartments?

    PubMed

    Serras, F; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1987-03-01

    We have studied the pathways of cell communication in embryos of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis in which the developmental fate of a cell or a group of cells is known from cell lineage studies. We iontophoretically injected Lucifer Yellow CH and followed the spread of fluorescence between cells interconnected via gap junctions. In early stages all blastomeres appear to be dye-coupled, but later on communication is restricted within compartments. The pattern of cell communication corresponds with the development of compartments with specific cell fates. Dye-spread is limited by communication boundaries which completely or mostly prevent the passage of dye to adjacent compartments with different developmental fates. These boundaries appear progressively during development. Our results suggest that, during the development of Lymnaea, the progressive changes in the pattern of dye spread correspond with the progressive restrictions of the developmental fates of individual cells or groups of cells. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cell communication and in the appearance of communication compartments are not exclusive features of regulative embryos. PMID:3817285

  19. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case < 10 days per month). It is necessary to avoid the use of combined analgesics, opioids and ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A.

  20. Perceived Exertion: An Old Exercise Tool Finds New Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Terry

    1988-01-01

    Perceived exertion scales, based on subjective perception of energy output, are gaining respect as prescribing and monitoring tools for individual exercise programs. A review of recent literature indicates growing research interest in applications for individuals who are elderly, inactive, or subject to medical conditions such as angina. (IAH)

  1. Exertional heat illness: emerging concepts and advances in prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Roth, Ronald N; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2015-06-01

    Exertional heat illness is a classification of disease with clinical presentations that are not always diagnosed easily. Exertional heat stroke is a significant cause of death in competitive sports, and the increasing popularity of marathons races and ultra-endurance competitions will make treating many heat illnesses more common for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Although evidence is available primarily from case series and healthy volunteer studies, the consensus for treating exertional heat illness, coupled with altered mental status, is whole body rapid cooling. Cold or ice water immersion remains the most effective treatment to achieve this goal. External thermometry is unreliable in the context of heat stress and direct internal temperature measurement by rectal or esophageal probes must be used when diagnosing heat illness and during cooling. With rapid recognition and implementation of effective cooling, most patients suffering from exertional heat stroke will recover quickly and can be discharged home with instructions to rest and to avoid heat stress and exercise for a minimum of 48 hours; although, further research pertaining to return to activity is warranted.

  2. Are the Measurements of Attention Allocation and Perceived Exertion Trustworthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Gily; Hutchinson, Jasmin C.; Habeeb, Christine M.; Boiangin, Nataniel M.; Shaffer, Cory; Basevitch, Itay; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined the trustworthiness of commonly used measurement scales for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and state attentional focus (SAF) during exercise. In Study 1, participants (N = 24, 14 female) performed a treadmill graded-exercise test. The order of scale presentation during the task was manipulated (i.e., RPE followed by SAF…

  3. Perception of Forces Exerted by Objects in Collision Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Impressions of force are commonplace in the visual perception of objects interacting. It is proposed that these impressions have their source in haptically mediated experiences of exertion of force in actions on objects. Visual impressions of force in interactions between objects occur by a kind of generalization of the proprioceptive impression…

  4. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  5. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  8. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... or restrictions imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional... imposed by your impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... impairment(s) and related symptoms, such as pain, are exertional, nonexertional, or a combination of both. (b... symptoms, such as pain, affect only your ability to meet the strength demands of jobs (sitting,...

  10. Exertional heat illness: emerging concepts and advances in prehospital care.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Riana R; Roth, Ronald N; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

    2015-06-01

    Exertional heat illness is a classification of disease with clinical presentations that are not always diagnosed easily. Exertional heat stroke is a significant cause of death in competitive sports, and the increasing popularity of marathons races and ultra-endurance competitions will make treating many heat illnesses more common for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. Although evidence is available primarily from case series and healthy volunteer studies, the consensus for treating exertional heat illness, coupled with altered mental status, is whole body rapid cooling. Cold or ice water immersion remains the most effective treatment to achieve this goal. External thermometry is unreliable in the context of heat stress and direct internal temperature measurement by rectal or esophageal probes must be used when diagnosing heat illness and during cooling. With rapid recognition and implementation of effective cooling, most patients suffering from exertional heat stroke will recover quickly and can be discharged home with instructions to rest and to avoid heat stress and exercise for a minimum of 48 hours; although, further research pertaining to return to activity is warranted. PMID:25860637

  11. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... classification of a limitation as exertional is related to the United States Department of Labor's classification... demands) which is contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles published by the Department of...

  12. 20 CFR 416.969a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., such as pain, may cause limitations of function or restrictions which limit your ability to meet... classification of a limitation as exertional is related to the United States Department of Labor's classification... demands) which is contained in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles published by the Department of...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 404.1569a Section 404.1569a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1569a - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exertional and nonexertional limitations. 404.1569a Section 404.1569a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1567 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physical exertion requirements. 404.1567 Section 404.1567 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Vocational Considerations §...

  19. Do obese children perceive submaximal and maximal exertion differently?

    PubMed

    Belanger, Kevin; Breithaupt, Peter; Ferraro, Zachary M; Barrowman, Nick; Rutherford, Jane; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Colley, Rachel C; Adamo, Kristi B

    2013-01-01

    We examined how obese children perceive a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with a submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. Twenty-one obese children (body mass index ≥95th percentile, ages 10-17 years) completed maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests on 2 separate occasions. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and overall perceived exertion (Borg 15-category scale) were measured in both fitness tests. At comparable workloads, perceived exertion was rated significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test compared with the maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. The submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness test was significantly longer than the maximal test (14:21 ± 04:04 seconds vs. 12:48 ± 03:27 seconds, P < 0.001). Our data indicate that at the same relative intensity, obese children report comparable or even higher perceived exertion during submaximal fitness testing than during maximal fitness testing. Perceived exertion in a sample of children and youth with obesity may be influenced by test duration and protocol design.

  20. Unintended Consequences of not Specifying Exclusionary Illnesses for Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sunnquist, Madison; Kot, Bobby; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently proposed a new case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), as well as a new name, Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Contrary to the Fukuda et al.’s CFS case definition, there are few exclusionary illnesses specified for this new SEID case definition. The current study explored this decision regarding exclusionary illnesses using the SEID criteria with four distinct data sets involving patients who had been identified as having CFS, as well as healthy controls, community controls, and other illness groups. The findings indicate that many individuals from major depressive disorder illness groups as well as other medical illnesses were categorized as having SEID. The past CFS Fukuda et al. prevalence rate in a community based sample of 0.42 increased by 2.8 times with the new SEID criteria. The consequences for this broadening of the case definition are discussed. PMID:26854153

  1. Reflections on the Institute of Medicine’s systemic exertion intolerance disease

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Furst, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States has recently proposed that the term systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID) replace chronic fatigue syndrome. In addition, the IOM proposed a new case definition for SEID, which includes substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre-illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, postexertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. Unfortunately, these recommendations for a name change were not vetted with patient and professional audiences, and the new criteria were not evaluated with data sets of patients and controls. A recent poll suggests that the majority of patients reject this new name. In addition, studies have found that prevalence rates will dramatically increase with the new criteria, particularly due to the ambiguity revolving around exclusionary illnesses. Findings suggest that the new criteria select more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than several other criteria. The implications of these findings are discussed in the current review. PMID:26176405

  2. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The inflamed bronchial tubes produce a lot of mucus. This leads to coughing and difficulty breathing. Cigarette smoking is the most ... diagnose chronic bronchitis, your doctor will look at your signs ...

  3. Exertional dyspnoea in COPD: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Denis E; Elbehairy, Amany F; Faisal, Azmy; Webb, Katherine A; Neder, J Alberto; Mahler, Donald A

    2016-09-01

    Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond. Since dyspnoea is provoked or aggravated by physical activity, its concurrent measurement during standardised laboratory exercise testing is clearly important. Combining measurement of perceptual and physiological responses during exercise can provide valuable insights into symptom severity and its pathophysiological underpinnings. This review summarises the abnormal physiological responses to exercise in COPD, as these form the basis for modern constructs of the neurobiology of exertional dyspnoea. The main objectives are: 1) to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in uncovering the physiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD; 2) to examine the escalating negative sensory consequences of progressive respiratory impairment with disease advancement; and 3) to build a physiological rationale for individualised treatment optimisation based on CPET. PMID:27581832

  4. Dual effects exerted in vitro by micromolar concentrations of deoxynivalenol on undifferentiated caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Manda, Gina; Mocanu, Mihaela Andreea; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-02-16

    Contamination of crops used for food and feed production with Fusarium mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), raise important health and economic issues all along the food chain. Acute exposure to high DON concentrations can alter the intestinal barrier, while chronic exposure to lower doses may exert more subtle effects on signal transduction pathways, leading to disturbances in cellular homeostasis. Using real-time cellular impedance measurements, we studied the effects exerted in vitro by low concentrations of DON (0.37-1.50 μM), relevant for mycotoxin-contaminated food, on the proliferation of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells presenting a tumorigenic phenotype. A 1.5 μM concentration of DON maintained cell adherence of non-proliferating Caco-2 cells, whilst arresting the growth of actively proliferating cells compared with control Caco-2 cells in vitro. At 0.37 μM, DON enhanced Caco-2 cell metabolism, thereby triggering a moderate increase in cell proliferation. The results of the current study suggested that low concentrations of DON commonly detected in food may either limit or sustain the proliferation of colon cancer cells, depending on their proliferation status and on DON concentration. Soluble factors released by Lactobacillus strains can partially counteract the inhibitory action of DON on actively proliferating colon cancer cells. The study also emphasized that real-time cellular impedance measurements were a valuable tool for investigating the dynamics of cellular responses to xenobiotics.

  5. The usefulness of session rating of perceived exertion for monitoring training load despite several influences on perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Monoem; Padulo, Johnny; Chamari, Karim

    2014-09-01

    Despite various contributing factors, session rating of perceived exertion has the potential to affect a large proportion of the global sporting and clinical communities since it is an inexpensive and simple tool that is highly practical and accurately measures an athlete's outcome of training or competition. Its simplicity can help optimize performance and reduce negative outcomes of hard training in elite athletes.

  6. Head and neck fascia and compartments: no space for spaces.

    PubMed

    Guidera, Alice K; Dawes, Patrick J D; Fong, Amy; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-07-01

    An accurate understanding of the arrangement of cervical fascia and its associated compartments is essential for differential diagnosis, predicting the spread of disease, and surgical management. The purpose of this detailed review is to summarize the anatomic, clinical, and radiological literature to determine what is known about the arrangement of cervical fascia and to highlight controversies and consensus. The current terminology used to describe cervical fascia and compartments is replete with confusing synonyms and inconsistencies, creating important interdisciplinary differences in understanding. The term "spaces" is inappropriate. A modified nomenclature underpinned by evidence-based anatomic and radiologic findings is proposed. This should not only enhance our understanding of cervical anatomy but also facilitate clearer interdisciplinary communication.

  7. Experimental study on elevated fires in a ceiling vented compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaqing; Lu, Shouxiang; Li, Qiang; Li, Changhai; Yuan, Man; Yuen, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The impacts of elevation on fires in a ceiling vented compartment were investigated experimentally. The flame behavior of elevated fires was recorded. Various parameters including the fuel mass loss rate, the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature were measured. Results indicated that the variations of the flame behavior were consistent with that of the fuel mass loss rate. The fire location significantly impacted the light extinction coefficient, the oxygen concentration and the gas temperature, which all showed distinct stratification phenomena. For a higher elevated fire, the average fuel loss rate and the overall light extinction coefficient were smaller, the oxygen concentration was higher and the gas temperature was lower. In addition, the smoke descending was slower. From the perspective of those parameters the fire was less hazardous if the fire was elevated higher, which was totally different from the elevated fires in closed compartments.

  8. Compartment syndrome with mononeuropathies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kindle, Brett J; Murthy, Naveen; Stolp, Kathryn

    2015-05-01

    Compartment syndrome rarely follows anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, when it does, it may result in mononeuropathies that are amenable to neurolysis. The authors of this study present an 18-yr-old woman who sustained a right anterior cruciate ligament tear and underwent uneventful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using femoral and popliteal nerve blocks. Postoperatively, she developed compartment syndrome requiring emergent fasciotomies. At 11 wks after fasciotomy, results of electrophysiologic tests showed evidence of severe fibular and tibial neuropathies. Magnetic resonance images showed extensive tricompartmental myonecrosis. Fibular and tibial neurolysis as well as decompression were performed, followed by intensive outpatient rehabilitation. At the 6-mo follow-up, she reported resolution of pain as well as significant improvement in sensation, strength, and function. Early recognition and intervention are crucial to prevent serious neurologic damage. Excessive tourniquet pressure and anesthetic nerve blocks may have been responsible.

  9. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  10. Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome in a HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Donald James; Shaukat, Yasir Mehmood; Jenabzadeh, Reza; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral compartment syndrome is a very rare condition but one which requires swift diagnosis and urgent surgical decompression by fasciotomies in order to achieve the best outcome. We present the case of a 31-year-old HIV-positive man. The case highlights the perils of being sidetracked by an atypical clinical history instead of acting on the classical clinical examination findings. We will discuss the presentation and management of this patient, review the literature and highlight the key learning points. The most important learning point being that no matter how atypical the history, if a patient presents with limb pain out of proportion to the injury (with or without pain on passive stretch), sensory changes and a loss of motor power, then a diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome must be considered.

  11. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-12-20

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome.

  14. [The compartment syndrome--still a threat in traumatology].

    PubMed

    Melichar, J; Horálek, F; Hándl, V; Neumann, C; Smajer, B; Sahely, S; Hanoun, G

    2000-10-25

    Paper presents current opinions on the definition, causes, classification, diagnosis and treatment of the compartment syndrome (CS). The development of CS after the long-bone fractures of the lower extremity and also after the limb operations or trauma without fracture is discussed. The importance of early and correct diagnostics and treatment is also revealed. Authors present several case reports and they stress the importance of early fasciotomy when necessary.

  15. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  16. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  17. Compartment fabrication of magneto-responsive Janus microrod particles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Yeon; Yang, Shu

    2015-01-31

    Monodispersed magneto-responsive microrod particles of variable magnetic/non-magnetic ratios and chemical compositions are created by compartment fabrication in a single poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold with periodic hole arrays. By labeling the two ends with green and red fluorescent dyes separately, we show that the particles can flip freely and reversibly in a confined geometry under the magnetic field, thereby displaying different patterned colors at the air-water interface.

  18. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of

  19. During vertebrate development, arteries exert a morphological control over the venous pattern through physical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kilani, Alia; Lorthois, Sylvie; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Le Noble, Ferdinand; Cornelissen, Annemiek; Unbekandt, Mathieu; Boryskina, Olena; Leroy, Loïc; Fleury, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    The adult vasculature is comprised of three distinct compartments: the arteries, which carry blood away from the heart and display a divergent flow pattern; the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrient delivery from blood to tissues, as well as metabolic waste removal, occurs; and the veins, which carry blood back to the heart and are characterized by a convergent flow pattern. These compartments are organized in series as regard to flow, which proceeds from the upstream arteries to the downstream veins through the capillaries. However, the spatial organization is more complex, as veins may often be found paralleling the arteries. The factors that control the morphogenesis of this hierarchically branched vascular network are not well characterized. Here, we explain how arteries exert a morphological control on the venous pattern. Indeed, during vertebrate development, the following transition may be observed in the spatial organization of the vascular system: veins first develop in series with the arteries, the arterial and venous territories being clearly distinct in space (cis-cis configuration). But after some time, new veins grow parallel to the existing arteries, and the arterial and venous territories become overlapped, with extensive and complex intercalation and interdigitation. Using physical arguments, backed up by experimental evidence (biological data from the literature and in situ optical and mechanical measurements of the chick embryo yolk-sac and midbrain developing vasculatures), we explain how such a transition is possible and why it may be expected with generality, as organisms grow. The origin of this transition lies in the remodeling of the capillary tissue in the vicinity of the growing arteries. This remodeling lays down a prepattern for further venous growth, parallel to the existing arterial pattern. Accounting for the influence of tissue growth, we show that this prepatterned path becomes favored as the body extends. As a consequence, a

  20. Opioid overdose with gluteal compartment syndrome and acute peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adrish, Muhammad; Duncalf, Richard; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda; Venkatram, Sindhaghatta

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Gluteal compartment syndrome • acute peripheral nauropathy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Heroin addiction is common, with an estimated 3.7 million Americans reporting to have used it at some point in their lives. Complications of opiate overdose include infection, rhabdomyolysis, respiratory depression and central or peripheral nervous system neurological complications. Conclusions: We present a 42-year-old male admitted after heroin use with heroin-related peripheral nervous system complication preceded by an acute gluteal compartment syndrome and severe rhabdomyolysis. Case Report: Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of the compartment syndrome can lead to full recovery while any delay in management can be devastating and can lead to permanent disability. The presence of peripheral nervous system injuries may portend a poor prognosis and can also lead to long term disability. Careful neurological evaluation for signs and symptoms of peripheral nervous system injuries is of paramount importance, as these may be absent at presentation in patients with opioid overdose. There is a potential risk of delaying a necessary treatment like fasciotomy in these patients by falsely attributing clinical symptoms to a preexisting neuropathy. Early EMG and nerve conduction studies should be considered when the etiology of underlying neurological weakness is unclear. PMID:24459539

  1. Interactions of pathogen-containing compartments with the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Canton, Johnathan; Kima, Peter E

    2012-11-01

    A subgroup of intracellular pathogens reside and replicate within membrane-bound compartments often termed pathogen-containing compartments (PCC). PCCs navigate around a wide range of host cell vesicles and organelles. In light of the perils of engaging with vesicles of the endocytic pathway, most PCCs modulate their interactions with endocytic vesicles while a few avoid those interactions. The secretory pathway constitutes another important grouping of vesicles and organelles in host cells. Although the negative consequences of engaging with the secretory pathway are not known, there is evidence that PCCs interact differentially with vesicles and organelles in this pathway as well. In this review, we consider three prokaryote pathogens and two protozoan parasites for which there is information on the interactions of their PCCs with the secretory pathway. Current understandings of the molecular interactions as well as the metabolic benefits that accompany those interactions are discussed. Not unexpectedly, our understanding of the extent of these interactions is variable. An underlying theme that is brought to the fore is that PCCs establish preferential interactions with distinct compartments of the secretory pathway.

  2. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  3. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  4. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  5. Engineered Protein Nano-Compartments for Targeted Enzyme Localization

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Swati; Quin, Maureen B.; Sanders, Mark A.; Johnson, Ethan T.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut) bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS) is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (β-galactosidase) targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis. PMID:22428024

  6. View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B126 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B-126 used for servicng boiler room compartments B-3 and B-4. (052A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 19 CFR 148.21 - Opening of baggage, compartments, or vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the right to open and examine all baggage, compartments and vehicles brought into the United States... baggage, compartment or vehicle first. If the owner or his agent is unavailable or refuses to open...

  8. View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Influence of pressure exerted on the sclera during transscleral cyclophotocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rol, Pascal O.; Fankhauser, Franz, Jr.; Niederer, Peter F.

    1993-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1973 by Beckmann et al., transscleral cyclophotocoagulation with the Nd:YAG laser has developed into a successful method in glaucoma therapy. It was initially performed with the aid of non-contact systems, whereby the laser beam was focused by means of a slit lamp. With the introduction of contact systems, for which purpose a number of different probes were employed, the treatment efficiency was found to be improved by a factor between 2 to 6. The transparency of the sclera increases as a function of the pressure exerted. Therefore, the pressure exerted by the contact probe is a critical factor in determining the transmission of laser radiation across the sclera and may in part explain the large differences which are reported in the literature with respect to the effectiveness of this treatment method.

  10. Riluzole exerts central and peripheral modulating effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Steve; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi; Cheah, Benjamin C; Murray, Jenna; Menon, Parvathi; Krishnan, Arun V; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    .45) or motor evoked potential amplitude (P = 0.31). In terms of peripheral nerve function, axonal excitability studies established that, relative to control subjects, patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had significant increases in depolarizing threshold electrotonus [amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline TEd (90-100 ms) 49.1 ± 1.8%; controlsTEd (90-100 ms) 45.2 ± 0.6%, P < 0.01] and superexcitability (amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 30.1 ± 2.3%; control subjects 23.4 ± 1.0%, P < 0.01) at baseline. Following institution of riluzole therapy there was a significant reduction in superexcitability (amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 30.1 ± 2.3%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosisON riluzole 27.3 ± 2.3%, P < 0.05) and refractoriness at 2 ms (amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 98.7 ± 10.7%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosisON riluzole 67.8 ± 9.3%, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study has established that riluzole exerts effects on both central and peripheral nerve function, interpreted as partial normalization of cortical hyperexcitability and reduction of transient Na+ conductances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of riluzole in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are complex, with evidence of independent effects across both compartments of the nervous system.

  11. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  12. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  13. [The effectiveness of spasmolytic therapy in chronic acalculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Shaĭkhutdinova, O V; Galiakberova, A R; Gur'ev, D A; Ionova, S I; Volevach, L V

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of duspatalin was evaluated in 69 patients with chronic cholecystitis and dyskinesia of the biliary tract (BT). Supplementation of duspatalin to the combined therapy in the patients with chronic cholecystitis shown to exert a pronounced therapeutic effect. This caused positive changes in clinical symptoms and BT function and quality of life, diminished the lithogenic properties of bile. PMID:19552029

  14. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... OCR compartment will contain six private berths, an emergency hatch that opens directly into the main... doors and hatches to the OCR compartment must be simple and obvious. The OFCR compartment doors and hatches must be able to be closed from the main passenger cabin. Doors or hatches that separate...

  16. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  17. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  1. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must— (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  2. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of...

  3. Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh 10 days following an elective primary total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Elsorafy, Kareem R; Jm Stone, Andrew; Nicol, Stephen G

    2013-06-28

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh is an uncommon condition usually treated surgically by emergency dermofasciotomy. We report a rare case of acute delayed compartment syndrome of the anterior compartment of the thigh following an uncemented Total Hip Replacement (THR). Surgical decompression was performed and patient had full recovery.

  5. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

    PubMed

    Garayoa, Santiago Amillo; Romero-Muñoz, Luis M; Pons-Villanueva, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm requires immediate treatment to avoid damage of the soft tissues and a poor functional outcome for the forearm. Muscular and bone lesions are the main causes of acute compartment syndromes. We report a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by a calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment

    PubMed Central

    González, Florencia Belén; Calmon-Hamaty, Flavia; Nô Seara Cordeiro, Synara; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Spinelli, Silvana Virginia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Villar, Silvina Raquel; Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of regulatory T cells in the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection is still debated. We previously demonstrated that acute murine T. cruzi infection results in an impaired peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cell differentiation due to the acquisition of an abnormal Th1-like phenotype and altered functional features, negatively impacting on the course of infection. Moreover, T. cruzi infection induces an intense thymic atrophy. As known, the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which thymic-derived regulatory T cells, known as tTregs, differentiate. Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon tTregs, we examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. We confirmed that T. cruzi infection induces a marked loss of tTreg cell number associated to cell precursor exhaustion, partially avoided by glucocorticoid ablation- and IL-2 survival factor depletion. At the same time, tTregs accumulate within the CD4 single-positive compartment, exhibiting an increased Ki-67/Annexin V ratio compared to controls. Moreover, tTregs enhance after the infection the expression of signature markers (CD25, CD62L and GITR) and they also display alterations in the expression of migration-associated molecules (α chains of VLAs and chemokine receptors) such as functional fibronectin-driven migratory disturbance. Taken together, we provide data demonstrating profound alterations in tTreg compartment during acute murine T. cruzi infection, denoting that their homeostasis is significantly affected. The evident loss of tTreg cell number may compromise the composition of tTreg peripheral pool, and such sustained alteration over time may be partially related to the immune dysregulation observed in the chronic phase of the disease. PMID:26745276

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment.

    PubMed

    González, Florencia Belén; Calmon-Hamaty, Flavia; Nô Seara Cordeiro, Synara; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Spinelli, Silvana Virginia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Villar, Silvina Raquel; Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of regulatory T cells in the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection is still debated. We previously demonstrated that acute murine T. cruzi infection results in an impaired peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cell differentiation due to the acquisition of an abnormal Th1-like phenotype and altered functional features, negatively impacting on the course of infection. Moreover, T. cruzi infection induces an intense thymic atrophy. As known, the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which thymic-derived regulatory T cells, known as tTregs, differentiate. Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon tTregs, we examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. We confirmed that T. cruzi infection induces a marked loss of tTreg cell number associated to cell precursor exhaustion, partially avoided by glucocorticoid ablation- and IL-2 survival factor depletion. At the same time, tTregs accumulate within the CD4 single-positive compartment, exhibiting an increased Ki-67/Annexin V ratio compared to controls. Moreover, tTregs enhance after the infection the expression of signature markers (CD25, CD62L and GITR) and they also display alterations in the expression of migration-associated molecules (α chains of VLAs and chemokine receptors) such as functional fibronectin-driven migratory disturbance. Taken together, we provide data demonstrating profound alterations in tTreg compartment during acute murine T. cruzi infection, denoting that their homeostasis is significantly affected. The evident loss of tTreg cell number may compromise the composition of tTreg peripheral pool, and such sustained alteration over time may be partially related to the immune dysregulation observed in the chronic phase of the disease. PMID:26745276

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment.

    PubMed

    González, Florencia Belén; Calmon-Hamaty, Flavia; Nô Seara Cordeiro, Synara; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Spinelli, Silvana Virginia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Villar, Silvina Raquel; Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of regulatory T cells in the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection is still debated. We previously demonstrated that acute murine T. cruzi infection results in an impaired peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cell differentiation due to the acquisition of an abnormal Th1-like phenotype and altered functional features, negatively impacting on the course of infection. Moreover, T. cruzi infection induces an intense thymic atrophy. As known, the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which thymic-derived regulatory T cells, known as tTregs, differentiate. Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon tTregs, we examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. We confirmed that T. cruzi infection induces a marked loss of tTreg cell number associated to cell precursor exhaustion, partially avoided by glucocorticoid ablation- and IL-2 survival factor depletion. At the same time, tTregs accumulate within the CD4 single-positive compartment, exhibiting an increased Ki-67/Annexin V ratio compared to controls. Moreover, tTregs enhance after the infection the expression of signature markers (CD25, CD62L and GITR) and they also display alterations in the expression of migration-associated molecules (α chains of VLAs and chemokine receptors) such as functional fibronectin-driven migratory disturbance. Taken together, we provide data demonstrating profound alterations in tTreg compartment during acute murine T. cruzi infection, denoting that their homeostasis is significantly affected. The evident loss of tTreg cell number may compromise the composition of tTreg peripheral pool, and such sustained alteration over time may be partially related to the immune dysregulation observed in the chronic phase of the disease.

  9. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Christian A.; Flegg, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial reaction–diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction–diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as ‘compartment-based’ or ‘on-lattice’. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of ‘compartments’. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: ‘how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?’ First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient

  10. Non-traumatic compartment syndrome secondary to deep vein thrombosis and anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter Alexander; Deo, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of non-traumatic compartment syndrome in three compartments of the left lower limb in a 57-year-old male inpatient. He had recently been started on anticoagulation therapy for multiple pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis of the left posterior tibial and peroneal veins. Three of the four osteofascial compartments had pressures above 70 mm Hg, hence four compartment fasciotomies were performed. Postoperatively, intravenous heparin therapy was started resulting in a significant blood loss, but he had no neurovascular deficit. At reoperation, for primary wound closure, his tissues looked healthy. Non-traumatic causes of acute compartment syndrome, including deep venous thrombosis and anticoagulation, are considered.

  11. Herpesvirus Replication Compartments Originate with Single Incoming Viral Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kobiler, O.; Brodersen, P.; Taylor, M. P.; Ludmir, E. B.; Enquist, L. W.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously we described a method to estimate the average number of virus genomes expressed in an infected cell. By analyzing the color spectrum of cells infected with a mixture of isogenic pseudorabies virus (PRV) recombinants expressing three fluorophores, we estimated that fewer than seven incoming genomes are expressed, replicated, and packaged into progeny per cell. In this report, we expand this work and describe experiments demonstrating the generality of the method, as well as providing more insight into herpesvirus replication. We used three isogenic PRV recombinants, each expressing a fluorescently tagged VP26 fusion protein (VP26 is a capsid protein) under the viral VP26 late promoter. We calculated a similar finite limit on the number of expressed viral genomes, indicating that this method is independent of the promoter used to transcribe the fluorophore genes, the time of expression of the fluorophore (early versus late), and the insertion site of the fluorophore gene in the PRV genome (UL versus US). Importantly, these VP26 fusion proteins are distributed equally in punctate virion assembly structures in each nucleus, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio when determining the color spectrum of each cell. To understand how the small number of genomes are distributed among the replication compartments, we used a two-color fluorescent in situ hybridization assay. Most viral replication compartments in the nucleus occupy unique nuclear territories, implying that they arose from single genomes. Our experiments suggest a correlation between the small number of expressed viral genomes and the limited number of replication compartments. PMID:22186611

  12. compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

  13. A virtual rat for simulating environmental and exertional heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Vineet; Stallings, Jonathan D; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-12-01

    Severe cases of environmental or exertional heat stress can lead to varying degrees of organ dysfunction. To understand heat-injury progression and develop efficient management and mitigation strategies, it is critical to determine the thermal response in susceptible organs under different heat-stress conditions. To this end, we used our previously published virtual rat, which is capable of computing the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in the animal, and extended it to simulate various heat-stress scenarios, including 1) different environmental conditions, 2) exertional heat stress, 3) circadian rhythm effect on the thermal response, and 4) whole body cooling. Our predictions were consistent with published in vivo temperature measurements for all cases, validating our simulations. We observed a differential thermal response in the organs, with the liver experiencing the highest temperatures for all environmental and exertional heat-stress cases. For every 3°C rise in the external temperature from 40 to 46°C, core and organ temperatures increased by ∼0.8°C. Core temperatures increased by 2.6 and 4.1°C for increases in exercise intensity from rest to 75 and 100% of maximal O2 consumption, respectively. We also found differences as large as 0.8°C in organ temperatures for the same heat stress induced at different times during the day. Even after whole body cooling at a relatively low external temperature (1°C for 20 min), average organ temperatures were still elevated by 2.3 to 2.5°C compared with normothermia. These results can be used to optimize experimental protocol designs, reduce the amount of animal experimentation, and design and test improved heat-stress prevention and management strategies.

  14. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  15. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S.; Pierce, R. Dean; Mulcahey, Thomas P.; Johnson, Gerald K.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  16. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  17. Upper limb compartment syndrome: an unusual complication of stroke thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, Wallace J; Wu, Teddy Y; Van Dijck, Stephanie A; Snow, Barry J

    2014-05-01

    Bleeding is the most important complication of treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. Neurologists are familiar with intracranial hemorrhage, the most feared site for bleeding following thrombolysis, but extracranial bleeding can also occur resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. We describe an 88-year-old woman with an acute stroke who developed bleeding into the left arm complicated by hemodynamic instability and compartment syndrome following intravenous thrombolysis. The patient was treated conservatively in view of the risks associated with fasciotomy and her other medical comorbidities.

  18. Pressure exerted on stationary enclosing structures by expansive soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sorochan, E.A.; Kim, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The influence exerted by expansive soil on a rigid stationary enclosing structure is addressed. Using numerical modeling, it is established that the wetting of a portion of the soil mass adjacent to the enclosing structure manifests itself unfavorably on the latter`s performance. Two cases of wetting should be examined as computational cases: uniform wetting from above and from a point source alongside the enclosure. The possibility of the swelling of that part of the soil mass not immediately adjacent to the structure should also be brought to attention.

  19. Liver Transplantation after Exertional Heatstroke-Induced Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Hafeez Ul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Exertional heatstroke (EHS) is a life-threatening disease characterized clinically by central nervous system dysfunction and severe hyperthermia. It frequently occurs among athletes, soldiers, and laborers. While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing EHS, irreversible acute liver failure is a rarely described phenomenon. When managing cases of EHS complicated by acute liver failure, it is crucial to act promptly with aggressive total body cooling in order to prevent progression of the clinical syndrome. However, an urgent liver transplantation can be a therapeutic strategy when patients fail to improve with supportive measures. PMID:27738568

  20. Calibrating Borg scale ratings of hand force exertion.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, Peregrin

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of calibrating subjective worker ratings of hand exertions to reduce error in estimates of applied force. Twenty volunteer subjects applied pinch and power grip forces corresponding to their perceptions of different Borg CR-10 scale levels using both "grip-to-scale" and "guided-grip" procedures. These data were used separately to define relationships between scale ratings and actual force application. Two gripping tasks were performed and corresponding subjective hand force ratings were calibrated using the grip-to-scale calibration data. Results showed that the mean estimation error for a 44.5 N (10 lb) power grip task was significantly reduced from 142.8 (+/-69.0) to 62.3 (+/-58.3) N. The guided-grip calibration method also significantly reduced rating error for the power grip task, however the estimates were biased toward zero. Neither calibration procedure improved rating accuracy of an 8.9 N (2 lb) pinch grip task. The study results indicate that calibration of hand force ratings using the grip-to-scale procedure may improve the accuracy of hand exertion measurements using the Borg CR-10 scale.

  1. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Exertional Heat Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Casa, Douglas J.; DeMartini, Julie K.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Csillan, Dave; Eichner, E. Randy; Lopez, Rebecca M.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Miller, Kevin C.; O'Connor, Francis; Sawka, Michael N.; Yeargin, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  To present best-practice recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses (EHIs) and to describe the relevant physiology of thermoregulation. Background  Certified athletic trainers recognize and treat athletes with EHIs, often in high-risk environments. Although the proper recognition and successful treatment strategies are well documented, EHIs continue to plague athletes, and exertional heat stroke remains one of the leading causes of sudden death during sport. The recommendations presented in this document provide athletic trainers and allied health providers with an integrated scientific and clinically applicable approach to the prevention, recognition, treatment of, and return-to-activity guidelines for EHIs. These recommendations are given so that proper recognition and treatment can be accomplished in order to maximize the safety and performance of athletes. Recommendations  Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals should use these recommendations to establish onsite emergency action plans for their venues and athletes. The primary goal of athlete safety is addressed through the appropriate prevention strategies, proper recognition tactics, and effective treatment plans for EHIs. Athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals must be properly educated and prepared to respond in an expedient manner to alleviate symptoms and minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with these illnesses. PMID:26381473

  2. Evolution of early eukaryotic cells: genomes, proteomes, and compartments.

    PubMed

    Bogorad, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotes arose from an endosymbiotic association of an alpha-proteobacterium-like organism (the ancestor of mitochondria) with a host cell (lacking mitochondria or plastids). Plants arose by the addition of a cyanobacterium-like endosymbiont (the ancestor of plastids) to the two-member association. Each member of the association brought a unique internal environment and a unique genome. Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequences with newly developed algorithms have revealed (a) that the number of endosymbiont genes that remain in eukaryotic cells-principally in the nucleus-is surprisingly large, (b) that protein products of a large number of genes (or their descendents) that entered the association in the genome of the host are now directed to an organelle derived from an endosymbiont, and (c) that protein products of genes traceable to endosymbiont genomes are directed to the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment. Consideration of these remarkable findings has led to the present suggestion that contemporary eukaryotic cells evolved through continual chance relocation and testing of genes as well as combinations of gene products and biochemical processes in each unique cell compartment derived from a member of the eukaryotic association. Most of these events occurred during about 300 million years, or so, before contemporary forms of eukaryotic cells appear in the fossil record; they continue today. PMID:17912611

  3. Crosstalk between cellular compartments protects against proteotoxicity and extends lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Perić, Matea; Dib, Peter Bou; Dennerlein, Sven; Musa, Marina; Rudan, Marina; Lovrić, Anita; Nikolić, Andrea; Šarić, Ana; Sobočanec, Sandra; Mačak, Željka; Raimundo, Nuno; Kriško, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In cells living under optimal conditions, protein folding defects are usually prevented by the action of chaperones. Here, we investigate the cell-wide consequences of loss of chaperone function in cytosol, mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in budding yeast. We find that the decline in chaperone activity in each compartment results in loss of respiration, demonstrating the dependence of mitochondrial activity on cell-wide proteostasis. Furthermore, each chaperone deficiency triggers a response, presumably via the communication among the folding environments of distinct cellular compartments, termed here the cross-organelle stress response (CORE). The proposed CORE pathway encompasses activation of protein conformational maintenance machineries, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolic changes simultaneously in the cytosol, mitochondria, and the ER. CORE induction extends replicative and chronological lifespan in budding yeast, highlighting its protective role against moderate proteotoxicity and its consequences such as the decline in respiration. Our findings accentuate that organelles do not function in isolation, but are integrated in a functional crosstalk, while also highlighting the importance of organelle communication in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27346163

  4. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  5. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John E.; Cundall-Curry, Duncan J.; Stohr, Kuldeep K.

    2016-01-01

    A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale) with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis. PMID:27073707

  6. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  7. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology. PMID:26337290

  8. Activated G Protein Gαs Samples Multiple Endomembrane Compartments.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brent R; Lambert, Nevin A

    2016-09-23

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are localized to the plasma membrane where they transduce extracellular signals to intracellular effectors. G proteins also act at intracellular locations, and can translocate between cellular compartments. For example, Gαs can leave the plasma membrane and move to the cell interior after activation. However, the mechanism of Gαs translocation and its intracellular destination are not known. Here we use bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to show that after activation, Gαs rapidly associates with the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and endosomes, consistent with indiscriminate sampling of intracellular membranes from the cytosol rather than transport via a specific vesicular pathway. The primary source of Gαs for endosomal compartments is constitutive endocytosis rather than activity-dependent internalization. Recycling of Gαs to the plasma membrane is complete 25 min after stimulation is discontinued. We also show that an acylation-deacylation cycle is important for the steady-state localization of Gαs at the plasma membrane, but our results do not support a role for deacylation in activity-dependent Gαs internalization. PMID:27528603

  9. Characterization of a Compartment Syndrome-like Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Oyster, Nick; Witt, Michelle; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Poddar, Minakshi; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is caused by an elevation of pressure within a muscular compartment which can be caused by numerous factors, including blunt trauma. In this study, we characterized a rodent model of CS-like injury. METHODS Forty male athymic rats received a standardized injury of ischemia and compression to their hindlimbs, while the intracompartmental pressure (ICP) was measured using an implantable transmitter. Tetanic muscle function was evaluated, and histology was performed on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. RESULTS ICPs were held at 260.70±2.70mmHg during injury. Injured muscles recovered 59% of their total function 4 weeks after injury, and histology showed high levels of edema, inflammation (CD68+), angiogenesis (CD31+), and fibrosis within 72 hours following injury. DISCUSSION We describe a novel CS-like injury model and a novel method to measure ICP which could potentially be used to develop innovative therapies to manage CS injury in humans. PMID:25242666

  10. Protein kinase C mu is located at the Golgi compartment

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Protein kinase C mu (PKC mu) displays unusual structural features like a pleckstrin homology domain and an amino-terminal hydrophobic region with a putative leader peptide and transmembrane sequence. As a discrete location often is a direct clue to the potential biological function of a kinase, antibodies directed against unique amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of PKC mu were used to localize the protein within intracellular compartments in immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed colocalization of PKC mu with the resident Golgi marker protein beta 1,4 galactosyltransferase in PKC mu transfectants and in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2, expressing endogenous PKC mu. Long-term treatment of cells with brefeldin A, which disintegrates the Golgi apparatus, disrupted PKC mu-specific staining. Cosegregation of PKC mu with beta 1,4 galactosyltransferase, but not with the endosomal marker rab5, upon density gradient fractionation and Western blot analysis of HepG2 cell extracts, provides independent evidence for a Golgi localization of PKC mu. Moreover, cellular sulfate uptake and Golgi-specific glycosaminoglycan sulfation was enhanced in PKC mu transfectants. Together, these data suggest that PKC mu is a resident protein kinase of the core Golgi compartment and is involved in basal transport processes. PMID:8830770

  11. Assessment of cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments.

    PubMed

    Marceau, François; Roy, Caroline; Bouthillier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    All nucleated cells, from yeast to animal cells, concentrate cationic chemicals (weak bases with a pKa~8-10) into acidic cell compartments (low retro-diffusion under a protonated form at low pH=ion trapping). The proton pump vacuolar (V)-ATPase is the driving force of this pseudotransport that concerns acidic organelles (mainly late endosomes and lysosomes). The latter rapidly become swollen (osmotic vacuolization) and macroautophagic. Cation concentration in cells is not proved to involve membrane transporters, but is prevented or reversed by inhibitors of V-ATPase, such as bafilomycin A1. Lipophilicity is a major determinant of the apparent affinity of this pseudotransport because simple diffusion of the uncharged form supports it. Quinacrine is a formerly used antiparasitic drug that is intensely fluorescent, lipophilic, and a tertiary amine. The drug, at micromolar concentrations, is proposed as a superior probe for assessing cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments, being readily quantified using fluorometry in cell extracts and analyzed using microscopy and cytofluorometry (fluorescence settings for fluorescein being applicable). Further, cells respond to micromolar levels of quinacrine by autophagic accumulation (e.g., accumulation of the activated macroautophagic effector LC3 II, immunoblots), an objective and universal response to sequestered amines.

  12. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    D'Egidio, Gianni; Wan, Cynthia; Baxter, Alan; Rosenberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb) of 220 g/L), hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion) and respiratory (ventilator) support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  13. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    D'Egidio, Gianni; Wan, Cynthia; Baxter, Alan; Rosenberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb) of 220 g/L), hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion) and respiratory (ventilator) support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients. PMID:27688917

  14. Gene expression analysis in the compartments of the murine uterus.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Gracy Xavier; Cheng, Jr-Gang; Stewart, Colin L

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation, a key critical feature of mammalian pregnancy, involves co-ordinate interplay between an incoming blastocyst and a receptive uterus. Aberrations in signaling cascades during this process result in pregnancy loss in mammals, including women. Analysis of the complete uterus at any given point either during preparation for implantation or during and after embryo attachment and invasion makes it difficult to assign specific signaling mechanism to the individual cellular compartments of the uterus. Here, we describe methods for the specific isolation of the luminal epithelium (LE) and subsequent analysis of gene expression/signaling pathways during embryo attachment. We further describe the analysis of RNA and proteins by specific techniques of quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunostaining and Western blotting of uterine tissues. These methods can be applied to the other cellular compartments of the uterus and embryo invasion and endometrial development. These techniques will be beneficial to investigators for delineating the mechanisms involved during embryo attachment and female reproduction as well as providing a means to studying highly dynamic changes in gene expression in tissues. PMID:26651425

  15. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; D'Egidio, Gianni; Wan, Cynthia; Baxter, Alan; Rosenberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb) of 220 g/L), hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion) and respiratory (ventilator) support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients. PMID:27688917

  16. Crosstalk between cellular compartments protects against proteotoxicity and extends lifespan.

    PubMed

    Perić, Matea; Dib, Peter Bou; Dennerlein, Sven; Musa, Marina; Rudan, Marina; Lovrić, Anita; Nikolić, Andrea; Šarić, Ana; Sobočanec, Sandra; Mačak, Željka; Raimundo, Nuno; Kriško, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In cells living under optimal conditions, protein folding defects are usually prevented by the action of chaperones. Here, we investigate the cell-wide consequences of loss of chaperone function in cytosol, mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in budding yeast. We find that the decline in chaperone activity in each compartment results in loss of respiration, demonstrating the dependence of mitochondrial activity on cell-wide proteostasis. Furthermore, each chaperone deficiency triggers a response, presumably via the communication among the folding environments of distinct cellular compartments, termed here the cross-organelle stress response (CORE). The proposed CORE pathway encompasses activation of protein conformational maintenance machineries, antioxidant enzymes, and metabolic changes simultaneously in the cytosol, mitochondria, and the ER. CORE induction extends replicative and chronological lifespan in budding yeast, highlighting its protective role against moderate proteotoxicity and its consequences such as the decline in respiration. Our findings accentuate that organelles do not function in isolation, but are integrated in a functional crosstalk, while also highlighting the importance of organelle communication in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:27346163

  17. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

  18. [Acute forearm compartment syndrome after total arch replacement].

    PubMed

    Kigawa, Ikutaro; Miyairi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Satona; Unai, Shinya; Miura, Sumio; Ohno, Takayuki; Fukuda, Sachito; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2011-06-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with shortness of breath and was found to have moderate aortic regurgitation with annulo-aortic ectasia and an aneurysm involving the aortic arch. She underwent Bentall operation and total arch replacement with a branched prosthesis. The patient developed hypesthesia and paresis of the left forearm one day after the surgery. Computed tomography revealed complete occlusion of the left subclavian artery (LSA). An emergency operation was performed 15 hours after the initial operation. A new bypass graft to the axillary artery was placed since the LSA was occluded by the wide arterial dissection. However, her left forearm showed rapid swelling within a few hours. Under the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the forearm, emergency decompression fasciotomy was performed. She was discharged with a mild dysfunction of her forearm and hand 40 days after the operation. The rapid progression of ACS was thought to have been associated with not only the severe and prolonged ischemia but also the venous obstruction caused by the ligation of left brachiocephalic vein during the initial operation. Immediate and complete decompression, including the deep compartment of the forearm, was essential to achieve a full functional recovery from ACS.

  19. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  20. Quantitation in inflammatory pleural disease to distinguish tuberculous and paramalignant from chronic non-specific pleuritis.

    PubMed Central

    Capelozzi, V L; Saldiva, P H; Antonângelo, L; de Carvalho, T S; Logulo, A; de Carvalho, C R; Deheinzelin, D

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine by morphometry if pleural biopsies with the histopathological diagnosis of "non-specific pleuritis", malignant, and tuberculous disease could be distinguished morphologically from those with truly non-specific disease. METHODS: Each pleural biopsy was reviewed taking into account three compartments of reference: the visceral/parietal mesothelial compartment, the submesothelial screen compartment, and the submesothelial adipose tissue compartment. Normal connective tissue, granulation tissue, fibrocellular proliferation, fibrin, polymorphonuclear cells, mononuclear cells, and mesothelial cells were measured using conventional point counting procedures in terms of the fractional area occupied by each parameter within each compartment of reference. Ranking was carried out on 164 patients, based on their diagnosis: chronic non-specific disease (n = 57), tuberculosis (n = 27), malignant disease (n = 58), and conditions associated with transudative effusions (n = 22). RESULTS: Stepwise discriminant analysis of the resulting data showed that biopsies from patients with tuberculosis, malignant disease, and chronic non-specific disease could be distinguished between themselves and normal cases. Statistical differences among the four groups were observed for eight morphometric parameters related to components of inflammation and extension throughout the three pleural anatomical compartments. A robust discriminant function permitted an adequate classification of the three groups of disease in 88.41% of the cases. Pleural biopsies with fibrin incorporated within granulation tissue on the submesothelial screen compartment showed 100% specificity for patients with tuberculosis, while mononuclear cells in a band-like infiltrate on the submesothelial adipose tissue compartment showed 93.1% specificity for patients with malignant disease. The truly non-specific pleuritis was characterised by deposits of fibrin in the subpleural compartment and discrete signs of

  1. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  2. Anticipation selectively enhances interference exerted by pictures of negative valence.

    PubMed

    Kleinsorge, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that anticipation of negatively valenced pictures strongly increases interference exerted by the actual presentation of these pictures, while anticipation of positively valenced pictures leaves the impact of the actual presentation of positive pictures unaffected. However, there is some ambiguity as to whether anticipation of negative valence generally increases the impact of all emotional stimuli, or whether the effect of anticipation is specific for stimuli of negative valence. In the present experiments, different anticipation conditions were contrasted that differed with respect to the specificity of the information on which anticipations could be based. The data show that all anticipation conditions that entailed the possibility of the presentation of unpleasant stimuli selectively enhanced the impact of negatively valenced stimuli without affecting the impact of positively valenced stimuli.

  3. DCP-LA Exerts an Antiaging Action on the Skin.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the possibility for the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) as an antiaging compound for the skin by assaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), a biomarker of senescence and cell viability. The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased in SA-β-Gal-positive cells in cultured human fibroblasts and mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly inhibited the effect of SNP. Moreover, SNP induced cell death in cultured mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly prevented NO stress-induced death of keratinocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that DCP-LA exerts an antiaging action on the skin. PMID:27310436

  4. Methylprednisolone exerts neuroprotective effects by regulating autophagy and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Shu-rui; Wu, Meng-yao; Gao, Kai; Li, Yuan-long; Wang, Hong-yu; Li, Chen-yuan; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone markedly reduces autophagy and apoptosis after secondary spinal cord injury. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of cells with methylprednisolone would protect neuron-like cells from subsequent oxidative damage via suppression of autophagy and apoptosis. Cultured N2a cells were pretreated with 10 µM methylprednisolone for 30 minutes, then exposed to 100 µM H2O2 for 24 hours. Inverted phase contrast microscope images, MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blot results showed that, compared to cells exposed to 100 µM H2O2 alone, cells pretreated with methylprednisolone had a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic cells, maintained a healthy morphology, and showed downregulation of autophagic protein light chain 3B and Beclin-1 protein expression. These findings indicate that methylprednisolone exerted neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage by suppressing autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:27335569

  5. Estimation of the exertion requirements of coal mining work

    SciTech Connect

    Harber, P.; Tamimie, J.; Emory, J.

    1984-02-01

    The work requirements of coal mining work were estimated by studying a group of 12 underground coal miners. A two level (rest, 300 kg X m/min) test was performed to estimate the linear relationship between each subject's heart rate and oxygen consumption. Then, heart rates were recorded during coal mining work with a Holter type recorder. From these data, the distributions of oxygen consumptions during work were estimated, allowing characterization of the range of exertion throughout the work day. The average median estimated oxygen consumption was 3.3 METS, the average 70th percentile was 4.3 METS, and the average 90th percentile was 6.3 METS. These results should be considered when assessing an individual's occupational fitness.

  6. DCP-LA Exerts an Antiaging Action on the Skin.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the possibility for the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) as an antiaging compound for the skin by assaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), a biomarker of senescence and cell viability. The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased in SA-β-Gal-positive cells in cultured human fibroblasts and mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly inhibited the effect of SNP. Moreover, SNP induced cell death in cultured mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly prevented NO stress-induced death of keratinocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that DCP-LA exerts an antiaging action on the skin.

  7. Exertional heat stroke and acute liver failure: a late dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Rodeia, Simão C; Silvestre, Joana; Póvoa, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is defined as a severe elevation of core body temperature along with central nervous system dysfunction. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) with acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare condition. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man with a history of cognitive enhancers' intake who developed hyperthermia and neurological impairment while running an outdoor marathon. The patient was cooled and returned to normal body temperature after 6 h. He subsequently developed ALF and was transferred to the intensive care unit. Over-the-counter drug intake may have been related to heat intolerance and contributed to the event. The patient was successfully treated with conservative measures. In the presence of EHS, it is crucial to act promptly with aggressive total body cooling, in order to prevent progression of the clinical syndrome. Liver function must also be monitored, since it can be a late organ dysfunction. PMID:26969359

  8. Exertional heat stroke: new concepts regarding cause and care.

    PubMed

    Casa, Douglas J; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Kenny, Glen P; O'Connor, Francis G; Huggins, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    When athletes, warfighters, and laborers perform intense exercise in the heat, the risk of exertional heat stroke (EHS) is ever present. The recent data regarding the fatalities due to EHS within the confines of organized American sport are not promising: during the past 35 years, the highest number of deaths in a 5-year period occurred from 2005 to 2009. This reminds us that, regardless of the advancements of knowledge in the area of EHS prevention, recognition, and treatment, knowledge has not been translated into practice. This article addresses important issues related to EHS cause and care. We focus on the predisposing factors, errors in care, physiology of cold water immersion, and return-to-play or duty considerations.

  9. Four-compartment fasciotomy and venous calf-pump function: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Ris, H B; Furrer, M; Stronsky, S; Walpoth, B; Nachbur, B

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one patients who underwent a four-compartment fasciotomy between January 1, 1986, and December 31, 1987, were revisited with respect to venous calf-pump function 32 to 56 months (mean, 46.2 months) after fasciotomy. Enrollment criteria consisted of an intact motor innervation, palpable pedal pulses, the absence of venous hypertension, and deep venous thrombosis before and during the treatment requiring fasciotomy and unimpaired ankle and knee joint function. None of the patients showed signs of chronic venous hypertension at assessment. Ambulatory strain-gauge plethysmography revealed no significant difference in recovery time and refilling volume values between the two limbs of each patient (p > 0.1) and between limbs in which fasciotomy was performed and those of normal subjects (p > 0.1). Color flow duplex scanning revealed patent popliteal veins with normal respiration-induced phasic flow pattern and absent reflux in all patients. All visible calf veins were patent, compressible, and without morphologic alterations. The fasciotomy wound was closed by delayed skin suture (the fascia remaining divided) in 48% and by skin grafts of the lateral incision in 52% of the patients, without significant difference in recovery time and refilling volume values (p > 0.1) at assessment. Fasciotomy does not lead to venous calf-pump dysfunction, irrespective of whether the wound is closed by delayed suture or skin grafts.

  10. Cancer induction by restriction of oncogene expression to the stem cell compartment

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Caro, María; Cobaleda, César; González-Herrero, Inés; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Orfao, Alberto; Pintado, Belén; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel; Jiménez, Rafael; Piris, Miguel A; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2009-01-01

    In human cancers, all cancerous cells carry the oncogenic genetic lesions. However, to elucidate whether cancer is a stem cell-driven tissue, we have developed a strategy to limit oncogene expression to the stem cell compartment in a transgenic mouse setting. Here, we focus on the effects of the BCR-ABLp210 oncogene, associated with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans. We show that CML phenotype and biology can be established in mice by restricting BCR-ABLp210 expression to stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1)+ cells. The course of the disease in Sca1-BCR-ABLp210 mice was not modified on STI571 treatment. However, BCR-ABLp210-induced CML is reversible through the unique elimination of the cancer stem cells (CSCs). Overall, our data show that oncogene expression in Sca1+ cells is all that is required to fully reprogramme it, giving rise to a full-blown, oncogene-specified tumour with all its mature cellular diversity, and that elimination of the CSCs is enough to eradicate the whole tumour. PMID:19037256

  11. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered. PMID:22067251

  12. Chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-03-24

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed.

  13. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  14. A four compartment open model with first-order absorption.

    PubMed

    Cherruault, Y; Sarin, V B

    1993-03-01

    This paper is related to the identification of pharmacokinetic parameters of a four-compartment open model with first order absorption from plasma level data. The eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix of the given system are obtained by transforming them into a single variable and the solution involves the minimization of the sum of squares of deviation of the model-predicted values of the state variables from an experimentally obtained values. The distribution volume and the lag time are also identified. Finally, the unicity of the absorption rate constant is obtained by the minimum energy principle. The results obtained with present method are compared with those obtained by the generalized least squares method.

  15. The volume of vascular compartment in rat hind limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Law, R. O.; Phelps, C. F.

    1966-01-01

    1. A non-recirculatory perfusion system has been developed suitable for the perfusion of the hind limbs of small experimental animals. 2. By means of it a solution of T. 1824-labelled serum albumin has been introduced into the vascular compartment of the hind limbs of female rats under isogravimetric conditions. Excision and analysis of certain muscles has been used to provide information concerning the percentage distribution of the labelled albumin within these muscles. 3. Experiments have been carried out in vivo employing [131I]labelled serum albumin and [51Cr]labelled erythrocytes in order to compare the vascular volumes determined under in vivo conditions and in perfusions, and to estimate the capillary haematocrit in vivo. 4. The physiological validity of the methods used and the results obtained has been discussed. PMID:5972152

  16. Sessile hemocytes as a hematopoietic compartment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Márkus, Róbert; Laurinyecz, Barbara; Kurucz, Éva; Honti, Viktor; Bajusz, Izabella; Sipos, Botond; Somogyi, Kálmán; Kronhamn, Jesper; Hultmark, Dan; Andó, István

    2009-01-01

    The blood cells, or hemocytes, in Drosophila participate in the immune response through the production of antimicrobial peptides, the phagocytosis of bacteria, and the encapsulation of larger foreign particles such as parasitic eggs; these immune reactions are mediated by phylogenetically conserved mechanisms. The encapsulation reaction is analogous to the formation of granuloma in vertebrates, and is mediated by large specialized cells, the lamellocytes. The origin of the lamellocytes has not been formally established, although it has been suggested that they are derived from the lymph gland, which is generally considered to be the main hematopoietic organ in the Drosophila larva. However, it was recently observed that a subepidermal population of sessile blood cells is released into the circulation in response to a parasitoid wasp infection. We set out to analyze this phenomenon systematically. As a result, we define the sessile hemocytes as a novel hematopoietic compartment, and the main source of lamellocytes. PMID:19261847

  17. Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

  18. Viral and Cellular Components of AAV2 Replication Compartments.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Rebecca; Seyffert, Michael; Pereira, Bruna de Andrade; Fraefel, Cornel

    2013-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is a helpervirus-dependent parvovirus with a bi-phasic life cycle comprising latency in absence and lytic replication in presence of a helpervirus, such as adenovirus (Ad) or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Helpervirus-supported AAV2 replication takes place in replication compartments (RCs) in the cell nucleus where virus DNA replication and transcription occur. RCs consist of a defined set of helper virus-, AAV2-, and cellular proteins. Here we compare the profile of cellular proteins recruited into AAV2 RCs or identified in Rep78-associated complexes when either Ad or HSV-1 is the helpervirus, and we discuss the potential roles of some of these proteins in AAV2 and helpervirus infection. PMID:24222808

  19. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian J; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wu, Chao-ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-08-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation. PMID:27445307

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Unbounded Cellular Compartments: Synaptic Clefts.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ken H; Stawski, Philipp S; Draycott, Austin S; Udeshi, Namrata D; Lehrman, Emily K; Wilton, Daniel K; Svinkina, Tanya; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Stevens, Beth; Carr, Steven A; Ting, Alice Y

    2016-08-25

    Cellular compartments that cannot be biochemically isolated are challenging to characterize. Here we demonstrate the proteomic characterization of the synaptic clefts that exist at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Normal brain function relies on the careful balance of these opposing neural connections, and understanding how this balance is achieved relies on knowledge of their protein compositions. Using a spatially restricted enzymatic tagging strategy, we mapped the proteomes of two of the most common excitatory and inhibitory synaptic clefts in living neurons. These proteomes reveal dozens of synaptic candidates and assign numerous known synaptic proteins to a specific cleft type. The molecular differentiation of each cleft allowed us to identify Mdga2 as a potential specificity factor influencing Neuroligin-2's recruitment of presynaptic neurotransmitters at inhibitory synapses. PMID:27565350

  1. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-28

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. PMID:25946401

  2. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian J; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wu, Chao-ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-08-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation.

  3. [Acute extremity compartment syndrome: current concepts in diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Sellei, R M; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H-C

    2014-07-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the upper and lower limbs is observed following trauma, reperfusion or as an intraoperative complication caused by positioning. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known as a loss of perfusion due to rising compartmental pressures. It is a serious and potentially limb- and life-threatening complication. Early diagnosis is made primarily based on clinical findings. Early and focused therapy is crucial to prevent the devastating complications of this acute condition. However, diagnosis can be difficult, particularly in unconscious patients. Thus, in uncertain cases, pressure measurements are essential. Dermato-fasciotomy is the routine method to decompress the compartmental space. This review article examines the clinical findings, diagnostic techniques, and management options for the patient with musculoskeletal injuries.

  4. Chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure; Chronic renal failure ... Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over months or years. You may not notice any symptoms for some ...

  5. Delayed compartment syndrome following brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula formation in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Elenin, Haussam

    2013-03-01

    Delayed compartment syndrome following the surgical creation of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access is rare. A 71-year-old male patient experienced left anterior forearm compartment syndrome caused by a brachiocephalic AVF. The fistula failed after five days. Immediate radiological de-clotting failed and the thrombosed fistula was de-clotted with the help of a Fogarty balloon. On Day 11, the patient developed symptoms and signs of acute anterior forearm compartment syndrome and underwent immediate surgical decompression of the superficial and deep flexor compartments, which resulted in an excellent outcome. Iatrogenic forearm compartment syndrome is a rare but potential complication after creation of AVF. The critical errors regarding compartment syndrome are failure to recognize or failure to act. This case report illustrates that swift diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention results in an excellent outcome and avoids the morbidity associated with this potentially devastating and debilitating process.

  6. Three prevacuolar compartment Rab GTPases impact Candida albicans hyphal growth.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Douglas A; Tapia, Arturo Luna; Eberle, Karen E; Palmer, Glen E

    2013-07-01

    Disruption of vacuolar biogenesis in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans causes profound defects in polarized hyphal growth. However, the precise vacuolar pathways involved in yeast-hypha differentiation have not been determined. Previously we focused on Vps21p, a Rab GTPase involved in directing vacuolar trafficking through the late endosomal prevacuolar compartment (PVC). Herein, we identify two additional Vps21p-related GTPases, Ypt52p and Ypt53p, that colocalize with Vps21p and can suppress the hyphal defects of the vps21Δ/Δ mutant. Phenotypic analysis of gene deletion strains revealed that loss of both VPS21 and YPT52 causes synthetic defects in endocytic trafficking to the vacuole, as well as delivery of the virulence-associated vacuolar membrane protein Mlt1p from the Golgi compartment. Transcription of all three GTPase-encoding genes is increased under hyphal growth conditions, and overexpression of the transcription factor Ume6p is sufficient to increase the transcription of these genes. While only the vps21Δ/Δ single mutant has hyphal growth defects, these were greatly exacerbated in a vps21Δ/Δ ypt52Δ/Δ double mutant. On the basis of relative expression levels and phenotypic analysis of gene deletion strains, Vps21p is the most important of the three GTPases, followed by Ypt52p, while Ypt53p has an only marginal impact on C. albicans physiology. Finally, disruption of a nonendosomal AP-3-dependent vacuolar trafficking pathway in the vps21Δ/Δ ypt52Δ/Δ mutant, further exacerbated the stress and hyphal growth defects. These findings underscore the importance of membrane trafficking through the PVC in sustaining the invasive hyphal growth form of C. albicans.

  7. Acute paediatric compartment syndrome of the hand caused by hereditary angiooedema.

    PubMed

    Malik, S S; Uppal, H; Sinha, A; Malik, S S; Katam, K; Srinivasan, K

    2011-10-01

    Compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm are well described in the literature. However, compartment syndrome of the hand is rare and in children it is even rarer. Atraumatic hand compartment syndrome has not to our knowledge been previously reported. We describe a case of an atraumatic compartment syndrome of the hand in a child who underwent an urgent fasciotomy. The child was diagnosed with hereditary angiooedema. We highlight a rare but serious complication of a hereditary disease not commonly seen by the surgical community. We hope that this report raises the awareness of this condition, thereby reducing delays in reaching a prompt diagnosis.

  8. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    PubMed

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  9. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chari, S T; DiMagno, E P

    2001-09-01

    An increasing number of novel mutations are associated with chronic pancreatitis. Some cause a high-penetrance, autosomal dominant type of clinical picture (eg, mutations at codons 29 and 122 of the cationic trypsinogen gene), whereas others have a low penetrance or are frequent in the general population (eg, mutations in Kazal type 1 [SPINK1] and in codons 16, 22, and 23 of the cationic trypsinogen gene) and act as disease modifiers. The results of recent studies indicate that smoking adversely affects the course and complications of chronic pancreatitis (more frequent and faster rate of calcification and higher risk of development of pancreatic cancer). Thus, regardless of the cause of chronic pancreatis, patients with this condition should not smoke. Using current diagnostic criteria, the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is not good. For example, 39% of dyspeptic persons without any other evidence of chronic pancreatitis fulfilled the endoscopic ultrasound criteria for chronic pancreatitis. Diabetes frequently occurs in chronic pancreatitis, but it is not prevented or increased by pancreatic surgery. Islet cell autotransplantation holds promise for the prevention of diabetes in patients requiring total pancreatectomy if the pancreas is not extensively fibrotic. Splenic vein occlusion is present in 7% of patients undergoing surgery for chronic pancreatitis, but fewer than one fifth of these patients have variceal bleeding before or after surgery.

  10. Chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Chari, Suresh T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis describes a wide spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders of the exocrine pancreas that includes calcifying, obstructive, and steroid-responsive forms. Use of the term chronic pancreatitis without qualification generally refers to calcifying chronic pancreatitis. Epidemiology is poorly defined, but incidence worldwide seems to be on the rise. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors for chronic calcifying pancreatitis. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of chronic calcifying pancreatitis, focusing on pain management, the role of endoscopic and surgical intervention, and the use of pancreatic enzyme-replacement therapy. Management of patients is often challenging and necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26948434

  11. Physical Activity and Exertional Desaturation Are Associated with Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vainshelboim, Baruch; Kramer, Mordechai Reuven; Izhakian, Shimon; Lima, Ricardo M.; Oliveira, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease that manifests in hypoxemia, inactivity, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to assess the prognostic role of physical activity (PA) and exertional desaturation (ED) with mortality in IPF. At baseline, 34 IPF patients (68 (50–81) years) were interviewed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and SpO2 was assessed pre to post 6-min walking test (∆SpO2). Patients were prospectively followed up for 40 months. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis determined cut-off points associated with mortality, and Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) were conducted. Thresholds for increased mortality risk in IPF patients were determined as IPAQ ≤ 417 metabolic equivalent task (METS)-min/week, p = 0.004 (HR; 9.7, CI 95% (1.3–71.9), p = 0.027), and ∆SpO2 ≥ 10%, p = 0.002, (HR; 23.3, CI 95% (1.5–365), p = 0.025). This study demonstrated a significant association of PA and ED with mortality in IPF patients. The findings emphasize the clinical importance of PA and ED assessments to aid in IPF risk stratification, prognosis prediction, and in providing early appropriate treatments, such as pulmonary rehabilitation, PA consultation, oxygen supplementation, and lung transplantation referral. These results underscore that even low levels of PA corresponding to 100–105 min/week were associated with a reduced mortality risk and better survival in IPF. PMID:27548238

  12. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes by targeting plasma membrane molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Jolly, Christopher A.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The effects of n-3 PUFAs are pleiotropic and complex; hence, an understanding of their cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Here we focus on recent data indicating n-3 PUFAs exert immunosuppressive effects on the function of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also present emerging evidence that n-3 PUFAs have immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We then focus on one multifaceted mechanism of n-3 PUFAs, which is the alteration of the biophysical and biochemical organization of the plasma membrane. This mechanism is central for downstream signaling, eicosanoid production, transcriptional regulation and cytokine secretion. We highlight recent work demonstrating n-3 PUFA acyl chains in the plasma membrane target the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts or signaling networks) and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. We conclude by proposing new functional and mechanistic questions in this area of research that will aid in the development of fish oil as adjuvant therapy for treating unresolved chronic inflammation. PMID:22020145

  13. Physical Activity and Exertional Desaturation Are Associated with Mortality in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vainshelboim, Baruch; Kramer, Mordechai Reuven; Izhakian, Shimon; Lima, Ricardo M; Oliveira, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease that manifests in hypoxemia, inactivity, and poor prognosis. This study aimed to assess the prognostic role of physical activity (PA) and exertional desaturation (ED) with mortality in IPF. At baseline, 34 IPF patients (68 (50-81) years) were interviewed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and SpO₂ was assessed pre to post 6-min walking test (∆SpO₂). Patients were prospectively followed up for 40 months. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis determined cut-off points associated with mortality, and Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) were conducted. Thresholds for increased mortality risk in IPF patients were determined as IPAQ ≤ 417 metabolic equivalent task (METS)-min/week, p = 0.004 (HR; 9.7, CI 95% (1.3-71.9), p = 0.027), and ∆SpO₂ ≥ 10%, p = 0.002, (HR; 23.3, CI 95% (1.5-365), p = 0.025). This study demonstrated a significant association of PA and ED with mortality in IPF patients. The findings emphasize the clinical importance of PA and ED assessments to aid in IPF risk stratification, prognosis prediction, and in providing early appropriate treatments, such as pulmonary rehabilitation, PA consultation, oxygen supplementation, and lung transplantation referral. These results underscore that even low levels of PA corresponding to 100-105 min/week were associated with a reduced mortality risk and better survival in IPF. PMID:27548238

  14. Sasa health exerts a protective effect on Her2/NeuN mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Mingqiang; Reilly, R Todd; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2004-01-01

    Bamboo grass leaves of different Sasa species have been widely used in food and medicine in Eastern Asia for hundreds of years. Of special interest are Kumazasa (Sasa senanensis rehder) leaves used to prepare an alkaline extract known as Sasa Health. This extract was reported to inhibit both the development and growth of mammary tumors in a mammary tumor strain of virgin SHN mice (1). We found that Sasa Health exerts a significant protective effect on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in another mouse model of human breast cancer, the transgenic FVB-Her2/NeuN mouse model. Two cohorts of Her2/NeuN female mice of different age (eleven-week-old and twenty-four-week-old) chronically treated with Sasa Health in drinking water showed both a delay in the development of tumors and reduced tumor multiplicity. Sasa Health also induced inhibition of mammary duct branching and side bud development in association with reduced angiogenesis. Altogether these findings indicate that Sasa Health contains phytochemicals that can effectively retard spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis.

  15. Clinical and functional outcomes of acute lower extremity compartment syndrome at a Major Trauma Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lollo, Loreto; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute lower extremity compartment syndrome (CS) is a condition that untreated causes irreversible nerve and muscle ischemia. Treatment by decompression fasciotomy without delay prevents permanent disability. The use of intracompartmental pressure (iCP) measurement in uncertain situations aids in diagnosis of severe leg pain. As an infrequent complication of lower extremity trauma, consequences of CS include chronic pain, nerve injury, and contractures. The purpose of this study was to observe the clinical and functional outcomes for patients with lower extremity CS after fasciotomy. Methods: Retrospective chart analysis for patients with a discharge diagnosis of CS was performed. Physical demographics, employment status, activity at time of injury, injury severity score, fracture types, pain scores, hours to fasciotomy, iCP, serum creatine kinase levels, wound treatment regimen, length of hospital stay, and discharge facility were collected. Lower extremity neurologic examination, pain scores, orthopedic complications, and employment status at 30 days and 12 months after discharge were noted. Results: One hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred and eight patients were assessed at 12 months. Eighty-one percent were male. Motorized vehicles caused 51% of injuries in males. Forty-one percent of injuries were tibia fractures. Acute kidney injury occurred in 2.4%. Mean peak serum creatine kinase levels were 58,600 units/ml. Gauze dressing was used in 78.9% of nonfracture patients and negative pressure wound vacuum therapy in 78.2% of fracture patients. About 21.6% of patients with CS had prior surgery. Nearly 12.9% of patients required leg amputation. Around 81.8% of amputees were male. Sixty-seven percent of amputees had associated vascular injuries. Foot numbness occurred in 20.5% of patients and drop foot palsy in 18.2%. Osteomyelitis developed in 10.2% of patients and fracture nonunion in 6.8%. About 14.7% of patients

  16. Inter-observer reliability of forceful exertion analysis based on video-recordings.

    PubMed

    Bao, S; Howard, N; Spielholz, P; Silverstein, B

    2010-09-01

    The objectives were to examine inter-observer reliability of job-level forceful exertion analyses and temporal agreement of detailed time study results. Three observers performed the analyses on 12 different jobs. Continuous duration, frequency and % time of lifting, pushing/pulling, power and pinch gripping exertions and estimated level of the exertions were obtained. Intraclass correlation coefficient and variance components were computed. Temporal agreement analyses of raw time study data were performed. The inter-observer reliability was good for most job-level exposure parameters (continuous duration, frequency and % time of forceful exertions), but only fair to moderate for the estimated level of forceful exertions. The finding that the between-observer variability was less than the between-exertion variability confirmed that the forceful exertion analysis method used in the present study can detect job exertion differences.Using three observers to perform detailed time studies on task activities and getting consensus of the majority can increase the between-observer agreement up to 97%. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results inform researchers that inter-observer reliability for job-level exposure measurement of forceful exertion analysis obtained from detailed time studies is generally good, but the observers' ability in the estimation of forceful exertion level can be poor. It also provides information on the temporal agreement of detailed forceful exertion analysis and guidelines on achieving better agreement for studies where accurate synchronisation of task activities and direct physiological/biomechanical measurements is crucial. PMID:20737338

  17. Efficiency under record performance demands: exertion control--an individual difference variable?

    PubMed

    Heckhausen, H; Strang, H

    1988-09-01

    Semiprofessional players ran basketball circuits under either normal or record performance demands. Lactate concentration and heart rate were measured as indexes of exertion. Number of dribbling errors, attempted shots, hits, and hit rate served as measures of performance and efficiency. Several individual difference measures were taken in order to identify those athletes who were capable of moderating the extent of exertion and of preserving their performance from impairment. The indexes of exertion rose sharply from normal to record trials. Correspondingly, the numbers of dribbling errors and of shots increased while the hit rate declined. However, there were considerable individual differences in restraining exertion and preserving efficiency--both indexes of exertion control. Neither achievement motive scores nor questionnaire items that ask for self-knowledge about exertion control could account for these differences. However, individuals capable of exertion control could be discriminated by an action-control scale that asks about postdecisional implementation of action steps (Kuhl, 1985).

  18. A multi-compartment CNS neuron-glia Co-culture microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaewon; Koito, Hisami; Li, Jianrong; Han, Arum

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel multi-compartment neuron co-culture microsystem platform for in vitro CNS axon-glia interaction research, capable of conducting up to six independent experiments in parallel for higher-throughput. We developed a new fabrication method to create microfluidic devices having both micro and macro scale structures within the same device through a single soft-lithography process, enabling mass fabrication with good repeatability. The multi-compartment microfluidic co-culture platform is composed of one soma compartment for neurons and six axon/glia compartments for oligodendrocytes (OLs). The soma compartment and axon/glia compartments are connected by arrays of axon-guiding microchannels that function as physical barriers to confine neuronal soma in the soma compartment, while allowing axons to grow into axon/glia compartments. OLs loaded into axon/glia compartments can interact only with axons but not with neuronal soma or dendrites, enabling localized axon-glia interaction studies. The microchannels also enabled fluidic isolation between compartments, allowing six independent experiments to be conducted on a single device for higher throughput. Soft-lithography using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is a commonly used technique in biomedical microdevices. Reservoirs on these devices are commonly defined by manual punching. Although simple, poor alignment and time consuming nature of the process makes this process not suitable when large numbers of reservoirs have to be repeatedly created. The newly developed method did not require manual punching of reservoirs, overcoming such limitations. First, seven reservoirs (depth: 3.5 mm) were made on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block using a micro-milling machine. Then, arrays of ridge microstructures, fabricated on a glass substrate, were hot-embossed against the PMMA block to define microchannels that connect the soma and axon/glia compartments. This process resulted in macro-scale reservoirs (3.5 mm

  19. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method. Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  20. Do cows prefer a barn compartment with a grooved or slotted floor?

    PubMed

    Stefanowska, J; Swierstra, D; van den Berg, J V; Metz, J H M

    2002-01-01

    Cow preferences for one of two compartments with different floors were tested in a barn with two symmetrical, connected compartments, each intended for 16 cows. Compartments were identical except for the floor. One floor was grooved longitudinally to the feeding barrier and the other was slotted perpendicular to that barrier. Sixteen pregnant, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were used. After 14 d of habituation, cow behavior was videotaped for 10 full 24-h d, spread over 22 d. Their daily time budget spent on different activities performed in both compartments was analyzed, as was their relocation and use of the concentrate dispenser in each compartment. On average, cows spent 120 min longer per day in the slotted floor compartment than in the grooved floor compartment, and performed all activities in the daily time budget significantly longer in this compartment. However, testing the preference of individuals revealed that, although five cows significantly preferred the slotted floor compartment, two cows significantly preferred the other compartment, and nine cows had no preference. On the slotted floor, cows ate longer at the feeding barrier and more often drank front-on to the water trough; on the grooved floor they more often drank standing parallel to the water trough. Thus, they seemed to prefer to stand parallel to the slots. Relocation of cows, indicated by index of movement, was not significantly different between the floors. Relocation seemed to be stimulated more by the presence of concentrate dispensers in both compartments than by floor profile. Although one floor type was not clearly preferred over the other, the findings and methods of this study have implications for design and implementation of future preference tests for testing husbandry systems and their components. PMID:11862970

  1. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Attila; Tóth, Balázs I.; Borbíró, István; Sugawara, Koji; Szöllõsi, Attila G.; Czifra, Gabriella; Pál, Balázs; Ambrus, Lídia; Kloepper, Jennifer; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Picardo, Mauro; Voets, Thomas; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Paus, Ralf; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, (-)-cannabidiol (CBD), on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) ion channels. Activation of TRPV4 interfered with the prolipogenic ERK1/2 MAPK pathway and resulted in the downregulation of nuclear receptor interacting protein-1 (NRIP1), which influences glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby inhibiting sebocyte lipogenesis. CBD also exerted complex antiinflammatory actions that were coupled to A2a adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) and inhibition of the NF-κB signaling. Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25061872

  2. Formwork pressure exerted by self-consolidating concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omran, Ahmed Fathy

    Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is an emerging technology that utilizes flowable concrete that eliminates the need for consolidation. The advantages of SCC lie in a remarkable reduction of the casting time, facilitating the casting of congested and complex structural elements, possibility to reduce labor demand, elimination of mechanical vibrations and noise, improvement of surface appearance, producing a better and premium concrete product. The research focussed on capturing existing knowledge and making recommendations for current practice. An experimental program was undertaken at the Universite de Sherbrooke to evaluate the lateral pressure developed by SCC mixtures. A portable devise (UofS2 pressure column) for measuring and predicting lateral pressure and its rate of decay of SCC was developed and validated. The UofS2 pressure column is cast with 0.5 m high fresh concrete and air pressure is introduced from the top to simulate casting depth up to 13 m. Then, develop and implement test method for field evaluation of relevant plastic and thixotropic properties of SCC that affect formwork pressure were done. Portable vane (PV) test based on the hand-held vane test method used to determine the undrained shear strength property of clay soil was the first setup as well as the inclined plane (IP) test. The IP device involves slumping a small concrete cylinder on a horizontal plate and then lifting up the plate at different durations of rest until the slumped sample starts to move. Identifying role of material constituents, mix design, concrete placement characteristics (casting rate, waiting periods between lifts, and casting depth), temperature, and formwork characteristics that have major influence on formwork pressure exerted by SCC were evaluated in laboratory and validated by actual field measurements. Relating the maximum lateral pressure and its rate of decay to the plastic properties of SCC were established. In the analytical part of the research

  3. The biomolecule ubiquinone exerts a variety of biological functions.

    PubMed

    Nohl, Hans; Staniek, Katrin; Kozlov, Andrey V; Gille, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of ubiquinone allows reversible addition of single electrons and protons. This unique property is used in nature for aerobic energy gain, for unilateral proton accumulation, for the generation of reactive oxygen species involved in physiological signaling and a variety of pathophysiological events. Since several years ubiquinone is also considered to play a major role in the control of lipid peroxidation, since this lipophilic biomolecule was recognized to recycle alpha-tocopherol radicals back to the chain-breaking form, vitamin E. Ubiquinone is therefore a biomolecule which has increasingly focused the interest of many research groups due to its alternative pro- and antioxidant activity. We have intensively investigated the role of ubiquinone as prooxidant in mitochondria and will present experimental evidences on conditions required for this function, we will also show that lysosomal ubiquinone has a double function as proton translocator and radical source under certain metabolic conditions. Furthermore, we have addressed the antioxidant role of ubiquinone and found that the efficiency of this activity is widely dependent on the type of biomembrane where ubiquinone exerts its chain-breaking activity. PMID:14695917

  4. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX. PMID:26184238

  5. MDMX exerts its oncogenic activity via suppression of retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Hu, L; Qiu, W; Deng, T; Zhang, Y; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-10-29

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) has a major role in the development of human malignancies. We have previously shown that MDM2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase and major negative regulator of p53, binds to and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of RB. MDMX, a homolog of MDM2, also binds to and inhibits p53 transactivation activity, yet it does not possess intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we show that MDMX binds to and promotes RB degradation in an MDM2-dependent manner. Specifically, the MDMX C-terminal ring domain binds to the RB C-pocket and enhances MDM2-RB interaction. Silencing MDMX induces RB accumulation, cell cycle arrest and senescence-like phenotypes, which are reverted by simultaneous RB knockdown. Furthermore, MDMX ablation leads to significant retardation of xenograft tumor growth, concomitant with RB accumulation. These results demonstrate that MDMX exerts oncogenic activity via suppression of RB, and suggest that both MDM2 and MDMX could be chemotherapeutic targets. PMID:25703327

  6. Effects of caffeine on the rate of perceived exertion.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L O; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C; Silva, F R; Zogaib, P S; Soares, D D

    1990-01-01

    The role of caffeine in improving performance in endurance exercises is controversial and its mechanism of action is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) by exercising athletes. Six male non-smoking runners, aged 26.8 +/- 4.9 years (mean +/- SD), who had been in training continuously for at least two years before the experiment were studied. Mean maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was 61.21 +/- 5.36 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects were asked to exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 3 min each at 300 and 600 kg m min-1, after which the work load was elevated to 1200 kg m min-1 and they exercised until exhaustion. In order to evaluate the effects of caffeine, the exercise was performed twice following the ingestion of 200 ml decaffeinated coffee with and without caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight). Caffeine had no significant effect on exercise time, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide extraction or exchange respiratory ratio, but the RPE was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) at the work load of 1200 kg m min-1 after the ingestion of caffeine for both trials I and II. The present results suggest that metabolic acidosis and glycogen depletion were not the main causes of exhaustion. PMID:2101061

  7. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-01

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of silica coating without a polymer layer, experiments for removal of the polymer by solvent extraction, TEM images of spherical α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an asymmetric PSGD coating, and additional FESEM

  8. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... emergency alarm system, audible during normal and emergency conditions, to enable crewmembers on the...

  9. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... emergency alarm system, audible during normal and emergency conditions, to enable crewmembers on the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... for two-way voice communication between the flight deck and each lower deck service compartment, which... emergency alarm system, audible during normal and emergency conditions, to enable crewmembers on the...

  11. 76 FR 30294 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane Pilot Compartment View...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... G250 Airplane Pilot Compartment View--Hydrophobic Coatings in Lieu of Windshield Wipers AGENCY: Federal... have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the pilot-compartment view through a hydrophobic... Fusion. The Model G250 airplane incorporates novel or unusual design ] features involving...

  12. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  13. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  14. METHOD OF MAKING A COMPARTMENTED FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    McGeary, R.K.; Frisch, E.

    1963-05-14

    A method of making a compartmented fuel element is presented. Fuel pellets arid spacing disks are inserted into a cladding tube; plugs are inserted at each end and the tube is then stretched lengthwise so that its walls grip the edges of the spacing disks, thereby forming compartments. (AEC)

  15. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Albert, Eva M; Fortuna, Miguel A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-08-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantified the suite of mechanisms generating such a structure. Here, we combine computational tools from the physics of complex networks with phylogenetic statistical methods to show that a large marine food web is organized in compartments, and that body size, phylogeny, and spatial structure are jointly associated with such a compartmentalized structure. Sharks account for the majority of predatory interactions within their compartments. Phylogenetically closely related shark species tend to occupy different compartments and have divergent trophic levels, suggesting that competition may play an important role structuring some of these compartments. Current overfishing of sharks has the potential to change the structural properties, which might eventually affect the stability of the food web. PMID:19490028

  16. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  17. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  18. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  19. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ventilated and provided further that internal combustion exhaust within the compartment are completely water... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank...

  20. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  1. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  2. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  3. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  4. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  5. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. 121.548 Section 121.548 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever,...

  8. 14 CFR 25.819 - Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... main deck under normal and emergency lighting conditions. The routes must provide for the evacuation of... compartment located below the main deck, which may be occupied during taxi or flight but not during takeoff or... the airplane's main power system or compartment main lighting system should fail,...

  9. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  10. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder...

  11. Compartments in a marine food web associated with phylogeny, body mass, and habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Enrico L; Albert, Eva M; Fortuna, Miguel A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-08-01

    A long-standing question in community ecology is whether food webs are organized in compartments, where species within the same compartment interact frequently among themselves, but show fewer interactions with species from other compartments. Finding evidence for this community organization is important since compartmentalization may strongly affect food web robustness to perturbation. However, few studies have found unequivocal evidence of compartments, and none has quantified the suite of mechanisms generating such a structure. Here, we combine computational tools from the physics of complex networks with phylogenetic statistical methods to show that a large marine food web is organized in compartments, and that body size, phylogeny, and spatial structure are jointly associated with such a compartmentalized structure. Sharks account for the majority of predatory interactions within their compartments. Phylogenetically closely related shark species tend to occupy different compartments and have divergent trophic levels, suggesting that competition may play an important role structuring some of these compartments. Current overfishing of sharks has the potential to change the structural properties, which might eventually affect the stability of the food web.

  12. Lower Extremity Compartment Syndrome After Coronary Artery Bypass: Easy to Miss Unless Suspected.

    PubMed

    Etra, Joanna W; Metkus, Thomas S; Whitman, Glenn J; Mandal, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a rare adverse event, and the diagnosis is challenging unless this condition is actively considered. We report a case from our institution of a patient with confounding presentation leading to a delayed diagnosis of compartment syndrome after CABG.

  13. Posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of a basketball injury.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Gregory C; Stanat, Scott J C; Al-Humadi, Mohaned; Divaris, Nicholas

    2009-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a serious although rare occurrence that was sparsely documented in the orthopedic literature until Schwartz et al reported on a series of 21 cases. Although classically associated with high-energy femur fracture, thigh contusion, or the use of military anti-shock trousers, compartment syndrome of the thigh has recently been diagnosed in seemingly low-energy injuries. A complete hamstring avulsion from its ischial origin during routine ambulation and rupture of the quadriceps tendon after a low-energy fall have been shown to result in compartment syndrome. In light of the potential medicolegal ramifications surrounding the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, emergency room consultations to rule out compartment syndrome are on the rise. Specifically, the time to fasciotomy was found to be linearly related to indemnity payment, and a fasciotomy performed within 8 hours was uniformly associated with a successful defense. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old healthy man who developed posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of an intrasubstance tear of the biceps femoris muscle sustained while attempting a lay-up during a recreational basketball game. His posterior thigh compartment pressure measured 70 mm Hg and he required emergent posterior thigh compartment fasciotomy.

  14. Bacopa monnieri (L.) exerts anti-inflammatory effects on cells of the innate immune system in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Münch, Gerald; Gyengesi, Erika; Bennett, Louise

    2014-03-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L., BM) is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal herb recognised for its efficacy in relieving acute pain and inflammation, as related to selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme and consequent reduction in COX-2-mediated prostanoid mediators. BM is also associated with cognitive enhancing (nootropic) activity including improving memory free recall, observed after prolonged intake (>3 months). It is likely that the time frame required to exert an effect in the brain reflects regulation by BM of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress associated with aging and chronic diseases, and other polypharmacological effects. We report down-regulation by BM of NO and TNF-α in stimulated RAW 246.7 macrophages and of IFN-γ in stimulated human blood cells. Furthermore, in human blood cells, IL-10 was slightly elevated indicating polarisation towards a regulatory T cell phenotype. These results provide further supportive evidence to justify the clinical evaluation of BM for managing diseases involving chronic systemic and brain inflammation driven by the innate immune system.

  15. TENDINOPATHY OF THE ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF THE ANKLE

    PubMed Central

    De Carvalho Junior, Antonio Egydio; Bittar, Cíntia Kelly; Salomão, Osny; Miranda, João Batista; Ninomiya, André; Silva, Daniel Bento

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a retrospective analysis on the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic options in cases of tendinopathy of the anterior compartment of the ankle. Method: 13 patients underwent surgery between September 1998 and February 2009; ten men and three women. The right side was involved in twelve patients and the left in one. The mean age was 35 years (range 15-67). The etiology was traumatic in eight patients and degenerative (non-traumatic) in five. The mean time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment was 19 months (range 1 – 60) and the mean length of follow-up was 34 months (range 4 – 127). The diagnosis was made through anamnesis and clinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on nine patients, for staging and planning. The surgical treatment was personalized in each case (synovectomy, resection of the muscle belly, consolidation with the adjacent tendon, and free grafting of the semitendinosus tendon). The following scales were used to evaluate the results: 1) subjective satisfaction scale, 2) AOFAS and 3) Maryland. Results: In relation to the subjective satisfaction scale, 12 patients were satisfied and one was dissatisfied. The mean AOFAS score was 80 points, and the mean Maryland scale was 86 points. Conclusion: Surgical treatment is effective for restoring function. The surgical techniques need to be personalized. The option of free grafting of the semitendinosus tendon is effective for gaps larger than five centimeters. PMID:27022532

  16. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  17. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  18. [Bilateral tibial compartment syndrome with crush symptoms after cannabis abuse].

    PubMed

    Huber, F X; Eckstein, H H; Allenberg, J R

    1997-08-01

    Acute compartmental syndrome (CS) is a surgical emergency. Different conditions in which high non-physiological pressure appears within a closed fascial space reduce the necessary blood perfusion. CS is caused by trauma, burns, bleeding in patients with coagulopathies arterial injuries, nephrotic syndrome or unusual physical exercise with secondary compartmental swelling. When decompression occurs too late, permanent loss of function and limb contracture may result. In the following paper we report on a case of four-compartmental syndrome in the lower legs of a patient with drug intoxication. After cannabis consumption, the patient fell asleep sitting cross-legged. During our first examination several hours later, the signs of compartmental syndrome with spontaneous pain, turgid swelling and paresis were present. Bilateral skin incision technique was used to gain entrance into the four compartments in both lower legs. Immediately after the operation, the patient showed crush syndrome with high serum creatine kinase activity 140.501 U/l and acute renal failure caused by rhabdomyolysis. Within 2 weeks of haemofiltration and dialysis, a full recovery to a normal serum creatinine level of 0.7 mg/dl was achieved. After emergency treatment and rehabilitation, the patient showed neither vascular nor neural defects. PMID:9377997

  19. Compartment Venting Analyses of Ares I First Stage Systems Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qunzhen; Arner, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Compartment venting analyses have been performed for the Ares I first stage systems tunnel using both the lumped parameter method and the three-dimensional (31)) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The main objective of venting analyses is to predict the magnitudes of differential pressures across the skin so the integrity of solid walls can be evaluated and properly designed. The lumped parameter method assumes the gas pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel are spatially uniform, which is questionable since the tunnel is about 1,700 in. long and 4 in. wide. Therefore, 31) transient CFD simulations using the commercial CFD code FLUENT are performed in order to examine the gas pressure and temperature variations inside the tunnel. It was found that the uniform pressure and temperature assumptions inside the systems tunnel are valid during ascent. During reentry, the uniform pressure assumption is also reasonable but the uniform temperature assumption is not valid. Predicted pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel using CFD are also compared with those from the lumped parameter method using the NASA code CHCHVENT. In general, the average pressure and temperature inside the systems tunnel from CFD are between the burst and crush results from CHCHVENT during both ascent and reentry. The skin differential pressure and pressure inside the systems tunnel relative to freestream pressure from CHCHVENT as well as velocity vectors and streamlines are also discussed in detail.

  20. Predictive factors of abdominal compartment syndrome in neonatal age.

    PubMed

    Schierz, Ingrid Anne Mandy; Giuffrè, Mario; Piro, Ettore; Ortolano, Rita; Siracusa, Fortunato; Pinello, Giuseppa; La Placa, Simona; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the pediatric population, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of abdominal wall defect repair. However, there are only few reports on ACS in newborns and only a proposal of critical intra-abdominal pressure value (IAP) in term newborns, absent in preterm newborns. Although the prevalent clinical sign is tense abdominal distension, it may be difficult to distinguish ACS from pathologies that will not require decompression. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors for ACS and therefore morbidity or mortality indicators. We reviewed newborns presenting with tense abdominal distension and end organ failure. Anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, and instrumental investigations were analyzed to extrapolate predictors. Outcomes were compared with a control group. The incidence of ACS in our neonatal intensive care unit was 5% in the overall population of babies, 16% in tracheal-ventilated newborns, and 57% in infants with abdominal wall defects. We found that, with onset of acidosis or high gastric residuals, the lactate values will be predictive for mortality. We can also suggest paying particular attention to high lactate values just at the onset of distension, in infants with more advanced gestational age, with previously surgical repair, to determine early surgical intervention independently of a specific IAP measurement.