Semiz, Hüseyin; Kobak, Senol
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, the involvement of eye and symptoms on the locomotor system. Gouty arthritis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by hyperuricemia, recurrent arthritis attacks and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints and the surrounding tissues. We reported the coexistence of sarcoidosis and gouty arthritis in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Bottiglieri, Sal; Tierson, Neil; Patel, Raina; Mo, Jae-Hyun; Mehdi, Syed
In this case report, we review the experience of a patient who presented with early stage pancreatic cancer (Stage IIb) who underwent a Whipple procedure and adjuvant chemoradiation. The patient's past medical history included early stage colon cancer in remission, post-traumatic-stress-disorder, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, gout, and pre-diabetes. Chemotherapy initially consisted of weekly gemcitabine. The patient developed acute gouty attacks after his second dose of gemcitabine, which brought him to the emergency room for emergent treatment on several occasions. Gemcitabine was held and treatment began with fluorouracil and concurrent radiation. After completion of his chemoradiation with fluorouracil, he was again treated with weekly gemcitabine alone. As soon as the patient started gemcitabine chemotherapy the patient developed gouty arthritis again, requiring discontinuation of chemotherapy. The patient received no additional treatment until his recent recurrence 8 months later where gemcitabine chemotherapy was again introduced with prophylactic medications consisting of allopurinol 100 mg by mouth daily and colchicine 0.6 mg by mouth daily throughout gemcitabine chemotherapy, and no signs of gouty arthritis occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing gout attacks associated with gemcitabine therapy. There is limited data available describing the mechanism that gouty arthritis may be precipitated from gemcitabine chemotherapy. Further monitoring and management may be required in patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy with underlying gout.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new radiographic damage scoring method (DAmagE index of GoUt; DAEGU) in chronic gout using plain radiography. Two independent observers scored foot x-rays from 15 patients with chronic gout according to the DAEGU method and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde (SvdH) method. The 10 metatarsophalangeal (MTP) and 2 interphalangeal (IP) joints of the first toes of both feet were scored to assess the degrees of erosion and joint space narrowing (JSN). The intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities were analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). The correlation between the DAEGU and SvdH methods was analyzed by calculating the Spearman's rho correlation coefficients and Kappa coefficients. The DAEGU method was found to be highly reproducible (0.945–0.987 for the intraobserver and 0.993–0.996 for the interobserver ICC values). The erosion, JSN, and total scores exhibited strong positive correlations between the DAEGU and SvdH methods and also within each method (r = 0.860–0.969, P < 0.001 for all parameters). The DAEGU and SvdH methods were in very good agreement as determined by Kappa coefficient analysis [0.732 (0.387–1.000) for erosion and 1.000 (1.000–1.000) for JSN]. In conclusion, this study revealed that DAEGU method was a reliable and feasible tool in the assessment of radiographic damage in chronic gout. The DAEGU method may provide a more easy assessment of structural damage in chronic gout in the real clinical practice. PMID:26955246
Akram, Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan; Ahmed, Iqbal; Azhar, Iqbal; Hamid, Abdul
Traditional medicines are practiced worldwide for treatment of gouty arthritis since ancient times. Herbs and plants always have been used in the treatment of different diseases such as gout. The present article deals with the therapeutic strategies and options for the cure of gouty arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical textbooks and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases. In this article a detailed introduction, classification, epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of gout with reference to modern and Unani system of medicines have been discussed. It is also tried to provide a list of plants used in the treatment of gout along with their formulations used in Unani system of medicine. The herbs and formulations have been used in different systems of medicine particularly Unani system of medicines exhibit their powerful role in the management and cure of gout and arthritis. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and some of them are in clinical trials. Their results are magnificent and considerable. However their mechanisms of actions are still on the way.
Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.
Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinicalmore » improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.« less
Hueskes, Berdine A A; Roovers, Elisabeth A; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Janssens, Hein J E M; van de Lisdonk, Eloy H; Janssen, Matthijs
To systematically review the literature investigating the relationship between use of diuretics and the risk of gouty arthritis. PubMed (1950-October 2009), Embase (1974-October 2009), and the Cochrane Library (up to October 2009) were searched using keywords and MeSH terms diuretics, adverse effects, and gout. For this review, the technique of "best evidence synthesis" was used. Studies reporting frequency, absolute or relative risks, odds ratio, or rate ratio of gouty arthritis in diuretic users compared with nonusers were selected and evaluated. Studies had to be published in English. Checklists from the Dutch Cochrane Centre were used to assess the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort, and case-control studies. Two RCTs, 6 cohort studies, and 5 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the studies was moderate. In a RCT the rate ratio of gout for use of bendrofluazide vs placebo was 11.8 (95% CI 5.2-27.0). The other RCT found a rate ratio of 6.3 (95% CI 0.8-51) for use of hydrochlorothiazide plus triamterene vs placebo. Three cohort studies and 4 case-control studies found higher risks of gouty arthritis in users compared with nonusers of diuretics. There is a trend toward a higher risk for acute gouty arthritis attacks in patients on loop and thiazide diuretics, but the magnitude and independence is not consistent. Therefore, stopping these useful drugs in patients who develop gouty arthritis is not supported by the results of this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Sang-Tae; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Yoon, Bo-Young
Septic arthritis and gout are major diseases that should be suspected in patients with acute monoarthritis. These two diseases are clinically similar and often indistinguishable without the help of synovial fluid analysis. Recently, a novel diagnostic rule for gout without synovial fluid analysis was developed and showed relevant performances. This study aimed to determine whether this diagnostic rule could perform well in distinguishing gout from septic arthritis. The diagnostic rule comprises 7 clinical and laboratory variables, each of which is given a specified score. The probability of gout is classified into 3 groups according to the sum of the scores: high (≥ 8), intermediate (> 4 to < 8) and low probability (≤ 4). In this retrospective study, we applied this diagnostic rule to 136 patients who presented as acute monoarthritis and were subsequently diagnosed as acute gout (n = 82) and septic arthritis (n = 54) based on synovial fluid analysis. The mean sum of scores of acute gout patients was significantly higher than that of those with septic arthritis (8.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Patients with acute gout had significantly more 'high', and less 'low' probabilities compared to those with septic arthritis (Eta[η]: 0.776). The prevalence of acute gouty arthritis, as confirmed by the presence of monosodium crystal, was 95.5% (61/64), 57.5% (19/33), and 5.1% (2/39) in high, intermediate and low probability group, respectively. The recently introduced diagnostic rule properly discriminates acute gout from septic arthritis. It may help physicians diagnose gout in cases difficult to be differentiated from septic arthritis.
Nam, Ju-Suk; Jagga, Supriya; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Lee, Joon-Hee; Park, Jong Bong; Jung, Jun-Sub; Lee, Sang-Soo
Korean oriental medicine prescription is widely used for the treatment of gouty diseases. In the present study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of modified Korean herbal formulation, mixed extract of medicinal herbs (MEMH), and its modulatory effects on inflammatory mediators associated with gouty arthritis. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out to assess the anti-inflammatory efficacy of MEMH on monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty inflammation. MSU crystals stimulated human chondrosarcoma cell line, SW1353, and human primary chondrocytes were treated with MEMH in vitro. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and metalloproteases were analyzed. The effect of MEMH on NFκB signaling pathway in SW1353 cells was examined. Effect of MEMH on the mRNA expression level of pro-inflammatory mediators and chemotactic factor from human monocytic cell line, THP-1, was also analyzed. The probable role of MEMH in the differentiation process of osteoblast like cells, SaOS-2, after MSU treatment was also observed. To investigate the effects of MEMH in vivo, MSU crystals-induced ankle arthritic model was established. Histopathological changes in affected joints and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β and TNFα) were recorded. MEMH inhibited NFκB signaling pathway and COX-2 protein expression in chondrocytes. MSU-induced mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators and chemotactic cytokines were suppressed by MEMH. In MSU crystals-induced ankle arthritic mouse model, administration of MEMH relieved inflammatory symptoms and decreased the plasma levels of IL-1β and TNFα. The results indicated that MEMH can effectively inhibit the expression of inflammatory mediators in gouty arthritis, demonstrating its potential for treating gouty arthritis. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le
The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application. PMID:23304232
Zhao, Ping; Chen, Ke-li; Zhang, Guo-li
This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron. (SM) on gouty arthritis and getting an insight of the possible mechanisms. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. The paw oedema, the neutrophil accumulation, inflammatory mediators, lipid peroxidation, and histopathological changes of the joints were analyzed in gouty arthritis rat model, and the kidney injury and serum urate were detected in hyperuricemic mice. Pharmacokinetic result demonstrated that the main apigenin glycosides might be quantitatively transformed into apigenin in the mammalian body. Among these compounds, the apigenin exhibited the strongest effect on xanthine oxidase (XOD). SM aqueous extract has proved to be active in reducing hyperuricemia in dose-dependent manner, and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in high dose group were decreased significantly as compared with hyperuricemic control group (P < 0.01). The high dose of SM extract could significantly prevent the paw swelling, reduce gouty joint inflammatory features, reduce the release of IL-1β and TNF-α, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) level (P < 0.01). For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of SM aqueous extract against gout in folk medicine. PMID:28250791
Huang, Ying; Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Zhang, Jun-Jun; Xing, Guo-Lan; Chen, Zhe
The modified Simiao decoctions (MSD) have been wildly applied in the treatment of gouty arthritis in China. However, the evidence needs to be evaluated by a systematic review and meta-analysis. After filtering, twenty-four randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of MSD and anti-inflammation medications and/or urate-lowering therapies in patients with gouty arthritis were included. In comparison with anti-inflammation medications, urate-lowering therapies, or coadministration of anti-inflammation medications and urate-lowering therapies, MSD monotherapy significantly lowered serum uric acid (p < 0.00001, mean difference = −90.62, and 95% CI [−128.38, −52.86]; p < 0.00001, mean difference = −91.43, and 95% CI [−122.38, −60.49]; p = 0.02, mean difference = −40.30, and 95% CI [−74.24, −6.36], resp.). Compared with anti-inflammation medications and/or urate-lowering therapies, MSD monotherapy significantly decreased ESR (p < 0.00001; mean difference = −8.11; 95% CI [−12.53, −3.69]) and CRP (p = 0.03; mean difference = −3.21; 95% CI [−6.07, −0.36]). Additionally, the adverse effects (AEs) of MSD were fewer (p < 0.00001; OR = 0.08; 95% CI [0.05, 0.16]). MSD are effective in the treatment of gouty arthritis through anti-inflammation and lowering urate. However, the efficacy of MSD should be estimated with more RCTs. PMID:28373889
Kou, Y.-Y.; Li, Y.-F.; Xu, M.; Li, W.-Y.; Yang, M.; Li, R.-L.
RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15) is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses antigout, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperuricemic properties based on the traditional conceptions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP15 in rat gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. In the present study, we found that treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg) in rats with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals significantly attenuated the knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated expressions of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in synovial tissues were significantly inhibited, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) result showed that MSU-induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in synovial fluid were reduced by treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg). We conclude that RPP15 may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and its activity of antigout may be partially related to inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB p65 expression in the synovial tissues. PMID:26221174
Sabina, E P; Rasool, M
In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala on monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice; an experimental model for gouty arthritis and compared it with that of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Indomethacin. The anti-arthritic effect of Triphala was evaluated by measuring changes in the paw volume, lysosomal enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-alpha in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. The levels of beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL). Triphala treatment (1 gm/kg/b.w. orally) significantly inhibited the paw volume and the levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha; however the anti-oxidant status was found to be increased in plasma, liver and spleen of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice when compared to control mice. In addition, beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase level were reduced in Triphala (100 microg/ml) treated monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated that Triphala exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect against gouty arthritis.
Wang, YanGang; Wang, Luan; Li, EnZe; Li, Yang; Wang, ZhongChao; Sun, XiaoFang; Yu, XiaoLong; Ma, Lin; Wang, YunLong; Wang, YouXin
Background The Chuanhu anti-gout mixture has been used for many years in the treatment of gout in Chinese Traditional Medicine, and current methods for treatments for acute gouty arthritis have been either less effective or have had serious side effects. Methods In this 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority study, outpatient individuals with newly diagnosed acute gouty arthritis were randomly assigned to receive Chuanhu anti-gout mixture or colchicine. Both the study investigators and the participants were masked to the treatment assignments. The primary outcome was the recurrence rate of acute gouty arthritis, and the secondary outcomes were changes in white blood cells (WHC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This trial is registered at ISRCTN.org as trial ISRCTN65219941. Results A total of 176 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture or Colchicine. The overall recurrence rates in the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture group (CH group) and the Colchicine group (Col group) were 12.50% vs 14.77% (difference -2.22%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -10.78%~6.23%), meeting the predefined non-inferiority criterion of 15%, as did the data for WHC and CRP. The incidence of adverse events (mainly diarrhea) was less in the Col group than in the CH group (2.27% vs 28.41%, 95% CI 0.01~0.26). In addition, changes in blood uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine in the CH group were significantly larger compared to those in the Col group (P<0.05). Conclusions The Chuanhu anti-gout mixture was non-inferior to colchicine for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. The study suggested that the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture can be considered an alternative choice for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis because of its lower incidence of adverse events and its protection of kidney and renal function. PMID:25013367
Zhou, Lei; Xu, Qun-Fei; Zhang, Wu-Si
To compare the efficacy difference in treatment of acute gouty arthritis between acupuncture combined with infrared irradiation and Indomethachin as well as observe the impacts on liver function. One hundred and sixty cases of gout were randomized into an acupuncture group (80 cases) and an Indomethachin group (80 cases). In acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied to Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Quchi (LI 11), Xuehai (SP 10), Yanglingquan (GB 34) and Ashi points. Additionally, infrared irradiation was used in the local area. The treatment was given once daily. In Indomethachin group, Indomethachin was taken orally, 25 mg each time, three times per day. The treatment lasted for 5 days in either group. Separately, before and after treatment, pain severity and the levels of blood uric acid (BUA), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected. Additionally, the efficacy and the impacts on liver function were assessed. The curative rate was 52.5% (42/80) in acupuncture group, which was superior to 22.5% (18/80) in Indomethachin group (P < 0.01). In acupuncture group, the analgesia efficacy was better than that in Indomethachin group (P < 0.01) and the effect on reducing BUA and ERS levels was same as that in Indomethachin group (all P > 0.05). After treatment, ALT and AST levels had no changes in acupuncture group, but they increased apparently in Indomethachin group (all P < 0.01). Acupuncture combined with infrared irradiation achieves superior efficacy on acute gouty arthritis as compared with oral medication of Indomethachin and the therapy provides a significant effect on analgesia and does not bring the damage of liver function.
Shi, Xin-de; Li, Guo-chun; Qian, Zu-xi; Jin, Ze-qiu; Song, Yan
To investigate the compatibility of a modified prescription of Simiao Pill in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis and to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug through a clinical trial. A randomized and controlled clinical trial was designed based on clinical epidemiological principles. A total of 107 patients with acute gouty arthritis were enrolled and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (Group I) included 27 patients taking gout prescription I; the second group (Group II) included 27 patients taking gout prescription II; the third group (Group III) included 28 patients taking gout prescription III; and the fourth group (control group) included 25 patients taking indomethacin and Benzobromarone as a control group. The duration of the treatment in all 4 groups was two weeks. After the treatment, the index of blood uric acid, blood leukocyte count, score of clinical symptoms, etc. were observed and measured. The total clinical effective rate of the three different modified prescriptions of the Simiao Pill was above 96%, significantly superior to that of the control group (68%, P<0.05). In terms of the improvement of main symptoms, the scores of four symptoms in all TCM treatment and control groups decreased after treatment, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Moreover, the scores markedly fell more so in the three Chinese herb groups than in the control group, and especially in Group III (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood uric acid values before and after the treatment in the same group but no significant inter-group difference was seen. The modified prescriptions, based on the clinical research, clinical experience and traditional Chinese medicine theory, did show a better effect than Western medicine in this clinical study. Moreover, the prescriptions were precise, with the herbs inexpensive and readily available. The patients had good compliance with less adverse reactions noted. The
Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lee, Hsin-Fu; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Chen; Lin, Chia-Pin; Wang, Chun-Li; Chang, Chi-Jen; Hsu, Lung-An
Large epidemiologic studies have associated gouty arthritis with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, there has been a lack of information regarding the outcomes for patients who have gout attacks during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. We reviewed the data of 444 consecutive patients who were admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2008 due to acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The clinical outcomes were compared between patients with gout attack and those without. Of the 444, 48 patients with acute STEMI developed acute gouty arthritis during hospitalization. The multivariate analysis identified prior history of gout and estimated glomerular filtration rate as independent risk factors of gout attack for patients with acute STEMI (odds ratio (OR) 21.02, 95 % CI 2.96-149.26, p = 0.002; OR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.86-0.99, p = 0.035, respectively). The in-hospital mortality and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the gouty group and the non-gouty group (controls). During a mean follow-up of 49 ± 28 months, all-cause mortality and stroke were similar for both groups. Multivariate Cox regression showed that gout attack was independently associated with short- and long-term adverse non-fatal cardiac events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.88, 95 % CI 1.09-3.24, p = 0.024; HR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.09-3.03, p = 0.022, respectively). Gout attack among patients hospitalized due to acute STEMI was independently associated with short-term and long-term rates of adverse non-fatal cardiac events.
Schlesinger, Naomi; Mysler, Eduardo; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; De Meulemeester, Marc; Rovensky, Jozef; Arulmani, Udayasankar; Balfour, Alison; Krammer, Gerhard; Sallstig, Peter; So, Alexander
Objective This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody, for prophylaxis against acute gouty arthritis flares in patients initiating urate-lowering treatment. Methods In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4×4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50+50+25+25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks. Results A dose-response for canakinumab was not apparent with any of the four predefined dose-response models. The estimated canakinumab dose with equivalent efficacy to colchicine was below the range of doses tested. At 16 weeks, there was a 62% to 72% reduction in the mean number of flares per patient for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine based on a negative binomial model (rate ratio: 0.28–0.38, p≤0.0083), and the percentage of patients experiencing ≥1 flare was significantly lower for all canakinumab doses (15% to 27%) versus colchicine (44%, p<0.05). There was a 64% to 72% reduction in the risk of experiencing ≥1 flare for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine at 16 weeks (hazard ratio (HR): 0.28–0.36, p≤0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups. Conclusions Single canakinumab doses ≥50 mg or four 4-weekly doses provided superior prophylaxis against flares compared with daily colchicine 0.5 mg. PMID:21540198
... disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. Like gout, crystals form in the joints. But in this ... CPPD arthritis can be confused with: Gouty arthritis (gout) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Exams and Tests Most arthritic ...
Xie, Zhijun; Wu, Huaxiang; Jing, Xiaoqing; Li, Xiuyang; Li, Yasong; Han, Yongmei; Gao, Xiangfu; Tang, Xiaopo; Sun, Jing; Fan, Yongshen; Wen, Chengping
Abstract Trial Design: In the double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we aimed to evaluate the effects of compound tufuling oral liquid (CoTOL) on serum uric acid (sUA) levels and recurrence of acute gouty arthritis in intercritical and chronic gout treatment. Methods: A total of 210 patients with gout were screened from 8 hospitals to observe the sUA and acute gouty arthritis recurrence rate-reducing effects of CoTOL in intercritical and chronic gout during a 12-week treatment. We treated 139 and 71 patients with CoTOL and the placebo, respectively, and evaluated their sUA levels, acute gouty arthritis recurrence rate, and adverse events at week 0, 6, and 12. Results: Twenty-five and 12 patients in the treatment and control groups, respectively, had interrupted treatments, whereas 114 and 59 cases, respectively, completed their treatments. At the end of the 12-week treatment, the average decrease in sUA was 74.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.74–91.77 μmol/L) and 28.81 μmol/L (95% CI: 4.91–52.71 μmol/L) in the treatment and control groups, respectively (P = 0.004). The average decrease rate of sUA was 12.76% (95% CI: 9.82%–15.70%) and 4.57% (95% CI: 0.42%–8.71%) in the treatment and control groups, respectively (P = 0.004), and the gouty arthritis recurrence rate of the treatment group was lower than that of the control group (from week 6 to 12, 21.93% and 50.88% in the treatment and control group, respectively, P < 0.001; from baseline to week 12, 38.5% and 63.16%, respectively, P = 0.003). Severe adverse events were not observed in either groups, and fewer leucopenia incidences were observed in the treatment group than those in the control group (3/139 vs. 7/71, respectively, P = 0.033). Conclusion: CoTOL reduced sUA levels and effectively prevented acute arthritis recurrence in intercritical and chronic gout without serious adverse events. PMID:28296744
Tolmie, J L; Shillito, P; Hughes-Benzie, R; Stephenson, J B
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (Mendelian inheritance in man Catalog No *225750) is an autosomal recessive encephalopathy which causes developmental arrest, intracerebral calcification, and white matter disease in the presence of chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis, and a raised level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha). Diagnosis requires the presence of progressive encephalopathy with onset shortly after birth, and characteristic clinical neurological and neuroimaging signs together with chronic CSF lymphocytosis. The syndrome has superficial resemblance to the neurological sequelae of congenital infection, thus a rigorous search for microbiological and serological evidence of embryopathic infections should be carried out in each case. Images PMID:8592332
Zhang, Chao-Nan; Huang, Xue-Kuan; Luo, Yan; Jiang, Juan; Wan, Lei; Wang, Ling
To investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell (TREM)l in ankle joint synovial tissue of acute gouty arthritis (AGA) rats. Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal, AGA, medication and EA group, 10 rats in each group. AGA model was established by induced monosodium urate (MSU) method, except the normal group. Tow days before AGA model was established, normal and AGA groups were lavaged with normal saline (20 ml/kg), medication group was lavaged with colchicine solution (20 ml/kg), EA(1.5-2 Hz, D.-D.wave, 9v; 1-3 rnA) was applied to "Sanyinjiao" (SP6), "jiexi" (ST41) and "Kunlun" (BL60) for 20 min, once daily;continuously for 9 days. Then observed the changes in dysfunction, and the content of TNF-α and IL-lβ detected by ELISA, the expression of TREM-l detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Compared to the normal group, the AGA group of the dysfunction index increased significantly (P<0.01), the content of TNF-α and IL-lβ increased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TREM-l in synovial tissue increased significantly (P<0.05); the medication and EA groups compared to the AGA group, the dysfunction index decreased significantly (P<0.01), the content of TNF-α and IL-lβ decreased significantly (P<0.05), the expression of TREM-l in synovial tissue decreased significantly (P<0.05); there were not statistically significant between the medication and EA group (P>0.05). EA treating AGA may be through down-regulating the expression of TREM -1 in synovial tissue.
Zhang, Chao-nan; Huang, Xue-kuan; Luo, Yan; Jiang, Juan; Wan, Lei; Wang, Ling
To investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture ( EA) on the related protein expression of the signaling pathway of the toll-like receptor2 (TLR2)/myeloid differentiation factor (MYD) 88 in ankle joint synovial tissue of acute gouty arthritis (AGA) rats. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal group, SMD group, AGA model group, medication group and EA group, 10 rats in each group. SMD group established model by inducing SMD, other groups established AGA model by inducing monosodium urate, except the normal group. Two days before model was established, normal and SMD and AGA model groups were lavaged with normal saline (20 mL/kg), medication group was lavaged with colchicine solution (1 mg/kg), EA (1. 5-2 Hz, D.-D. wave, 9 V, 1-3 mA) was applied to"Sanyinjiao" (SP6),"Jiexi"(ST41) and "kunlun" (BL60) for 20 min, once daily, continuously for 9 days. Then the join sewlling index was observed periodically, the protein expression of TLR2 and MYD88 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Compared to the normal group, the join sewlling of the SMD group in test join increased significantly (P<0. 05) and the protein expression of TLR2 and MYD88 in synovial tissue has not statistically significant (P>0.05), the oin sewlling and protein expression of TLR2 and MYD88 in synovial tissue of model group increased significantly P<0. 05); The medication and EA group compared to the model group, the protein expression of TLR2 and MYD88 in synovial tissue decreased significantly (P <0. 05), the join sewlling in test join decreased significantly P<1. 05); There were not statistically significant between the EA group and the medication group (P>0.05). EA can alleviate the symptoms of AGA, which may be related to regulation of the protein expression Y TRI and MYD88 in the TLR/MYD88 signaling pathway.
Goldenstein-Schainberg, C; Homsi, C; Rodrigues Pereira, R M; Cossermelli, W
Retrocalcaneal bursitis has been described in various adult rheumatic diseases and septic bursitis unrelated to previous bursal disease has been reported in children. The case is reported here of a girl with juvenile chronic arthritis who developed non-septic retrocalcaneal bursitis; the diagnosis was suggested by a combination of clinical and radiographic studies and was confirmed by ultrasonography. Images PMID:1444631
Wu, Juan; Li, Jingya; Li, Wei; Sun, Bei; Xie, Jin; Cheng, Wenming; Zhang, Qunlin
Sanmiao Wan (SMW) has been a basic prescription employed for the treatment for gout in the clinic since Yuan dynasty. Achyranthis bidentatae radix (ABR) is designed as a lower-guiding drug in SMW to augment the articular accumulation of active ingredients and improve the anti-inflammatory effect. Present study was undertaken to investigate the dose-response relationship of berberine in SMW between the articular concentration and anti-inflammatory effect in the knee joint under the lower-guiding of ABR. Rats were divided into control group, model group and SMW without or with low, medium and high doses of ABR groups. Rat model of acute gouty arthritis (AGA) was established by intra-articular injection of 0.2 mL monosodium urate crystal (20 mg/mL) inside knee joint cavity on day 2 during drug treatment slots. Knee joint swelling, synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration were investigated for anti-inflammatory study. The concentrations of berberine in rat plasma and tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The effect of ABR on the expression levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1 mRNA in the synovial tissues of knee joints in AGA rats was examined by Western blot and RT-qPCR assay, respectively. The distribution of berberine increased by 6.53%, 44.31% and 212.96% in the knee joint and 474.93%, 631.01% and 1063.3% in the ankle for SMW with low, medium and high doses of ABR groups, compared with SMW without ABR group. Similarly, the plasma level of berberine increased by 19.81%, 143.4% and 681.13%. On the contrary, the distribution of berberine evidently decreased 3.23, 10.61 and 46.21-fold in heart and 3.68, 6.74 and 24.78-fold in lung. SMW with different doses of ABR groups exhibited better efficiency than SMW without ABR group on ameliorating knee joint swelling, inhibiting synovial hyperplasia and alleviating inflammatory cell infiltration of AGA rats. The treatment with ABR could down-regulate the MDR1 mRNA and P-gp expressions of synovial
Juge, Pierre-Antoine; Truchetet, Marie-Elise; Pillebout, Evangeline; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Vigneau, Cécile; Loustau, Clotilde; Cornec, Divi; Pascart, Tristan; Snanoudj, Renaud; Bailly, Florian; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Saraux, Alain; Dieudé, Philippe; Flipo, René-Marc; Richette, Pascal; Lioté, Frédéric; Bardin, Thomas; Chalès, Gérard; Ea, Hang-Korng
The allopurinol dose is limited in chronic kidney disease, particularly stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. Febuxostat has a hepatic metabolism and has been approved without dose adaptation in gouty patients with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease. We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of febuxostat for stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. In this retrospective study, we included patients with (1) a diagnosis of gout, (2) febuxostat treatment, (3) estimated glomerular filtration rate≤30mL/min/1.73m 2 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) at febuxostat initiation and (4) follow-up for at least 3 months after febuxostat initiation. Efficacy, safety and variation in estimated glomerular filtration rate were analyzed. We included 73 patients (mean age 70.2±11.8, 61 men, 31 with vascular chronic kidney disease and 18 renal transplantation) with gout (baseline serum uric acid level=9.86±2.85mg/dL, mean gout duration 6.2±7.0 years) from 10 academic centers. Comorbidities included cardiac failure (17.8%), hypertension (98.6%), diabetes mellitus (30.1%), dyslipidemia (64.8%) and history of cardiovascular events (38.4%). At the last visit (mean follow-up 68.5±64.8 weeks), the daily dose of febuxostat was 40mg for 7 patients (10.5%), 80mg for 50 (74.6%) and 120mg for 10 (14.9%). Serum uric acid level was<6mg/dL for 49 patients (67%). Renal function improved for 18 patients, was unchanged for 24 and worsened for 31; 19 patients experienced flares and 1 patient, limb edema. Febuxostat seemed efficient in gouty patients with stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. However, safety data were not clear regarding renal function. Larger studies are needed to assess safety. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Canakinumab relieves symptoms of acute flares and improves health-related quality of life in patients with difficult-to-treat Gouty Arthritis by suppressing inflammation: results of a randomized, dose-ranging study
Introduction We report the impact of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-1β monoclonal antibody, on inflammation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with difficult-to-treat Gouty Arthritis. Methods In this eight-week, single-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, patients with acute Gouty Arthritis flares who were unresponsive or intolerant to - or had contraindications for - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or colchicine were randomized to receive a single subcutaneous dose of canakinumab (10, 25, 50, 90, or 150 mg) (N = 143) or an intramuscular dose of triamcinolone acetonide 40 mg (N = 57). Patients assessed pain using a Likert scale, physicians assessed clinical signs of joint inflammation, and HRQoL was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) (acute version). Results At baseline, 98% of patients were suffering from moderate-to-extreme pain. The percentage of patients with no or mild pain was numerically greater in most canakinumab groups compared with triamcinolone acetonide from 24 to 72 hours post-dose; the difference was statistically significant for canakinumab 150 mg at these time points (P < 0.05). Treatment with canakinumab 150 mg was associated with statistically significant lower Likert scores for tenderness (odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27 to 7.89; P = 0.014) and swelling (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.09 to 6.50, P = 0.032) at 72 hours compared with triamcinolone acetonide. Median C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A levels were normalized by seven days post-dose in most canakinumab groups, but remained elevated in the triamcinolone acetonide group. Improvements in physical health were observed at seven days post-dose in all treatment groups; increases in scores were highest for canakinumab 150 mg. In this group, the mean SF-36 physical component summary score increased by 12.0 points from baseline to 48.3 at seven days post-dose. SF-36 scores for physical functioning and
Häfner, R; Truckenbrodt, H; Spamer, M
Chronic childhood arthritis impairs joint function and may result in severe physical handicap. Joint pain and inflammation trigger a vicious cycle that often ends in joint damage and fixed deformities. A comprehensive rehabilitation programme must start early to restore loss of function and prevent permanent handicap. It is dominated by a physiotherapeutic regimen consisting of pain relief, movement expansion, training of muscular coordination and finally re-integration of a physiological movement pattern. The approaches of occupational therapy become integrated into the treatment programme, concentrating on joint protection and self-care training. Additional aids support the aim of joint restoration. They include individual splinting, adapted footwear and walking aids. Depending on the child's age and developmental status different aspects of rehabilitation dominate. Small children need adequate mobility to promote their psychosocial development. In later years integration into school life and the peer group becomes important. Adolescents require help for an adequate vocational training and self-care support. Last but not least, parental education and integration of the whole family into the rehabilitation programme markedly improve the patient's prognosis.
Rosenthal, Ann K; Ryan, Lawrence M
Calcium crystal arthritis is often unrecognized, poorly managed, and few effective therapies are available. The most common types of calcium crystals causing musculoskeletal syndromes are calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP). Associated syndromes have different clinical presentations and divergent management strategies. Acute CPP arthritis is treated similarly to acute gouty arthritis, whereas chronic CPP and BCP arthropathy may respond to strategies used for osteoarthritis. Calcific tendonitis is treated with a variety of interventions designed to dissolve BCP crystals. A better understanding of the causes and larger well-planned trials of current therapies will lead to improved care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inman, R D; Chiu, B
The basic mechanisms underlying reactive arthritis and specifically the joint injury that follows intra-articular Chlamydia trachomatis infection have not been defined. The present study addresses this question through the development of an experimental model. Stable cell lines were generated from synoviocytes harvested from the knee joints of Lewis rats. The synoviocytes were cocultivated with C. trachomatis to allow invasion by the microbe and were then transferred by intra-articular injection into the knee joints of Lewis rats. The ensuing arthritis could be subdivided into an early phase (= 14 d) and a late phase. The early phase was characterized by intense, primarily neutrophilic, synovitis; accelerated cartilage injury; dissemination of Chlamydia to liver and spleen; and viable Chlamydia in the joints. The late phase was marked by mixed mononuclear lymphocyte infiltration in the joint; dysplastic cartilage injury and repair; absence of viable organisms; and development of a distinctive humoral response. Western blot analysis comparing reactive arthritis patients to the experimental model indicates that candidate arthritogenic chlamydial antigens are comparable between the two. This model demonstrates that an intense synovitis can be induced by this intracellular pathogen, and that chronic inflammation can persist well beyond the culture-positive phase. Furthermore, these data show that the synoviocyte is a suitable host cell for C. trachomatis and can function as a reservoir of microbial antigens sufficient to perpetuate joint injury. PMID:9819362
... or have trouble moving around, you might have arthritis. Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints ... joint can become severely damaged. Some kinds of arthritis can also cause problems in your organs, such ...
Yang, M H; Lee, W I; Chen, L C; Lin, S J; Huang, J L
To assess the efficacy of the intraarticular steroid(IAS) injection in the management of arthritis and the possible related complications in children with chronic arthritis. We evaluated 11 children of chronic arthritis (4 girls and 7 boys), age of onset ranged from 2-13.6 years, who had persistent arthritis treated with IAS from November 1994 to June 1997. The results of injections showed that the beneficial effect was noted within one day to 2 weeks without significant adverse reactions, remission exceeding 6 months was seen in 10 of 11 patients (in 14 of 18 joints). According to subgroups of chronic arthritis, the remission rate of IAS injection in children with pauciarticular arthritis reached 100%. A significant fall in C-reactive protein (CRP) between pre- and post-IAS injection (p = 0.03), but there were no differences in hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBCs), thrombocytes (Plts), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and osteocalcin level. No injection-related complications were found. In conclusion, the IAS injection was an effective and safe treatment in children with chronic arthritis with no obvious complications especially in pauciarticular arthritis.
Canoso, J J; Yood, R A
Fifteen cases of acute gouty bursitis were seen among 136 crystal-proved cases of gout. Bursal aspirate yielded yellow or pink fluid in 10, chalky white fluid in 1, and a small amount of bloody fluid in 4. Monosodium urate crystals were present in all. Bursal fluid leucocyte counts averaged 2.9 X 10(9)/1 compared with synovial fluid leucocyte counts that averaged 25.5 X 10(9)/1 in cases of articular gout (P less than 0.05). Gouty, septic, and idiopathic (traumatic) bursitis share clinical features, and detailed bursal fluid analysis is crucial for diagnosis. PMID:496446
... is often needed for rheumatoid arthritis Water therapy Massage Other things you can do include: Get plenty ... to reduce pain from hip, knee, ankle, or foot arthritis. MEDICINES Medicines may be prescribed along with ...
Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lévesque, Jean Frédéric; Van, My Tram; Houde, Michelle; April, Karine Toupin
Physical and occupational therapy are beneficial for persons with chronic arthritis; however, access is problematic. The goal was to examine issues related to access to these services for patients with chronic arthritis. We used two data sources: 1) questionnaires sent to a random sample of 600 family physicians and to all 85 rheumatologists in the province of Quebec; and 2) interviews of 211 patients with physician-confirmed chronic arthritis recruited from 34 primary care settings in Quebec. Only 11.5% of family physicians and 31.7% of rheumatologists referred patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to rehabilitation, whereas 60.4% of family doctors referred patients with osteoarthritis. Only 26.1% of patients felt that they required rehabilitation and this was associated with lower self-efficacy (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.99) and higher educational level (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 4.36). Family physicians are less likely to refer patients with RA to therapy. Only about a quarter of patients with chronic arthritis treated in primary care perceived the need for these services. Efforts to improve arthritis care should address education of physicians and patients regarding the benefits of rehabilitation and there should be efforts to increase therapy resources in order to enhance access.
Hall, Christopher J; Sanderson, Leslie E; Lawrence, Lisa M; Pool, Bregina; van der Kroef, Maarten; Ashimbayeva, Elina; Britto, Denver; Harper, Jacquie L; Lieschke, Graham J; Astin, Jonathan W; Crosier, Kathryn E; Dalbeth, Nicola; Crosier, Philip S
Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis affecting men. Acute gouty inflammation is triggered by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in and around joints that activates macrophages into a proinflammatory state, resulting in neutrophil recruitment. A complete understanding of how MSU crystals activate macrophages in vivo has been difficult because of limitations of live imaging this process in traditional animal models. By live imaging the macrophage and neutrophil response to MSU crystals within an intact host (larval zebrafish), we reveal that macrophage activation requires mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generated through fatty acid oxidation. This mitochondrial source of ROS contributes to NF-κB-driven production of IL-1β and TNF-α, which promote neutrophil recruitment. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of this discovery by showing that this mechanism is conserved in human macrophages and, via pharmacologic blockade, that it contributes to neutrophil recruitment in a mouse model of acute gouty inflammation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to uncover an immunometabolic mechanism of macrophage activation that operates during acute gouty inflammation. Targeting this pathway holds promise in the management of gout and, potentially, other macrophage-driven diseases.
Gruber, Conor N; Finzel, Kathleen; Gruber, Barry L
We report a 40-year-old woman with onset of oligoarthritis shortly after initiating treatment with methimazole for Graves disease. Over the course of 7 years, her arthritis became progressively severe, leading to a diagnosis of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic agents and surgical intervention was contemplated. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed exuberant synovitis, involving right elbow and knees. Upon withdrawal of methimazole, prompt resolution of all signs and symptoms of arthritis was observed within several weeks. Following a MEDLINE search of available literature concerning antithyroid drug-induced arthritis, it is evident that this case represents the lengthiest duration of inflammatory arthropathy ever described in a patient that nonetheless was rapidly reversible with discontinuation of methimazole.
Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy L
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent chronic health conditions. However, despite recent advances in medical therapeutics, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop and test new drugs for RA and OA that selectively target inflamed joints thereby mitigating damage to healthy tissues. Conceivably, biocompatible, biodegradable, disease-modifying antirheumatic nanomedicines (DMARNs) could represent a promising therapeutic approach for RA and OA. To this end, the unique physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers coupled with pathophysiological characteristics of inflamed joints amplify bioavailability and bioactivity of DMARNs and promote their selective targeting to inflamed joints. This, in turn, minimizes the amount of drug required to control articular inflammation and circumvents collateral damage to healthy tissues. Thus, nanomedicine could provide selective control both in space and time of the inflammatory process in affected joints. However, bringing safe and efficacious DMARNs for RA and OA to the marketplace is challenging because regulatory agencies have no official definition of nanotechnology, and rules and definitions for nanomedicines are still being developed. Although existing toxicology tests may be adequate for most DMARNs, as new toxicity risks and adverse health effects derived from novel nanomaterials with intended use in humans are identified, additional toxicology tests would be required. Hence, we propose that detailed pre-clinical in vivo safety assessment of promising DMARNs leads for RA and OA, including risks to the general population, must be conducted before clinical trials begin. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy L
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent chronic health conditions. However, despite recent advances in medical therapeutics, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop and test new drugs for RA and OA that selectively target inflamed joints thereby mitigating damage to healthy tissues. Conceivably, biocompatible, biodegradable, disease-modifying antirheumatic nanomedicines (DMARNs) could represent a promising therapeutic approach for RA and OA. To this end, the unique physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers coupled with pathophysiological characteristics of inflamed joints amplify bioavailability and bioactivity of DMARNs and promote their selective targeting to inflamed joints. This, in turn, minimizes the amount of drug required to control articular inflammation and circumvents collateral damage to healthy tissues. Thus, nanomedicine could provide selective control both in space and time of the inflammatory process in affected joints. However, bringing safe and efficacious DMARNs for RA and OA to the marketplace is challenging because regulatory agencies have no official definition of nanotechnology, and rules and definitions for nanomedicines are still being developed. Although existing toxicology tests may be adequate for most DMARNs, as new toxicity risks and adverse health effects derived from novel nanomaterials with intended use in humans are identified, additional toxicology tests would be required. Hence, we propose that detailed pre-clinical in vivo safety assessment of promising DMARNs leads for RA and OA, including risks to the general population, must be conducted before clinical trials begin. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...
... tract. Rheumatoid arthritis happens when the body’s own defense system doesn’t work properly. It affects joints ... conditions. These include: Lupus happens when the body’s defense system harms the joints, heart, skin, kidneys, and ...
Bodur, Hurrem; Ozoran, Kursat; Colpan, Aylin; Balaban, Neriman; Tabak, Yalcın; Kulacoglu, Sezer
Background Invasive Aspergillus infections are frequently seen in immunocompromised patients but arthritis is a rare complication of Aspergillus infections in the absence of immune suppressive therapy, trauma or surgical intervention. Case presentation A 17 years old male patient with arthritis and patellar osteomyelitis of the left knee whose further investigations revealed chronic granulomatous disease as the underlying disease is followed. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the synovial fluid and the tissue samples cultures. He was treated with Amphotericin B deoxicolate 0.7 mg/kg/day. Also surgical debridement was performed our patient. Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity developed and the therapy switched to itraconazole 400 mg/day. Itraconazole therapy were discontinued at the 6th month. He can perform all the activities of daily living including. Conclusion We think that, chronic granulomatous disease should be investigated in patients who have aspergillar arthritis and osteomyelitis. PMID:12605719
Rangel, Luiza; Garralda, M. Elena; Jeffs, Jim; Rose, Gillian
Objective: To compare family health and characteristics in children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and emotional disorders. Method: Parents of 28 children and adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with CFS, 30 with JRA, and 27 with emotional disorders (i.e., anxiety and/or depressive disorders) were…
Gamel, Ehsan B; Hashim, Nada T; Satti, Asim; Gismalla, Bakri G
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with significant pathological and clinical similarities. Numerous studies have indicated a relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the TNF-α levels in saliva among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis as well as healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven patients diagnosed of RA, 57 patients with chronic periodontitis and 57 healthy subjects. These patients have been examined with regard to TNF-α level from salivary samples. Their teeth were examined with regard to Plaque Index , Gingival Index, probing depth and clinical attachment level.All patients were non-smokers. The results revealed a significant difference in all periodontal parameters among the three groups. The chronic periodontitis group showed a significantly higher value in all clinical periodontal parameters in comparison to both the RA and healthy groups. No significant difference was found between salivary TNF-α level among the three study groups. Patients with chronic periodontitis had the highest periodontal indices. However there was no significant difference regarding the level of salivary TNF-α. Hence, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines might prove beneficial in suppressing periodontal diseases among RA patients.
Allen, R C; Gross, K R; Laxer, R M; Malleson, P N; Beauchamp, R D; Petty, R E
The use of intraarticular triamcinolone hexacetonide in the management of persistent arthritis of the knee joint that is unresponsive to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was prospectively evaluated in 40 children with chronic arthritis. Of 49 knees that were injected, 63.3% maintained complete resolution of effusion and other signs of inflammation at the 6-month followup. This favorable outcome correlated with a young age, a short disease duration, and a higher dose of triamcinolone hexacetonide. At the 12-month followup, 45% of the injected knees remained in remission.
Rotan, H.; Ginting, Y.; Loesnihari, R.; Kembaren, T.; Marpaung, B.
Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease, and frequency of arthritis complication later. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Lyme disease and to evaluate its correlation with chronic arthritis. This epidemiologic cross sectional study included 41 healthy individuals who had chronic arthritis and bitten by ticks underwent questionnaires, and laboratory tests consisted of a routine blood sample, serum uric acid, and IgG ELISA for Lyme. There was 7.32% presence of positive IgG for Lyme. Samples with positive IgG for Lyme were further evaluated for rheumatology marker. We found three samples with a positive rheumatoid factor, two samples had positive anti-MCV, and 1 sample had slightly increased CRP. Three Lyme positive samples had normal EULAR scoring. It was the first Lyme disease case found in Indonesia, particularly in 4 villages of Sibolangit, Deli Serdang, North Sumatera. The assessment made by analysis the questionnaire, evaluation the blood test, and confirmed positive Lyme disease, and at last, we found the correlation between chronic arthritis with positive test Lyme.
Jacobson, Jon A; Roberts, Catherine C; Bencardino, Jenny T; Appel, Marc; Arnold, Erin; Baccei, Steven J; Cassidy, R Carter; Chang, Eric Y; Fox, Michael G; Greenspan, Bennett S; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Hochman, Mary G; Mintz, Douglas N; Newman, Joel S; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Shah, Nehal A; Small, Kirstin M; Weissman, Barbara N
Evaluation for suspected inflammatory arthritis as a cause for chronic extremity joint pain often relies on imaging. This review first discusses the characteristic osseous and soft tissue abnormalities seen with inflammatory arthritis and how they may be imaged. It is essential that imaging results are interpreted in the context of clinical and serologic results to add specificity as there is significant overlap of imaging findings among the various types of arthritis. This review provides recommendations for imaging evaluation of specific types of inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthropathy, gout, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (or pseudogout), and erosive osteoarthritis. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horwich, Tamara B; Fonarow, Gregg C
"Reverse epidemiology" refers to paradoxical and counterintuitive epidemiologic associations between survival outcomes and traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Reverse epidemiology has been well described in end stage renal disease, but also has been observed in chronic disease states, including chronic heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and in elderly populations. This review will highlight the recent medical literature on reverse epidemiology in these populations. Common pathophysiologic underpinnings in these chronic disease states may help explain the reversal of risk factors observed in these diverse populations. Furthermore, guidelines for the general population for optimal goals of weight, cholesterol levels, and blood pressure may not apply to special populations, including patients with chronic diseases or elderly persons.
Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Lo, Mindy S; Henderson, Lauren A; Lerman, Melissa A; Abramson, Leslie; Cooper, Ashley M; Parsa, Miriam F; Zemel, Lawrence S; Ronis, Tova; Beukelman, Timothy; Cox, Erika; Sen, H Nida; Holland, Gary N; Brunner, Hermine I; Lasky, Andrew; Rabinovich, C Egla
Systemic immunosuppressive treatment of pediatric chronic anterior uveitis (CAU), both juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated and idiopathic varies, making it difficult to identify best treatments. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for CAU for the purpose of reducing practice variability and allowing future comparison of treatments by comparative effectiveness analysis techniques. A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, ophthalmologists with uveitis expertise, and a lay advisor comprised the CARRA uveitis workgroup who performed literature review on pharmacologic treatments, held teleconferences, and developed a case-based survey administered to the CARRA membership to delineate treatment practices. We utilized 3 face-to-face consensus meetings using nominal group technique to develop CTPs. The survey identified areas of treatment practice variability. We developed 2 CTPs for the treatment of CAU, case definitions, and monitoring parameters. The first CTP is directed at children naïve to steroid-sparing medication, and the second at children initiating biologic therapy with options for methotrexate, adalimumab and infliximab. We defined a core dataset and outcome measures with data collection at 3 and 6 months after therapy initiation. The CARRA membership voted acceptance of the CTPs with a >95% (N = 233) approval. Using consensus methodology, two standardized CTPs were developed for systemic immunosuppressive treatment of CAU. These CTPs are not meant as treatment guidelines, but are designed for further pragmatic research within the CARRA research network. Use of these CTPs in a prospective comparison effectiveness study should improve outcomes by identifying best practice options. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
La Torre, Francesco; Cattalini, Marco; Teruzzi, Barbara; Meini, Antonella; Moramarco, Fulvio; Iannone, Florenzo
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a relatively common chronic disease of childhood, and is associated with persistent morbidity and extra-articular complications, one of the most common being uveitis. The introduction of biologic therapies, particularly those blocking the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α, provided a new treatment option for juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients who were refractory to standard therapy such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and/or methotrexate. The first case was a 2-year-old girl with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis who failed to respond to treatment with anti-inflammatories, low-dose corticosteroids and methotrexate, and had growth retardation. Adalimumab 24 mg/m2 every 2 weeks and prednisone 0.5 mg/kg/day were added to methotrexate therapy; steroid tapering and withdrawal started after 1 month. After 2 months the patient showed good control of articular and ocular manifestations, and she remained in remission for 1 year, receiving adalimumab and methotrexate with no side effects, and showing significant improvement in growth. Case 2 was a 9-year-old boy with an 8-year history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis that initially responded to infliximab, but relapse occurred after 2 years off therapy. After switching to adalimumab, and adjusting doses of both adalimumab and methotrexate based on body surface area, the patient showed good response and corticosteroids were tapered and withdrawn after 6 months; the patient remained in remission taking adalimumab and methotrexate. The final case was a 5-year-old girl with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for whom adalimumab was added to methotrexate therapy after three flares of uveitis. The patient had two subsequent episodes of uveitis that responded well to local therapy, but was then free of both juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis symptoms, allowing methotrexate and then adalimumab to be stopped; the patient remained in drug
Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a relatively common chronic disease of childhood, and is associated with persistent morbidity and extra-articular complications, one of the most common being uveitis. The introduction of biologic therapies, particularly those blocking the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α, provided a new treatment option for juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients who were refractory to standard therapy such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and/or methotrexate. Case presentations The first case was a 2-year-old girl with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis who failed to respond to treatment with anti-inflammatories, low-dose corticosteroids and methotrexate, and had growth retardation. Adalimumab 24 mg/m2 every 2 weeks and prednisone 0.5 mg/kg/day were added to methotrexate therapy; steroid tapering and withdrawal started after 1 month. After 2 months the patient showed good control of articular and ocular manifestations, and she remained in remission for 1 year, receiving adalimumab and methotrexate with no side effects, and showing significant improvement in growth. Case 2 was a 9-year-old boy with an 8-year history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis that initially responded to infliximab, but relapse occurred after 2 years off therapy. After switching to adalimumab, and adjusting doses of both adalimumab and methotrexate based on body surface area, the patient showed good response and corticosteroids were tapered and withdrawn after 6 months; the patient remained in remission taking adalimumab and methotrexate. The final case was a 5-year-old girl with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for whom adalimumab was added to methotrexate therapy after three flares of uveitis. The patient had two subsequent episodes of uveitis that responded well to local therapy, but was then free of both juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis symptoms, allowing methotrexate and then adalimumab to be
Sales, Gabriella Maria Pitt Gameiro; Barbosa, Izabel Crystine Pereira; Canejo Neta, Laura Maia Sampaio; Melo, Paloma Lopes de; Leitão, Raphael de Azevedo; Melo, Hugo Moura de Albuquerque
Chikungunya (CHIK) is a tropical arbovirus, transmitted by the female mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Brazil, there have been cases reported since 2014. The initial manifestations of this virus are sudden onset high fever, headache, chills, rashes, myalgia and intense joint pain. Usually, CHIK presents the acute and chronic phases, the latter characterized by bilateral polyarthralgia, which can last for months or even years. During this period, autoimmune diseases can be triggered, making the picture even more complicated. A systematic review was performed on the PubMed and Scielo databases in January 2017. Clinical trials, cohorts, case-control and case reports were included in the study. Expert opinions, societal consensuses and literary reviews were exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The studies were descriptively analyzed and the data was grouped according to methodological similarity. Twenty-four (24) articles were selected and, in compliance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 were eliminated, with six studies remaining in the present review: five clinical trials and one case report. When the manifestations of CHIK become chronic and, the longer they last, more complications arise. Polyarthralgia can be immaterial, distancing individuals from their daily-life activities. Anti-inflammatory drugs (either steroid or not), in addition to immunosuppressants, homeopathy and physiotherapy are measures of treatment that, according to the literature, have been successful in relieving or extinguishing symptoms. However, it is fundamental that studies of CHIK treatment be further developed.
Leung, Ying-Ying; Kwan, Jackie; Chan, Patsy; Poon, Peter K K; Leung, Christine; Tam, Lai-Shan; Li, Edmund K; Kwok, Anna
The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based lay-led Arthritis Self-Management Program (ASMP) among patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis and evaluate the effectiveness of "shared care collaboration" between hospital and community. We trained 17 lay leaders and recruited patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis via a new shared-care model between hospital rheumatology centers and community organizations. Participants were allocated to interventional group or a wait list control group. Evaluations were completed before, after (6 weeks), and 3 months after ASMP. We performed analysis of covariance with adjustment with age, sex, marital status, education, employment, duration of illness, and disability at baseline. A total of 65 participants and 32 controls completed the study. The mean (SD) age and duration of illness were 52.0 (11.4) and 5.6 (7.3) years, 90.7 % were female, 80.4 % had rheumatoid arthritis; 25.8, 53.6, and 12.4 % referrals were from hospitals, community organizations, and patient self-help groups, respectively. The interventional group had significantly less pain (p = 0.049 at 6 weeks), used more cognitive coping methods (p = 0.008 at 6 weeks, p = 0.041 at 3 months) and practiced more aerobic exercise (p = 0.049 at 6 weeks, p = 0.008 at 3 months) after adjustment of covariance. The interventional group had a trend of improvement in self-efficacy, fatigue, self-rated health, and health distress. A community-based lay-led ASMP showed positive beneficial effects on participants with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Shared-care collaboration between hospitals, community organizations, and patient self-help groups was demonstrated.
Corbett, Mary; Seifert, Martin H.; Hacking, Celia; Webb, Sylvia
One of three preparations—silicone oil, hydrocortisone acetate, and hydrocortisone acetate plus saline—was injected into 22 osteoarthritic and 49 rheumatoid knees. Silicone injected into stiff, dry, grating knees which were the site of chronic arthritis did not promote better movement than did hydrocortisone alone. Hydrocortisone plus saline, however, appeared to be more effective than silicone or hydrocortisone alone in increasing movement in rheumatoid knees. The maximum increase in movement was found to occur three weeks after each of the three different injection preparations. PMID:5411599
Havens, Eric; Slabaugh, S Lane; Helmick, Charles G; Cordier, Tristan; Zack, Matthew; Gopal, Vipin; Prewitt, Todd
Arthritis is related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults aged 18 years or older. We sought to determine whether this relationship persisted in an older population using claims-based arthritis diagnoses and whether people who also had arthritis and at least 1 of 5 other chronic conditions had lower HRQoL. We identified adults aged 65 years or older with Medicare Advantage coverage in November or December 2014 who responded to an HRQoL survey (Healthy Days). For respondents with and without arthritis, we used linear regression to compare mean physically, mentally, and total unhealthy days, overall and in 5 comorbidity subgroups (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and hypertension), accounting for age, sex, dual Medicaid/Medicare eligibility, rural/urban commuting area, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Of the 58,975 survey respondents, 44% had arthritis diagnosed through claims. Respondents with arthritis reported significantly more adjusted mean physically, mentally, and total unhealthy days than those without arthritis (P < .001). Older adults with arthritis and either congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or hypertension reported significantly more adjusted physically, mentally, and total unhealthy days than older adults without arthritis but with the same chronic conditions. In older adults, having arthritis is associated with lower HRQoL and even lower HRQoL among those with at least 1 of 5 other common chronic conditions. Because arthritis is so common among older adults, improving HRQoL depends on managing both underlying chronic conditions and any accompanying arthritis.
Whitehead, Michelle C; Parker, Dennilyn L
An American white pelican was presented with a complete left wing droop and no abnormal findings on conventional radiography. Computed tomography was used to diagnose chronic shoulder arthritis as a sequela to a suspected traumatic compressive fracture. This is the first case report to describe use of computed tomography to evaluate the avian shoulder joint.
Bain, Lorna; Mierdel, Sandra; Thorne, Carter
Researchers, hospital administrators and governments are striving to define competencies in interprofessional care and education, as well as to identify effective models in chronic disease management. For more than 25 years The Arthritis Program (TAP) at Southlake Regional Health Centre in Newmarket, Ontario, has actively practiced within these two interrelated priorities, which are now at the top of the healthcare agenda in Ontario and Canada. The approximately 135 different rheumatic conditions are the primary cause of long-term disability in Canada, affecting those from youth to the senior years, with an economic burden estimated at $4.4 billion (CAD$) annually, and growing. For the benefit of healthcare managers and their clients with chronic conditions, this article discusses TAP's history and demonstrable success, predicated on an educational model of patient self-management and self-efficacy. Also outlined are TAP's contributions in supporting evidence-based best practices in interprofessional collaboration and chronic disease management; approaches that are arguably understudied and under-practiced. Next steps for TAP include a larger role in empirical research in chronic-disease management and integration of a formal training program to benefit health professionals launching or expanding their interprofessional programs using TAP as the dynamic clinical example.
Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Roig-Vilaseca, Daniel; Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; González, Marina; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Fíguls, Ramon; Corominas, Hèctor
The aims of this study are to evaluate the level of fear of post-injection pain prior to the administration, the difficulty in handling the device, and the level of satisfaction of patients using a pre-filled syringe versus an etanercept pen, as well as to evaluate the usefulness of the training given by nursing staff prior to starting with the pen, and the preferences of patients after using both devices. A prospective study was designed to follow-up a cohort of patients during a 6 months period. The data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS 18.00. Rank and McNemar tests were performed. Statistical significance was pre-set at an α level of 0.05. A total of 29 patients were included, of whom 69% female, and with a mean age 52.5±10.9 years. Of these, 48% had rheumatoid arthritis, 28% psoriatic arthritis, 21% ankylosing spondylitis, and 3% undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. There were no statistically significant differences either with the fear or pain or handling of the device between the syringe and the pen (P=.469; P=.812; P=.169 respectively). At 6 months, 59% of patients referred to being satisfied or very satisfied with the pen. Almost all (93%) found useful or very useful the training given by nursing staff prior to using the pen, and 55% preferred the pen over the pre-filled syringe. The etanercept pen is another subcutaneous device option for patients with chronic arthritis. According to the present study, nursing educational workshops before starting this therapy are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Singh, Namrata; Vogelgesang, Scott A
Monoarticular arthritis is inflammation characterized by joint pain, swelling, and sometimes periarticular erythema. Although chronic causes are seen, the onset is often acute. An infected joint can quickly lead to permanent damage, making it a medical emergency. However, acute gout presenting as monoarticular arthritis is often so uncomfortable it requires urgent attention. Monoarticular crystalline arthritis is common and a septic joint is a medical emergency so it is no surprise that these diagnoses come to mind with complaint of inflammation in 1 joint. However, there are many causes of monoarticular arthritis that clinicians must consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kroot, E J; van Gestel, A M; Swinkels, H L; Albers, M M; van de Putte, L B; van Riel, P L
To study the presence of chronic coexisting diseases in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its effect on RA treatment, disease course, and outcome during the first years of the disease. From January 1985 to December 1990, 186 patients with recent onset RA were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. Between January 1991 and November 1992 patients were interviewed on the basis of a comorbidity questionnaire. For analysis the diseases were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) medical diagnoses. Disease activity during the period of followup was measured by the Disease Activity Score. Outcome in terms of physical disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and radiological damage (Sharp's modified version) over 3 and 6 year periods was determined. In the group of 186 patients, with mean disease duration of 4.3 years at January 1991, 50 patients (27%) reported at least one chronic coexisting disease. The most frequently reported coexisting diseases were of cardiovascular (29%), respiratory (18%), or dermatological (11%) origin. For the major part (66%) chronic coexisting diseases were already present before onset of RA. No statistically significant differences in use of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs or corticosteroids were observed between RA patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases. No statistically significant differences were found in disease activity or in outcome in terms of physical disability and radiological damage over 3 and 6 year periods between the 2 groups with RA. The results showed that about 27% of patients with RA in this inception cohort had at least one chronic coexisting disease. Treatment, disease course, and outcome did not differ between patients with and without chronic coexisting diseases during the first years of the disease.
Ryan, Seamus; McGuire, Brian
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic and progressive autoimmune disorder with symptoms sometimes including chronic pain and depression. The current study aimed to explore some of the psychological variables which predict both pain-related outcomes (pain severity and pain interference) and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety) amongst patients with rheumatoid arthritis experiencing chronic pain. In particular, this study aimed to establish whether either self-concealment, or the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, relatedness, and competence), could explain a significant portion of the variance in pain outcomes and psychological outcomes amongst this patient group. Online questionnaires were completed by 317 rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic pain, providing data across a number of predictor and outcome variables. Hierarchical multiple linear regressions indicated that the predictive models for each of the four outcome variables were significant, and had good levels of fit with the data. In terms of individual predictor variables, higher relatedness significantly predicted lower depression, and higher autonomy significantly predicted lower anxiety. The model generated by this study may identify factors to be targeted by future interventions with the goal of reducing depression and anxiety amongst patients with rheumatoid arthritis experiencing chronic pain. The findings of this study have shown that the autonomy and the relatedness of patients with rheumatoid arthritis play important roles in promoting psychological well-being. Targeted interventions could help to enhance the lives of patients despite the presence of chronic pain. What is already known about the subject? Amongst a sample of chronic pain patients who primarily had a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, it was found that higher levels of self-concealment were associated with higher self-reported pain levels and reduced well-being (as measured by anxiety/depression), and these
Salaffi, Fausto; Giacobazzi, Giovanni
Chronic pain is nowadays considered not only the mainstay symptom of rheumatic diseases but also “a disease itself.” Pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, and in inflammatory arthritis, it derives from multiple mechanisms, involving both synovitis (release of a great number of cytokines) and peripheral and central pain-processing mechanisms (sensitization). In the last years, the JAK-STAT pathway has been recognized as a pivotal component both in the inflammatory process and in pain amplification in the central nervous system. This paper provides a summary on pain in inflammatory arthritis, from pathogenesis to clinimetric instruments and treatment, with a focus on the JAK-STAT pathway. PMID:29623147
Bouvier, M; Bouysset, M; Bonvoisin, B; Diaine, A; Lejeune, E
The authors report their experience in the treatment of metatarsophalangeal arthritis of chronic inflammatory rheumatism by Erbium 169 synoviortheses (112 joints treated) and by infiltrations of triamcinolone hexacetonide (53 joints treated). The steroid appears to have a marked early superiority as it gives 85% good results compared to 61.6% for Erbium 169 after a period of one to three months. However, its results then deteriorate more rapidly and after 6 months, the proportion of good results is greater with the radioactive treatment (64% compared to 46.7%). The authors consider it reasonable to use triamcinolone hexacetonide as the first line treatment as it is easier to manage and less expensive, reserving the radioactive synoviortheses for later with the prospect of more lasting results.
Legaz, M E; Acitores, E; Valverde, F
A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for measuring salicylic acid in the plasma and saliva of children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Samples were extracted with diethyl ether and, after drying, redissolved in methanol to be chromatographed. Quantitation of salicylic acid was performed by reverse phase HPLC on a spherisorb ODS-2 column, using methanol: water: acetic acid as mobile phase. Phenolic was monitored by absorbance at 237 nm. Linearity between the amount of mass injected and the response in the detector was determined. This method was applied to compare concentrations of salivary and plasma salicylic acid. The method also permitted the quantitation of salivary salicylate as a non-invasive, indirect method for monitoring the concentration of plasma salicylate in patients with JCA.
Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Thavornpitak, Yupa; Foocharoen, Chingching; Suwannaroj, Siraphop; Nanagara, Ratanavadee
Pyogenic arthritis (PA) is still a problematic arthritic disease that requires hospitalization. To study the epidemiological characteristics and predictors of treatment outcomes for Thai patients hospitalized with PA. The nationwide hospital database from the 2010 fiscal year was analyzed. Patients 18 years of age onward, who had primary diagnosis of pyogenic arthritis, were included in this study. There were a total of 6242 PA admissions during 2010. It was ranked third among hospitalized musculoskeletal patients after osteoarthritis (OA) and gouty arthritis. The estimated prevalence of PA was 13.5 per 100 000 adult population. Geographic distributions of PA was related to the population density of each region; however it seemed more frequent in the northern and northeastern regions of Thailand. The prevalence increased with age, 3.6 and 43.6 per 100 000 in young adults and the elderly, respectively. Among the 2877 co-morbidities coded, diabetes was the most common, followed by crystal-induced arthritis, existing other foci of infections (urinary tract infection, skin and soft tissue infections and pneumonia) and pre-existing chronic joint diseases (OA,rheumatoid arthritis), respectively. Overall hospital mortality rate was 2.6%. Poorer outcomes were found among patients with chronic liver disease and other existing foci of infections. The prevalence of hospitalized PA is still modest in Thailand, showing the highest prevalence in the advanced age group. Diabetes was the most commonly co-morbidity found; however, poorer outcomes were noted among patients with chronic liver disease and existing multiple sites of infections. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; van Tubergen, Astrid; Boström, Carina; Braychenko, Elena; Buss, Beate; Felix, José; Firth, Jill; Hammond, Alison; Harston, Benny; Hernandez, Cristina; Huzjak, Masa; Korandová, Jana; Kukkurainen, Marja Leena; Landewé, Robert; Mezieres, Maryse; Milincovic, Marijana; Moretti, Antonella; Oliver, Susan; Primdahl, Jette; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; de la Torre-Aboki, Jenny; Waite-Jones, Jennifer; Westhovens, Rene; Zangi, Heidi Andersen; Heiberg, Turid; Hill, Jackie
The authors aim to develop European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for the role of the nurse in the management of patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis, to identify a research agenda and to determine an educational agenda. A task force made up of a multidisciplinary expert panel including nurses, rheumatologists, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, psychologist, epidemiologist and patient representatives, representing 14 European countries, carried out the development of the recommendations, following the European League Against Rheumatism standardised operating procedures. The task force met twice. In the first meeting, the aims of the task force were defined, and eight research questions were developed. This was followed by a comprehensive, systematic literature search. In the second meeting, the results from the literature review were presented to the task force that subsequently formulated the recommendations, research agenda and educational agenda. In total, 10 recommendations were formulated. Seven recommendations covered the contribution of nurses to care and management: education, satisfaction with care, access to care, disease management, psychosocial support, self-management and efficiency of care. Three recommendations focused on professional support for nurses: availability of guidelines or protocols, access to education and encouragement to undertake extended roles. The strength of the recommendations varied from A to C, dependent on the category of evidence (1A-3), and a high level of agreement was achieved. Additionally, the task force agreed upon 10 topics for future research and an educational agenda. 10 recommendations for the role of the nurse in the management of chronic inflammatory arthritis were developed using a combination of evidence-based and expert consensus approach.
Shariff, Fauzia; Carter, Jane; Dow, Clare; Polley, Marie; Salinas, Maria; Ridge, Damien
Chronic pain (CP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pose particular challenges for the individual. Although biomedicine inevitably plays a role in the reduction or control of some symptoms for people living with chronic pain, directed self-management is also increasingly recognized as an important tool. Self-management can address pain-associated symptoms of CP and RA, and often has broader aims, such as promoting positive well-being. Forty-six interviews with people experiencing CP and 46 interviews with those living with RA-associated pain were analyzed. Our analysis uncovered three broad strategies adopted by participants: body management, mind-management and mind-body management. The analysis demonstrated that for those living with pain, a sense of well-being is achieved not through pain control alone, but also through various mind/body techniques for managing pain, accepting new limits, and adjusting the way people relate to themselves. These self-management strategies are an important adjunct to biomedical care for those experiencing chronic pain.
Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto
The objective of this work is to analyze the survival of infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab in patients who have switched among tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists for the treatment of chronic arthritis. BIOBADASER is a national registry of patients with different forms of chronic arthritis who are treated with biologics. Using this registry, we have analyzed patient switching of TNF antagonists. The cumulative discontinuation rate was calculated using the actuarial method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression models were used to assess independent factors associated with discontinuing medication. Between February 2000 and September 2004, 4,706 patients were registered in BIOBADASER, of whom 68% had rheumatoid arthritis, 11% ankylosing spondylitis, 10% psoriatic arthritis, and 11% other forms of chronic arthritis. One- and two-year drug survival rates of the TNF antagonist were 0.83 and 0.75, respectively. There were 488 patients treated with more than one TNF antagonist. In this situation, survival of the second TNF antagonist decreased to 0.68 and 0.60 at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Survival was better in patients replacing the first TNF antagonist because of adverse events (hazard ratio (HR) for discontinuation 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34–0.84)), and worse in patients older than 60 years (HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.97–2.49)) or who were treated with infliximab (HR 3.22 (95% CI 2.13–4.87)). In summary, in patients who require continuous therapy and have failed to respond to a TNF antagonist, replacement with a different TNF antagonist may be of use under certain situations. This issue will deserve continuous reassessment with the arrival of new medications. PMID:16507128
Raghunath, Rajat; Varghese, Gigi; Simon, Betty
We report a case of chronic arthritis of the right hip joint in an otherwise healthy young male athlete as a complication of inadequately treated anal fistula. A young male athlete presented with symptoms of right hip pain and difficulty in walking and intermittent fever for 2 months. He had a history of perianal abscess drainage. On examination he was found to have a tender right hip joint with severe restriction of movements. He was also found to have a partially drained right ischiorectal abscess. X-ray and MRI of the hip joint revealed chronic arthritis of the right hip joint, which was communicating with a complex fistula-in-ano. He underwent a diversion sigmoid colostomy and right ischiorectal abscess drainage along with appropriate antibiotics with a plan for definitive hip joint procedure later. He was lost to follow-up and succumbed to severe perianal sepsis within a few months. PMID:25414226
Li, Lanzhou; Teng, Meiyu; Liu, Yange; Qu, Yidi; Zhang, Yuanzhu
This study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) head extract (SHE) on gout. First, the components of sunflower head powder and SHE were analyzed systematically. SHE, especially SHEB (extracted with 20% ethanol and 80% double-distilled water), strongly suppressed the swelling of the ankles in rats with acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and reduced the levels of uric acid and xanthine oxidase (XO) in mice with hyperuricemia induced by oteracil potassium and yeast extract powder. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that SHEB reduced inflammation cells and increased the joint space in the ankle compared with the control rats with MSU-induced gout. In the rats with acute gout, among 13 detected inflammatory cytokines, SHEB significantly enhanced the serum levels of interleukin-10 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1α. In the mice with hyperuricemia, SHEB reduced the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitrogen monoxide in liver tissues. The potential therapeutic effects of SHE on gout are probably due to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of XO activity via the modulation of oxidative stress status. PMID:28929115
Li, Lanzhou; Teng, Meiyu; Liu, Yange; Qu, Yidi; Zhang, Yuanzhu; Lin, Feng; Wang, Di
This study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) head extract (SHE) on gout. First, the components of sunflower head powder and SHE were analyzed systematically. SHE, especially SHEB (extracted with 20% ethanol and 80% double-distilled water), strongly suppressed the swelling of the ankles in rats with acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and reduced the levels of uric acid and xanthine oxidase (XO) in mice with hyperuricemia induced by oteracil potassium and yeast extract powder. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that SHEB reduced inflammation cells and increased the joint space in the ankle compared with the control rats with MSU-induced gout. In the rats with acute gout, among 13 detected inflammatory cytokines, SHEB significantly enhanced the serum levels of interleukin-10 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 α . In the mice with hyperuricemia, SHEB reduced the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitrogen monoxide in liver tissues. The potential therapeutic effects of SHE on gout are probably due to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of XO activity via the modulation of oxidative stress status.
Sirois, Fuschia M; Wood, Alex M
Although gratitude has been identified as a key clinically relevant trait for improving well-being, it is understudied within medical populations. The current study addressed this gap and extended previous and limited cross-sectional research by examining the longitudinal associations of gratitude to depression in 2 chronic illness samples, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two chronic illness samples, arthritis (N = 423) and IBD (N = 427), completed online surveys at Time 1 (T1). One hundred sixty-three people with arthritis and 144 people with IBD completed the 6-month follow-up survey (T2). Depression, gratitude, illness cognitions, perceived stress, social support, and disease-related variables were assessed at T1 and T2. At T2, 57.2% of the arthritis sample and 53.4% of the IBD sample met the cut off scores for significant depression. T1 gratitude was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at T1 and T2 in both samples (rs from -.43 to -.50). Regression analyses revealed that T1 gratitude remained a significant and unique predictor of lower T2 depression after controlling for T1 depression, relevant demographic variables, illness cognitions, changes in illness-relevant variables, and another positive psychological construct, thriving, in both samples. As the first investigation of the longitudinal associations of gratitude to psychological well-being in the context of chronic illness, the current study provides important evidence for the relevance of gratitude for health-related clinical populations. Further intervention-based research is warranted to more fully understand the potential benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Meneses, Francisco M; Queirós, Fernanda C; Montoya, Pedro; Miranda, José G V; Dubois-Mendes, Selena M; Sá, Katia N; Luz-Santos, Cleber; Baptista, Abrahão F
Patients with chronic pain due to neuropathy or musculoskeletal injury frequently exhibit reduced alpha and increased theta power densities. However, little is known about electrical brain activity and chronic pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For this purpose, we evaluated power densities of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) band frequencies (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) in females with persistent pain due to RA. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 participants with RA and 21 healthy controls (mean age = 47.20; SD = 10.40). EEG was recorded at rest over 5 min with participant's eyes closed. Twenty electrodes were placed over five brain regions (frontal, central, parietal, temporal, and occipital). Significant differences were observed in depression and anxiety with higher scores in RA participants than healthy controls (p = 0.002). Participants with RA exhibited increased average absolute alpha power density in all brain regions when compared to controls [F (1.39) = 6.39, p = 0.016], as well as increased average relative alpha power density [F (1.39) = 5.82, p = 0.021] in all regions, except the frontal region, controlling for depression/anxiety. Absolute theta power density also increased in the frontal, central, and parietal regions for participants with RA when compared to controls [F (1, 39) = 4.51, p = 0.040], controlling for depression/anxiety. Differences were not exhibited on beta and delta absolute and relative power densities. The diffuse increased alpha may suggest a possible neurogenic mechanism for chronic pain in individuals with RA.
Guo, Ruolin; Zhou, Quan; Proulx, Steven T.; Wood, Ronald; Ji, Rui-Cheng; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Zhu, Zhenping; Wang, Yong-Jun; Schwarz, Edward M.; Xing, Lianping
Object Investigation of the effect of lymphatic inhibition on joint and draining lymph node pathology during the course of arthritis progression in mice. Method TNF transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice were used as a model of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Mice received contrast enhanced MRI to obtain ankle and knee joint synovial volumes and draining popliteal lymph node (PLN) volumes before and 8 weeks after treatment with VEGFR-3 or VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibodies, or isotype IgG. The animals were subjected to near-infrared lymphatic imaging to determine the effect of VEGFR-3 neutralization on lymph transport from paws to draining PLNs prior to sacrifice. Lymphatic vessel formation and morphology of joints and PLNs were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. Results Compared to IgG treatment, VEGFR-3 neutralizing antibody treatment significantly decreased the size of PLNs, the number of lymphatic vessels in joints and PLNs, the lymphatic drainage from paws to PLNs, and the number of VEGF-C expressing CD11b+ myeloid cells in PLNs. However, it increased the synovial volumes and inflammatory area in ankle and knee joints. VEGFR-2 neutralizing antibody, in contrast, inhibited both lymphangiogenesis and joint inflammation. Conclusion Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic drainage are reciprocally related to the severity of joint lesions during the development of chronic arthritis. Lymphatic drainage plays a beneficial role in controlling the progression of chronic inflammation. PMID:19714652
Wadhwani, Gyandas G
To observe the effect of homeopathic therapy in Chikungunya Fever (CF) and in Post-Chikungunya Chronic Arthritis (PCCA) in a primary health care setting. A prospective observational study was conducted at Delhi Government Homeopathic Dispensary, Aali Village, New Delhi, India, for a period of 6 months, from 1st October 2010 to 31st March 2011. 126 patients (75 CF, 51 PCCA) were enrolled based on predefined inclusion criteria. A single homeopathic medicine was prescribed for each patient after case taking with the help of Materia Medica and/or Repertory. Results were evaluated on the basis of visual analogue scale and symptom scores. Complete recovery was seen in 84.5% CF cases in a mean time of 6.8 days. 90% cases of PCCA recovered completely in a mean time of 32.5 days. Homeopathic therapy may be effective in CF and PCCA. A randomized controlled trial should be considered. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kolomeyer, Anton M; Tu, Yufei; Miserocchi, Elisabetta; Ranjan, Mangala; Davidow, Amy; Chu, David S
To describe clinical findings and analyze treatment evolution of chronic, non-infectious uveitis in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A total of 82 patients (147 eyes) with JIA-related uveitis treated for ≥2 months were included (78% females; 79% bilateral uveitis; 74% anterior uveitis). Outcome measures were visual acuity (VA), inflammation control, side-effects, and surgical procedures. Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 4.9 ± 3.8 years; mean ± SD follow-up time was 8.7 ± 7.8 years. Mean VA did not significantly change throughout the study. Three (2%) eyes resulted in no light perception (NLP) vision. Thirty (37%) patients underwent 69 procedures. In total, 41 (50%) patients achieved inflammation control. TNF-α inhibitors were significantly associated with inflammation control. Seven (8.5%) patients stopped treatment due to side-effects. JIA is a cause of significant ocular morbidity. TNF-α inhibitor use was associated with inflammation control. Prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trials in this regard are warranted.
Kochi, Masako; Kohagura, Kentaro; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ohya, Yusuke
The relationship between chronic inflammation and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remained not-clear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aims to examine the relationship between persistently high C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and the incidence of CKD in RA. We retrospectively examined the relationship between the levels of CRP and incidence of CKD in 345 RA patients. The outcome of interest was incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or positive dipstick testing for proteinuria for ≥3 months. We defined high CRP, as >3.0 mg/L. On the basis of three measurements of CRP for 6-months period, patients were divided into three groups: group 1, including patients with no high CRP values; group 2, patients with transient high CRP values (once or twice) and group 3, patients with persistently high CRP values. During a median follow-up period of 89 months, 14% of all patients developed CKD. The cumulative incidence of CKD was 7% in group 1, 14% in group 2 and 22% in group 3 (P = 0.008, log-rank test). In a multivariate analysis, including classical risk factors for CKD, persistently high CRP was an independent predictor of the incidence of CKD (hazard ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-8.53; P = 0.01). Persistently high CRP was a significant risk factor for the incidence of CKD. Results suggest that persistent inflammation is a marker for the high risk of CKD in RA.
Büchsel, Martin; Pletschen, Lars; Fleiner, Michael; Häcker, Georg; Serr, Annerose
Mycoplasma salivarium is a rare agent of septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of septic arthritis due to Mycoplasma salivarium in a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia who underwent chemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustin. Therapy of arthritis due to Mycoplasma salivarium is difficult because there are almost no susceptibility data available. The present case illustrates that antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma strains is not necessarily predictable and that antibiotic therapy should therefore be guided by in vitro susceptibility testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ndong Atome, Guy Roger; Ngoua Meye Misso, Rick-Leonid; Sima Obiang, Cédric; Onanga, Richard; Nkogue Mba, Dieudonné
Gout is caused by a chronic hyperuricemia whose complications are not currently well evaluated in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hyperuricemia and gout in 85 patients recruited. A total of 26 cases of hyperuricemia, i.e., 30.6% of the study population, with 12 cases of gout and seven cases of gouty access. In this population, hyperuricemia was proportional to age ( p -value < 10 -4, OR = 2.6), but it was more prevalent in men, 23.5% versus 7.1% for women ( p -value = 0.0047). In addition, none of these women showed signs of a gouty affection. Consumption of alcohol (OR = 13) and nucleoprotein-rich foods, obesity (BMI 30 kg/m²; OR = 6), family history of gout (OR = 6.8), as well as diseases such as high blood pressure (associated with taking diuretics; OR = 1.7), renal insufficiency (OR = 4.4) and diabetes ( p < 0.049) were the main factors of the diseases associated with gout and hyperuricemia in this population. The biochemical role of these factors may increase and/or decrease the processes of synthesis and/or elimination of uric acid by acting on metabolites involved in the regulation of urate production.
Ndong Atome, Guy Roger; Ngoua Meye Misso, Rick-Leonid; Sima Obiang, Cédric; Onanga, Richard; Nkogue Mba, Dieudonné
Gout is caused by a chronic hyperuricemia whose complications are not currently well evaluated in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hyperuricemia and gout in 85 patients recruited. A total of 26 cases of hyperuricemia, i.e., 30.6% of the study population, with 12 cases of gout and seven cases of gouty access. In this population, hyperuricemia was proportional to age (p-value < 10−4, OR = 2.6), but it was more prevalent in men, 23.5% versus 7.1% for women (p-value = 0.0047). In addition, none of these women showed signs of a gouty affection. Consumption of alcohol (OR = 13) and nucleoprotein-rich foods, obesity (BMI 30 kg/m2; OR = 6), family history of gout (OR = 6.8), as well as diseases such as high blood pressure (associated with taking diuretics; OR = 1.7), renal insufficiency (OR = 4.4) and diabetes (p < 0.049) were the main factors of the diseases associated with gout and hyperuricemia in this population. The biochemical role of these factors may increase and/or decrease the processes of synthesis and/or elimination of uric acid by acting on metabolites involved in the regulation of urate production. PMID:29518007
Breit, W; Frosch, M; Meyer, U; Heinecke, A; Ganser, G
To determine the subgroup-specific differences of intraarticular triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) in the treatment of joint inflammation in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). A retrospective review of 194 children of all subgroups of JCA, treated by a single or repeated TH injection between 1989 to 1994. Efficacy and duration of benefit were evaluated after a mean duration of 3, 15, 30, and 64 weeks. In all, 1439 TH injections were given to 194 patients; 368 of these were reinjections. The median duration of improvement of all injections was 74 weeks. Responses were significantly different among subgroups (p = 0.0001): there were 121 weeks of efficacy in early-onset pauciarticular JCA type I (223 injections), 47 weeks in late-onset pauciarticular JCA type II (190 injections), 105 weeks in rheumatoid factor negative polyarticular JCA (445 injections), 63 weeks in rheumatoid factor positive polyarticular JCA (127 injections), and 36 weeks in systemic JCA (413 injections). Forty-one injections were done in other rheumatic diseases. In relation to this result there were also differences with regard to joint groups, antinuclear antibody (ANA) and HLA-B27 status, and sex. Side effects were rare: infections of skin or joints were not noted; skin and lipoatrophy were seen after 15 injections, necrosis of the hip in one case, luxation of 2 shoulders of one patient, and periarticular calcification in 3 patients. Intraarticular TH is an effective therapy for inflammatory joint disease in all subgroups of JCA. The risk of major complications is low. The median duration of improvement depends on the subgroup of the disease.
Kochi, Masako; Kohagura, Kentaro; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ohya, Yusuke
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a prototypic systemic autoimmune inflammatory condition, confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) was suggested to increase the risk of CVD in RA patients, and inflammation was identified as a critical, nontraditional CKD-associated risk factor for CVD. This study aimed to examine the combined effects of CKD and CVD in RA patients. In this retrospective evaluation of 428 RA patients, the outcome of interest was the incidence of CVD. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60mL/min/1.73m 2 and/or positive dipstick tests for proteinuria of ≥3 months duration. C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as an inflammation marker, and a high CRP level was defined as a mean CRP value of ≥0.57mg/dL during the first 6 months of follow-up. Patients were categorized as follows: non-CKD with low CRP, non-CKD with high CRP, CKD with low CRP, and CKD with high CRP. During a median follow-up of 89 months, 67 patients (16%) had CKD, and 38 (9%) developed CVD. Using patients with non-CKD and low CRP as a reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval) for CVD were 1.88 (0.25-9.44) for patients with CKD/low CRP and 9.71 (3.27-31.97) for those with CKD/high CRP. The coexistence of CKD and inflammation was associated with a higher risk of CVD than either condition alone in RA patients. Inflammation might increase the risk of CVD especially in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the eyes? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect the eyes? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects ...
Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria
Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Design Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. Settings and participants The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Outcome measures Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Results Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem
Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H; Heikkinen, Anna Maria
To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16 months later. Controls were examined once. The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naїve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth ≥4 mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem to affect the results. Moderate periodontitis was more frequent in
Mustur, Dusan; Vujasinović-Stupar, Nada; Ille, Tatjana
This is an open uncontrolled study about effects of physical treatment on disease activity parameters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. The aim of the study was to establish if there was any improvement of disease activity parameters after four weeks of physical and spa treatment. We compared morning stiffness, tender and swollen joint count, body pain level and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28) in patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and assessed the effect of physical and spa treatment on those parameters. The research encompassed 109 patients: 69 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA group) and 40 with psoriatic arthritis (PA group). They were from Norway, staying for four weeks in June-September 2003. The groups served as their own controls--"one group pre-test post test" study. Disease activity measurement was made twice: at the beginning and at the end of treatment. The therapeutic set consisted of mud applications, kinesitherapy, mineral water pool and electrotherapy. At the beginning there was no significant difference in observed disease activity parameters between patients with rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis (p > 0.05). After four weeks of physical and spa treatment disease activity was significantly reduced in all observed parameters in both groups: morning stiffness (p < 0.001 RA + PA), tender joint count (p < 0.01 RA + PA), swollen joint count (p < 0.01 RA; p < 0.05 PA), body pain (p < 0.01 RA + PA) and DAS-28 score (p < 0.01 RA+PA). Physical and spa treatment, together with climatic factors in Igalo, lead to a significant reduction of disease activity parameters of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.
Peterson, Lisa K; Shaw, Laura A; Joetham, Anthony; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Gelfand, Erwin W; Dragone, Leonard L
To test if manipulating TCR complex-mediated signaling (TCR signaling) could treat autoimmune disease, we generated the double SKG Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) knockout (DSSKO) mouse model. The SKG mutation in ZAP70 and SLAP have opposing functions on the regulation of TCR signaling. The combination of these two mutations alters TCR signaling in the context of a defined genetic background, uniform environmental conditions, and a well-characterized signaling disruption. In contrast to SKG mice, DSSKO mice do not develop zymosan-induced chronic autoimmune arthritis. This arthritis prevention is not due to significant alterations in thymocyte development or repertoire selection but instead enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased numbers of Th17 cells skewing the ratio of Tregs to autoreactive effector T cells. Treg depletion and/or functional blockade led to the development of arthritis in DSSKO mice. In vitro suppression of effector T cell proliferation was also enhanced, demonstrating that DSSKO mice have increased numbers of Tregs with increased function. Understanding how TCR signals influence development, expansion, and function of Tregs in DSSKO mice could advance our ability to manipulate Treg biology to treat ultimately autoimmune disease.
Peterson, Lisa K.; Shaw, Laura A.; Joetham, Anthony; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Dragone, Leonard L.
To test if manipulating TCR complex-mediated signaling (TCR signaling) could treat autoimmune disease, we generated the double SKG Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) knockout (DSSKO) mouse model. The SKG mutation in ZAP70 and SLAP have opposing functions on the regulation of TCR signaling. The combination of these two mutations alters TCR signaling in the context of a defined genetic background, uniform environmental conditions, and a well-characterized signaling disruption. In contrast to SKG mice, DSSKO mice do not develop zymosan-induced chronic autoimmune arthritis. This arthritis prevention is not due to significant alterations in thymocyte development or repertoire selection but instead enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased numbers of Th17 cells skewing the ratio of Tregs to autoreactive effector T cells. Treg depletion and/or functional blockade led to the development of arthritis in DSSKO mice. In vitro suppression of effector T cell proliferation was also enhanced, demonstrating that DSSKO mice have increased numbers of Tregs with increased function. Understanding how TCR signals influence development, expansion, and function of Tregs in DSSKO mice could advance our ability to manipulate Treg biology to treat ultimately autoimmune disease. PMID:21248251
Swinnen, Thijs Willem; Westhovens, Rene; de Vlam, Kurt; Geurts, Luc; Vanden Abeele, Vero
Background Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs. Adherence to exercises and physical activity programs is often very low. Patients would benefit from support to increase medication compliance as well as compliance to the physical exercise programs. To address these shortcomings, health apps for CA patients have been created. These mobile apps assist patients in self-management of overall health measures, health prevention, and disease management. By including persuasive principles designed to reinforce, change, or shape attitudes or behaviors, health apps can transform into support tools that motivate and stimulate users to achieve or keep up with target behavior, also called persuasive systems. However, the extent to which health apps for CA patients consciously and successfully employ such persuasive principles remains unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the number and type of persuasive principles present in current health apps for CA patients. Methods A review of apps for arthritis patients was conducted across the three major app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store, and Windows Phone Store). Collected apps were coded according to 37 persuasive principles, based on an altered version of the Persuasive System Design taxonomy of Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjuma and the taxonomy of Behavior Change Techniques of Michie and Abraham. In addition, user ratings, number of installs, and price of the apps were also coded. Results We coded 28 apps. On average, 5.8 out of 37 persuasive
Geuens, Jonas; Swinnen, Thijs Willem; Westhovens, Rene; de Vlam, Kurt; Geurts, Luc; Vanden Abeele, Vero
Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs. Adherence to exercises and physical activity programs is often very low. Patients would benefit from support to increase medication compliance as well as compliance to the physical exercise programs. To address these shortcomings, health apps for CA patients have been created. These mobile apps assist patients in self-management of overall health measures, health prevention, and disease management. By including persuasive principles designed to reinforce, change, or shape attitudes or behaviors, health apps can transform into support tools that motivate and stimulate users to achieve or keep up with target behavior, also called persuasive systems. However, the extent to which health apps for CA patients consciously and successfully employ such persuasive principles remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number and type of persuasive principles present in current health apps for CA patients. A review of apps for arthritis patients was conducted across the three major app stores (Google Play, Apple App Store, and Windows Phone Store). Collected apps were coded according to 37 persuasive principles, based on an altered version of the Persuasive System Design taxonomy of Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjuma and the taxonomy of Behavior Change Techniques of Michie and Abraham. In addition, user ratings, number of installs, and price of the apps were also coded. We coded 28 apps. On average, 5.8 out of 37 persuasive principles were used in each app. The most
Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...
Hackett, J; Johnson, B; Parkin, A; Southwood, T
Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely accepted as being of central importance for the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). However, these approaches have rarely been subject to critical scrutiny. The aims of this report are to highlight some of the inter-centre similarities and differences observed in the implementation of physical and occupational therapy for JCA, and to emphasize the need for scientifically controlled research in this area. During a series of visits to several paediatric rheumatology units in the UK, USA and Canada, three aspects of the service were noted: treatment philosophy, physical interventions used for the treatment of JCA and quality-of-life and independence training activities. There was general consensus with the philosophy that early physical intervention was a vital part of the treatment plan for JCA, although all therapists were concerned that compliance with treatment modalities was poor. Differences between units in the approach to acute arthritis, the use of foot orthoses and wrist splints, the treatment of joint contractures and the use of general quality-of-life training activities were noted. Although it was widely recognized that controlled research into the efficacy of physical intervention was needed, no centre had a co-ordinated plan for such investigations.
Ashfaq, Awais; Chapital, Alyssa B
Peptic ulcer disease has been a major problem since the turn of this century with high morbidity and mortality. Perforation is less common, with an estimated incidence of 7-10 per 100 000. We present a young woman with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with anaemia. On work up, she was found to have a chronic abdominal abscess secondary to subclinical perforation of a duodenal ulcer. After undergoing percutaneous drainage, she became haemodynamically unstable and was taken for surgical washout and jejunostomy tube placement. A week later she had a decrease in the size of the abscess and was discharged home with drain and tube feeds. At her follow-up a few weeks later, she was tolerating goal tube feeds. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Abdulkareem, Abdullateef; D'Souza, Ryan Steven; Patel, Nitin; Donato, Anthony A
Pulmonary toxoplasmosis is a serious pulmonary condition caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii It typically affects immunocompromised patients presenting acutely with cough, fever, myalgias, arthralgias and lymphadenopathy, and chronically with persistent cough and dyspnoea. Because of its protean features, it can mimic many more common lung conditions in the immunocompromised patient, including atypical pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and interstitial lung disease. In this article, we present the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with persistent dyspnoea and cough, initially suspected to have an arthritis-related interstitial lung disease. She received a final diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis after lung biopsy demonstrated Toxoplasma cysts, later confirmed by serology. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in significant improvement of her respiratory symptoms after 3 months. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Rheumatoid Arthritis Small Text Medium Text Large Text Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease affecting about ...
Shiff, Natalie Jane; Oen, Kiem; Rabbani, Rasheda; Lix, Lisa M
We validated case ascertainment algorithms for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in the provincial health administrative databases of Manitoba, Canada. A population-based pediatric rheumatology clinical database from April 1st 1980 to March 31st 2012 was used to test case definitions in individuals diagnosed at ≤15 years of age. The case definitions varied the number of diagnosis codes (1, 2, or 3), time frame (1, 2 or 3 years), time between diagnoses (ever, >1 day, or ≥8 weeks), and physician specialty. Positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. A case definition of 1 hospitalization or ≥2 diagnoses in 2 years by any provider ≥8 weeks apart using diagnosis codes for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis produced a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI 86.8, 91.6), specificity of 86.3% (95% CI 83.0, 89.6), and PPV of 90.6% (95% CI 88.3, 92.9) when seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy (SEA) was excluded as JIA; and sensitivity of 88.2% (95% CI 85.7, 90.7), specificity of 90.4% (95% CI 87.5, 93.3), and PPV of 93.9% (95% CI 92.0, 95.8) when SEA was included as JIA. This study validates case ascertainment algorithms for JIA in Canadian administrative health data using diagnosis codes for both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis, to better reflect current JIA classification than codes for RA alone. Researchers will be able to use these results to define cohorts for population-based studies.
Foeldvari, Ivan; Wierk, Angela
To assess the effectiveness of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) associated uveitis, which is still one of the most common causes of visual impairment. A retrospective chart review of patients with the diagnosis of uveitis associated with JIA between July 1, 2002, and December 31, 2002. Four hundred sixty-seven patients with JIA were followed. Thirty-eight had uveitis: 31 associated with oligoarticular JIA and 7 with psoriatic JIA. Twenty-five of the 38 patients received MTX; in 23 patients uveitis was the indication for MTX therapy. In the MTX treated group 46/50 eyes had uveitis, the mean (range) age at onset of uveitis was 7.82 years (1.8-15.8), and the mean age at onset of arthritis was 7.25 years (1.25-15.7). MTX treatment was started an average of 11.4 months (0-72) after the onset of uveitis. The mean MTX dose was 15.6 mg/m2. Remission occurred after 4.25 months (1-12). Mean duration of remission was 10.3 months (3-27). The total duration of MTX therapy was 661 months and patients were in remission for 417/661 months. In 6 patients MTX was discontinued after 12 months of remission. Four patients were still in remission after 7.5 months (1-14). MTX seems to be an effective therapy for JIA associated uveitis.
Roques, Christian-François; Queneau, Patrice
The data of 33 randomized controlled trials suggest that chronic pain of patients with chronic low back pain, knee osteo-arthritis, fibromyalgia is significantly improved by balneotherapy and significantly better improved than by control treatments. For chronic low back pain (10 RCT, 1192 patients) pain was better improved in balneotherapy group and the weighted mean of the differential improvement was 19.66 (95 % CI: 16.6 ; 22.8) and the effect size was 1.1 (95 %CI: 0.82 ; 1.38) favouring balneotherapy. For knee osteo-arthritis pain (17 RCT, 1428 patients) pain was better improved in balneotherapy group and the weighted mean of the differential improvement was 13.24 (95 % CI: 5.52 ; 20.96) and the effect size was 0.72 (95 %CI: 0.51 ; 0.93) favouring balneotherapy. For fibromyalgia (6 RCT, 398 patients) pain was better improved in balneotherapy group and the weighted mean of the differential improvement was 19.32 (95 % CI: 10.62 ; 29.2) and the effect size was 0.79 (95 %CI: 0.27 ; 1.31) favouring balneotherapy. Mineral waters and healing muds appear to have a more powerful analgesic action: 13 RCT (701) patients) compared mineral water bathing to tap water bathing or peloid application to hot-apcks or neutral muds application : the effect size was 0.75 (95 % CI :0.71 ; 0.79) favouring balneotherapy. Balneotherapy is a safe treatment as only 1 % of the patients receiving balneotherapy had to interrupt the treatment. However several methodological biases were observed in many trials, mainly a lack of statistical power due to a limited enrolment of patients, an insufficient duration of follow-up, an inhomogeneity of treatments. The clinical benefit has to be confirmed by stronger data of evidence but these data are sufficient to perform a more complete scientific analysis (meta-analysis) ; but further clinical investigations with a better methodological quality remain necessary.
Borghi, Sergio M; Mizokami, Sandra S; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Crespigio, Jefferson; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Pitol, Dimitrius L; Issa, João P M; Fukada, Sandra Y; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A
Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a common component of orthopedic prosthesis. However, prosthesis wear releases TiO 2 , which induces inflammation and osteolysis in peri-prosthetic tissues. Quercetin is a flavonoid widely present in human diet, which presents biological activities such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the effect of intraperitoneal treatment with quercetin in TiO 2 -induced arthritis model was evaluated. In the first set of experiments, mice received injection of TiO 2 (0.1-3 mg/knee joint) and articular mechanical hyperalgesia, edema and histopathology analysis were performed in a 30 days protocol. The dose of 3 mg of TiO 2 showed the most harmful effect, and was chosen to the following experiments. Subsequently, mice received 3 mg of TiO 2 followed by post-treatment with quercetin during 30 days. Quercetin (10-100 mg/kg) inhibited in a dose-dependent manner TiO 2 -induced knee joint mechanical hyperalgesia, edema and leukocyte recruitment and did not induce damage in major organs such as liver, kidney and stomach. The dose of 30 mg/kg was chosen for the subsequent analysis, and reduced histopathological changes such as leukocyte infiltration, vascular proliferation and synovial hyperplasia (pannus formation) on day 30 after TiO 2 challenge. The protective analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of quercetin included the inhibition of TiO 2 -induced neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, proteoglycan degradation, oxidative stress, cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10), COX-2 mRNA expression, and bone resorption as well as activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These results demonstrate the potential therapeutic applicability of the dietary flavonoid quercetin to reduce pain and inflammatory damages associated with prosthesis wear process-induced arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sepúlveda-Delgado, J; Vera-Lastra, O L; Trujillo-Murillo, K; Canseco-Ávila, L M; Sánchez-González, R A; Gómez-Cruz, O; Lugo-Trampe, A; Fernández-Salas, I; Danis-Lozano, R; Contreras-Contreras, A; Mendoza-Torres, A; Domínguez-Arrevillaga, S; Mena-Vela, B A; Ocaña-Sibilla, M; Ramirez-Valdespino, J C; Jara, L J
The chikungunya virus (ChikV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes disabling chronic arthritis. The relationship between clinical evolution and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with ChikV-induced arthritis has not been fully described. We performed a prospective case series to evaluate the association among joint involvement, self-reported disability, and inflammatory biomarkers. Patients with ChikV infection were followed for 1 year. Joint involvement and self-reported disability were evaluated with disease activity index 28 (DAS-28) and World Health Organization Disablement Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF) were used as biomarkers. Ten patients with mean age 48 ±15.04 years were included. Symptoms at diagnosis were fever, arthralgias, myalgias, rash, arthritis, nausea, vomiting, and back pain. Polyarticular involvement was present in seven cases. At diagnosis, measures were as follows: DAS-28, 5.08±1.11; WHODAS-II score, 72.3±10.3 %; CRP, 5.09±7.23 mg/dL; ESR, 33.5±17.5 mm/h; RF, 64±21.7 IU/mL; and IL-6, 17.6±10.3 pg/mL. Six patients developed subacute and chronic symptoms. During follow-up, DAS-28 index, WHODAS-II score, ESR, and IL-6 were statistically different in patients with subacute and chronic symptoms compared to those who resolved in the acute phase (p < 0.05). DAS-28 index, WHODAS-II score, and IL-6 were related to chronicity of articular symptoms and could be used as predictors of ChikV-induced arthritis.
Narayan, O; Cork, L C
This review describes the pathogenesis of a slowly progressive disease complex caused by naturally occurring nononcogenic retroviruses in sheep and goats. In nature, infections are usually clinically silent, but disease may manifest itself after prolonged incubation periods. Clinically, this is seen as dyspnea, progressive paralysis, and/or progressive arthritis. In all organs the basic lesion is inflammatory with infiltration and proliferation of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Other organ-specific pathologic changes such as primary demyelination in the central nervous system and degeneration of cartilaginous structures in joints accompany inflammation. The viruses infect tissue-specific macrophage populations in vivo. Viral replication in these cells is restricted to minimal levels but continues indefinitely in the animal as a result of either failure to induce specific neutralizing antibodies or antigenic drift when neutralizing antibodies develop. Consistent low-grade viral replication sets the pace for disease by providing continuous antigenic stimulation for the inflammatory cellular immune response or antibodies that localize in the target tissues. These cells and immune complexes may have adverse effects on indigenous cell populations.
Job-Deslandre, C; Menkes, C J
Intra-articular injections of triamcinolone hexacetonide (THA) are a useful therapy in JRA and HLA B 27 related arthritis (B 27 RA). Published data have indicated good results and few side effects. We evaluate here the frequency of occurrence of local side effects in 35 children with JRA (115 joints treated) and 13 children with B 27 RA (29 joints treated). With a mean follow up of 25 months in JRA and 18 months in B 27 RA, we observed 12 cases (8.3%) of subcutaneous tissue atrophy with local depigmentation (knees 5 cases, wrists 2 cases, ankles 3 cases, metatarsophalangeal joints 2 cases) and 7 cases (4.9%) of intra-articular calcifications all in the JRA group (wrists 3 cases, knees 2 cases, ankles 2 cases). Youth and joint size are possible predisposing factors for subcutaneous tissue atrophy and intra-articular calcification. Spontaneous improvement previously reported for these local side effects was not observed in our study. These results underline the necessity of discussing on a case by case basis whether intra-articular, non long-acting corticosteroid or THA are indicated. THA must be injected with a rigorous technique and with a dosage adapted to the articular volume.
Duffield, Stephen J; Miller, Natasha; Zhao, Sizheng; Goodson, Nicola J
This systematic review and meta-analysis will describe the prevalence of concomitant FM in adults with inflammatory arthritis and quantify the impact of FM on DAS. Cochrane library, MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using key terms and predefined exclusion criteria. As appropriate, proportional and pairwise meta-analysis methods were used to pool results. Forty articles were identified. In RA the prevalence of FM ranged from 4.9 to 52.4% (21% pooled). In axSpA the range was 4.11-25.2% (13% pooled in AS only). In PsA the range was 9.6-27.2% (18% pooled). The presence of concomitant FM was related to higher DAS in patients with RA and AS (DAS28 mean difference 1.24, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37 in RA; BASDAI mean difference 2.22, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.58 in AS). Concomitant FM was also associated with higher DAS in existing PsA studies. Self-reported, rather than objective, components of DAS appear to be raised in the presence of FM (e.g. tender joint count and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain scores). FM is common in RA, AxSpA and PsA. Comorbid FM appears to amplify DAS and could therefore influence management of these rheumatic conditions.
Lynch, Wendy; Chan, Wing; Kleinman, Nathan; Andrews, L M; Yadao, Anthony M
The objective of this study was to compare episode-related and annual costs and work absence days for employees with <3 versus ≥ 3 annual gout attacks. Human Capital Management Services data (2009-2010) from adult employees with gout (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 274.x) and ≥ 12 months of medical and pharmacy benefits were studied. Outcomes of interest included medical and drug costs, number of emergency department and urgent care visits, number of inpatient days, short- and long-term disability, sick leave, workers' compensation costs, and work absence days. An algorithm based on diagnosis code and antigout medication use identified acute gout treatment episodes. Multivariate analysis compared annual and pre-episode vs. during-episode outcomes for employees with ≥ 3 vs. <3 gout annual attacks. Of 3361 employees with gout, 76 had ≥ 3 attacks; these employees had higher short-term disability costs ($1663 vs. $643, P=0.06) and days (11.68 versus 4.61, P<0.05), more emergency room visits (0.55 vs. 0.23, P<0.0001), and urgent care visits (0.07 vs. 0.04, P<0.01), and lower pharmacy costs ($1677 vs. $1108, P<0.0001) than those with <3 attacks. Medical costs both before ($203 higher) and during attacks ($136 higher) were significantly higher for those with ≥ 3 attacks than for those with <3 attacks. Additionally, a quadratic increasing relationship was found between number of attacks and cost. Frequency of acute gout attacks (≥ 3 episodes per year) among employees with gout was associated with greater short-term disability cost, absence days, and emergency department and urgent care visits, and trends toward higher overall costs.
Javed, Fawad; Ahmed, Hameeda Bashir; Mehmood, Abid; Mikami, Toshinari; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E
It is hypothesized that self-perceived oral health and periodontal status are worse in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to CP patients without RA. The aim of the present study was to assess self-perceived oral health and periodontal parameters in CP patients with and without RA. Fifty CP patients with RA and 50 CP patients without RA were included. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics and self-perceived oral symptoms were collected using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, number of missing teeth, and marginal bone loss) were recorded. There was no significant difference in socioeconomic status, education status, self-perceived oral symptoms, and periodontal parameters among CP patients with and without RA. Self-perceived oral health and periodontal parameters are mainly governed by the intensity of CP, and the role of RA in this context seems to be rather secondary. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Biological therapies are common in the treatment of patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis (CIA). However, despite the fact that many patients respond well to their biological therapies, there are still a number of nonresponders. In order to design the best care for patients, it is important to understand how they conceive their own role in their treatment response. To explore how patients with CIA conceive their own influence on a good treatment response to biological therapy. This study had an exploratory and descriptive design with a phenomenographic approach. Interviews were conducted with 25 patients (11 women and 14 men) aged 17-79 years, with CIA who were undergoing biological therapy and who had low disease activity or were in remission. Patients with CIA undergoing biological therapy conceived their own influence on good treatment response in terms of adherence, physical activity, mental attitude, social support, and self-awareness. Adherence was described as the foundation for the patients' own influence on good treatment response. Physical activity, mental attitude, and social support reflected three essential ways of understanding patients' influence on good treatment response where the patients spoke about physical strength, mental strength, and social strength. Self-awareness reflected a comprehensive way of influencing good treatment response in which patients balanced their physical, mental, and social resources in partnership with health care professionals. Patients conceived that they had a responsibility for adhering to the treatment as well as achieving balance in life in order to ensure good treatment response. Self-awareness was essential for maintaining a good treatment response, and this reflected the patients' awareness of the complexity of living their lives with a chronic illness.
Background Biological therapies are common in the treatment of patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis (CIA). However, despite the fact that many patients respond well to their biological therapies, there are still a number of nonresponders. In order to design the best care for patients, it is important to understand how they conceive their own role in their treatment response. Objective To explore how patients with CIA conceive their own influence on a good treatment response to biological therapy. Methods This study had an exploratory and descriptive design with a phenomenographic approach. Interviews were conducted with 25 patients (11 women and 14 men) aged 17–79 years, with CIA who were undergoing biological therapy and who had low disease activity or were in remission. Results Patients with CIA undergoing biological therapy conceived their own influence on good treatment response in terms of adherence, physical activity, mental attitude, social support, and self-awareness. Adherence was described as the foundation for the patients’ own influence on good treatment response. Physical activity, mental attitude, and social support reflected three essential ways of understanding patients’ influence on good treatment response where the patients spoke about physical strength, mental strength, and social strength. Self-awareness reflected a comprehensive way of influencing good treatment response in which patients balanced their physical, mental, and social resources in partnership with health care professionals. Conclusion Patients conceived that they had a responsibility for adhering to the treatment as well as achieving balance in life in order to ensure good treatment response. Self-awareness was essential for maintaining a good treatment response, and this reflected the patients’ awareness of the complexity of living their lives with a chronic illness. PMID:28706444
Domínguez-Pérez, Rubén Abraham; Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Alpuche-Solis, Angel Gabriel; Ayala-Herrera, José Luis; Martínez-Martínez, Rita Elizabeth
Historically, it has been shown that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis (PE) share pathophysiological similarities and possibly a genetic background. In order to elucidate the genetic background between both diseases, we evaluated the distributions of five SNPs genotypes and all the possible haplotypes composed in subjects with isolated RA, PE, combined diseases and healthy controls. The study population consisted of 280 Mexican subjects. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal epithelial cells collected by cheek scrapings and analyzed for the determination of the following SNPs: IL-1α + 4845 (rs17561), IL-1α -889 (rs1800587), IL-1β + 3954 (rs1143634), IL-1β -511(rs16944) and TNF-α -308 (rs1800629). After adjustment for age, sex and smoking status, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a no significant association in the genotype frequencies of TNF-α -308 and IL-1α + 4845 SNPs. Otherwise a significant association was observed in IL-1β + 3954 and IL-1β -511 (p < 0.05) while IL-1α -889 was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.054). Also, we found three negative associated haplotypes with PE: IL-1α + 4845 G/IL-1β -511 A, IL-1β + 3954 C/IL-1β -511 A and interestingly IL-1α -889 C/IL-1β -511 A also with a positive association with RA. Some genotypes and haplotypes are associated with the diseases. But it seems that the genetic background of the association between RA and PE needs to be explored deeper.
Hackett; Johnson; Parkin; Southwood
Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely accepted as being of central importance for the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). However, these approaches have rarely been subject to critical scrutiny. The aims of this report are to highlight some of the inter-centre similarities and differences observed in the implementation of physical and occupational therapy for JCA, and to emphasize the need for scientifically controlled research in this area. During a series of visits to several paediatric rheumatology units in the UK, USA and Canada, three aspects of the service were noted: treatment philosophy, physical interventions used for the treatment of JCA and quality-of life and independence training activities. There was general consensus with the philosophy that early physical intervention was a vital part of the treatment plan for JCA, although all therapists were concerned that compliance with treatment modalities was poor. Differences between units in the approach to acute arthritis, the use of foot othoses and wrist splints, the treatment of joint contractures and the use of general quality-of-life training activities were noted. Although it was widely recognized that controlled research into the efficacy of physical intervention was needed, no centre had a co-ordinated plan for such investigations. Keywords: Juvenile chronic arthritis, Physiotherapy, Occupational therapy
Machado, Natalia P.; dos Reis Neto, Edgard Torres; Soares, Maria Roberta M. P.; Freitas, Daniele S.; Porro, Adriana; Ciconelli, Rozana M.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the incidence of and the main risk factors associated with cutaneous adverse events in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis following anti-TNF-α therapy. METHODS: A total of 257 patients with active arthritis who were taking TNF-α blockers, including 158 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 87 with ankylosing spondylitis and 12 with psoriatic arthritis, were enrolled in a 5-year prospective analysis. Patients with overlapping or other rheumatic diseases were excluded. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic and clinical data were evaluated, including the Disease Activity Score-28, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index. Skin conditions were evaluated by two dermatology experts, and in doubtful cases, skin lesion biopsies were performed. Associations between adverse cutaneous events and clinical, demographic and epidemiological variables were determined using the chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors. The significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 months of follow-up, 71 adverse events (73.85/1000 patient-years) were observed, of which allergic and immune-mediated phenomena were the most frequent events, followed by infectious conditions involving bacterial (47.1%), parasitic (23.5%), fungal (20.6%) and viral (8.8%) agents. CONCLUSION: The skin is significantly affected by adverse reactions resulting from the use of TNF-α blockers, and the main risk factors for cutaneous events were advanced age, female sex, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity and the use of infliximab. PMID:24141833
Gill, Tiffany K; Hill, Catherine L; Adams, Robert J; Broderick, Danny; Black, Julie; Taylor, Anne W
"Arthritis" is a common musculoskeletal condition but the knowledge of what type of arthritis people have, may be limited but may have changed over time in response to campaigns, increased awareness and improved health literacy. This paper describes people who did not know what type of arthritis they had, by a range of relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables, and assesses changes over time in the proportion of people who report having arthritis but do not know what type, using representative population surveillance data. Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS), a risk factor surveillance system where each month, a representative random sample of South Australians is selected from the Electronic White Pages, with interviews conducted using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Data were used for the period January 2006 to December 2008 (n = 16465) for respondents aged 18 years and over. Overall, the proportion of respondents who did not know what type of arthritis they had, among people aged 18 years and over, for 2006 to 2008 was 6.5% (95% CI 6.1-6.9). When considering only those respondents reporting that they had been told by a doctor that they had arthritis, 30.1% did not know what type of arthritis they had. Multivariate analysis indicated that males, those with have a trade, certificate or diploma or secondary level of education, who spoke a language other than English at home, were widowed and earned $20,001 to $60,000, more than $80,000 or did not state their income were more likely to maintain that they did not know what type of arthritis they had. Population ageing and an increase in arthritis prevalence in the future will further increase the burden of arthritis. These increases in prevalence are not inevitable, especially if investments are made in public health prevention programs, particularly those addressing cultural and linguistic diversity and differences in socio-economic status
Kofler, J; Peterbauer, C
This case report describes the clinical and radiographic findings and the surgical treatment of a serofibrinous arthritis of the antebrachiocarpal joint and of a chronic purulent arthritis of the intercarpal and carpometacarpal joints with osteomyelitis of the distal carpal bones and subchondral osteomyelitis of the proximal metacarpal bones in a cow of the breed "Pustertaler Sprinze". The therapy comprised an arthrotomy of both joint spaces and the resection of the distal row of the carpal bones. The right forelimb had been immobilised for 70 days by a full limb cast. After this period, radiographs revealed an ob- vious ankylosis of the carpal joint, and the cow showed only a slight lameness. Six years postoperatively this cow was still in the herd and had produced six calves.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in ... wrist and fingers. More women than men get rheumatoid arthritis. It often starts in middle age and is ...
Al Mutairi, Fuad; Alfadhel, Majid; Nashabat, Marwan; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Hertecant, Jozef; Eyaid, Wafaa; Ali, Rehab; Alasmari, Ali; Kara, Majdi; Al-Twaijri, Waleed; Filimban, Rana; Alshenqiti, Abduljabbar; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a rare genetic neurological disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Molecular detection of specific mutations is required to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the clinical and molecular diagnostic findings in 24 individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome who presented during childhood in an Arab population. We reviewed the records of 24 patients from six tertiary hospitals in different Arab countries. All included patients had a molecular diagnosis of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Six individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (25%) had a neonatal presentation, whereas the remaining patients presented during the first year of life. Patients presented with developmental delay (24 cases, 100%); spasticity (24 cases, 100%); speech delay (23 cases, 95.8%); profound intellectual disability (21 cases, 87.5%); truncal hypotonia (21 cases, 87.5%); seizures (eighteen cases, 75%); and epileptic encephalopathy (15 cases, 62.5%). Neuroimaging showed white matter abnormalities (22 cases, 91.7%), cerebral atrophy (75%), and small, multifocal calcifications in the lentiform nuclei and deep cerebral white matter (54.2%). Homozygous mutations were identified in RNASEH2B (54.2%), RNASEH2A (20.8%), RNASEH2C (8.3%), SAMHD1 (8.3%), TREX1 (4.2%), and heterozygous mutations in IFIH1 (4.2%), with c.356A>G (p.Asp119Gly) in RNASEH2B being the most frequent mutation. Three novel mutations c.987delT and c.625 + 1G>A in SAMHD1 gene and c.961G>T in the IFIHI1 gene were identified. This is the largest molecularly confirmed Aicardi-Goutières syndrome cohort from Arabia. By presenting these clinical and molecular findings, we hope to raise awareness of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and to demonstrate the importance of specialist referral and molecular diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... condition? What if my symptoms come back? Other organizations National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Citations Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis by JA Rindfleisch, ...
Zaid, Ali; Gérardin, Patrick; Taylor, Adam; Mostafavi, Helen; Malvy, Denis; Mahalingam, Suresh
In the past decade, arboviruses-arthropod-borne viruses-have been the focus of public health institutions worldwide following a spate of devastating outbreaks. Chikungunya virus, an arbovirus that belongs to the alphavirus genus, is a reemerging arthritogenic virus that has caused explosive outbreaks since 2006, notably on Réunion Island, and more recently in the Caribbean, South America, India, and Southeast Asia. The severity of arthritic disease caused by chikungunya virus has prompted public health authorities in affected countries to develop specific guidelines to tackle this pathogen. Chikungunya virus disease manifests first as an acute stage of severe joint inflammation and febrile illness, which later progresses to a chronic stage, during which patients may experience debilitating and persisting articular pain for extended periods. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on current knowledge of chikungunya virus pathogenesis by identifying key clinical and experimental studies that have contributed to our understanding of chikungunya virus to date. In addition, the review explores the practical aspects of treatment and management of both acute and chronic chikungunya virus based on clinical experience during chikungunya virus outbreaks. Finally, recent findings on potential therapeutic solutions-from antiviral agents to immunomodulators-are reviewed to provide both viral immunologists and clinical rheumatologists with a balanced perspective on the nature of a reemerging arboviral disease of significant public health concern, and insight into future therapeutic approaches to better address the treatment and management of chikungunya virus. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Kumar, Ashwani; Dhir, Varun; Sharma, Shefali; Sharma, Aman; Singh, Surjit
Triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH), triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) are commonly used intra-articular steroid preparations. Studies suggest that intra-articular TH is more efficacious than MPA and TA in chronic inflammatory arthritis. However, it is unclear which of the latter two preparations has better efficacy. Thus, we compared intra-articular knee injections of MPA and TA in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial included patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondyloarthritis with an acutely swollen knee joint (≥1 week, <24 weeks). They were randomly assigned (1:1) to intra-articular knee injection with MPA or TA (80 mg, 2 mL of each). Evaluations were performed at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Primary outcome was time to relapse (Kaplan-Meier) over 24 weeks, with relapse defined as return to baseline pain or swelling ≥1 week. Secondary outcomes were change in pain and swelling (using a numerical rating scale), range of movement, and occurrence of adverse effects. Primary analysis was intention to treat, with last observation carried forward. One hundred patients (89 with rheumatoid arthritis) were randomly assigned in equal numbers to the MPA and TA groups. Nine patients relapsed in each group over 24 weeks. The mean time to relapse was not significantly different between the MPA and TA groups (20.8 [95% CI, 18.8-22.7] weeks and 20.9 [95% CI, 19.0-22.8] weeks, respectively; P = 0.9; hazard ratio = 1.0 [95% CI, 0.4-2.5]). In both groups, there was a significant decline in pain and swelling scores at all visits (P < 0.001); however, there were no significant intergroup differences. At 24 weeks, mean change in pain in the MPA (-4.4 [3.1]) and TA groups (-3.9 [2.8]) was not significantly different (P = 0.46). No infection, hematoma or hypopigmentation occurred in any patient. In addition, no significant intergroup differences were found in joint swelling, range of movement, modified
Lee, Sara B; Zak, Agnes; Iversen, Maura D; Polletta, Valerie L; Shadick, Nancy A; Solomon, Daniel H
Patient registries have contributed substantially to progress in clinical research in rheumatic diseases. However, not much is known about how to optimize the patient experience in such registries. We assessed patient views, motivations, and potential barriers towards participation in registry research to better understand how registries can be improved to maximize patient engagement. Focus groups were held with 23 patients (mean ± SD age 59 ± 13 years) from the Boston area and led by a bilingual moderator trained in focus group methodology, using a semistructured moderator guide. Three separate focus groups were conducted to thematic saturation: patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had registry experience, patients with any chronic illness, and Spanish-speaking patients with RA or osteoarthritis. Patients in the latter 2 groups had no prior registry experience. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Four researchers independently analyzed transcripts using open data coding to identify themes. A normative group process was used to consolidate and refine themes. Seven major themes were identified, including personalization/convenience of data collection, trust and confidentiality, camaraderie, learning about yourself and your disease, altruism, material motivators, and capturing mental health and other elements of the lived experience. We observed distinct differences in the discussion content of the Spanish-speaking patients compared to the English-speaking patients. This study identified patient attitudes towards registry research among those with and without prior experience in a registry. The results provide insight into strategies for registry design to maximize patient engagement, which can lead to more robust registry data. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Castrejón, Isabel; McCollum, Lauren; Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Pincus, Theodore
To survey physicians' opinions concerning the relative importance of 5 clinical encounter components-vital signs, patient history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and ancillary studies-in the diagnosis and management of 8 chronic diseases. A SurveyMonkey internet survey was e-mailed to 7,265 US physicians, including 3,542 rheumatologists and 3,723 nonrheumatologists, with the following query: "Please indicate the relative importance of 5 sources of information-vital signs, patient history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and ancillary studies-in diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF), diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, lymphoma, pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ulcerative colitis." The response options were 0-20%, 21-40%, 41-60%, 61-80%, and 81-100%. A second query with an identical structure addressed management of the 8 diseases. The proportions of physicians who estimated each component as most (or tied for most) important in diagnosis or in management were computed. The survey was completed by 313 physicians (154 rheumatologists and 159 nonrheumatologists). More than 90% estimated vital signs as most important for hypertension, and laboratory tests for diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. More than 70% estimated ancillary studies as most important for lymphoma, pulmonary fibrosis, and ulcerative colitis. Patient history and physical examination were estimated as most important for RA and CHF by ≥50% of nonrheumatologists. RA and CHF were the only 2 of the 8 diseases studied for which ≥50% of nonrheumatologists estimated a patient history and physical examination as most important for diagnosis and management. Confirmation and extension of these observations in actual care may have implications for reimbursement and organization of clinical care. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Olivier, Nericke; Burger, Johanita; Joubert, Rianda; Lubbe, Martie; Naudé, Adele; Cockeran, Marike
Little is known about the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of RA and coexisting chronic disease list (CDL) conditions in the private health sector of South Africa. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was performed on medicine claims data from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 to establish the prevalence of RA. The cohort of RA patients was then divided into those with and those without CDL conditions, to determine the number and type of CDL conditions per patient, stratified by age group and gender. A total 4352 (0.5%) patients had RA, of whom 69.3% (3016) presented with CDL conditions. Patients had a median age of 61.31 years (3.38; 98.51), and 74.8% were female. Patients with CDL conditions were older than those patients without (p < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.674). Gender had no influence on the presence of CDL conditions (p = 0.456). Men had relatively higher odds for hyperlipidemia (OR 1.83; CI 1.33-2.51; p < 0.001) and lower odds for asthma (OR 0.83; CI 0.48-1.42; p = 0.490) than women. In combination with hyperlipidemia, the odds for asthma were reversed and strongly increased (OR 6.74; CI 2.07-21.93; p = 0.002). The odds for men having concomitant hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism were insignificant and low (OR 0.40; CI 0.16-1.02; p = 0.055); however, in the absence of hypothyroidism, the odds increased to 3.26 (CI 2.25-4.71; p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism was an important discriminating factor for comorbidity in men with RA. This study may contribute to the body of evidence about the burden of RA and coexisting chronic conditions in South Africa.
Henriques, Celia Coelho; Lopéz, Begoña; Mestre, Tiago; Grima, Bruno; Panarra, António; Riso, Nuno
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae with a high prevalence in some developing countries however, it is rarely seen in non-endemic regions. Arthritis has been described in all types of Hansen's disease. Chronic arthritis is known to exist even in paucibacillary forms, resolved or treated disease and in patients without reaction, suggesting a perpetuated inflammatory process. In these cases leprosy can mimic some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. When a patient with a history of leprosy presents with a symmetric, distal, polyarthritis the diagnosis may not be linear. Possibly it is a rheumatoid-like leprous arthritis with M leprae acting as the trigger element for the chronic process or it is an overlap condition, with a concomitant rheumatoid arthritis? A case report of a patient with a chronic inflammatory arthritis with 10 years of evolution is presented. The differential diagnosis between leprous and rheumatoid arthritis is discussed.
Zhou, Quan; Wood, Ronald; Schwarz, Edward M; Wang, Yong-Jun; Xing, Lianping
To develop an in vivo imaging method to assess lymphatic draining function in the K/BxN mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. Indocyanine green, a near-infrared fluorescent dye, was injected intradermally into the footpads of wild-type mice, mouse limbs were illuminated with an 806-nm near-infrared laser, and the movement of indocyanine green from the injection site to the draining popliteal lymph node (LN) was recorded with a CCD camera. Indocyanine green near-infrared images were analyzed to obtain 5 measures of lymphatic function across time. Images of K/BxN arthritic mice and control nonarthritic littermates were obtained at 1 month of age, when acute joint inflammation commenced, and again at 3 months of age, when joint inflammation became chronic. Lymphangiogenesis in popliteal LNs was assessed by immunochemistry. Indocyanine green and its transport within lymphatic vessels were readily visualized, and quantitative measures were derived. During the acute phase of arthritis, the lymphatic vessels were dilated, with increased indocyanine green signal intensity and lymphatic pulses, and popliteal LNs became fluorescent quickly. During the chronic phase, new lymphatic vessels were present near the foot. However, the appearance of indocyanine green in lymphatic vessels was delayed. The size and area of popliteal LN lymphatic sinuses progressively increased in the K/BxN mice. Our findings indicate that indocyanine green near-infrared lymphatic imaging is a valuable method for assessing the lymphatic draining function in mice with inflammatory arthritis. Indocyanine green-near-infrared imaging of K/BxN mice identified 2 distinct lymphatic phenotypes during the acute and chronic phase of inflammation. This technique can be used to assess new therapies for lymphatic disorders.
Zhou, Quan; Wood, Ronald; Schwarz, Edward M.; Wang, Yong-Jun; Xing, Lianping
Objective Development of an in vivo imaging method to assess lymphatic draining function in the K/B×N mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. Methods Indocyanine green (ICG), a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, was injected intradermally into the footpad of wild-type mice, the limb was illuminated with an 806 nm NIR laser, and the movement of ICG from the injection site to the draining popliteal lymph node (PLN) was recorded with a CCD camera. ICG-NIR images were analyzed to obtain 5 measures of lymphatic function across time. K/B×N arthritic mice and control non-arthritic littermates were imaged at one-month of age when acute joint inflammation commenced, and repeated at 3 months when joint inflammation became chronic. Lymphangiogenesis in PLNs was assessed by immunochemistry. Results ICG and its transport within lymphatic vessels were readily visualized and quantitative measures derived. During the acute phase of arthritis, the lymphatic vessels were dilated with increased ICG signal intensity and lymphatic pulses, and PLNs became fluorescent quickly. During the chronic phase, new lymphatic vessels were present near the foot. However, ICG appearance in lymphatic vessels was delayed. The size and area of PLN lymphatic sinuses progressively increased in the K/B×N mice. Conclusion ICG-NIR lymphatic imaging is a valuable method to assess the lymphatic draining function in mice with inflammatory arthritis. ICG-NIR imaging of K/B×N mice identified two distinct lymphatic phenotypes during the acute and chronic phase of inflammation. This technique can be used to assess new therapies for lymphatic disorders. PMID:20309866
... Rheumatoid Arthritis English Español 繁體中文 한국어 tiếng Việt Rheumatoid Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease that causes pain, ...
Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...
Gerber, L.H.; Espinoza, L.R.
This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: The history and epidemiologic definition of psoriatic arthritis as a distinct entity; Psoriatic arthritis: Further epidemiologic and genetic considerations; The radiologic features of psoriatic arthritis; and Laboratory findings and pathology of psoriatic arthritis.
... Arthritis Types Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Fibromyalgia Gout Childhood Arthritis Managing Arthritis Risk Factors Physical Activity ... States is osteoarthritis. Other types of arthritis include gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. Learn about these common ...
Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G
This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...
Sugisaki, Kota; Hirose, Taro
A 70-year-old man with a 30-year history of gout presented with a ruptured gouty tophus over the right lateral malleolus. After the debridement of the tophus, bilateral arthralgia and pitting edema were observed in his extremities. Treatments with antibiotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were ineffective. However, prednisolone therapy was highly effective, and the patient's symptoms were rapidly ameliorated. Thus, we presume that rupture of a gouty tophus or its surgical treatment might contribute to the occurrence of RS3PE syndrome; however, in our case, the etiology of the syndrome remained unknown.
Thumb arthritis Overview Thumb arthritis is common with aging, and occurs when cartilage wears away from the ends of the bones that form your thumb ... also known as the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint. Thumb arthritis can cause severe pain, swelling, and decreased strength ...
Sills, E S; Perloe, M; Tucker, M J; Kaplan, C R; Palermo, G D
Etanercept (Enbrel; Wyeth-Ayerst/Immunex Inc, Seattle, WA, USA) is a subcutaneously administered novel fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the 75 kD receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNFalpha) and the Fc portion of human IgG1. The agent is synthesized by plasmid transfection of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, utilizing recombinant DNA technology. Etanercept was approved by the US FDA for treatment of multi-drug resistant rheumatoid arthritis in 1998, but no human data exist regarding the impact of anti-TNFalpha therapy on human reproductive function or its use before ovulation induction. As TNFalpha potentiates collagenolysis via matrix metalloproteinase gene expression (thereby facilitating ovulation), there exists a theoretical risk that TNFalpha-inhibition could exert an undesirable effect on ovulation and pregnancy. In this report, we describe the first case of ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, normal pregnancy and singleton delivery of a healthy infant following chronic ( > 1 year) pre-ovulatory TNFalpha-inhibitor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrician-gynecologists should be familiar with etanercept therapy in the context of severe rheumatic disease, and offer appropriate reassurance regarding its safe use for infertility patients planning ovulation induction.
George T. Ferrell; William D. Bedard; James L. Jenkinson
Crown damage caused by gouty pitch midge (GPM) and its effects on tree growth were assessed in two 14-year-old ponderosa pine plantations, one on a shallow, infertile soil derived from serpentine and the other on a deeper, more fertile nonserpentine soil of marine parent material. Seed sources for each plantation were nearby indigenous stands on the same soils. Trees...
Armas-González, Estefanía; Domínguez-Luis, María Jesús; Díaz-Martín, Ana; Arce-Franco, Mayte; Castro-Hernández, Javier; Danelon, Gabriela; Hernández-Hernández, Vanesa; Bustabad-Reyes, Sagrario; Cantabrana, Alberto; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Díaz-González, Federico
B cells exert their pathogenic action in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) locally in the synovium. This study was undertaken to elucidate the chemokines responsible for the recruitment of B cells in the inflamed synovium, taking into account that the rich chemokine milieu present in the synovial tissue can fine-tune modulate discrete chemokine receptors. Expression levels of chemokine receptors from the CC and CXC family, as well as CD27, were assessed by flow cytometry in CD20 + mononuclear cells isolated from the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of RA and psoriatic arthritis patients. Transwell experiments were used to study migration of B cells in response to a chemokine or in the presence of multiple chemokines. B cells from the SF of arthritis patients showed a significant increase in the surface expression of CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5 and CXCR4 with respect to PB. Conversely, SF B cells expressed consistently lower amounts of CXCR5, CXCR7 and CCR6, independent of CD27 expression. Analysis of permeabilized B cells suggested internalization of CXCR5 and CCR6 in SF B cells. In Transwell experiments, CCL20 and CXCL13, ligands of CCR6 and CXCR5, respectively, caused a significantly higher migration of B cells from PB than of those from SF of RA patients. Together, these two chemokines synergistically increased B-cell migration from PB, but not from SF. These results suggest that CXCL13 and CCL20 might play major roles in RA pathogenesis by acting singly on their selective receptors and synergistically in the accumulation of B cells within the inflamed synovium.
Baron, Eric P; Lucas, Philippe; Eades, Joshua; Hogue, Olivia
Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis. Via electronic survey in medicinal cannabis patients with headache, arthritis, and chronic pain, demographics and patterns of cannabis use including methods, frequency, quantity, preferred strains, cannabinoid and terpene profiles, and prescription substitutions were recorded. Cannabis use for migraine among headache patients was assessed via the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, a validated screen used to predict the probability of migraine. Of 2032 patients, 21 illnesses were treated with cannabis. Pain syndromes accounted for 42.4% (n = 861) overall; chronic pain 29.4% (n = 598;), arthritis 9.3% (n = 188), and headache 3.7% (n = 75;). Across all 21 illnesses, headache was a symptom treated with cannabis in 24.9% (n = 505). These patients were given the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, with 68% (n = 343) giving 3 "Yes" responses, 20% (n = 102) giving 2 "Yes" responses (97% and 93% probability of migraine, respectively). Therefore, 88% (n = 445) of headache patients were treating probable migraine with cannabis. Hybrid strains were most preferred across all pain subtypes, with "OG Shark" the most preferred strain in the ID Migraine™ and headache groups. Many pain patients substituted prescription medications with cannabis (41.2-59.5%), most commonly opiates/opioids (40.5-72.8%). Prescription substitution in headache patients included opiates/opioids (43.4%), anti-depressant/anti-anxiety (39%), NSAIDs (21%), triptans (8.1%), anti-convulsants (7.7%), muscle relaxers (7%), ergots (0.4%). Chronic pain was the most common reason for cannabis use, consistent with most registries. The majority of headache
Fohlman, J; Höglund, M; Bergmann, S
A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with seropositive destructive rheumatoid arthritis in 1981. She was treated with cortisone, chloroquine, and cyclophosphamide (Sendoxan) in 1982 and 1984 and contracted severe neutropenia. After that she only received cortisone. During 1991, again low neutrophilic counts were registered, especially granulocytopenia. At first, B-cell lymphoma was suspected, but later Felty's syndrome was established. The patient was treated with high-dose cortisone with some success and had a few minor septic episodes. In May 1992 she contracted a traumatic wound on the back of the lower leg. Conservative treatment resulted in a worsening of the condition and an increased wound area, most likely related to the neutropenic condition. In mid July the patient was hospitalized. Bacterial isolates yielded mixed gram-negative enteric bacteria from the wound. Parenteral antibiotic treatment was started, followed by oral drugs, rhG-CSF (filgrastim) was given subcutaneously once a day, starting 3 days after admission. This resulted in increased numbers of peripheral granulocytes. The ulcer started to heal and by mid August the patient received a transplant with autologous skin grafting. In mid September the wound was completely healed. It is concluded that the combination of antibiotics, skin transplantation, and G-CSF was necessary for the successful result. Actually, the bacterial growth did not call for antibiotics, but it was considered necessary to cover for staphylococci. No worsening of the underlying arthritis was observed.
Okumura, Takako; Murata, Yoko; Taniguchi, Kana; Murase, Akio; Nii, Aisuke
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator. We have recently discovered CJ-023,423, a highly selective antagonist of EP4 receptors, one of the PGE2 receptors. This agent is suitable for exploring the effects of blocking EP4 receptors following oral administration in rats. In this study, CJ-023,423 was used in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) to investigate the role of the EP4 receptor in chronic inflammation and bone destruction. These effects were compared with those of rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. CJ-023,423 had significant inhibitory effects on paw swelling, inflammatory biomarkers, synovial inflammation and bone destruction in AIA rats. In particular, the inhibitory effect on paw swelling in AIA rats was comparable to that of rofecoxib. These results suggest that PGE2 acting via the EP4 receptor is involved in the development of chronic inflammation and bone destruction, particularly with respect to oedema in AIA rats. This is the first study to confirm the in-vivo effects of EP4 receptor blockade on inflammation and bone destruction in AIA rats with a small-molecule compound.
Adkar, Shaunak S; Brunger, Jonathan M; Willard, Vincent P; Wu, Chia-Lung; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid
Arthritis represents a family of complex joint pathologies responsible for the majority of musculoskeletal conditions. Nearly all diseases within this family, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are chronic conditions with few or no disease-modifying therapeutics available. Advances in genome engineering technology, most recently with CRISPR-Cas9, have revolutionized our ability to interrogate and validate genetic and epigenetic elements associated with chronic diseases such as arthritis. These technologies, together with cell reprogramming methods, including the use of induced pluripotent stem cells, provide a platform for human disease modeling. We summarize new evidence from genome-wide association studies and genomics that substantiates a genetic basis for arthritis pathogenesis. We also review the potential contributions of genome engineering in the development of new arthritis therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids in chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases (fibromyalgia syndrome, back pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis): A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Fitzcharles, M-A; Baerwald, C; Ablin, J; Häuser, W
In the absence of an ideal treatment for chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases, there is interest in the potential effects of cannabinoid molecules, particularly in the context of global interest in the legalization of herbal cannabis for medicinal use. A systematic search until April 2015 was conducted in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, www.cannabis-med.org and clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials with a study duration of at least 2 weeks and at least ten patients per treatment arm with herbal cannabis or pharmaceutical cannabinoid products in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), osteoarthritis (OA), chronic spinal pain, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pain. Outcomes were reduction of pain, sleep problems, fatigue and limitations of quality of life for efficacy, dropout rates due to adverse events for tolerability, and serious adverse events for safety. The methodology quality of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Two RCTs of 2 and 4 weeks duration respectively with nabilone, including 71 FMS patients, one 4-week trial with nabilone, including 30 spinal pain patients, and one 5-week study with tetrahydrocannbinol/cannabidiol, including 58 RA patients were included. One inclusion criterion was pain refractory to conventional treatment in three studies. No RCT with OA patients was found. The risk of bias was high for three studies. The findings of a superiority of cannabinoids over controls (placebo, amitriptyline) were not consistent. Cannabinoids were generally well tolerated despite some troublesome side effects and safe during the study duration. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for recommendation for any cannabinoid preparations for symptom management in patients with chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases.
Bichler, J; Benseler, S M; Krumrey-Langkammerer, M; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B
Chronic anterior uveitis is a serious complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); disease flares are highly associated with loss of vision. Leflunomide (LEF) is used successfully for JIA joint disease but its effectiveness in uveitis has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether LEF improves flare rates of uveitis in JIA patients compared to preceding methotrexate (MTX) therapy. A single-centre retrospective study of consecutive children with JIA and chronic anterior uveitis was performed. All children initially received MTX and were then switched to LEF. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, dose and duration of MTX and LEF therapy, concomitant medications and rate of anterior uveitis flares, as determined by an expert ophthalmologist, were obtained. Flare rates were compared using a generalized linear mixed model with a negative binomial distribution. A total of 15 children were included (80% females, all antinuclear antibody positive). The median duration of MTX therapy was 51 (range 26-167) months; LEF was given for a median of 12 (range 4-47) months. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF-α) co-medication was given to four children while on MTX. By contrast, LEF was combined with anti-TNF-α treatment in six children. On MTX, JIA patients showed a uveitis flare rate of 0.0247 flares/month, while LEF treatment was associated with a significantly higher flare rate of 0.0607 flares/month (p = 0.008). Children with JIA had significantly more uveitis flares on LEF compared to MTX despite receiving anti-TNF-α co-medication more frequently. Therefore, LEF may need to be considered less effective in controlling chronic anterior uveitis.
Pokatayev, Vladislav; Hasin, Naushaba; Chon, Hyongi; Cerritelli, Susana M.; Sakhuja, Kiran; Ward, Jerrold M.; Morris, H. Douglas; Yan, Nan
The neuroinflammatory autoimmune disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) develops from mutations in genes encoding several nucleotide-processing proteins, including RNase H2. Defective RNase H2 may induce accumulation of self-nucleic acid species that trigger chronic type I interferon and inflammatory responses, leading to AGS pathology. We created a knock-in mouse model with an RNase H2 AGS mutation in a highly conserved residue of the catalytic subunit, Rnaseh2aG37S/G37S (G37S), to understand disease pathology. G37S homozygotes are perinatal lethal, in contrast to the early embryonic lethality previously reported for Rnaseh2b- or Rnaseh2c-null mice. Importantly, we found that the G37S mutation led to increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes dependent on the cGAS–STING signaling pathway. Ablation of STING in the G37S mice results in partial rescue of the perinatal lethality, with viable mice exhibiting white spotting on their ventral surface. We believe that the G37S knock-in mouse provides an excellent animal model for studying RNASEH2-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:26880576
Helmick, Charles G.; Boring, Michael; Brady, Teresa J.
Background In the United States, doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common and disabling chronic condition. Arthritis can lead to severe joint pain and poor physical function, and it can negatively affect quality of life. Methods CDC analyzed 2013–2015 data from the National Health Interview Survey, an annual, nationally representative, in-person interview survey of the health status and behaviors of the noninstitutionalized civilian U.S. adult population, to update previous prevalence estimates of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations. Results On average, during 2013–2015, 54.4 million (22.7%) adults had doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 23.7 million (43.5% of those with arthritis) had arthritis-attributable activity limitations (an age-adjusted increase of approximately 20% in the proportion of adults with arthritis reporting activity limitations since 2002 [p-trend <0.001]). Among adults with heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, the prevalences of doctor-diagnosed arthritis were 49.3%, 47.1%, and 30.6%, respectively; the prevalences of arthritis-attributable activity limitations among adults with these conditions and arthritis were 54.5% (heart disease), 54.0% (diabetes), and 49.0% (obesity). Conclusions and Comments The prevalence of arthritis is high, particularly among adults with comorbid conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Furthermore, the prevalence of arthritis-attributable activity limitations is high and increasing over time. Approximately half of adults with arthritis and heart disease, arthritis and diabetes, or arthritis and obesity are limited by their arthritis. Greater use of evidence-based physical activity and self-management education interventions can reduce pain and improve function and quality of life for adults with arthritis and also for adults with other chronic conditions who might be limited by their arthritis. PMID:28278145
Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Boring, Michael; Brady, Teresa J
In the United States, doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common and disabling chronic condition. Arthritis can lead to severe joint pain and poor physical function, and it can negatively affect quality of life. CDC analyzed 2013-2015 data from the National Health Interview Survey, an annual, nationally representative, in-person interview survey of the health status and behaviors of the noninstitutionalized civilian U.S. adult population, to update previous prevalence estimates of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations. On average, during 2013-2015, 54.4 million (22.7%) adults had doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 23.7 million (43.5% of those with arthritis) had arthritis-attributable activity limitations (an age-adjusted increase of approximately 20% in the proportion of adults with arthritis reporting activity limitations since 2002 [p-trend <0.001]). Among adults with heart disease, diabetes, and obesity, the prevalences of doctor-diagnosed arthritis were 49.3%, 47.1%, and 30.6%, respectively; the prevalences of arthritis-attributable activity limitations among adults with these conditions and arthritis were 54.5% (heart disease), 54.0% (diabetes), and 49.0% (obesity). The prevalence of arthritis is high, particularly among adults with comorbid conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Furthermore, the prevalence of arthritis-attributable activity limitations is high and increasing over time. Approximately half of adults with arthritis and heart disease, arthritis and diabetes, or arthritis and obesity are limited by their arthritis. Greater use of evidence-based physical activity and self-management education interventions can reduce pain and improve function and quality of life for adults with arthritis and also for adults with other chronic conditions who might be limited by their arthritis.
Tang, Kuo-Tung; Hung, Wei-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Der-Yuan
A few studies showed that long-term methotrexate (MTX) use exacerbates liver fibrosis and even leads to liver cirrhosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We therefore conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the impact of long-term MTX use on the risk of chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis among RA patients. We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan and identified 631 incident cases of RA among CHB patients (358 MTX users and 273 MTX non-users) from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2007. After a median follow-up of more than 6 years since the diagnosis of CHB, a total of 41 (6.5%) patients developed liver cirrhosis. We did not find an increased risk of liver cirrhosis among CHB patients with long-term MTX use for RA. Furthermore, there was no occurrence of liver cirrhosis among 56 MTX users with a cumulative dose ≧3 grams after 97 months’ treatment. In conclusion, our data showed that long-term MTX use is not associated with an increased risk for liver cirrhosis among RA patients with CHB. However, interpretation of the results should be cautious due to potential bias in the cohort. PMID:26928373
... Breadcrumb Home Health Topics Reactive Arthritis English Español Reactive Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis is pain or swelling in ...
Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong W
The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men.
... SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 77. Gladman DD, Chandran V. Management of psoriatic arthritis. In: Hochberg MC, Silman AJ, ...
... 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 109. Kaplan SL. Septic arthritis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...
... and Recovery Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Thumb Arthritis Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - Basal ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...
Beard, Stephen M; von Scheele, Birgitta G; Nuki, George; Pearson, Isobel V
Our objective was to evaluate data on the cost-effectiveness of febuxostat compared with standard clinical practice with allopurinol in patients with gout that was presented to the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) in 2010. A Markov health-state model estimated the direct health-related costs and clinical benefits expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Adults with chronic gout and established hyperuricaemia received treatment sequences of daily doses of allopurinol 300 mg alone or allopurinol 300 mg followed by febuxostat 80 mg/120 mg. The proportion of patients achieving the target serum uric acid (sUA) level of less than 6 mg/dl (0.36 mmol/l) was linked to the utility per sUA level to generate an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Second-line therapy with febuxostat 80 mg/120 mg versus with allopurinol alone resulted in an ICER of £3,578 per QALY over a 5-year time horizon. Additional univariate analyses showed that ICER values were robust and ranged from £2,550 to £7,165 per QALY when different parameters (e.g., low- and high-dose allopurinol titrations and variations in treatment-induced flare rates) were varied. Febuxostat reduces sUA below the European League Against Rheumatism target of 0.36 mmol/l (6 mg/dl) in significantly more patients with gout than allopurinol in its most frequently prescribed dose of 300 mg per day. The SMC accepted febuxostat as cost-effective as a suitable second-line option for urate-lowering therapy for the treatment of patients with chronic hyperuricaemia in conditions where urate deposition has already occurred (including a history or presence of tophus and/or gouty arthritis) when treatment with allopurinol was inadequate, not tolerated, or contraindicated.
Flodin, Pär; Martinsen, Sofia; Altawil, Reem; Waldheim, Eva; Lampa, Jon; Kosek, Eva; Fransson, Peter
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is commonly accompanied by pain that is discordant with the degree of peripheral pathology. Very little is known about the cerebral processes involved in pain processing in RA. Here we investigated resting-state brain connectivity associated with prolonged pain in RA. Methods: 24 RA subjects and 19 matched controls were compared with regard to both behavioral measures of pain perception and resting-resting state fMRI data acquired subsequently to fMRI sessions involving pain stimuli. The resting-state fMRI brain connectivity was investigated using 159 seed regions located in cardinal pain processing brain regions. Additional principal component based multivariate pattern analysis of the whole brain connectivity pattern was carried out in a data driven analysis to localize group differences in functional connectivity. Results: When RA patients were compared to controls, we observed significantly lower pain resilience for pressure on the affected finger joints (i.e., P50-joint) and an overall heightened level of perceived global pain in RA patients. Relative to controls, RA patients displayed increased brain connectivity predominately for the supplementary motor areas, mid-cingulate cortex, and the primary sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, we observed an increase in brain connectivity between the insula and prefrontal cortex as well as between anterior cingulate cortex and occipital areas for RA patients. None of the group differences in brain connectivity were significantly correlated with behavioral parameters. Conclusion: Our study provides experimental evidence of increased connectivity between frontal midline regions that are implicated in affective pain processing and bilateral sensorimotor regions in RA patients. PMID:27014038
The effect of febuxostat to prevent a further reduction in renal function of patients with hyperuricemia who have never had gout and are complicated by chronic kidney disease stage 3: study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled study
Background Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is significantly associated with the progression of CKD. However, there is no sufficient evidence by interventional research supporting a cause-effect relationship. Hyperuricemic patients without gouty arthritis, whose serum urate (SUA) concentration is ≥8.0 mg/dL and who have a complication, are treated by pharmacotherapy in addition to lifestyle guidance. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that rationalizes pharmacotherapy for patients with hyperuricemia who have no complication and whose SUA concentration is below 9.0 mg/dL. Methods/Design The FEATHER (FEbuxostat versus placebo rAndomized controlled Trial regarding reduced renal function in patients with Hyperuricemia complicated by chRonic kidney disease stage 3) study is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of febuxostat—a novel, nonpurine, selective, xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The present study will enroll, at 64 medical institutions in Japan, 400 Japanese patients aged 20 years or older who have hyperuricemia without gouty arthritis, who present CKD stage 3, and whose SUA concentration is 7.1-10.0 mg/dL. Patients are randomly assigned to either the febuxostat or the control group, in which febuxostat tablets and placebo are administered orally, respectively. The dosage of the study drugs should be one 10-mg tablet/day at weeks 1 to 4 after study initiation, increased to one 20-mg tablet/day at weeks 5 to 8, and elevated to one 40-mg tablet/day at week 9 and then maintained until week 108. The primary endpoint is estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. The secondary endpoints include the amount and percent rate of change in eGFR from baseline to week 108, the amount and percent rate of change in SUA concentration from baseline to week 108, the proportion of patients who achieved an SUA concentration ≤6.0 mg/dL, and the incidence of renal function
Baker, Nancy A; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Zack, Matthew; Al Snih, Soham
Adults aged 65 or older with arthritis may be at increased risk for cognitive impairment [cognitive impairment but not dementia (CIND) or dementia]. Studies have found associations between arthritis and cognition impairments; however, none have examined whether persons with arthritis develop cognitive impairments at higher rates than those without arthritis. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we estimated the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older adults with and without arthritis, and examined associations between arthritis status and cognitive impairments. We calculated incidence density ratios (IDRs) using generalized estimating equations to estimate associations between arthritis and cognitive impairments adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, depression, obesity, smoking, the number of chronic conditions, physical activity, and birth cohort. The prevalence of CIND and dementia did not significantly differ between those with and without arthritis (CIND: 20.8%, 95% CI 19.7-21.9 vs. 18.3%, 95% CI 16.8-19.8; dementia: 5.2% 95% CI 4.6-5.8 vs. 5.1% 95% CI 4.3-5.9). After covariate control, older adults with arthritis did not differ significantly from those without arthritis for either cognitive outcome (CIND IDR: 1.6, 95% CI = 0.9-2.9; dementia IDR: 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4-3.3) and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate to those without arthritis. Older adults with arthritis were not significantly more at risk to develop cognitive impairments and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate as older adults without arthritis over 6 years.
Baker, Nancy A.; Barbour, Kamil E.; Helmick, Charles G.; Zack, Matthew; Al Snih, Soham
Introduction/Objective Adults aged 65 or older with arthritis may be at increased risk for cognitive impairment [cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND) or dementia]. Studies have found associations between arthritis and cognition impairments, however, none have examined whether persons with arthritis develop cognitive impairments at higher rates than those without arthritis. Methods Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) we estimated the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older adults with and without arthritis and examined associations between arthritis status and cognitive impairments. We calculated incidence density ratios (IDRs) using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate associations between arthritis and cognitive impairments adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, depression, obesity, smoking, chronic conditions, physical activity, and birth cohort. Results The prevalence of CIND and dementia did not significantly differ between those with and without arthritis (CIND: 20.8%, 95% CI 19.7 – 21.9 vs. 18.3%, 95% CI 16.8 – 19.8; dementia: 5.2% 95% CI 4.6 – 5.8 vs. 5.1% 95% CI 4.3 – 5.9). After controlling for covariates, older adults with arthritis did not differ significantly from those without arthritis for either cognitive outcome (CIND IDR: 1.6, 95% CI = 0.9 – 2.9; dementia IDR: 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4 – 3.3) and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate to those without arthritis. Conclusion Older adults with arthritis were not significantly more at risk to develop cognitive impairments and developed cognitive impairments at a similar rate as older adults without arthritis over six years. PMID:28337526
Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Ishihara, Yuichi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Ito, Satoshi; Matsuura, Takato; Bando, Takashi; Wada, Jun; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Mitani, Akio; Takashiba, Shogo; Nagata, Toshihiko; Yoshie, Hiromasa
A number of studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the genetic factors that underlie these relationships have not been elucidated. We conducted a multicenter case-control study that included 185 patients with RA and chronic periodontitis (CP), 149 patients with T2DM and CP, 251 patients with CP, and 130 systemically and periodontally healthy controls from a cohort of Japanese adults to assess the shared genetic risk factors for RA and CP as well as for T2DM and CP. A total of 17 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RA, T2DM, and CP were genotyped. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the KCNQ1 rs2237892 was significantly associated with comorbidity of RA and CP (P = 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status. The carriers of the T allele among patients with RA and CP showed significantly higher disease activity scores including 28 joints using C-reactive protein values than the non-carriers (P = 0.02), although the age, female percentage, and smoking status were comparable. Other SNPs were not associated with comorbidity of RA and CP, T2DM and CP, or susceptibility to CP. The results of the present pilot study suggest for the first time that the KCNQ1 rs2237892 may constitute a shared genetic risk factor for RA and CP, but not for T2DM and CP in Japanese adults. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.
Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Jayasinghe, Jayan D D; Paththinige, Sampath C; Sheriff, Rezvi M H; Wijayaratne, Lalith S
To compare the pregnancy outcomes and contraceptive practices in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and women with no chronic illness (WNCI) in a tertiary care referral center in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Patients with SLE satisfying American College of Rheumatology criteria for diagnosis and history of pregnancies were recruited from university lupus clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL). Age-matched women with history of pregnancy and RA were recruited from the rheumatology clinic, NHSL and WNCI from a surgical clinic. In 71 patients with SLE, 79 pregnancies occurred in 38 patients. The number of total pregnancies in SLE, RA and WNCI (79, 80 and 85 respectively) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but most occurred before diagnosis of SLE and RA. Pregnancies occurring after diagnosis were significantly higher in SLE compared to RA (P = 0.013, χ 2 = 6.169). Mean age at diagnosis was higher (P < 0.01) in RA (35 years) than in SLE (26 years). Percentage live births after diagnosis was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in SLE (9/20; 45%) compared to RA (6/8; 75%) and WNCI (77/85; 91%). Adverse fetal outcomes (fetal loss, pre-maturity, low birth weight) and assisted deliveries were significantly more (P < 0.001) in SLE than in WNCI. Unplanned pregnancies were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in SLE (80%) compared to RA (25%) and in WNCI (9.4%). Contraceptive usage was lower in patients with SLE (25.6%) and RA (33%) compared to WNCI (56.4%). Disease exacerbations occurred in 20% of SLE patients during pregnancy. More pregnancies occur in SLE than in RA after diagnosis of illness. Unplanned pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes need to be addressed more in SLE than in RA or in WNCI. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Lee-Kirsch, M A; Wolf, C; Günther, C
Systemic autoimmunity is a complex disease process that results from a loss of immunological tolerance characterized by the inability of the immune system to discriminate self from non-self. In patients with the prototypic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), formation of autoantibodies targeting ubiquitous nuclear antigens and subsequent deposition of immune complexes in the vascular bed induces inflammatory tissue injury that can affect virtually any organ system. Given the extraordinary genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of SLE, one approach to the genetic dissection of complex SLE is to study monogenic diseases, for which a single gene defect is responsible. Considerable success has been achieved from the analysis of the rare monogenic disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory encephalopathy that clinically resembles in-utero-acquired viral infection and that also shares features with SLE. Progress in understanding the cellular and molecular functions of the AGS causing genes has revealed novel pathways of the metabolism of intracellular nucleic acids, the major targets of the autoimmune attack in patients with SLE. Induction of autoimmunity initiated by immune recognition of endogenous nucleic acids originating from processes such as DNA replication/repair or endogenous retro-elements represents novel paradigms of SLE pathogenesis. These findings illustrate how investigating rare monogenic diseases can also fuel discoveries that advance our understanding of complex disease. This will not only aid the development of improved tools for SLE diagnosis and disease classification, but also the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.
Chronic oral or intraarticular administration of docosahexaenoic acid reduces nociception and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant–induced knee arthritis
Introduction Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) reduce joint destruction and inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of individual ω-3 PUFAs on chronic arthritic pain have not been evaluated to date. Thus, our aim in this study was to examine whether purified docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an ω-3 PUFA) reduces spontaneous pain-related behavior and knee edema and improves functional outcomes in a mouse model of knee arthritis. Methods Unilateral arthritis was induced by multiple injections of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right knee joints of male ICR adult mice. Mice that received CFA injections were then chronically treated from day 15 until day 25 post–initial CFA injection with oral DHA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg daily) or intraarticular DHA (25 and 50 μg/joint twice weekly). Spontaneous flinching of the injected extremity (considered as spontaneous pain-related behavior), vertical rearing and horizontal exploratory activity (considered as functional outcomes) and knee edema were assessed. To determine whether an endogenous opioid mechanism was involved in the therapeutic effect of DHA, naloxone (NLX, an opioid receptor antagonist, 3 mg/kg subcutaneously) was administered in arthritic mice chronically treated with DHA (30 mg/kg by mouth) at day 25 post–CFA injection. Results The intraarticular CFA injections resulted in increasing spontaneous flinching and knee edema of the ipsilateral extremity as well as worsening functional outcomes as time progressed. Chronic administration of DHA, given either orally or intraarticularly, significantly improved horizontal exploratory activity and reduced flinching behavior and knee edema in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of NLX did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of DHA. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate DHA’s antinociceptive and
Subramaniam, Ramesh; Tan, Justina Wei Lyn; Chau, Cora Yuk Ping; Lee, Keng Thiam
Rice body formation is a nonspecific response to chronic synovial inflammation associated with tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative inflammatory arthritis, and even osteoarthritis. Such bodies were termed rice bodies because of their close resemblance to grains of polished white rice. We present a case report of a middle-aged woman with right shoulder subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis with giant rice body formation as her initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. Her right shoulder symptoms resolved after subacromial and subdeltoid bursectomy and removal of the rice bodies. She subsequently developed inflammatory arthritis of other joints, met the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and has been treated medically.
Tu, Huakang; Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wen, Christopher; Ye, Yuanqing; Zhao, Hua; Tsai, Min Kuang; Huang, Maosheng; Dinney, Colin P; Tsao, Chwen Keng
Abstract Objectives To assess the independent and joint associations of major chronic diseases and disease markers with cancer risk and to explore the benefit of physical activity in reducing the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Standard medical screening program in Taiwan. Participants 405 878 participants, for whom cardiovascular disease markers (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and heart rate), diabetes, chronic kidney disease markers (proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate), pulmonary disease, and gouty arthritis marker (uric acid) were measured or diagnosed according to standard methods, were followed for an average of 8.7 years. Main outcome measures Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. Results A statistically significantly increased risk of incident cancer was observed for the eight diseases and markers individually (except blood pressure and pulmonary disease), with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.07 to 1.44. All eight diseases and markers were statistically significantly associated with risk of cancer death, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.70. Chronic disease risk scores summarizing the eight diseases and markers were positively associated with cancer risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 2.21-fold (95% confidence interval 1.77-fold to 2.75-fold) and 4.00-fold (2.84-fold to 5.63-fold) higher cancer incidence and cancer mortality, respectively. High chronic disease risk scores were associated with substantial years of life lost, and the highest scores were associated with 13.3 years of life lost in men and 15.9 years of life lost in women. The population attributable fractions of cancer incidence or cancer mortality from the eight chronic diseases and markers together were comparable to those from five major lifestyle factors combined (cancer incidence: 20.5% v 24.8%; cancer mortality: 38.9% v 39.7%). Among
Tu, Huakang; Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wen, Christopher; Ye, Yuanqing; Zhao, Hua; Tsai, Min Kuang; Huang, Maosheng; Dinney, Colin P; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng
To assess the independent and joint associations of major chronic diseases and disease markers with cancer risk and to explore the benefit of physical activity in reducing the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases and disease markers. Prospective cohort study. Standard medical screening program in Taiwan. 405 878 participants, for whom cardiovascular disease markers (blood pressure, total cholesterol, and heart rate), diabetes, chronic kidney disease markers (proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate), pulmonary disease, and gouty arthritis marker (uric acid) were measured or diagnosed according to standard methods, were followed for an average of 8.7 years. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. A statistically significantly increased risk of incident cancer was observed for the eight diseases and markers individually (except blood pressure and pulmonary disease), with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.07 to 1.44. All eight diseases and markers were statistically significantly associated with risk of cancer death, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.12 to 1.70. Chronic disease risk scores summarizing the eight diseases and markers were positively associated with cancer risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 2.21-fold (95% confidence interval 1.77-fold to 2.75-fold) and 4.00-fold (2.84-fold to 5.63-fold) higher cancer incidence and cancer mortality, respectively. High chronic disease risk scores were associated with substantial years of life lost, and the highest scores were associated with 13.3 years of life lost in men and 15.9 years of life lost in women. The population attributable fractions of cancer incidence or cancer mortality from the eight chronic diseases and markers together were comparable to those from five major lifestyle factors combined (cancer incidence: 20.5% v 24.8%; cancer mortality: 38.9% v 39.7%). Among physically active (versus inactive) participants, the increased cancer risk
... Weak immune system. People with a weak immune system are at greater risk of septic arthritis. This includes people with diabetes, kidney and liver problems, and those taking drugs that suppress their immune systems. Joint trauma. Animal bites, puncture woods or cuts ...
Discusses grammatical arthritis (an internal buildup of rules that hinders writing flexibility); four new "rules" (concerning "data is,""none are,""hopefully," and the restrictive "which"); attitudes toward English grammar; how to be a helpful editor; and where to learn about grammar. (SR)
Rice, Gillian I; Bond, Jacquelyn; Asipu, Aruna; Brunette, Rebecca L; Manfield, Iain W; Carr, Ian M; Fuller, Jonathan C; Jackson, Richard M; Lamb, Teresa; Briggs, Tracy A; Ali, Manir; Gornall, Hannah; Couthard, Lydia R; Aeby, Alec; Attard-Montalto, Simon P; Bertini, Enrico; Bodemer, Christine; Brockmann, Knut; Brueton, Louise A; Corry, Peter C; Desguerre, Isabelle; Fazzi, Elisa; Cazorla, Angels Garcia; Gener, Blanca; Hamel, Ben C J; Heiberg, Arvid; Hunter, Matthew; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Kumar, Ram; Lagae, Lieven; Landrieu, Pierre G; Lourenco, Charles M; Marom, Daphna; McDermott, Michael F; van der Merwe, William; Orcesi, Simona; Prendiville, Julie S; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Shalev, Stavit A; Soler, Doriette M; Shinawi, Marwan; Spiegel, Ronen; Tan, Tiong Y; Vanderver, Adeline; Wakeling, Emma L; Wassmer, Evangeline; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Lebon, Pierre; Stetson, Daniel B; Bonthron, David T; Crow, Yanick J
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism for the initiation of autoimmunity by interferon-stimulatory nucleic acid. Here we describe mutations in SAMHD1 as the cause of AGS at the AGS5 locus and present data to show that SAMHD1 may act as a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic antiviral response. PMID:19525956
Rice, Gillian I; Bond, Jacquelyn; Asipu, Aruna; Brunette, Rebecca L; Manfield, Iain W; Carr, Ian M; Fuller, Jonathan C; Jackson, Richard M; Lamb, Teresa; Briggs, Tracy A; Ali, Manir; Gornall, Hannah; Couthard, Lydia R; Aeby, Alec; Attard-Montalto, Simon P; Bertini, Enrico; Bodemer, Christine; Brockmann, Knut; Brueton, Louise A; Corry, Peter C; Desguerre, Isabelle; Fazzi, Elisa; Cazorla, Angels Garcia; Gener, Blanca; Hamel, Ben C J; Heiberg, Arvid; Hunter, Matthew; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Kumar, Ram; Lagae, Lieven; Landrieu, Pierre G; Lourenco, Charles M; Marom, Daphna; McDermott, Michael F; van der Merwe, William; Orcesi, Simona; Prendiville, Julie S; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Shalev, Stavit A; Soler, Doriette M; Shinawi, Marwan; Spiegel, Ronen; Tan, Tiong Y; Vanderver, Adeline; Wakeling, Emma L; Wassmer, Evangeline; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Lebon, Pierre; Stetson, Daniel B; Bonthron, David T; Crow, Yanick J
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism for the initiation of autoimmunity by interferon-stimulatory nucleic acid. Here we describe mutations in SAMHD1 as the cause of AGS at the AGS5 locus and present data to show that SAMHD1 may act as a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic antiviral response.
Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J
Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... stiffness, inflammation, swelling and, sometimes, destruction of joints. Gout — a form of arthritis that occurs when uric ... the joints. Some 2.1 million Americans have gout. Lupus — a form of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis, ...
Yang, Gabsik; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Kang, Han Chang; Cho, Yong Yeon; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Joo Young
The aetiology of gout is closely linked to the deposition of monosodium uric acid (MSU) crystals and the consequent activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of an NLRP3 inhibitor would be effective to attenuate the symptoms of gout. The effects of oral administration with sulforaphane (SFN) were examined in two mouse models of acute gout induced by injection of MSU crystals into footpads or air pouch. The production of caspase-1 (p10) and IL-1β was examined by immunoblotting and ELISA as hallmarks of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Oral administration of SFN attenuated MSU crystal-induced swelling and neutrophil recruitment in a mouse foot acute gout model, correlating with the suppression of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in foot tissues. Consistently, oral administration of SFN blocked MSU-crystal-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in a mouse air pouch gout model. SFN suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by MSU crystals, adenosine triphosphate and nigericin but not by poly(dA:dT) in primary mouse macrophages, independent of the reactive oxygen species pathway. SFN inhibited ligand-independent activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that SFN may act directly on the NLRP3 inflammasome complex. Oral administration of SFN effectively alleviated acute gouty inflammation by suppression of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results provide a novel strategy in which oral treatment with SFN may be beneficial in preventing acute attacks of gout.
Rice, Gillian ; Patrick, Teresa ; Parmar, Rekha ; Taylor, Claire F. ; Aeby, Alec ; Aicardi, Jean ; Artuch, Rafael ; Montalto, Simon Attard ; Bacino, Carlos A. ; Barroso, Bruno ; Baxter, Peter ; Benko, Willam S. ; Bergmann, Carsten ; Bertini, Enrico ; Biancheri, Roberta ; Blair, Edward M. ; Blau, Nenad ; Bonthron, David T. ; Briggs, Tracy ; Brueton, Louise A. ; Brunner, Han G. ; Burke, Christopher J. ; Carr, Ian M. ; Carvalho, Daniel R. ; Chandler, Kate E. ; Christen, Hans-Jürgen ; Corry, Peter C. ; Cowan, Frances M. ; Cox, Helen ; D’Arrigo, Stefano ; Dean, John ; De Laet, Corinne ; De Praeter, Claudine ; Déry, Catherine ; Ferrie, Colin D. ; Flintoff, Kim ; Frints, Suzanna G. M. ; Garcia-Cazorla, Angels ; Gener, Blanca ; Goizet, Cyril ; Goutières, Françoise ; Green, Andrew J. ; Guët, Agnès ; Hamel, Ben C. J. ; Hayward, Bruce E. ; Heiberg, Arvid ; Hennekam, Raoul C. ; Husson, Marie ; Jackson, Andrew P. ; Jayatunga, Rasieka ; Jiang, Yong-Hui ; Kant, Sarina G. ; Kao, Amy ; King, Mary D. ; Kingston, Helen M. ; Klepper, Joerg ; van der Knaap, Marjo S. ; Kornberg, Andrew J. ; Kotzot, Dieter ; Kratzer, Wilfried ; Lacombe, Didier ; Lagae, Lieven ; Landrieu, Pierre Georges ; Lanzi, Giovanni ; Leitch, Andrea ; Lim, Ming J. ; Livingston, John H. ; Lourenco, Charles M. ; Lyall, E. G. Hermione ; Lynch, Sally A. ; Lyons, Michael J. ; Marom, Daphna ; McClure, John P. ; McWilliam, Robert ; Melancon, Serge B. ; Mewasingh, Leena D. ; Moutard, Marie-Laure ; Nischal, Ken K. ; Østergaard, John R. ; Prendiville, Julie ; Rasmussen, Magnhild ; Rogers, R. Curtis ; Roland, Dominique ; Rosser, Elisabeth M. ; Rostasy, Kevin ; Roubertie, Agathe ; Sanchis, Amparo ; Schiffmann, Raphael ; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine ; Seal, Sunita ; Shalev, Stavit A. ; Corcoles, C. Sierra ; Sinha, Gyan P. ; Soler, Doriette ; Spiegel, Ronen ; Stephenson, John B. P. ; Tacke, Uta ; Tan, Tiong Yang ; Till, Marianne ; Tolmie, John L. ; Tomlin, Pam ; Vagnarelli, Federica ; Valente, Enza Maria ; Van Coster, Rudy N. A. ; Van der Aa, Nathalie ; Vanderver, Adeline ; Vles, Johannes S. H. ; Voit, Thomas ; Wassmer, Evangeline ; Weschke, Bernhard ; Whiteford, Margo L. ; Willemsen, Michel A. A. ; Zankl, Andreas ; Zuberi, Sameer M. ; Orcesi, Simona ; Fazzi, Elisa ; Lebon, Pierre ; Crow, Yanick J.
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a genetic encephalopathy whose clinical features mimic those of acquired in utero viral infection. AGS exhibits locus heterogeneity, with mutations identified in genes encoding the 3′→5′ exonuclease TREX1 and the three subunits of the RNASEH2 endonuclease complex. To define the molecular spectrum of AGS, we performed mutation screening in patients, from 127 pedigrees, with a clinical diagnosis of the disease. Biallelic mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were observed in 31, 3, 47, and 18 families, respectively. In five families, we identified an RNASEH2A or RNASEH2B mutation on one allele only. In one child, the disease occurred because of a de novo heterozygous TREX1 mutation. In 22 families, no mutations were found. Null mutations were common in TREX1, although a specific missense mutation was observed frequently in patients from northern Europe. Almost all mutations in RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were missense. We identified an RNASEH2C founder mutation in 13 Pakistani families. We also collected clinical data from 123 mutation-positive patients. Two clinical presentations could be delineated: an early-onset neonatal form, highly reminiscent of congenital infection seen particularly with TREX1 mutations, and a later-onset presentation, sometimes occurring after several months of normal development and occasionally associated with remarkably preserved neurological function, most frequently due to RNASEH2B mutations. Mortality was correlated with genotype; 34.3% of patients with TREX1, RNASEH2A, and RNASEH2C mutations versus 8.0% RNASEH2B mutation–positive patients were known to have died (P=.001). Our analysis defines the phenotypic spectrum of AGS and suggests a coherent mutation-screening strategy in this heterogeneous disorder. Additionally, our data indicate that at least one further AGS-causing gene remains to be identified. PMID:17846997
Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Fukuda, Hironari; Tajino, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Abe, Satoshi; Konno, Shinichi
Objective To describe a rare case of remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome caused by gouty arthritis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 76-year-old man presented with swelling and pain in the dorsum of feet and hands bilaterally. From the laboratory and radiologic findings, the diagnosis of gout-induced RS3PE syndrome was made. Conservative therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and intra-articular corticosteroid injection in the wrist joint completely and rapidly resolved all symptoms. The patient was successfully treated with oral administration of NSAIDs and a one-time intra-articular corticosteroid injection in the left wrist joint. Conclusion This case demonstrated the importance of considering the possibility of crystal-induced arthritis such as gout and pseudogout, as well as malignant disease, when diagnosing the primary disease responsible for RS3PE syndrome. PMID:23006891
Endogenous pain modulation in response to exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and comorbid fibromyalgia, and healthy controls: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Meeus, Mira; Hermans, Linda; Ickmans, Kelly; Struyf, Filip; Van Cauwenbergh, Deborah; Bronckaerts, Laura; De Clerck, Luc S; Moorken, Greta; Hans, Guy; Grosemans, Sofie; Nijs, Jo
Temporal summation (TS) of pain, conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and exercise-induced analgesia (EIA) are often investigated in chronic pain populations as an indicator for enhanced pain facilitation and impaired endogenous pain inhibition, respectively, but interactions are not yet clear both in healthy controls and in chronic pain patients. Therefore, the present double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study evaluates pains cores, TS, and CPM in response to exercise in healthy controls, patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and comorbid fibromyalgia (CFS/FM), and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), both under placebo and paracetamol condition. Fifty-three female volunteers - of which 19 patients with CFS/FM, 16 patients with RA, and 18 healthy controls - underwent a submaximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer on 2 different occasions (paracetamol vs. placebo), with an interval of 7 days. Before and after exercise, participants rated pain intensity during TS and CPM. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed decreased TS after exercise, both after paracetamol and placebo (P < 0.05). In patients with CFS/FM, results were less univocal. A nonsignificant decrease in TS was only observed after taking paracetamol. CPM responses to exercise are inconclusive, but seem to worsen after exercise. No adverse effects were seen. This study evaluates pain scores, TS, and CPM in response to submaximal exercise in 2 different chronic pain populations and healthy controls. In patients with RA, exercise had positive effects on TS, suggesting normal EIA. In patients with CFS/FM, these positive effects were only observed after paracetamol and results were inconsistent. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Bursztejn, A.-C.; Briggs, T.A.; del Toro Duany, Y.; Anderson, B.H.; O’Sullivan, J.; Williams, S.G.; Bodemer, C.; Fraitag, S.; Gebhard, F.; Leheup, B.; Lemelle, I.; Oojageer, A.; Raffo, E.; Schmitt, E.; Rice, G.I.; Hur, S.; Crow, Y.J.
Summary Cutaneous lesions described as chilblain lupus occur in the context of familial chilblain lupus or Aicardi–Goutières syndrome. To date, seven genes related to Aicardi–Goutières syndrome have been described. The most recently described encodes the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor IFIH1 (also known as MDA5), a key component of the antiviral type I interferon-mediated innate immune response. Enhanced type I interferon signalling secondary to gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 can result in a range of neuroinflammatory phenotypes including classical Aicardi–Goutières syndrome. It is of note that none of the patients with a neurological phenotype so far described with mutations in this gene was reported to demonstrate cutaneous involvement. We present a family segregating a heterozygous pathogenic mutation in IFIH1 showing dermatological involvement as a prominent feature, variably associated with neurological disturbance and premature tooth loss. All three affected individuals exhibited increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes in whole blood, and the mutant protein resulted in enhanced interferon signalling in vitro, both in the basal state and following ligand stimulation. Our results further extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in IFIH1, indicating that the disease can be confined predominantly to the skin, while also highlighting phenotypic overlap with both Aicardi–Goutières syndrome and Singleton–Merten syndrome. PMID:26284909
Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Gashi, Masar; Berisha, Blerim; Abazi, Flora; Koçinaj, Dardan
We report a case of a 49-year-old patient who developed poststaphylococcal coagulase negative reactive arthritis. The woman presented with constitutional symptoms, arthritis, urinary infection and conjunctivitis. The blood culture was positive for the staphylococcal coagulase negative infection. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated, whereas the rheumatoid factor was negative. Radiographic findings confirmed diagnosis of pleuropneumonia, and one year later of chronic asymmetric sacroileitis. Physicians should be aware of possible reactive arthritis after staphylococcal coagulase negative bacteremia.
Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsumoto, Takuya
In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) , the osteoclast pathway is activated by abnormal immune conditions accompanied by chronic inflammation, resulting in periarticular osteoporosis and local bone destruction around joints. In addition, multiple factors, including reduced physical activity and pharmacotherapies such as steroids, lead to systemic osteoporosis. These conditions cause decreasing bone mineral density and deterioration of bone quality, and expose patients to increased risk of fracture. Understanding the bone structures of RA and evaluating fracture risk are central to the treatment of RA.
Marks, Ray; Allegrante, John P.
Background: Due to its chronic nature and its associated impact on physical function and life quality, arthritis in its various forms imposes a significant burden on society. Objective: To critically review and evaluate: (1) what has been documented about the burden of arthritis, (2) what is being done in treatment, and (3) what might be done at…
Tian, Ai-Ling; Gu, Yuan-Lin; Zhou, Na; Cong, Wei; Li, Guang-Xing; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhu, Xing-Quan
There is accumulating evidence for an increased susceptibility to infection in patients with arthritis. We sought to understand the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in arthritis patients in eastern China, given the paucity of data on the magnitude of T. gondii infection in these patients. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a crude antigen of the parasite in 820 arthritic patients, and an equal number of healthy controls, from Qingdao and Weihai cities, eastern China. Sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle information on the study participants were also obtained. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG was significantly higher in arthritic patients (18.8%) compared with 12% in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Twelve patients with arthritis had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies - comparable with 10 control patients (1.5% vs 1.2%). Demographic factors did not significantly influence these seroprevalence frequencies. The highest T. gondii infection seropositivity rate was detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (24.8%), followed by reactive arthritis (23.8%), osteoarthritis (19%), infectious arthritis (18.4%) and gouty arthritis (14.8%). Seroprevalence rates of rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis were significantly higher when compared with controls (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). A significant association was detected between T. gondii infection and cats being present in the home in arthritic patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 - 2.28; P = 0.001). These findings are consistent with and extend previous results, providing further evidence to support a link between contact with cats and an increased risk of T. gondii infection. Our study is also the first to confirm an association between T. gondii infection and arthritis patients in China. Implications for better prevention and control of T. gondii infection in arthritis patients are discussed
Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Schumacher, M. Catherine; Lanier, Anne P.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Edwards, Sandra; Helzer, Laurie J.; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Slattery, Martha L.
Objective To investigate the prevalence of arthritis and associations with arthritis in American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Methods Data on self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis from the baseline visit of 9,968 American Indian and Alaska Native adults from Alaska and the Southwest US were included. The prevalence of arthritis and univariate and multivariate associations between arthritis and demographic characteristics, health-related factors, and treatment are described. Results The prevalence of self-reported arthritis increased with age. The age-sex adjusted prevalence was high in Alaska (26.1%) and low in the Southwest US (16.5%) as compared with the US population (21.5%). In both centers, arthritis was associated with age, lack of employment, chronic medical conditions, and poorer self-reported overall health. Arthritis was associated with female sex in Alaska only, whereas education, marital status, and urban residency were associated with arthritis in the Southwest US. In both centers, self-reported physical health measured by the Short Form 12 Health Survey was lower in people with arthritis, and mental health was not associated with arthritis. More frequent use of antiinflammatory medications was reported with arthritis in both centers, but increased use of traditional medicine and healers were associated with arthritis only in Alaska. Conclusion Compared with US rates, the prevalence of self-reported arthritis was higher among Alaska Native people and lower in a Southwest American Indian population. Some factors associated with arthritis differ between the 2 populations. PMID:18668615
Son, Taeyoon; Jang, Won Hyuk; Park, Jihoon; Yoon, Hyung-Ju; Lee, Jeon; Kim, Wan-Uk; Jung, Byungjo
Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that induces potentially damaging and commonly disabling. Various imaging modalities have been used for the evaluation of arthritis. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of laser speckle contrast image (LSCI) in the evaluation of the severity and early stage of arthritis in animal model. Arthritis was induced on mouse foot and evaluated by a trained expert and the LSCI. The arthritis severity was quantitatively evaluated by speckle index (SI) computed from LSCI. In visual inspection by an expert, it was difficult to evaluate the arthritis because there was no noticeable different between control mouse group (CMG) and arthritis mouse group (AMG) in erythema. However, arthritis was easily evaluated by significant SI different between the CMG and AMG. In addition, the LSCI also successfully evaluated the early stage of arthritis, presenting different SI distribution depending on lesion.
Munro, Jane; Murray, Kevin; Boros, Christina; Chaitow, Jeffrey; Allen, Roger C; Akikusa, Jonathan; Adib, Navid; Piper, Susan E; Singh-Grewal, Davinder
This standards document outlines accepted standards of management for children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in Australia. This document acknowledges that the chronic inflammatory arthritis conditions (JIA) in childhood are different diseases from inflammatory arthritis in adults and that specific expertise is required in the care of children with arthritis. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Coates, Laura C; FitzGerald, Oliver; Helliwell, Philip S; Paul, Carle
To review the pathophysiology, co-morbidities, and therapeutic options for psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in order to further understand the similarities and differences in treatment paradigms in the management of each disease. New targets for individualized therapeutic decisions are also identified with the aim of improving therapeutic outcome and reducing toxicity. Using the PubMed database, we searched literature published from 2000 to 2015 using combinations of the key words "psoriasis," "psoriatic arthritis," "rheumatoid arthritis," "pathogenesis," "immunomodulation," and "treatment." This was a non-systematic review and there were no formal inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts identified in the search were screened for relevance and articles considered appropriate evaluated further. References within these selected articles were also screened. Information was extracted from 198 articles for inclusion in this report. There was no formal data synthesis. Articles were reviewed and summarized according to disease area (psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis). The pathophysiology of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis involves chronic inflammation mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dysfunction in integrated signaling pathways affecting different constituents of the immune system result in varying clinical features in the three diseases. Co-morbidities, including cardiovascular disease, malignancies, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are increased. Increased understanding of the immunopathogenesis allowed development of targeted treatments; however, despite a variety of potentially predictive genetic, protein and cellular biomarkers, there is still significant unmet need in these three inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Firestein, Gary; McInnes, Iain B
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory arthropathy. The majority of evidence, derived from genetics, tissue analyses, models and clinical studies, points to an immune mediated etiology associated with stromal tissue dysregulation that together propogate chronic inflammation and articular destruction. A pre-RA phase lasting months to years, may be characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies, increasing concentration and range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and altered metabolism. Clinical disease onset comprises synovitis and systemic comorbidities affecting the vasculature, metabolism and bone. Targeted immune therapeutics, and aggressive treatment strategies have substantially improved clinical outcomes, and informed pathogenetic understanding, but no cure as yet exists. Herein we review recent data that support intriguing models of disease pathogenesis. They allude to the possibility of restoration of immunologic homeostasis and thus a state of tolerance associated with drug free remission. This target represents a bold vision for the future of RA therapeutics. PMID:28228278
Kavuncu, Vural; Evcik, Deniz
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and painful clinical condition that leads to progressive joint damage, disability, deterioration in quality of life, and shortened life expectancy. Even mild inflammation may result in irreversible damage and permanent disability. The clinical course according to symptoms may be either intermittent or progressive in patients with RA. In most patients, the clinical course is progressive, and structural damage develops in the first 2 years. The aim of RA management is to achieve pain relief and prevent joint damage and functional loss. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation applications significantly augment medical therapy by improving the management of RA and reducing handicaps in daily living for patients with RA. In this review, the application of physiotherapy modalities is examined, including the use of cold/heat applications, electrical stimulation, and hydrotherapy. Rehabilitation treatment techniques for patients with RA such as joint protection strategies, massage, exercise, and patient education are also presented. PMID:15266230
Berntson, Lillemor; Nordal, Ellen; Aalto, Kristiina; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Herlin, Troels; Zak, Marek; Nielsen, Susan; Rygg, Marite
We investigated associations of HLA-B27 with clinical manifestations and longterm outcome in a near population-based setting among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We studied clinical and serological data from 410 patients with HLA-B27 results among 440 prospectively collected patients with JIA with 8-year followup data in a Nordic database. The study was structured to be as close to a population-based study as possible. HLA-B27 was analyzed in 93% of patients, and was positive in 21% of the cohort, in 18.4% of the girls and in 25.9% of the boys. Boys who were HLA-B27-positive had significantly higher age at onset compared to HLA-B27-negative boys and compared to both HLA-B27-negative and positive girls. This difference in onset age in relation to HLA-B27 was not found in girls. HLA-B27 was associated with clinical signs of sacroiliitis, enthesitis, and tenosynovitis in boys, but not in girls. After 8 years of disease, 46 children (11.2%) were classified as having enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA). Boys with ERA had clinical signs of sacroiliitis more often than girls with ERA. HLA-B27-positive children, as well as children with clinical signs of sacroiliitis, enthesitis, and hip arthritis, had higher odds of not being in remission off medication after 8 years of disease. In this near population-based Nordic JIA cohort we found significant differences between HLA-B27-positive boys and girls in age at disease onset, clinical signs of sacroiliitis, and ERA classification. HLA-B27 was negatively associated with longterm remission status, possibly because of its association with clinical disease characteristics, such as sacroiliitis, rather than being a general marker of persistent disease.
Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Pan, Min; Zhu, Yi-lin; Zhang, Yan-yan; Feng, Yi-dong; Fang, Wei-rong; Li, Yun-man
Shuang-Qi gout capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, which has been used in the treatment of joint pain, inflammation and gout arthritis. This study evaluates anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Shuang-Qi gout capsule and its modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines with special reference to gout arthritis. Anti-inflammatory effect of Shuang-Qi gout capsule was investigated bymice tail-flick response, acetic acid induced writhing response, Xylene-induced auricle inflammation and the hind paw volume of the monosodium urate (MSU) crystal induced rats with different time durations. To investigate the effects on gout arthritis, ankle joint of rats induced by MSU crystals and assessed for edema and histopathological changes. In vitro, prepared serum was incubated with urate crystal induced HUVE cells and the release of TNF-α and IL-1β determined by ELISA. Shuang-Qi gout capsule showed significant and dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect via reducing edema and pain, throughout all the models. The high dose of Shuang-Qi gout capsule and Indomethacin significantly attenuated the edema. Histopathological results showed that high and medium dose of Shuang-Qi gout capsule and Indomethacin reduced gouty joint inflammatory features, while the high dose of Shuang-Qi gout capsule showed a better therapeutic effect. High and medium dose of Shuang-Qi gout capsule significantly reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-1β (p<0.05). Shuang-Qi gout capsule can effectively inhibit the inflammation, analgesia, through the modulation of emission of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the curative effect is dose dependent. Conversely, these MSU induced in vivo and in vitro studies of Shuang-Qi gout capsule suggest that, Shuang-Qi gout capsule may be a potential agent for treatment in gouty arthritis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks itself. The pattern of joints ... other joints and is worse in the morning. Rheumatoid arthritis is also a systemic disease, involving other body ...
Pinals, Robert S
Pius II, a 15th century Pope, developed chronic foot pain following frostbite at age 30. Later in life he was progressively disabled by arthritis elsewhere and by colic, which may have been due to kidney stones. The differential diagnosis of his rheumatic disease and its effect on his career are discussed.
Otto, Christiane; Barthel, Dana; Klasen, Fionna; Nolte, Sandra; Rose, Matthias; Meyrose, Ann-Katrin; Klein, Marcus; Thyen, Ute; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-reported outcome in clinical and health research. The EQ-5D-Y assesses child and adolescent HRQoL by five items on mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression as well as a visual analogue scale (VAS) on the current health state. This study investigates predictors of self-reported HRQoL according to the EQ-5D-Y in chronically ill children and adolescents using longitudinal data. Data from the German Kids-CAT study on children and adolescents with asthma, diabetes, and juvenile arthritis gathered over a period of six months were analyzed (n = 310; 7-17 years old; 48% female). Self-, parent-, and pediatrician-reported data were collected from June 2013 to October 2014. Generalized linear mixed models and linear mixed models served to examine effects of socio-demographic as well as disease- and health-specific predictors on the items as well as on the VAS of the EQ-5D-Y. Ceiling effects for the EQ-5D-Y indicated low burden of disease in the analyzed sample. Longitudinal analyses revealed associations between less health complaints and better HRQoL for all investigated HRQoL domains. Further, age- and gender-specific effects, and associations of better disease control, longer duration of the disease and less mental health problems with better HRQoL were found. Subjective health complaints and mental health problems should be considered in the care of children and adolescents with asthma, diabetes, and juvenile arthritis. Future research should suggest administering the items of the EQ-5D-Y with five instead of three response options, and investigate HRQoL over a longer period.
Pain is a key component of most rheumatologic diseases. In fibromyalgia, the importance of central nervous system pain mechanisms (for example, loss of descending analgesic activity and central sensitization) is well documented. A few studies have also noted alterations in central pain processing in osteoarthritis, and some data, including the observation of widespread pain sensitivity, suggest that central pain-processing defects may alter the pain response in rheumatoid arthritis patients. When central pain is identified, different classes of analgesics (for example, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2δ ligands) may be more effective than drugs that treat peripheral or nociceptive pain (for example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids). PMID:21542893
..., heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, mental health conditions, and chronic respiratory infections. As the... local public health agencies --Public health organizations --Foundations --Disease groups --Chronic care...
Zhu, Tracy Y.; Li, Edmund K.; Tam, Lai-Shan
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22645614
Mortezavi, Mahta; Thiele, Ralph; Ritchlin, Christopher
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a chronic inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, is notable for diversity in disease presentation, course and response to treatment. Equally varied are the types of musculoskeletal involvement which include peripheral and axial joint disease, dactylitis and enthesitis. In this review, we focus on the psoriatic joint and discuss pathways that underlie synovial, cartilage and bone inflammation and highlight key histopathologic features. The pivotal inflammatory mechanisms and pathobiology of PsA parallel findings in other forms of spondyloarthritis but are distinct from disease pathways described in rheumatoid synovitis and bone disease. The diagnosis of PsA from both a clinical and imaging perspective is also discussed.
Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; González-Juanatey, Carlos; López-Mejias, Raquel; Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; González-Gay, Miguel A.
Insulin resistance is an essential feature of the metabolic syndrome that has been linked to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Understanding how inflammation arising in one tissue affects the physiology and pathology of other organs remains an unanswered question with therapeutic implications for chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and RA. Adipokines may play a role in the development of atherogenesis in patients with RA. Biologic therapies, such as TNF-α antagonists, that block proinflammatory cytokines have beneficial effects on the insulin resistance that is often observed in patients with RA. PMID:23431244
Boring, Michael A; Hootman, Jennifer M; Liu, Yong; Theis, Kristina A; Murphy, Louise B; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Brady, Terry J; Croft, Janet B
Rural populations in the United States have well documented health disparities, including higher prevalences of chronic health conditions (1,2). Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is one of the most prevalent health conditions (22.7%) in the United States, affecting approximately 54.4 million adults (3). The impact of arthritis is considerable: an estimated 23.7 million adults have arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL). The age-standardized prevalence of AAAL increased nearly 20% from 2002 to 2015 (3). Arthritis prevalence varies widely by state (range = 19%-36%) and county (range = 16%-39%) (4). Despite what is known about arthritis prevalence at the national, state, and county levels and the substantial impact of arthritis, little is known about the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL across urban-rural areas overall and among selected subgroups. To estimate the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL by urban-rural categories CDC analyzed data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The unadjusted prevalence of arthritis in the most rural areas was 31.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 31.0%-32.5%) and in the most urban, was 20.5% (95% CI = 20.1%-21.0%). The unadjusted AAAL prevalence among adults with arthritis was 55.3% in the most rural areas and 49.7% in the most urban. Approximately 1 in 3 adults in the most rural areas have arthritis and over half of these adults have AAAL. Wider use of evidence-based interventions including physical activity and self-management education in rural areas might help reduce the impact of arthritis and AAAL.
Murphy, Louise B; Cisternas, Miriam G; Pasta, David J; Helmick, Charles G; Yelin, Edward H
We estimated the economic impact of arthritis using 2013 US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data. We calculated arthritis-attributable and all-cause medical expenditures for adults age ≥18 years and arthritis-attributable earnings losses among those ages 18-64 years who had ever worked. We calculated arthritis-attributable costs using multistage regression-based methods, and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate costs for 2 other arthritis definitions in MEPS. In 2013, estimated total national arthritis-attributable medical expenditures were $139.8 billion (range $135.9-$157.5 billion). Across expenditure categories, ambulatory care expenditures accounted for nearly half of arthritis-attributable expenditures. All-cause expenditures among adults with arthritis represented 50% of the $1.2 trillion national medical expenditures among all US adults in MEPS. Estimated total national arthritis-attributable earning losses were $163.7 billion (range $163.7-$170.0 billion). The percentage with arthritis who worked in the past year was 7.2 percentage points lower than those without arthritis (76.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] 75.0-78.6 and 84.0% [95% CI 82.5-85.5], respectively, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic conditions). Total arthritis-attributable medical expenditures and earnings losses were $303.5 billion (range $303.5-$326.9 billion). Total national arthritis-attributable medical care expenditures and earnings losses among adults with arthritis were $303.5 billion in 2013. High arthritis-attributable medical expenditures might be reduced by greater efforts to reduce pain and improve function. The high earnings losses were largely attributable to the substantially lower prevalence of working among those with arthritis compared to those without, signaling the need for interventions that keep people with arthritis in the workforce. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...
Moyano, Mario F; Mariño-Repizo, Leonardo; Tamashiro, Héctor; Villegas, Liliana; Acosta, Mariano; Gil, Raúl A
The role of trace elements bound to proteins in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unclear. In this sense, the identification and detection of metalloproteins has a strong and growing interest. Metalloprotein studies are currently carried out by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and despite that complete information can be obtained for metals such as Fe, Cu and Zn, difficulties due to poor sensitivity for other trace elements such as Sn, As, etc, are currently faced. In the present work, a simple and fast method for the determination of trace metals bound to synovial fluid (SF) proteins was optimized. Proteins from SF (long and short-term RA) were separated in ten fractions by native PAGE, then dissolved in nitric acid and peroxide hydrogen, and analyzed by ICPMS. Fifteen metals were determined in each separated protein fraction (band). Adequate calibration of proteins molecular weight allowed stablishing which protein type were bound to different metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ohta, Ryuichi; Shimabukuro, Akira; Kinjo, Mitsuyo
Objective: To report the first case of ciguatera-associated rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Patient: A 53-year-old man presented to our clinic with morning stiffness and pain in the fingers and wrists. Results: For six months, he had suffered from chronic pain in both hands and shoulders caused by ciguatera poisoning. He was referred to a local general hospital and diagnosed with RA. Conclusion: When synovitis becomes evident in chronic ciguatera poisoning, reevaluation is necessary, including investigation of chronic arthritis, which might be associated with the onset of RA. PMID:28593018
Ohta, Ryuichi; Shimabukuro, Akira; Kinjo, Mitsuyo
Objective: To report the first case of ciguatera-associated rheumatoid arthritis in Japan. Patient: A 53-year-old man presented to our clinic with morning stiffness and pain in the fingers and wrists. Results: For six months, he had suffered from chronic pain in both hands and shoulders caused by ciguatera poisoning. He was referred to a local general hospital and diagnosed with RA. Conclusion: When synovitis becomes evident in chronic ciguatera poisoning, reevaluation is necessary, including investigation of chronic arthritis, which might be associated with the onset of RA.
Chamberland, David; Jiang, Yebin; Wang, Xueding
Conventional radiography, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging are the current imaging modalities used for clinical evaluation of arthritis which is highly prevalent and a leading cause of disability. Some of these types of imaging are also used for monitoring disease progression and treatment response of arthritis. However, their disadvantages limit their utilities, such as ionizing radiation for radiography, CT, and nuclear imaging; suboptimal tissue contrast resolution for radiography, CT, ultrasound, and nuclear imaging; high cost for CT and MRI and nuclear imaging; and long data-acquisition time with ensuing patient discomfort for MRI. Recently, there have been considerable advances in nonionizing noninvasive optical imaging which has demonstrated promise for early diagnosis, monitoring therapeutic interventions and disease progression of arthritis. Optical based molecular imaging modalities such as fluorescence imaging have shown high sensitivity in detection of optical contrast agents and can aid early diagnosis and ongoing evaluation of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Optical transillumination imaging or diffuse optical tomography may differentiate normal joint clear synovial fluid from turbid and pink medium early in the inflammatory process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to evaluate fluid composition from joints affected by arthritis. Hemodynamic changes such as angiogenesis, hypervascularization, and hypoxia in arthritic articular tissue can potentially be observed by diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography. Optical measurements could also facilitate quantification of hemodynamic properties such as blood volume and oxygenation levels at early stages of inflammatory arthritis. Optical imaging provides methodologies which should contribute to detection of early changes and monitoring of progression in pathological characteristics of arthritis, with relatively simple instrumentation.
Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Plagou, Athena; Teh, James
Ultrasound is currently performed in everyday rheumatologic practice. It is used for early diagnosis, to monitor treatment results, and to diagnose remission. The spectrum of pathologies seen in arthritis with ultrasound includes early inflammatory features and associated complications. This article discusses the spectrum of ultrasound features of arthritides seen in rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases in adults, such as Sjögren syndrome, lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ultrasound findings in spondyloarthritis, osteoarthritis, and crystal-induced diseases are presented. Ultrasound-guided interventions in patients with arthritis are listed, and the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Olivieri, Ignazio
Although asymptomatic joint involvement and arthralgias are frequent in patients with hepatitis C virus chronic infection (HCV), a true arthritis affects only up to 4% of the subjects. HCV-related arthritis (HCVrA) is usually distinguished in two clinical subsets: a more frequent symmetrical polyarthritis (SP), similar to rheumatoid arthritis but much less serious, and an intermittent mono-oligoarthritis (IMO) that involves medium and large sized joints, mainly the ankle. This latter subset is strictly related to the presence of HCV-induced mixed cryoglobulinemia and its cutaneous manifestations, in particular purpura. According to recent reports, anti-CCP antibodies are considered very useful in differentiating the SP subset from rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment of HCVrA is still largely empirical because few studies have analyzed this topic. However, COXIBs, NSAIDs, low doses of corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and less frequently methotrexate and penicillamine have been used with partial or complete control of symptoms. On the basis of recent studies, the administration of cyclosporine also seems to be sufficiently safe. The scarcely aggressive nature of HCVrA does not favour the use of anti-TNF agents. Specific anti-viral therapy (interferon-alpha+ribavirin) must be accurately evaluated because interferon-alpha can induce the development or the worsening of several autoimmune HCV-related disorders including arthritis.
We report a case of a 49-year-old patient who developed poststaphylococcal coagulase negative reactive arthritis. The woman presented with constitutional symptoms, arthritis, urinary infection and conjunctivitis. The blood culture was positive for the staphylococcal coagulase negative infection. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated, whereas the rheumatoid factor was negative. Radiographic findings confirmed diagnosis of pleuropneumonia, and one year later of chronic asymmetric sacroileitis. Physicians should be aware of possible reactive arthritis after staphylococcal coagulase negative bacteremia. PMID:20062603
The association between rheumatoid arthritis and cancer is controversial. Previous studies have shown a correlation between rheumatoid arthritis and the development of lymphoma. Describe a case of rheumatoid arthritis and associated breast cancer plus the identification of the clinical features of a set of cases in which arthritis and cancer go along. This is a retrospective clinical series study. A database of Hospital General ISSSTECALI of Mexicali, Mexico, containing information on patients suffering from both rheumatoid arthritis and cancer until 2012 was checked. The medical files confirmed the diagnoses. The data available included age, date of arthritis diagnosis, date of cancer diagnosis, related conditions, results of serological tests, type of cancer, treatments used and follow-up information. Fifteen cases of women suffering from both rheumatoid arthritis and cancer were identified on the database of the Hospital General ISSSTECALI in Mexicali. The case described here is the number four on that list. The average age was 54 years and the average time between arthritis and cancer diagnoses was four years. Ten patients were administered methotrexate. Nine patients (60%) suffered from breast cancer and six more from cervical cancer. Three patients suffered from cervical dysplasia. These cases emphasize the need of strict follow-up on patients suffering from inflammatory rheumatoid condition. If cancer follows chronic inflammation, immunosuppression, or it is pure coincidence, is still a matter of debate.
Bendtzen, and P. Holmstrup. 2008. Blood cell gene expression profiling in subjects with ag- gressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis. J. Periodontol. 79...2008. Shift from toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) toward TLR-4 dependency in the erosive stage of chronic streptococcal cell wall arthritis coincident...inhibit IL-17– induced acute (neutrophil migration) and chronic (monocyte recruitment) inflammation by affecting leu- kocyte ingress, controlled in part
Loustau, Clotilde; Rosine, Nicolas; Forien, Marine; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Juge, Pierre-Antoine; Lioté, Frédéric; Bardin, Thomas; Richette, Pascal; Dieudé, Philippe; Richez, Christophe; Bannwarth, Bernard; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Ea, Hang-Korng; Truchetet, Marie-Elise
Interleukin (IL)-1β blocking is effective for the treatment of gout flares and is recommended in patients with contraindications to the standard of care, such as stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, efficacy and safety data regarding these agents are lacking in this population. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of anakinra for the treatment of gout flares in patients with stage 4-5 CKD or renal transplantation. This retrospective study encompassing 3 academic centres included consecutive patients with stage 4-5 CKD or kidney transplantation who received anakinra for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis and completed at least one follow-up visit. Efficacy, occurrence of infection, and renal function variations were recorded. Of the 31 included patients (24 men, mean age 72 ± 11 years), 25 were non-transplant subjects with stage 4-5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate, MDRD formula (eGFR) 22.7 ± 6.5mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), and 6 had undergone kidney transplantation (mean eGFR 41.5 ± 22.8mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Median gout duration was 3.5 years, and the mean serum urate (SUA) level was 8.7mg/dL. Twenty-one (68%) patients had tophi, and 21 had gout arthropathy. Anakinra was efficacious in all patients (final VAS 10 and CRP level 10mg/L). Ten patients (32%) were anakinra dependent (i.e., required prolonged treatment with anakinra). A serious infection was recorded in only one patient, occurring 3 months after starting anakinra. No significant variation in renal function was observed. Anakinra may be a safe therapeutic option for gout patients with advanced CKD. Further randomized controlled studies are required to confirm our results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Introduction Pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in the rat has been described as an animal model of inflammatory arthritis which exhibits features similar to rheumatoid arthritis in humans, such as a chronic, destructive, and symmetrical involvement of peripheral joints. However, so far little is known about the earliest inflammatory events and their influence on locomotor behaviour during the course of PIA. To investigate this issue a detailed analysis of the pathologic changes occurring during the prodromal and early stages of PIA was performed. Methods Arthritis was induced in DA.rats by injection of 150 μl 2,6,10,4-tetramethyl-pentadecane (pristane) at the base of the tail and changes in locomotor behaviour of the affected paws were monitored using the CatWalk quantitative gait analysis system. The pathologic events occurring in the joints of pristane-injected animals were studied before onset, at onset, and during acute phase of arthritis by histological methods. Results Gait analysis revealed that changes in locomotion such as reduced paw print areas and stance phase time are already apparent before the onset of clinically discernible arthritis symptoms (erythema, paw swelling) and correlate with PIA scores. In agreement with these findings, inflammatory tenosynovitis could be observed by histology already before the onset of erythema and swelling of the respective paws. In the most heavily affected rats also irregularities in step sequence patterns occurred A kinetic analysis of clinical and histological findings demonstrated that gait changes precede the pathological changes occurring during the acute phase of pristane-induced arthritis. Conclusions Gait analysis allows for pinpointing the initial inflammatory changes in experimental arthritis models such as pristane-induced arthritis. Analysis of early clinically relevant symptoms in arthritis models may facilitate the search for novel therapeutics to interfere with pain, inflammation and joint destruction
Moszyk, Danielle J; Sulit, Daryl J
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory condition whose pathogenesis is determined partially by genetic and environmental factors. Without treatment, 20 to 30% of individuals with this condition will become permanently disabled in a few years. Rheumatoid arthritis and its potential complications can cause significant disability and could seriously affect the performance of an aviator. Traditionally, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) and biologics have not been used until disease progression occurs, but they recently have been added earlier in the course of disease for a more aggressive approach to treatment. It has been shown to significantly reduce the number of affected joints, pain, and disability. This newer treatment regimen has helped a military pilot continue his aviation career. We present the case of an experienced designated military pilot who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. He was initially treated early with a DMARD and biologic medication. He has remained in remission and currently only uses etanercept (biologic medication) and a non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drug to control his disease. He has responded favorably to therapy and has few limitations. Due to his positive response to treatment, the aviator was granted military aeromedical waivers for rheumatoid arthritis and chronic medication use.
Keogh, Alison; Tully, Mark A; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A
Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines recommend applying theory within complex interventions to explain how behaviour change occurs. Guidelines endorse self-management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) and osteoarthritis (OA), but evidence for its effectiveness is weak. This literature review aimed to determine the use of behaviour change theory and techniques within randomised controlled trials of group-based self-management programmes for chronic musculoskeletal pain, specifically CLBP and OA. A two-phase search strategy of electronic databases was used to identify systematic reviews and studies relevant to this area. Articles were coded for their use of behaviour change theory, and the number of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) was identified using a 93-item taxonomy, Taxonomy (v1). 25 articles of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which only three reported having based their intervention on theory, and all used Social Cognitive Theory. A total of 33 BCTs were coded across all articles with the most commonly identified techniques being 'instruction on how to perform the behaviour', 'demonstration of the behaviour', 'behavioural practice', 'credible source', 'graded tasks' and 'body changes'. Results demonstrate that theoretically driven research within group based self-management programmes for chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking, or is poorly reported. Future research that follows recommended guidelines regarding the use of theory in study design and reporting is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Patients suffering from chronic and incurable diseases often try to influence their symptoms by dietary modification. The effect of complete fasting on pain in rheumatoid arthritis is remarkable, but not fully understood. Polyunsaturated fatty-acids, specially omega-3-fatty-acids from fish oil, are significant as precursors of mediators for inflammation. In rare instances food allergy may cause or aggravate arthritis. The actual knowledge is presented in a concentrated form and some practical advice is given.
Chen, Chun-Jen; Shi, Yan; Hearn, Arron; Fitzgerald, Kate; Golenbock, Douglas; Reed, George; Akira, Shizuo; Rock, Kenneth L.
While it is known that monosodium urate (MSU) crystals cause the disease gout, the mechanism by which these crystals stimulate this inflammatory condition has not been clear. Here we find that the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) signal transduction adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is required for acute gouty inflammation. In contrast, other TIR adaptor molecules, TIRAP/Mal, TRIF, and TRAM, are not required for this process. The MyD88-dependent TLR1, -2, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -11 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) are not essential for MSU-induced inflammation. Moreover, MSU does not stimulate HEK cells expressing TLR1–11 to activate NF-κB. In contrast, mice deficient in the MyD88-dependent IL-1R showed reduced inflammatory responses, similar to those observed in MyD88-deficient mice. Similarly, mice treated with IL-1 neutralizing antibodies also showed reduced MSU-induced inflammation, demonstrating that IL-1 production and IL-1R activation play essential roles in MSU-triggered inflammation. IL-1R deficiency in bone marrow–derived cells did not affect the inflammatory response; however, it was required in non–bone marrow–derived cells. These results indicate that IL-1 is essential for the MSU-induced inflammatory response and that the requirement of MyD88 in this process is primarily through its function as an adaptor molecule in the IL-1R signaling pathway. PMID:16886064
Oğuz, Ali Kemal; Yılmaz, Seda; Akar, Nejat; Özdağ, Hilal; Gürler, Aysel; Ateş, Aşkın; Oygür, Çağdaş Şahap; Kılıçoğlu, Sibel Serin; Demirtaş, Selda
C-type lectin domain family 12, member A (CLEC12A) is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing monosodium urate crystals. Monosodium urate crystals, the causative agents of gout are also among the danger-associated molecular patterns reflecting cellular injury/cell death. In response to monosodium urate crystals, CLEC12A effectively inhibits granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions and hence acts as a negative regulator of inflammation. Behçet's syndrome and gout are autoinflammatory disorders sharing certain pathological (neutrophilic inflammation), clinical (exaggerated response to monosodium urate crystals) and therapeutic (colchicine) features. We propose the hypothesis that decreased expression of CLEC12A is a common denominator in the hyperinflammatory responses observed in Behçet's syndrome and gout. Major lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis are: (1) Downregulation/deficiency of CLEC12A is associated with hyperinflammatory responses. (2) CLEC12A polymorphisms with functional and clinical implications have been documented in other inflammatory diseases. (3) Colchicine, a fundamental therapeutic agent used both in Behçet's syndrome and gout is shown to oppose the downregulation of CLEC12A. (4) Behçet's syndrome and gout are characterized by a hyperinflammatory response to monosodium urate crystals and other than gout, Behçet's syndrome is the only inflammatory condition exhibiting this exaggerated response. (5) Genomewide linkage and association studies of Behçet's syndrome collectively point to 12p12-13, the chromosomal region harboring CLEC12A. (6) Patients with severe forms of Behçet's syndrome underexpress CLEC12A with respect to patients with mild forms of the disease. If supported by well-designed, rigorous experiments, the forementioned hypothesis pertinent to CLEC12A will carry important implications for therapy, designing experimental models, and uncovering immunopathogenic mechanisms in Behçet's syndrome and gout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine
Acute septic arthritis is rare. It is associated with poor prognosis in terms of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of a 61-year old patient with spontaneous Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis. He suffered from complicated diabetes associated with positive blood cultures and synovial fluid cultures. Patient's evolution was favorable thanks to early diagnosis and initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy. Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis is rare. On that basis we conducted a literature review of cases of Proteus mirabilis pyogenic arthritis to highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment and evolution of these diseases. Diagnosis is commonly based on microbiological analysis, early articular puncture biopsy is performed before the initiation of antibiotic treatment, direct examination, culture and antibiogram which are useful as guidance for antibiotic therapy. Septic arthritis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency; early management of this disease allows total healing without after-effects.
Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan
Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain
Cardamone, Francesca; Falconi, Mattia; Desideri, Alessandro
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by calcification of basal ganglia, results in psychomotor delays and epilepsy states from the early months of children life. This disease is caused by mutations in seven different genes encoding proteins implicated in the metabolism of nucleic acids, including SAMHD1. Twenty SAMHD1 gene variants have been discovered and in this work, a structural characterization of the SAMHD1 Aicardi-Goutières Arg145Gln mutant is reported by classical molecular dynamics simulation. Four simulations have been carried out and compared. Two concerning the wild-type SAMHD1 form in presence and absence of cofactors, in order to explain the role of cofactors in the SAMHD1 assembly/disassembly process and, two concerning the Arg145Gln mutant, also in presence and absence of cofactors, in order to have an accurate comparison with the corresponding native forms. Results show the importance of native residue Arg145 in maintaining the tetramer, interacting with GTP cofactor inside allosteric sites. Replacement of arginine in glutamine gives rise to a loosening of GTP-protein interactions, when cofactors are present in allosteric sites, whilst in absence of cofactors, the occurrence of intra and inter-chain interactions is observed in the mutant, not seen in the native enzyme, making energetically unfavourable the tetramerization process.
Cardamone, Francesca; Falconi, Mattia; Desideri, Alessandro
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by calcification of basal ganglia, results in psychomotor delays and epilepsy states from the early months of children life. This disease is caused by mutations in seven different genes encoding proteins implicated in the metabolism of nucleic acids, including SAMHD1. Twenty SAMHD1 gene variants have been discovered and in this work, a structural characterization of the SAMHD1 Aicardi-Goutières Arg145Gln mutant is reported by classical molecular dynamics simulation. Four simulations have been carried out and compared. Two concerning the wild-type SAMHD1 form in presence and absence of cofactors, in order to explain the role of cofactors in the SAMHD1 assembly/disassembly process and, two concerning the Arg145Gln mutant, also in presence and absence of cofactors, in order to have an accurate comparison with the corresponding native forms. Results show the importance of native residue Arg145 in maintaining the tetramer, interacting with GTP cofactor inside allosteric sites. Replacement of arginine in glutamine gives rise to a loosening of GTP-protein interactions, when cofactors are present in allosteric sites, whilst in absence of cofactors, the occurrence of intra and inter-chain interactions is observed in the mutant, not seen in the native enzyme, making energetically unfavourable the tetramerization process.
Cardamone, Francesca; Falconi, Mattia; Desideri, Alessandro
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, a rare genetic disorder characterized by calcification of basal ganglia, results in psychomotor delays and epilepsy states from the early months of children life. This disease is caused by mutations in seven different genes encoding proteins implicated in the metabolism of nucleic acids, including SAMHD1. Twenty SAMHD1 gene variants have been discovered and in this work, a structural characterization of the SAMHD1 Aicardi-Goutières Arg145Gln mutant is reported by classical molecular dynamics simulation. Four simulations have been carried out and compared. Two concerning the wild-type SAMHD1 form in presence and absence of cofactors, in order to explain the role of cofactors in the SAMHD1 assembly/disassembly process and, two concerning the Arg145Gln mutant, also in presence and absence of cofactors, in order to have an accurate comparison with the corresponding native forms. Results show the importance of native residue Arg145 in maintaining the tetramer, interacting with GTP cofactor inside allosteric sites. Replacement of arginine in glutamine gives rise to a loosening of GTP-protein interactions, when cofactors are present in allosteric sites, whilst in absence of cofactors, the occurrence of intra and inter-chain interactions is observed in the mutant, not seen in the native enzyme, making energetically unfavourable the tetramerization process.
Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kendirli, Seval G; Altintas, Derya U; Karakoc, Gulbin B; Inal, Ayfer; Kilic, Mehmet
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders. Publications from different countries point to differences in the disease manifestation of JIA among different populations. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory features of JIA in Turkish children. A total of 196 JIA patients who fulfilled International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) diagnostic criteria were included in this retrospective study. The data collected were age, gender, age at disease onset and at diagnosis, and follow-up duration. Antinuclear antibody (ANA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and human leukocyte antigen B-27 were evaluated for each patient. There were 102 boys and 94 girls with a mean duration of disease of 4.1 years. The mean age at the first visit was 8.8 years, and the mean age at onset of disease was 6.8 years (range, 8 months-15 years). Polyarticular JIA was the most frequent onset type (37.2%). Other subtypes included oligoarthritis (34.2%), systemic arthritis (15.3%), psoriatic arthritis (1%), enthesitis-related arthritis (9.7%), and other arthritis (2.2%). ANA was positive in 28 patients (14.2%). Chronic uveitis occurred in two patients with oligoarthritis; and two patients with enthesitis-related arthritis had acute uveitis. Three patients (1.4%) developed amyloidosis. Compared to reports from Western countries, remarkably different features of JIA were found in Turkish children, which included higher frequency of polyarticular JIA, higher prevalence among boys, lower rate of ANA positivity and uveitis. Further studies are required to understand how genetic and environmental differences affect JIA expression.
Describes a study undertaken to ascertain the extent to which arthritis patients could be targeted by arthritis-related programming over a local cable system. Some conceptual and practical issues involved in targeting chronic patient groups for health programming are discussed. (Author/CT)
Mahowald, M.L.; Raskind, J.R.; Peterson, L.
Numerous clinical studies have questioned the ability of radionuclide scans to differentiate septic from aseptic joint inflammation. A clinical study may not be able to document an underlying disease process or duration of infection and, thus, may make conclusions about the accuracy of scan interpretations open to debate. In this study, the Dumonde-Glynn model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits was used as the experimental model to study technetium and gallium scans in Staphylococcus aureus infection of arthritic and normal joints. Gallium scans were negative in normal rabbits, usually negative in antigen-induced arthritis, but positive in septic arthritis. The bone scanmore » was usually negative in early infection but positive in late septic arthritis, a finding reflecting greater penetration of bacteria into subchondral bone because of the underlying inflammatory process.« less
Traister, Russell S.
Arthritis is among the leading causes of disability in the developed world. There remains no cure for this disease and the current treatments are only modestly effective at slowing the disease's progression and providing symptomatic relief. The clinical effectiveness of current treatment regimens has been limited by short half-lives of the drugs and the requirement for repeated systemic administration. Utilizing gene transfer approaches for the treatment of arthritis may overcome some of the obstacles associated with current treatment strategies. The present review examines recent developments in gene therapy for arthritis. Delivery strategies, gene transfer vectors, candidate genes, and safety are also discussed. PMID:18176779
Munson, Erik; Nardelli, Dean T.; Du Chateau, Brian K.; Callister, Steven M.; Schell, Ronald F.
Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ-) deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology. PMID:22461836
Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R
The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Puszczewicz, Mariusz J; Tuchocka-Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Majewski, Dominik; Kołczewska, Aleksandra
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a systemic pathology of connective tissue characterized by a chronic inflammatory process with an autoimmune background whereas multiple sclerosis is a demyelination disease with an important role of immune disorders in its pathogenesis. The etiology in both cases remains unknown. The coincidence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and multiple sclerosis was described a just a few patients. We now report on a 31-year-old woman with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In the present case, the main problem was to find the right proper medication for a very, aggressive course of multiple sclerosis and for arthritis. Treatment with interferon-beta and methylprednisolone led to remission with just minor side-effects.
Wang, Ting-Shun; Tsai, Tsen-Fang
Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous disease that has been difficult to manage until the recent advent of biologics. However, there are still unmet medical needs for newer agents. Tofacitinib is a Janus family of kinases inhibitor approved for treating rheumatoid arthritis in many countries and psoriasis in Russia. We reviewed the evidences of tofacitinib in psoriatic arthritis treatment. The efficacy and safety profiles result from Phase III clinical trials (OPAL BROADEN and OPAL BEYOND) and one open-label extension study (OPAL BALANCE). Both tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice a day were superior to placebo for American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria response at 3 months and showed significant improvement of skin, enthesitis and dactylitis. Tofacitinib is a promising treatment option for psoriatic arthritis.
Cartilage normally protects the joint, allowing for smooth movement. Cartilage also absorbs shock when pressure is placed on ... like when walking. Arthritis involves the breakdown of cartilage. Without the usual amount of cartilage, the bones ...
... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21452260 . Long AR, Rouster-Stevens KA. The role of exercise therapy ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131338 . Wu EY, Bryan AR, Rabinovich CE. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In: Kliegman RM, ...
... The level of inflammation in the joints generally mirrors the extent of inflammation in the colon. Although ... breaths. Active spondylitis generally subsides by age 40. Therapy for people with axial arthritis is geared toward ...
Salgado, Eva; Maneiro, José Ramón
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane and progressive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Advances in the knowledge of disease pathogenesis allowed the identification of novel therapeutic targets such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 or the system JAK/STAT phosphorylation. At present there are 5 TNF antagonists approved for RA. Tocilizumab blocks the pathway of IL-6 and is the only biological with proven efficacy in monotherapy. Rituximab modulates B cell response in RA. Abatacept provided new data on T cell involvement in the pathogenesis of RA. Tofacitinib is the first kinase inhibitor approved for this disease. Biologic drugs have proven efficacy, almost always in combination with methotrexate, and even halt radiographic progression. Monitoring infection is the main precaution in handling these patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Roman, Mary J; Moeller, Elfi; Davis, Adrienne; Paget, Stephen A; Crow, Mary K; Lockshin, Michael D; Sammaritano, Lisa; Devereux, Richard B; Schwartz, Joseph E; Levine, Daniel M; Salmon, Jane E
Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of cardiovascular disease, independent of traditional risk factors. To determine the prevalence of preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to identify clinical and biological markers for atherosclerotic disease in this patient population. Matched, cross-sectional study. Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City. 98 consecutive outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis who were followed by rheumatologists and 98 controls matched on age, sex, and ethnicity. Cardiovascular risk factor ascertainment and carotid ultrasonography in all participants; disease severity, disease treatment, and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Despite a more favorable risk factor profile, patients with rheumatoid arthritis had a 3-fold increase in carotid atherosclerotic plaque (44% vs. 15%; P < 0.001). The relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and carotid atherosclerotic plaque remained after accounting for age, serum cholesterol levels, smoking history, and hypertensive status; adjusted predicted prevalence was 7.4% (95% CI, 3.4% to 15.2%) for the control group and 38.5% (CI, 25.4% to 53.5%) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Age (P < 0.001) and current cigarette use (P < 0.014) were also significantly associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis was related to age, hypertension status, and use of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (a possible marker of disease severity). The study had a cross-sectional design, and inflammatory markers were determined only once. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have a high prevalence of preclinical atherosclerosis independent of traditional risk factors, suggesting that chronic inflammation and, possibly, disease severity are atherogenic in this population.
Xu, Xia-Yu; Yang, Wen-Fang; Zhang, Si-Gong; Zhao, Qin; Linag, Li-Jun; Wang, Xin; Shen, Hai-Li
To investigate the potential role of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). DNase I activity was measured by radial enzyme-diffusion method in serum samples from 83 RA patients and 60 healthy volunteers and in the synovial fluid (SF) from 27 RA patients and 38 patients with other inflammatory arthritis. SF cfDNA level was measured with Pico Green Kit, and the correlation among DNase I activity, cfDNA level and clinical parameters of RA patients was analyzed. Serum DNase I activity was significantly lower in RA patients than in the healthy control subjects (0.3065∓0.1436 vs 0.4289∓0.1976 U/mL, P<0.001), and was negatively correlated with ESR (r=-0.2862, P=0.0122), CRP (r=-0.2790, P=0.0184) and neutrophil cell counts (r=-0.287, P=0.011). SF DNase I activity was almost negative in patients with RA, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and gouty arthritis (GA). SF cfDNA level in RA patients was significantly higher than that in patients with osteoarthritis (100.81∓142.98 vs 18.98∓31.40 µg/mL, P=0.002), but similar to that in patients with AS (45.85∓47.67 µg/mL, P=0.428) and GA (162.95∓97.49 µg/mL, P=0.132). In patients with inflammatory arthritis, SF cfDNA level was positively correlated with ESR (r=0.4106, P=0.0116) and CRP (r=0.5747, P=0.0002). Impairment of DNase I activity may be responsible for the enhanced NETs generation and plays a role in the pathogenesis of RA.
Sacks, Jeffrey J; Harrold, Leslie R; Helmick, Charles G; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Emani, Srinivas; Yood, Robert A
To assess whether self-reports of chronic joint symptoms or doctor-diagnosed arthritis can validly identify persons with clinically verifiable arthritis. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone health survey, defines a case of arthritis as a self-report of chronic joint symptoms (CJS) and/or doctor-diagnosed arthritis (DDx). A sample of health plan enrollees aged 45-64 years and >/= 65 years with upcoming annual physical examinations were surveyed by telephone using the 2002 BRFSS CJS and DDx questions. Based on responses (CJS+, DDx-; CJS-, DDx+; CJS+, DDx+; CJS-, DDx-), respondents were recruited to undergo a standardized clinical history and physical examination for arthritis (the gold standard for clinical validation). Weighted sensitivities and specificities of the case definition were calculated to adjust for sampling. Of 2180 persons completing the telephone questionnaire, 389 were examined; of these, 258 met the case definition and 131 did not. For those examined and aged 45 to 64 years (n = 179), 96 persons had arthritis confirmed, of whom 76 met the case definition. Among those examined and aged >/= 65 (n = 210), 150 had arthritis confirmed, of whom 124 met the case definition. Among those without clinical arthritis, 45 of 83 of those aged 45 to 64 years and 40 of 60 of those aged >/= 65 did not meet the case definition. For those aged 45 to 64 years, the weighted sensitivity of the case definition in this sample was 77.4% and the weighted specificity was 58.8%; for those aged >/= 65, the sensitivity was 83.6% and specificity 70.6%. CJS+ had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than DDx+ in the younger age group; CJS+ and DDx+ behaved more comparably in the older age group. The case definition based on self-reported CJS and/or DDx appeared to be sensitive in identifying arthritis, but specificity was lower than desirable for those under age 65 years. Better methods of ascertaining arthritis by self-report are needed. Until
... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... debilitating when it affects the hands and fingers. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common forms of ...
Association of levels of antibodies against citrullinated cyclic peptides and citrullinated α-enolase in chronic and aggressive periodontitis as a risk factor of Rheumatoid arthritis: a case control study.
Reichert, Stefan; Schlumberger, Wolfgang; Dähnrich, Cornelia; Hornig, Nora; Altermann, Wolfgang; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Schulz, Susanne
Periodontal disease could be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is assumed that the bacterial strain Porphyromonas gingivalis mediates citrullination of host peptides and thereby the generation of RA-associated autoantibodies in genetically predisposed individuals. For that reason non-RA individuals who suffered from generalized aggressive (GAgP, N = 51) and generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP, N = 50) were investigated regarding the occurrence of antibodies against citrullinated cyclic peptides (anti-CCP) and citrullinated α-enolase peptide-1 (anti-CEP-1) in comparison to non-RA non-periodontitis controls (N = 89). Furthermore, putative associations between infections with five periodontopathic bacteria or expression of certain human leucocyte antigens (HLA) to these autoantibodies were investigated. The presence of anti-CCP and anti-CEP-1 in plasma samples was conducted with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Subgingival plaque specimens were taken from the deepest pocket of each quadrant and pooled. For detection of DNA of five periodontopathic bacteria PCR with sequence specific oligonucleotides was carried out. Low resolution HLA typing was carried out with PCR with sequence specific primers. Differences between patients and controls were assessed using Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher`s exact test if the expected number n in one group was <5. Two patients with GAgP (3.9%), no patient with GChP and two controls (2.2%, pFisher = 0.662) were positive for anti-CEP-1 whereas no study participant was anti-CCP positive. Individuals with P. gingivalis were slightly more often anti-CEP-1 positive in comparison to individuals without P. gingivalis (3.2 vs. 1.1%, pFisher = 0.366). Carrier of HLA-DQB1*06 or the HLA combination DRB1*13; DRB3*; DQB1*06 were slightly more anti-CEP-1 positive (6.1 and 4.3%) than no carriers (0.7 and 0%, pFisher 0.053). GAgP and GChP and the presence of periodontopathic bacteria are not associated with an
Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.
The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding wasmore » destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.« less
... 0043 Arthritis Foundation P.O. Box 7669 Atlanta GA Atlanta, GA 30357 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.arthritis.org ... 0043 Arthritis Foundation P.O. Box 7669 Atlanta GA Atlanta, GA 30357 email@example.com http://www. ...
Shirtliff, Mark E.; Mader, Jon T.
Acute septic arthritis may develop as a result of hematogenous seeding, direct introduction, or extension from a contiguous focus of infection. The pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis is multifactorial and depends on the interaction of the host immune response and the adherence factors, toxins, and immunoavoidance strategies of the invading pathogen. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Staphylococcus aureus are used in discussing the host-pathogen interaction in the pathogenesis of acute septic arthritis. While diagnosis rests on isolation of the bacterial species from synovial fluid samples, patient history, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and imaging studies are also important. Acute nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition, rapid and aggressive antimicrobial therapy, and surgical treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis. Even with prompt diagnosis and treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates still occur. In contrast, gonococcal arthritis is often successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone and demonstrates a very low rate of complications and an excellent prognosis for full return of normal joint function. In the case of prosthetic joint infections, the hardware must be eventually removed by a two-stage revision in order to cure the infection. PMID:12364368
Boros, Christina; Whitehead, Ben
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood, occurring in approximately 1:500 children. Despite a recent expansion in treatment options and improvement of outcomes, significant morbidity still occurs. This article outlines the clinical manifestations, assessment, detection of complications, treatment options and monitoring requirements, with the aid of guidelines recently published by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, which provide practical support for general practitioners to ensure best practice care and to prevent lifelong disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. General practice plays an important role in the early detection, initial management and ongoing monitoring of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Early detection involves understanding the classification framework for subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and being aware of the clinical manifestations and how to look for them, through history, examination and appropriate investigation. The major extra-articular manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are uveitis and growth disturbance. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, biologic agents, and corticosteroids. Management using a multidisciplinary approach can prevent long term sequelae. Unfortunately, approximately 50% of children will have active disease as adults.
van Bruggen, M.C.; van den Broek, M.F.; van den Berg, W.B.
Streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis (AA) are rat models for chronic, erosive polyarthritis. Both models can be induced in susceptible Lewis rats, whereas F344 rats are resistant. In AA as well as in SCW arthritis, antigen-specific T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to be crucial for chronic disease. In this communication the authors describe their studies to probe the cellular mechanism responsible for the difference in susceptibility of Lewis and F344, using bone marrow chimeras. By transplanting bone marrow cells from F344 into lethally irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to SCW arthritis induction. F344 ratsmore » reconstituted with Lewis bone marrow, i.e., Lewis----F344 chimeras, develop an arthritis upon SCW injection. For AA comparable results were obtained. These data suggest that both resistance and susceptibility to bacterium-induced chronic arthritis are mediated by hemopoietic/immune cells and that the recipiental environment does not influence the susceptibility to chronic joint inflammation.« less
Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara
The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…
Thould, A K; Thould, B T
The pattern of arthritis in Roman Britain was investigated by examining the skeletons of 416 adults from the Roman cemetery at Poundbury Camp near Dorchester, Dorset. The mean height of the people was not much less than that of the current British population, and the prevalence of right handedness was similar to our own. There was a high prevalence of osteoarthritis for such a relatively young community, with particularly severe changes in the vertebral column. The pattern of joints affected by osteoarthritis was different from that seen now, but the prevalence of vertebral ankylosing hyperostosis was much the same. Rheumatoid arthritis was seen as often as the expected rat would indicate, given that the population died young, but it was rare. Other forms of arthritis, including gout and ankylosing spondylitis, were not seen.
Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Morgan, Farah
Antithyroid arthritis syndrome is a constellation of symptoms of myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis, fever and rash associated with the use of antithyroid medications. We report a case of a patient with severe hyperthyroidism likely secondary to Graves' disease who presented with the abovementioned symptoms after being treated with methimazole (antithyroid medication). Our aim is to increase awareness regarding this uncommon but disabilitating and life-threatening adverse effect of antithyroid medications among clinicians. We also discuss the proposed pathophysiology for this immunological reaction as well as management options in these patients. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
McDougall, Jason J; Linton, Patrick
Arthritis pain is a complex phenomenon involving intricate neurophysiological processing at all levels of the pain pathway. The treatment options available to alleviate joint pain are fairly limited and most arthritis patients report only modest pain relief with current treatments. A better understanding of the neural mechanisms responsible for musculoskeletal pain and the identification of new targets will help in the development of future pharmacological therapies. This article reviews some of the latest research into factors which contribute to joint pain and covers areas such as cannabinoids, proteinase activated receptors, sodium channels, cytokines and transient receptor potential channels. The emerging hypothesis that osteoarthritis may have a neuropathic component is also discussed.
Wyatt, Brooke; Mingo, Chivon A.; Waterman, Mary B.; White, Patience; Cleveland, Rebecca J.
Introduction Inadequate program design and lack of access to evidence-based programs are major barriers to the management of chronic diseases such as arthritis, particularly for African Americans. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Arthritis Foundation’s Walk With Ease Program (WWE) in a subsample of African Americans who were part of a larger study that established evidence of the program’s efficacy. Methods Participants were African Americans (N = 117) with self-reported arthritis who chose to participate in either a self-directed (n = 68) or group (n = 49) 6-week WWE program. Arthritis-related symptoms (ie, pain, fatigue, stiffness; measured using visual analog scales) were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 1 year. Independent samples t tests were conducted to examine group differences (ie, self-directed vs group) in arthritis-related symptoms at baseline, and paired sample t tests were conducted to examine differences over time (ie, baseline to 6 weeks and baseline to 1 year) in symptoms. Satisfaction was examined by descriptive statistics. Results Younger, more educated individuals chose the self-directed format (P < .001, P = .008; respectively). After the 6-week intervention, participants reported a decrease in pain (P < .001), fatigue (P = .002), and stiffness (P < .001). At 1 year, the decrease in pain (P = .04) and stiffness (P = .002) remained constant. Overall, participants were satisfied with both program formats. Conclusion The individualized and group formats of the WWE program improved arthritis-related pain, fatigue, and stiffness in African Americans. Culturally appealing arthritis interventions ultimately may increase the use of existing arthritis interventions. PMID:25393747
Baker, Nancy A; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Zack, Matthew M; Al Snih, Soham
The aims of this study were to determine among retirees: the associations of arthritis with limitations in physical functions, and whether these associations changed differently with age for those with arthritis versus without arthritis. We identified retirees from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal panel study of U.S. adults ≥51 years old. We calculated incidence density ratios (IDRs) using Poisson regression modeling with generalized estimating equations to estimate the associations between arthritis and limitations in four physical function measures (large muscle tasks, mobility, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living) adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, total household income, depression, obesity, smoking, chronic conditions, physical activity, and cohort status. We examined interaction effects between arthritis and age to determine if the rate of change in physical function differed by arthritis status across age. Over 8 years (2004-2012), significantly more retirees with arthritis had limitations with large muscle tasks (IDR 2.1: 95% confidence interval 1.6, 2.8), mobility (IDR 1.6: 1.2, 2.2), activities of daily living (IDR 2.2: 1.0, 4.7), and instrumental activities of daily living (IDR 3.7: 1.9, 7.4) than retirees without arthritis. Retirees with arthritis did not develop limitations in mobility, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living at a different rate as they aged compared to those without arthritis. Arthritis was associated with a greater prevalence of physical function limitations. Preventing limitations caused by arthritis is a key strategy to prevent disability in retirees. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Birch, James T; Bhattacharya, Shelley
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints causing pain and stiffness, pathologically characterized by chronic synovitis. Without proper treatment, it progresses to cause joint deformity that results in significant loss of function. Extra-articular disease can also occur, which exacerbates morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Patients from all age groups can acquire the disease, hence the additional categories of juvenile onset and elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are the mainstay of therapy, and should be initiated as early as possible in the course of the disease in consultation with a rheumatologist. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pascual, Joan S; Balos, Lucia L; Baer, Alan N
Achloric algae of the Prototheca species are a rare cause of infection in humans. These infections are usually localized to the skin, olecranon bursae, and tendon sheaths of the hands and wrists. Our patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and a chronic Prototheca wickerhamii skin infection of the hand developed tenosynovitis and arthritis of his ankle in the setting of a documented algemia. This is the first reported case of protothecal arthritis and tenosynovitis resulting from hematogenous dissemination. The reported musculoskeletal manifestations of protothecal infections are reviewed.
Metsios, George S; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonis; Kitas, George D
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with significant functional impairment and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Along with pharmacological therapy, exercise seems to be a very promising intervention to improve disease-related outcomes, including functional ability and systemic manifestations, such as the increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we discuss the physiological mechanisms by which exercise improves inflammation, cardiovascular risk and psychological health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and describe in detail how exercise can be incorporated in the management of this disease using real examples from our clinical practice.
Zuk, Beata; Kaczor, Zofia; Zuk-Drążyk, Berenika; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthropathy of childhood and adolescence. This term encompasses a group of chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of the connective tissue which cause arthritis in patients under 16 years of age lasting at least 6 weeks. The authors presented the characteristic features of physiotherapy based on functional examination results on the basis of two cases of girls with pauciarticular JIA treated according to an established pharmacological regimen. Physiotherapy should be introduced at an early stage of the disease. Kinesiotherapy preceded by history-taking and a functional examination of the patient, has to focus on both primary and secondary joint lesions.
Hezemans, R L; Krediet, R T; Arisz, L
The results of dialysis treatment in 24 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 20 chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 4 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), were analysed. Presence of secondary amyloidosis, renal function, morbidity and survival were examined. Amyloidosis was present in 13 patients. Especially among amyloidosis patients, renal function declined rapidly in the last year before dialysis started. On average, 63 days per patient-year were spent in the hospital, 58% was dialysis-related, mainly due to vascular access problems. Hospitalization was even more widespread in amyloidosis patients (79 days, 72% dialysis-related). Median survival in RA patients with amyloidosis was 11 months; in RA patients without amyloidosis this was 29 months. Two-year survival was only 1 out of 10 for the RA amyloidosis patients; for the RA non-amyloidosis patients this was 5 out of 6 (p < 0.01). Cardiovascular causes of death were most frequent. In conclusion, high morbidity and low survival make RA patients with amyloidosis a high-risk group on renal replacement therapy.
Comparison of Two Assays to Determine Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis in relation to Other Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: Assaying Anti-Modified Citrullinated Vimentin Antibodies Adds Value to Second-Generation Anti-Citrullinated Cyclic Peptides Testing
Díaz-Toscano, Miriam Lizette; Olivas-Flores, Eva Maria; Zavaleta-Muñiz, Soraya Amali; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Ponce-Guarneros, Manuel; Castro-Contreras, Uriel; Nava, Arnulfo; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Celis, Alfredo; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte Selene; Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura
Determination of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) plays a relevant role in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To date, it is still unclear if the use of several tests for these autoantibodies in the same patient offers additional value as compared to performing only one test. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of using two assays for ACPA: second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides antibodies (anti-CCP2) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibodies for the diagnosis of RA. We compared three groups: RA (n = 142), chronic inflammatory disease (CIRD, n = 86), and clinically healthy subjects (CHS, n = 56) to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR) of these two assays for the presence of RA. A lower frequency of positivity for anti-CCP2 was found in RA (66.2%) as compared with anti-MCV (81.0%). When comparing RA versus other CIRD, sensitivity increased when both assays were performed. This strategy of testing both assays had high specificity and LR+. We conclude that adding the assay of anti-MCV antibodies to the determination of anti-CCP2 increases the sensitivity for detecting seropositive RA. Therefore, we propose the use of both assays in the initial screening of RA in longitudinal studies, including early onset of undifferentiated arthritis. PMID:25025037
Flurey, Caroline A; Hewlett, Sarah; Rodham, Karen; White, Alan; Noddings, Robert; Kirwan, John
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease affecting fewer men than women. We systematically reviewed the literature on impact and self-management of rheumatoid arthritis in men. A total of 28 papers were included and grouped into two categories: psychosocial impact of rheumatoid arthritis, and coping and self-management. This review finds gender differences relating to quality of life, work, distress, self-management, coping and support. We conclude that there is a dearth of literature focussing on rheumatoid arthritis in men only, and mixed gender studies include insufficient men to draw strong conclusions about men. Thus, further research is needed to understand the support needs of men with rheumatoid arthritis in depth. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...
D'Angelo, Salvatore; Palazzi, Carlo; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a wide clinical spectrum. The early diagnosis of PsA is currently a challenging topic. Areas covered: The literature was extensively reviewed for studies addressing the topic area "diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis". This review will summarize improvements in diagnostic tools, especially referral to the rheumatologist, the role of patient history and clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging techniques in getting an early and correct diagnosis of PsA. Expert commentary: Due to the heterogeneity of its expression, PsA may be easily either overdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. A diagnosis of PsA should be taken into account every time a patient with psoriasis or a family history of psoriasis shows peripheral arthritis, especially if oligoarticular or involving the distal interphalangeal joints, enthesitis or dactylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are useful for diagnosing PsA early, particularly when isolated enthesitis or inflammatory spinal pain occur.
1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0210 TITLE: Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David A. Fox CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Citrullinated Chemokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0210 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David A. Fox...citrulline, which contributes to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We show that citrullinated epithelial- derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78
Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Ramzan, Natasha; Baird, Stephanie L
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the odds of suicide attempts among those with arthritis compared with those without and to see what factors attenuate this association and (2) to identify which factors are associated with suicide attempts among adults with arthritis. Secondary data analysis of the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH) was performed. For objective 1, those with and without arthritis were included (n = 21,744). For objective 2, only individuals who had arthritis (n = 4885) were included. A series of binary logistic regression analyses of suicide attempts were conducted for each objective, with adjustments for socio-demographics, childhood adversities, lifetime mental health and chronic pain. After full adjustment for the above listed variables, the odds of suicide attempts among adults with arthritis were 1.46. Among those with arthritis, early adversities alone explained 24 % of the variability in suicide attempts. After full adjustment, the odds of suicide attempts among those with arthritis were significantly higher among those who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (OR = 3.77), chronic parental domestic violence (OR = 3.97) or childhood physical abuse (1.82), those who had ever been addicted to drugs or alcohol (OR = 1.76) and ever had a depressive disorder (OR = 3.22) or an anxiety disorder (OR = 2.34) and those who were currently in chronic pain (OR = 1.50). Younger adults with arthritis were more likely to report having attempted suicide. Future prospective research is needed to uncover plausible mechanisms through which arthritis and suicide attempts are linked.
López-Ferrer, A; Laiz-Alonso, A
Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis and clinical aspects of the disease justify the present review. Studies have identified common inflammatory pathways related to the innate immune response, such as the IL-12/IL-23 axis, along with numerous genes that affect susceptibility to both diseases and influence phenotypic development. Interest has grown in biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis or prognosis or to predict joint destruction and the response to treatment. Recent reports describe important differences between the effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologics on the process of new bone formation. Other issues that have been discussed include the need for reliable screening methods, particularly for early detection of oligoarticular arthritis, and for protocols to guide referral to specialists, especially in newly created multidisciplinary practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.
Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo
Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder characterised by erosive inflammation of the articular cartilage and by destruction of the synovial joints. It is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors, and, currently, there is no preventative treatment or cure for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified ∼100 new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis, in addition to the already known locus within the major histocompatibility complex II region. However, together, these loci account for only a modest fraction of the genetic variance associated with this disease and very little is known about the pathogenic roles of most of the risk loci identified. Here, we discuss how rat models of rheumatoid arthritis are being used to detect quantitative trait loci that regulate different arthritic traits by genetic linkage analysis and to positionally clone the underlying causative genes using congenic strains. By isolating specific loci on a fixed genetic background, congenic strains overcome the challenges of genetic heterogeneity and environmental interactions associated with human studies. Most importantly, congenic strains allow functional experimental studies be performed to investigate the pathological consequences of natural genetic polymorphisms, as illustrated by the discovery of several major disease genes that contribute to arthritis in rats. We discuss how these advances have provided new biological insights into arthritis in humans. PMID:27736747
Hospach, Toni; Langendörfer, M; Kalle, T V; Tewald, F; Wirth, T; Dannecker, G E
To report on the differential diagnosis of lyme arthritis and synovial hemangioma due to similar clinical and radiological signs and symptoms. A 15-year-old boy presented at the age of 9 with recurrent rather painless swelling of the right knee. Altogether four episodes lasting for 1-2 weeks each occurred over a period of 18 months before medical advice was sought. Physical examination revealed only a slightly limited range of motion. Living in an endemic area of borreliosis, he reported a tick bite 6 months prior to onset of his symptoms with erythema migrans and was treated for 10 days with amoxicillin. Serology revealed two positive unspecific bands in IgG immunoblot (p41 and 66) with slight positivity for ELISA. Ultrasound revealed synovial thickening and increased fluid. Despite the weak positive serology a diagnosis of lyme arthritis could not be excluded and intravenous antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone was started. After two further relapses antiinflammatory therapy including intraarticular steroids were introduced with no long lasting effect. A chronical disease developed with alternate periods of swelling and almost complete remission. Ultrasound as well as MRI demonstrated ongoing signs of synovitis, therefore after further progression, a diagnostic arthroscopy was performed showing an inconspicuous knee joint. A second MRI showed focal suprapatellar enhancement and was followed by open arthrotomy revealing a histopathological proven synovial cavernous juxtaarticular hemangioma. To our knowledge, the differential diagnosis of lyme arthritis and synovial hemangioma has not yet been reported despite obvious clinical similarities. In conclusion, in children and adolescents synovial hemangioma has to be considered in differential diagnosis of recurrent knee swelling. Early diagnosis is important to prevent prolonged suffering from chronic joint swelling with probable joint damages, unnecessary treatment procedures and as well school and sports
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is group of diseases of unknown aetiology characterised by the occurrence of chronic arthritis during childhood. Compared to adult onset rheumatoid arthritis, its course is more variable. Increasing knowledge of the inflammatory process as well as in molecular genetics and biotechnology has enable the production of new drugs, the biologicals. These are able to specifically block mechanisms of immune activation and thereby interfere with the inflammatory process. An increasing number of biologicals have been tried in clinical studies in adults suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis or psoriasis arthritis and a couple of them were already licensed for treatment. Treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis by blockade of tumournecrosis-factor (TNF) using the soluble receptor Etanercept or the monoclonal antibodies Infliximab and Adalimumab showed comparable clinical efficacy. Blockade of TNF therefore already reached a certain place in the therapeutic algorythm for treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Currently, only Etanercept is licensed for treatment of active juvenile polyarthritis refractory to methotrexate. Studies using Infliximab and Adalimumab will be completed in the near future. However, antibodies blocking TNF may already be used in patients suffering from active uncontrolled chronic uveitis in whom visual impairment is threatening. TNF blockers may also be indicated in juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. The use of further biologicals, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra, Atlizumab (MRA) blocking the receptor for interleukin-6 or Abatacept, an inhibitory ligand of the co-stimulatory T cell membrane molecule CD28, remain experimental and should be preserved for clinical studies.
Ishikawa, L L W; Shoenfeld, Y; Sartori, A
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that is mainly directed to the joints, affecting the synovial membrane, the cartilage and also the bone. This disease affects 1% to 2% of the world population and is associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality. RA experimental models have allowed a great deal of information to be translated to the corresponding human disease. This review summarizes some of the most relevant findings targeting immunomodulation in arthritis. Some general guidelines to choose an adequate experimental model and also our experience with arthritis are supplied.
Egilmez, Zeliha; Turgut, Selin Turan; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Bicakci, Irem
Joint complaints in childhood are seen frequently and differential diagnosis can be difficult. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. It involves peripheral joint arthritis, chronic synovitis, and extra-articular manifestations. Accurate diagnosis can take a long time and sometimes multiple diagnoses are used while following the patient until a final diagnosis can be reached. Arthritis may be triggered by trauma and confused with other diseases like complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in which trauma plays a role in the etiology. In the present case, ankle pain in an 8-year-old girl was misdiagnosed as CRPS.
Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic, destructive, debilitating arthritis. Its etiology is unknown; it is presumed that environmental factors trigger development in the genetically predisposed. Epstein-Barr virus, a nearly ubiquitous virus in the human population, has generated great interest as a potential trigger. This virus stimulates polyclonal lymphocyte expansion and persists within B lymphocytes for the host's life, inhibited from reactivating by the immune response. In latent and replicating forms, it has immunomodulating actions that could play a role in the development of this autoimmune disease. The evidence linking Epstein-Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed.
Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic, destructive, debilitating arthritis. Its etiology is unknown; it is presumed that environmental factors trigger development in the genetically predisposed. Epstein–Barr virus, a nearly ubiquitous virus in the human population, has generated great interest as a potential trigger. This virus stimulates polyclonal lymphocyte expansion and persists within B lymphocytes for the host's life, inhibited from reactivating by the immune response. In latent and replicating forms, it has immunomodulating actions that could play a role in the development of this autoimmune disease. The evidence linking Epstein–Barr virus and rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed. PMID:16542469
Gignac, Monique A M; Sutton, Deborah; Badley, Elizabeth M
To develop a measure of job strain related to differing aspects of working with arthritis and to examine the demographic, illness, work context, and psychosocial variables associated with it. Study participants were 292 employed individuals with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis. Participants were from wave 3 of a 4-wave longitudinal study examining coping and adaptation efforts used to remain employed. Participants completed an interview-administered structured questionnaire, including a Chronic Illness Job Strain Scale (CIJSS) and questions on demographic (e.g., age, sex), illness and disability (e.g., disease type, pain, activity limitations), work context (e.g., job type, job control), and psychosocial variables (e.g., arthritis-work spillover, coworker/managerial support, job perceptions). Principal component analysis and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. A single factor solution emerged for the CIJSS. The scale had an internal reliability of 0.95. Greater job strain was reported for future uncertainty, balancing multiple roles, and difficulties accepting the disease than for current workplace conditions. Participants with inflammatory arthritis, more frequent severe pain, greater workplace activity limitations, fewer hours of work, less coworker support, and greater arthritis-work spillover reported greater job strain. The findings underscore the diverse areas that contribute to perceptions of job strain and suggest that existing models of job strain do not adequately capture the stress experienced by individuals working with chronic illnesses or the factors associated with job strain. Measures similar to the CIJSS can enhance the tools researchers and clinicians have available to examine the impact of arthritis in individuals' lives.
Dias, Richard; Chandrasenan, Jeevan; Rajaratnam, Vaikunthan; Burke, Frank D
Basal thumb arthritis is a common condition seen in hand clinics across the United Kingdom and is often associated with other pathological conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and scaphotrapezial arthritis. Typically, patients complain of pain localised to the base of the thumb. This pain is often activity related, particularly after excessive use involving forceful pinch. A detailed history and examination is normally all that is needed to make the diagnosis. Provocative manoeuvres may be helpful in localising symptoms to the basal joint with degenerative changes or synovitis. Radiographs are useful for confirming the diagnosis and staging the disease in order to plan for surgery. The mainstay of initial treatment of basal thumb arthritis of any stage is activity modifications, rest, nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, exercises and splinting. A variety of surgical procedures are available to treat the condition when conservative measures have failed, in order to control symptoms and improve function. We review the current literature and discuss the clinical aspects of this condition, staging, and treatment options available, and the difficulties treating this group of patients. PMID:17267677
Labuda, Sarah M; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Stryjewska, Barbara M
Hansen's Disease (HD) is a rare, chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the noncultivable organism Mycobacterium leprae . Arthritis is the third most common symptom of HD. Subjects with both confirmed HD on skin biopsy and chronic arthritis were identified at the National Hansen's Disease Program (NHDP). We conducted a series of medical chart reviews and extracted and logged personally deidentified data into a database and carried out descriptive analyses. Eighteen of 261 subjects presented to the NDHP with both HD and chronic arthritis between 2001 and 2015. Among these, 16 were male, 16 were white, and 15 were residents of Louisiana. The median age at diagnosis of HD was 67 years. Ten of these subjects were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous leprosy, seven were diagnosed with lepromatous, and one was diagnosed with borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Patients were symptomatic with arthritis for a median of 5.3 years before HD diagnosis. Sixty-two percent of patients (11) were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before HD diagnosis, and 10 of which were seronegative RA. Hands, feet, wrists, and elbows were most commonly reported as affected joints. Over half of the patients (61%) had completed HD multidrug therapy at the time of review, and 73% of these subjects had persistent joint pain requiring steroids or methotrexate for symptomatic control. Chronic arthritis in HD patients is present in a series of US-acquired cases of HD. Arthritis did not resolve with successful treatment of HD in most cases.
Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Malinger, Gustavo; Ben-Sira, Liat; Kidron, Dvora; Cohen, Sarit; Inbar, Shani; Bezaleli, Tali; Levine, Arie; Vinkler, Chana; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally
Aicardi–Goutiéres syndrome (AGS) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms mimicking a congenital viral infection. Five causative genes have been described: three prime repair exonuclease1 (TREX1), ribonucleases H2A, B and C, and most recently SAM domain and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1). We performed a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of a family with autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder showing white matter destruction and calcifications, presenting in utero and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions. A muscle biopsy was normal and did not show any evidence of respiratory chain dysfunction. Southern blot analysis of tissue from a living child and affected fetuses demonstrated multiple mtDNA deletions. Molecular analysis of genes involved in mtDNA synthesis and maintenance (POLGα, POLGβ, Twinkle, ANT1, TK2, SUCLA1 and DGOUK) revealed normal sequences. Sequencing of TREX1 and ribonucleases H2A, B and C failed to reveal any mutations. Whole-genome homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region containing the SAMHD1 gene. Sequencing of the gene in the affected child and two affected fetuses revealed a large deletion (9 kb), spanning the promoter, exon1 and intron 1. The parents were found to be heterozygous for this deletion. The identification of a homozygous large deletion in the SAMHD1 gene causing atypical AGS with multiple mtDNA deletions may add information regarding the involvement of mitochondria in self-activation of innate immunity by cell intrinsic components. PMID:21102625
Rice, Gillian I.; Reijns, Martin A.M.; Coffin, Stephanie R.; Forte, Gabriella M.A.; Anderson, Beverley H.; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Gornall, Hannah; Gent, David; Leitch, Andrea; Botella, Maria P.; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Lagae, Lieven; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Perrino, Fred W.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Crow, Yanick J.
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder resulting from mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A/2B/2C, SAMHD1 or ADAR1. Here we provide molecular, biochemical and cellular evidence for the pathogenicity of two synonymous variants in RNASEH2A. Firstly, the c.69G>A (p.Val23Val) mutation causes the formation of a splice donor site within exon 1, resulting in an out of frame deletion at the end of exon 1, leading to reduced RNase H2 protein levels. The second mutation, c.75C>T (p.Arg25Arg), also introduces a splice donor site within exon 1, and the internal deletion of 18 amino acids. The truncated protein still forms a heterotrimeric RNase H2 complex, but lacks catalytic activity. However, as a likely result of leaky splicing, a small amount of full-length active protein is apparently produced in an individual homozygous for this mutation. Recognition of the disease causing status of these variants allows for diagnostic testing in relevant families. PMID:23592335
Rice, Gillian I; Reijns, Martin A M; Coffin, Stephanie R; Forte, Gabriella M A; Anderson, Beverley H; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Gornall, Hannah; Gent, David; Leitch, Andrea; Botella, Maria P; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Lagae, Lieven; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Perrino, Fred W; Jackson, Andrew P; Crow, Yanick J
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disorder resulting from mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A/2B/2C, SAMHD1, or ADAR1. Here, we provide molecular, biochemical, and cellular evidence for the pathogenicity of two synonymous variants in RNASEH2A. Firstly, the c.69G>A (p.Val23Val) mutation causes the formation of a splice donor site within exon 1, resulting in an out of frame deletion at the end of exon 1, leading to reduced RNase H2 protein levels. The second mutation, c.75C>T (p.Arg25Arg), also introduces a splice donor site within exon 1, and the internal deletion of 18 amino acids. The truncated protein still forms a heterotrimeric RNase H2 complex, but lacks catalytic activity. However, as a likely result of leaky splicing, a small amount of full-length active protein is apparently produced in an individual homozygous for this mutation. Recognition of the disease causing status of these variants allows for diagnostic testing in relevant families. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.
Rennell, C; Mainzer, F; Multz, C V; Genant, H K
Subchondral cyst formation (geode) is a not uncommon manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis which may at times impede correct radiologic interpretation. Four patients with rheumatoid arthritis who demonstrated striking subarticular cystic erosive disease are described. These cases emphasize the nature and appearance of this interesting finding.
Callahan, Leigh F.; Rivadeneira, Alfredo; Altpeter, Mary; Vilen, Leigha; Cleveland, Rebecca J.; Sepulveda, Victoria E.; Hackney, Betsy; Reuland, Daniel S.; Rojas, Claudia
Introduction Camine Con Gusto (CCG) is the Hispanic version of an evidence-based walking program for people with arthritis. This study examined CCG outcomes, feasibility, tolerability, safety, and acceptability and potential tailoring. Method A pre and post 6-week evaluation was conducted in Hispanic people with arthritis. Outcomes included pain, stiffness, fatigue, functional capacity, helplessness, and self-efficacy. A formative evaluation with program participants and key stakeholders explored program tailoring. Results Participants' mean age was 46.9 years, 44.4% had a high school degree or less, 2.5% were born in United States, 60.1% spoke only Spanish, and 74.7% were female. Moderate effect sizes were found: 0.50 for pain, 0.75 for fatigue, 0.49 for stiffness, 0.33 for function, 0.26 for helplessness, and 0.24 for self-efficacy. There were 285 participants recruited with an 82% 6-week retention (feasibility), no adverse events were reported (safety), and 98% reported program satisfaction (acceptability). Recommended adaptations included simpler language, more pictures and content addressing nutrition and chronic conditions, shortened materials, and inclusion of motivational strategies. Conclusion CCG showed improvement in outcomes in Hispanic individuals comparable to those noted in non-Hispanic White and Black individuals with arthritis. PMID:27553228
Debrach, Anne-Cécile; Lazarou, Ilias; Gabay, Cem; Uçkay, Ilker
Native joint septic arthritis is a medical emergency requiring urgent joint drainage and antibiotic therapy. In the absence of an artificial joint or a foreign body, the « rheumatological approach » with repetitive arthrocentesis yields similar outcomes in the literature when compared to surgical drainage. Arthrocentesis could therefore be viewed as the preferential method of joint drainage as it is associated both with reduced morbidity for patients and decreased costs for the healthcare system. In case of failure with arthrocentesis, surgical arthroscopic drainage becomes necessary. In addition, the prescription of systemic steroids is promising but requires further studies, especially in adult patient populations.
McHugh, Neil John
Skin psoriasis is a major risk factor for the development of psoriatic arthritis. Recent studies have shown that delayed diagnosis is associated with long-term adverse outcomes. Screening questionnaires have revealed a potential burden of undiagnosed disease. Lifestyle factors and genetic and soluble biomarkers have come under scrutiny as risk factors. Imaging modalities may have an important role in detecting early change. With more effective treatments, it may be possible to prevent significant joint damage and associated disability. However, the precise nature of accurate and cost-effective screening strategies remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Jianxing; Huang, Ying
Monitoring blood uric acid (UA) is important in all patients on urate-lowering therapy so that the selection of the effective drugs and dosage adjustments could be made until the target level is reached. The issue is that frequent needle jabs are unacceptable. Reported mean levels of salivary UA were 185-240 μmol/l in healthy adults. A linear correlation was demonstrated between UA concentrations in saliva and plasma. We monitored salivary UA instead of plasmatic UA in a patient with gout. Allopurinol and benzbromarone were used as the therapeutic drugs. Salivary UA; urinary UA and creatinine; and plasmatic UA, creatinine, kynurenine and tryptophan were measured by HPLC. Salivary UA indicated the efficacy of therapy accurately and conveniently. After eight weeks therapy, the weekly mean levels of salivary UA were reduced and maintained to <300 μmol/l, which was equivalent to <360 μmol/l of plasmatic UA according to the salivary UA/plasmatic UA ratio of this patient. Measurement of salivary UA is a noninvasive and useful way for monitoring the status of hyperuricemia and the therapeutic efficacy of urate-lowering therapy. It has value for the management of hyperuricemia and gout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McQueen, Fiona M; Doyle, Anthony; Reeves, Quentin; Gao, Angela; Tsai, Amy; Gamble, Greg D; Curteis, Barbara; Williams, Megan; Dalbeth, Nicola
Bone erosion has been linked with tophus deposition in gout but the roles of osteitis (MRI bone oedema) and synovitis remain uncertain. Our aims in this prospective 3 T MRI study were to investigate the frequency of these features in gout and determine their relation to one another. 3 T MRI scans of the wrist were obtained in 40 gout patients. Scans were scored independently by two radiologists for bone oedema, erosions, tophi and synovitis. Dual-energy CT (DECT) scans were scored for tophi in a subgroup of 10 patients. Interreader reliability was high for erosions and tophi [intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) 0.77 (95% CI 0.71, 0.87) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.52, 0.83)] and moderate for bone oedema [ICC = 0.60 (95% CI 0.36, 0.77)]. Compared with DECT, MRI had a specificity of 0.98 (95% CI 0.93, 0.99) and sensitivity of 0.63 (95% CI 0.48, 0.76) for tophi. Erosions were detected in 63% of patients and were strongly associated with tophi [odds ratio (OR) = 13.0 (95% CI 1.5, 113)]. In contrast, no association was found between erosions and bone oedema. Using concordant data, bone oedema was scored at 6/548 (1%) sites in 5/40 patients (12.5%) and was very mild (median carpal score = 1, maximum = 45). In logistic regression analysis across all joints nested within individuals, tophus, but not synovitis, was independently associated with erosion [OR = 156.5 (21.2, >999.9), P < 0.0001]. Erosions were strongly associated with tophi but not bone oedema or synovitis. MRI bone oedema was relatively uncommon and low grade. These findings highlight the unique nature of the osteopathology of gout.
Discusses four chronic diseases (cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma) that affect American children. Many have their physical activities unnecessarily restricted, though sports and exercise can actually alleviate symptoms and improve their psychosocial development. Physicians are encouraged to prescribe…
Ivorra, J; Massutí, B; Román, J; Balañá, C; Portilla, J; Pascual, E
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the appearance of neoplastic disease has been fundamentally described of lymphoproliferative origin. The case of a 59 year old woman with rheumatoid arthritis of a 4 year evolution is reported. The patient was treated with gold salts and methotrexate and presented successively a bronchogenic carcinoma and a non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The epidemiologic studies in the relation of rheumatoid arthritis-neoplasia are discussed and the pathogenic hypotheses to the immune alterations as well as the treatments employed are described.
Murphy, Louise B; Brady, Teresa J; Boring, Michael A; Theis, Kristina A; Barbour, Kamil E; Qin, Jin; Helmick, Charles G
Self-management education (SME) programs teach people with chronic conditions skills to manage their health conditions. We examined patterns in SME program participation among US adults with arthritis ages ≥18 years. Respondents with arthritis were those who reported ever being diagnosed with arthritis by a doctor or health care provider. We analyzed 2014 National Health Interview Survey data to estimate the percentage (unadjusted and age-standardized) who ever attended an SME program overall and for selected subgroups, representativeness of SME participants relative to all adults with arthritis, and trends in SME course participation. In 2014, 1 in 9 US adults with arthritis (11.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 10.4-12.3]; age-standardized 11.4% [95% CI 10.0-12.9]) had ever participated in an SME program. SME participation (age-standardized) was highest among those with ≥8 health care provider visits in the past 12 months (16.0% [95% CI 13.1-19.4]). Since 2002, the number of adults with arthritis who have ever participated in SME has increased by 1.7 million, but the percentage has remained constant. Despite its many benefits, SME participation among US adults with arthritis remains persistently low. By recommending that their patients attend SME programs, health care providers can increase the likelihood that their patients experience SME program benefits. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Bergman, Martin; Lundholm, Amy
Psoriatic arthritis is a part of the family of diseases referred to as spondyloarthropathies, a diverse group of chronic inflammatory disorders with common clinical, radiographic, and genetic features. Peripheral arthritis is the most common symptom of psoriatic arthritis and patients also frequently experience involvement of the entheses, spine, skin, and nails. Due to the diverse clinical spectrum of disease severity, tissues affected, and associated comorbidities, the treatment of psoriatic arthritis can be challenging and it is necessary to mitigate risks associated with both the disease and its treatment. These risks include disease-specific, treatment-related, and psychological risks. Disease-specific risks include those associated with disease progression that can limit functional status and be mitigated through early diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Risks also arise from comorbidities that are associated with psoriatic arthritis such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal inflammation. Patient outcomes can be affected by the treatment strategy employed and the pharmacologic agents administered. Additionally, it is important for physicians to be aware of risks specific to each therapeutic option. The impact of psoriatic arthritis is not limited to the skin and joints and it is common for patients to experience quality-of-life impairment. Patients are also more likely to have depression, anxiety, and alcoholism. This article reviews the many risks associated with psoriatic arthritis and provides guidance on mitigating these risks.
Allen, P B; Olivera, P; Emery, P; Moulin, D; Jouzeau, J-Y; Netter, P; Danese, S; Feagan, B; Sandborn, W J; Peyrin-Biroulet, L
Crohn's disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis are chronic, progressive and disabling conditions that frequently lead to structural tissue damage. Based on strategies originally developed for rheumatoid arthritis, the treatment goal for CD has recently moved from exclusively controlling symptoms to both clinical remission and complete mucosal healing (deep remission), with the final aim of preventing bowel damage and disability. To review the similarities and differences in treatment goals between CD and rheumatoid arthritis. This review examined manuscripts from 1982 to 2016 that discussed and/or proposed therapeutic goals with their supportive evidence in CD and rheumatoid arthritis. Proposed therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in both rheumatoid arthritis and CD include: (i) evaluation of musculoskeletal or organ damage and disability, (ii) tight control, (iii) treat-to-target, (iv) early intervention and (v) disease modification. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, there is a paucity of disease-modification trials in CD. Novel therapeutic strategies in CD based on tight control of objective signs of inflammation are expected to change disease course and patients' lives by halting progression or, ideally, preventing the occurrence of bowel damage. Most of these strategies require validation in prospective studies, whereas several disease-modification trials have addressed these issues in rheumatoid arthritis over the last decade. The recent approval of new drugs in CD such as vedolizumab and ustekinumab should facilitate initiation of disease-modification trials in CD in the near future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disease with numerous articular, extra-articular and systemic manifestations. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is multifactorial including genetic and environmental factors. Recent advantages in sequencing techniques have allowed the deep characterization of the human microbiota. Available evidence confirms the existence of an association between dysbiosis and rheumatoid arthritis but it still remains unclear whether alterations in the microbiome are a pathogenic cause or an effect of autoimmune disease. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis the most supported association between disease and microbiota is with the oral dysbiosis usually observed in patients with periodontitis. Given the strong variability and abundance of microbes living in close relation with human host, it becomes a difficult task to define what should be considered the favorable microbiome. There is need for broader studies to establish how the human microbiome contributes to disease susceptibility, and to characterize the role of microbial diversity in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, disease manifestation, and progression. The identification of dysbiosis specific for rheumatoid arthritis and the understanding of the dynamic interaction between microbiota and their host may help in establishing an individualized management for each patient with rheumatoid arthritis, and achieve a better efficacy of the therapy.
Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Minden, Kirsten; Föll, Dirk; Pleyer, Uwe
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common systemic disease causing uveitis in childhood, with a prevalence of 10 per 100 000 persons. JIA often takes a severe inflammatory course, and its complications often endanger vision. This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search up to 18 August 2014 and on the current interdisciplinary S2k guideline on the diagnostic evaluation and anti-inflammatory treatment of juvenile idiopathic uveitis. Uveitis arises in roughly 1 in 10 patients with JIA. Regular eye check-ups should be performed starting as soon as JIA is diagnosed. 75-80% of patients are girls; antinuclear antibodies are found in 70-90%. The risk to vision is higher if JIA begins in the preschool years. As for treatment, only a single, small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a small number of prospective trials have been published to date. Topical corticosteroids should be given as the initial treatment. Systemic immunosuppression is needed if irritation persists despite topical corticosteroids, if new complications arise, or if the topical steroids have to be given in excessively high doses or have unacceptable side effects. If the therapeutic effect remains inadequate, conventional and biological immune modulators can be given as add-on (escalation) therapy. Treatment lowers the risk of uveitis and its complications and thereby improves the prognosis for good visual function. Severely affected patients should be treated in competence centers to optimize their long-term outcome. Multidisciplinary, individualized treatment is needed because of the chronic course of active inflammation and the ensuing high risk of complications that can endanger vision. Future improvements in therapy will be aided by prospective, population-based registries and by basic research on biomarkers for the prediction of disease onset, prognosis, tissue damage, and therapeutic response.
Icardi, A; Araghi, P; Ciabattoni, M; Romano, U; Lazzarini, P; Bianchi, G
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively), followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy). Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs) nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept) are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment), followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14%) and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis.
Specific autoimmune and inflammatory rheumatic diseases have been associated with an increased risk of malignant lymphomas. Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), dermatomyositis, and celiac disease have been consistently linked to malignant lymphomas. Isolated cases of lymphomas associated with spondyloarthropathies and autoinflammatory diseases have also been reported. Direct association between autoimmunity and lymphomagenesis has been reinforced by large epidemiological studies. It is still uncertain whether disease specific determinants or phenotypic or treatment related characteristics increase likelihood of lymphomagenesis in these patients. For example, recent literature has indicated a positive correlation between severity of inflammation and risk of lymphomas among RA and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It is also debated whether specific lymphoma variants are more commonly seen in accordance with certain chronic autoimmune arthritis. Previous studies have revealed a higher incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in RA and SLE patients, whereas pSS has been linked with increased risk of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This review summarizes recent literature evaluating risk of lymphomas in arthritis patients and disease specific risk determinants. We also elaborate on the association of autoimmune arthritis with specific lymphoma variants along with genetic, environmental, and therapeutic risk factors. PMID:27429984
Guazelli, Carla F S; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Zarpelon, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vignoli, Josiane A; Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Georgetti, Sandra R; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by articular lesions, recruitment of inflammatory cells and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine. The intra-articular administration of zymosan is an experimental model that promotes inflammatory parameters resembling RA. Therefore, this model was used to investigate the efficacy of quercetin as a treatment of articular inflammation. Treatment with quercetin dose-dependently reduced zymosan-induced hyperalgesia, articular edema and the recruitment of neutrophils to the knee joint cavity. Histological analysis confirmed that quercetin inhibited zymosan-induced arthritis. The treatment with quercetin also inhibited zymosan-induced depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, TNFα and IL-1β production, and gp91 phox , prepro-endothelin-1 (preproET-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression. These molecular effects of quercetin were related to the inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B and induction of Nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor (Nrf2)/home oxygenase (HO-1) pathway. Thus, quercetin exerted anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant effects in experimental arthritis, suggesting quercetin is a possible candidate for arthritis treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... around your spine and legs stronger. Ask your health care provider if you can use a stationary bike. Be aware that if you have arthritis of the hip or knee cap, biking can worsen your symptoms. If you are not ...
In an attempt to redress the lack of research into the use of complementary therapy in the nursing care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the author studied the effects of massage and aromatherapy on patients' wellbeing.
Crincoli, Vito; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Di Bisceglie, Maria Beatrice; Fatone, Laura; Favia, Gianfranco
AIMS: Psoriasis is a chronic, remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder, involving the skin, nails, scalp and mucous membranes, that impairs patients' quality of life to varying degrees. Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic seronegative, inflammatory arthritis, usually preceded by psoriasis. Temporomandibular disorders is a generic term referred to clinical conditions involving the jaw muscles and temporomandibular joint. The aim of this study was to assess symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders in psoriasis patients with and without psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: The study group included 112 patients (56 men, 56 women; median age 49.7±12 years) with psoriasis, 25 of them were affected by psoriatic arthritis. A group of 112 subjects without psoriasis (56 men, 56 women; median age 47.7±17 years) served as controls. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders were evaluated according to the standardized Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. Psoriasis patients were subgrouped according to the presence/absence of psoriatic arthritis and by gender, to assess the prevalence of traditional symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis, and to an even greater extent those with psoriatic arthritis, were more frequently affected by symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders, including an internal temporomandibular joint opening derangement than healthy subjects. A statistically significant increase in symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, in opening derangement, bruxism and sounds of temporomandibular joint was found in patients with psoriatic arthritis as compared with psoriasis patients without arthritis and controls. CONCLUSIONS: psoriasis seems to play a role in temporomandibular joint disorders, causing an increase in orofacial pain and an altered chewing function. PMID:26019683
Cooney, Jennifer K.; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Matschke, Verena; Lemmey, Andrew B.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Jones, Jeremy G.; Maddison, Peter; Thom, Jeanette M.
This paper aims to highlight the importance of exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to demonstrate the multitude of beneficial effects that properly designed exercise training has in this population. RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease characterised by decrements to joint health including joint pain and inflammation, fatigue, increased incidence and progression of cardiovascular disease, and accelerated loss of muscle mass, that is, “rheumatoid cachexia”. These factors contribute to functional limitation, disability, comorbidities, and reduced quality of life. Exercise training for RA patients has been shown to be efficacious in reversing cachexia and substantially improving function without exacerbating disease activity and is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, all RA patients should be encouraged to include aerobic and resistance exercise training as part of routine care. Understanding the perceptions of RA patients and health professionals to exercise is key to patients initiating and adhering to effective exercise training. PMID:21403833
Fiehn, C; Krüger, K
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease. Due to the destruction of joints in the course of the disease it leads to significant morbidity in affected patients. The quality of life and even life expectancy can be severely impaired. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment is a decisive step towards a more benign course of the disease. New classification criteria have been published in order to help in early diagnosis. Methods of imaging, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging help in the detection of synovitis, which is the major pathomorphological manifestation of arthritis and should be identified without any doubt. Treatment follows the rule of treat to target with the aim of achieving remission or if this is not realistic, at least the lowest possible level of disease activity. The first and perhaps most important step in therapy is the initiation of methotrexate or if contraindications are present, another disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) as soon as the diagnosis is made. Initial addition of glucocorticoids is recommended, which should be reduced in dose and terminated as soon as possible. Furthermore, either the combination of different DMARDs or the start of biologic DMARDs, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors or second generation biologic DMARDs is possible as a treatment option. The treatment follows the rule of shared decision-making and is the standard to treat comorbidities, the use an interdisciplinary approach and to treat functional deficits by rehabilitation measures, such as physiotherapy.
Oh, HyunSoo; Han, SunYoung; Kim, SooHyun; Seo, WhaSook
Because of the chronic, progressive nature of arthritis and the substantial effects it has on quality of life, patients may benefit from self-management. However, no valid, reliable self-management assessment tool has been devised for patients with arthritis. This study was conducted to develop a comprehensive self-management assessment tool for patients with arthritis, that is, the Arthritis Self-Management Assessment Tool (ASMAT). To develop a list of qualified items corresponding to the conceptual definitions and attributes of arthritis self-management, a measurement model was established on the basis of theoretical and empirical foundations. Content validity testing was conducted to evaluate whether listed items were suitable for assessing arthritis self-management. Construct validity and reliability of the ASMAT were tested. Construct validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis and nomological validity. The 32-item ASMAT was developed with a sample composed of patients in a clinic in South Korea. Content validity testing validated the 32 items, which comprised medical (10 items), behavioral (13 items), and psychoemotional (9 items) management subscales. Construct validity testing of the ASMAT showed that the 32 items properly corresponded with conceptual constructs of arthritis self-management, and were suitable for assessing self-management ability in patients with arthritis. Reliability was also well supported. The ASMAT devised in the present study may aid the evaluation of patient self-management ability and the effectiveness of self-management interventions. The authors believe the developed tool may also aid the identification of problems associated with the adoption of self-management practice, and thus improve symptom management, independence, and quality of life of patients with arthritis.
Wilcox, Sara; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Abbott, Jill; Vrazel, JoEllen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Sharpe, Patricia A; Brady, Teresa
Rates of participation in regular exercise are lower among individuals with arthritis than those without arthritis. This study examined perceived exercise barriers, benefits, and enablers in exercising and nonexercising adults with arthritis. Twelve focus groups were conducted with 68 adults with arthritis. Groups were segmented by exercise status, socioeconomic status, and race. Focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and coded. NVivo software was used to extract themes for exercisers and nonexercisers. A wide range of physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors were perceived to influence exercise. Some of these factors were similar to those in general adult samples, whereas others were unique to individuals with chronic disease. Symptoms of arthritis were barriers to exercise, yet improvements in these outcomes were also seen as potential benefits of and motivations for exercise. Exercisers had experienced these benefits and were more likely to have adapted their exercise to accommodate the disease, whereas nonexercisers desired these benefits and were more likely to have stopped exercising since developing arthritis. Health care providers' advice to exercise and the availability of arthritis-specific programs were identified as needs. This study has implications for how to market exercise to individuals with arthritis and how communities and health care professionals can facilitate the uptake of exercise. These implications are discussed.
Friedman, Beth; Whitney, Michael A; Savariar, Elamprakash N; Caneda, Christa; Steinbach, Paul; Xiong, Qing; Hingorani, Dina V; Crisp, Jessica; Adams, Stephen R; Kenner, Michael; Lippert, Csilla N; Nguyen, Quyen T; Guma, Monica; Tsien, Roger Y; Corr, Maripat
Functional imaging of synovitis could improve both early detection of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and long-term outcomes. Given the intersection of inflammation with coagulation protease activation, this study was undertaken to examine coagulation protease activities in arthritic mice with a dual-fluorescence ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptide (RACPP) that has a linker, norleucine (Nle)-TPRSFL, with a cleavage site for thrombin. K/BxN-transgenic mice with chronic arthritis and mice with day 1 passive serum-transfer arthritis were imaged in vivo for Cy5:Cy7 emission ratiometric fluorescence from proteolytic cleavage and activation of RACPP NleTPRSFL . Joint thickness in mice with serum-transfer arthritis was measured from days 0 to 10. The cleavage-evoked release of Cy5-tagged tissue-adhesive fragments enabled microscopic correlation with immunohistochemistry for inflammatory markers. Thrombin dependence of ratiometric fluorescence was tested by ex vivo application of RACPP NleTPRSFL and argatroban to cryosections obtained from mouse hind paws on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis. In chronic arthritis, RACPP NleTPRSFL fluorescence ratios of Cy5:Cy7 emission were significantly higher in diseased swollen ankles of K/BxN-transgenic mice than in normal mouse ankles. A high ratio of RACPP NleTPRSFL fluorescence in mouse ankles and toes on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis correlated with subsequent joint swelling. Foci of high ratiometric fluorescence localized to inflammation, as demarcated by immune reactivity for citrullinated histones, macrophages, mast cells, and neutrophils, in soft tissue on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis. Ex vivo application of RACPP NleTPRSFL to cryosections obtained from mice on day 1 of serum-transfer arthritis produced ratiometric fluorescence that was inhibited by argatroban. RACPP NleTPRSFL activation detects established experimental arthritis, and the detection of inflammation by RACPP NleTPRSFL on day 1 of serum
Niki de Saint Phalle's lifelong dialogue between art and diseases: psychological trauma of sexual abuse, transient selective IgA deficiency, occupational exposure to toxic plastic material, chronic lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis.
The French artist Niki de Saint Phalle (1930-2002) is one of the most famous female painter and sculptor of the 20th century. Her eventful live was full of emotional and physical burdens such as abuse by the father as a adolescent, early separation from family, nervous collapse, turbulent relationship with the artist Jean Tinguely, and last not least serious diseases. The psychological trauma of sexual abuse together with a "nervous breakdown" years later was the start of a life as an artist and is also a key to her art of the early years. She was affected from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and was treated over 20 years with prednisolone and antimalarials leading to a good functional outcome and limited erosions of the wrist joint. Additionally, she had lifelong pulmonary disorders finally leading to death, which she attributed to polyester, the material used for her sculptures. An analysis of medical documents collected by her and provided by treating physicians gives another surprising explanation: selective IgA deficiency with multiple recurrent respiratory infections, asthma, milk intolerance, autoimmune thyroiditis, and RA compatible with hypogammaglobulinemia. Very unique in case of Niki de Saint Phalle is that IgA deficiency was transient. Nevertheless, it may be possible that the occupational exposure with art materials (polystyrene, polyester) has contributed in part or temporarily to her health problems. Altogether, her enormous artistic productivity represents an outstanding example of creative coping with RA and other lifelong health problems. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Schafranski, Marcelo Derbli
Reactive arthritis is an autoimmune disease that develops 2-4 weeks after a triggering infection, resulting mainly in synovitis/enthesitis of the lower limbs, but with a wide array of possible extra-articular manifestations. Most of the cases are self-limited, lasting some weeks to months, and respond well to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but a considerable number of cases (about 20%) run a chronic disabling course, requiring immunosuppressants (methotrexate, sulphasalazine) to adequate control of the inflammatory symptoms. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, a case of a Chlamydia trachomatis-related reactive arthritis refractory to methotrexate and sulphasalazine that was successfully treated with the monoclonal antibody anti-TNF-alpha and infliximab.
Sharma, Jatin; Bhar, Sutonuka; Devi, C Subathra
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease associated with weakening of bones and joint pain. It primarily involves autoimmunity, matrix destruction, osteoclastogenesis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Numerous cellular and humoral components of the immune system are involved in the etiology of diseases; however, the cardinal part is played by the inter-cellular signaling messengers called cytokines. Interleukins is a vaguely defined sub-class of cytokines that are abundantly found in the RA patients. The multifariousness and diversity in the function of the interleukins make them very likely to be associated with the pathogenesis in multiple ways. Nonetheless, the variety in opinions of researchers globally has led to contentious inferences. Ergo, in this review we have amalgamated the views of researchers from the past two decades till date to provide a comprehensive report about the role of interleukins in rheumatoid arthritis.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Arthritis. 311.7 Section 311.7 Animals... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.7 Arthritis. (a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for human...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Arthritis. 311.7 Section 311.7 Animals... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.7 Arthritis. (a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for human...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Arthritis. 311.7 Section 311.7 Animals... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.7 Arthritis. (a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for human...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Arthritis. 311.7 Section 311.7 Animals... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.7 Arthritis. (a) Carcasses affected with arthritis which is localized and not associated with systemic change may be passed for human...
Lee, Wonuk; Terk, Michael R; Hu, Bing; Garber, Elayne K; Weisman, Michael H
Geodes are noted frequently in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but large geodes of the femur are uncommon. We describe a patient with RA and a large geode in his femur; histological findings were consistent with a rheumatoid nodule and chronically inflamed synovium. We review the literature of large femoral geodes and what this particular manifestation may reflect about the pathogenesis of RA.
Purpose: The first aim of this review article is to systematically summarise, synthesise, and critically evaluate the research base concerning the use of two art forms, namely, dance-based exercises and Tai Chi, as applied to people with arthritis (a chronic condition that results in considerable disability and, particularly in later life,…
Ferris, Jean; Fujishige, Carole
The booklet provides information to help teachers understand juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). JRA is a chronic disease involving one or more joint(s); its cause is unknown. The five types of JRA are monarticular, pauciarticular of young girls, pauciarticular of boys, polyarticular, and systemic. Aspirin is the main treatment medication and…
Arnardottir, Hildur H; Dalli, Jesmond; Norling, Lucy V; Colas, Romain A; Perretti, Mauro; Serhan, Charles N
Uncontrolled inflammation is a unifying component of many chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. Resolvins (Rvs) are a new family from the endogenous specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) that actively stimulate resolution of inflammation. In this study, using lipid mediator metabololipidomics with murine joints we found a temporal regulation of endogenous SPMs during self-resolving inflammatory arthritis. The SPMs present in self-resolving arthritic joints include the D-series Rvs, for example, RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, and RvD4. Of note, RvD3 levels were reduced in inflamed joints from mice with delayed-resolving arthritis when compared with self-resolving inflammatory arthritis. RvD3 was also reduced in serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with healthy controls. RvD3 administration reduced joint leukocytes as well as paw joint eicosanoids, clinical scores, and edema. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for dysregulated endogenous RvD3 levels in inflamed paw joints and its potent actions in reducing murine arthritis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Arnardottir, Hildur H.; Dalli, Jesmond; Norling, Lucy V.; Colas, Romain A.; Perretti, Mauro; Serhan, Charles N.
Uncontrolled inflammation is a unifying component of many chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. Resolvins (Rv) are a new family from the endogenous specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) that actively stimulate resolution of inflammation. Herein, using lipid mediator (LM) metabololipidomics with murine joints we found a temporal regulation of endogenous SPM during self-resolving inflammatory arthritis. The SPMs present in self-resolving arthritic joints include the D-series resolvins, e.g. Resolvin (Rv) D1, RvD2, RvD3 and RvD4. Of note, RvD3 levels were reduced in inflamed joints from mice with delayed-resolving arthritis when compared to self-resolving inflammatory arthritis. RvD3 was also reduced in serum from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to healthy controls. RvD3 administration reduced joint leukocytes as well as paw joint eicosanoids, clinical scores and edema. Together, these findings provide evidence for dysregulated endogenous RvD3 levels in inflamed paw joints and its potent actions in reducing murine arthritis. PMID:27534559
Long, D; Thiboutot, D M; Majeski, J T; Vasily, D B; Helm, K F
Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is an uncommon systemic disorder involving the cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. The eruption may mimic other dermatoses including granuloma annulare, erythema chronicum migrans, and the inflammatory stage of morphea. Key histopathologic characteristics, along with clinical correlation, allow accurate diagnosis. We describe the clinical, serologic, and histologic features in three patients with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis. Skin biopsy specimens were examined and correlated with the clinical and laboratory findings. Erythematous, annular, indurated plaques on the extremities were present in two women. An erythematous, papular eruption on the head and neck was present in a third patient. All patients had myalgia and migratory polyarthralgias of the extremities along with various serologic abnormalities. Histologic examination revealed a dense lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate involving primarily the reticular dermis. Foci of necrobiotic collagen were present. Vasculitis was absent. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is unique multisystem disease with variable cutaneous expression. Abnormal serologic findings indicate a possible connection to collagen vascular disease.
Recent evidence suggests that common factor(s) or molecule(s) might regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, and bone and cartilage degeneration. These findings may be particularly relevant for cases of rheumatoid arthritis, in which chronic inflammation occurs in an autoimmune context and causes the degradation of articular joints as well as insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. Candidates for this common regulatory system include signals mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated regulator and its response factor, angiopoietin-like 4. The expression and bioactivity of angiopoietin-like 4, an adipocytokine that was originally reported to have an angiogenic function, have been detected not only in the vascular system and adipose tissue but also in rheumatoid joints. An essential role for angiopoietin-like 4 has been established in dyslipidemia, and recent reports indicate that it may modulate bone and cartilage catabolism in rheumatoid arthritis. The enhanced expression of angiopoietin-like 4 in rheumatoid arthritis may explain the occurrence of insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk, and joint destruction, thereby suggesting that this molecule could be a potential target for anti-rheumatoid arthritis strategies. This review describes recent research on the role of angiopoietin-like 4 in chronic inflammatory conditions and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as potential therapeutic candidates. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:939-943, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Riel, Piet; Combe, Bernard; Abdulganieva, Diana; Bousquet, Paola; Courtenay, Molly; Curiale, Cinzia; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Haugeberg, Glenn; Leeb, Burkhard; Puolakka, Kari; Ravelli, Angelo; Rintelen, Bernhard; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo
Treating to target by monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapy to attain remission or low disease activity has been shown to lead to improved outcomes in chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Patient-reported outcomes, used in conjunction with clinical measures, add an important perspective of disease activity as perceived by the patient. Several validated PROs are available for inflammatory arthritis, and advances in electronic patient monitoring tools are helping patients with chronic diseases to self-monitor and assess their symptoms and health. Frequent patient monitoring could potentially lead to the early identification of disease flares or adverse events, early intervention for patients who may require treatment adaptation, and possibly reduced appointment frequency for those with stable disease. A literature search was conducted to evaluate the potential role of patient self-monitoring and innovative monitoring of tools in optimising disease control in inflammatory arthritis. Experience from the treatment of congestive heart failure, diabetes and hypertension shows improved outcomes with remote electronic self-monitoring by patients. In inflammatory arthritis, electronic self-monitoring has been shown to be feasible in patients despite manual disability and to be acceptable to older patients. Patients' self-assessment of disease activity using such methods correlates well with disease activity assessed by rheumatologists. This review also describes several remote monitoring tools that are being developed and used in inflammatory arthritis, offering the potential to improve disease management and reduce pressure on specialists. PMID:27933206
Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J; Passey, Megan E
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that having arthritis has on income poverty status and accumulated wealth in Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model built on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers and STINMOD, an income and savings microsimulation model. Across all categories of labour force participation status (employed full time, part time or not in the labour force at all), those with arthritis were significantly more likely to be in poverty. Those employed full time with no health condition had 0.82 times the odds of being in income poverty (95 % CI 0.80-0.84) compared with those employed full time with arthritis. Those not in the labour force with no chronic health conditions had 0.36 times the odds of being in income poverty compared with those not in the labour force due to arthritis (95 % CI 0.36-0.37). For people not in the labour force with no long-term health condition, the total value of their wealth was 211 % higher (95 % CI 38-618 %) than the amount of wealth accumulated by those not in the labour force due to arthritis. Similarly, those employed part time with no chronic health condition had 50 % more wealth than those employed part time with arthritis (95 % CI 3-116 %). Arthritis has a profound impact upon the economic circumstances of individuals, which adds a further dimension to the detrimental living standards of older individuals suffering from the condition.
Kondo, Yuya; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Shunta; Furuyama, Kotona; Segawa, Seiji; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the joint synovium and infiltration by activated inflammatory cells. CD4+ T cells form a large proportion of the inflammatory cells invading the synovial tissue, and are involved in the RA pathologic process. In general, CD4+ T cells differentiate into various T helper cell subsets and acquire the functional properties to respond to specific pathogens, and also mediate some autoimmune disorders such as RA. Because the differentiation of T helper cell subsets is determined by the expression of specific transcription factors in response to the cytokine environment, these transcription factors are considered to have a role in the pathology of RA. Treg cells control an excess of T cell-mediated immune response, and the transcription factor FoxP3 is critical for the differentiation and function of Treg cells. Treg cell dysfunction can result in the development of systemic autoimmunity. In this review, we summarize how the expression of transcription factors modulates T helper cell immune responses and the development of autoimmune diseases, especially in RA. Understanding the role of transcription factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to control the differentiation and function of both T helper cells and Treg cells. © 2017 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.
Chang, Rowland W; Semanik, Pamela A; Lee, Jungwha; Feinglass, Joseph; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Dunlop, Dorothy D
Over 21 million Americans report an arthritis-attributable activity limitation. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are two of the most common/disabling forms of arthritis. Various forms of physical activity (PA) can improve a variety of health outcomes and reduce health care costs, but the proportion of the US population engaging in the recommended amount of PA is low and even lower among those with arthritis. The Improving Motivation for Physical Activity in Arthritis Clinical Trial (IMPAACT) is a randomized clinical trial that studied the effects of a lifestyle PA promotion intervention on pain and physical function outcomes. The IMPAACT intervention was based on a chronic care/disease management model in which allied health professionals promote patient self-management activities outside of traditional physician office encounters. The program was a motivational interviewing-based, individualized counseling and referral intervention, directed by a comprehensive assessment of individual patient barriers and strengths related to PA performance. The specific aims of IMPAACT were to test the efficacy of the IMPAACT intervention for persons with arthritis (N=185 persons with RA and 155 persons with knee OA) in improving arthritis-specific and generic self-reported pain and Physical Function outcomes, observed measures of function, and objectively measured and self-reported PA levels. Details of the stratified-randomized study design, subject recruitment, and data collection are described. The results from IMPAACT will generate empiric evidence pertaining to increasing PA levels in persons with arthritis and result in widely applicable strategies for health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balandraud, Nathalie; Roudier, Jean
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, with a 0.5% worldwide prevalence. The cause of RA remains unknown, however both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to its development. Among these is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here, we discuss several aspects of the close relationship between EBV and RA. Patients with RA have impaired control of EBV infection. Indeed, they have high titres of antibodies against EBV antigens. Their peripheral blood T lymphocytes are less efficient at controlling the outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells. RA patients have more EBV-infected B cells than normal controls, leading to a 10-fold systemic EBV overload. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLPD) is a polyclonal EBV-positive B lymphocyte proliferation, which can evolve into an EBV-positive B cell lymphoma. RA patients also have an increased risk of developing EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). Hence the need to monitor EBV load when treating RA patients with immunosuppressors. EBV, a widespread virus, highly recognized by antibodies but never eliminated, is an ideal candidate to trigger chronic immune complex disease. Anti-EBV antibody responses should be considered as one of the chronic autoantibody responses linked to the development of RA, in the same way as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
As circadian rhythms and biological signaling occur in a complex network with cyclical 24-h period interactions (chronobiology) between the central and the autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine glands and the immune system, this review will explore the involvement of this emerging network in the disease pathophysiology and management. Recent advances regarding nocturnal hormones such as melatonin and prolactin that activate the nighttime immune response, and the successive rise of cortisol that dowregulates the ongoing immune reactivity very early in the morning, will be discussed within the circadian neuroendocrine immune network. In addition, the role of sleep and the daily distribution of body energy, which are important factors for the homoeostatic regulation of circadian physiological/pathological processes of the immune network will be reviewed.In chronic immune/inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), stiffness and functional disability are evident in the early morning hours as under the chronic stress of the disease the nighttime adrenal cortisol production becomes insufficient to inhibit ongoing nocturnal immune/inflammatory activity. Currently, the most advanced approach to optimizing the risk-benefit ratio for long-term glucocorticoid treatment in RA seems to be low-dose chronotherapy with modified nighttime release prednisone (release at 3 a.m.). A similar chronotherapeutical approach could also be effective with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs such as methotrexate.
Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Noriko; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Brown, Gordon D.; Tagami, Tomoyuki; Sakihama, Toshiko; Hirota, Keiji; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nomura, Takashi; Miki, Ichiro; Gordon, Siamon; Akira, Shizuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Shimon
A combination of genetic and environmental factors can cause autoimmune disease in animals. SKG mice, which are genetically prone to develop autoimmune arthritis, fail to develop the disease under a microbially clean condition, despite active thymic production of arthritogenic autoimmune T cells and their persistence in the periphery. However, in the clean environment, a single intraperitoneal injection of zymosan, a crude fungal β-glucan, or purified β-glucans such as curdlan and laminarin can trigger severe chronic arthritis in SKG mice, but only transient arthritis in normal mice. Blockade of Dectin-1, a major β-glucan receptor, can prevent SKG arthritis triggered by β-glucans, which strongly activate dendritic cells in vitro in a Dectin-1–dependent but Toll-like receptor-independent manner. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment against fungi can prevent SKG arthritis in an arthritis-prone microbial environment. Multiple injections of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA also elicit mild arthritis in SKG mice. Thus, specific microbes, including fungi and viruses, may evoke autoimmune arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis by stimulating innate immunity in individuals who harbor potentially arthritogenic autoimmune T cells as a result of genetic anomalies or variations. PMID:15781585
LOUIE, GRANT H.; TEKTONIDOU, MARIA G.; CABAN-MARTINEZ, ALBERTO J.; WARD, MICHAEL M.
Objective To examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances in adults with arthritis in a nationally representative sample, mediators of sleep difficulties, and subgroups of individuals with arthritis at greatest risk. Methods Using data on US adults ages ≥18 years participating in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, we computed the prevalence of 3 measures of sleep disturbance (insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep duration <6 hours) among persons with arthritis. We used logistic regression analysis to examine if the association of arthritis and sleep disturbances was independent of sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities, and to identify potential mediators. We used classification trees to identify subgroups at higher risk. Results The adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher among adults with arthritis than those without arthritis (23.1% versus 16.4%; P < 0.0001), but was similar to those with other chronic diseases. Adults with arthritis were more likely than those without arthritis to report insomnia (unadjusted odds ratio 2.92, 95% confidence interval 2.68 –3.17), but adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities attenuated this association. Joint pain and limitation due to pain mediated the association between arthritis and insomnia. Among adults with arthritis, those with depression and anxiety were at highest risk for sleep disturbance. Results for excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep duration <6 hours were similar. Conclusion Sleep disturbance affects up to 10.2 million US adults with arthritis, and is mediated by joint pain and limitation due to pain. Among individuals with arthritis, those with depression and anxiety are at greatest risk. PMID:20890980
Rosenbaum, James T
Uveitis is a common complication of spondyloarthritis. The "phenotype" of the uveitis characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis (sudden onset, anterior, unilateral, recurrent, more often male) may differ from the phenotype often seen with either psoriatic arthritis or inflammatory bowel disease (insidious onset, anterior and intermediate, bilateral, chronic, and/or more often female). The frequency of uveitis is also much greater in association with ankylosing spondylitis than with either inflammatory bowel disease or psoriasis. Uveitis may affect the choice of therapy and can rarely be a complication of therapy. Uveitis and arthritis also co-exist in several animal models.
This meeting, hosted by Visiongain and B2B conferences, comprised approximately 35 delegates, predominantly from the pharmaceutical industry, and promoted interactive discussion. It covered a broad range of drug discovery and development activities, ranging from preclinical studies with compounds requiring further optimisation, through to launched drugs used in the treatment of arthritis today.
Choi, Susanna; Choi, Soo Youn; Kwon, H. Moo; Hwang, Daehee; Park, Yune-Jung; Cho, Chul-Soo
Defective apoptotic death of activated macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular signatures defining apoptotic resistance of RA macrophages are not fully understood. Here, global transcriptome profiling of RA macrophages revealed that the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) critically regulates diverse pathologic processes in synovial macrophages including the cell cycle, apoptosis, and proliferation. Transcriptomic analysis of NFAT5-deficient macrophages revealed the molecular networks defining cell survival and proliferation. Proinflammatory M1-polarizing stimuli and hypoxic conditions were responsible for enhanced NFAT5 expression in RA macrophages. An in vitro functional study demonstrated that NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptotic death. Specifically, CCL2 secretion in an NFAT5-dependent fashion bestowed apoptotic resistance to RA macrophages in vitro. Injection of recombinant CCL2 into one of the affected joints of Nfat5+/– mice increased joint destruction and macrophage infiltration, demonstrating the essential role of the NFAT5/CCL2 axis in arthritis progression in vivo. Moreover, after intra-articular injection, NFAT5-deficient macrophages were more susceptible to apoptosis and less efficient at promoting joint destruction than were NFAT5-sufficient macrophages. Thus, NFAT5 regulates macrophage survival by inducing CCL2 secretion. Our results provide evidence that NFAT5 expression in macrophages enhances chronic arthritis by conferring apoptotic resistance to activated macrophages. PMID:28192374
Stamenkovic, Ivan; Stegagno, Michele; Wright, Kathryn A.; Krane, Stephen M.; Amento, Edward P.; Colvin, Robert B.; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Kurnick, James T.
Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) β -chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.
Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.
Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) ..beta..-chain genes in 13 of 14 culturesmore » showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.« less
Asproudis, Ioannis; Katsanos, Andreas; Kozeis, Nikolaos; Tantou, Alexandra; Konstas, Anastasios G
Chronic uveitis is a common extra-articular manifestation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The classic clinical picture is one of chronic anterior uveitis, which usually remains asymptomatic until ocular complications arise. The risk of uveitis is increased in girls with an early onset of oligoarthritis and positive antinuclear antibodies. Even though the inflammation in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis is initially limited in the anterior part of the eye, chronic active inflammation may eventually cause significant damage to the posterior pole. Complications may include band keratopathy, cataract, secondary glaucoma, posterior synechiae, cystoid macular edema, and hypotony. The cooperation of ophthalmologists with rheumatologists may help define the best treatment plan. The ophthalmic therapeutic regimen includes topical corticosteroids and mydriatics, while in severe cases immunosuppressive and biological agents are introduced. Surgical management of complications might be needed.
Hagert, Cecilia; Sareila, Outi; Kelkka, Tiina; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Holmdahl, Rikard
The injection of mannan into mice can result in the development of psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), whereas co-injection with antibodies toward collagen type II leads to a chronic rheumatoid-like arthritis. The critical event in all these diseases is mannan-mediated activation of macrophages, causing more severe disease if the macrophages are deficient in neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1), i.e., lack the capacity to make a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. In this study, we investigated the role of one of the receptors binding mannan; the macrophage mannose receptor (MR, CD206). MR is a C-type lectin present on myeloid cells and lymphatics. We found that mice deficient in MR expression had more severe mannan-induced Ps, PsA as well as rheumatoid-like arthritis. Interestingly, the MR-mediated protection was partly lost in Ncf1 mutated mice and was associated with an type 2 macrophage expansion. In conclusion, these results show that MR protects against a pathogenic inflammatory macrophage response induced by mannan and is associated with induction of ROS. PMID:29467756
... A very different type of arthritis is called rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast to osteoarthritis and gout, which affect particular joints, rheumatoid arthritis can affect your whole body. It arises when ...
... People With Rheumatoid Arthritis Need to Know About Osteoporosis What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis is an ... Management Strategies Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...
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Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...
Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Agnieszka; Skorupska, Elżbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the coexistence of arthritis with psoriasis of the skin and nails. The sacroiliac joints were observed in 34-78% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Due to such a high prevalence of SIJ dysfunction, understanding pathophysiology of pain and the associated pain pattern becomes a very important aspect of PsA diagnosis. As far as the etiology of SI joint dysfunction is concerned, it has not been disambiguated yet. Among the main causative factors, injuries and strains of the structures surrounding the joint are noted. Joint pathology usually manifests itself by pain occurring within the area of the joint. The causes of pain may be divided into two categories: intra-articular and extra-articular. Pain caused by the SI joint may be nociceptive or neural in nature, whereas the pain pattern characteristic of the joint correlates with its innervation and is consistent with S2 dorsal rami.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0408 TITLE: Pathogenesis and Prediction of Future Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin D. Deane, MD/PhD...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...preclinical period of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development that is characterized by abnormalities of the immune system prior to the onset of the
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0408 TITLE: Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kevin D. Deane, MD/PhD...NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0408 Pathogenesis and Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...there is a preclinical period of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development that is characterized by abnormalities of the immune system prior to the onset of
Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Chorny, Alejo; Del Moral, Raimundo G; Varela, Nieves; Delgado, Mario
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic inflammation in the joints and subsequent destruction of the cartilage and bone. To propose a new strategy for the treatment of arthritis based on the administration of cortistatin, a newly discovered neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory actions. DBA/1J mice with collagen-induced arthritis were treated with cortistatin after the onset of disease, and the clinical score and joint histopathology were evaluated. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of various inflammatory mediators (cytokines and chemokines) in joints and serum. T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated autoreactive response was evaluated by determining the proliferative response and cytokine profile of draining lymph node cells stimulated with collagen and by assaying the content of serum autoantibodies. Cortistatin treatment significantly reduced the severity of established collagen-induced arthritis, completely abrogating joint swelling and destruction of cartilage and bone. The therapeutic effect of cortistatin was associated with a striking reduction in the two deleterious components of the disease-that is, the Th1-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Cortistatin downregulated the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased the antigen-specific Th1-cell expansion, and induced the production of regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta1. Cortistatin exerted its effects on synovial cells through both somatostatin and ghrelin receptors, showing a higher effect than both peptides protecting against experimental arthritis. This work provides a powerful rationale for the assessment of the efficacy of cortistatin as a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Schwegmann, J P; Enzenauer, R J
A pediatric case of Cogan's syndrome mimicking acute Lyme arthritis is described. A 12-year-old black boy was admitted to the pediatric service for presumed right knee septic arthritis. Symptoms included acute pain and swelling with decreased range-of-motion. Although the patient's right knee symptoms and positive Lyme serology were consistent with a diagnosis of Lyme arthritis, the presence of sensorineural hearing loss and interstitial keratitis with inflammatory arthritis suggested a diagnosis of Cogan's syndrome. Subsequent Western blot analysis was negative for Borrelia burgdorferi antigens. The patient had dramatic clinical improvement of musculoskeletal and ophthalmologic complaints shortly after receiving high-dose corticosteroids, although residual sensorineural hearing loss persisted.
Background There is little prior research on the burden of arthritis in the developing world. We sought to document how patients with advanced arthritis living in the Dominican Republic are affected by and cope with their disease. Methods We conducted semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with economically disadvantaged Dominican patients with advanced knee and/or hip arthritis in the Dominican Republic. The interviews, conducted in Spanish, followed a moderator's guide that included topics such as the patients' understanding of disease etiology, their support networks, and their coping mechanisms. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim in Spanish, and systematically analyzed using content analysis. We assessed agreement in coding between two investigators. Results 18 patients were interviewed (mean age 60 years, median age 62 years, 72% women, 100% response rate). Patients invoked religious and environmental theories of disease etiology, stating that their illness had been caused by God's will or through contact with water. While all patients experienced pain and functional limitation, the social effects of arthritis were gender-specific: women noted interference with homemaking and churchgoing activities, while men experienced disruption with occupational roles. The coping strategies used by patients appeared to reflect their beliefs about disease causation and included prayer and avoidance of water. Conclusions Patients' explanatory models of arthritis influenced the psychosocial effects of the disease and coping mechanisms used. Given the increasing reach of global health programs, understanding these culturally influenced perceptions of disease will be crucial in successfully treating chronic diseases in the developing world. PMID:21985605
Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Postępski, Jacek; Olesińska, Edyta; Roliński, Jacek; Tuszkiewicz-Misztal, Ewa
Childhood chronic arthritis of unknown etiology is known collectively as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and consists of heterogeneous subtypes with unique clinical patterns of disease. JIA is the commonest rheumatic disease in children and may still result in significant disability, with joint deformity, growth impairment, and persistence of active arthritis into adulthood. Basic research is rather focused on rheumatoid arthritis, and this lead to small number of publications considering JIA. In this study we examine, by flow cytometry, the expression of dendritic cells (DCs) in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid of children with active JIA in a group of 220 patients. We reveal a significant decrease in the percentage of immature DCs in the blood of patients compared to control children. Surprisingly, we found higher percentages of mature circulating dendritic cells. Both populations of DCs, immature and mature, were accumulated in patients' synovial fluid. We also confirmed the presence of CD206+/CD209+ in JIA samples, which can represent a population of macrophages with dendritic cells morphology. Our results support the thesis that dendritic cells are crucial in the induction and maintenance of autoimmune response and local inflammation during juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; Blanco, Antonio; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Gadea, Ignacio; García-Cañete, Joaquín; Sandoval, Enrique; Valdazo, María; Esteban, Jaime
To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, etiology, underlying conditions, and outcomes of patients with primary septic arthritis and no prosthetic joints at a university hospital. A retrospective study was performed between 2005 and 2012. Records from the Microbiology Department were reviewed, and patients with a positive culture of synovial fluid or biopsy were selected for the study. Clinical charts were reviewed using a designed protocol. 41 patients were diagnosed with septic arthritis with a positive culture. Most were diagnosed with monoarticular (85.37%) and monomicrobial (92.68%) arthritis. The most commonly involved joint was the knee (34.15%). The most frequent underlying conditions were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (58.54%). Two cases of chronic arthritis, both caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected. The most frequently used antibiotic combinations were cloxacillin + ciprofloxacin and vancomycin + ciprofloxacin. Surgical treatment included needle aspiration, open joint debridement, or arthroscopic techniques. Twelve cases had a poor outcome (destructive articular disease), and 3 patients died from staphylococcal sepsis. In our hospital, septic arthritis is primarily acute, monoarticular, and monomicrobial; affects higher joints, is caused by S. aureus, and occurs in adult patients with underlying diseases. Outcome is good in most patients, although more than 25% of cases had articular sequels.
Banderet, Florian; Blaich, Annette; Soleman, Evelin; Gaia, Valeria; Osthoff, Michael
Legionella spp. are an important cause of pulmonary and rarely extrapulmonary infections. L. cincinnatiensis has only been implicated in five cases to date. We herein report the first case of L. cincinnatiensis septic arthritis in a 90-year old lady with a past medical history of chronic kidney disease. She developed septic arthritis of her left wrist after having received intraarticular corticosteroid injections and oral corticosteroids administered for presumed chondrocalcinosis. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of L. cincinnatiensis septic arthritis was delayed until identification of this organism in joint biopsies by broad-range bacterial PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene with subsequent rDNA sequence analysis and by culture on special media. Reviewing all reported cases of septic arthritis caused by Legionella spp. other than L. cincinnatiensis it is notable that diagnosis was established by PCR in the majority of cases and only subsequently confirmed by special culture. Although most patients were immunosuppressed, outcome was favourable. Treatment consisted of a fluoroquinolone alone or in combination with rifampicin or a macrolide. Our case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for infections with unusual/fastidious organisms when symptoms are suggestive of septic arthritis but conventional methods fail to identify a causative organism.
Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; Blanco, Antonio; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Gadea, Ignacio; García-Cañete, Joaquín; Sandoval, Enrique; Valdazo, María; Esteban, Jaime
Background To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, etiology, underlying conditions, and outcomes of patients with primary septic arthritis and no prosthetic joints at a university hospital. Methods A retrospective study was performed between 2005 and 2012. Records from the Microbiology Department were reviewed, and patients with a positive culture of synovial fluid or biopsy were selected for the study. Clinical charts were reviewed using a designed protocol. Results 41 patients were diagnosed with septic arthritis with a positive culture. Most were diagnosed with monoarticular (85.37%) and monomicrobial (92.68%) arthritis. The most commonly involved joint was the knee (34.15%). The most frequent underlying conditions were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (58.54%). Two cases of chronic arthritis, both caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis were detected. The most frequently used antibiotic combinations were cloxacillin + ciprofloxacin and vancomycin + ciprofloxacin. Surgical treatment included needle aspiration, open joint debridement, or arthroscopic techniques. Twelve cases had a poor outcome (destructive articular disease), and 3 patients died from staphylococcal sepsis. Conclusions In our hospital, septic arthritis is primarily acute, monoarticular, and monomicrobial; affects higher joints, is caused by S. aureus, and occurs in adult patients with underlying diseases. Outcome is good in most patients, although more than 25% of cases had articular sequels. PMID:25104892
Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Mallinson, Trudy; Fischer, Heidi; Bateman, Jillian; Semanik, Pamela A.; Spring, Bonnie; Ruderman, Eric; Chang, Rowland W.
Objective Despite recent studies showing the benefit of physical activity for people with arthritis, the vast majority of persons with arthritis are not sufficiently physically active. The purpose of this report is to describe a tailored health promotion intervention aimed at increasing physical activity among persons with arthritis. The intervention is designed to be useful for health systems and insurers interested in a chronic disease management program that could be disseminated to large populations of arthritis patients. Methods The intervention is carried out by a clinician who is designated as the client’s physical activity advocate. The approach emphasizes motivational interviewing, individualized goal setting, tailored strategies for increasing physical activity and for monitoring progress, and a plan of 2 years of follow-up. The intervention includes a standardized assessment of barriers to and strengths supporting increased lifestyle physical activity. A randomized, controlled trial is underway to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Conclusion This intervention is unique in that it implements a program tailored to the individual that focuses on lifestyle physical activity and long-term monitoring. The approach recognizes that persons with arthritis present with varying levels of motivation for change in physical activity and that behavior change can take a long time to become habitual. PMID:20696695
Reynolds, Gary; Cooles, Faye AH; Isaacs, John D; Hilkens, Catharien MU
Novel treatments in development for rheumatoid arthritis target 3 broad areas: cytokines, cells, and signaling pathways. Therapies from each domain share common advantages (for example previously demonstrated efficacy, potential long-term immunomodulation, and oral administration respectively) that have stimulated research in each area but also common obstacles to their development. In this review recent progress in each area will be discussed alongside the factors that have impeded their path to clinical use. PMID:24535556
Lans, Jonathan; Machol, Jacques A; Deml, Christian; Chen, Neal C; Jupiter, Jesse B
Arthropathy of the hand is commonly encountered. Contributing factors such as aging, trauma, and systemic illness all may have a role in the evolution of this pathology. Besides rheumatoid arthritis, other diseases affect the small joints of the hand. A review of nonrheumatoid hand arthropathies is beneficial for clinicians to recognize these problems. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ovarian reserve alterations in premenopausal women with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: impact of rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease and spondyloarthritis on anti-Müllerian hormone levels.
Henes, Melanie; Froeschlin, Julia; Taran, Florin A; Brucker, Sara; Rall, Kristin K; Xenitidis, Theodoros; Igney-Oertel, Annette; Lawrenz, Barbara; Henes, Joerg C
Recent publications have shown a negative influence of SLE on female ovarian reserve. Other authors have not found a significant impact of Crohn's disease or early RA on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of Behçet's disease (BD), RA and SpA on ovarian reserve as reflected by serum AMH levels. Serum samples from 33 RA, 32 SpA and 30 BD patients without previous cytotoxic treatment were analysed and compared with age-matched, healthy controls. AMH was quantified using a standard ELISA with a standard value of 1-8 ng/ml; values <1 ng/ml defined a reduced ovarian reserve. Median age was 26, 28.5 and 33 years and median disease duration was 6, 5.9 and 7 years for RA, SpA and BD patients, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients had significantly reduced AMH levels, with a median value for RA of 1.8 ng/ml (control 2.4 ng/ml; P = 0.009), for SpA of 1.5 ng/ml (control 2.3 ng/ml; P = 0.013) and for BD of 1.1 ng/ml (control 1.9 ng/ml; P = 0.007). HLA-B27 had a negative influence on ovarian reserve in SpA patients, whereas other serological parameters did not in the other diseases. This is the first study to show a reduced ovarian reserve in patients with RA, SpA or BD. Together with our findings in SLE, we conclude a negative influence of chronic rheumatic diseases on ovarian reserve. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rahmati, Marveh; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; McDermott, Michael F
Diverse physiological and pathological conditions that impact on protein folding of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cause ER stress. The unfolded protein response (UPR) and the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway are activated to cope with ER stress. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammation and ER stress work in parallel by driving inflammatory cells to release cytokines that induce chronic ER stress pathways. This chronic ER stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA through synoviocyte proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, ER stress pathways and their constituent elements are attractive targets for RA drug development. In this review, we integrate current knowledge of the contribution of ER stress to the overall pathogenesis of RA, and suggest some therapeutic implications of these discoveries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
da Silva, Andre P B; Bissada, Nabil F
The chronic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease (PD) lead to confined destruction of soft and hard tissues as a result of inflammatory processes. Their pathogenesis is dictated by a network of inflammatory cells and its mediators. They also share some etiological risk factors and therapeutic alternatives. The evolution of focal infection theory is summarized in this review, with special reference to PD and its relationship to RA. Foci of chronic infections exist in the oral cavity and may result in anatomically distant disease in certain individuals. Recent cumulative evidences document the influence of inflammatory diseases such as RA on the development of PD. Historical evidences and new theories on the interrelationship between the two diseases have the potential to identify novel mechanisms and therapy to improve patient outcomes. This review focuses on not only the association of focal infection theory and RA, but also on the reciprocal effects of RA and PD.
Zhao, Yongdong; Wallace, Carol
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that may cause joint destruction. Biological treatments targeting specific cytokines and cell interactions have transformed the outcomes of JIA. This review focuses on the selection of patients for and the timing and selection of biological treatment in JIA. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors remain the first choice for polyarticular JIA, followed by abatacept and tocilizumab. Monoclonal-antibody TNF inhibitors and abatacept are usually chosen for methotrexate-resistant uveitis. Recent clinical trials of canakinumab, rilonacept, and tocilizumab have obtained great improvement in both systemic and arthritic features in chronic systemic JIA patients. Current guidelines support the early use of a short-acting IL-1 antagonist for macrophage activation syndrome, a life-threatening complication. TREAT and ACUTE studies suggest that a therapeutic window of opportunity during early disease may exist in JIA. Early initiation of biological therapy may be associated with slower progression of joint damage and longer remission.
Horneff, Gerd; Augustin, Sankt
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic autoimmune disease. The outcome of this inflammatory disease is uncertain. Patients may suffer from severe joint damage leading to mutilations as well as from extraarticular manifestations. The prognosis is variable and depends in part on the number of affected joints and the occurrence of extraarticular manifestations. Pharmacomedical treatment has changed markedly in the last decade. It consists of a combination therapy including nonsteroidal antirheumatics, glucocorticoids either systemic or intraarticular, classical disease modifying drugs like sulfasalazine and methotrexate as well as leflunomide and biologicals. These new therapeutic strategies have effected dramatic improvements also in patients with severe, so far intractable disease. The TNF inhibitors etanercept and adalimumab have succeeded in double blind controlled trials, while infliximab failed to show significant superiority over placebo. Further treatment options include inhibitors of interleukin 1 (anakinra and rilonacept), interleukin 6 (tocilizumab) and inhibitors of T-cell activation (abatacept). This review will summarize the pharmacotherapeutic options based on studies published in the literature.
Sen, Ethan S; Dick, Andrew D; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V
Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA-associated uveitis is recognized to have an autoimmune aetiology characterized by activation of CD4(+) T cells, but the underlying mechanisms might overlap with those of autoinflammatory conditions involving activation of innate immunity. As no animal model recapitulates all the features of JIA-associated uveitis, questions remain regarding its pathogenesis. The most common form of JIA-associated uveitis is chronic anterior uveitis, which is usually asymptomatic initially. Effective screening is, therefore, essential to detect early disease and commence treatment before the development of visually disabling complications, such as cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy and cystoid macular oedema. Complications can result from uncontrolled intraocular inflammation as well as from its treatment, particularly prolonged use of high-dose topical corticosteroids. Accumulating evidence supports the early introduction of systemic immunosuppressive drugs, such as methotrexate, as steroid-sparing agents. Prospective randomized controlled trials of TNF inhibitors and other biologic therapies are underway or planned. Future research should aim to identify biomarkers to predict which children are at high risk of developing JIA-associated uveitis or have a poor prognosis. Such biomarkers could help to ensure that patients receive earlier interventions and more-potent therapy, with the ultimate aim of reducing loss of vision and ocular morbidity.
Clarke, Sarah L N; Sen, Ethan S; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between genetic and environmental factors. JIA-associated uveitis comes in several forms, but the most common presentation is of the chronic anterior uveitis type. This condition is usually asymptomatic and thus screening for JIA-associated uveitis in at-risk patients is paramount. Early detection and treatment aims to stop inflammation and prevent the development of complications leading to visual loss, which can occur due to both active disease and burden of disease treatment. Visually disabling complications of JIA-associated uveitis include cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy and macular oedema. There is a growing body of evidence for the early introduction of systemic immunosuppressive therapies in order to reduce topical and systemic glucocorticoid use. This includes more traditional treatments, such as methotrexate, as well as newer biological therapies. This review highlights the epidemiology of JIA-associated uveitis, the underlying pathogenesis and how affected patients may present. The current guidelines and criteria for screening, diagnosis and monitoring are discussed along with approaches to management.
Howson, M.P.; Shepard, N.L.; Mitchell, N.S.
Radioisotopes have been employed in the therapy of chronic arthritis, in particular, rheumatoid arthritis for many years. A variety of isotopes have been popularized, and in the last ten years a colloidal solution of radioactive chromic phosphate /sup 32/P has been in use apparently with equivalent efficacy to others such as /sup 169/erbium, /sup 90/yttrium, and /sup 165/dysprosium. No controlled studies on this modality have been reported and few animal studies were found. The efficacy of therapeutic doses of /sup 32/P as a medical synovectomy and its effect on rabbit joints with antigen-induced arthritis were observed in 62 arthritic kneemore » joints in 31 adult rabbits treated on one side with 0.1 microCi of /sup 32/P, the opposite serving as control. The animals were observed over a period of 11 months and examined by histologic and biochemical means. The synovium showed no evidence of radiation necrosis in treated joints. Cartilage of treated and control joints showed similar changes consistent with chronic arthritis, persistent synovitis, progressive chondrocyte degeneration, and decreased matrix metachromasia. The radiosynovectomy had neither removed synovium nor protected the cartilage. Its efficacy in humans is therefore questionable.« less
Lucas, Matthew D.
The participation of a student with juvenile arthritis in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with juvenile arthritis and present basic solutions to improve the education of these students in the recess setting. Initially the…
Mäkelä, Rauli; Mäkilä, Heli; Peltomaa, Ritva
Context • The exact etiology of rheumatoid disease is currently unknown. Changes in the microbiota of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, chronic bacterial infection of the upper urinary tract, increased permeability of the GI tract, and food sensitivities have been classified among the factors that may cause or aggravate the disease. Dietary deficiencies also may render patients more susceptible to inflammatory conditions and disorders of the immunological system. Objective • The study intended to determine the effects of a therapy consisting of dietary elimination, dietary supplements, and probiotics, collectively called DDP therapy, which is given either independently or in combination with conventional pharmacological agents. Design • The research team designed a retrospective survey, sending out a detailed questionnaire to determine the outcomes for patients who had received DDP therapy. Setting • The study took place at an antioxidant clinic in Helsinki, Finland. Participants • The participants were 104 patients with inflammatory arthritis who had undergone DDP therapy at the clinic. Intervention • The dietary elimination in DDP therapy included the omission of all animal milks, wheat, rye, barley, and oats, and the patients were asked to avoid added sugar and yeast. The dietary supplements included multivitamins with the main antioxidants, n-3-omega polyunsaturated fatty acids, and curcuminoids. The probiotic supplement most often used consisted of a mixture of 109 CFU/d of Bifidobacterium lactis and 109 CFU/d of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Outcome Measures • The physician who had given the DDP therapy analyzed the patients' case histories to form his opinion on the efficacy of the therapy. In addition, a detailed questionnaire was sent to the 104 patients to obtain their evaluations of the outcomes for the DDP therapy. Results • Seventy-nine of the 104 patients (76%) returned their questionnaires. Of those respondents, 72 patients (91%) were
Peng, Philip W H
In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.
Ahmadzadeh, A; Daraei, M; Jalessi, M; Peyvandi, A A; Amini, E; Ranjbar, L A; Daneshi, A
Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to induce conductive hearing loss and/or sensorineural hearing loss. This study evaluated the function of the middle ear and cochlea, and the related factors. Pure tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds, speech discrimination scores, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were assessed in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy volunteers. Pure tone audiometry results revealed a higher bone conduction threshold in the rheumatoid arthritis group, but there was no significant difference when evaluated according to the sensorineural hearing loss definition. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions related prevalence of conductive or mixed hearing loss, tympanometry values, acoustic reflexes, and speech discrimination scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Sensorineural hearing loss was significantly more prevalent in patients who used azathioprine, cyclosporine and etanercept. Higher bone conduction thresholds in some frequencies were detected in rheumatoid arthritis patients that were not clinically significant. Sensorineural hearing loss is significantly more prevalent in refractory rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Remmers, Elaine F.; Plenge, Robert M.; Lee, Annette T.; Graham, Robert R.; Hom, Geoffrey; Behrens, Timothy W.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Le, Julie M.; Lee, Hye-Soon; Batliwalla, Franak; Li, Wentian; Masters, Seth L.; Booty, Matthew G.; Carulli, John P.; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Chen, Wei V.; Amos, Christopher I.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Seldin, Michael F.; Kastner, Daniel L.
BACKGROUND Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a substantial genetic component. Susceptibility to disease has been linked with a region on chromosome 2q. METHODS We tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around 13 candidate genes within the previously linked chromosome 2q region for association with rheumatoid arthritis. We then performed fine mapping of the STAT1-STAT4 region in a total of 1620 case patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and 2635 controls, all from North America. Implicated SNPs were further tested in an independent case-control series of 1529 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and 881 controls, all from Sweden, and in a total of 1039 case patients and 1248 controls from three series of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. RESULTS A SNP haplotype in the third intron of STAT4 was associated with susceptibility to both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The minor alleles of the haplotype-defining SNPs were present in 27% of chromosomes of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis, as compared with 22% of those of controls (for the SNP rs7574865, P = 2.81×10-7; odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.32). The association was replicated in Swedish patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (P = 0.02) and matched controls. The haplotype marked by rs7574865 was strongly associated with lupus, being present on 31% of chromosomes of case patients and 22% of those of controls (P = 1.87×10-9; odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.55). Homozygosity of the risk allele, as compared with absence of the allele, was associated with a more than doubled risk for lupus and a 60% increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSIONS A haplotype of STAT4 is associated with increased risk for both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting a shared pathway
Remmers, Elaine F; Plenge, Robert M; Lee, Annette T; Graham, Robert R; Hom, Geoffrey; Behrens, Timothy W; de Bakker, Paul I W; Le, Julie M; Lee, Hye-Soon; Batliwalla, Franak; Li, Wentian; Masters, Seth L; Booty, Matthew G; Carulli, John P; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Chen, Wei V; Amos, Christopher I; Criswell, Lindsey A; Seldin, Michael F; Kastner, Daniel L; Gregersen, Peter K
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a substantial genetic component. Susceptibility to disease has been linked with a region on chromosome 2q. We tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around 13 candidate genes within the previously linked chromosome 2q region for association with rheumatoid arthritis. We then performed fine mapping of the STAT1-STAT4 region in a total of 1620 case patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and 2635 controls, all from North America. Implicated SNPs were further tested in an independent case-control series of 1529 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and 881 controls, all from Sweden, and in a total of 1039 case patients and 1248 controls from three series of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A SNP haplotype in the third intron of STAT4 was associated with susceptibility to both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The minor alleles of the haplotype-defining SNPs were present in 27% of chromosomes of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis, as compared with 22% of those of controls (for the SNP rs7574865, P=2.81x10(-7); odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.32). The association was replicated in Swedish patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (P=0.02) and matched controls. The haplotype marked by rs7574865 was strongly associated with lupus, being present on 31% of chromosomes of case patients and 22% of those of controls (P=1.87x10(-9); odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.55). Homozygosity of the risk allele, as compared with absence of the allele, was associated with a more than doubled risk for lupus and a 60% increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. A haplotype of STAT4 is associated with increased risk for both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting a shared pathway for these illnesses. Copyright 2007
Sparling, M; Malleson, P; Wood, B; Petty, R
Evidence of deleterious effects following intraarticular injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide was sought through a review of radiographs of 145 joints of 55 children with chronic arthritis. Possible deleterious effects were noted in 16 joints of 11 patients. These effects included: small patella (2 joints), patellar osteochondritis dissecans (1 joint), periarticular calcification (9 joints), intraarticular tibial bony spur (1 joint), avascular necrosis of the distal radial epiphysis (2 joints), and avascular necrosis of the proximal femoral epiphysis (1 joint). Only the latter possible complication was symptomatic. Serial radiographs of 76 joints of 30 children showed mild progressive changes compatible with the underlying disease, except in the hip joint, where changes were more severe. The intraarticular injection of triamcinolone hexacetonide is a procedure that appears to be associated with an acceptably low frequency of radiologic abnormalities for many joints in children with chronic arthritis, but its effects on the hip joint remain uncertain.
Denisov, L N; Andrianova, I V; Timofeeva, S S
To perform of clinical trial of alisate--a garlic preparation produced in Russia. An open controlled trial of alisate enrolled 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 15 patients with RA of varying clinical form, stage and activity were given alisate in a dose 300 mg (1 tablet) twice a day for 4-6 weeks. 15 control RA patients received conventional antirheumatic therapy. The alisate group achieved a good and partial response in 86.5% of cases. The drug was well tolerated and had no side effects. In control group, some parameters changed for the worse. Alisate can be recommended for treatment of RA patients in combined and monotherapy.
Keane, A; Woods, R; Dowding, V; Roden, D; Barry, C
Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was present in the sera of 49% of 90 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The ACA was absent in 30 control patients with osteoarthritis. C-reactive protein levels equal to or exceeding 7 mg/dl were found in 10 patients all of whom were ACA positive. ACA was present in a larger proportion of rheumatoid factor (RF) positive than of RF negative patients. Male sex and extra-articular manifestations of RA were both more common in ACA positive than ACA negative patients. In the ACA positive group the lupus anticoagulant and VDRL tests were negative. However, a small number of patients had evidence of vascular events.
Alpay, Nilüfer; Artim-Esen, Bahar; Kamali, Sevil; Gül, Ahmet; Kalayoğlu-Beşişik, Sevgi
We report two patients who suffered from symmetrical polyarthritis simulating rheumatoid arthritis. Acute phase response was almost within normal limits, and autoantibodies including rheumatoid factor were negative. Both of them were diagnosed as having amyloid arthropathy (AmyA) secondary to kappa multiple myeloma based on deposition of kappa-light chain-immunoreactive amyloid in biopsied tissue and Bence Jones protein in urine. Systemic AL amyloidosis may be important in the differential diagnosis of chronic polyarthralgia.
... that causes acute pericarditis , such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), a previous injury, or a ... is normal, doctors take a wait-and-see approach. If the disorder causes symptoms or if an ...
Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, disabling disease that can compromise mobility, daily functioning, and health-related quality of life, especially in older adolescents and young adults. In this project, we will compare a standardized Iyengar yoga program for young people with rheumatoid arthritis to a standard care wait-list control condition. Methods/Design Seventy rheumatoid arthritis patients aged 16-35 years will be randomized into either the 6-week Iyengar yoga program (12 - 1.5 hour sessions twice weekly) or the 6-week wait-list control condition. A 20% attrition rate is anticipated. The wait-list group will receive the yoga program following completion of the first arm of the study. We will collect data quantitatively, using questionnaires and markers of disease activity, and qualitatively using semi-structured interviews. Assessments include standardized measures of general and arthritis-specific function, pain, mood, and health-related quality of life, as well as qualitative interviews, blood pressure/resting heart rate measurements, a medical exam and the assessment of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data will be collected three times: before treatment, post-treatment, and two months following the treatment. Discussion Results from this study will provide critical data on non-pharmacologic methods for enhancing function in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In particular, results will shed light on the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel intervention for rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, paving the way for a larger clinical trial. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01096823 PMID:21255431
Saferding, Victoria; Puchner, Antonia; Goncalves-Alves, Eliana; Hofmann, Melanie; Bonelli, Michael; Brunner, Julia S; Sahin, Emine; Niederreiter, Birgit; Hayer, Silvia; Kiener, Hans P; Einwallner, Elisa; Nehmar, Ramzi; Carapito, Raphael; Georgel, Philippe; Koenders, Marije I; Boldin, Mark; Schabbauer, Gernot; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Steiner, Günter; Smolen, Josef S; Redlich, Kurt; Blüml, Stephan
Synovial fibroblasts are key cells orchestrating the inflammatory response in arthritis. Here we demonstrate that loss of miR-146a, a key epigenetic regulator of the innate immune response, leads to increased joint destruction in a TNF-driven model of arthritis by specifically regulating the behavior of synovial fibroblasts. Absence of miR-146a in synovial fibroblasts display a highly deregulated gene expression pattern and enhanced proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Deficiency of miR-146a induces deregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in synovial fibroblasts, leading to increased proliferation. In addition, loss of miR-146a shifts the metabolic state of fibroblasts towards glycolysis and augments the ability of synovial fibroblasts to support the generation of osteoclasts by controlling the balance of osteoclastogenic regulatory factors receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Bone marrow transplantation experiments confirmed the importance of miR-146a in the radioresistant mesenchymal compartment for the control of arthritis severity, in particular for inflammatory joint destruction. This study therefore identifies microRNA-146a as an important local epigenetic regulator of the inflammatory response in arthritis. It is a central element of an anti-inflammatory feedback loop in resident synovial fibroblasts, who are orchestrating the inflammatory response in chronic arthritis. MiR-146a restricts their activation, thereby preventing excessive tissue damage during arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weerasekara, Ishanka; Hiller, Claire E
Musculoskeletal disorders of the lower extremities are commonly affected by chronicity and disability. One of the most commonly affected areas is the ankle. Epidemiological information is limited for chronic musculoskeletal ankle disorders in the general community, particularly in the developing world. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of chronic musculoskeletal ankle disorders in the Sri Lankan community. A cross-sectional stratified random sample of people (n = 1000) aged 18 to 85 years in Sri Lanka was undertaken by questionnaire in the general community setting. Of those questionnaires, 827 participants provided data. Point prevalence for no history of ankle injury or ankle disorders, history of ankle injuries without chronic ankle disorders, and chronic ankle disorders were obtained. Point prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders and causes for chronicity was evaluated. There were 448 (54.2%) participants with no ankle disorders, 164 (19.8%) with a history of ankle injury but no chronic disorders, and 215 (26.0%) with chronic ankle disorders. The major component of chronic ankle disorders was musculoskeletal disorders (n = 113, 13.7% of the total sample), most of which were due to ankle injury (n = 80, 9.7% of the total). Sprains were responsible for 17.7% of the total ankle injuries. Arthritis was the other main cause for chronicity of ankle disorders with 4% of total participants (n = 33). Almost 14% of the Sri Lankan community was affected by chronic musculoskeletal ankle disorders. The majority were due to a previous ankle injury, and arthritis. Most people had to limit or change their physical activity because of the chronic ankle disorder. A very low utility of physiotherapy services was observed.
Wilson-Gerwing, Tracy D; Pratt, Isaac V; Cooper, David M L; Silver, Tawni I; Rosenberg, Alan M
Arthritis is among the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Although intraarticular inflammation is the feature common among all patients with chronic arthritis there are, in addition to age at onset, clinical characteristics that further distinguish the disease in pediatric and adult populations. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of microCT (µCT) and ultrasonography in characterizing pathologic age-related differences in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Juvenile (35 d old) and young adult (91 d old) male Wistar rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and incomplete Freund adjuvant to induce polyarthritis. Naïve male Wistar rats served as controls. All paws were scored on a scale of 0 (normal paw) to 4 (disuse of paw). Rats were euthanized at 14 d after the onset of arthritis and the hindpaws imaged by µCT and ultrasonography. Young adult rats had more severe signs of arthritis than did their juvenile counterparts. Imaging demonstrated that young adult CIA rats exhibited more widespread and severe skeletal lesions of the phalanges, metatarsals, and tarsal bones, whereas juvenile CIA rats had more localized and less proliferative and osteolytic damage that was confined predominantly to the phalanges and metatarsals. This report demonstrates the utility of imaging modalities to compare juvenile and young adult rats with CIA and provides evidence that disease characteristics and progression differ between the 2 age groups. Our observations indicate that the CIA model could help discern age-related pathologic processes in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:24326225
Eppinger, S; Schmitt, J; Meurer, M
There is an ongoing international discussion on whether the condition reactive arthritis should be named after a former Nazi functionary. The German dermatological community should participate in this debate. In 1916, Hans Reiter described a disease with the symptoms urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, which was later named after him. After becoming titular professor in May 1918, Reiter was appointed director of the regional public health department Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1926. At the same time he taught social hygiene at the University of Rostock, where he was appointed full professor in 1928. In 1931, Hans Reiter became a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). In July 1932 he was elected representative of the NSDAP to the seventh assembly of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. After becoming its acting director in July 1933, Reiter was appointed president of the Reich public health department in Berlin on October 1, 1933. Both his excellent professional qualifications, as well as his National Socialist attitudes, were considered key criteria for taking over this important position. As the president of the Reich public health department, Reiter was said to have known about the conduct of experiments with typhus-fever at the concentration camp Buchenwald in which 250 humans died. From the end of the Second World War until 1947, Reiter was imprisoned in the Nuremberg Prison for War Criminals, but never convicted of a crime.
Carli, P; Landais, C; Aletti, M; Cournac, J-M; Poisnel, E; Paris, J-F
Over the past 10 years, the management of rheumatoid arthritis has been revolutionized. Early diagnosis is essential and should allow an early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD), if possible within the first 3 three months after disease onset, aiming at disease remission and the best long-term prognosis. Recommendations for the prescription of synthetic and biologic DMARD (mainly anti-TNFalpha agents) are available since September 2007  by HAS in France. The great efficacy of these drugs has been established from many clinical trials including tens of thousands of patients. However, severe adverse side effects may occur (allergy, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections, demyelination) and rheumatologists should remain vigilant. Global care of the patient includes prescription of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments (education, physical treatment, ergotherapy, psychotherapy, surgery). A good coordination between all specialists is required. Screening and treatment of extra-articular manifestations, prevention of infections, osteoporosis and cardiovascular complications are essential to allow a better long-term prognosis, and reduce disability and mortality of rheumatoid arthritis.
Nistala, K; Murray, K J
We describe 2 pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who developed seropositive juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Both patients have severe joint damage, the compound effect of both disease processes. The bone and cartilage destruction, which poses serious therapeutic challenges, highlights the difficulty of making a diagnosis of chronic inflammatory disease in the setting of SCD. There may be a correlation between increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the synovial tissue of joints damaged by arthritis and local sickling. The resultant ischemia and corresponding inflammatory infiltrates could in turn worsen existing synovial proliferation and cartilage destruction as well as trigger further sickling.
in up to half of cases, especially in the presence of HLA - B27 [9,34,47]. Our data supports the idea of a more chronic disease, especially among...patients over the age of 35. While we were unable to assess the symptoms associated with a ReA-related medical encounter, or HLA - B27 status, ReA...Laitinen O: Follow-up study on patietns Reiter’s disease and reactive arthritis, with special reference to HLA - B27 . Arthritis & Rheumatism 1982, 25:249
Roberts, W N; Roberts, P C
Examination focusing upon the two clusters of function necessary for turning and braking is important as is nonthreatening questioning about driving. The effects of drugs used for arthritis on the CNS and a heightened emphasis upon the psychosocial implications of immobility complicate the management of older drivers with arthritis. Assuming optimal treatment of the arthritis, the two most important management tools are actually power-steering and automatic transmission. Less expensive adaptive available thorough rehabilitation services (e.g., auxiliary mirrors) are also of value.
Davis, John M.; Matteson, Eric L.
The past decade has brought important advances in the understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and its management and treatment. New classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, better definitions of treatment outcome and remission, and the introduction of biologic response-modifying drugs designed to inhibit the inflammatory process have greatly altered the approach to managing this disease. More aggressive management of rheumatoid arthritis early after diagnosis and throughout the course of the disease has resulted in improvement in patient functioning and quality of life, reduction in comorbid conditions, and enhanced survival. PMID:22766086
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING... Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal is to test the hypothesis that oral microbiome and metagenomic analyses will allow us to identify new
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0320 TITLE: Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward K Chan CONTRACTING...Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0320 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward K Chan 5d...significant difference in the oral microbiome at the subspecies level of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal is to test the
Mine, Takatomo; Ihara, Koichiro; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kuriyama, Ryutaro; Date, Ryo
Elderly onset Rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) has important clinical distinctions when compared with younger onset RA (YORA). In knee arthritis of elderly patients, infection, crystal-induced arthritis or EORA should be suspected if elevation of CRP in the preoperative examination and turbid joint effusion in their knee joint are found. Furthermore, if joint swelling and effusion remain after performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the infection after TKA, implant debris-related arthritis and EORA should be considered. However, it is difficult to diagnose patients as EORA if Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) are negative. The differential diagnosis is very important.
Ruscitti, Piero; Cipriani, Paola; Cantarini, Luca; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Vitale, Antonio; Carubbi, Francesco; Berardicurti, Onorina; Galeazzi, Mauro; Valenti, Marco; Giacomelli, Roberto
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune arthritis in which two inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, play a critical role in the induction and progression of the disease. Several reports and data from registries have discussed the association between chronic inflammatory diseases and disorders in intermediary metabolism, pointing out that prevalence of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus may be considered an interleukin-1β inflammatory-mediated process, and both preclinical and clinical observations have reported the usefulness of interleukin-1 antagonism therapy in this disease. We describe the case of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman and a 74-year-old Caucasian man with rheumatoid arthritis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In these patients, the inhibition of interleukin-1β not only induced remission for rheumatoid arthritis, but successfully controlled their metabolic status. We report the positive effects of the inhibition of interleukin-1 in two patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, with both reaching the therapeutic targets of their diseases by using a single biological agent and tapering or discontinuing their antidiabetic therapies. These findings suggest that targeting interleukin-1 might be considered a good therapeutic option for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Kim, Byung-Hak; Yoon, Bo Ruem; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Noh, Kum Hee; Kwon, Sun-Ho; Yi, Eun Hee; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Choi, Jung Sook; Kang, Seong Wook; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Won-Woo; Ye, Sang-Kyu
Autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation and hyperplasia in the synovial joints. Although the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is largely unknown, substantial evidence has supported the importance of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines in the initiation and progression of this disease. Herein, we demonstrated that the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) alleviated type II collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in both human patients with rheumatoid arthritis and mice with collagen-induced arthritis. BOT-4-one treatment reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice and endotoxin-stimulated macrophages. BOT-4-one treatment suppressed the polarization of Th1- and Th17-cell subsets by inhibiting the expression and production of their lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines, as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB signaling as well as the transcriptional activities and DNA-binding of transcription factors, including activator protein-1, cAMP response element-binding protein and NF-kappaB. Our results suggest that BOT-4-one may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maśliński, Włodzimierz; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Nieciecki, Michał; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a chronic inflammatory disease with a multifactorial aetiology, leads to partial or permanent disability in the majority of patients. It is characterised by persistent synovitis and formation of pannus, i.e. invasive synovial tissue, which ultimately leads to destruction of the cartilage, subchondral bone, and soft tissues of the affected joint. Moreover, inflammatory infiltrates in the subchondral bone, which can lead to inflammatory cysts and later erosions, play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. These inflammatory infiltrates can be seen in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as bone marrow oedema (BME). BME is observed in 68–75% of patients in early stages of RA and is considered a precursor of rapid disease progression. The clinical significance of synovitis and bone marrow oedema as precursors of erosions is well established in daily practice, and synovitis, BME, cysts, hyaline cartilage defects and bone erosions can be detected by ultrasonography (US) and MRI. A less explored subject is the inflammatory and destructive potential of intra- and extra-articular fat tissue, which can also be evaluated in US and MRI. Finally, according to certain hypotheses, hyaline cartilage damage may trigger synovitis and lead to irreversible joint damage, and MRI may be used for preclinical detection of cartilage biochemical abnormalities. This review discusses the pathomechanisms that lead to articular cartilage and bone damage in RA, including erosion precursors such as synovitis and osteitis and panniculitis, as well as the role of imaging techniques employed to detect early cartilage damage and bone erosions. PMID:29853727
...-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune, Crystalline and Infectious Arthritis) and Dysbaric... Control No. 2900- NEW (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis) and Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence...
Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B
Most chronic diseases--such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity--are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rivellese, Felice; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rossi, Francesca Wanda; Marone, Gianni; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; de Paulis, Amato; Pitzalis, Costantino
Mast cells are tissue-resident cells of the innate immunity, implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are present in synovia and their activation has been linked to the potentiation of inflammation in the course of RA. However, recent investigations questioned the role of mast cells in arthritis. In particular, animal models generated conflicting results, so that many of their pro-inflammatory, i.e. pro-arthritogenic functions, even though supported by robust experimental evidence, have been labelled as redundant. At the same time, a growing body of evidence suggests that mast cells can act as tunable immunomodulatory cells. These characteristics, not yet fully understood in the context of RA, could partially explain the inconsistent results obtained with experimental models, which do not account for the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions exerted in more chronic heterogeneous conditions such as RA. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge on mast cell involvement in RA, including the intriguing hypothesis of mast cells acting as subtle immunomodulatory cells and the emerging concept of synovial mast cells as potential biomarkers for patient stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruderman, Eric M
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory arthritis with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Pharmaceutical treatment includes both anti-inflammatory medications and disease modifying drugs (DMARDs) that impact the course of the damage associated with this disease. Traditional DMARD therapy includes immunomodulatory agents such as methotrexate, used both alone and in combination. Recently available biologic response modifiers are very effective at reducing both the clinical symptoms of disease and the radiographic damage that accompanies them. This manuscript describes the clinical assessments used to measure response to therapy in RA and reviews the results seen with the various treatment strategies in this disease. In addition, the clinical and structural outcomes seen in trials of newly available and pending biologic therapies are reviewed, along with the specific toxicity issues associated with these agents. Clinical trial data is reviewed for the TNF antagonists, which have become the standard of care in RA patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate. RA has been clearly shown to be a destructive and disabling disease. The widespread use of newer agents, however, along with more aggressive use of existing therapies, appears to limit disease progression very effectively, and should lead to better long-term outcomes for these patients.
Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A
Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Russek, Leslie N; LaShomb, Emily A; Ware, Amy M; Wesner, Sarah M; Westcott, Vanessa
Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is one of the most common inherited connective tissue disorders. It causes significant pain and disability for all age groups, ranging from developmental delay among children to widespread chronic pain in adults. Experts in JHS assert that the condition is under-recognized and poorly managed. The aim of this study was to assess US physical therapists' knowledge about JHS compared with other causes of widespread pain and activity limitations: fibromyalgia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association and descriptive statistics were used to explore physical therapists' knowledge about JHS, fibromyalgia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis, and chi square was used to compare knowledge about the different conditions. The response rate was 15.5% (496). Although 36% recognized the Beighton Scale for assessing joint hypermobility, only 26.8% of respondents were familiar with the Brighton Criteria for diagnosing JHS. Few respondents (11-19%) realized that JHS has extra-articular features such as anxiety disorder, fatigue, headache, delayed motor development, easy bruising and sleep disturbance. Physical therapists working in environments most likely to see patients with JHS underestimated the likely prevalence in their patient population. The results suggest that many physical therapists in the United States are not familiar with the diagnostic criteria, prevalence or common clinical presentation of JHS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pearson, Carl M.; Waksman, Byron H.; Sharp, John T.
A generalized disease is induced experimentally in the rat by administration of Freund's adjuvant. The primary clinical and pathologic lesions are arthritis, periarthritis, peritendinitis, and periostitis in the joints of the extremities and tail. Accompanying the arthritis in some cases, and never observed in its absence, are other specific tissue lesions including iridocyclitis, nodular lesions in the glabrous skin (ear, genitalia, feet, tail), transient rashes, a chronic skin disease, genitourinary lesions, and diarrhea. These make up a striking and characteristic picture. The arthritis usually precedes the other lesions and, together with the skin disease may show a prolonged and fluctuating course. Visceral lesions do not occur. Histologically, the basic lesion is a lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration, initially perivascular and subsequently more disseminated. In addition, in the region of the joints and in the corpora cavernosa of the penis, there is extensive proliferation of mesenchymal cells, especially fibroblasts. Foci of fibrinoid necrosis are seen in the articular and nodular lesions, and destructive lesions of the joints are common. Such a combination of tissue lesions has not previously been described in experimental pathology. The experimental disease is shown to have both similarities to and differences from Reiter's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain other disorders which occur in man. PMID:13733780
Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Astry, Brian; Moudgil, Kamal D.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints leading to bone and cartilage damage. Untreated inflammatory arthritis can result in severe deformities and disability. The use of anti-inflammatory agents and biologics has been the mainstay of treatment of RA. However, the prolonged use of such agents may lead to severe adverse reactions. In addition, many of these drugs are quite expensive. These limitations have necessitated the search for newer therapeutic agents for RA. Natural plant products offer a promising resource for potential antiarthritic agents. We describe here the cellular and soluble mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage (osteoimmunology) in arthritis. We also elaborate upon various herbal products that possess antiarthritic activity, particularly mentioning the specific target molecules. As the use of natural product supplements by RA patients is increasing, this paper presents timely and useful information about the mechanism of action of promising herbal products that can inhibit the progression of inflammation and bone damage in the course of arthritis. PMID:23476694
Berenbaum, Francis; Chauvin, Pierre; Hudry, Christophe; Mathoret-Philibert, Florence; Poussiere, Maud; De Chalus, Thibault; Dreuillet, Caroline; Russo-Marie, Françoise; Joubert, Jean-Michel; Saraux, Alain
Objectives To explore beliefs and apprehensions about disease and its treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Methods 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 25 with spondyloarthritis participated in semi-structured interviews about their disease and its treatment. The interviews were performed by trained interviewers in participants' homes. The interviews were recorded and the main themes identified by content analysis. Results Patients differentiated between the underlying cause of the disease, which was most frequently identified as a hereditary or individual predisposition. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the most frequently cited triggering factor for disease onset was a psychological factor or life-event, whereas patients with spondyloarthritis tended to focus more on an intrinsic vulnerability to disease. Stress and overexertion were considered important triggering factors for exacerbations, and relaxation techniques were frequently cited strategies to manage exacerbations. The unpredictability of the disease course was a common source of anxiety. Beliefs about the disease and apprehensions about the future tended to evolve over the course of the disease, as did treatment expectations. Conclusions Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis hold a core set of beliefs and apprehensions that reflect their level of information about their disease and are not necessarily appropriate. The physician can initiate discussion of these beliefs in order to dispel misconceptions, align treatment expectations, provide reassurance to the patient and readjust disease management. Such a dialogue would help improve standards of care in these chronic and incapacitating diseases. PMID:25474157
ADAMOPOULOS, IANNIS E.; SUZUKI, ERIKA; CHAO, CHENG-CHI; GORMAN, DAN; ADDA, SARVESH; MAVERAKIS, EMANUAL; ZARBALIS, KONSTANTINOS; GEISSLER, RICHARD; ASIO, AGELIO; BLUMENSCHEIN, WENDY M; McCLANAHAN, TERRILL; DE WAAL MALEFYT, RENE; GERSHWIN, M. ERIC; BOWMAN, EDWARD P.
Background Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by clinical features that include bone loss and epidermal hyperplasia. Aberrant cytokine expression has been linked to joint and skin pathology; however, it is unclear which cytokines are critical for disease initiation. IL-17A participates in many pathologic immune responses; however, its role in PsA has not been fully elucidated. Objective To determine the role of IL-17A in epidermal hyperplasia and bone destruction associated with psoriatic arthritis. Design An in vivo gene transfer approach was used to investigate the role of IL-17A in animal models of inflammatory (Collagen-induced arthritis) and non-inflammatory (RANKL-gene transfer) bone loss. Results IL-17A gene transfer induced the expansion of IL-17RA+CD11b+Gr1low osteoclast precursors and a concomitant elevation of biomarkers indicative of bone resorption. This occurred at a time preceding noticeable joint inflammation suggesting that IL-17A is critical for the induction of pathological bone resorption through direct activation of osteoclast precursors. Moreover, IL-17A induced a second myeloid population CD11b+Gr1high neutrophil-like cells which was associated with cutaneous pathology including epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, and Munro’s microabscesses formation. Conclusion Collectively, these data support that IL-17A can play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated arthritis and/or skin disease, as observed in PsA. PMID:24567524
Palazzi, Carlo; D'Amico, Emilio; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Olivieri, Ignazio
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related arthritis is an uncommon disease belonging to the autoimmune disorders due to the chronic stimulus exerted by the virus on the immune system. It shows two clinical subsets: a symmetrical polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis but less aggressive and an intermittent mono-oligoarthritis involving the lower limbs. We extensively review the current literature using the largest electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE) with regard to HCV-related arthritis (HCVrA) and studies focusing on the co-existence of HCV and other kinds of arthritides. The therapeutic approach to HCVrA remains largely empirical, because few studies have been published on this topic. Mainstream treatment based on the administration of hydroxychloroquine and low doses of corticosteroid is still largely preferred. Cyclosporine represents a useful alternative due to its antiviral properties. Anti-TNF agents are safe, but their hypothetic use appears excessive for a mild disorder such as HCVrA. IFN-α (and more recently pegylated IFN-α) when administered as a component of the combined (IFN-α + ribavirin) anti-HCV therapy can promote the appearance or the worsening of several autoimmune HCV-related disorders, including arthritis. New and forthcoming antiviral molecules will be used in the near future for a revolutionary IFN-free treatment.
Wang, Xue; He, Xin; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Guo, Chang-Run; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic autoimmune disease, which affects approximately 1% adult population in the worldwide. The present study was to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of berberine and its involved mechanism in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis rats. Rats were divided randomly into control, FCA, tripterysium glycosides, berberine (75 and 150mg/kg). The apparent indicators, including changes of body weights, paw swelling degrees and arthritis indexes, were analyzed to evaluate anti-arthritic effect of berberine. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β in serum were measured by ELISA. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of anti-IL-10 and anti-IL-17 antibodies in ankle joint tissues were examined. Berberine obviously suppressed the severity of RA rats by attenuating the apparent indicators as mentioned above. Meanwhile, berberine significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 and IL-17, and increased the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Histopathological examinations indicated that berberine attenuated the synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration in joint tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical results showed that the amount of anti-IL-10 antibody increased, while the amount of anti-IL-17 antibody decreased in ankle tissues of arthritis rats. Our results showed that berberine exerted a superior anti-arthritic effect and the mechanism maybe involve the balance between Treg and Th17 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Quarta, L; Corrado, A; d'Onofrio, F; Maruotti, N; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo
In psoriatic arthritis, swelling and pitting oedema may be caused by different pathogenic mechanisms: on one hand, the involvement of tenosynovial structures; on the other hand, the involvement of lymphatic vessels, which may be rarely implicated by the inflammatory process. This different involvement is responsible for a different response to therapy and a different clinical outcome. In fact, patients with inflammation of the tenosynovial structures and normal lymphatic drainage have a more favourable clinical outcome and response to pharmacologic treatment, whilst patients affected by psoriatic arthritis with chronic lymphatic vascular damage are characterized usually by resistance of oedema to therapy. In this study, we report two cases of psoriatic arthritis with distal extremity swelling and pitting oedema. In the first patient, the swelling and pitting oedema were associated with lymphatic obstruction, as detected by lymphoscintigraphy. In the second, the predominant involvement of the tenosynovial structures, as shown by magnetic resonance, with normal lymphatic flow, may have been the cause of arthritis with oedema. These different pathogenetic mechanisms were associated with different response to therapy. Nevertheless, oedema was resistant to therapy in both patients probably because of other unknown factors, which influence therapy and clinical outcome.
Bagherzadeh Cham, Masumeh; Ghasemi, Mohammad Sadegh; Forogh, Bijan; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Zabihi Yeganeh, Mozdeh; Eshraghi, Arezoo
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory joint disease which affects the joints and soft tissues of the foot and ankle. Rocker shoes may be prescribed for the symptomatic foot in rheumatoid arthritis; however, there is a limited evidence base to support the use of rocker shoes in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of heel-to-toe rocker shoes on pain, disability, and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trial. Seventeen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis of 1 year or more duration, disease activity score of less than 2.6, and foot and ankle pain were recruited. Heel-to-toe rocker shoe was made according to each patient's foot size. All the patients were evaluated immediately, 7 and 30 days after their first visit. Foot Function Index values were recorded at each appointment. With the use of rocker shoes, Foot Function Index values decreased in all subscales. This reduction was noted in the first visit and was maintained throughout the trials. Rocker shoe can improve pain, disability, and activity limitation in patients with rheumatoid foot pain. All the subjects reported improved comfort levels. The results of this study showed that high-top, heel-to-toe rocker shoe with wide toe box was effective at reducing foot and ankle pain. It was also regarded as comfortable and acceptable footwear by the patients with rheumatoid foot problems. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.
Krustev, Eugene; Rioux, Danielle; McDougall, Jason J
There are over 100 different types of arthritis and each can differ greatly in their aetiology and pathophysiology; however, one characteristic that is common to all arthritic conditions is joint pain. Musculoskeletal pain is the leading cause of disability in the world, and the number one reason arthritis patients visit their primary care physician. Despite the prevalence and burden of arthritis pain, current analgesics lack sufficient efficacy and are plagued by multiple adverse side effects. In this review, we outline the current landscape of research concerning joint pain, drawing from both preclinical and clinical studies. Specifically, this review is a discussion of the different neurophysiological processes that occur during joint disease and how inflammatory and neuropathic aspects contribute to the development of arthritis pain.
... Arthritis is a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. You can find plenty of advice about ... a winter indoors. Cream containing capsaicin may be applied to skin over a painful joint to relieve ...
... Find an Expert For You Patient Handouts Summary Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes itchy or ... other parts of your body. Some people with psoriasis have psoriatic arthritis. It causes pain, stiffness, and ...
... Rheumatology International . 2010;30(5):571–586. Setty AR, Sigal LH. Herbal medications commonly used in the ... 4):185–192. Balneotherapy Anain JM Jr, Bojrab AR, Rhinehart FC. Conservative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis in ...
... handed keyboard, an articulating keyboard tray, speech recognition software, a trackball, and office equipment for a workstation ... space heater, additional window insulation, and speech recognition software. An insurance clerk with arthritis from systemic lupus ...
Allaire, Saralynn H.
Useful vocational rehabilitation strategies for persons with rheumatoid arthritis include (1) management of symptoms and reduction of energy demand; (2) reasonable job accommodations; (3) identification of suitable jobs and necessary training; and (4) enhancement of self-advocacy skills. (SK)
Szady, Paulina; Bączyk, Grażyna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease of connective tissue characterised by chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Even in the early stages of the disease patients report the occurrence of fatigue and sleep disorders. Reduced sleep quality and chronic fatigue are common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the severity of fatigue and sleep quality assessment among patients hospitalised with rheumatoid arthritis and to determine the relation between the level of symptoms of fatigue and sleep quality and variables such as: age, gender, disease duration, marital status, applied pharmacological treatment, and pain intensity. The study involved 38 patients (12 men and 26 women) hospitalised in the Rheumatologic Ward of the Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Hospital of the University of Medical Sciences. The average age of the entire group was 56.26 years. Fatigue was evaluated with use of Polish version of Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), while in order to evaluate sleep quality within the examined group of patients the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the analysed group have lower sleep quality, and within subjects with such a diagnosis the fatigue is present. The relation was found between fatigue and such variables as: age, illness duration, marital status, applied pharmacological treatment, and severity of pain. Sleep quality within patients with RA is correlated by such variables as: age, gender, applied pharmaceutical treatment, and severity of pain. It was identified that patients with lower sleep quality experience increased levels of fatigue. There is a need to clarify which factors determine the level of fatigue and sleep quality in patients suffering from RA in future population-based research and to indicate to doctors, nurses, psychologists, and physiotherapists the significance and importance of
Ward, J R
In doses of 1,200 mg/day or more, ibuprofen is as effective as aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The tolerability and safety of ibuprofen are superior to those of aspirin and compare favorably with those of other NSAIDs. Although additional controlled trials are indicated to determine optimal dose, ibuprofen's excellent therapeutic index establishes it as a useful drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Galadari, Ibrahim; Galadari, Hassan
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a common sexually transmitted infection most often caused by Chlamydiae and Mycoplasmae. A few other organisms, as well as some nonsexual factors, also contribute to its etiology. NGU can result in considerable physical and psychological morbidity. In a few cases, it can lead to complications like reactive arthritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, with their attendant morbidities. Correct diagnosis and treatment is therefore imperative in proper management of these cases. While earlier diagnostic support for these infections was limited and expensive, the advent of new methods like the nucleic acid amplification assays (NAA tests) has contributed significantly to better diagnosis. Treatment as per suggested guidelines and follow up of cases and contacts are all crucial in management. Counseling, including advice on behavior change, goes a long way in preventive strategies.
Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P
Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.
Ormseth, Michelle J; Stein, C. Michael
Purpose of review Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have accelerated atherosclerosis despite the appearance of having a less atherogenic lipid profile; however, lipoprotein function rather than concentration may be a better indicator of atherosclerotic risk. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings concerning HDL function in patients with RA. Recent findings Two major activities of HDL, its antioxidant and cholesterol efflux functions have been examined in RA. HDL antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with inflammation and RA disease activity; however, there is no clear consensus if antioxidant capacity is altered significantly in RA compared to control subjects. Moreover, despite numerous studies there is no consensus whether HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is significantly altered in RA compared to control subjects or influenced by inflammation or disease activity. Summary Additional studies will be valuable to consolidate existing data and find consensus. Moreover, studies evaluating the impact of various HDL functions on cardiovascular disease in RA are needed. PMID:26709471
Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.
The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208
McCracken, James; Lindner, Helen; Sciacchitano, Laura
Chronic illnesses are a significant issue across many health professional domains, becoming an increasing burden on limited and costly resources. The current study investigated the relationship between secondary beliefs and emotional responses, beyond the relationship accounted for by illness perceptions, using the framework of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Sixty-five adults with arthritis participated in the questionnaire-based study. Multivariate analysis found that different emotional representations of the illness were significantly predicted by the individual's secondary belief, above and beyond that predicted by the cognitive representation of their illness alone. The study found that individuals who utilized an achievement secondary belief experienced feelings of worry, whereas individuals who used an approval orientation to understand their arthritis experienced emotions such as depression, being upset, anger, anxiety, and fear. No significant pattern emerged for individuals who used a comfort secondary belief to understand their arthritis. These findings are in line with the theory of secondary beliefs, as articulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
Basra, Gurjot; Jajoria, Praveen; Gonzalez, Emilio
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Multiple scientific articles have documented that vaccinations for influenza, MMR, and HBV, to name a few, could be triggers of RA in genetically predisposed individuals. However, there is limited data regarding the association of swine flu vaccine (H1N1) and RA. We report the case of a Mexican American female who developed RA right after vaccination with H1N1 vaccine. Genetically, RA has consistently been associated with an epitope in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DR β chains, known as the "shared epitope", which is found primarily in DR4 and DR1 regions. The presence of HLA-DRB1 alleles is associated with susceptibility to RA in Mexican Americans. Hence, certain individuals with the presence of the "shared epitope" may develop RA following specific vaccinations. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RA following vaccination with the swine flu vaccine.
Jiahui, Lv; Jingde, Wu; Feng, He; Ying, Qu; Qiuqiong, Zhang; Chenggong, Yu
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease and becomes one of the major causes of disability and work force loss. The presence of abnormal B cell and autoantibodies produced by most RA patients, primarily ACPA and RF, indicate that the function of B cell was involved in the development of RA disease. Accordingly, the drug targeting B cell has become a hot spot in the treatment of RA. Studies have shown that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is involved in the regulation of B cell proliferation and activation process. Some small molecule BTK inhibitors have shown excellent inhibition in biological activity analysis and animal models. Therefore, this review will briefly introduce BTK and its role in cell signaling and overview recent progress of BTK inhibitors for RA treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Voshaar, M J H; Nota, I; van de Laar, M A F J; van den Bemt, B J F
Review of the evidence on patient-centred care (PCC) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) shows that involving the patient as an individual - with unique needs, concerns and preferences - has a relevant impact on treatment outcomes (safety, effectiveness and costs). This approach empowers patients to take personal responsibility for their treatment. Because clinicians are only able to interact personally with their patients just a few hours per year, patients with a chronic condition such as RA should be actively involved in the management of their disease. To stimulate this active role, five different PCC activities can be distinguished: (1) patient education, (2) patient involvement/shared decision-making, (3) patient empowerment/self-management, (4) involvement of family and friends and (5) physical and emotional support. This article reviews the existing knowledge on these five PCC activities in the context of established RA management, especially focused on opportunities to increase medication adherence in established RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A statistically significant association between periodontal disease (PD) and systemic diseases has been identified. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a chronic inflammatory joint disease, exhibits similar characteristics and pathogenesis to PD. The association between RA and PD has been investigated, and numerous publications on this subject exist. Approximately 20 bacterial species have been identified as periodontal pathogens, and these organisms are linked to various types of PD. The most analyzed species of periodontopathic bacteria are Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Antibodies and DNA from these oral pathogens have been isolated from the sera and synovial fluids of RA patients. This rapid communication describes the role of periodontal pathogens in the etiopathogenesis of RA. PMID:23737674
The discovery of elevations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related biomarkers prior to the onset of clinically apparent RA raises hopes that individuals who are at risk for future RA can be identified in a preclinical phase of disease that is defined as abnormalities of RA-related immune activity prior to the clinically apparent onset of joint disease. Additionally, there is a growing understanding of the immunologic processes that are occurring in preclinical RA, as well as a growing understanding of risk factors that may be mechanistically related to RA development. Furthermore, there are data supporting that treatment of early RA can lead to drug free remission. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use biomarkers and other factors to accurately identify the likelihood and timing of onset of future RA, and intervene with immunomodulatory therapies and/or risk factor modification to prevent the future onset of RA in at-risk individuals. Importantly, several clinical prevention trials for RA have already been tried, and one is underway. However, while our understanding of the growing understanding of the mechanisms and natural history of RA development may be leading us to the implementation of prevention strategies for RA, there are still several challenges to be met. These include developing sufficiently accurate methods of predicting those at high risk for future RA so that clinical trials can be developed based on accurate rates of development of arthritis and subjects can be adequately informed of their risk for disease, identifying the appropriate interventions and biologic targets for optimal prevention, and addressing the psychosocial and economic aspects that are crucial to developing broadly applicable prevention measures for RA. These issues notwithstanding, prevention of RA may be within reach in the near future. PMID:24315049
Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qin; Deng, Zhao-da; Wang, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Gong; Shen, Hai-Li
During choosing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs), risk factors should be evaluated in elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The present study focused on biological therapies, and elderly patients should be more concerned about the risk of infection when used it. Traditional Chinese medicine has advantages of obvious curative effect, especially for tripterygium wilfordii, large clinical trial on western and Chinese medical accurate drug strategies for old patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Old patients are easier to suffer from cardiac diseases and interstitial lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis could be controlled along with the treatment for coexistent disease. The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in old patients is the same with other RA, and need to treat to target based on the aim of relieve pain and reduce activity of diseases, while the clinical charteristic and treatment target in elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis were not similar with other aged patient, so treatment standard target would vary with aging. Resent clinical studies excluded old patients, lead to lack of evidence-based medicine data. Clinical study for elder patients with rheumatoid arthritis are energetically carrying out, and could provide base and guide for clinical treatment. Copyright© 2017 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.
Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Jalal, Diana; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Kang, Duk-Hee; Ritz, Eberhard
Serum uric acid is commonly elevated in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but was historically viewed as an issue of limited interest. Recently, uric acid has been resurrected as a potential contributory risk factor in the development and progression of CKD. Most studies documented that an elevated serum uric acid level independently predicts the development of CKD. Raising the uric acid level in rats can induce glomerular hypertension and renal disease as noted by the development of arteriolosclerosis, glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Pilot studies suggest that lowering plasma uric acid concentrations may slow the progression of renal disease in subjects with CKD. While further clinical trials are necessary, uric acid is emerging as a potentially modifiable risk factor for CKD. Gout was considered a cause of CKD in the mid-nineteenth century , and, prior to the availability of therapies to lower the uric acid level, the development of end-stage renal disease was common in gouty patients. In their large series of gouty subjects Talbott and Terplan found that nearly 100% had variable degrees of CKD at autopsy (arteriolosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis) . Additional studies showed that during life impaired renal function occurred in half of these subjects . As many of these subjects had urate crystals in their tubules and interstitium, especially in the outer renal medulla, the disease became known as gouty nephropathy. The identity of this condition fell in question as the presence of these crystals may occur in subjects without renal disease; furthermore, the focal location of the crystals could not explain the diffuse renal scarring present. In addition, many subjects with gout also had coexistent conditions such as hypertension and vascular disease, leading some experts to suggest that the renal injury in gout was secondary to these latter conditions rather than to uric acid per se . Indeed, gout was
Maciejewska-Paszek, Izabela; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Siwiec, Andrzej; Dul, Lechosław; Gruenpeter, Anna; Szczerba, Henryk; Irzyniec, Tomasz
Leptin regulates the organism's immune response. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic joint disease in children, leading to chronic changes in motor organs. In children with JIA (n = 42) and healthy subjects (n = 28), leptin concentration (LEP), body mass index (BMI), haematocrit (HTC), haemoglobin (HB), morphotic elements (WBC,LYMPH), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and ANA Hep-2 antibodies were analysed. JIA group was divided into: children with a longer (51-148 months) (IA) n = 22 and a shorter disease period (2-18 months) (IB) n = 20. Only 58.3% of the IA and 50% of the IB group had ANA Hep-2 confirmed. The ill children had higher and more diversified LYMPH and ESR levels compared to the healthy children. The highest LEP for the IA group was 37.5 ng/cm3, (Me 5.85), for IB - 40.10 ng/cm3, (Me 2.46) as compared to the IC - 3.74 ng/cm3 (Me 2.85), respectively. The average BMI value for the IA group was 16.61 kg/m2, for IC it was 18.91 kg/m2, and the median for IB was 15.89 kg/m2. Children with BMI values < 23 kg/m2 from the IA and IB group had a reduction in LEP as compared to control group (p = 0.04). The relationship between the illness and LEP diversification per BMI unit was found in both groups. Children with a shorter illness period had higher LEP differentiation per BMI unit compared to the healthy children. Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with BMI < 23 kg/m2 had lower leptin concentrations than healthy subjects. Ill children with a shorter-term disease had a higher diversification of leptin concentration per BMI unit as compared to healthy controls.
Pradhan, Pradeep; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Venkatachalam, VP
We report a case of bilateral cricoarytenoid joint arthritis with history of rheumatoid arthritis, presented with stridor to the outpatient department. Endolaryngoscopy revealed adducted vocal cords and a nodule over left arytenoid which later confirmed to be rheumatoid nodule on histopathologic examination. Initially, although patient responded well to medical treatment, recurrence was noticed after 6 months follow-up. PMID:27418875
Gignac, Monique A M; Sutton, Deborah; Badley, Elizabeth M
To examine employed individuals' perceptions of arthritis-work spillover (AWS), the reciprocal influence of arthritis on work and work on arthritis, and the demographic, illness, and work context factors associated with AWS. The study group comprised 492 employed individuals with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis. Participants completed an interview-administered, structured questionnaire assessing AWS, demographic (e.g., age, sex), illness (e.g., disease type, pain, activity limitations), and work context (e.g., workplace control, hours of work) variables. Principal components analysis, reliability analysis, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. A single factor solution emerged for AWS. The scale had an internal reliability of 0.88. Respondents were more likely to report that work interfered with caring for their arthritis than they were to report that their disease affected their work performance. Younger respondents, those with more fatigue and workplace activity limitations, and those working in trades and transportation reported more AWS. Individuals with more control over their work schedules reported less AWS. The results of this study extend research on arthritis by reexamining the interface between arthritis and employment. This study introduces a new measure of AWS that enhances the range of tools available to researchers and clinicians examining the impact of arthritis in individuals' lives.
Borbély, Éva; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kenyér, Tibor; Kereskai, László; Kiss, Tamás; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna
The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis is a widely-used translational mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immunological components have thoroughly been investigated. In contrast, little is known about the role of sensory neural factors and the complexity of neuro-immune interactions. Therefore, we analyzed the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in autoantibody-induced arthritis with integrative methodology. Arthritogenic K/BxN or control serum was injected to non-pretreated mice or resiniferatoxin (RTX)-pretreated animals where capsaicin-sensitive nerves were inactivated. Edema, touch sensitivity, noxious heat threshold, joint function, body weight and clinical arthritis severity scores were determined repeatedly throughout two weeks. Micro-CT and in vivo optical imaging to determine matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, semiquantitative histopathological scoring and radioimmunoassay to measure somatostatin in the joint homogenates were also performed. In RTX-pretreated mice, the autoantibody-induced joint swelling, arthritis severity score, MMP and MPO activities, as well as histopathological alterations were significantly greater compared to non-pretreated animals. Self-control quantification of the bone mass revealed decreased values in intact female mice, but significantly greater arthritis-induced pathological bone formation after RTX-pretreatment. In contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia from day 10 was smaller after inactivating capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Although thermal hyperalgesia did not develop, noxious heat threshold was significantly higher following RTX pretreatment. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity elevated in the tibiotarsal joints in non-pretreated, which was significantly less in RTX-pretreated mice. Although capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the later phase of autoantibody-induced chronic arthritis, they play important
Borbély, Éva; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kenyér, Tibor; Kereskai, László; Kiss, Tamás; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna
-induced chronic arthritis, they play important anti-inflammatory roles at least partially through somatostatin release. PMID:25524130
Schofield, Deborah; Cunich, Michelle; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Tanton, Robert; Veerman, Lennert; Kelly, Simon; Passey, Megan E
While the direct (medical) costs of arthritis are regularly reported in cost of illness studies, the 'true' cost to indivdiuals and goverment requires the calculation of the indirect costs as well including lost productivity due to ill-health. Respondents aged 45-64 in the ABS Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003, 2009 formed the base population. We projected the indirect costs of arthritis using Health&WealthMOD2030 - Australia's first microsimulation model on the long-term impacts of ill-health in older workers - which incorporated outputs from established microsimulation models (STINMOD and APPSIM), population and labour force projections from Treasury, and chronic conditions trends for Australia. All costs of arthritis were expressed in real 2013 Australian dollars, adjusted for inflation over time. We estimated there are 54,000 people aged 45-64 with lost PLYs due to arthritis in 2015, increasing to 61,000 in 2030 (13% increase). In 2015, people with lost PLYs are estimated to receive AU$706.12 less in total income and AU$311.67 more in welfare payments per week than full-time workers without arthritis, and pay no income tax on average. National costs include an estimated loss of AU$1.5 billion in annual income in 2015, increasing to AU$2.4 billion in 2030 (59% increase). Lost annual taxation revenue was projected to increase from AU$0.4 billion in 2015 to $0.5 billion in 2030 (56% increase). We projected a loss in GDP of AU$6.2 billion in 2015, increasing to AU$8.2 billion in 2030. Significant costs of arthritis through lost PLYs are incurred by individuals and government. The effectiveness of arthritis interventions should be judged not only on healthcare use but quality of life and economic wellbeing.
Umar, Sadiq; Kumar, Anubhav; Sajad, Mir; Zargan, Jamil; Ansari, Meraj; Ahmad, Sayeed; Katiyar, Chandra Kant; Khan, Haider A
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone in a chronic phase. Pathology of rheumatoid arthritis suggests autoimmunity linked to inflammation. In our study, rheumatoid arthritis was induced in Wistar rats by intradermal injections of 100 μl of emulsion containing bovine type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant at the base of the tail. Disease developed about 13 ± 1 days after immunization and treatment with hesperidin (HES) at a dose of 160 mg kg(-1) body weight was given after onset of disease daily until 20th day. The effect of treatment in the rats was monitored by clinical scoring, biochemical parameters and histological evaluations in joints. A steady increase in the articular elastase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was observed in joints of arthritic rats as compared to control, whereas a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase was observed in collagen-induced arthritis rats as compared to control group. The results from the present work indicate that the treatment with hesperidin was effective in bringing about significant changes on all the parameters studied in collagen-induced arthritis rats. These data confirm that erosive destruction of the joint cartilage in collagen-induced arthritis is due free radicals released by activated neutrophils and produced by other biochemical pathways. In the present study, an attempt has been made to amelioration of the disease process by a natural product. These results suggest that oral administration of HES could be effective for treating human RA patients.
González-Rozas, M; Prieto de Paula, J M; Franco Hidalgo, S; López Pedreira, M R
Gout is a common illness, usually of unknown etiology, is more frequent in men, and with a prevalence that increases with age. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints. The underlying disorder in most cases is hyperuricemia, usually as a consequence of impairment in its renal excretion. Although it is generally believed that both the diagnosis and treatment are simple, the truth is that the level of adherence of clinical decisions using the existing guidelines is poor. We describe a case of chronic tophaceous gout, and review the general characteristics of this condition. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Delaurier, Ashley; Bernatsky, Sasha; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann
Although arthritis is the leading cause of pain and disability in Canada, and physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are beneficial both for chronic osteoarthritis (OA) and for inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there appear to be problems with access to such services. The aim of this study was to document wait times from referral by physician to consultation with PT or OT in the public health care system for people with arthritis in Quebec, Canada. Appointments were requested by telephone, using hypothetical case scenarios; wait times were defined as the time between initial request and appointment date. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the wait times in relation to diagnosis, service provider and geographic area. For both scenarios (OA and RA) combined, 13% were offered an appointment within 6 months, 13% offered given an appointment within 6-12 months, 24% were told they would need to wait longer than 12 months, and 22% were refused services. The remaining 28% were told they would require an evaluation appointment for functional assessment before being given an appointment for therapy. No difference was found between RA and OA diagnoses. Our study suggests that most people with arthritis living in the province of Quebec are not receiving publicly accessible PT or OT intervention in a timely manner.
Hansen, E.S.; Soballe, K.; Henriksen, T.B.
The relationship between (99mTc)diphosphonate uptake and bone hemodynamics was studied in canine carrageenan-induced juvenile chronic arthritis. Blood flow was determined with microspheres, plasma and red cell volumes were measured by labeled fibrinogen and red cells, and the microvascular volume and mean transit time of blood were calculated. Normal femoral epiphyses had lower central and higher subchondral blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values. Epiphyseal vascular volume was uniform, resulting in a greater transit time of blood centrally. In arthritis, blood flow and diphosphonate uptake were increased subchondrally and unaffected centrally, while epiphyseal vascular volume was increased throughout, leading to prolonged transitmore » time centrally. The normal metaphyses had low blood flow and diphosphonate uptake values in cancellous bone and very high values in growth plates, but a large vascular volume throughout. The mean transit time therefore was low in growth plates and high in adjacent cancellous bone. Arthritis caused decreased blood flow and diphosphonate uptake in growth plates but increased vascular volume and transit time of blood. Diphosphonate uptake correlated positively with blood flow and plasma volume and negatively with red cell volume in a nonlinear fashion. Thus, changes in diphosphonate uptake and microvascular hemodynamics occur in both epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone in chronic synovitis of the immature knee. The (99mTc)diphosphonate bone scan seems to reflect blood flow, plasma volume, and red cell volume of bone.« less
Jetha, Arif; Besen, Elyssa; Smith, Peter M.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the association between age and disability length across common chronic conditions. Methods: Analysis of 39,915 nonwork-related disability claims with a diagnosis of arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, depression, low back pain, chronic pulmonary disease, or cancer. Ordinary least squares regression models examined age-length of disability association across chronic conditions. Results: Arthritis (76.6 days), depression (63.2 days), and cancer (64.9 days) were associated with longest mean disability lengths; hypertension was related to shortest disability lengths (41.5 days). Across chronic conditions, older age was significantly associated with longer work disability. The age–length of disability association was most significant for chronic pulmonary disease and cancer. The relationship between age and length of work disability was linear among most chronic conditions. Conclusions: Work disability prevention strategies should consider both employee age and chronic condition diagnosis. PMID:27164446
Rheumatoid arthritis pain: Tips for protecting your joints Use these joint protection techniques to help you stay in control of your rheumatoid arthritis pain. By Mayo Clinic Staff Joint protection is ...
... Series of Publications for the Public What Are Osteoporosis and Arthritis and How Are They Different? Fast ... and Arthritis Cope? What About Pain? What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a disease that makes bones weak ...
Daltroy, Lawren H.; Liang, Matthew H.
A variety of programs have produced changes in knowledge, behavior, and health for arthritis patients. National dissemination of patient education programs is in progress. Research needs center on new populations, delivery methods, and arthritis-specific applications of theory. (SK)
Rajkarnikar, J; Thomas, B S; Rao, S K
Periodontal medicine defines a rapidly emerging branch of Periodontology focusing on establishing a strong relationship between periodontal health and systemic health. It is speculated that the major common dysregulation which links Periodontitis with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is being played by the mediators of immune inflammatory response. To determine whether there is any relationship between periodontal disease and Rheumatoid arthritis. A total of 100 patients were included for the present study which was divided into two groups: one group (cases) included 50 patients attending the Department of Orthopedics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal who were diagnosed of Rheumatoid arthritis. Another subject population included 50 patients as controls attending the Department of Oral Medicine, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal with age and gender matched with those of rheumatoid arthritis group. Specific measures for periodontitis included plaque index, gingival index, number of missing teeth, and radiographic alveolar bone loss scores. Measures of rheumatoid arthritis included health assessment questionaires, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Various periodontal parameters were compared between the cases and controls. The average alveolar bone loss was statistically more severe in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) group than in the controls although there were similar plaque index in both the groups. The gingival index was statistically higher in the RA group. The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and C- Reactive Protein (CRP) levels of RA patients were also significantly associated with the severity of periodontal disease. There was a significant association between Rheumatoid arthritis and Periodontitis which may be due to a common underlying deregulation of the inflammatory response in these individuals.
García-Gómez, María Carmen; de Lama, Eugenia; Ordoñez-Palau, Sergi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier
To assess the prevalence of gallstone disease and identify associated risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Eighty-four women with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each patient was assessed via a structured interview, physical examination, abdominal ultrasound and blood test including lipid profile. The prevalence of gallstone disease in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with data from a study of the Spanish population matched by age groups. Twenty-eight of the 84 women had gallstone disease (33.3%). RA women with and without gallstone disease were similar in most of the variables assessed, except for older age and menopausal status in the former. A greater prevalence of gallstone disease was seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the general population of the same age; however, the differences were significant only in women aged 60 or older (45.5% versus 23.1% respectively, P-value .008). The age-adjusted OR of developing gallstone disease in RA women compared with general population women was 2,3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1). A significantly higher HDL3-c subfraction and higher apoA-I/HDL and HDL3-c/TC ratios were observed in patients with gallstone disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a predisposition to gallstones that can manifest in middle or older age compared with women in the general population. This situation could be related to chronic inflammation and HDL metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Glaser, Cornelia; Rieg, Siegbert; Wiech, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Endres, Dominique; Stich, Oliver; Hasselblatt, Peter; Geißdörfer, Walter; Bogdan, Christian; Serr, Annerose; Häcker, Georg; Voll, Reinhard E; Thiel, Jens; Venhoff, Nils
Whipple's disease, a rare chronic infectious disorder caused by Tropheryma whipplei, may present with predominant joint manifestations mimicking rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A retrospective single-center cohort study of seven patients was performed. Clinical symptoms were assessed by review of medical charts and Whipple's disease was diagnosed by periodic-acid-Schiff-stain and/or Tropheryma whipplei-specific polymerase-chain-reaction. Median age at disease onset was 54 years, six patients were male. Median time to diagnosis was 5 years. All patients presented with polyarthritis with a predominantly symmetric pattern. Three had erosive arthritis. Affected joints were: wrists (5/7), metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs) (5/7), knees (5/7), proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPs) (3/7), hips (2/7), elbow (2/7), shoulder (2/7). All patients had increased C-reactive-protein concentrations, while rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP-antibodies were absent, and were initially (mis)classified as RA-patients according to EULAR/ACR-criteria (median DAS28 4.3). Six patients received antirheumatic treatment consisting of prednisone with methotrexate and/or leflunomide, three were additionally treated with at least one biologic agent (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, rituximab, tocilizumab). Most patients showed insufficient treatment response. In all patients Tropheryma whipplei was detected in synovial fluid by polymerase-chain-reaction; in three patients the diagnosis of Whipple's disease was further ascertained by periodic-acid-Schiff-staining. Gastrointestinal symptoms and other extra-articular manifestations were absent, mild or non-specific. Treatment was initiated with trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole in five and doxycycline/hydroxychloroquine in two patients and had to be adapted in five patients. Finally, all patients had good treatment responses with improvement of arthritis and extra-articular manifestations. Whipple's disease is rare and can mimic rheumatoid arthritis
McDonald, Jay R.; Zeringue, Angelique L.; Caplan, Liron; Ranganathan, Prabha; Xian, Hong; Burroughs, Thomas E.; Fraser, Victoria J; Cunningham, Fran; Eisen, Seth A.
Background Herpes zoster occurs more commonly in patients taking immunosuppressive medications, though the risk associated with different medications is poorly understood. Methods Retrospective cohort study including 20,357 patients who were followed in the Veterans Affairs healthcare system and treated for rheumatoid arthritis from October 1998 through June 2005. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine risk factors for herpes zoster, and herpes zoster-free survival. Chart review was performed to validate the diagnosis of herpes zoster. Results The incidence of herpes zoster was 9.96 per 1000 patient-years. In time-to-event analysis, patients receiving medications used to treat mild rheumatoid arthritis were less likely to have an episode of herpes zoster than patients receiving medications used to treat moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis (p<0.001). Independent risk factors for herpes zoster included older age, prednisone use, medications used to treat moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis, malignancy, chronic lung disease, renal failure, and liver disease. Among patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, etanercept (HR 0.62) and adalimumab (HR 0.53) were associated with lower risk of herpes zoster. There was excellent agreement between ICD-9-CM diagnosis of herpes zoster and diagnosis by chart review (kappa = 0.92). Conclusions Risk factors for herpes zoster included older age, prednisone use, medications used to treat moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis, and several comorbid medical conditions. These results demonstrate that the Department of Veterans Affairs’ national administrative databases can be used to study rare adverse drug events. PMID:19368499
Flowers, Sarah A.; Ali, Liaqat; Lane, Catherine S.; Olin, Magnus; Karlsson, Niclas G.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a common and debilitating systemic inflammatory condition affecting up to 1% of the world's population. This study aimed to investigate the immunological significance of O-glycans in chronic arthritis at a local and systemic level. O-Glycans released from synovial glycoproteins during acute and chronic arthritic conditions were compared and immune-reactive glycans identified. The sulfated core 1 O-glycan (Galβ1–3GalNAcol) was immune reactive, showing a different isomeric profile in the two conditions. From acute reactive arthritis, three isomers could be sequenced, but in patients with chronic rheumatoid arthritis, only a single 3-Gal sulfate-linked isomer could be identified. The systemic significance of this glycan epitope was investigated using the salivary mucin MUC7 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and normal controls. To analyze this low abundance glycan, a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method was developed to differentiate and relatively quantitate the core 1 O-glycan and the sulfated core 1 O-glycan Gal- and GalNAc-linked isomers. The acquisition of highly sensitive full scan linear ion trap MS/MS spectra in addition to quantitative SRM data allowed the 3- and 6-linked Gal isomers to be differentiated. The method was used to relatively quantitate the core 1 glycans from MUC7 to identify any systemic changes in this carbohydrate epitope. A statistically significant increase in sulfation was identified in salivary MUC7 from rheumatoid arthritis patients. This suggests a potential role for this epitope in chronic inflammation. This study was able to develop an SRM approach to specifically identify and relatively quantitate sulfated core 1 isomers and the unsulfated structure. The expansion of this method may afford an avenue for the high throughput investigation of O-glycans. PMID:23457413
Schiller, Jeannine S.; Goodman, Richard A.
The objective of this research was to update earlier estimates of prevalence rates of single chronic conditions and multiple (>2) chronic conditions (MCC) among the noninstitutionalized, civilian US adult population. Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to generate estimates of MCC for US adults and by select demographic characteristics. Approximately half (117 million) of US adults have at least one of the 10 chronic conditions examined (ie, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, current asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). Furthermore, 1 in 4 adults has MCC. PMID:24742395
Jung, Sung-Weon; Kim, Dong-Hee; Shin, Sung-Jin; Kang, Byoung-Youl; Eho, Yil-Ju; Yang, Seong-Wook
Septic arthritis presents with good joint function, but sometimes leads to poor outcomes. Concurrent systemic sepsis has been regarded as the poor outcome, and the exact cause remains unclear. This paper was performed to identify factors associated with concurrent systemic sepsis and to research results to predict poor outcomes in patients with septic arthritis. Laboratory and medical data were reviewed for 137 adults with acute septic arthritis who underwent open or arthroscopic surgical debridement at our institution between January 2005 and December 2014. The patients were divided according to whether they had septic arthritis alone (Group A) or in combination with systemic sepsis (Group B). Systemic sepsis was defined as two more systemic inflammatory signs in response to an infectious process. Patient characteristics, laboratory findings, synovial fluid findings and cultures, and surgical results were compared between two groups. Of the 137 patients, 41 (29.9%) had initial systemic sepsis at the diagnosis of septic arthritis. Independent t test revealed that duration of prodromal symptom (p = 0.012), serum neutrophil percent (p = 0.008), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), Charlson comorbidity index (p = 0.001), positive culture in synovial fluid (p = 0.001), and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolate in synovial fluid (p = 0.001) had significant correlations with the group B. Repeated debridement was performed for those who had recurrence of infection, and this procedure was more often in group B (23 versus 21 joints, 23.9 versus 51.2%, p = 0.012). Progression of arthritis occurred more often in group B (16 versus 17 joints, 16.7 versus 41.5%, p = 0.001). Septic arthritis combined with systemic sepsis was related to duration of prodromal symptom, serum neutrophil percent, C-reactive protein, Charlson comorbidity index, positive culture in synovial fluid, and a MSSA isolate in synovial fluid. Concurrent systemic sepsis led to
... the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had...] Arthritis Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Arthritis Advisory Committee...
... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...
...] Arthritis Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Arthritis Advisory Committee..., the committee will discuss the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification...
... people with chronic bronchitis are current or former smokers. Chronic bronchitis is usually part of the spectrum ... and emphysema often coexist in current or former smokers with COPD. Less commonly, chronic cough may be ...
Zautra, Alex J.; Davis, Mary C.; Reich, John W.; Nicassio, Perry; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick; Kratz, Anna; Parrish, Brendt; Irwin, Michael R.
This research examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness interventions that target responses to chronic stress, pain, and depression reduce pain and improve the quality of everyday life for adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The 144 RA participants were clustered into groups of 6-10 participants and randomly assigned to 1 of…
Keysor, Julie J; AlHeresh, Rawan; Vaughan, Molly; LaValley, Michael P; Allaire, Saralynn
People with arthritis are at risk of work disability. Job accommodation and educational programs delivered before imminent work loss can minimize work disability, yet are not currently being widely implemented. The Work-It Study is a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a problem solving program delivered by physical and occupational therapy practitioners to prevent work loss over a two-year period among people with arthritis and rheumatological conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the randomized controlled trial, and describe the baseline characteristics of the subjects and their work outcomes. 287 participants were recruited from the Boston area in Massachusetts, USA. Eligible participants were aged between 21-65, self-reported a physicians' diagnosis of arthritis, rheumatic condition, or chronic back pain, reported a concern about working now or in the near future due to your health, worked at least 15 hours a week, had plans to continue working, and worked or lived in Massachusetts. Subjects were recruited through community sources and rheumatology offices. Participants in the experimental group received a structured interview and an education and resource packet, while participants in the control received the resource packet only. The baseline characteristics and work related outcomes of the participants were analyzed. To our knowledge, the Work-It Study is the largest and most diverse randomized controlled trial to date aiming to identify and problem solve work-related barriers, promote advocacy, and foster work disability knowledge among people with chronic disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite advances in medical management of arthritis and other rheumatological and musculoskeletal conditions, many people still have concerns about their ability to remain employed and are seeking strategies to help them sustain employment.
Luck, J V; Beardmore, T D; Kaufman, R
During the working years, rheumatic conditions are the foremost cause of disability in the United States. Disability evaluation for Social Security applicants and Workers' Compensation patients is commonplace in orthopedic practices. Yet, formal education in this aspect of patient care is rare both during and after residency. Because of a lack of understanding and sophistication the physician who knows the patient better than any other evaluator often play a minor role in the determination of disability. Disability Evaluation Under Social Security--A Handbook for Physicians lists the medical criteria necessary for qualification. Severely disabled arthritis patients will not always fit into these various categories and may have to be considered under the rule of medical equivalency. Workers' Compensation statutes vary somewhat from state to state but generally include disability criteria. Familiarity with these criteria and the process involved will allow the orthopedist to communicate more meaningfully with administrators and will reduce much of the frustration and some of the cost inherent in this system. When subjective complaint (illness) is in excess of apparent organic pathology (disease), team evaluation under the direction of the treating physician will help sort out the dilemma and develop a treatment plan. One hopes that this will bring the illness more in line with the disease, and thus reduce the disability.
Goes, Ana Claudia Janiszewski; Reis, Larissa Aparecida Busatto; Silva, Marilia Barreto G; Kahlow, Barbara Stadler; Skare, Thelma L
Sleep disturbances are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and contribute to loss of life quality. To study associations of sleep quality with pain, depression and disease activity in RA. This is a transversal observational study of 112 RA patients submitted to measurement of DAS-28, Epworth scale for daily sleepiness, index of sleep quality by Pittsburg index, risk of sleep apnea by the Berlin questionnaire and degree of depression by the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) questionnaire. We also collected epidemiological, clinical, serological and treatment data. Only 18.5% of RA patients had sleep of good quality. In univariate analysis a bad sleep measured by Pittsburg index was associated with daily doses of prednisone (p=0.03), DAS-28 (p=0.01), CES-D (p=0.0005) and showed a tendency to be associated with Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.06). In multivariate analysis only depression (p=0.008) and Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.004) kept this association. Most of RA patients do not have a good sleep quality. Depression and risk of sleep apnea are independently associated with sleep impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hasstedt, S.J.; Clegg, D.O.; Ingles, L.
Twenty-eight pedigrees were ascertained through pairs of first-degree relatives diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA was confirmed in 77 pedigree members including probands; the absence of disease was verified in an additional 261 pedigree members. Pedigree members were serologically typed for HLA. We used likelihood analysis to statistically characterize the HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus. The genetic model assumed tight linkage to HLA. The analysis supported the existence of an HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus, estimated the lifetime penetrance as 41% in male homozygotes and as 48% in female homozygotes. Inheritance was recessive in males and was nearly recessive in females. Inmore » addition, the analysis attributed 78% of the variance within genotypes to genetic or environmental effects shared by siblings. The genetic model inferred in this analysis is consistent with previous association, linkage, and familial aggregation studies of RA. The inferred HLA-linked RA susceptibility locus accounts for approximately one-fifth of the RA in the population. Although other genes may account for the remaining familial RA, a large portion of RA cases may occur sporadically. 79 refs., 9 tabs.« less
Almeida, Celia; Choy, Ernest H S; Hewlett, Sarah; Kirwan, John R; Cramp, Fiona; Chalder, Trudie; Pollock, Jon; Christensen, Robin
Fatigue is a common and potentially distressing symptom for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with no accepted evidence-based management guidelines. Evidence suggests that biologic interventions improve symptoms and signs in RA as well as reducing joint damage. To evaluate the effect of biologic interventions on fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. We searched the following electronic databases up to 1 April 2014: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Current Controlled Trials Register, the National Research Register Archive, The UKCRN Portfolio Database, AMED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, Web of Science, and Dissertation Abstracts International. In addition, we checked the reference lists of articles identified for inclusion for additional studies and contacted key authors. We included randomised controlled trials if they evaluated a biologic intervention in people with rheumatoid arthritis and had self reported fatigue as an outcome measure. Two reviewers selected relevant trials, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Where appropriate, we pooled data in meta-analyses using a random-effects model. We identified 32 studies for inclusion in this current review. Twenty studies evaluated five anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents (adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab), and 12 studies focused on five non-anti-TNF biologic agents (abatacept, canakinumab, rituximab, tocilizumab and an anti-interferon gamma monoclonal antibody). All but two of the studies were double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trials. In some trials, patients could receive concomitant disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These studies added either biologics or placebo to DMARDs. Investigators did not change the dose of the latter from baseline. In total, these studies included 9946 participants in the intervention groups and
Ageing affects not only individuals but also society. It occurs throughout the western world. The ageing process may lead to the development of conditions, such as chronic oedema, as well as comorbidities such as osteoarthritis. These comorbidities can make the management of chronic oedema even more difficult. This is an especially important consideration when tailoring individualised care plans, such as exercise, as conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis can limit patients' ability to manage their oedema. Despite challenges, education can improve patient outcomes when evidence-based practice is used.
Preiß, J C; Hoffmann, J C
Apart from local inflammation and defects in secretion, central mechanisms are important for pain etiology in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, centrally acting co-analgetic agents can be used in addition to classical pain medications. Endoscopic interventions are preferred in patients with obvious dilation of the pancreatic duct. Surgical interventions are generally more effective although they are usually reserved for patients with prior failure of conservative treatment. Diverse surgical options with different efficacies and morbidities are used in individual patients.One of the main problems in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases is abdominal pain. Primarily the underlying disease needs to be adequately treated. Symptomatic pain management will most likely include treatment with acetaminophen and tramadol as well as occasionally principles of a multimodal pain regimen. For the treatment of arthralgia as well as enteropathy-associated arthritis the same treatment options are available as for other spondyloarthritic disorders.
Sebastian, Agata; Błach, Katarzyna; Silicki, Jurand; Wiland, Piotr
Septic arthritis is an inflammation of a joint caused directly by various microorganisms. It is often characterized by many unspecific symptoms. Bacteria is the most often etiological factor. We present a case report of a 76-years old woman with a unilateral septic arthritis of the sacroiliac joint. Bacterial sacroiliitis should be taken into account in patients with sacroiliitis and fever onset. Proper diagnosis can be very often difficult and delayed but fast implementation of antibiotic therapy is extremely important in the treatment process. Diagnostic imaging is crucial to the diagnosis and monitoring of septic arthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most relevant tool for the detection of sacroiliitis, allowing the institution of therapeutic strategies to impede the progression of the disease. PMID:29686444
Modern early rheumatoid arthritis strategies are usually based upon a number of important overarching principles: 1. early diagnosis facilitates early commencement of disease modifying anti-rheumatic therapy; 2. early commencement of treatment reduces the long-term risk of erosive damage and functional decline; 3. composite disease activity measures should be used to quantify global rheumatoid arthritis disease activity; and 4. therapy should be intensified until a predefined disease activity target has been achieved. A substantial minority of rheumatoid arthritis patients (approximately 40%) will experience an adequate response to methotrexate monotherapy; however, the remainder may require disease modifying anti-rheumatic combination therapy, and/or biologic therapy, to achieve disease activity targets. Importantly, short term trials of methotrexate monotherapy do not appear to disadvantage outcomes provided treatment continues to be intensified if disease activity targets are not achieved. © The Author(s) 2015.
Olivieri, Ignazio; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Palazzi, Carlo; Lubrano, Ennio; Padula, Angela
In the early 1970s, Moll and co-workers formulated the unified concept of spondyloarthritides, a group of conditions sharing similar clinical features. Subsequently, criteria for their classification have been proposed by Amor and coworkers, the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group, and the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society. Opinion, however, is divided between those who believe that the different entities of the complex represent the variable expression of the same disease ("lumpers") and those who think that these should be considered separately but under the same umbrella ("splitters"). Several sets of criteria have been proposed for psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the most recent being the ClASsification for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. According to some authors, there are persuasive arguments to support the view of PsA as a distinct entity.
Hodgson, Richard J; O'Connor, Philip J; Ridgway, John P
MRI is increasingly used for the assessment of both inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis. The wide variety of MRI systems in use ranges from low-field, low-cost extremity units to whole-body high-field 7-T systems, each with different strengths for specific applications. The availability of dedicated radiofrequency phased-array coils allows the rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of one or more peripheral joints. MRI is uniquely flexible in its ability to manipulate image contrast, and individual MR sequences may be combined into protocols to sensitively visualize multiple features of arthritis including synovitis, bone marrow lesions, erosions, cartilage changes, and tendinopathy. Careful choice of the imaging parameters allows images to be generated with optimal quality while minimizing unwanted artifacts. Finally, there are many novel MRI techniques that can quantify disease levels in arthritis in tissues including synovitis and cartilage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Chen, J R; Takahashi, M; Suzuki, M; Kushida, K; Miyamoto, S; Inoue, T
Pentosidine is an advanced glycation endproduct formed by glycosylation and oxidation. Our aim was to develop a means to measure pentosidine in synovial fluid (SF), and to compare its concentration in SF in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate the relationship between its concentration in SF and the disease activity of RA. SF was collected from knee joints in 31 patients with RA and 40 with OA, who had hydrarthrosis. One patient with RA and 7 with OA who had the complication of diabetes mellitus or chronic renal failure made up the DM/CRF group, and the remaining patients made up the RA group (n = 30) and the OA group (n = 33). Pentosidine was measured by the direct HPLC method with column switching after hydrolysis of SF. Pentosidine was detected in all SF and was greater in RA (83.9 +/- 46.0 nmol/l, mean +/- SD) than in OA (40.1 +/- 19.6 nmol/l). Three DM/CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis had markedly high pentosidine levels (482.5 +/- 280.8 nmol/l). There was a significant correlation between pentosidine and C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and Lansbury Index (p < 0.01). Patients with RA were divided into high and low activity groups according to the CRP and Lansbury Index. Pentosidine was significantly higher in the high activity group (CRP > or = 2.0 mg/dl and Lansbury Index > or = 50%) than in the low activity group (CRP < 2.0 and/or Lansbury Index < 50) (100.9 +/- 42.8 vs 58.5 +/- 39.6 nmol/; p = 0.0013). Pentosidine in synovial fluid was higher in RA than in OA. Pentosidine levels in SF were related to the disease activity in RA.
He, Min; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Wang, Mei; Sun, Mengmeng; Koval, Slavik; van Wijk, Roeland; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan
The increasing prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis has driven the development of new approaches and technologies for investigating the pathophysiology of this devastating, chronic disease. From the perspective of systems biology, combining comprehensive personal data such as metabolomics profiling with ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) data may provide key information regarding the complex pathophysiology underlying rheumatoid arthritis. In this article, we integrated UPE with metabolomics-based technologies in order to investigate collagen-induced arthritis, a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, at the systems level, and we investigated the biological underpinnings of the complex dataset. Using correlation networks, we found that elevated inflammatory and ROS-mediated plasma metabolites are strongly correlated with a systematic reduction in amine metabolites, which is linked to muscle wasting in rheumatoid arthritis. We also found that increased UPE intensity is strongly linked to metabolic processes (with correlation co-efficiency |r| value >0.7), which may be associated with lipid oxidation that related to inflammatory and/or ROS-mediated processes. Together, these results indicate that UPE is correlated with metabolomics and may serve as a valuable tool for diagnosing chronic disease by integrating inflammatory signals at the systems level. Our correlation network analysis provides important and valuable information regarding the disease process from a system-wide perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Politis, Maria D; Johnson, Krystina; Hansen, Andrew R; Sullivan, Kelly L; Zhang, Jian
Obesity and arthritis are leading chronic conditions, but comorbidity of these conditions and their interaction leading to depression have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which excess body weight effect-modifies the relationship between arthritis and depressive symptoms. We used the data of 8677 men and 8820 women aged 20 or older, who completed a depression screening and general medical condition interview as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2012. Depression was ascertained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); a PHQ-9 score of 15 or higher was defined as indicative of depression. Arthritis was reported in 26.5% (SE=0.9) of men and 36.9% (SE=1.4) of women. The association between depression and arthritis was not significant among healthy weight women, but significant among overweight and obese women. The prevalence ratios (PRs) of depression among arthritis-free women were 1.00 (reference) for healthy weight, 1.43 (0.85-2.42) for overweight, and 1.99 (1.23-3.23) for obese women. For women with arthritis, the PRs were 1.16 (0.63-2.12) for healthy weight, 3.80 (2.24-6.45) for overweight and 3.73 (2.30-6.05) for obese women. The intensifying effect from excessive body weight on the association between arthritis and depression was less salient among men than women. The association between arthritis and depression is intensified significantly by increased body weight, in particular, among women. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Sonawale, Archana; Khare, Shruti; Kalal, Chetan; Jankar, Rahul
Melioidosis is an infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease is known as a remarkable imitator due to the wide and variable clinical spectrum of its manifestations. Septic arthritis is rare but well-recognized manifestation of this disease. We report a case of melioidosis in a 52 year male with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with a rare combination of septic arthritis and abscesses in the chest wall, liver and subcutaneous tissue. The patient responded to prolonged treatment of intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral co-trimoxazole.
Townsend, A.; Adam, P.; Cox, S.M.; Li, L.C.
Background Sociological understandings of chronic illness have revealed tensions and complexities around help-seeking. Although ethics underpins healthcare, its application in the area of chronic illness is limited. Here we apply an ethical framework to interview accounts and identify ethical challenges in the early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with eight participants who had been diagnosed with RA in the 12 months prior to recruitment. Applying the concepts of autonomous decision-making and procedural justice highlighted ethical concerns which arose throughout the help-seeking process. Analysis was based on the constant-comparison approach. Results Individuals described decision-making, illness actions and the medical encounter. The process was complicated by inadequate knowledge about symptoms, common-sense understandings about the GP appointment, difficulties concerning access to specialists, and patient–practitioner interactions. Autonomous decision-making and procedural justice were compromised. The accounts revealed contradictions between the policy ideals of active self-management, patient-centred care and shared decision-making, and the everyday experiences of individuals. Conclusions For ethical healthcare there is a need for: public knowledge about early RA symptoms; more effective patient–practitioner communication; and increased support during the wait between primary and secondary care. Healthcare facilities and the government may consider different models to deliver services to people requiring rheumatology consults. PMID:20610465
Ioussoufovitch, Seva; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation, which can cause progressive joint damage and disability. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and imaging have the potential to become potent monitoring tools for RA. We devised a method that combined time-resolved DOS and tracer kinetics modeling to rapidly and reliably quantify blood flow in the joint. Preliminary results obtained from two animals show that the technique can detect joint inflammation as early as 5 days after onset.
Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin
Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. © 2014 APJPH.
Bernatsky, Sasha; Dekis, Alaa; Hudson, Marie; Pineau, Christian A; Boire, Gilles; Fortin, Paul R; Bessette, Louis; Jean, Sonia; Chetaille, Ann L; Belisle, Patrick; Bergeron, Louise; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Joseph, Lawrence
To estimate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prevalence in Quebec using administrative health data, comparing across regions. Cases of RA were ascertained from physician billing and hospitalization data, 1992-2008. We used three case definitions: 1) ≥ 2 billing diagnoses, submitted by any physician, ≥ 2 months apart, but within 2 years; 2) ≥ 1 diagnosis, by a rheumatologist; 3) ≥1 hospitalization diagnosis (all based on ICD-9 code 714, and ICD-10 code M05). We combined data across these three case definitions, using Bayesian hierarchical latent class models to estimate RA prevalence, adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the data. We compared urban versus rural regions. Using our case definitions and no adjustment for error, we defined 75,760 cases for an over-all RA prevalence of 9.9 per thousand residents. After adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of our case definition algorithms, we estimated Quebec RA prevalence at 5.6 per 1000 females and 4.1 per 1000 males. The adjusted RA prevalence estimates for older females were the highest for any demographic group (9.9 cases per 1,000), and were similar in rural and urban regions. In younger males and females, and in older males, RA prevalence estimates were lower in rural versus urban areas. Without adjustment for error inherent in administrative databases, RA prevalence in Quebec was approximately 1%, while adjusted estimates are approximately half that. The lower prevalence in rural areas, seen for most demographic groups, may suggest either true regional variations in RA risk, or under-ascertainment of cases in rural Quebec.
Mobasheri, Ali; Henrotin, Yves
Abstract Arthritic diseases are a major cause of disability and morbidity, and cause an enormous burden for health and social care systems globally. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. The key risk factors for the development of OA are age, obesity, joint trauma or instability. Metabolic and endocrine diseases can also contribute to the pathogenesis of OA. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that OA is a whole-organ disease that is influenced by systemic mediators, inflammaging, innate immunity and the low-grade inflammation induced by metabolic syndrome. Although all joint tissues are implicated in disease progression in OA, articular cartilage has received the most attention in the context of aging, injury and disease. There is increasing emphasis on the early detection of OA as it has the capacity to target and treat the disease more effectively. Indeed it has been suggested that this is the era of “personalized prevention” for OA. However, the development of strategies for the prevention of OA require new and sensitive biomarker tools that can detect the disease in its molecular and pre-radiographic stage, before structural and functional alterations in cartilage integrity have occurred. There is also evidence to support a role for biomarkers in OA drug discovery, specifically the development of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs. This Special Issue of Biomarkers is dedicated to recent progress in the field of OA biomarkers. The papers in this Special Issue review the current state-of-the-art and discuss the utility of OA biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools. PMID:26954784
Burgess, Alice; Celerier, Charlotte; Breton, Sylvain; Van den Abbeele, Thierry; Kadlub, Natacha; Leboulanger, Nicolas; Garabedian, Noël; Couloigner, Vincent
Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (SATMJ) is a very rare but potentially severe complication of pediatric middle ear infections because it presents risks of TMJ ankylosis. To describe the clinical, radiological, biological, and microbiological characteristics and evolution of SATMJ complicating middle ear infections (otogenic SATMJ) in children. This multicenter retrospective study included all children younger than 18 years referred between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2015, for otogenic SATMJ or for TMJ ankylosis that occurred a few months to a few years after an acute mastoiditis. Nine children were included in the study. Review of the children's medical charts was conducted from February 1, 2016, to April 1, 2016. Patients' demographic characteristics and symptoms; radiological, biological, and bacteriological findings, including reanalysis of initial imaging; and treatment and outcome of SATMJ. Of the 9 children, 6 were boys and 3 were girls; the mean age was 2.1 years (range, 6 months to 4.7 years). In 7 cases (78%), the primary middle ear infection was acute mastoiditis. Clinically, 5 children (55%) had preauricular swelling and only 1 (11%) had trismus. Associated thrombophlebitis of the lateral sinus or intracranial collections was present in 7 cases (78%). An initial computed tomographic scan was performed for all but 1 patient, and second-line analysis detected clear signs of TMJ inflammation in all 8 children who had a computed tomographic scan. However, SATMJ was diagnosed in only 3 cases at the time of the initial middle ear infection, leading to the recommendation of TMJ physical therapy for several months. The most frequently involved bacteria was Fusobacterium necrophorum, which was found in 4 cases. Long-term ankylosis was identified in 6 cases (67%), and 5 of these children required surgical treatment. Clinicians and radiologists must thoroughly look for signs of SATMJ in children with acute mastoiditis to detect this
Mojs, Ewa; Ziarko, Michał; Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Samborski, Włodzimierz
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with many somatic, psychological and social consequences. Somatic consequences are connected mainly with increasing levels of negative emotions such as depression, anxiety and a tendency to react with anger to many daily life situations. Additionally, loss of hope has been reported as another effect of rheumatoid arthritis. The goal of the study was to describe anxiety levels and its determinants in RA patients. The study was carried out on 31 RA patients, 22 (71%) of whom were females and 9 (29%) of whom were males. The respondents were assessed with a set of questionnaires such as Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire - Revised (EPQ-R). We have found the relationship between anxiety as (1) a state and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.23, p = 0.09), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = -0.34, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.29, p = 0.03) and (2) anxiety as a trait and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.40, p = 0.01), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.36, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.47, p = 0,01).
Background A chronic illness, such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), has an impact on the whole family, especially on parents caring for the ill child. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate parental Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) and associated variables in parents of a child with JIA. Methods Parents of all JIA patients (0–18 years) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were eligible. HRQOL was measured using the TNO-AZL Questionnaire (TAAQOL) and PPCV using the Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS). The HRQOL of parents of a child with JIA was compared to a norm population, and differences between parents of a child with JIA and active arthritis versus parents of a child with JIA without active arthritis were analyzed (ANOVA). For PPCV, parents of a child with JIA were compared to a norm population, including healthy and chronically ill children (Chi2, Mann-Whitney U test). Variables associated with PPCV were identified by logistic regression analyses. Results 155 parents (87.5% mothers) completed online questionnaires. JIA parents showed worse HRQOL than parents of healthy children on one out of twelve domains: fine motor HRQOL (p < .001). Parents of children with active arthritis showed worse HRQOL regarding daily activities (p < .05), cognitive functioning (p < .01) and depressive emotions (p < .05) compared to parents of children without active arthritis. Parents of children with JIA perceived their child as more vulnerable than parents of a healthy child (p < .001) and parents of a chronically ill child (p < .001). Parents of children with active arthritis reported higher levels of PPCV (p < .05) than parents of children without active arthritis. A higher degree of functional disability (p < .01) and shorter disease duration (p < .05) were associated with higher levels of PPCV. Conclusion The HRQOL of JIA parents was comparable to the HRQOL of parents of a
Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Kuijpers, Taco W; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Rossum, Marion Aj
A chronic illness, such as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), has an impact on the whole family, especially on parents caring for the ill child. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate parental Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PPCV) and associated variables in parents of a child with JIA. Parents of all JIA patients (0-18 years) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were eligible. HRQOL was measured using the TNO-AZL Questionnaire (TAAQOL) and PPCV using the Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS). The HRQOL of parents of a child with JIA was compared to a norm population, and differences between parents of a child with JIA and active arthritis versus parents of a child with JIA without active arthritis were analyzed (ANOVA). For PPCV, parents of a child with JIA were compared to a norm population, including healthy and chronically ill children (Chi(2), Mann-Whitney U test). Variables associated with PPCV were identified by logistic regression analyses. 155 parents (87.5% mothers) completed online questionnaires. JIA parents showed worse HRQOL than parents of healthy children on one out of twelve domains: fine motor HRQOL (p < .001). Parents of children with active arthritis showed worse HRQOL regarding daily activities (p < .05), cognitive functioning (p < .01) and depressive emotions (p < .05) compared to parents of children without active arthritis. Parents of children with JIA perceived their child as more vulnerable than parents of a healthy child (p < .001) and parents of a chronically ill child (p < .001). Parents of children with active arthritis reported higher levels of PPCV (p < .05) than parents of children without active arthritis. A higher degree of functional disability (p < .01) and shorter disease duration (p < .05) were associated with higher levels of PPCV. The HRQOL of JIA parents was comparable to the HRQOL of parents of a healthy child. JIA parents of a child
Ključevšek, Damjana; Emeršič, Nina; Toplak, Nataša; Avčin, Tadej
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome of cervical spine arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), who received anti-TNFα early in the course of cervical spine arthritis. Medical charts and imaging of JIA patients with cervical spine involvement were reviewed in this retrospective study. Data, including age at disease onset, JIA type, disease activity, treatment and clinical outcome were collected. Initial and followup MRI examinations of cervical spine were performed according to the hospital protocol to evaluate the presence of inflammation and potential chronic/late changes. Fifteen JIA patients with MRI proved cervical spine inflammation (11 girls, 4 boys, median age 6.3y) were included in the study: 9 had polyarthritis, 3 extended oligoarthritis, 2 persistent oligoarthritis and 1 juvenile psoriatic arthritis. All children were initially treated with high-dose steroids and methotrexate. In addition, 11 patients were treated with anti-TNFα drug within 3 months, and 3 patients within 7 months of cervical spine involvement confirmed by MRI. Mean observation time was 2.9y, mean duration of anti-TNFα treatment was 2.2y. Last MRI showed no active inflammation in 12/15 children, allowing to stop biological treatment in 3 patients, and in 3/15 significant reduction of inflammation. Mild chronic changes were found on MRI in 3 children. Early treatment with anti-TNFα drugs resulted in significantly reduced inflammation or complete remission of cervical spine arthritis proved by MRI, and prevented the development of serious chronic/late changes. Repeated MRI examinations are suggested in the follow-up of JIA patients with cervical spine arthritis.
James, Richard J E; Walsh, David A; Ferguson, Eamonn
While the heterogeniety of pain progression has been studied in chronic diseases, the extent to which patterns of pain progression among people in general as well as across different diseases affect social, civic and political engagement is unclear. We explore these issues for the first time. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class growth models were used to estimate trajectories of self-reported pain in the entire cohort, and within subsamples reporting diagnoses of arthritis and cancer. These were compared at baseline on physical health (e.g. body mass index, smoking) and over time on social, civic and political engagement. Very similar four-trajectory models fit the whole sample and arthritis subsamples, whereas a three-trajectory model fit the cancer subsample. All samples had a modal group experiencing minimal chronic pain and a group with high chronic pain that showed slight regression (more pronounced in cancer). Biometric indices were more predictive of the most painful trajectory in arthritis than cancer. In both samples the group experiencing the most pain at baseline reported impairments in social, civic and political engagement. The impact of pain differs between individuals and between diseases. Indicators of physical and psychological health differently predicted membership of the trajectories most affected by pain. These trajectories were associated with differences in engagement with social and civic life, which in turn were associated with poorer health and well-being.
Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren W; Crum, Anthony B; Chen, Wei; Birmingham, Wendy C
The prevalence and chronic nature of arthritis make it the most common cause of disability among U.S.A adults. Family support reduces the negative impact of chronic conditions generally but its role in pain and depression for arthritic conditions is not well understood. A total of 844 males (35.0%) and 1567 females (65.0%) with arthritic conditions (n = 2411) were drawn from the 2012 Health and Retirement Study to examine the effect of family support on pain and depressive symptoms. Using regression analysis and controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, marital/educational status and employment/income, physical function/disability status, pain and antidepressant medications, and other clinical indicators of chronic health conditions, we examined the effects of family support (spouse, children, other) on pain and depression levels. Results indicated that depressive symptoms decreased significantly with strong family and spousal support (p < .05). Pain decreased as support levels increased, but was non-statistically significant. This study provides new insights into the relationship between family support, pain, and depression for individuals with arthritis. Future longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate family support and relationships over a wider spectrum of demographics.
The objective of this study was to use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions (MCC) by select sociodemographic groups and determine the prevalence of most common MCC dyads and triads among Delaware adults. Combined data for 2011 through 2014 from BRFSS (n = 18,052) were analyzed to determine prevalence of MCC. Delaware adults were categorized as having 0, 1, 2, or 3 or more of the following diagnosed chronic conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, myocardial infarction (heart attack), obesity, or stroke. More than 65% of Delaware adults had at least 1 of the 12 selected chronic conditions. Furthermore, 36.8% of Delaware adults had MCC. The arthritis/obesity dyad and the arthritis/high blood pressure/high cholesterol triad were the 2 most prevalent MCC combinations. The findings of this study contribute information to the field of MCC research. PMID:27880632
Mourão, Ana Filipa; Santos, Fernando Pimentel; Falcão, Sandra; Pinto, Teresa Laura; Barros, Rita; de Matos, António Alves; Branco, Jaime Cunha
Among the many radiological findings seen in Rheumatoid Arthritis RA small subchondral geodes and erosions are typical. Large geodes are far less common abnormalities and their presence may indicate diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. We present a case report of a 55-year old woman with seronegative RA that developed a large geode in the knee with extensive joint destruction.
Small, C B; Slater, L N; Lowy, F D; Small, R D; Salvati, E A; Casey, J I
Group B streptococcal arthritis in adults is uncommon. This report describes seven cases seen at these institutions over the past five years and reviews the previous 17 documented cases. Of seven adults, three were diabetics, three had prosthetic hips, and one had undergone splenectomy. Six had undergone no prior dental, genitourinary, or gastrointestinal procedures. The most common clinical presentation was fever and acute joint pain. Five patients had monoarticular arthritis; two had multiple joint involvement. Underlying joint abnormalities included osteoarthritis (two), prosthetic hip (three), and neuropathic joint (one). Bacteremia was documented in three and suspected in the remaining four patients, often without a primary source. Therapy included parenteral antibiotics, usually penicillin G, and drainage of the involved joint. Two of three patients with prosthetic implants required Girdlestone procedures; the third was apparently cured. The three diabetic patients died, one with resolution of group B streptococcal arthritis. The seventh patient was cured. Group B streptococcal arthritis is a serious infection in adults with diabetes and late prosthetic hip infections.
Today, we enjoy the golden age of rheumatology. In the 1970s, the paradigm for treating rheumatoid arthritis consisted in a pyramid. In the decade of the 1980s, and shortly after began a revolution in the understanding and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor-blockers came on the scene.
Arvikar, Sheila L.; Steere, Allen C.
SYNOPSIS In the United States, Lyme arthritis is the most common feature of late stage infection with the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, usually beginning months after the initial tick bite. However, in some patients, including most of those seen today, the earlier phases of the infection are asymptomatic and arthritis is the presenting manifestation of the disease. Patients with Lyme arthritis have intermittent or persistent attacks of joint swelling and pain in one or a few large joints, especially the knee, usually over a period of several years, without prominent systemic manifestations. Serologic testing is the mainstay of diagnosis. Synovial fluid PCR testing for B. burgdorferi DNA is often positive prior to treatment, but it is not a reliable marker of spirochetal eradication after antibiotic therapy. Responses to oral or intravenous antibiotic treatment are generally excellent, although a small percentage of patients have persistent synovitis after 2-3 months of oral and IV antibiotics, which usually then responds to anti-inflammatory therapies, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), or synovectomy. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of Lyme arthritis. PMID:25999223
Boulware, Dennis W.; Byrd, Shannon L.
Exercise can help decrease pain and improve function in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Physicians must provide individualized, realistic, enjoyable exercise programs that help affected joints, build fitness, and maximize patient compliance. Physicians must also provide appropriate follow-up care, adjusting the exercise program…
Salek, Sherveen S; Pradeep, Archana; Guly, Catherine; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Rosenbaum, James T
To describe the phenotype of the uveitis that accompanies juvenile psoriatic arthritis or psoriasis. Observational case series. Setting: Two university-based referral clinics: 1 in England, 1 in the United States. Five children with uveitis and psoriatic arthritis and 1 with uveitis and psoriasis Observational Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Demographics of subjects such as age and sex; description of ocular and joint disease; surgical and other complications; medical treatment. Five of the 6 children in this series had the onset of disease at or before age 6 (P = .0008 compared to expected age of onset for psoriatic arthritis in childhood). All children in this series had an inadequate response to topical corticosteroids. Most of the children were treated with systemic corticosteroids for many months, yet all of them went on to require methotrexate. Therapy with systemic methotrexate did not suffice, as all the patients also required some form of biologic therapy. Five of 6 had surgeries such as vitrectomy, cataract extraction, or a procedure for glaucoma control. The observations suggest that the uveitis that accompanies juvenile psoriatic arthritis might be a distinct disease that is particularly severe when its onset affects children aged 6 years or younger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chakraborty, P; Bhattacharya, S; Chakraborty, M; Pal, B
One hundred and seventy-five cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis, 82 non-rheumatoid cases suffering from various other diseases and 40 healthy normal controls were investigated for detection of rheumatoid factor, quantitation of serum immunoglobulin, demonstration of antinuclear antibody (ANA) and LE cell phenomenon. Microlatex agglutination test of serum for rheumatoid factor (RF) showed 64% positivity in rheumatoid group and 1.2% positivity in non-rheumatoid group. All three immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) were found to be raised in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, whereas only IgA level was elevated in serum of patients with non-rheumatoid diseases. ANA and LE cell phenomenon were observed in 3.4% and 2.8% cases respectively in cases of clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis who had been suffering from severe active rheumatoid arthritis. In non-rheumatoid group RF was positive in significant titre in only one case of leprosy. Synovial fluid and synovium were found to be heavily infiltrated by plasma cells and lymphocytes. RF appears first in synovial fluid and then in serum. Hence RF titre in blood may not attain significant level for the first several months.
Bayat, Noushin; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Salimzadeh, Ahmad; Izadi, Morteza; Saleh, Davoud Kazemi; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin
Although patients with chronic diseases are at high-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression, few studies have compared patients with different chronic conditions in this regard. This study aimed to compare patients with different chronic medical conditions in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and clinical data. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2234 adults, either healthy (n = 362) or patients with chronic medical conditions (n = 1872). Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients had one of the following five medical conditions: coronary artery disease (n = 675), renal transplantation (n = 383), chronic hemodialysis (n = 68), rheumatoid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis) (n = 666) and viral hepatitis (n = 80). Independent factors included socio-demographic data, pain disability, and somatic comorbidities (Ifudu index). Outcomes included symptoms of anxiety and depression through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Two multinomial regression models were used to determine the predictors of anxiety and depression symptoms. After controlling the effect of age, sex, educational level, comorbidities, disability and pain, rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis were predictors of higher anxiety symptoms, while coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis were predictors of depression symptoms. Although all chronic conditions may require psychological consideration; be that as it may, different chronic diseases are dissimilar in terms of their mental health need. Anxiety for rheumatoid arthritis and hepatitis as well as depression for coronary artery disease and chronic hemodialysis is more important.
Rice, Gillian I; Forte, Gabriella M A; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Chase, Diana S; Aeby, Alec; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Ackroyd, Sam; Allcock, Rebecca; Bailey, Kathryn M; Balottin, Umberto; Barnerias, Christine; Bernard, Genevieve; Bodemer, Christine; Botella, Maria P; Cereda, Cristina; Chandler, Kate E; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Dale, Russell C; De Laet, Corinne; De Goede, Christian G E L; Del Toro, Mireia; Effat, Laila; Enamorado, Noemi Nunez; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Haldre, Madli; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M; Livingston, John H; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Marques, Wilson; Oades, Patrick; Peterson, Pärt; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Roubertie, Agathe; Schmidt, Johanna Loewenstein; Shalev, Stavit A; Simon, Rogelio; Spiegel, Ronen; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Temtamy, Samia A; Vassallo, Grace; Vilain, Catheline N; Vogt, Julie; Wermenbol, Vanessa; Whitehouse, William P; Soler, Doriette; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Aglan, Mona S; Zaki, Maha S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Vanderver, Adeline; Kisand, Kai; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder caused by mutations in any of six genes (TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR). The disease is severe and effective treatments are urgently needed. We investigated the status of interferon-related biomarkers in patients with AGS with a view to future use in diagnosis and clinical trials. In this case-control study, samples were collected prospectively from patients with mutation-proven AGS. The expression of six interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) was measured by quantitative PCR, and the median fold change, when compared with the median of healthy controls, was used to create an interferon score for each patient. Scores higher than the mean of controls plus two SD (>2·466) were designated as positive. Additionally, we collated historical data for interferon activity, measured with a viral cytopathic assay, in CSF and serum from mutation-positive patients with AGS. We also undertook neutralisation assays of interferon activity in serum, and looked for the presence of autoantibodies against a panel of interferon proteins. 74 (90%) of 82 patients had a positive interferon score (median 12·90, IQR 6·14-20·41) compared with two (7%) of 29 controls (median 0·93, IQR 0·57-1·30). Of the eight patients with a negative interferon score, seven had mutations in RNASEH2B (seven [27%] of all 26 patients with mutations in this gene). Repeat sampling in 16 patients was consistent for the presence or absence of an interferon signature on 39 of 41 occasions. Interferon activity (tested in 147 patients) was negatively correlated with age (CSF, r=-0·604; serum, r=-0·289), and was higher in CSF than in serum in 104 of 136 paired samples. Neutralisation assays suggested that measurable antiviral activity was related to interferon α production. We did not record significantly increased concentrations of autoantibodies to interferon subtypes in patients with AGS, or an association between the presence
Rice, Gillian I; Forte, Gabriella M A; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Chase, Diana S; Aeby, Alec; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Ackroyd, Sam; Allcock, Rebecca; Bailey, Kathryn M; Balottin, Umberto; Barnerias, Christine; Bernard, Genevieve; Bodemer, Christine; Botella, Maria P; Cereda, Cristina; Chandler, Kate E; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Dale, Russell C; De Laet, Corinne; De Goede, Christian G E L; del Toro, Mireia; Effat, Laila; Enamorado, Noemi Nunez; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Haldre, Madli; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M; Livingston, John H; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Marques, Wilson; Oades, Patrick; Peterson, Pärt; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Roubertie, Agathe; Schmidt, Johanna Loewenstein; Shalev, Stavit A; Simon, Rogelio; Spiegel, Ronen; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Temtamy, Samia A; Vassallo, Grace; Vilain, Catheline N; Vogt, Julie; Wermenbol, Vanessa; Whitehouse, William P; Soler, Doriette; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Aglan, Mona S; Zaki, Maha S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Vanderver, Adeline; Kisand, Kai; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J
Summary Background Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder caused by mutations in any of six genes (TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR). The disease is severe and effective treatments are urgently needed. We investigated the status of interferon-related biomarkers in patients with AGS with a view to future use in diagnosis and clinical trials. Methods In this case-control study, samples were collected prospectively from patients with mutation-proven AGS. The expression of six interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) was measured by quantitative PCR, and the median fold change, when compared with the median of healthy controls, was used to create an interferon score for each patient. Scores higher than the mean of controls plus two SD (>2·466) were designated as positive. Additionally, we collated historical data for interferon activity, measured with a viral cytopathic assay, in CSF and serum from mutation-positive patients with AGS. We also undertook neutralisation assays of interferon activity in serum, and looked for the presence of autoantibodies against a panel of interferon proteins. Findings 74 (90%) of 82 patients had a positive interferon score (median 12·90, IQR 6·14–20·41) compared with two (7%) of 29 controls (median 0·93, IQR 0·57–1·30). Of the eight patients with a negative interferon score, seven had mutations in RNASEH2B (seven [27%] of all 26 patients with mutations in this gene). Repeat sampling in 16 patients was consistent for the presence or absence of an interferon signature on 39 of 41 occasions. Interferon activity (tested in 147 patients) was negatively correlated with age (CSF, r=−0·604; serum, r=−0·289), and was higher in CSF than in serum in 104 of 136 paired samples. Neutralisation assays suggested that measurable antiviral activity was related to interferon α production. We did not record significantly increased concentrations of autoantibodies to interferon subtypes in patients with
Sakthirajan, R; Dhanapriya, J; Dineshkumar, T; Gopalakrishnan, N; Murugan, S; Balasubramaniyan, T
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the commonest rheumatological diseases. Renal involvement is not common but can occur as a result of chronic inflammation as part of disease process or drug toxicity. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ failure of variable severity. Only a few cases of TMA in patients with RA were reported to date. We describe a 45-year-old female patient with RA who presented with oliguria and edema. Renal biopsy showed TMA with patchy cortical necrosis. She improved with hemodialysis and plasmapheresis.
Sarter, Kerstin; Kulagin, Manuel; Schett, Georg; Harris, Nicola L; Zaiss, Mario M
Infections with different helminth species have been observed to ameliorate a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. Herein, we show that the natural murine helminth species, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) is capable of attenuating disease severity in two different inflammatory arthritis models. Furthermore, we show that excretory-secretory (ES) products from Hp directly suppress osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that helminth infections can dampen autoimmune diseases and highlight a previously unrecognized and important role for ES products, by directly impacting on bone destruction.
Paleolog, E M; Miotla, J M
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic destructive musculo-skeletal disorder, associated with thickening of the synovial membrane lining the joints, inflammation and hyperproliferation of synovial cells, as well as a pro-inflammatory cytokine cascade, leukocyte infiltration, and tissue damage and bone resorption. An early event in RA is an alteration in blood vessel density and prominent neovascularisation. The hyperplasia of the synovium necessitates a compensatory increase in the number of blood vessels to nourish and oxygenate the tissue. However, angiogenesis may not keep pace with synovial proliferation, leading to regions of hypoperfusion and hypoxia. VEGF, a potent endothelial cell mitogen, is expressed in RA synovium and elevated in the serum of RA patients. We have reported that dissociated RA synovial membrane cells spontaneously secrete VEGF, and that release of VEGF by these cells is upregulated by cytokines and hypoxia. In a murine model of RA, VEGF is released from synovial cells isolated from the knees of arthritic but not healthy mice, and the extent of VEGF production correlates with the severity of arthritis. VEGF thus appears to play a key role in mediating alterations in synovial vessel density in arthritis. As a consequence, RA may be a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy, and targeting VEGF may prove to be especially beneficial.
Totoson, Perle; Maguin-Gaté, Katy; Nappey, Maude; Wendling, Daniel; Demougeot, Céline
To determine mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction (ED) during the course of arthritis and to investigate the link between cytokines, chemokines and osteoprotegerin. Experiments were conducted on aortic rings at day 4 (preclinical), day 11 (onset of disease), day 33 (acute disease) and day 90 (chronic disease) after adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in Lewis rats. At day 4, the unique vascular abnormality was a reduced norepinephrine-induced constriction. At day 11, endothelial function assessed by the relaxation to acetylcholine was normal despite increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity (COX-2) and overproduction of superoxide anions that was compensated by increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. At day 33, ED apparition coincides with the normalization of NOS activity. At day 90, ED was only observed in rats with a persisting imbalance between endothelial NOS and COX-2 pathways and higher plasma levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Plasma levels of IL-1β, TNFα and MIP-1α negatively correlated with Ach-induced relaxation throughout the course of AIA. Our data identified increased endothelial NOS activity as an important compensatory response that opposes the ED in the early arthritis. Thereafter, a cross-talk between endothelial COX-2/NOS pathways appears as an important element for the occurrence of ED. Our results encourage determining the clinical value of IL-1β, TNFα and MIP-1α as biomarkers of ED in RA.
Waters, Sandra J.; Riordan, Paul A.; Keefe, Francis J.; Lefebvre, John C.
This study used Ward’s minimum variance hierarchical cluster analysis to identify homogeneous subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis patients suffering from chronic pain who exhibited similar pain behavior patterns during a videotaped behavior sample. Ninety-two rheumatoid arthritis patients were divided into two samples. Six motor pain behaviors were examined: guarding, bracing, active rubbing, rigidity, grimacing, and sighing. The cluster analysis procedure identified four similar subgroups in Sample 1 and Sample 2. The first subgroup exhibited low levels of all pain behaviors. The second subgroup exhibited a high level of guarding and low levels of other pain behaviors. The third subgroup exhibited high levels of guarding and rigidity and low levels of other pain behaviors. The fourth subgroup exhibited high levels of guarding and active rubbing and low levels of other pain behaviors. Sample 1 contained a fifth subgroup that exhibited a high level of active rubbing and low levels of other pain measures. The results of this study suggest that there are homogeneous subgroups within rheumatoid arthritis patient populations who differ in the motor pain behaviors they exhibit. PMID:18358682
Skorupska, Elżbieta; Samborski, Włodzimierz
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the coexistence of arthritis with psoriasis of the skin and nails. The sacroiliac joints were observed in 34-78% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Due to such a high prevalence of SIJ dysfunction, understanding pathophysiology of pain and the associated pain pattern becomes a very important aspect of PsA diagnosis. As far as the etiology of SI joint dysfunction is concerned, it has not been disambiguated yet. Among the main causative factors, injuries and strains of the structures surrounding the joint are noted. Joint pathology usually manifests itself by pain occurring within the area of the joint. The causes of pain may be divided into two categories: intra-articular and extra-articular. Pain caused by the SI joint may be nociceptive or neural in nature, whereas the pain pattern characteristic of the joint correlates with its innervation and is consistent with S2 dorsal rami. PMID:24278057
Gignac, Monique A M
To examine ways in which individuals with arthritis manage their employment and health by focusing on the type and determinants of diverse behavioral coping strategies used to manage activity limitations, and to examine the relationship between coping behaviors and participation in employment. The study group comprised 492 patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. All participants were employed, and all participants were administered an in-depth, structured questionnaire. The study used an inductive approach and distinguished among 4 categories of coping behaviors as follows: adjustments to time spent on activities; receipt of help; modification of behaviors; and anticipatory coping. Fewer coping behaviors were reported at the workplace than outside of the workplace. Anticipatory coping was used most often in the workplace. Workplace activity limitations were related to increased reports of all types of coping. Women, those with more joints affected, and people expecting to remain employed reported more anticipatory coping. Expectations of continued employment were also related to modifications of activities, as was longer disease duration and discussing arthritis with one's employer. Help from others was associated with talking to an employer and positive job perceptions. Compared with work, reports of a greater number of coping behaviors used at home were associated with changes in overall work participation (e.g., absenteeism). These results expand our understanding of the experience of having a chronic illness and working and highlight the ways in which people accommodate to workplace limitations by using a variety of different behavioral coping efforts to remain employed.
Hart, Robert S; Detro, John F
Musculoskeletal complaints comprise the majority of cases encountered by military physicians when evaluating young active duty Soldier-athletes. This is a case of reactive arthritis in a 19-year-old active duty Soldier-athlete whose failure to improve with conservative therapy initiated further investigation. When evaluating what appear to be routine overuse injuries, it is important to actively include other potential causes of musculoskeletal complaints in the differential diagnosis. Further investigation of disease in patients whose symptoms and complaints do not improve with routine conservative care is paramount. Reactive arthritis, though self-limiting in two-thirds of those affected, can become a chronic disabling disease affecting as many as 40 out of 100 patients. Current theories suggest the persistent presence of non-culturable bacteria and bacterial antigens residing in the joint synovia as the etiology of the disease state. There is no curative therapy for reactive arthritis and management is focused on the treatment of symptoms with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), immunomodulator therapy, and antibiotics if an infectious source is suspected.
Buendgens, Fabíola Bagatini; Blatt, Carine Raquel; Marasciulo, Antônio Carlos Estima; Leite, Silvana Nair; Farias, Mareni Rocha
Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis involves the use of medicines, non-pharmaceutical therapies, medical appointments, and complimentary tests, among other procedures. Based on sources of payment, this article presents the direct medical costs related to treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The cost analysis included 103 patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis treated at the Specialized Division of Pharmaceutical Care in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Total annual direct cost was R$ 2,045,596.55 (approximately one million US dollars), or R$ 19,860.16 per patient/year (slightly less than ten thousand US dollars). Total cost breakdown was as follows: 90.8% for medicines, 2.5% for hospitalizations, 2.2% for complimentary tests, 2.1% for medical appointments, and 2.4% for all other costs. The public sector accounted for 73.6% of the total direct medical costs and 79.3% of the cost of medicines. The cost analysis provided a profile of how a group of individuals with a chronic non-communicable disease that requires resources circulates in the public-private mix that characterizes the Brazilian health system.
Pacheco, D; Berdichevsky, R; Ballesteros, F; Jérez, J; Sobarzo, E; Fuentealba, C; Pino, C; Sanhueza, R; Estefan, M E; Medina, C
The congruence of interests between health care providers and clients is essential if subjects with chronic diseases will be educated. To assess, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, those fields in which they would like to receive education. Eighty eight patients with rheumatoid arthritis were surveyed about the topics in which they would like to be educated. The inquiry included medical aspects, handicap overcoming, social issues and labor aspects. Eighty two percent of patients were interested in medical aspects, 77% in social issues and 71% in handicap overcoming. Eighty three percent of patients with greater handicaps preferred handicap overcoming, 75% social aspects and 74% medical aspects. Younger patients had a greater interest in labor aspects, those with a recently diagnosed disease were interested in their legal rights and those with a prolonged disease wanted information about self help groups. The greater educational interests of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were on medical aspects. However, those impaired by the disease were interested in handicap overcoming. Age and duration of the disease also influenced the educational interests of patients. Thus, education in these patients must be individualized.
Whitehouse, M W; Butters, D E
This overview looks at some of the issues involved with the ever-increasing availability of marketed non-prescription products, specifically claiming to treat the pain and inflammation of arthritis and other musculoskeletal problems.The question of whether the buyer is getting (any) value for their money cannot be answered without considering several key issues. These include: (a) reliability of claims; (b) placebo effect (but for how long?); (c) reliability of composition, and reproducibility (especially of natural products); (d) general safety; (e) interactions with other medications; (f) honest labelling (in the absence of stricter guidelines).A particularly difficult problem is to know how to recognise a 'drug of choice', particularly for such a multi-faceted disease as chronic arthritis, when there is so little information about the actual pharmacology/potential toxicity of these OTC products in the standard drug compendia and other readily available reference texts.This grey area can only be illuminated by (i) further introduction (and enforcement) of adequate standards/quality controls for products offered OTC; (ii) earliest prosecution of clinical trials to supercede unverified testimonial claims; (iii) appropriate funding to research/establish basic pharmacology of the active principles.In summary, more research, more regulation, and more realistic investment will be required to dispel present uncertainty about which non-NSAID drugs/nutriceuticals are indeed effective against arthritis/other forms of inflammation, and which are not.
Camps, Montserrat; Rückle, Thomas; Ji, Hong; Ardissone, Vittoria; Rintelen, Felix; Shaw, Jeffrey; Ferrandi, Chiara; Chabert, Christian; Gillieron, Corine; Françon, Bernard; Martin, Thierry; Gretener, Denise; Perrin, Dominique; Leroy, Didier; Vitte, Pierre-Alain; Hirsch, Emilio; Wymann, Matthias P; Cirillo, Rocco; Schwarz, Matthias K; Rommel, Christian
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have long been considered promising drug targets for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. But the lack of specificity, isoform selectivity and poor biopharmaceutical profile of PI3K inhibitors have so far hampered rigorous disease-relevant target validation. Here we describe the identification and development of specific, selective and orally active small-molecule inhibitors of PI3Kgamma (encoded by Pik3cg). We show that Pik3cg(-/-) mice are largely protected in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis; this protection correlates with defective neutrophil migration, further validating PI3Kgamma as a therapeutic target. We also describe that oral treatment with a PI3Kgamma inhibitor suppresses the progression of joint inflammation and damage in two distinct mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, reproducing the protective effects shown by Pik3cg(-/-) mice. Our results identify selective PI3Kgamma inhibitors as potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Carvalho, C. S.; Raniero, L.; Santo, A. M. E.; Pinheiro, M. M.; Andrade, L. E. C.; Cardoso, M. A. G.; Junior, J. S.; Martin, A. A.
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease, recurrent and systemic, initiated by autoantibodies and maintained by inflammatory mechanisms cellular applicants. The evaluation of this disease to promote early diagnosis, need an associations of many tools, such as clinical, physical examination and thorough medical history. However, there is no satisfactory consensus due to its complexity. In the present work, confocal Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the biochemical composition of human serum of 40 volunteers, 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis presenting clinical signs and symptoms, and 16 healthy donors. The technique of latex agglutination for the polystyrene covered with human immunoglobulin G and PCR (protein c-reactive) was performed for confirmation of possible false-negative results within the groups, facilitating the statistical interpretation and validation of the technique. This study aimed to verify the changes for the characteristics Raman peaks of biomolecules such as immunoglobulins amides and protein. The results were highly significant with a good separation between groups mentioned. The discriminant analysis was performed through the principal components and correctly identified 92% of the donors. Based on these results, we observed the behavior of arthritis autoimmune, evident in certain spectral regions that characterize the serological differences between the groups.
Salemi, Simonetta; Biondo, Michela I; Fiorentino, Chiara; Argento, Giuseppe; Paolantonio, Michele; Di Murro, Carlo; Malagnino, Vito A; Canzoni, Marco; Diamanti, Andrea Picchianti; D'Amelio, Raffaele
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated polyarthritis; currently no pathogenic agent has been identified as a disease trigger. A patient with RA, presumably caused by periodontal infection, whose remission has been observed after periodontitis treatment in absence of specific RA therapy, is reported here for the first time, to our knowledge. A 61-year-old male patient presented migrant arthritis associated with antibodies against citrullinated protein antigens positivity. The clinical features allowed to make RA diagnosis according to the 2010 European League against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology RA classification criteria. X-ray of the second upper molar showed chronic apical periodontitis. After its treatment, arthritis remission has been observed in the absence of specific RA therapy. It has been suggested that periodontitis may have a trigger role in RA pathogenesis. This could be explained by the enzymatic action of Porphyromonas gingivalis, probably leading to break tolerance to collagen. The identification and subsequent treatment of periodontitis should therefore be considered pivotal in RA prophylaxis and management.
Bombardieri, Michele; Greenhill, Claire J.; McLeod, Louise; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rocher-Ros, Vidalba; Cardus, Anna; Williams, Anwen S.; Pitzalis, Costantino; Jenkins, Brendan J.
Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) reminiscent of secondary lymphoid organs often develop at sites of chronic inflammation where they contribute to immune-mediated pathology. Through evaluation of synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we now show that low interleukin-27 (IL-27) expression corresponds with an increased incidence of ELS and gene signatures associated with their development and activity. The presence of synovial ELS was also noted in mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) after the onset of inflammatory arthritis. Here, pathology was associated with increased synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, homeostatic chemokines, and transcriptional regulators linked with lymphoid neogenesis. In both clinical and experimental RA, synovial ELS coincided with the heightened local expression of cytokines and transcription factors of the Th17 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell lineages, and included podoplanin-expressing T cells within lymphoid aggregates. IL-27 inhibited the differentiation of podoplanin-expressing Th17 cells, and an increased number of these cells were observed in IL-27R–deficient mice with inflammatory arthritis. Thus, IL-27 appears to negatively regulate ELS development in RA through control of effector T cells. These studies open new opportunities for patient stratification and treatment. PMID:26417004
Nye, R N; Waxelbaum, E A
The question of the relationship of streptococci to the etiology of infectious arthritis and of rheumatic fever is of the utmost importance. If a streptococcus or group of streptococci could be shown to be associated See PDF for Structure with either disease, some form of specific treatment might be available. The possibility of primary streptococcic infection as the cause of rheumatic fever, and, to a less extent, of acute infectious arthritis would seem to be a reasonable conjecture because of the frequency of associated throat, sinus or other focal infection. To consider that these same streptococci remain in or about the affected joint and to such an extent that they are found in the blood stream in cases of chronic infectious arthritis of years' duration demands a rather unique conception. Recent investigative work has certainly tended to confirm the importance of streptococci in these diseases, but, if all the published reports are considered as a group, one can not help being impressed with the inconsistency and peculiarities of the findings. In blood cultures from cases of rheumatic fever Clawson (7) recovered Streptococcus viridans, Small (8) and Birkhaug (9) non-hemolytic (gamma type) streptococci, and Cecil et al. (3) Streptococcus viridans, rarely hemolytic and non-hemolytic streptococci. In blood cultures from cases of infectious arthritis Cecil et al. (2) recovered attenuated hemolytic streptococci and occasionally Streptococcus viridans, non-hemolytic streptococci and diphtheroids and Margolis and Dorsey (10) green-producing and indifferent streptococci and diphtheroids, whereas from synovial fluids and regional lymph nodes Forkner, Shands and Poston (4) and Poston (5) obtained Streptococcus viridans and Margolis and Dorsey (11) recovered green-producing and indifferent streptococci and diphtheroids from epiphyseal marrows, bones and synovial membranes. On the other hand, Jordan (12) and Nye and Seegal (13) and the work reported in this paper have
Mody, Girish M; Cardiel, Mario H
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. Patients experience chronic pain and suffering, and increasing disability; without treatment, life expectancy is reduced. It is imperative to identify patients early so that control of inflammation can prevent joint destruction and disability. Although great advances have been made in the developed nations, early diagnosis remains a great challenge for developing countries during the Bone and Joint Decade (2000-2010) and beyond. Developing countries face important and competitive social, economic, health- and poverty-related issues, and this frequently results in chronic diseases such as RA being forgotten in health priorities when urgent health needs are considered in an environment with poor education and scarce resources. Epidemiological studies in developing countries show a lower but still important prevalence in different regions when compared to that in Caucasians. It seems that the severity of RA varies among different ethnic groups, and probably starts at a younger age in developing countries. Practising rheumatologists in these regions need to take into account several important problems that include suboptimal undergraduate education, inadequate diagnosis, late referrals, lack of human and technical resources, poor access to rheumatologists, and some deficiencies in drug availability. Infections are very important in RA, and special care is needed in developing countries as some endemic infections include tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. These infections should be carefully taken into account when medications are prescribed and monitored. This chapter presents published information covering the main challenges faced in these environments, and suggests strategies to overcome these important problems in RA management.
Dunlop, Dorothy D; Manheim, Larry M; Song, Jing; Sohn, Min-Woong; Feinglass, Joseph M; Chang, Huan J; Chang, Rowland W
Nearly 18 million Americans experience limitations due to their arthritis. Documented disparities according to racial/ethnic groups in the use of surgical interventions such as knee and hip arthroplasty are largely based on data from Medicare beneficiaries age 65 or older. Whether there are disparities among younger adults has not been previously addressed. This study assesses age-specific racial/ethnic differences in arthritis-related knee and hip surgeries. Longitudinal (1998-2004) Health and Retirement Study. National probability sample of US community-dwelling adults. A total of 2262 black, 1292 Hispanic, and 13,159 white adults age 51 and older. The outcome is self-reported 2-year use of arthritis-related hip or knee surgery. Independent variables are demographic (race/ethnicity, age, gender), health needs (arthritis, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, and functional limitations), and medical access (income, wealth, education, and health insurance). Longitudinal data methods using discrete survival analysis are used to validly account for repeated (biennial) observations over time. Analyses use person-weights, stratum, and sampling error codes to provide valid inferences to the US population. Black adults under the age of 65 years report similar age/gender adjusted rates of hip/knee arthritis surgeries [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-2.38] whereas older blacks (age 65+) have significantly lower rates (HR = 0.38, CI = 0.16-0.55) compared with whites. These relationships hold controlling for health and economic differences. Both under age 65 years (HR = 0.64, CI = 0.12-1.44) and older (age 65+) Hispanic adults (HR = 0.60, CI = 0.32-1.10) report lower utilization rates, although not statistically different than whites. A large portion of the Hispanic disparity is explained by economic differences. These national data document lower rates of arthritis-related hip/knee surgeries for older black versus white adults age 65 or
Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D
Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Radhakutty, Anjana; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L; Drake, Sophie M; Rowland, Andrew; Smith, Malcolm D; Mangoni, Arduino A; Thompson, Campbell H; Burt, Morton G
The effects of low dose prednisolone on circulating markers of endothelial function, the arginine metabolites asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), mono methyl arginine (MMA), and homoarginine, are uncertain. We assessed whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis have perturbations in arginine metabolite concentrations that are reversed by low dose prednisolone. Eighteen rheumatoid arthritis patients who had not taken prednisolone for >6 months (non-glucocorticoid (GC) users), 18 rheumatoid arthritis patients taking continuous oral prednisolone (6.5 ± 1.8 mg/day) for >6 months (GC users) and 20 healthy controls were studied. Fasting plasma concentrations of ADMA, MMA, and homoarginine were measured by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography. Baseline data from non-GC users were compared with healthy controls to assess the effect of rheumatoid arthritis. The change in arginine metabolites in non-GC users after 7 days of prednisolone (6 mg/day) was used to assess the acute effects of prednisolone. Baseline data from non-GC users were compared with GC users to assess the chronic effects of prednisolone. Non-GC users had higher ADMA (0.59 ± 0.03 vs. 0.47 ± 0.01 μM, p = 0.004) and MMA concentrations (0.10 ± 0.01 vs. 0.05 ± 0.00 μM, p < 0.001) than controls. The only change with acute prednisolone was a reduction in homoarginine (1.23 ± 0.06 vs. 1.08 ± 0.06 μM, p = 0.04) versus baseline. GC users had lower concentrations of ADMA (0.51 ± 0.02 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 μM, p = 0.03) than non-GC users. Rheumatoid arthritis patients have higher concentrations of ADMA and MMA, inhibitors of endothelial function. Chronic, but not acute, prednisolone therapy is associated with a lower ADMA concentration, suggesting a salutary effect of long-term glucocorticoid treatment on endothelial function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Safy, M; de Hair, M J H; Jacobs, J W G; Buttgereit, F; Kraan, M C; van Laar, J M
Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) plays an important role in the management of arthritis patients, although the efficacy/safety balance is unfavorable. Alternatives with less (severe) adverse effects but with good efficacy are needed. Selective GC receptor modulators (SGRMs) are designed to engage the GC receptor with dissociative characteristics: transactivation of genes, which is mainly responsible for unwanted effects, is less strong while trans-repression of genes, reducing inflammation, is maintained. It is expected that SGRMs thus have a better efficacy/safety balance than GCs. A systematic review providing an overview of the evidence in arthritis is lacking. To systematically review the current literature on efficacy and safety of oral SGRMs in comparison to GCs in arthritis. A search was performed in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library, from inception dates of databases until May 2017. Experimental studies involving animal arthritis models or human material of arthritis patients, as well as clinical studies in arthritis patients were included, provided they reported original data. All types of arthritis were included. Data was extracted on the SGRM studied and on the GC used as reference standard; the design or setting of the study was extracted as well as the efficacy and safety results. A total of 207 articles was retrieved of which 17 articles were eligible for our analysis. Two studies concerned randomized controlled trials (RCT), five studies were pre-clinical studies using human material, and 10 studies involved pre-clinical animal models (acute and/or chronic arthritis induced in mice or rats). PF-04171327, the only compound investigated in a clinical trial setting, had a better efficacy/safety balance compared to GCs: better clinical anti-inflammatory efficacy and similar safety. Studies assessing both efficacy and safety of SGRMs are scarce. There is limited evidence for dissociation of anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of