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Sample records for chronic hypoxic mouse

  1. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases: novel vasoconstrictor pathways.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Simon C; Keane, Michael P; Gaine, Seán; McLoughlin, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognised complication of chronic hypoxic lung diseases, which are among the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Development of pulmonary hypertension independently predicts reduced life expectancy. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, long-term oxygen therapy ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and greatly improves survival, although the correction of alveolar hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension is only partial. Advances in understanding of the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone show that chronic vasoconstriction plays a more important part in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension than previously thought, and that structural vascular changes contribute less. Trials of existing vasodilators show that pulmonary hypertension can be ameliorated and systemic oxygen delivery improved in carefully selected patients, although systemic hypotensive effects limit the doses used. Vasoconstrictor pathways that are selective for the pulmonary circulation can be blocked to reduce hypoxic pulmonary hypertension without causing systemic hypotension, and thus provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies.

  2. Improved tolerance of acute severe hypoxic stress in chronic hypoxic diaphragm is nitric oxide-dependent.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Philip; McMorrow, Clodagh; Bradford, Aidan; O'Halloran, Ken D

    2015-09-01

    The effects of chronic hypoxia (CH) on respiratory muscle performance have hardly been investigated, despite clinical relevance. Results from recent studies are indicative of unique adaptive strategies in hypoxic diaphragm. Respiratory muscle tolerance of acute severe hypoxic stress was examined in normoxic and CH diaphragm in the presence and absence of a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor. We tested the hypothesis that improved tolerance of severe hypoxic stress in CH diaphragm is NO-dependent. Wistar rats were exposed to normoxia (sea-level, n = 6) or CH (ambient pressure = 380 mmHg, n = 6) for 6 weeks. Diaphragm muscle functional properties were determined ex vivo under severe hypoxic conditions (gassed with 95%N2/5% CO2) with and without 1 mM L-N(G)-nitroarginine (L-NNA, nNOS inhibitor). Fatigue tolerance, but not force, was significantly improved in CH diaphragm (p = 0.008). CH exposure did not affect diaphragm muscle fibre oxidative capacity determined from cluster analysis of area-density plots of muscle fibre succinate dehydrogenase activity. Acute NOS inhibition reduced diaphragm peak tetanic force (p = 0.018), irrespective of gas treatment, and completely reversed improved fatigue tolerance of the CH diaphragm. We conclude that CH exposure improves fatigue tolerance during acute severe hypoxic stress in an NO-dependent manner, independent of muscle fibre oxidative capacity.

  3. Efferent inhibition of carotid body chemoreception in chronically hypoxic cats.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, S; Smatresk, N; Pokorski, M; Barnard, P; Mokashi, A

    1983-11-01

    The effects of chronic hypoxia on carotid chemoreceptor afferent activity before and after sectioning the carotid sinus nerves (CSN) were studied in cats exposed to 10% O2 for 21-49 days in a chamber at sea level. For comparison, chronically normoxic cats at sea level were also studied. The cats were anesthetized, paucifiber preparation for the measurement of carotid chemosensory activity from a small slip of CSN was made, and their steady-state responses to 4-5 levels of arterial pressure of O2 (PaO2) at a constant PaCO2 and to 3-4 levels of PaCO2 in hyperoxia were measured before and after sectioning the CSN. The chemosensory response to hypoxia in the cats with intact CSN after chronic exposure to hypoxia was not reduced relative to the cats that breathed room air at sea level. Sectioning the CSN significantly augmented the chemosensory responses to hypoxia in all the chronically hypoxic but not significantly in the normoxic cats. The responses to moderate hypercapnia during hyperoxia were not significantly changed by cutting the CSN in either group. We conclude that there is a significant CSN efferent inhibition of chemosensory activity due to chronic hypoxia in the cat. This implies that without the efferent inhibition the hypoxic chemosensitivity is increased by chronic hypoxia.

  4. Blunted Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in Experimental Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Parra, Gloria Juliana; Archer, Stephen L.; Bland, Richard D.; Albertine, Kurt H.; Carlton, David P.; Cho, Soo-Chul; Kirby, Beth; Haromy, Al; Eaton, Farah; Wu, Xichen; Thébaud, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD), caused by prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) with O2-rich gas, is the most common cause of long-term hospitalization and recurrent respiratory illness in extremely premature infants. Recurrent episodes of hypoxemia and associated ventilator adjustments often lead to worsening CLD. The mechanism that causes these hypoxemic episodes is unknown. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), which is partially controlled by O2-sensitive voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, is an important adaptive response to local hypoxia that helps to match perfusion and ventilation in the lung. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that chronic lung injury (CLI) impairs HPV. Methods: We studied preterm lambs that had MV with O2-rich gas for 3 weeks and newborn rats that breathed 95%-O2 for 2 weeks, both of which resulted in airspace enlargement and pulmonary vascular changes consistent with CLD. Measurements and Main Results: HPV was attenuated in preterm lambs with CLI after 2 weeks of MV and in newborn rats with CLI after 2 weeks of hyperoxia. HPV and constriction to the Kv1.x-specific inhibitor, correolide, were preferentially blunted in excised distal pulmonary arteries (dPAs) from hyperoxic rats, whose dPAs exhibited decreased Kv1.5 and Kv2.1 mRNA and K+ current. Intrapulmonary gene transfer of Kv1.5, encoding the ion channel that is thought to trigger HPV, increased O2-sensitive K+ current in cultured smooth muscle cells from rat dPAs, and restored HPV in hyperoxic rats. Conclusions: Reduced expression/activity of O2-sensitive Kv channels in dPAs contributes to blunted HPV observed in neonatal CLD. PMID:18511704

  5. Effects of chronic normobaric hypoxic and hypercapnic exposure in rats: Prevention of experimental chronic mountain sickness by hypercapnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, B.; Bonkovsky, H. L.; Ou, Lo-Chang

    1987-09-01

    A syndrome of experimental chronic mountain sickness can be produced in the Hilltop strain of Sprague-Dawley rats by chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure. This syndrome is characterized by polycythemia, plasma hemoglobinemia, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy with eventual failure and death. It has generally been assumed that these changes are caused by chronic hypoxemia, not by hypobaric exposure per se. We have now confirmed this directly by showing that chronic normobaric hypoxic exposure (10.5% O2) produces similar hematologic and hemodynamic changes. Further, the addition of hypercapnic exposure to the hypoxic exposure blunted or prevented the effects of the hypoxic exposure probably by stimulating respiration, thus increasing the rate of oxygen delivery to the cells. Changes in the rate-controlling enzymes of hepatic heme metabolism, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and in cytochrome(s) P-450, the major hepatic hemoprotein(s), were also measured in hypoxic and hypercapnic rats. Hypoxia decreased 5-aminolevulinate synthase and increased cytochrome(s) P-450, probably by increasing the size of a “regulatory” heme pool within hepatocytes. These changes were also prevented by the addition of hypercapnic to hypoxic exposure.

  6. Effect of ghrelin on aldolase gene expression in the heart of chronic hypoxic rat.

    PubMed

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia causes apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, however, energy production by anaerobic glycolysis protects myocardium against hypoxia injuries. Aldolase A is a well-characterised key enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, synthesizes in the stomach and has protective roles in cardiovascular systems and also affects metabolic pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on aldolase A gene expression after chronic hypoxia in the rat hearts. Twenty four adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11 %), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. Aldolase A gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. the transcriptiom rate of Aldolase A in hypoxic animals did not change significantly compared to negative control ones. During chronic hypoxia, ghrelin treatment increased the amount of heart Aldolase A gene expression compared to negative controls (P = 0.029). Hypoxic animals that were treated with ghrelin were significantly more polycythemic than the controls and even hypoxic with saline treated rats (P < 0.001). It seems that ghrelin interferes in the cardiac metabolism through upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. In other words, it may protect heart from possible hypoxia induced damages.

  7. Effect of Ghrelin on Aldolase Gene Expression in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hypoxia causes apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, however, energy production by anaerobic glycolysis protects myocardium against hypoxia injuries. Aldolase A is a well-characterised key enzyme of the glycolysis pathway. Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, synthesizes in the stomach and has protective roles in cardiovascular systems and also affects metabolic pathways. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on aldolase A gene expression after chronic hypoxia in the rat hearts. Materials and Methods Twenty four adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Hypoxic rats with saline or ghrelin treatment were placed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11 %), for two weeks. Controls remained in room air. Aldolase A gene expression was measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Results the transcriptiom rate of Aldolase A in hypoxic animals did not change significantly compared to negative control ones. During chronic hypoxia, ghrelin treatment increased the amount of heart Aldolase A gene expression compared to negative controls (P = 0.029). Hypoxic animals that were treated with ghrelin were significantly more polycythemic than the controls and even hypoxic with saline treated rats (P < 0.001). Conclusions It seems that ghrelin interferes in the cardiac metabolism through upregulation of glycolytic enzymes. In other words, it may protect heart from possible hypoxia induced damages. PMID:23843819

  8. Metabolic responses to chronic hypoxic incubation in embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Crossley, Dane A; Ling, Rick; Nelson, Derek; Gillium, Taylor; Conner, Justin; Hapgood, James; Elsey, Ruth M; Eme, John

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hypoxic incubation is a common tool used to study developmental changes in reduced O2 conditions, and it has been useful for identifying phenotypically plastic periods during ontogeny in laboratory settings. Reptilian embryos can be subjected to natural hypoxia due to nesting strategy, and recent studies have been important in establishing the phenotypic responses of several species to low developmental oxygen. In particular, the cardiovascular responses of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to low developmental oxygen have been detailed, including a substantial cardiac enlargement that may support a higher mass specific metabolic rate. However, embryo mass-specific metabolic demands of hypoxic incubated alligator embryos have not been measured. In this study, alligator eggs were incubated in 10% O2 (H) or 21% O2 (N) environments for the entire course of embryonic development. Acute metabolic measures in 21% and 10% O2 were taken for both H and N groups. We hypothesized that acute 10% O2 exposure has no impact on metabolic rate of embryonic alligators, and that metabolic rate is unaffected by chronic hypoxic incubation when studied in embryos measured at 21% O2. Our findings suggest phenotypic changes resulting from hypoxic incubation early in incubation, in particular relative cardiac enlargement, enable embryonic alligators to sustain metabolic rate during acute hypoxic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stiffening of the Extrapulmonary Arteries From Rats in Chronic Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, E. S; Bischoff, J. E; Slifka, A. J; McCowan, C. N; Quinn, T. P; Shandas, R; Ivy, D. D; Stenmark, K. R

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the compliance properties of large blood vessels are critical determinants of ventricular afterload and ultimately dysfunction. Little is known of the mechanical properties of large vessels exhibiting pulmonary hypertension, particularly the trunk and right main artery. We initiated a study to investigate the influence of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension on the mechanical properties of the extrapulmonary arteries of rats. One group of animals was housed at the equivalent of 5000 m elevation for three weeks and the other held at ambient conditions of ~1600 m. The two groups were matched in age and gender. The animals exposed to hypobaric hypoxia exhibited signs of pulmonary hypertension, as evidenced by an increase in the RV/(LV+S) heart weight ratio. The extrapulmonary arteries of the hypoxic animals were also thicker than those of the control population. Histological examination revealed increased thickness of the media and additional deposits of collagen in the adventitia. The mechanical properties of the trunk, and the right and left main pulmonary arteries were assessed; at a representative pressure (7 kPa), the two populations exhibited different quantities of stretch for each section. At higher pressures we noted less deformation among the arteries from hypoxic animals as compared with controls. A four-parameter constitutive model was employed to fit and analyze the data. We conclude that chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is associated with a stiffening of all the extrapulmonary arteries. PMID:27096124

  10. Combination of nicotinamide and hyperthermia to eliminate radioresistant chronically and acutely hypoxic tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Horsman, M.R.; Chaplin, D.J.; Overgaard, J. )

    1990-12-01

    The interaction among nicotinamide, radiation, and heat was studied in vivo using a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma grown in the feet of CDF1 mice. Response following local tumor treatment was assessed by tumor control and regrowth delay. Nicotinamide (1000 mg/kg i.p.) produced maximal radiosensitization when injected 30 min to 2 h before irradiation (enhancement ratios (ERs), 1.2-1.5). Radiation damage was also increased by heating tumors (43.5 degrees C for 60 min) 4 h after irradiation (ERs = 1.6-2.6). This combined radiation and heat treatment was enhanced by nicotinamide but the effect depended on the assay procedure, such that although a significant increase was observed with the tumor control assay, only a slight increase was seen using regrowth delay as the end point. The development of moist desquamation in normal feet was used to estimate skin damage after irradiation. Nicotinamide and heat both resulted in a small yet significant increase in skin damage (ERs less than 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). A combined treatment resulted in a greater ER of 1.7, but when compared to the tumor response it still gave a therapeutic gain. A histological fluorescent staining technique was used to assess functional tumor vasculature at two periods in time separated by 20 min. Under normal conditions 7.7% of the vessels in this tumor were functional at one time but not the other. This value was reduced to 2.8% after nicotinamide administration. Since these fluctuations in blood flow can result in acute hypoxia we conclude that while heat eliminates chronically hypoxic tumor cells, nicotinamide probably removes the presence of acute hypoxia.

  11. The superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, blunts right ventricular hypertrophy in chronic hypoxic rats

    PubMed Central

    Elmedal, Britt; de Dam, Mette Y; Mulvany, Michael John; Simonsen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol, added either alone or in combination with the nitric oxide (NO) donor molsidomine, prevents the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chronic hypoxic rats.Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen) for 2 weeks increased the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricle and lung wet weight. Relaxations evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) and the molsidomine metabolite SIN-1 were impaired in isolated proximal, but not distal pulmonary arteries, from chronic hypoxic rats.Treatment with tempol (86 mg kg−1 day−1 in drinking water) normalized RVSP and reduced right ventricular hypertrophy, while systemic blood pressure, lung and liver weights, and blunted ACh relaxation of pulmonary arteries were unchanged.Treatment with molsidomine (15 mg kg−1 day−1 in drinking water) had the same effects as tempol, except that liver weight was reduced, and potassium and U46619-evoked vasoconstrictions in pulmonary arteries were increased. Combining tempol and molsidomine did not have additional effects compared to tempol alone. ACh relaxation in pulmonary arteries was not normalized by these treatments.The media to lumen diameter ratio of the pulmonary arteries was greater for the hypoxic rats compared to the normoxic rats, and was not reversed by treatment with tempol, molsidomine, or the combination of tempol and molsidomine.We conclude that tempol, like molsidomine, is able to correct RVSP and reduce right ventricular weight in the rat hypoxic model. Functional and structural properties of pulmonary small arteries were little affected. The results support the possibility that superoxide dismutase mimetics may be a useful means for the treatment of PH. PMID:14656807

  12. Accelerated acidosis in response to variable fetal heart rate decelerations in chronically hypoxic ovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Kevin E; Matushewski, Brad; Durosier, L Daniel; Frasch, Martin G; Richardson, Bryan S; Ross, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    Due to limitations of technology, clinicians are typically unable to determine if human fetuses are normoxic or moderately, chronically hypoxic. Risk factors for chronic hypoxia include fetal growth restriction, which is associated with an increased incidence of oligohydramnios and thus a risk for umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) and variable fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations. At delivery, fetal growth restriction infants (<3rd percentile) have nearly twice the incidence of low Apgar scores and umbilical pH <7.0. Despite the risks of oligohydramnios and intermittent UCO, there is little understanding of the acid/base responses rates of chronically hypoxic fetuses to variable FHR decelerations as might occur during human labor. We sought to compare the increase in base deficit (BD) among chronically hypoxic as compared to normoxic ovine fetuses in response to simulated mild, moderate, and severe variable FHR decelerations. Near-term ovine fetuses were chronically prepared with brachial artery catheters and an inflatable umbilical cuff occluder. Following a recovery period, normoxic (n = 9) and spontaneously hypoxic (n = 5) fetuses were identified (arterial O2 saturation ≤55%). Both animal groups underwent graded, 1-minute occlusions every 2.5 minutes with 1 hour of mild (∼30 beats/min [bpm] decrease from baseline), 1 hour of moderate (∼60 bpm decrease from baseline), and up to 2 hours of severe (∼90 bpm decrease from baseline) variable FHR decelerations until fetal arterial pH reached 7.00, when occlusions were stopped. Repetitive UCO resulted in development of acidosis (pH <7.0) in both groups. Hypoxic and normoxic fetuses demonstrated similar BD increases in response to both mild (0.39, interquartile range [IQR] 0.28-0.45 vs 0.26, IQR 0.01-0.30 mEq/L/10 min, P = .25) and severe (1.97, IQR 1.50-2.43 vs 1.51, IQR 0.97-2.45 mEq/L/10 min, P = .63) variable decelerations. However, moderate variable decelerations increased BD in hypoxic fetuses at 2.5 times the

  13. [Chronic administration of estradiol to ovariectomized female Wistar rats causes development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Iu O; Artem'eva, M M; Medvedev, O S; Medvedeva, N A

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the role of female sex hormone estradiol in the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Previously, it was shown that the development of pulmonary hypertension in Wistar female rats is accompanied by a twofold increase in the estradiol level. Ovariectomy reduces the degree of pulmonary hypertension in these animals. In this work, the effect of various chronic doses of exogenous estradiol (5 and 15 microg/kg per day) on the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in Wistar female rats has been studied. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (10 h a day for 2 weeks) at simulated altitude of 5000 m (O2 concentration reduced to 10%). The administration of estradiol in different doses (5 and 15 microg/kg per day) for 21 day initiated the development of pulmonary hypertension in ovariectomized Wistar female rats.

  14. NS1619-induced vasodilation is enhanced and differentially mediated in chronically hypoxic lungs.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Danielle J; Vang, Alexander; Choudhary, Gaurav

    2014-10-01

    To identify the effect of the benzimidazalone derivative, NS1619, on modulating pulmonary vascular tone in lungs from rats exposed to normoxia (21% FiO2) or chronic hypoxia (10% FiO2) for three weeks. Isolated perfused lungs were preconstricted (U46619), and dose-dependent vasodilation to NS1619 was assessed. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible, NS1619 vasodilatory responses were assessed following inhibition of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated (BKCa; iberiotoxin and paxilline), L-type Ca2+ (nifedipine), K+ (tetraethylammonium), Cl- (niflumic acid), and cation/TRP (lanthanum) channels, as well as nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME). Compared to normoxia, NS1619-induced vasodilation was significantly greater following hypoxia; however, NO-dependent vasodilation and BKCa-mediated vasodilation, in response to NS1619, were similar in the normoxic and hypoxic lungs. In contrast, direct activation of L-type Ca2+ and non-BKCa K+ channel was involved in the NS1619-induced vasodilation only in hypoxic lungs. NS1619 causes pulmonary vasodilation by affecting multiple complementary pathways, including stimulation of NO production, activation of BKCa channels, other TEA-sensitive K+ channels, and L-type Ca2+ channels, and could be considered as a therapeutic agent in hypoxic PH.

  15. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts a cardiovascular reflex loop in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Hicks, James W; Crossley, Dane A

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic non-avian reptiles, and this study is the first to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on a possible chemoreflex loop in a developing non-avian reptile. We measured heart rate and blood pressure in normoxic and hypoxic-incubated (10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis) at 70 and 90/95% of development. We hypothesized that hypoxic incubation would blunt embryonic alligators' response to a reflex loop stimulated by phenylbiguanide (PBG), a 5-HT(3) receptor agonist that stimulates vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents. PBG injection caused a hypotensive bradycardia in 70 and 95% of development embryos (paired t tests, P < 0.05), a response similar to mammals breathing inspired air (all injections made through occlusive catheter in tertiary chorioallantoic membrane artery). Hypoxic incubation blunted the bradycardic response to PBG in embryos at 95% of development (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01). We also demonstrated that the vagally mediated afferent limb of this reflex can be partially or completely blocked in ovo with a 5-HT(3) receptor blockade using ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (OHD), with a ganglionic blockade using hexamethonium, or with a cholinergic blockade using atropine. Atropine eliminated the hypotensive and bradycardic responses to PBG, and OHD and hexamethonium significantly blunted these responses. This cardiovascular reflex mediated by the vagus was affected by hypoxic incubation, suggesting that reptilian sympathetic and parasympathetic reflex loops have the potential for developmental plasticity in response to hypoxia. We suggest that the American alligator, with an extended length of time between each developmental stage relative to avian species, may provide an excellent model to test the cardiorespiratory effects of prolonged exposure to changes in atmospheric gases. This extended period allows for lengthy studies at each stage without the

  16. Specific N-terminal CGRP fragments mitigate chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xin; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Keith, Ingegerd M

    2003-01-31

    Chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (P(PA)), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular remodeling, pulmonary edema and polycythemia. Currently, there is no safe and effective treatment for HPH. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is the most potent peptide vasodilator discovered thus far. We previously demonstrated that exogenous CGRP reversed HPH in rats. However, the CGRP1 receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37) and smaller inhibitory C-terminal CGRP fragments that can be formed by enzymatic cleavage in vivo may compromise the beneficial effects of endogenous or exogenous CGRP. We here examine the agonistic efficacy of N-terminal rat alpha-CGRP peptides containing the disulfide bridge (Cys(2)-Cys(7)) with amidated C-terminal in prevention of HPH. Chronic infusion of CGRP(1-8), CGRP(1-13), or CGRP(1-14) at 7 nmol/h/rat via the right jugular vein during 14 days of hypobaric hypoxia (10% inspired O(2)) significantly decreased the P(PA), RVH and pulmonary arterial medial thickness in comparison with controls, suggesting that these CGRP sequences can mitigate chronic HPH in rats. Systemic pressure was unchanged by infused peptides indicating no carry-over effect. In conclusion, N-terminal CGRP fragments (CGRP(1-8), CGRP(1-13) and CGRP(1-14)) may have a protective role in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Hypoxic alligator embryos: chronic hypoxia, catecholamine levels and autonomic responses of in ovo alligators.

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Altimiras, Jordi; Hicks, James W; Crossley, Dane A

    2011-11-01

    Hypoxia is a naturally occurring environmental challenge for embryonic reptiles, and this is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on the in ovo development of autonomic cardiovascular regulation and circulating catecholamine levels in a reptile. We measured heart rate (f(H)) and chorioallantoic arterial blood pressure (MAP) in normoxic ('N21') and hypoxic-incubated ('H10'; 10% O(2)) American alligator embryos (Alligator mississippiensis) at 70, 80 and 90% of development. Embryonic alligator responses to adrenergic blockade with propranolol and phentolamine were very similar to previously reported responses of embryonic chicken, and demonstrated that embryonic alligator has α and β-adrenergic tone over the final third of development. However, adrenergic tone originates entirely from circulating catecholamines and is not altered by chronic hypoxic incubation, as neither cholinergic blockade with atropine nor ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium altered baseline cardiovascular variables in N21 or H10 embryos. In addition, both atropine and hexamethonium injection did not alter the generally depressive effects of acute hypoxia - bradycardia and hypotension. However, H10 embryos showed significantly higher levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline at 70% of development, as well as higher noradrenaline at 80% of development, suggesting that circulating catecholamines reach maximal levels earlier in incubation for H10 embryos, compared to N21 embryos. Chronically elevated levels of catecholamines may alter the normal balance between α and β-adrenoreceptors in H10 alligator embryos, causing chronic bradycardia and hypotension of H10 embryos measured in normoxia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of maternal oxygenic state to the effects of chronic postnatal hypoxia on mouse body and brain development.

    PubMed

    Salmaso, Natalina; Dominguez, Moises; Kravitz, Jacob; Komitova, Mila; Vaccarino, Flora M; Schwartz, Michael L

    2015-09-14

    1-2% of live births are to very low birth weight, premature infants that often show a developmental trajectory plagued with neurological sequelae including ventriculomegaly and significant decreases in cortical volume. We are able to recapitulate these sequelae using a mouse model of hypoxia where early postnatal pups are exposed to chronic hypoxia for one week. However, because the timing of hypoxic exposure occurs so early in development, dams and pups are housed together in the hypoxic chamber, and therefore, dams are also subjected to the same hypoxic conditions as the pups. To understand the relative contribution of hypoxia directly on the pups as opposed to the indirect contribution mediated by the effects of hypoxia and potential alterations in the dam's care of the pups, we examined whether reducing the dams exposure to hypoxia may significantly increase pup outcomes on measures that we have found consistently changed immediately following chronic hypoxia exposure. To achieve this, we rotated dams between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, leaving the litters untouched in their respective conditions and compared gross anatomical measures of normoxic and hypoxic pups with non-rotating or rotating mothers. As we expected, hypoxic-rearing decreased pup body weight, brain weight and cortical volume. Reducing the dam's exposure to hypoxic conditions actually amplified the effects of hypoxia on body weight, such that hypoxic pups with rotating mothers showed significantly less growth. Interestingly, rotation of hypoxic mothers did not have the same deleterious effect on brain weight, suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanisms conserving brain weight and development even under extremely low body weight conditions. The factors that potentially contribute to these compensatory changes remain to be determined, however, nutrition, pup feeding/metabolism, or changes in maternal care are important candidates, acting either together or independently to change pup

  19. Preservation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia compared to the conscious state in chronically instrumented dogs.

    PubMed

    Lesitsky, M A; Davis, S; Murray, P A

    1998-12-01

    The authors' objective was to assess the extent to which sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia alter the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction compared with the response measured in the same animal in the conscious state. Left pulmonary vascular pressure-flow plots were generated in seven chronically instrumented dogs by continuously measuring the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-left atrial pressure) and left pulmonary blood flow during gradual (approximately 1 min) inflation of a hydraulic occluder implanted around the right main pulmonary artery. Pressure-flow plots were generated during normoxia and hypoxia on separate days in the conscious state, during sevoflurane (approximately 3.5% end-tidal), and during desflurane (approximately 10.5% end-tidal) anesthesia. Values are mean+/-SEM. In the conscious state, administration of the hypoxic gas mixture by conical face mask decreased (P < 0.01) systemic arterial PO2 from 94+/-2 mmHg to 50+/-1 mmHg and caused a leftward shift (P < 0.01) in the pressure-flow relationship, indicating pulmonary vasoconstriction. The magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the conscious state was flow-dependent (P < 0.01). Neither anesthetic had an effect on the baseline pressure-flow relationship during normoxia. The magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during sevoflurane and desflurane was also flow-dependent (P < 0.01). Moreover, at any given value of flow the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was similar during sevoflurane and desflurane compared with the conscious state. These results indicate that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is preserved during sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia compared with the conscious state. Thus, inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is not a general characteristic of inhalational anesthetics. The flow-dependent nature of the response should be considered when assessing the effects of physiologic or

  20. Naringenin Ameliorates Doxorubicin Toxicity and Hypoxic Condition in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumor Mouse Model: Evidence from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, Venkatesan; Subburaman, Swathika; Krishna, Arun Venkatesh; Natarajan, Mathivanan; Rathinasamy, Gandhidasan; Ganesan, Kumaresan; Ramachandran, Murugesan

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a well-known cytotoxic agent used extensively as a chemotherapeutic drug to eradicate a wide variety of human cancers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress during DOX treatment can induce cardiac, renal, and hepatic toxicities, which can constrain its use as a potential cytotoxic agent. The present work investigates the antioxidant potential of naringenin (NAR) against DOXinduced toxicities of a Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor-bearing mouse model. Mice were randomized into four groups: a negative control, positive control, DOX (2.5 mg/kg) treated, and DOX (2.5 mg/kg) + NAR (50 mg/kg/d) treated. DOX administration significantly altered the levels of functional markers in blood and antioxidant enzymes in kidney, heart, lung, liver, spleen, and tumor tissues. These changes in antioxidant enzymes and successive lipid peroxidation were prevented by NAR supplementation, resulting in decreases in the risk of toxicity due to DOX therapy. Histopathology results and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) of the tumor microenvironment confirmed this evidence. Using EPRI, pharmacokinetics of the nitroxide, 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (3-CP) was monitored intratumorally before and after chemotherapy. EPRI of the DOX + NAR-treated mouse model showed reduced tumor size with significant modification of the hypoxic condition inside the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, these findings suggest that NAR treatment significantly reduces DOX-induced toxicity and the hypoxic condition in a DLA tumor-bearing mouse model.

  1. Ghrelin Administration Increases the Bax/Bcl-2 Gene Expression Ratio in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rats.

    PubMed

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2015-06-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis, is a biochemical procedure that initiates due to some conditions, including hypoxia. Bax and Bcl-2 are among the agents that regulate apoptosis. The amplification of the first one triggers the initiation of apoptosis, and the second one prevents it. Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that antiapoptosis is its new effect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups; control, hypoxic + saline and hypoxic + ghrelin. Hypoxic animals lived in O2 11% for 2 weeks and received either saline or ghrelin subcutaneously daily. The bax and Bcl-2 gene expression were measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Chronic hypoxia increased the Bax gene expression significantly compared with normal animals (P = 0.008), but the Bcl-2 was not affected by hypoxia. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio also amplified significantly (P=0.005). Ghrelin administration significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the hypoxic animals compared to the hypoxic + saline and normal groups (p=0.042 and P= 0.001, respectively). In the present study, animals' treatment with ghrelin leads to an increment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which indicates a controversy related to cardioprotection of ghrelin.

  2. Ghrelin Administration Increases the Bax/Bcl-2 Gene Expression Ratio in the Heart of Chronic Hypoxic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Feizi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Programmed cell death or apoptosis, is a biochemical procedure that initiates due to some conditions, including hypoxia. Bax and Bcl-2 are among the agents that regulate apoptosis. The amplification of the first one triggers the initiation of apoptosis, and the second one prevents it. Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that antiapoptosis is its new effect. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of ghrelin on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Methods: Twenty four wistar rats were divided randomly in three groups; control, hypoxic + saline and hypoxic + ghrelin. Hypoxic animals lived in O2 11% for 2 weeks and received either saline or ghrelin subcutaneously daily. The bax and Bcl-2 gene expression were measured by Real-Time RT-PCR. Results: Chronic hypoxia increased the Bax gene expression significantly compared with normal animals (P = 0.008), but the Bcl-2 was not affected by hypoxia. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio also amplified significantly (P=0.005). Ghrelin administration significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the hypoxic animals compared to the hypoxic + saline and normal groups (p=0.042 and P= 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In the present study, animals’ treatment with ghrelin leads to an increment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which indicates a controversy related to cardioprotection of ghrelin. PMID:26236657

  3. Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-04-07

    Creatine is known to rescue animals following brain damage. Present study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mouse. Albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning, animals were separated and grouped on the basis of dietry supplementation for 15 weeks followed by a battery of neurological tests including Morris water maze, open field and rota rod. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better than their littermates mice on normal rodent diet during water maze (learning and memory) and rotating rod (neuro-muscular coordination and balance) test while the results of open field test remained unaffected. It was also observed that Cr treated animals had a reduced brain infarct volume than untreated but this difference did not reached statistical significance. We have also observed an overall increase in body weight in Cr treated mice during the study. Over all our results are indicating that long term Cr supplementation is beneficial for male albino following hypoxic ischemic insult.

  4. Chronic hypoxic incubation blunts thermally dependent cholinergic tone on the cardiovascular system in embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Marks, Chris; Eme, John; Elsey, Ruth M; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions play a major role in shaping reptilian embryonic development, but studies addressing the impact of interactions between chronic and acute environmental stressors on embryonic systems are lacking. In the present study, we investigated thermal dependence of cholinergic and adrenergic cardiovascular tone in embryonic American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and assessed possible phenotypic plasticity in a chronic hypoxic incubation treatment. We compared changes in heart rate (f H) and mean arterial blood pressure (P M) for chronically hypoxic and normoxic-incubated embryos after cholinergic and adrenergic blockade following three different acute temperature treatments: (1) 30 °C (control incubation temperature), (2) acute, progressive decrease 30-24 °C then held at 24 °C, and (3) acute, progressive increase 30-36 °C then held at 36 °C. f H progressively fell in response to decreasing temperature and rose in response to increasing temperature. P M did not significantly change with decreasing temperature, but was lowered significantly with increasing acute temperature in the normoxic group at 90 % of development only. Propranolol administration (β adrenergic antagonist) produced a significant f H decrease at 24, 30, and 36 °C that was similar at all temperatures for all groups. For normoxic-incubated embryos at 90 % of development, atropine administration (cholinergic antagonist) significantly increased f H in both 24 and 36 °C treatments, but not in the 30 °C control treatment. This atropine response at 24 and 36 °C demonstrated acute thermally dependent cholinergic tone on f H late in development for normoxic-incubated, but not chronically hypoxic-incubated embryos. Collectively, data indicated that cardiovascular control mechanisms in embryonic alligators may be activated by thermal extremes, and the maturation of control mechanisms was delayed by chronic hypoxia.

  5. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  6. Metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular responses to acute and chronic hypoxic exposure in tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Harper, S L; Reiber, C L

    2006-05-01

    Hypoxic exposure experienced during sensitive developmental periods can shape adult physiological capabilities and define regulatory limits. Tadpole shrimp were reared under normoxic (19-21 kPa O(2)), moderate (10-13 kPa O(2)) or severe (1-3 kPa O(2)) hypoxic conditions to investigate the influence of developmental oxygen partial pressure (P(O(2))) on adult metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular physiology. Developmental P(O(2)) had no effect on metabolic rate or metabolic response to hypoxic exposure in adults. All rearing groups decreased O(2) consumption as water P(O(2)) decreased. Heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output were independent of P(O(2)) down to 5 kPa O(2) in all rearing groups. Below this, cardiac output was maintained only in tadpole shrimp reared under severe hypoxic conditions. The enhanced ability to maintain cardiac output was attributed to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and O(2)-binding affinity in those animals. Oxygen-delivery potential was also significantly higher in the group reared under severe hypoxic conditions (1,336 microl O(2) min(-1)) when compared with the group reared under normoxic conditions (274 microl O(2) min(-1)). Differences among the rearing groups that were dependent on hemoglobin were not considered developmental effects because hemoglobin concentration could be increased within seven days of hypoxic exposure independent of developmental P(O(2)). Hypoxia-induced hemoglobin synthesis may be a compensatory mechanism that allows tadpole shrimp to regulate O(2) uptake and transport in euryoxic (O(2) variable) environments. The results of this study indicate that increased hemoglobin concentration, increased O(2)-binding affinity and transient decreases in metabolic demand may account for tadpole shrimp hypoxic tolerance.

  7. Hypoxic stress facilitates acute activation and chronic downregulation of fanconi anemia proteins.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Susan E; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-07-01

    Hypoxia induces genomic instability through replication stress and dysregulation of vital DNA repair pathways. The Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI, are key members of a DNA repair pathway that responds to replicative stress, suggesting that they undergo regulation by hypoxic conditions. Here acute hypoxic stress activates the FA pathway via ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI in an ATR-dependent manner. In addition, the presence of an intact FA pathway is required for preventing hypoxia-induced DNA damage measurable by the comet assay, limiting the accumulation of γH2AX (a marker of DNA damage or stalled replication), and protecting cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia induces transcriptional repression of FANCD2 in a manner analogous to the hypoxic downregulation of BRCA1 and RAD51. Thus, hypoxia-induced FA pathway activation plays a key role in maintaining genome integrity and cell survival, while FA protein downregulation with prolonged hypoxia contributes to genomic instability. This work highlights the critical role of the FA pathway in response to hypoxic stress and identifies the pathway as a therapeutic target under hypoxic conditions. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Protein kinase C isozyme expression in right ventricular hypertrophy induced by pulmonary hypertension in chronically hypoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chao; Liang, Bin; Jiang, Rui; Shi, Yiwei; Du, Yongcheng

    2017-10-01

    In chronic hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Evidence indicates that protein kinase C (PKC) serves a crucial role in hypoxia‑induced RVH. The present study investigated PKC isoform-specific expression and its involvement in RVH. Rats were exposed to normobaric hypoxia for a number of days to induce PH. PKC isoform‑specific membrane translocation and protein expression in the myocardium were evaluated by western blotting and immunostaining. A total of six isoforms of conventional PKC (cPKC; α, βI and βII) and of novel PKC (nPKC; δ, ε and η), were detected in the rat myocardium. Hypoxic exposure (1‑21 days) induced PH with RVH and vascular remodeling. nPKCδ membrane translocation at 3‑7 days and cPKCβI expression at 1‑21 days in the RV following hypoxic exposure were significantly decreased as compared with the normoxia control group. Membrane translocation of cPKCβII at 14‑21 days and of nPKCη at 7‑21 days in the left ventricle following hypoxic exposure was significantly increased when compared with the control. The results of the present study suggested that the alterations in membrane translocation, and nPKCδ and cPKCβI expression, are associated with RVH following PH, and the upregulation of cPKCβII membrane translocation is involved in left‑sided heart failure.

  9. Sildenafil inhibits chronically hypoxic upregulation of canonical transient receptor potential expression in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenju; Zhang, Dandan; Peng, Gongyong; Li, Bing; Zhong, Nanshan

    2010-01-01

    In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), Ca2+ influx through store-operated Ca2+ channels thought to be composed of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins is an important determinant of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and pulmonary vascular tone. Sildenafil, a type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases cellular cGMP, is recently identified as a promising agent for treatment of pulmonary hypertension. We previously demonstrated that chronic hypoxia elevated basal [Ca2+]i in PASMCs due in large part to enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE); moreover, ex vivo exposure to prolonged hypoxia (4% O2 for 60 h) upregulated TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression in PASMCs. We examined the effect of sildenafil on basal [Ca2+]i, SOCE, and the expression of TRPC in PASMCs under prolonged hypoxia exposure. We also examined the effect of sildenafil on TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PA) from rats that developed chronically hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). Compared with vehicle control, treatment with sildenafil (300 nM) inhibited prolonged hypoxia induced increases of 1) basal [Ca2+]i, 2) SOCE, and 3) mRNA and protein expression of TRPC in PASMCs. Moreover, sildenafil (50 mg · kg−1 · day−1) inhibited mRNA and protein expression of TRPC1 and TRPC6 in PA from chronically hypoxic (10% O2 for 21 days) rats, which was associated with decreased right ventricular pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, we found, in PASMCs exposed to prolonged hypoxia, that knockdown of TRPC1 or TRPC6 by their specific small interference RNA attenuated the hypoxic increases of SOCE and basal [Ca2+]i, suggesting a cause and effect link between increases of TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression and the hypoxic increases of SOCE and basal [Ca2+]i. These results suggest that sildenafil may alter basal [Ca2+]i in PASMCs by decreasing SOCE through downregulation of TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression, thereby contributing to

  10. Effect of L-arginine on renal blood flow in normal subjects and patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Howes, T. Q.; Keilty, S. E.; Maskrey, V. L.; Deane, C. R.; Baudouin, S. V.; Moxham, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-arginine is the precursor of endothelium derived nitric oxide (NO) and increasing the available substrate may increase the production of NO. This has been shown by local infusion in peripheral vascular beds but there are few studies of the effects during systemic infusion. Renal vasoconstriction is known to be important in the pathogenesis of cor pulmonale in patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effects of a systemic infusion of L-arginine on renal and aortic haemodynamics were therefore investigated in normal subjects and in patients with hypoxic COPD. METHODS: Ten normal volunteers were recruited from the research staff of King's College Hospital Six patients with COPD and hypoxia (arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) < 8.5 kPa) were recruited from the thoracic medicine outpatient clinic at King's College Hospital and five age and sex matched normal subjects were recruited from a group of normal subjects recruited from the database of the Department of Health Care for the Elderly as volunteers for medical research. There was no history of renal, cardiac, or hepatic disease. Baseline values of time averaged mean of the maximum instantaneous velocity (Tamx) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of blood flow in intrarenal arteries were obtained using colour flow Doppler ultrasound. Using the same technique, Vmax was obtained from the abdominal aorta just distal to the xiphisternum before and after infusion of L-arginine via a large peripheral vein (20 g in 100 ml sterile water over 30 minutes). RESULTS: In normal subjects L-arginine increased blood velocity in the intrarenal vessels from a mean of 0.22 m/s to 0.26 m/s, an increase of 19.8%. There was no effect on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, or aortic blood velocity. L-arginine had no effect on intrarenal or aortic blood velocity in patients with hypoxic COPD. In age matched controls L-arginine increased blood velocity in the intrarenal vessels from a mean of 0.20 m/s to 0

  11. In Vivo Imaging of Retinal Hypoxia Using HYPOX-4-Dependent Fluorescence in a Mouse Model of Laser-Induced Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO)

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Imam; Jayagopal, Ashwath; McCollum, Gary W.; Yang, Rong; Penn, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the utility of a novel in vivo molecular imaging probe, HYPOX-4, to detect and image retinal hypoxia in real time, in a mouse model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods Retinal vein occlusion was achieved in adult mice by photodynamic retinal vein thrombosis (PRVT). One or two major retinal vein(s) was/were occluded in close proximity to the optic nerve head (ONH). In vivo imaging of retinal hypoxia was performed using, HYPOX-4, an imaging probe developed by our laboratory. Pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining was performed and used as a standard ex vivo method for the detection of retinal hypoxia in this mouse RVO model. The retinal vasculature was imaged using fluorescein angiography (FA) and isolectin B4 staining. Retinal thickness was assessed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) analysis. Results By application of the standard ex vivo pimonidazole-adduct immunostaining technique, retinal hypoxia was observed within 2 hours post-PRVT. The observed hypoxic retinal areas depended on whether one or two retinal vein(s) was/were occluded. Similar areas of hypoxia were imaged in vivo using HYPOX-4. Using OCT, retinal edema was observed immediately post-PRVT induction, resolving 8 days later. Nominal preretinal neovascularization was observed at 10 to 14 days post-RVO. Conclusions HYPOX-4 is an efficient probe capable of imaging retinal hypoxia in vivo, in RVO mice. Future studies will focus on its use in correlating retinal hypoxia to the onset and progression of ischemic vasculopathies. PMID:28750413

  12. Distal Hypoxic stroke: A new mouse model of stroke with high throughput, low variability and a quantifiable functional deficit

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Kristian P.; Fathali, Nancy; Siddiqui, Mohammad R; Buckwalter, Marion S.

    2012-01-01

    C57BL/6J are the most commonly used strain of mouse for stroke experiments but vascular anatomy of the Circle of Willis within this strain is extremely variable and the cortex has extensive collateralization. This causes large variability in stroke models that target the middle cerebral artery proximally and confers resistance to ischemia in those that target it distally. We tested the hypothesis that by combining distal middle cerebral artery occlusion with 1 hour of hypoxia, we could generate a large lesion that causes a behavioral deficit with low variability. We found that this new distal hypoxic (DH) model of stroke generates a lesion with a volume of 25% of the ipsilateral hemisphere, extends to the motor cortex and causes a behavioral deficit. It also has a very clear border, exceptionally low variability, and can be performed by a single surgeon on up to 30 animals a day. Moreover, survivability is 100% in young adult animals, the model can be performed on old animals, and therapeutic intervention can reduce infarct volume. Therefore DH stroke is an excellent complement to existing stroke models and could be used for preclinical studies in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:22465679

  13. Myocyte apoptosis during acute myocardial infarction in the mouse localizes to hypoxic regions but occurs independently of p53.

    PubMed Central

    Bialik, S; Geenen, D L; Sasson, I E; Cheng, R; Horner, J W; Evans, S M; Lord, E M; Koch, C J; Kitsis, R N

    1997-01-01

    Significant numbers of myocytes die by apoptosis during myocardial infarction. The molecular mechanism of this process, however, remains largely unexplored. To facilitate a molecular genetic analysis, we have developed a model of ischemia-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis in the mouse. Surgical occlusion of the left coronary artery results in apoptosis, as indicated by the presence of nucleosome ladders and in situ DNA strand breaks. Apoptosis occurs mainly in cardiac myocytes, and is shown for the first time to be limited to hypoxic regions during acute infarction. Since hypoxia-induced apoptosis in other cell types is dependent on p53, and p53 is induced by hypoxia in cardiac myocytes, we investigated the necessity of p53 for myocyte apoptosis during myocardial infarction. Myocyte apoptosis occurs as readily, however, in the hearts of mice nullizygous for p53 as in wild-type littermates. These data demonstrate the existence of a p53-independent pathway that mediates myocyte apoptosis during myocardial infarction. PMID:9294101

  14. Hypoxic Stress Facilitates Acute Activation and Chronic Down-Regulation of Fanconi Anemia Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Susan E.; Glazer, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia induces genomic instability through replication stress and dysregulation of vital DNA repair pathways. The Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI, are key members of a DNA repair pathway that responds to replicative stress, suggesting that they undergo regulation by hypoxic conditions. Here acute hypoxic stress activates the FA pathway via ubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI in an ATR-dependent manner. In addition, the presence of an intact FA pathway is required for preventing hypoxia-induced DNA damage measurable by the comet assay, limiting the accumulation of γH2AX (a marker of DNA damage or stalled replication), and protecting cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia induces transcriptional repression of FANCD2 in a manner analogous to the hypoxic down-regulation of BRCA1 and RAD51. Thus, hypoxia-induced FA pathway activation plays a key role in maintaining genome integrity and cell survival, while FA protein down-regulation with prolonged hypoxia contributes to genomic instability. PMID:24688021

  15. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117

  16. Prevention of mast cell degranulation by disodium cromoglycate attenuates the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Banasová, Alena; Maxová, Hana; Hampl, Václav; Vízek, Martin; Povýsilová, Viera; Novotná, Jana; Vajnerová, Olga; Hnilicková, Olga; Herget, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia induces lung vascular remodeling, which results in pulmonary hypertension. Vascular remodeling is associated with collagenolysis and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). One of the possible sources of MMPs in hypoxic lung are mast cells. The role of lung mast cell collagenolytic activity in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension was tested by the inhibitor of mast cell degranulation disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Rats were treated with DSCG in an early or later phase of isobaric hypoxia. Control groups were exposed to hypoxia only or to normoxia. Lung hemodynamics, muscularization and collagen metabolism in the walls of peripheral pulmonary vessels in the lungs were measured. DSCG applied at an early phase of exposure to hypoxia reduced the development of pulmonary hypertension, inhibited muscularization in peripheral pulmonary arteries and decreased the amount of collagen cleavage fragments in prealveolar vessels. Mast cell degranulation plays a role in the initiation of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Induced by Enriched Environment Enhances Angiogenesis and Motor Function in Chronic Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hwal; Kim, Myung-Sun; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched environment (EE) on promoting angiogenesis and neurobehavioral function in an animal model of chronic hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. HI brain damage was induced in seven day-old CD-1® mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 for 90 min). At six weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to either EE or standard cages (SC) for two months. Rotarod, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength tests were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. In order to identify angiogenic growth factors regulated by EE, an array-based multiplex ELISA assay was used to measure the expression in frontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum. Among the growth factors, the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was confirmed using western blotting. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry. As a result, mice exposed to EE showed significant improvements in rotarod and ladder walking performances compared to SC controls. The level of FGF-2 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex of EE mice at 8 weeks after treatment in multiplex ELISA and western blot. On the other hand, FGF-2 in the striatum significantly increased at 2 weeks after exposure to EE earlier than in the frontal cortex. Expression of activin A was similarly upregulated as FGF-2 expression pattern. Particularly, all animals treated with FGF-2 neutralizing antibody abolished the beneficial effect of EE on motor performance relative to mice not given anti-FGF-2. Immunohistochemistry showed that densities of α-SMA+ and PECAM-1+ cells in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were significantly increased following EE, suggesting the histological findings exhibit a similar pattern to the upregulation of FGF-2 in the brain. In conclusion, EE enhances endogenous angiogenesis and neurobehavioral functions mediated by

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 dependant pathway contributes to protection by tetramethylpyrazine against chronic hypoxic injury on medulla oblongata in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Gong, Yanju; Dai, Liqun; Zheng, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii (Chuan Xiong) has been proved to protect the medulla oblongata from chronic hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of TMP are associated with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) dependant pathway in adult rats. The morphological changes of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (12N), the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) were investigated by Nissl staining; the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect; some apoptosis parameters, Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA, were tested; and the double immunochemistry staining of active caspase-3/NeuN was performed. Meanwhile, the HO-1 protein expression and heme oxygenase (HO) activity were examined. Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a potent inhibitor of HO, was used to further confirm the effect of HO-1. We found that TMP ameliorated the neuron loss in 12N, Amb and NTS, the decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content, the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA of medulla oblongata (P<0.05), and the increase in percentage of apoptotic neurons in Amb (P<0.05) induced by chronic hypoxia. Co-administration with SnPP abolished the beneficial effects above of TMP to some extent (P<0.05). Moreover, TMP significantly increased HO activity and HO-1 protein expression, which was most likely enhanced in the neurons (P<0.05), and co-administration of SnPP reduced these up-regulated effects (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that HO-1 dependant pathway may be involved in the protective action of TMP against chronic hypoxic damage on medulla oblongata in the rats.

  19. In Vivo Expression of Reprogramming Factors Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in Chronic Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Soohyun; Yu, Ji Hea; Kim, MinGi

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity can be stimulated in vivo in the brain. In this study, we hypothesized that in vivo expression of reprogramming factors such as Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and c-Myc would facilitate endogenous neurogenesis and functional recovery. CD-1® mice were induced at 1 week of age by unilaterally carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia. At 6 weeks of age, mice were injected GFP only or both four reprogramming factors and GFP into lateral ventricle. Passive avoidance task and open field test were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. Neurogenesis and synaptic activity in the hippocampus were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and/or western blot analyses. Whereas BrdU+GFAP+ cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus were not significantly different, the numbers of BrdU+βIII-tubulin+ and BrdU+NeuN+ cells were significantly higher in treatment group than control group. Expressions of synaptophysin and PSD-95 were also higher in treatment group than control group. Importantly, passive avoidance task and open field test showed improvement in long-term memory and decreased anxiety in treatment group. In conclusion, in vivo expression of reprogramming factors improved behavioral functions in chronic hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The mechanisms underlying these repair processes included endogenous neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:27900211

  20. The behaviour of muscle microcirculation in chronically hypoxic rats: the role of adenosine.

    PubMed Central

    Mian, R; Marshall, J M

    1996-01-01

    1. In rats housed in a hypoxic chamber at 12% O2 for 3-5 weeks (CH) and in normal rats housed in air (N), we directly observed responses of arterial and venous vessels of the spinotrapezius muscle to changes in O2 concentration in the inspirate. Both CH and N rats were anaesthetized with Saffan. They had haematocrits of 55.0 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 41.9 +/- 0.5%, respectively. 2. In CH rats breathing 12% O2 and N rats breathing air, arterial and venous vessels from comparable anatomical positions in the vascular tree were of similar internal diameter. They also showed similar maximum dilator responses to topical adenosine (10(-3) M); 14.1 +/- 1.1 and 16.3 +/- 1.7% in all arterioles, 15.5 +/- 1.2 and 11.5 +/- 0.6% in all venules in CH and N rats, respectively. 3. In CH rats, the change from 12% O2 to air for 3 min induced constriction in all arterioles and venules (-12.9 +/- 1.0 and -14.3 +/- 1.7%, respectively), whereas in N rats, the change from air to 12% O2 for 3 min induced net dilatation (3.9 +/- 1.8% in arterioles and 4.7 +/- 0.8% in venules). Topical application of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-SPT, 10(-3) M) had no effect on control diameters in CH or N rats, nor on constrictor responses to air in CH, but reversed or reduced dilator responses to 12% O2 in N rats (to -2.4 +/- 1.3% in arterioles and 2.0 +/- 0.9% in venules). 4. In CH rats, the change from 12 to 8% O2 produced net dilatation as great as that induced in N rats by the larger change from air to 8% O2: 8.5 +/- 2.6 and 5.0 +/- 3.7% in arterioles and 10.3 +/- 1.8 and 6.4 +/- 1.9% in venules, respectively. These responses were similarly reduced by 8-SPT to -4.3 +/- 1.9 and -5.2 +/- 2.7% in arterioles and to -6.9 +/- 2.0 and -1.5 +/- 2.0% in venules, respectively. 5. These results indicate that CH rats were acclimated to 12% O2 such that the resting tone of arterial and venous vessels of muscle was comparable to that of N rats breathing air. They also suggest

  1. TRPV4 channel contributes to serotonin-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and the enhanced vascular reactivity in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Fu, Zhenzhen; Hu, Jinxing; Huang, Chun; Paudel, Omkar; Cai, Shaoxi; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a mechanosensitive channel in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Its upregulation by chronic hypoxia is associated with enhanced myogenic tone, and genetic deletion of trpv4 suppresses the development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). Here we further examine the roles of TRPV4 in agonist-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and in the enhanced vasoreactivity in CHPH. Initial evaluation of TRPV4-selective antagonists HC-067047 and RN-1734 in KCl-contracted pulmonary arteries (PAs) of trpv4−/− mice found that submicromolar HC-067047 was devoid of off-target effect on pulmonary vasoconstriction. Inhibition of TRPV4 with 0.5 μM HC-067047 significantly reduced the sensitivity of serotonin (5-HT)-induced contraction in wild-type (WT) PAs but had no effect on endothelin-1 or phenylephrine-activated response. Similar shift in the concentration-response curve of 5-HT was observed in trpv4−/− PAs, confirming specific TRPV4 contribution to 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction. 5-HT-induced Ca2+ response was attenuated by HC-067047 in WT PASMCs but not in trpv4−/− PASMCs, suggesting TRPV4 is a major Ca2+ pathway for 5-HT-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Nifedipine also attenuated 5-HT-induced Ca2+ response in WT PASMCs but did not cause further reduction in the presence of HC-067047, suggesting interdependence of TRPV4 and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the 5-HT response. Chronic exposure (3–4 wk) of WT mice to 10% O2 caused significant increase in 5-HT-induced maximal contraction, which was partially reversed by HC-067047. In concordance, the enhancement of 5-HT-induced contraction was significantly reduced in PAs of CH trpv4−/− mice and HC-067047 had no further effect on the 5-HT induced response. These results suggest unequivocally that TRPV4 contributes to 5-HT-dependent pharmaco-mechanical coupling and plays a major role in the enhanced pulmonary vasoreactivity to 5-HT in CHPH. PMID

  2. Expression Profiling Reveals Novel Hypoxic Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood of Adult Mice Exposed to Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia induces a myriad of changes including an increase in hematocrit due to erythropoietin (EPO) mediated erythropoiesis. While hypoxia is of importance physiologically and clinically, lacunae exist in our knowledge of the systemic and temporal changes in gene expression occurring in blood during the exposure and recovery from hypoxia. To identify these changes expression profiling was conducted on blood obtained from cohorts of C57Bl-10 wild type mice that were maintained at normoxia (NX), exposed for two weeks to normobaric chronic hypoxia (CH) or two weeks of CH followed by two weeks of normoxic recovery (REC). Using stringent bioinformatic cut-offs (0% FDR, 2 fold change cut-off), 230 genes were identified and separated into four distinct temporal categories. Class I) contained 1 transcript up-regulated in both CH and REC; Class II) contained 202 transcripts up-regulated in CH but down-regulated after REC; Class III) contained 9 transcripts down-regulated both in CH and REC; Class IV) contained 18 transcripts down-regulated after CH exposure but up-regulated after REC. Profiling was independently validated and extended by analyzing expression levels of selected genes as novel biomarkers from our profile (e.g. spectrin alpha-1, ubiquitin domain family-1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-1) by performing qPCR at 7 different time points during CH and REC. Our identification and characterization of these genes define transcriptome level changes occurring during chronic hypoxia and normoxic recovery as well as novel blood biomarkers that may be useful in monitoring a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with hypoxia. PMID:22629407

  3. [Metabolic effect of amaranth oil and impulse hypoxic training under chronic fluoride intoxication and small doses of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Konyk, U V; Hzhehots'kyĭ, M P; Koval'chuk, S M

    2002-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defence system in blood, liver and heart tissues, nitric oxide metabolites content in brain tissue of rats under binary action of small-doses of ionizing radiation and fluoride intoxication treated by amaranth oil and interval hypoxic training have been studied. Complex using of amaranth oil and interval hypoxic training result in increase both enzymatic, as nonezymatic links of antioxidant defence in all investigated tissues. It was revealed also enhance of NO system metabolites content in brain gomogenate. In this conditions lipid peroxidation processes in liver and heart tissues normalize comparison with essential increase level LPO under binary action influence. On the basis of obtained results LPO metabolites content we can suppossed that complex using of amaranth oil and interval hypoxic training result in increase of organism adaptative possibility. This complex can be using for binary action of ionizing radiation and fluoride intoxication correction.

  4. Preinduction of HSP70 promotes hypoxic tolerance and facilitates acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhao-hui; Xiong, Lei; Li, Ming-ming; Wu, Li-ying; Zhao, Yong-qi

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that induction of HSP70 by administration of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) leads to protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study was performed to determine the effect of GGA on the survival of mice and on brain damage under acute hypobaric hypoxia. The data showed that the mice injected with GGA survived significantly longer than control animals (survival time of 9.55 ± 3.12 min, n = 16 vs. controls at 4.28 ± 4.29 min, n = 15, P < 0.005). Accordingly, the cellular necrosis or degeneration of the hippocampus and the cortex induced by sublethal hypoxia for 6 h could be attenuated by preinjection with GGA, especially in the CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In addition, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of the hippocampus and the cortex was increased after exposure to sublethal hypoxia for 6 h but could be inhibited by the preinjection of GGA. Furthermore, the expression of HSP70 was significantly increased at 1 h after GGA injection. These results suggest that administration of GGA improved survival rate and prevented acute hypoxic damage to the brain and that the underlying mechanism involved induction of HSP70 and inhibition of NOS activity. PMID:19105051

  5. Intranasal C3a treatment ameliorates cognitive impairment in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Morán, Javier; Stokowska, Anna; Walker, Frederik R; Mallard, Carina; Hagberg, Henrik; Pekna, Marcela

    2017-04-01

    Perinatal asphyxia-induced brain injury is often associated with irreversible neurological complications such as intellectual disability and cerebral palsy but available therapies are limited. Novel neuroprotective therapies as well as approaches stimulating neural plasticity mechanism that can compensate for cell death after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are urgently needed. We previously reported that single i.c.v. injection of complement-derived peptide C3a 1h after HI induction prevented HI-induced cognitive impairment when mice were tested as adults. Here, we tested the effects of intranasal treatment with C3a on HI-induced cognitive deficit. Using the object recognition test, we found that intranasal C3a treated mice were protected from HI-induced impairment of memory function assessed 6weeks after HI induction. C3a treatment ameliorated HI-induced reactive gliosis in the hippocampus, while it did not affect the extent of hippocampal tissue loss, neuronal cell density, expression of the pan-synaptic marker synapsin I or the expression of growth associated protein 43. In conclusion, our results reveal that brief pharmacological treatment with C3a using a clinically feasible non-invasive mode of administration ameliorates HI-induced cognitive impairment. Intranasal administration is a plausible route to deliver C3a into the brain of asphyxiated infants at high risk of developing hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  6. Preinduction of HSP70 promotes hypoxic tolerance and facilitates acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhao-hui; Xiong, Lei; Li, Ming-ming; Wu, Li-ying; Zhao, Yong-qi; Zhu, Ling-ling; Fan, Ming

    2009-07-01

    It has been shown that induction of HSP70 by administration of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) leads to protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study was performed to determine the effect of GGA on the survival of mice and on brain damage under acute hypobaric hypoxia. The data showed that the mice injected with GGA survived significantly longer than control animals (survival time of 9.55 +/- 3.12 min, n = 16 vs. controls at 4.28 +/- 4.29 min, n = 15, P < 0.005). Accordingly, the cellular necrosis or degeneration of the hippocampus and the cortex induced by sublethal hypoxia for 6 h could be attenuated by preinjection with GGA, especially in the CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In addition, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of the hippocampus and the cortex was increased after exposure to sublethal hypoxia for 6 h but could be inhibited by the preinjection of GGA. Furthermore, the expression of HSP70 was significantly increased at 1 h after GGA injection. These results suggest that administration of GGA improved survival rate and prevented acute hypoxic damage to the brain and that the underlying mechanism involved induction of HSP70 and inhibition of NOS activity.

  7. Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common

  8. Hypotension in the chronically hypoxic chicken embryo is related to the β-adrenergic response of chorioallantoic and femoral arteries and not to bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Isa; Crossley, Dane; Villamor, Eduardo; Altimiras, Jordi

    2011-10-01

    Prolonged fetal hypoxia leads to growth restriction and can cause detrimental prenatal and postnatal alterations. The embryonic chicken is a valuable model to study the effects of prenatal hypoxia, but little is known about its long-term effects on cardiovascular regulation. We hypothesized that chicken embryos incubated under chronic hypoxia would be hypotensive due to bradycardia and βAR-mediated relaxation of the systemic and/or the chorioallantoic (CA) arteries. We investigated heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma catecholamine levels in 19-day chicken embryos (total incubation 21 days) incubated from day 0 in normoxia or hypoxia (14-15% O(2)). Additionally, we studied α-adrenoceptor (αAR)-mediated contraction, relaxation to the β-adrenoceptor (βAR) agonist isoproterenol, and relaxation to the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin in systemic (femoral) and CA arteries (by wire myography). Arterial pressure showed a trend toward hypotension in embryos incubated under chronic hypoxic conditions compared with the controls (mean arterial pressure 3.19 ± 0.18 vs. 2.59 ± 0.13 kPa, normoxia vs. hypoxia, respectively. P = 0.056), without an accompanied bradycardia and elevation in plasma norepinephrine and lactate levels. All vessels relaxed in response to βAR stimulation with isoproterenol, but the CA arteries completely lacked an αAR response. Furthermore, hypoxia increased the sensitivity of femoral arteries (but not CA arteries) to isoproterenol. Hypoxia also increased the responsiveness of femoral arteries to forskolin. In conclusion, we suggest that hypotension in chronic hypoxic chicken embryos is the consequence of elevated levels of circulating catecholamines acting in vascular beds with exclusive (CA arteries) or exacerbated (femoral arteries) βAR-mediated relaxation, and not a consequence of bradycardia.

  9. Chronic mouse model of TMA-induced contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Claudia; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich F; Zollner, Thomas M; Röse, Lars

    2009-04-01

    Due to the steadily increasing incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD), especially in children, there is a high medical need for new therapies and improved animal models. In mice, trimellitic anhydride (TMA) is routinely used to trigger T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions. In this study, we compared the standard acute TMA-induced CHS in Balb/c mice with subacute and chronic models of TMA-induced ear inflammation. Compared to the acute model, the chronic CHS model more closely reflects characteristics of AD, such as typical morphological changes of the inflamed skin, strong infiltration with T cells, major histocompatibility complex II-positive cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, a T-helper cell-type (Th) 2 cytokine profile and a strong increase of serum IgE levels. Moreover, a strong lymph node involvement with T-helper cell dominance and a mixed Th1/Th2 T-cell differentiation and activation pattern was demonstrated. Importantly, as demonstrated by successful therapy with prednisolone, the chronic TMA-induced CHS model, in contrast to acute and subacute models, made prolonged therapeutic treatment of a pre-established skin inflammation possible. Altogether, we present an improved model of mouse T-cell-dependent skin inflammation for AD. We hope this model will enhance the predictive value of animal models for therapeutic treatment of atopic eczema.

  10. Pulmonary Macrophages Attenuate Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction via β3AR/iNOS Pathway in Rats Exposed to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Hisashi; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Schwenke, Daryl O.; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Nara, Akina; Ogura, Sayoko; Sonobe, Takashi; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Fujii, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Wingenfeld, Lisa; Umetani, Keiji; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Uemura, Koichi; Pearson, James T.; Shirai, Mikiyasu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) induces activation of the sympathoadrenal system, which plays a pivotal role in attenuating hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) via central β1-adrenergic receptors (AR) (brain) and peripheral β2AR (pulmonary arteries). Prolonged hypercatecholemia has been shown to upregulate β3AR. However, the relationship between IH and β3AR in the modification of HPV is unknown. It has been observed that chronic stimulation of β3AR upregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiomyocytes and that IH exposure causes expression of iNOS in RAW264.7 macrophages. iNOS has been shown to have the ability to dilate pulmonary vessels. Hence, we hypothesized that chronic IH activates β3AR/iNOS signaling in pulmonary macrophages, leading to the promotion of NO secretion and attenuated HPV. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to IH (3-min periods of 4–21% O2) for 8 h/d for 6 weeks. The urinary catecholamine concentrations of IH rats were high compared with those of controls, indicating activation of the sympathoadrenal system following chronic IH. Interestingly, chronic IH induced the migration of circulating monocytes into the lungs and the predominant increase in the number of pro-inflammatory pulmonary macrophages. In these macrophages, both β3AR and iNOS were upregulated and stimulation of the β3AR/iNOS pathway in vitro caused them to promote NO secretion. Furthermore, in vivo synchrotron radiation microangiography showed that HPV was significantly attenuated in IH rats and the attenuated HPV was fully restored by blockade of β3AR/iNOS pathway or depletion of pulmonary macrophages. These results suggest that circulating monocyte-derived pulmonary macrophages attenuate HPV via activation of β3AR/iNOS signaling in chronic IH. PMID:26132492

  11. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Flavonoid-Enriched Fraction AF4 in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, Paul G. W.; Dunlop, Kate; Warford, Jordan; Samson, Michel L.; Jones, Quinton R. D.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha; Robertson, George S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a flavonoid-enriched fraction isolated from the peel of Northern Spy apples (AF4) in a mouse of model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. Oral administration of AF4 (50 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) prior to 50 min of HI completely prevented motor performance deficits assessed 14 days later that were associated with marked reductions in neuronal cell loss in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Pre-treatment with AF4 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.; once daily for 3 days) produced a dose-dependent reduction in HI-induced hippocampal and striatal neuron cell loss, with 25 mg/kg being the lowest dose that achieved maximal neuroprotection. Comparison of the effects of 1, 3 or 7 doses of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) prior to HI revealed that at least 3 doses of AF4 were required before HI to reduce neuronal cell loss in both the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that the neuroprotective effects of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.; once daily for 3 days) in the dorsal hippocampus were associated with a suppression of HI-induced increases in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. AF4 pre-treatment enhanced mRNA levels for pro-survival proteins such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and erythropoietin following HI in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum, respectively. Primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons incubated with AF4 (1 µg/ml), but not the same concentrations of either quercetin or quercetin-3-O-glucose or its metabolites, were resistant to cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that the inhibition of HI-induced brain injury produced by AF4 likely involves a transcriptional mechanism resulting from the co-operative actions of various phenolics in this fraction which not only reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators but also enhance pro-survival gene signalling. PMID:23251498

  12. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the flavonoid-enriched fraction AF4 in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Keddy, Paul G W; Dunlop, Kate; Warford, Jordan; Samson, Michel L; Jones, Quinton R D; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Robertson, George S

    2012-01-01

    We report here neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a flavonoid-enriched fraction isolated from the peel of Northern Spy apples (AF4) in a mouse of model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. Oral administration of AF4 (50 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) prior to 50 min of HI completely prevented motor performance deficits assessed 14 days later that were associated with marked reductions in neuronal cell loss in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Pre-treatment with AF4 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.; once daily for 3 days) produced a dose-dependent reduction in HI-induced hippocampal and striatal neuron cell loss, with 25 mg/kg being the lowest dose that achieved maximal neuroprotection. Comparison of the effects of 1, 3 or 7 doses of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) prior to HI revealed that at least 3 doses of AF4 were required before HI to reduce neuronal cell loss in both the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that the neuroprotective effects of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.; once daily for 3 days) in the dorsal hippocampus were associated with a suppression of HI-induced increases in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. AF4 pre-treatment enhanced mRNA levels for pro-survival proteins such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and erythropoietin following HI in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum, respectively. Primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons incubated with AF4 (1 µg/ml), but not the same concentrations of either quercetin or quercetin-3-O-glucose or its metabolites, were resistant to cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that the inhibition of HI-induced brain injury produced by AF4 likely involves a transcriptional mechanism resulting from the co-operative actions of various phenolics in this fraction which not only reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators but also enhance pro-survival gene signalling.

  13. Impaired gait pattern as a sensitive tool to assess hypoxic brain damage in a novel mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lynn; Van Dam, Debby; Van der Donckt, Carole; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Lemmens, Katrien; Van Brussel, Ilse; De Deyn, Peter P; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with a heterozygous mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene (Fbn1(C1039G+/-)) show spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, disturbances in cerebral flow and sudden death when fed a Western-type diet (WD). The present study focused on motor coordination and spatial learning of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD for 20 weeks (n=21). ApoE(-/-) mice on WD (n=24) and ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on normal diet (ND, n=21) served as controls. Starting from 10 weeks of diet, coordination was assessed every two weeks by the following tests: gait analysis, stationary beam, wire suspension and accelerating rotarod. The Morris water maze test was performed after 13 weeks of diet to study spatial learning. At the end of the experiment (20 weeks of WD), the mice were sacrificed and the brachiocephalic artery and brain were isolated. From 12 weeks onward, gait analysis of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD revealed a progressive increase in track width as compared to ApoE(-/-) mice on WD and ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on ND (at 20 weeks: 29.8±0.6 mm vs. 25.8±0.4 mm and 26.0±0.5 mm). Moreover, the stationary beam test showed a decrease in motor coordination of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD at 18 and 20 weeks. The wire suspension test and accelerating rotarod could not detect signs of motor impairment. Spatial learning was also not affected. Histological analysis of the brachiocephalic artery showed larger and more stenotic plaques in ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD. Furthermore, the parietal cortex of ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice on WD showed pyknotic nuclei as a sign of hypoxia and the percentage of pyknosis correlated with track width. In conclusion, gait analysis may be an efficient method for analyzing hypoxic brain damage in the ApoE(-/-) Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mouse model. This test could be of value to assess the effect of potential anti-atherosclerotic therapies in mice.

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotype desaturator with hypoxic vascular remodelling and pulmonary hypertension obtained by cluster analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Significant heterogeneity of clinical presentation and disease progression exists within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This article discusses and refines the concept of desaturator phenotypes in COPD with pulmonary hypertension (PH) obtained by cluster analysis and presents a pattern of phenotypic markers that could be used as a framework for future diagnosis and research. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation results in sleep disturbances which predispose to nocturnal cardiac dysrhythmias, PH and possibly nocturnal death, particularly during acute exacerbations. We assume that in patients with COPD at least two factors play a role in PH: the severity of pulmonary impairment, and the severity of systemic nocturnal hypoxaemia due to reduced pulmonary functions. Establishing a common language for future research will facilitate our understanding and management of such a disease. This knowledge could lead to different pharmacological treatments and other interventions directed at specific phenotypic groups. PMID:23127203

  15. Nitric oxide availability in deeply hypoxic crucian carp: acute and chronic changes and utilization of ambient nitrite reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marie N; Gerber, Lucie; Jensen, Frank B

    2016-03-15

    Recent research suggest that anoxia-tolerant fish transfer extracellular nitrite into the tissues, where it is used for nitric oxide (NO) generation, iron-nitrosylation, and S-nitrosation of proteins, as part of the cytoprotective response toward prolonged hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation. We hypothesized that crucian carp take up ambient nitrite and use it as a source of cellular NO availability during hypoxia. Fish were exposed for 1 day to normoxia (Po2 > 140 mmHg) and deep hypoxia (1 < Po2 < 3 mmHg) at both low (< 0.2 μM) and moderately elevated (10 μM) ambient [nitrite] to decipher NO metabolites in plasma and several tissues. We also compared NO metabolite changes during acute (10 min) and chronic (1 day) exposures to three different O2 levels. Plasma [nitrite] decreased with decreasing [O2], while the cellular concentrations of nitrite and nitros(yl)ated compounds either increased or stayed constant, depending on O2 level and tissue type. Nitrite was notably increased in the heart during deep hypoxia, and the increase was amplified by elevated ambient [nitrite]. Raised nitrite also increased gill [nitrite] and decreased mRNA expression of an inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 gene variant. The data support that ambient nitrite is taken up across the gills to be distributed via the blood to the tissues, particularly the heart, where it assists in cytoprotection and other functions. Cardiac nitrite was not elevated in acutely exposed fish, revealing that the response requires time. NO metabolite levels were higher during acute than chronic exposures, possibly caused by increased swimming activity and stress in acutely exposed fish.

  16. Chronic hypercapnia alters lung matrix composition in mouse pups

    PubMed Central

    Heldt, Gregory P.; Nguyen, Mary; Gavrialov, Orit; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: permissive hypercapnia, a stretch-limiting ventilation strategy, often results in high PaCO2. This strategy is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in premature infants and its benefits have been attributed to diminished barotrauma. However, little is known about the independent effect of high CO2 levels during the lung development. Methods: mice were exposed to 8% CO2 or room air for 2 wk either from postnatal day 2 through 17 or as adults (∼2 mo of age). Lungs were excised and processed for protein, RNA, histology, and total lung volumes. Results: histologic analysis demonstrated that alveolar walls of CO2-exposed mouse pups were thinner than those of controls and had twice the total lung volume. Molecular analysis revealed that several matrix proteins in the lung were downregulated in mouse pups exposed to hypercapnia. Interstitial collagen type I α1, type III α1, elastin and fibronectin protein, and mRNA levels were less than half of controls while collagen IV α5 was unaffected. This decrease in interstitial collagen could thus account for the thinning of the interstitial matrix and the altered lung biomechanics. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, a collagenase that has specificity for collagen types I and III, increased in hypercapnic mouse pups, suggesting increased collagen degradation. Moreover, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1, a potent inhibitor of MMP-8, was significantly decreased. However, unlike pups, adult mice exposed to hypercapnia demonstrated only a mild increase in total lung volumes and did not exhibit similar molecular or histologic changes. Conclusions: although permissive hypercapnia may prevent lung injury from barotrauma, our study revealed that exposure to hypercapnia may be an important factor in lung remodeling and function, especially in early life. PMID:20360436

  17. Intra-discal injection of autologous, hypoxic cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in five patients with chronic lower back pain: a long-term safety and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Centeno, Christopher J; Schultz, John R; Lutz, Gregory; Ichim, Thomas; Silva, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic low back pain due to disc degeneration represents a major social and economic burden worldwide. The current standard of care is limited to symptomatic relief and no current approved therapy promotes disc regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and well characterized. These MSCs are multipotent and exhibit great tissue regenerative potential including bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue regeneration. The use of this cell-based biologic for treating protruding disc herniation and/or intervertebral disc degeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy, due to their known regenerative, immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Five patients diagnosed with degenerative disc disease received an intra-discal injection of autologous, hypoxic cultured, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (15.1-51.6 million cells) as part of a previous study. These patients were re-consented to participate in this study in order to assess long-term safety and feasibility of intra-discal injection of autologous, hypoxic cultured, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells 4-6 years post mesenchymal stem cell infusion. The follow-up study consisted of a physical examination, a low back MRI, and a quality of life questionnaire. Patients' lower back MRI showed absence of neoplasms or abnormalities surrounding the treated region. Based on the physical examination and the quality of life questionnaire, no adverse events were reported due to the procedure or to the stem cell treatment 4-6 years post autologous, hypoxic cultured mesenchymal stem cell infusion. All patients self-reported overall improvement, as well as improvement in strength, post stem cell treatment, and four out of five patients reported improvement in mobility. This early human clinical data suggests the safety and feasibility of the clinical use of hypoxic cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of lower back pain due to

  18. Chronic cocaine-regulated epigenomic changes in mouse nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence supports a role for altered gene expression in mediating the lasting effects of cocaine on the brain, and recent work has demonstrated the involvement of chromatin modifications in these alterations. However, all such studies to date have been restricted by their reliance on microarray technologies that have intrinsic limitations. Results We use next generation sequencing methods, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for RNA polymerase II and several histone methylation marks, to obtain a more complete view of cocaine-induced changes in gene expression and associated adaptations in numerous modes of chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region. We demonstrate an unexpectedly large number of pre-mRNA splicing alterations in response to repeated cocaine treatment. In addition, we identify combinations of chromatin changes, or signatures, that correlate with cocaine-dependent regulation of gene expression, including those involving pre-mRNA alternative splicing. Through bioinformatic prediction and biological validation, we identify one particular splicing factor, A2BP1(Rbfox1/Fox-1), which is enriched at genes that display certain chromatin signatures and contributes to drug-induced behavioral abnormalities. Together, this delineation of the cocaine-induced epigenome in the nucleus accumbens reveals several novel modes of regulation by which cocaine alters the brain. Conclusions We establish combinatorial chromatin and transcriptional profiles in mouse nucleus accumbens after repeated cocaine treatment. These results serve as an important resource for the field and provide a template for the analysis of other systems to reveal new transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of neuronal regulation. PMID:24758366

  19. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: Role of the TNF signaling axis

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Aronson, James; Liu, Lichu; Liu, Zhendong; Perrien, Daniel S.; Skinner, Robert A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Lumpkin, Charles K. . E-mail: lumpkincharlesk@uams.edu

    2007-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-{alpha} signaling. The effects in mice are unreported. Therefore, we hypothesized that in mice (1) administration of a soluble TNF receptor 1 derivative (sTNF-R1) would protect direct bone formation during chronic ethanol exposure, and (2) administration of recombinant mouse TNF-{alpha} (rmTNF-{alpha}) to ethanol naive mice would inhibit direct bone formation. We utilized a unique model of limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO) combined with liquid diets to measure chronic ethanol's effects on direct bone formation. Chronic ethanol exposure resulted in increased marrow TNF, IL-1, and CYP 2E1 RNA levels in ethanol-treated vs. control mice, while no significant weight differences were noted. Systemic administration of sTNF-R1 during DO (8.0 mg/kg/2 days) to chronic ethanol-exposed mice resulted in enhanced direct bone formation as measured radiologically and histologically. Systemic rmTNF-{alpha} (10 {mu}g/kg/day) administration decreased direct bone formation measures, while no significant weight differences were noted. We conclude that chronic ethanol-associated inhibition of direct bone formation is mediated to a significant extent by the TNF signaling axis in a mouse model.

  20. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments.

  1. Synergistic deleterious effect of chronic stress and sodium azide in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Cortés, María José; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Sarmiento, Manuel; Argüelles, Sandro; Herrera, Antonio J; Mauriño, Raquel; Villarán, Ruth F; Venero, José L; Machado, Alberto; de Pablos, Rocío M

    2015-04-20

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Although the primary cause of the disease is presently unknown, to date several risk factors have been described. Evidence suggests that one of these risk factors could be chronic stress. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that chronic stress is able to induce Alzheimer's disease features after the administration of nontoxic doses of sodium azide. We found that chronic stress increases the levels of several proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, such as presenilin 1, presenilin 2, and S100β, besides inducing the aggregation of Tau, ubiquitin, and β-amyloid proteins in the hippocampus. More important, our work shows a synergistic effect of stress and sodium azide treatment leading to significant neuronal death in the mouse hippocampus. Our results point out that chronic stress is a risk factor contributing to amplify and accelerate Alzheimer's disease features in the hippocampus.

  2. A mouse model for pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, George; Kramer, Carolyn D; Slocum, Connie S; Weinberg, Ellen O; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V; Hamilton, James A; Genco, Caroline A

    2014-08-08

    Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies

  3. Chronic Toxoplasmosis Modulates the Induction of Contact Hypersensitivity by TNCB in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were combined to clarify the effect of opportunistic Toxoplasma gondii infection on the development of AD. AD was induced as a chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) with repeated challenge of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on the dorsal skin of mice. TNCB induced skin thickness increases in both normal and toxoplasmic mice. The changing patterns were different from the sigmoidal which saturated at 20 days in normal mice to the convex saturated at 12 days in toxoplasmic mice with the crossing at 18 days. Compared to normal mice, toxoplasmic mice presented CHS more severely in earlier times and then moderately in later times. These data suggest that host immune modification by T. gondii infection enhances CHS in early times of atopic stimulation but soothes the reaction of CHS in later times in mouse model.

  4. Chronic nicotine blunts hypoxic sensitivity in perinatal rat adrenal chromaffin cells via upregulation of KATP channels: role of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Josef; Brown, Stephen; Holloway, Alison C; Nurse, Colin A

    2009-06-03

    Fetal nicotine exposure blunts hypoxia-induced catecholamine secretion from neonatal adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs), providing a link between maternal smoking, abnormal arousal responses, and risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Here, we show that the mechanism is attributable to upregulation of K(ATP) channels via stimulation of alpha7 nicotinic ACh receptors (AChRs). These K(ATP) channels open during hypoxia, thereby suppressing membrane excitability. After in utero exposure to chronic nicotine, neonatal AMCs show a blunted hypoxic sensitivity as determined by inhibition of outward K(+) current, membrane depolarization, rise in cytosolic Ca(2+), and catecholamine secretion. However, hypoxic sensitivity could be unmasked in nicotine-exposed AMCs when glibenclamide, a blocker of K(ATP) channels, was present. Both K(ATP) current density and K(ATP) channel subunit (Kir 6.2) expression were significantly enhanced in nicotine-exposed cells relative to controls. The entire sequence could be reproduced in culture by exposing neonatal rat AMCs or immortalized fetal chromaffin (MAH) cells to nicotine for approximately 1 week, and was prevented by coincubation with selective blockers of alpha7 nicotinic AChRs. Additionally, coincubation with inhibitors of protein kinase C and CaM kinase, but not protein kinase A, prevented the effects of chronic nicotine in vitro. Interestingly, chronic nicotine failed to blunt hypoxia-evoked responses in MAH cells bearing short hairpin knockdown (>90%) of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha), suggesting involvement of the HIF pathway. The therapeutic potential of K(ATP) channel blockers was validated in experiments in which hypoxia-induced neonatal mortality in nicotine-exposed pups was significantly reduced after pretreatment with glibenclamide.

  5. In vivo efficiency of targeted norfloxacin against persistent, isoniazid-insensitive, Mycobacterium bovis BCG present in the physiologically hypoxic mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Balazuc, A M; Lagranderie, M; Chavarot, P; Pescher, P; Roseeuw, E; Schacht, E; Domurado, D; Marchal, G

    2005-06-01

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a hypoxia-inducible state in which the bacteria are phenotypically insensitive to currently available antituberculous drugs. In humans, persistent M. tuberculosis is found in granulomatous lesions, either inside macrophages or in necrotic tissue, where the partial oxygen pressure (pO(2)) is very low. Persistent bacteria can remain silent for decades before overt tuberculosis develops. Due to insensitivity to classical drugs, M. tuberculosis persistence prevents rapid and definitive clearance of bacteria. Consequently, therapeutic molecules are required that are both active against persistent bacilli and able to reach their intramacrophagic location. In contrast to its native form, norfloxacin is active in vivo against Mycobacterium bovis BCG present in the lungs when temporarily linked to a macromolecular carrier targeted to macrophages. To study the efficiency of this macromolecular prodrug targeted to persistent mycobacteria confined inside macrophages, we established a short-term in vivo model based on the physiological pO(2) differences between lungs, spleen and liver. Whereas lungs and spleen are well oxygenated, the liver has a low pO(2) due to its portal irrigation. Therefore, studying mycobacteria in the liver yields information about in vivo persistent bacilli exposed to low pO(2). To our knowledge, no similar short-term in vivo model has been published to date. Using this model, we demonstrated the insensitivity to isoniazid of M. bovis BCG present in hypoxic sites, and showed that norfloxacin given as a mannosylated macrophage-targeted prodrug was able to kill these isoniazid-insensitive mycobacteria. This demonstrates that intracellular persistent mycobacteria are amenable to antibiotic treatment.

  6. PPARα Protein Expression Was Increased by Four Weeks of Intermittent Hypoxic Training via AMPKα2-Dependent Manner in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge; Wang, Jianxiong; Ye, Jianping; Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is critical for muscle endurance due to its role in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. The 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor in cells, but its role in PPARα regulation in vivo remains unknown. In this study, we examined PPARα expression in the skeletal muscle of AMPKα2 overexpression (OE), knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice after four weeks of exercise under intermittent hypoxia. WT, OE and KO mice were used at 40 mice/strain and randomly subdivided into four subgroups: control (C), running (R), hypoxia (H), and running plus hypoxia (R+H) at 10 mice/group. The treadmill running was performed at the speed of 12 m/min, 60 min/day with a slope of 0 degree for four weeks. The hypoxia treatment was performed in daytime with normobaric hypoxia (11.20% oxygen, 8 hours/day). In the R+H group, the treadmill running was conducted in the hypoxic condition. AMPKα2, phosphor-AMPKα (p-AMPKα) (Thr172), nuclear PPARα proteins were measured by Western blot and the medium chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) mRNA, the key enzyme for fatty acid oxidation and one of the PPARα target genes, was also measured in skeletal muscles after the interventions. The results showed that nuclear PPARα protein was significantly increased by R+H in WT muscles, the increase was enhanced by 41% (p<0.01) in OE mice, but was reduced by 33% (p<0.01) in KO mice. The MCAD mRNA expression was increased after four weeks of R+H intervention. The change in MCAD mRNA followed a similar trend as that of PPARα protein in OE and KO mice. Our data suggest that the increase in nuclear PPARα protein by four-week exercise training under the intermittent hypoxia was dependent on AMPK activation. PMID:25923694

  7. Lipid Accumulation in Hypoxic Tissue Culture Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gerald B.; Barcza, Maureen A.; Bush, Marilyn E.

    1977-01-01

    Lipid droplets have long been recognized by light microscopy to accumulate in hypoxic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In the present tissue culture experiments, correlative electron microscopic observations and lipid analyses were performed to determine the nature and significance of lipid accumulation in hypoxia. Strain L mouse fibroblasts were grown in suspension culture, both aerobically and under severe oxygen restriction obtained by gassing cultures daily with an 8% CO2-92% nitrogen mixture. After 48 hours, hypoxic cells showed an increase in total lipid/protein ratio of 42% over control cells. Most of this increase was accounted for by an elevation in the level of cellular triglyceride from 12.3 ± 0.9 μg/mg cell protein in aerobic cultures to 41.9 ± 0.7 in the hypoxic cultures, an increase of 240%. Levels of cellular free fatty acids (FFA) were 96% higher in the hypoxic cultures. No significant changes in the levels of cellular phospholipid or cholesterol were noted. Electron microscopic examination revealed the accumulation of homogeneous cytoplasmic droplets. The hypoxic changes were reversible upon transferring the cultures to aerobic atmospheres with disappearance of the lipid. These experiments indicate that hypoxic injury initially results in triglyceride and FFA accumulation from an inability to oxidize fatty acids taken up from the media and not from autophagic processes, as described in other types of cell injury associated with the sequestration of membranous residues and intracellular cholesterol and phospholipid accumulation. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 1Figure 2 PMID:196505

  8. The Ketogenic Diet Alters the Hypoxic Response and Affects Expression of Proteins Associated with Angiogenesis, Invasive Potential and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Eric C.; Curley, Kara L.; Liu, Qingwei; Turner, Gregory H.; Charlton, Julie A.; Preul, Mark C.; Scheck, Adrienne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful treatment of malignant gliomas remains a challenge despite the current standard of care, which consists of surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Advances in the survival of brain cancer patients require the design of new therapeutic approaches that take advantage of common phenotypes such as the altered metabolism found in cancer cells. It has therefore been postulated that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate protein ketogenic diet (KD) may be useful in the treatment of brain tumors. We have demonstrated that the KD enhances survival and potentiates standard therapy in a mouse model of malignant glioma, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods To explore the effects of the KD on various aspects of tumor growth and progression, we used the immunocompetent, syngeneic GL261-Luc2 mouse model of malignant glioma. Results Tumors from animals maintained on KD showed reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Additionally, tumors from animals maintained on KD had reduced tumor microvasculature and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin. Peritumoral edema was significantly reduced in animals fed the KD and protein analyses showed altered expression of zona occludens-1 and aquaporin-4. Conclusions The KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas. PMID:26083629

  9. The Ketogenic Diet Alters the Hypoxic Response and Affects Expression of Proteins Associated with Angiogenesis, Invasive Potential and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Glioma Model.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Eric C; Curley, Kara L; Liu, Qingwei; Turner, Gregory H; Charlton, Julie A; Preul, Mark C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2015-01-01

    The successful treatment of malignant gliomas remains a challenge despite the current standard of care, which consists of surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Advances in the survival of brain cancer patients require the design of new therapeutic approaches that take advantage of common phenotypes such as the altered metabolism found in cancer cells. It has therefore been postulated that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate protein ketogenic diet (KD) may be useful in the treatment of brain tumors. We have demonstrated that the KD enhances survival and potentiates standard therapy in a mouse model of malignant glioma, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood. To explore the effects of the KD on various aspects of tumor growth and progression, we used the immunocompetent, syngeneic GL261-Luc2 mouse model of malignant glioma. Tumors from animals maintained on KD showed reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Additionally, tumors from animals maintained on KD had reduced tumor microvasculature and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin. Peritumoral edema was significantly reduced in animals fed the KD and protein analyses showed altered expression of zona occludens-1 and aquaporin-4. The KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas.

  10. Chronic haloperidol increases voltage-gated Na+ currents in mouse cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqiang; Zhu, Fangfang; Guo, Jingfang; Sheng, Jiangtao; Li, Wenli; Zhao, Xiangfeng; Wang, Gefei; Li, Kangsheng

    2014-07-18

    Typical antipsychotics are characterized by extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS). Previous studies demonstrated that typical antipsychotics could inhibit neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). However, EPS typically emerge only upon prolonged exposure. As a result, we examined effects of haloperidol, a prototype typical antipsychotic, on neuronal VGSC upon incubation for varying duration. Briefly, VGSC currents were activated and recorded using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in primary culture of mouse cortical neurons. VGSC activity was inhibited by acute haloperidol exposure (for minutes), but enhanced in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by chronic haloperidol exposure (for hours). The effects of chronic haloperidol were associated with increased expression of VGSC subunits as well as corresponding electrophysiological channel properties. In summary, we found enhanced VGSC currents upon chronic haloperidol exposure in cortical neurons in contrast to inhibition by acute haloperidol exposure. Such a results may contribute to EPS of typical antipsychotics.

  11. A reliable method for intracranial electrode implantation and chronic electrical stimulation in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Melanie; Lang, Min; Gane, Jonathan; Wu, Chiping; Burnham, W McIntyre; Zhang, Liang

    2013-08-06

    Electrical stimulation of brain structures has been widely used in rodent models for kindling or modeling deep brain stimulation used clinically. This requires surgical implantation of intracranial electrodes and subsequent chronic stimulation in individual animals for several weeks. Anchoring screws and dental acrylic have long been used to secure implanted intracranial electrodes in rats. However, such an approach is limited when carried out in mouse models as the thin mouse skull may not be strong enough to accommodate the anchoring screws. We describe here a screw-free, glue-based method for implanting bipolar stimulating electrodes in the mouse brain and validate this method in a mouse model of hippocampal electrical kindling. Male C57 black mice (initial ages of 6-8 months) were used in the present experiments. Bipolar electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 area for electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic recordings. The electrodes were secured onto the skull via glue and dental acrylic but without anchoring screws. A daily stimulation protocol was used to induce electrographic discharges and motor seizures. The locations of implanted electrodes were verified by hippocampal electrographic activities and later histological assessments. Using the glue-based implantation method, we implanted bilateral bipolar electrodes in 25 mice. Electrographic discharges and motor seizures were successfully induced via hippocampal electrical kindling. Importantly, no animal encountered infection in the implanted area or a loss of implanted electrodes after 4-6 months of repetitive stimulation/recording. We suggest that the glue-based, screw-free method is reliable for chronic brain stimulation and high-quality electroencephalographic recordings in mice. The technical aspects described this study may help future studies in mouse models.

  12. A reliable method for intracranial electrode implantation and chronic electrical stimulation in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Electrical stimulation of brain structures has been widely used in rodent models for kindling or modeling deep brain stimulation used clinically. This requires surgical implantation of intracranial electrodes and subsequent chronic stimulation in individual animals for several weeks. Anchoring screws and dental acrylic have long been used to secure implanted intracranial electrodes in rats. However, such an approach is limited when carried out in mouse models as the thin mouse skull may not be strong enough to accommodate the anchoring screws. We describe here a screw-free, glue-based method for implanting bipolar stimulating electrodes in the mouse brain and validate this method in a mouse model of hippocampal electrical kindling. Methods Male C57 black mice (initial ages of 6–8 months) were used in the present experiments. Bipolar electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 area for electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic recordings. The electrodes were secured onto the skull via glue and dental acrylic but without anchoring screws. A daily stimulation protocol was used to induce electrographic discharges and motor seizures. The locations of implanted electrodes were verified by hippocampal electrographic activities and later histological assessments. Results Using the glue-based implantation method, we implanted bilateral bipolar electrodes in 25 mice. Electrographic discharges and motor seizures were successfully induced via hippocampal electrical kindling. Importantly, no animal encountered infection in the implanted area or a loss of implanted electrodes after 4–6 months of repetitive stimulation/recording. Conclusion We suggest that the glue-based, screw-free method is reliable for chronic brain stimulation and high-quality electroencephalographic recordings in mice. The technical aspects described this study may help future studies in mouse models. PMID:23914984

  13. Feto- and utero-placental vascular adaptations to chronic maternal hypoxia in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Lindsay S; Rennie, Monique Y; Hoggarth, Johnathan; Yu, Lisa X; Rahman, Anum; Kingdom, John C; Seed, Mike; Macgowan, Christopher K; Sled, John G

    2017-09-01

    Chronic fetal hypoxia is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and is known to cause fetal growth restriction. The structural adaptations of the placental vasculature responsible for growth restriction with chronic hypoxia are not well elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic maternal hypoxia in combination with micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy, we found several placental adaptations that were beneficial to fetal growth including capillary expansion, thinning of the interhaemal membrane and increased radial artery diameters, resulting in a large drop in total utero-placental vascular resistance. One of the mechanisms used to achieve the rapid increase in capillaries was intussusceptive angiogenesis, a strategy used in human placental development to form terminal gas-exchanging villi. These results contribute to our understanding of the structural mechanisms of the placental vasculature responsible for fetal growth restriction and provide a baseline for understanding adaptive physiological responses of the placenta to chronic hypoxia. The fetus and the placenta in eutherian mammals have a unique set of compensatory mechanisms to respond to several pregnancy complications including chronic maternal hypoxia. This study examined the structural adaptations of the feto- and utero-placental vasculature in an experimental mouse model of chronic maternal hypoxia (11% O2 from embryonic day (E) 14.5-E17.5). While placental weights were unaffected by exposure to chronic hypoxia, using micro-computed tomography, we found a 44% decrease in the absolute feto-placental arterial vascular volume and a 30% decrease in total vessel segments in the chronic hypoxia group compared to control group. Scanning electron microscopy imaging showed significant expansion of the capillary network; consequently, the interhaemal membrane was 11% thinner to facilitate maternal-fetal exchange in the chronic hypoxia placentas. One of the mechanisms for the rapid

  14. Chronic Social Defeat Stress Modulates Dendritic Spines Structural Plasticity in Adult Mouse Frontal Association Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy. We found that chronic stress altered spine dynamics in FrA and increased the connectivity in FrA neural circuits. We also found that the changes in spine dynamics in FrA are correlated with the deficit of sucrose preference in defeated mice. Our findings suggest that chronic stress experience leads to adaptive change in neural circuits that may be important for encoding stress experience related memory and anhedonia. PMID:28197343

  15. Post-hypoxic Myoclonus: Current Concepts, Neurophysiology, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Caviness, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Myoclonus may occur after hypoxia. In 1963, Lance and Adams described persistent myoclonus with other features after hypoxia. However, myoclonus occurring immediately after hypoxia may demonstrate different syndromic features from classic Lance–Adams syndrome (LAS). The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the spectrum of myoclonus occurring after hypoxia with emphasis on neurophysiological features. Methods A literature search was performed on PubMed database from 1960 to 2015. The following search terms were used: “myoclonus,” “post anoxic myoclonus,” “post hypoxic myoclonus,” and “Lance Adams syndrome.” The articles describing clinical features, neurophysiology, management, and prognosis of post-hypoxic myoclonus cases were included for review. Results Several reports in the literature were separated clinically into “acute post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred within hours of severe hypoxia, and “chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus,” which occurred with some recovery of mental status as the LAS. Acute post-hypoxic myoclonus was generalized in the setting of coma. Chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus presented as multifocal cortical action myoclonus that was significantly disabling. There was overlap of neurophysiological findings for these two syndromes but also different features. Treatment options for these two distinct clinical–neurophysiologic post-hypoxic myoclonus syndromes were approached differently. Discussion The review of clinical and neurophysiological findings suggests that myoclonus after hypoxia manifests in one or a combination of distinct syndromes: acute and/or chronic myoclonus. The mechanism of post-hypoxic myoclonus may arise either from cortical and/or subcortical structures. More research is needed to clarify mechanisms and treatment of post-hypoxic myoclonus. PMID:27708982

  16. Increased urinary lysophosphatidic acid in mouse with subtotal nephrectomy: potential involvement in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyan, Koryun; Baïotto, Anna; Dupuy, Aude; Marsal, Dimitri; Denis, Colette; Vinel, Claire; Sicard, Pierre; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Klein, Julie; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with consecutive progression to end-stage renal disease represents a significant burden to healthcare systems. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a classical hallmark of CKD and is well correlated with the loss of renal function. The bioactive lysophospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting through specific G-protein-coupled receptors, was previously shown to be involved in TIF development in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Here, we study the role of LPA in a mouse subjected to subtotal nephrectomy (SNx), a more chronic and progressive model of CKD. Five months after surgical nephron reduction, SNx mice showed massive albuminuria, extensive TIF, and glomerular hypertrophy when compared to sham-operated animals. Urinary and plasma levels of LPA were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. LPA was significantly increased in SNx urine, not in plasma, and was significantly correlated with albuminuria and TIF. Moreover, SNx mice showed significant downregulation in the renal expression of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPP1, 2, and 3) that might be involved in reduced LPA bioavailability through dephosphorylation. We concluded that SNx increases urinary LPA through a mechanism that could involve co-excretion of plasma LPA with albumin associated with a reduction of its catabolism in the kidney. Because of the previously demonstrated profibrotic activity of LPA, the association of urinary LPA with TIF suggests the potential involvement of LPA in the development of advanced CKD in the SNx mouse model. Targeting LPA metabolism might represent an interesting approach in CKD treatment.

  17. Anticonvulsant effects of a triheptanoin diet in two mouse chronic seizure models

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Sarah; Stoll, James; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that in epileptic brains citric acid cycle intermediate levels may be deficient leading to hyperexcitability. Anaplerosis is the metabolic refilling of deficient metabolites. Our goal was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of feeding triheptanoin, the triglyceride of anaplerotic heptanoate. CF1 mice were fed 0-35% calories from triheptanoin. Body weights and dietary intake were similar in mice fed triheptanoin vs. standard diet. Triheptanoin feeding increased blood propionyl-carnitine levels, signifying its metabolism. 35%, but not 20%, triheptanoin delayed development of corneal kindled seizures. After pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), triheptanoin feeding increased the pentylenetetrazole tonic seizure threshold during the chronically epileptic stage. Mice in the chronically epileptic stage showed various changes in brain metabolite levels, including a reduction in malate. Triheptanoin feeding largely restored a reduction in propionyl-CoA levels and increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels in SE mice. In summary, triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. The mechanisms of triheptanoin's effects and its efficacy in humans suffering from epilepsy remain to be determined. PMID:20691264

  18. Lack of TIR8/SIGIRR triggers progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa Sabrina; Simonetti, Giorgia; Dagklis, Antonis; Rocchi, Martina; Rodriguez, Tania Veliz; Apollonio, Benedetta; Mantovani, Alberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ghia, Paolo; Garlanda, Cecilia; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Muzio, Marta

    2011-07-21

    Inflammation is involved in the initiation and progression of several chronic lymphoid malignancies of B-cell type. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are transmembrane inflammatory receptors that on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns trigger an innate immune response and bridge the innate and adaptive immune response by acting as costimulatory signals for B cells. Fine tuning of TLR and IL-1R-like (ILR) activity is regulated by TIR8 (SIGIRR), a transmembrane receptor of the TLR/ILR family which inhibits other family members. To test the hypothesis that TLR and/or ILR may play a role in the natural history of chronic B-cell tumors, we crossed Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mice, a well established model of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with mice lacking the inhibitory receptor TIR8 that allow an unabated TLR-mediated stimulation. We here report that in the absence of TIR8 the appearance of monoclonal B-cell expansions is accelerated and mouse life span is shortened. The morphology and phenotype of the mouse leukemic expansions reproduce the progression of human CLL into an aggressive and frequently terminal phase characterized by the appearance of prolymphocytes. This study reveals an important pathogenetic implication of TLR in CLL development and progression.

  19. Cortical region-specific engraftment of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells restores axonal sprouting to a subcortical target and achieves motor functional recovery in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shinoyama, Mizuya; Ideguchi, Makoto; Kida, Hiroyuki; Kajiwara, Koji; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Maeda, Yoshihiko; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) at birth could cause cerebral palsy (CP), mental retardation, and epilepsy, which last throughout the individual's lifetime. However, few restorative treatments for ischemic tissue are currently available. Cell replacement therapy offers the potential to rescue brain damage caused by HI and to restore motor function. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NPCs) to become cortical deep layer neurons, to restore the neural network, and to repair brain damage in an HIE mouse model. ES cells stably expressing the reporter gene GFP are induced to a neural precursor state by stromal cell co-culture. Forty-hours after the induction of HIE, animals were grafted with ES-NPCs targeting the deep layer of the motor cortex in the ischemic brain. Motor function was evaluated 3 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry and neuroanatomical tracing with GFP were used to analyze neuronal differentiation and axonal sprouting. ES-NPCs could differentiate to cortical neurons with pyramidal morphology and expressed the deep layer-specific marker, Ctip2. The graft showed good survival and an appropriate innervation pattern via axonal sprouting from engrafted cells in the ischemic brain. The motor functions of the transplanted HIE mice also improved significantly compared to the sham-transplanted group. These findings suggest that cortical region specific engraftment of preconditioned cortical precursor cells could support motor functional recovery in the HIE model. It is not clear whether this is a direct effect of the engrafted cells or due to neurotrophic factors produced by these cells. These results suggest that cortical region-specific NPC engraftment is a promising therapeutic approach for brain repair.

  20. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

  1. Scleral Permeability Varies by Mouse Strain and Is Decreased by Chronic Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pease, Mary E.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Cone-Kimball, Elizabeth; Jefferys, Joan L.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Kim, Anthony J.; Hanes, Justin; Quigley, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine differences in scleral permeability, as measured by diffusion of macromolecules, by using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), with reference to differences by mouse strain, scleral region, and the effect of experimental glaucoma. Methods. In three mouse strains (B6, CD1, and B6 mice with mutation in collagen 8α2 [Aca23]), we used FRAP to measure the diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran, molecular weight 40 kDa, into a photobleached zone of sclera. Scleral regions near the optic nerve head (peripapillary) and two successively more anterior regions were compared. Sclera from mouse eyes subjected to chronically elevated intraocular pressure after bead injection into the anterior chamber were compared to fellow eye controls. FRAP data were compared against estimated retinal ganglion cell axon loss in glaucomatous eyes. Results. Diffusion rates of dextran molecules in the sclera were significantly greater in Aca23 and B6 mice than in CD1 mice in a multivariate model adjusted for region and axial length (P < 0.0001). Dextran diffusion significantly decreased in glaucomatous eyes, and the decline increased with greater axon loss (P = 0.0003, multivariable model). Peripapillary scleral permeability was higher in CD1 than B6 and Aca23 mice (P < 0.05, multivariable model, adjusted by Bonferroni). Conclusions. Measurement of the diffusion rates of dextran molecules in the sclera showed that glaucoma leads to decreased scleral permeability in all three mouse strains tested. Among mouse strains tested, those that were more susceptible to glaucomatous loss of retinal ganglion cells had a lower scleral permeability at baseline. PMID:24557355

  2. Chronic in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord using an implanted chamber

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Matthew J.; Bernstein, Ida M.; Schlafer, Donald H.; Cleland, Thomas A.; Fetcho, Joseph R.; Schaffer, Chris B.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and treatment of spinal cord pathology is limited in part by a lack of longitudinal in vivo imaging strategies at the cellular level. We developed a chronically implanted spinal chamber and surgical procedure suitable for time-lapse in vivo multiphoton microscopy of mouse spinal cord without the need for repeat surgical procedures. Repeated imaging was routinely achieved for more than five weeks post-operatively with up to ten separate imaging sessions. We observed neither motor function deficit nor neuropathology in the spinal cord as a result of chamber implantation. Using this chamber we quantified microglia and afferent axon dynamics following a laser-induced spinal cord lesion and observed massive microglia infiltration within one day along with a heterogeneous dieback of axon stumps. By enabling chronic imaging studies over timescales ranging from minutes to months, our method offers an ideal platform for understanding cellular dynamics in response to injury and therapeutic interventions. PMID:22266542

  3. Hepatocyte Tissue Factor Contributes to the Hypercoagulable State in a Mouse Model of Chronic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tatsumi, Kohei; Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Holle, Lori A.; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Kopec, Anna K.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Luyendyk, James P.; Mackman, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background & Aims Patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis have a dysregulated coagulation system and are prone to thrombosis. The basis for this hypercoagulable state is not completely understood. Tissue factor (TF) is the primary initiator of coagulation in vivo. Patients with cirrhosis have increased TF activity in white blood cells and circulating microparticles. The aim of our study was to determine the contribution of TF to the hypercoagulable state in a mouse model of chronic liver injury. Methods We measured levels of TF activity in the liver, white blood cells and circulating microparticles, and a marker of activation of coagulation [thrombinantithrombin complexes (TATc)] in the plasma of mice subjected to bile duct ligation for 12 days. We used wild-type mice, mice with a global TF deficiency (low TF mice), and mice deficient for TF in either myeloid cells (TFflox/flox, LysMCre mice) or in hepatocytes (TFflox/flox, AlbCre). Results Wild-type mice with liver injury had increased levels of white blood cell, microparticle TF activity and TATc compared to sham mice. Low TF mice and mice lacking TF in hepatocytes had reduced levels of TF in the liver and in microparticles and exhibited reduced activation of coagulation without a change in liver fibrosis. In contrast, mice lacking TF in myeloid cells had reduced white blood cell TF but no change in microparticle TF activity or TATc. Conclusions Hepatocyte TF activates coagulation in a mouse model of chronic liver injury. TF may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with chronic liver diseases in patients. PMID:26325534

  4. Impact of an additional chronic BDNF reduction on learning performance in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Psotta, Laura; Rockahr, Carolin; Gruss, Michael; Kirches, Elmar; Braun, Katharina; Lessmann, Volkmar; Bock, Jörg; Endres, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. A number of studies demonstrated that AD patients exhibit reduced BDNF levels in the brain and the blood serum, and in addition, several animal-based studies indicated a potential protective effect of BDNF against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. In order to further investigate the role of BDNF in the etiology of AD, we created a novel mouse model by crossing a well-established AD mouse model (APP/PS1) with a mouse exhibiting a chronic BDNF deficiency (BDNF+/−). This new triple transgenic mouse model enabled us to further analyze the role of BDNF in AD in vivo. We reasoned that in case BDNF has a protective effect against AD pathology, an AD-like phenotype in our new mouse model should occur earlier and/or in more severity than in the APP/PS1-mice. Indeed, the behavioral analysis revealed that the APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice show an earlier onset of learning impairments in a two-way active avoidance task in comparison to APP/PS1- and BDNF+/−-mice. However in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we could not observe an overall aggrevated impairment in spatial learning and also short-term memory in an object recognition task remained intact in all tested mouse lines. In addition to the behavioral experiments, we analyzed the amyloid plaque pathology in the APP/PS1 and APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice and observed a comparable plaque density in the two genotypes. Moreover, our results revealed a higher plaque density in prefrontal cortical compared to hippocampal brain regions. Our data reveal that higher cognitive tasks requiring the recruitment of cortical networks appear to be more severely affected in our new mouse model than learning tasks requiring mainly sub-cortical networks. Furthermore, our observations of an accelerated impairment in active avoidance learning in APP/PS1-BDNF+/−-mice further supports the hypothesis that BDNF deficiency

  5. A novel mouse model identifies cooperating mutations and therapeutic targets critical for chronic myeloid leukemia progression

    PubMed Central

    Giotopoulos, George; van der Weyden, Louise; Osaki, Hikari; Rust, Alistair G.; Gallipoli, Paolo; Meduri, Eshwar; Horton, Sarah J.; Chan, Wai-In; Foster, Donna; Prinjha, Rab K.; Pimanda, John E.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Vassiliou, George S.; Koschmieder, Steffen; Adams, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of highly selective ABL-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, TKIs are only efficacious in the chronic phase of the disease and effective therapies for TKI-refractory CML, or after progression to blast crisis (BC), are lacking. Whereas the chronic phase of CML is dependent on BCR-ABL, additional mutations are required for progression to BC. However, the identity of these mutations and the pathways they affect are poorly understood, hampering our ability to identify therapeutic targets and improve outcomes. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that allows identification of mechanisms of BC progression in an unbiased and tractable manner, using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis on the background of chronic phase CML. Our BC model is the first to faithfully recapitulate the phenotype, cellular and molecular biology of human CML progression. We report a heterogeneous and unique pattern of insertions identifying known and novel candidate genes and demonstrate that these pathways drive disease progression and provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Our model greatly informs the biology of CML progression and provides a potent resource for the development of candidate therapies to improve the dismal outcomes in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26304963

  6. Simple platform for chronic imaging of hippocampal activity during spontaneous behaviour in an awake mouse.

    PubMed

    Villette, Vincent; Levesque, Mathieu; Miled, Amine; Gosselin, Benoit; Topolnik, Lisa

    2017-02-27

    Chronic electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity combined with two-photon Ca(2+) imaging give access to high resolution and cellular specificity. In addition, awake drug-free experimentation is required for investigating the physiological mechanisms that operate in the brain. Here, we developed a simple head fixation platform, which allows simultaneous chronic imaging and electrophysiological recordings to be obtained from the hippocampus of awake mice. We performed quantitative analyses of spontaneous animal behaviour, the associated network states and the cellular activities in the dorsal hippocampus as well as estimated the brain stability limits to image dendritic processes and individual axonal boutons. Ca(2+) imaging recordings revealed a relatively stereotyped hippocampal activity despite a high inter-animal and inter-day variability in the mouse behavior. In addition to quiet state and locomotion behavioural patterns, the platform allowed the reliable detection of walking steps and fine speed variations. The brain motion during locomotion was limited to ~1.8 μm, thus allowing for imaging of small sub-cellular structures to be performed in parallel with recordings of network and behavioural states. This simple device extends the drug-free experimentation in vivo, enabling high-stability optophysiological experiments with single-bouton resolution in the mouse awake brain.

  7. Simple platform for chronic imaging of hippocampal activity during spontaneous behaviour in an awake mouse

    PubMed Central

    Villette, Vincent; Levesque, Mathieu; Miled, Amine; Gosselin, Benoit; Topolnik, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Chronic electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity combined with two-photon Ca2+ imaging give access to high resolution and cellular specificity. In addition, awake drug-free experimentation is required for investigating the physiological mechanisms that operate in the brain. Here, we developed a simple head fixation platform, which allows simultaneous chronic imaging and electrophysiological recordings to be obtained from the hippocampus of awake mice. We performed quantitative analyses of spontaneous animal behaviour, the associated network states and the cellular activities in the dorsal hippocampus as well as estimated the brain stability limits to image dendritic processes and individual axonal boutons. Ca2+ imaging recordings revealed a relatively stereotyped hippocampal activity despite a high inter-animal and inter-day variability in the mouse behavior. In addition to quiet state and locomotion behavioural patterns, the platform allowed the reliable detection of walking steps and fine speed variations. The brain motion during locomotion was limited to ~1.8 μm, thus allowing for imaging of small sub-cellular structures to be performed in parallel with recordings of network and behavioural states. This simple device extends the drug-free experimentation in vivo, enabling high-stability optophysiological experiments with single-bouton resolution in the mouse awake brain. PMID:28240275

  8. Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection Mimicking Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Jensen, PeterØstrup; Stub, Charlotte; Hentzer, Morten; Molin, Søren; Ciofu, Oana; Givskov, Michael; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a chronic infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by establishing an alginate-containing biofilm. The infection has been studied in several animal models; however, most of the models required artificial embedding of the bacteria. We present here a new pulmonary mouse model without artificial embedding. The model is based on a stable mucoid CF sputum isolate (NH57388A) with hyperproduction of alginate due to a deletion in mucA and functional N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum-sensing systems. Chronic lung infection could be established in both CF mice (CftrtmlUnc−/−) and BALB/c mice, as reflected by the detection of a high number of P. aeruginosa organisms in the lung homogenates at 7 days postinfection and alginate biofilms, surrounded by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the alveoli. In comparison, both an AHL-producing nonmucoid revertant (NH57388C) from the mucoid isolate (NH57388A) and a nonmucoid isolate (NH57388B) deficient in AHL were almost cleared from the lungs of the mice. This model, in which P. aeruginosa is protected against the defense system of the lung by alginate, is similar to the clinical situation. Therefore, the mouse model provides an improved method for evaluating the interaction between mucoid P. aeruginosa, the host, and antibacterial therapy. PMID:15784597

  9. Deleterious Effects of Chronic Folate Deficiency in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Susan; Blayney, Morgan; Whited, Taylor; Noroozi, Mahjabin; Lin, Sen; Kern, Semira; Green, David; Salehi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Folate is an important B vitamin naturally found in the human diet and plays a critical role in methylation of nucleic acids. Indeed, abnormalities in this major epigenetic mechanism play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficit and intellectual disability in humans. The most common cause of cognitive dysfunction in children is Down syndrome (DS). Since folate deficiency is very common among the pediatric population, we questioned whether chronic folate deficiency (CFD) exacerbates cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of DS. To test this, adult Ts65Dn mice and their disomic littermates were chronically fed a diet free of folic acid while preventing endogenous production of folate in the digestive tract for a period of 8 weeks. Our results show that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS was significantly more vulnerable to CFD in terms of plasma homocysteine and N5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) levels. Importantly, these changes were linked to degenerative alterations in hippocampal dendritic morphology and impaired nest building behavior in Ts65Dn mice. Based on our results, a rigorous examination of folate intake and its metabolism in individuals with DS is warranted. PMID:28649192

  10. The impairment of learning and memory and synaptic loss in mouse after chronic nitrite exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongfang; Cui, Zhanjun; Wang, Lai; Liu, Hongliang; Fan, Wenjuan; Deng, Jinbo; Deng, Jiexin

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the impairment of learning and memory in mouse after chronic nitrite exposure. The animal model of nitrite exposure in mouse was created with the daily intubation of nitrite in adult healthy male mice for 3 months. Furthermore, the mouse's learning and memory abilities were tested with Morris water maze, and the expression of Synaptophysin and γ-Synuclein was visualized with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Our results showed that nitrite exposure significantly prolonged the escape latency period (ELP) and decreased the values of the frequency across platform (FAP) as well as the accumulative time in target quadrant (ATITQ) compared to control, in dose-dependent manner. In addition, after nitrite exposure, synaptophysin (SYN) positive buttons in the visual cortex was reduced, in contrast the increase of γ-synuclein positive cells. The results above were supported by Western blot as well. We conclude that nitrite exposure could lead to a decline in mice's learning and memory. The overexpression of γ-synuclein contributed to the synaptic loss, which is most likely the cause of learning and memory impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1720-1730, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The impairment of learning and memory and synaptic loss in mouse after chronic nitrite exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongfang; Cui, Zhanjun; Wang, Lai; Liu, Hongliang; Fan, Wenjuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to understand the impairment of learning and memory in mouse after chronic nitrite exposure. The animal model of nitrite exposure in mouse was created with the daily intubation of nitrite in adult healthy male mice for 3 months. Furthermore, the mouse's learning and memory abilities were tested with Morris water maze, and the expression of Synaptophysin and γ‐Synuclein was visualized with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Our results showed that nitrite exposure significantly prolonged the escape latency period (ELP) and decreased the values of the frequency across platform (FAP) as well as the accumulative time in target quadrant (ATITQ) compared to control, in dose‐dependent manner. In addition, after nitrite exposure, synaptophysin (SYN) positive buttons in the visual cortex was reduced, in contrast the increase of γ‐synuclein positive cells. The results above were supported by Western blot as well. We conclude that nitrite exposure could lead to a decline in mice's learning and memory. The overexpression of γ‐synuclein contributed to the synaptic loss, which is most likely the cause of learning and memory impairment. © 2015 The Authors Environmental Toxicology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1720–1730, 2016. PMID:26218639

  12. Interval hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L

    2001-01-01

    Interval hypoxic training (IHT) is a technique developed in the former Soviet Union, that consists of repeated exposures to 5-7 minutes of steady or progressive hypoxia, interrupted by equal periods of recovery. It has been proposed for training in sports, to acclimatize to high altitude, and to treat a variety of clinical conditions, spanning from coronary heart disease to Cesarean delivery. Some of these results may originate by the different effects of continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia (IH), which can be obtained by manipulating the repetition rate, the duration and the intensity of the hypoxic stimulus. The present article will attempt to examine some of the effects of IH, and, whenever possible, compare them to those of typical IHT. IH can modify oxygen transport and energy utilization, alter respiratory and blood pressure control mechanisms, induce permanent modifications in the cardiovascular system. IHT increases the hypoxic ventilatory response, increase red blood cell count and increase aerobic capacity. Some of these effects might be potentially beneficial in specific physiologic or pathologic conditions. At this stage, this technique appears interesting for its possible applications, but still largely to be explored for its mechanisms, potentials and limitations.

  13. Diet dependent longevity and hypoxic tolerance of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between nutrition and longevity are of growing interest. Here we analysed the influences of dietary restriction on the survival of Drosophila exposed to atmospheric oxygen or to chronic hypoxia. Dietary restriction was achieved by food dilution, by sucrose restriction or by yeast restriction. Sucrose and yeast influenced survival in a complex manner that was best visualised using a phenotypic landscape metaphor. Survival contour maps integrate poorly understood behavioural adaptations, metabolic regulations and nutrient signalling pathways in a comprehensive manner. Dietary yeast produced a bell shaped survival response which was dependent on sucrose. Hypoxic flies had a reduced longevity as compared to normoxic flies and their dependence on specific nutrients was modified. Yeast which was beneficial to normoxic flies was toxic for hypoxic flies. In addition hypoxic flies were more resistant to starvation. We conclude that the survival and the hypoxic tolerance of Drosophila have different nutritional requirements.

  14. Enhanced Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival in Glaucoma by Hypoxic Postconditioning After Disease Onset.

    PubMed

    Gidday, Jeffrey M; Zhang, Lihong; Chiang, Chia-Wen; Zhu, Yanli

    2015-04-01

    The neuroprotective efficacy of adaptive epigenetics, wherein beneficial gene expression changes are induced by nonharmful "conditioning" stimuli, is now well established in several acute, preclinical central nervous system injury models. Recently, in a mouse model of glaucoma, we demonstrated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) protection by repetitively "preconditioning" with hypoxia prior to disease onset, indicating an epigenetic approach may also yield benefits in chronic neurodegenerative disease. Herein, we determined whether presenting the repetitive hypoxic stimulus after disease initiation [repetitive hypoxic "postconditioning" (RH-Post)] could afford similar functional and morphologic protection against glaucomatous RGC injury. Chronic elevations in intraocular pressure (IOP) were induced unilaterally in adult male C57BL/6 mice by episcleral vein ligation. Mice were randomized to an RH-Post [1 h of systemic hypoxia (11% oxygen) every other day, starting 4 days after IOP elevation] or an untreated control group. After 3 weeks of experimental glaucoma, the 21-27% reduction and 5-25% prolongation in flash visual-evoked potential amplitudes and latencies, respectively, and the 30% impairment in visual acuity were robustly improved in RH-Post-treated mice, as was the 17% loss in RGC soma number and 20% reduction in axon integrity. These protective effects were observed without RH-Post affecting IOP. The present findings demonstrate that functional and morphologic protection of RGCs can be realized by stimulating epigenetic responses during the early stages of disease, and thus constitute a new conceptual approach to glaucoma therapeutics.

  15. Disturbances of novel object exploration and recognition in a chronic ketamine mouse model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Maria Jelena; Isbrandt, Dirk; Roeper, Jochen

    2017-08-14

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition to genetic approaches, chronic systemic application of NMDA inhibitors such as ketamine have been used to generate rodent models, which displayed several relevant endophenotypes related to negative and cognitive symptoms and might thus facilitate mechanistic studies into the underlying pathophysiology. In this context, previous behavioral testing identified impairments in novel object recognition memory as a key feature in chronic NMDA-inhibitor schizophrenia rodent models. Using a chronic ketamine mouse model, we have however identified are more complex behavioral phenotype including deficits in novel space and novel object exploration in combination deficits in short-term novel object recognition memory. These impairments in novelty discrimination are in line with prefrontal and hippocampal reductions in parvalbumin-expression as well as reduced expression of the early immediate gene c-fos after novel-object exploration in hippocampal areas in our model. Our results indicate that adult C57Bl6N mice chronically treated with ketamine display combined impairments in novelty exploration and recognition, which might represent both motivational (negative) and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxia modifies the feeding preferences of Drosophila. Consequences for diet dependent hypoxic survival

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent attention has been given to the relationships between diet, longevity, aging and resistance to various forms of stress. Flies do not simply ingest calories. They sense different concentrations of carbohydrate and protein macronutrients and they modify their feeding behavior in response to changes in dietary conditions. Chronic hypoxia is a major consequence of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary proteins have recently been shown to decrease the survival of chronically hypoxic Drosophila. Whether flies modify their feeding behavior in response to hypoxia is not currently known. This study uses the recently developed capillary feeding assay to analyze the feeding behavior of normoxic and chronically hypoxic Drosophila melanogaster. Results The intakes rates of sucrose and yeast by normoxic or chronically hypoxic flies (5% O2) were analyzed under self selecting and "no choice" conditions. Chronically hypoxic flies fed on pure yeast diets or mixed diets under self selection conditions stopped feeding on yeast. Flies fed on mixed diets under "no choice" conditions reduced their food intakes. Hypoxia did not modify the adaptation of flies to diluted diets or to imbalanced diets. Mortality was assessed in parallel experiments. Dietary yeast had two distinct effects on hypoxic flies (i) a repellent action which eventually led to starvation and which was best observed in the absence of dietary sucrose and (ii) a toxic action which led to premature death. Finally we determined that hypoxic survivals were correlated to the intakes of sucrose, which suggested that dietary yeast killed flies by reducing their intake of sucrose. The feeding preferences of adult Drosophila were insensitive to NO scavengers, NO donor molecules and inhibitors of phosphodiesterases which are active on Drosophila larvae. Conclusion Chronically hypoxic flies modify their feeding behavior. They avoid dietary yeast which appears to be toxic. Hypoxic survival is dependent on a source of

  17. Hypoxia modifies the feeding preferences of Drosophila. Consequences for diet dependent hypoxic survival.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2010-05-13

    Recent attention has been given to the relationships between diet, longevity, aging and resistance to various forms of stress. Flies do not simply ingest calories. They sense different concentrations of carbohydrate and protein macronutrients and they modify their feeding behavior in response to changes in dietary conditions. Chronic hypoxia is a major consequence of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary proteins have recently been shown to decrease the survival of chronically hypoxic Drosophila. Whether flies modify their feeding behavior in response to hypoxia is not currently known. This study uses the recently developed capillary feeding assay to analyze the feeding behavior of normoxic and chronically hypoxic Drosophila melanogaster. The intakes rates of sucrose and yeast by normoxic or chronically hypoxic flies (5% O2) were analyzed under self selecting and "no choice" conditions. Chronically hypoxic flies fed on pure yeast diets or mixed diets under self selection conditions stopped feeding on yeast. Flies fed on mixed diets under "no choice" conditions reduced their food intakes. Hypoxia did not modify the adaptation of flies to diluted diets or to imbalanced diets. Mortality was assessed in parallel experiments. Dietary yeast had two distinct effects on hypoxic flies (i) a repellent action which eventually led to starvation and which was best observed in the absence of dietary sucrose and (ii) a toxic action which led to premature death. Finally we determined that hypoxic survivals were correlated to the intakes of sucrose, which suggested that dietary yeast killed flies by reducing their intake of sucrose. The feeding preferences of adult Drosophila were insensitive to NO scavengers, NO donor molecules and inhibitors of phosphodiesterases which are active on Drosophila larvae. Chronically hypoxic flies modify their feeding behavior. They avoid dietary yeast which appears to be toxic. Hypoxic survival is dependent on a source of exogenous sucrose. Ultimately

  18. Macrophage Depletion Attenuates Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Ductular Reaction in a Mouse Model of Chronic Cholangiopathies

    PubMed Central

    Syn, Wing-Kin; Lagaisse, Kimberly; van Hul, Noemi; Heindryckx, Femke; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Peeters, Liesbeth; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Leclercq, Isabelle A.; Canbay, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cholangiopathies, such as primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis, are progressive disease entities, associated with periportal accumulation of inflammatory cells, encompassing monocytes and macrophages, peribiliary extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and ductular reaction (DR). This study aimed to elucidate the relevance of macrophages in the progression of chronic cholangiopathies through macrophage depletion in a 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) mouse model. One group of mice received a single i.p. injection of Clodronate encapsulated liposomes (CLOLipo) at day 7 of a 14 day DDC treatment, while control animals were co-treated with PBSLipo instead. Mice were sacrificed after 7 or respectively 14 days of treatment for immunohistochemical assessment of macrophage recruitment (F4/80), ECM deposition (Sirius Red, Laminin) and DR (CK19). Macrophage depletion during a 14 day DDC treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of ECM deposition. Porto-lobular migration patterns of laminin-rich ECM and ductular structures were significantly attenuated and a progression of DR was effectively inhibited by macrophage depletion. CLOLipo co-treatment resulted in a confined DR to portal regions without amorphous cell clusters. This study suggests that therapeutic options selectively directed towards macrophages might represent a feasible treatment for chronic cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:27618307

  19. Limited Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment in a Mouse Model of Machado-Joseph Disease.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Sofia; Duarte-Silva, Sara; Naia, Luana; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Maciel, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the coding region of ATXN3 gene, and which currently lacks effective treatment. In this work we tested the therapeutic efficacy of chronic treatment with valproic acid (VPA) (200mg/kg), a compound with known neuroprotection activity, and previously shown to be effective in cell, fly and nematode models of MJD. We show that chronic VPA treatment in the CMVMJD135 mouse model had limited effects in the motor deficits of these mice, seen mostly at late stages in the motor swimming, beam walk, rotarod and spontaneous locomotor activity tests, and did not modify the ATXN3 inclusion load and astrogliosis in affected brain regions. However, VPA chronic treatment was able to increase GRP78 protein levels at 30 weeks of age, one of its known neuroprotective effects, confirming target engagement. In spite of limited results, the use of another dosage of VPA or of VPA in a combined therapy with molecules targeting other pathways, cannot be excluded as potential strategies for MJD therapeutics.

  20. Mouse running activity is lowered by Brucella abortus treatment: a potential model to study chronic fatigue.

    PubMed

    Ottenweller, J E; Natelson, B H; Gause, W C; Carroll, K K; Beldowicz, D; Zhou, X D; LaManca, J J

    1998-03-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome, which can occur after acute infection and last for years, is characterized by severe and persistent fatigue. Others have reported decreases in mouse running activity following infection and have suggested this may provide an animal model for studying chronic fatigue. Voluntary running is a highly motivated activity in mice, which will often run 5-7 mi/day in our laboratory. Following 2 weeks of acclimation to running wheels with food and water available ad lib, female BALB/c mice received 0.2-mL tail vein injections of killed Brucella abortus (BA) or saline vehicle. Subsequently the effects on voluntary running and grooming behavior were determined. Injection of BA caused an immediate large decrease in running and a lack of grooming. Vehicle injections produced no changes in behavior. After the first several days of reduced running behavior, levels of running and grooming slowly returned back to normal over the next 2-4 weeks, with substantial individual differences in the rate of recovery. The pattern of running during recovery was intriguing in that BA mice first ran at normal levels just after the lights went out, but they stopped after only 1-2 h. As recovery proceeded, they gradually increased the duration of the running bout during the night. Because this model uses voluntary exertion and the ability to run for longer periods of time characterizes recovery, the model may be a good one for studying the biologic underpinnings of chronic fatigue.

  1. Limited Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment in a Mouse Model of Machado-Joseph Disease

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sofia; Duarte-Silva, Sara; Naia, Luana; Neves-Carvalho, Andreia; Teixeira-Castro, Andreia; Rego, Ana Cristina; Silva-Fernandes, Anabela; Maciel, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, caused by a CAG repeat expansion within the coding region of ATXN3 gene, and which currently lacks effective treatment. In this work we tested the therapeutic efficacy of chronic treatment with valproic acid (VPA) (200mg/kg), a compound with known neuroprotection activity, and previously shown to be effective in cell, fly and nematode models of MJD. We show that chronic VPA treatment in the CMVMJD135 mouse model had limited effects in the motor deficits of these mice, seen mostly at late stages in the motor swimming, beam walk, rotarod and spontaneous locomotor activity tests, and did not modify the ATXN3 inclusion load and astrogliosis in affected brain regions. However, VPA chronic treatment was able to increase GRP78 protein levels at 30 weeks of age, one of its known neuroprotective effects, confirming target engagement. In spite of limited results, the use of another dosage of VPA or of VPA in a combined therapy with molecules targeting other pathways, cannot be excluded as potential strategies for MJD therapeutics. PMID:26505994

  2. Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in Humans: Tale or Myth

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, A.; Suleiman, M.S.; George, S.J.; Loubani, M.; Morice, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic Pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) describes the physiological adaptive process of lungs to preserves systemic oxygenation. It has clinical implications in the development of pulmonary hypertension which impacts on outcomes of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. This review examines both acute and chronic hypoxic vasoconstriction focusing on the distinct clinical implications and highlights the role of calcium and mitochondria in acute versus the role of reactive oxygen species and Rho GTPases in chronic HPV. Furthermore it identifies gaps of knowledge and need for further research in humans to clearly define this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism. PMID:28217180

  3. Comparison of tissue dosimetry in the mouse following chronic exposure to arsenic compounds.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P Robinan; Covington, Tammie R; Lawrence, Greg; McDonald, Tracy; Snow, Elizabeth T; Germolec, Dori; Moser, Glenda; Yager, Janice W; Clewell, Harvey J

    2005-03-12

    Several chronic bioassays have been conducted in multiple strains of mice in which various concentrations of arsenate or arsenite were administered in the drinking water without a tumorigenic effect. However, one study (Ng et al., 1999) reported a significant increase in tumor incidence in C57Bl/6J mice exposed to arsenic in their drinking water throughout their lifetime, with no tumors reported in controls. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for arsenic in the mouse has previously been developed (Gentry et al., 2004) to investigate potential differences in tissue dosimetry of arsenic species across various strains of mice. Initial results indicated no significant differences in blood, liver, or urine dosimetry in B6C3F1 and C57Bl/6 mice for acute or subchronic exposure. The current work was conducted to compare model-predicted estimates of tissue dosimetry to additional kinetic information from the (C57Bl/6 xCBA)F1 and TgAc mouse. The results from the current modeling indicate that the pharmacokinetic parameters derived based on information in the B6C3F1 mouse adequately describe the measured concentrations in the blood/plasma, liver, and urine of both the (C57Bl/6 x CBA)F1 and TgAc mouse, providing further support that the differences in response observed in the chronic bioassays are not related to strain-specific differences in pharmacokinetics. One significant finding was that no increases in skin or lung concentrations of arsenic species in the (C57Bl/6 x CBA)F1 strain were observed following administration of low concentrations (0.2 or 2 mg/U of arsenate in the drinking water, even though differences in response in the skin were reported. These data suggest that pharmacodynamic changes may be observed following exposure to arsenic compounds without an observable change in tissue dosimetry. These results provided further indirect support for the existence of inducible arsenic efflux in these tissues.

  4. A Low Protein Diet Increases the Hypoxic Tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O2) and analysed their survival. Chronic hypoxia reduced the average life span from 33.6 days to 6.3 days when flies were fed on a rich diet. A demographic analysis indicated that chronic hypoxia increased the slope of the mortality trajectory and not the short-term risk of death. Dietary restriction produced by food dilution, by yeast restriction, or by amino acid restriction partially reversed the deleterious action of hypoxia. It increased the life span of hypoxic flies up to seven days, which represented about 25% of the life time of an hypoxic fly. Maximum survival of hypoxic flies required only dietary sucrose, and it was insensitive to drugs such as rapamycin and resveratrol, which increase longevity of normoxic animals. The results thus uncover a new link between protein nutrition, nutrient signalling, and resistance to hypoxic stresses. PMID:17183686

  5. A low protein diet increases the hypoxic tolerance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2006-12-20

    Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O(2)) and analysed their survival. Chronic hypoxia reduced the average life span from 33.6 days to 6.3 days when flies were fed on a rich diet. A demographic analysis indicated that chronic hypoxia increased the slope of the mortality trajectory and not the short-term risk of death. Dietary restriction produced by food dilution, by yeast restriction, or by amino acid restriction partially reversed the deleterious action of hypoxia. It increased the life span of hypoxic flies up to seven days, which represented about 25% of the life time of an hypoxic fly. Maximum survival of hypoxic flies required only dietary sucrose, and it was insensitive to drugs such as rapamycin and resveratrol, which increase longevity of normoxic animals. The results thus uncover a new link between protein nutrition, nutrient signalling, and resistance to hypoxic stresses.

  6. Chronic atypical antipsychotics, but not haloperidol, increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Chikama, Koji; Yamada, Hidetaka; Tsukamoto, Tatsuo; Kajitani, Kosuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2017-09-09

    It is suggested that altered neuroplasticity contributes to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and antipsychotics may exhibit some of their therapeutic efficacies by improving neurogenesis and/or proliferation of neural progenitors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether chronic antipsychotics treatment affect neurogenesis in adult mouse hippocampus. Animals were administered olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, or haloperidol via the osmotic minipump for 21 days and then injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells. BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus were quantified by stereology. Aripiprazole, quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzapine significantly increased density of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus. Interestingly, other antipsychotic drugs had tendency to increasing BrdU-positive cells, whereas haloperidol had propensity to decrease with a marginal significance. These results suggest that differences of neurogenesis among these drugs may, at least in part, account for their pharmacological profiles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory.

  8. Circulating exosomes potentiate tumor malignant properties in a mouse model of chronic sleep fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Almendros, Isaac; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Mokhlesi, Babak; Huang, Lei; Andrade, Jorge; Farré, Ramon; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increases cancer aggressiveness in mice. Exosomes exhibit pleiotropic biological functions, including immune regulatory functions, antigen presentation, intracellular communication and inter-cellular transfer of RNA and proteins. We hypothesized that SF-induced alterations in biosynthesis and cargo of plasma exosomes may affect tumor cell properties. Results SF-derived exosomes increased tumor cell proliferation (~13%), migration (~2.3-fold) and extravasation (~10%) when compared to exosomes from SC-exposed mice. Similarly, Pre exosomes from OSA patients significantly enhanced proliferation and migration of human adenocarcinoma cells compared to Post. SF-exosomal cargo revealed 3 discrete differentially expressed miRNAs, and exploration of potential mRNA targets in TC1 tumor cells uncovered 132 differentially expressed genes that encode for multiple cancer-related pathways. Methods Plasma-derived exosomes from C57/B6 mice exposed to 6 wks of SF or sleep control (SC), and from adult human patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before (Pre) and after adherent treatment for 6 wks (Post) were co-cultured with mouse lung TC1 or human adenocarcinoma tumor cell lines, respectively. Proliferation, migration, invasion, endothelial barrier integrity and extravasation assays of tumor cells were performed. Plasma mouse exosomal miRNAs were profiled with arrays, and transcriptomic assessments of TC1 cells exposed to SF or SC exosomes were conducted to identify gene targets. Conclusions Chronic SF induces alterations in exosomal miRNA cargo that alter the biological properties of TC1 lung tumor cells to enhance their proliferative, migratory and extravasation properties, and similar findings occur in OSA patients, in whom SF is a constitutive component of their sleep disorder. Thus, exosomes could participate, at least in part, in the adverse cancer outcomes observed in OSA. PMID:27419627

  9. Lung Pathologies in a Chronic Inflammation Mouse Model Are Independent of Eosinophil Degranulation.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; Doyle, Alfred D; LeSuer, William E; Li, Wen; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Zellner, Katie R; Shen, HuaHao H; Irvin, Charles G; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2017-05-15

    The release of eosinophil granule proteins in the lungs of patients with asthma has been dogmatically linked with lung remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the demonstrated inability of established mouse models to display the eosinophil degranulation occurring in human subjects has prevented a definitive in vivo test of this hypothesis. To demonstrate in vivo causative links between induced pulmonary histopathologies/lung dysfunction and eosinophil degranulation. A transgenic mouse model of chronic T-helper cell type 2-driven inflammation overexpressing IL-5 from T cells and human eotaxin 2 in the lung (I5/hE2) was used to test the hypothesis that chronic histopathologies and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness occur as a consequence of extensive eosinophil degranulation in the lung parenchyma. Studies targeting specific inflammatory pathways in I5/hE2 mice surprisingly showed that eosinophil-dependent immunoregulative events and not the release of individual secondary granule proteins are the central contributors to T-helper cell type 2-induced pulmonary remodeling and lung dysfunction. Specifically, our studies highlighted a significant role for eosinophil-dependent IL-13 expression. In contrast, extensive degranulation leading to the release of major basic protein-1 or eosinophil peroxidase was not causatively linked to many of the induced pulmonary histopathologies. However, these studies did define a previously unappreciated link between the release of eosinophil peroxidase (but not major basic protein-1) and observed levels of induced airway mucin. These data suggest that improvements observed in patients with asthma responding to therapeutic strategies ablating eosinophils may occur as a consequence of targeting immunoregulatory mechanisms and not by simply eliminating the destructive activities of these purportedly end-stage effector cells.

  10. Chronic ultraviolet exposure-induced p53 gene alterations in sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Ying; Smith, M.A.; Tucker, S.B.

    1997-06-27

    Alterations of the tumor suppressor gene p53 have been found in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) related human skin cancers and in UVR-induced murine skin tumors. However, links between p53 gene alterations and the stages of carcinogenesis induced by UVR have not been clearly defined. We established a chronic UVR exposure-induced Sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model to determine the frequency of p53 gene alterations in different stages of carcinogenesis, including UV-exposed skin, papillomas, squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), and malignant spindle-cell tumors (SCTs). A high incidence of SCCs and SCTs were found in this model. Positive p53 nuclear staining was found in 10137 (27%) of SCCs and 12124 (50%) of SCTs, but was not detected in normal skin or papillomas. DNA was isolated from 40 paraffin-embedded normal skin, UV-exposed skin, and tumor sections. The p53 gene (exons 5 and 6) was amplified from the sections by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and sequencing analysis revealed one point mutation in exon 6 (coden 193, C {r_arrow} A transition) from a UV-exposed skin sample, and seven point mutations in exon 5 (codens 146, 158, 150, 165, and 161, three C {r_arrow} T, two C {r_arrow} A, one C {r_arrow} G, and one A {r_arrow} T transition, respectively) from four SCTs, two SCCs and one UV-exposed skin sample. These experimental results demonstrate that alterations in the p53 gene are frequent events in chronic UV exposure-induced SCCs and later stage SCTs in Sencar mouse skin. 40 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  12. Mechanism Underlying Linezolid-induced Thrombocytopenia in a Chronic Kidney Failure Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nishijo, Nao; Tsuji, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Kazuhisa; Kutsukake, Masahiko; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Fukumori, Shiro; Kasai, Hidefumi; Hiraki, Yoichi; Sakamaki, Ippei; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Karube, Yoshiharu; To, Hideto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between renal function and linezolid (LZD)-induced thrombocytopenia and elucidate the underlying mechanism using a chronic renal disease (CRD) mouse model. Materials and Methods: CRD was induced in 5-week-old male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 5/6 nephrectomy. After this procedure, LZD (25 and 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once every day for 28 days. Platelet counts, white blood cell (WBC) counts, and hematocrit (HCT) levels were measured every 7 days. 2-14C-thymidine (0.185 MBq) was administrated intravenously to LZD-administered mice to evaluate the thymidine uptake ability of bone marrow. Results: Platelet counts were significantly lower in the LZD-administered CRD group than in the LZD-nonadministered groups at 14, 21, and 28 days (P < 0.05); however, these changes were not observed in LZD-administered mice with normal renal function, regardless of the duration of LZD administration. No significant changes were observed in WBC counts or HCT levels in any LZD-administered CRD mouse. Moreover, radioactive levels in bone marrow were not significantly different in each group. Conclusions: These results indicate that LZD-induced decreases in platelet counts were enhanced by renal impairment in vivo, suggesting that LZD-induced thrombocytopenia is not caused by nonimmune-mediated bone marrow suppression. PMID:28405130

  13. Chronic Cellular Imaging of Mouse Visual Cortex During Operant Behavior and Passive Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Mark L.; Kerlin, A. M.; Reid, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby neurons in mammalian neocortex demonstrate a great diversity of cell types and connectivity patterns. The importance of this diversity for computation is not understood. While extracellular recording studies in visual cortex have provided a particularly rich description of behavioral modulation of neural activity, new methods are needed to dissect the contribution of specific circuit elements in guiding visual perception. Here, we describe a method for three-dimensional cellular imaging of neural activity in the awake mouse visual cortex during active discrimination and passive viewing of visual stimuli. Head-fixed mice demonstrated robust discrimination for many hundred trials per day after initial task acquisition. To record from multiple neurons during operant behavior with single-trial resolution and minimal artifacts, we built a sensitive microscope for two-photon calcium imaging, capable of rapid tracking of neurons in three dimensions. We demonstrate stable recordings of cellular calcium activity during discrimination behavior across hours, days, and weeks, using both synthetic and genetically encoded calcium indicators. When combined with molecular and genetic technologies in mice (e.g., cell-type specific transgenic labeling), this approach allows the identification of neuronal classes in vivo. Physiological measurements from distinct classes of neighboring neurons will enrich our understanding of the coordinated roles of diverse elements of cortical microcircuits in guiding sensory perception and perceptual learning. Further, our method provides a high-throughput, chronic in vivo assay of behavioral influences on cellular activity that is applicable to a wide range of mouse models of neurologic disease. PMID:20407583

  14. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (P<0.05 after 3 months of treatment; P<0.001 after 6 months), microvascular deposition of β-amyloid (P<0.001 after 3 months of treatment; P<0.05 after 6 months), vascular inflammation (P<0.05 in the dentate gyrus and P<0.001 in the dorsal subiculum after 6 months of treatment), blood-brain barrier leakage (P<0.05 after 3 and 6 months of treatment), and pericyte loss (P<0.05 in the dentate gyrus and P<0.01 in the dorsal subiculum after 6 months of treatment) in these mice. In addition, hypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Chronic mild stress damages mitochondrial ultrastructure and function in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu; Chai, Yi; Ding, Jian-Hua; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Hu, Gang

    2011-01-13

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial failure as a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, such as depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a paradigm developed in the late 1980s as an animal model of depression, on the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial ultrastructure in the mouse brain. The results showed that the CMS regime induced depressive-like symptoms in mice characterized by reduced sucrose preference and body weight. Moreover, CMS exposure was associated with a significant increase in immobility time in the tail suspension test. Exposure to the CMS paradigm inhibited mitochondrial respiration rates and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential in hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In addition, we found a damaged mitochondrial ultrastructure in brains of mice exposed to CMS. These findings provide evidence for brain mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural damage in a mouse model of depression. Moreover, these findings suggest that mitochondrial malfunction-induced oxidative injury could play a role in stress-related disorders such as depression.

  16. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on theophylline metabolism in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-yang; Zeng, Yi-ming; Zhang, Yi-xiang; Wang, Wan-yu; Wu, Run-hua

    2013-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been associated with abnormalities in the liver, which is the most important organ for drug metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CIH on theophylline metabolism in mouse liver. Eight C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CIH for 12 weeks. Eight C57BL/6J mice were exposed to room air as a control group. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were measured. Liver histology was observed by light and electron microscopy. Total hepatic cytochrome P450 concentration was measured. Hepatocytes were isolated and incubated with 15 mg/ml theophylline for four hours. After incubation, the theophylline concentration in the supernatant was measured and the theophylline metabolism rate was calculated. CIH did not affect the serum transaminase levels. Livers from mice exposed to CIH showed hepatocellular edema, and liver cells had fuzzy rough endoplasmic reticulum under the electron microscope. The theophylline metabolism rate was significantly inhibited by CIH compared with controls; (16.60 ± 2.43)% vs. (21.58 ± 4.52)% (P = 0.02). The total liver cytochrome P450 concentration in the CIH group was significantly lower than in the control group; (0.83 ± 0.08) vs. (1.13 ± 0.21) mol/mg microsomal protein (P = 0.004). CIH decreases theophylline metabolism by mouse hepatocytes, which may correlate with the downregulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CIH.

  17. High-fat diet selectively protects against the effects of chronic social stress in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Finger, B C; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2011-09-29

    Obesity and stress-related psychiatric disorders are frequently comorbid. However, our understanding of the relationship between diet, everyday life stress and psychiatric disorders is limited. Although the ability of stress to increase the likelihood to develop obesity and its comorbidities in a feed-forward loop has been studied there is a dearth of studies especially at the behavioural level investigating the feedback hypothesis, that is, the consequences of high-fat diet consumption on chronic stress-induced alterations. The effects of unpredictable chronic psychosocial stress on anxiety-like behaviour in the light-dark box, depressive-like behaviour in the forced swim test, hedonic behaviour in the female urine sniffing test and social avoidance in the social interaction test were investigated in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Changes in plasma levels of leptin, insulin and corticosterone were also assessed. A clear dissociation in behaviours was observed in mice subjected to diet-induced obesity coupled with chronic stress, with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour observed in mice on a low- but not on a high-fat diet exposed to chronic social stress. On the other hand, social avoidance and anhedonic behaviour was present following stress independent of diet. Moreover, the effect of chronic stress in lowering leptin levels was most apparent in mice on a high-fat diet. Plasma insulin levels however where only decreased in mice on high- but not low-fat diet. In conclusion, long-term exposure to high-fat diet selectively and robustly protects against some of the behavioural sequelae of chronic unpredictable social stressors. These data show that there is a clear discrimination in the nature of stress-induced behavioural effects sensitive to protection by high-fat diet. Moreover, these results illustrate the strong influence of dietary components on stress-induced psychological factors and thereby emphasize the importance of the brain-gut-axis as a

  18. Transient and persistent metabolomic changes in plasma following chronic cigarette smoke exposure in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion I; Mahaffey, Spencer; Justice, Matthew J; Hughes, Grant; Armstrong, Michael; Bowler, Russell P; Reisdorph, Richard; Petrache, Irina; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value≤0.05) and fold change ≥1.5). Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease.

  19. Transient and Persistent Metabolomic Changes in Plasma following Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion I.; Mahaffey, Spencer; Justice, Matthew J.; Hughes, Grant; Armstrong, Michael; Bowler, Russell P.; Reisdorph, Richard; Petrache, Irina; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value≤0.05) and fold change ≥1.5). Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease. PMID:25007263

  20. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders.

  1. Prostatic Inflammation Induces Fibrosis in a Mouse Model of Chronic Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Letitia; Hutson, Paul R.; Bushman, Wade

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation of the prostate is strongly correlated with development of lower urinary tract symptoms and several studies have implicated prostatic fibrosis in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction. It has been postulated that inflammation induces prostatic fibrosis but this relationship has never been tested. Here, we characterized the fibrotic response to inflammation in a mouse model of chronic bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation. Transurethral instillation of the uropathogenic E. coli into C3H/HeOuJ male mice induced persistent prostatic inflammation followed by a significant increase in collagen deposition and hydroxyproline content. This fibrotic response to inflammation was accompanied with an increase in collagen synthesis determined by the incorporation of 3H-hydroxyproline and mRNA expression of several collagen remodeling-associated genes, including Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Mmp2, Mmp9, and Lox. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation of inflammation severity with collagen deposition and immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes were abundant in inflamed prostates at the time point coinciding with increased collagen synthesis. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of these CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes among collagen type I expressing cells. These data show–for the first time–that chronic prostatic inflammation induces collagen deposition and implicates fibrocytes in the fibrotic process. PMID:24950301

  2. Behavioural and EEG effects of chronic rapamycin treatment in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Cambiaghi, Marco; Cursi, Marco; Magri, Laura; Castoldi, Valerio; Comi, Giancarlo; Minicucci, Fabio; Galli, Rossella; Leocani, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by mutation in either Tsc1 or Tsc2 genes that leads to the hyper activation of the mTOR pathway, a key signalling pathway for synaptic plasticity. TSC is characterized by benign tumors arising in different organs and severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism, anxiety and depressive behaviour. Rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of mTOR and its efficacy in treating epilepsy and neurological symptoms remains elusive. In a mouse model in which Tsc1 has been deleted in embryonic telencephalic neural stem cells, we analyzed anxiety- and depression-like behaviour by elevated-plus maze (EPM), open-field test (OFT), forced-swim test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST), after chronic administration of rapamycin. In addition, spectral analysis of background EEG was performed. Rapamycin-treated mutant mice displayed a reduction in anxiety- and depression-like phenotype, as shown by the EPM/OFT and FST, respectively. These results were inline with EEG power spectra outcomes. The same effects of rapamycin were observed in wild-type mice. Notably, in heterozygous animals we did not observe any EEG and/or behavioural variation after rapamycin treatment. Together these results suggest that both TSC1 deletion and chronic rapamycin treatment might have a role in modulating behaviour and brain activity, and point out to the potential usefulness of background EEG analysis in tracking brain dysfunction in parallel with behavioural testing.

  3. Hormetic Effect of Chronic Hypergravity in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Tae Young; Jung, Ah-Yeoun; Kim, Young Hyo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic hypergravity in a mouse model of allergic asthma and rhinitis. Forty BALB/c mice were divided as: group A (n = 10, control) sensitized and challenged with saline, group B (n = 10, asthma) challenged by intraperitoneal and intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce allergic asthma and rhinitis, and groups C (n = 10, asthma/rotatory control) and D (n = 10, asthma/hypergravity) exposed to 4 weeks of rotation with normogravity (1G) or hypergravity (5G) during induction of asthma/rhinitis. Group D showed significantly decreased eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in their BAL fluid compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05). In real-time polymerase chain reaction using lung homogenate, the expression of IL-1β was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) and IL-4 and IL-10 significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in group D. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung parenchyma and turbinate, and the thickness of respiratory epithelium was significantly reduced in group D (p < 0.05). The expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 were significantly downregulated, Bax and extracellular dismutase significantly upregulated in Group D. Therefore, chronic hypergravity could have a hormetic effect for allergic asthma and rhinitis via regulation of genes involved in antioxidative and proapoptotic pathways. It is possible that we could use hypergravity machinery for treating allergic respiratory disorders. PMID:27251783

  4. Immune System Modifications Induced in a Mouse Model of Chronic Exposure to (90)Sr.

    PubMed

    Synhaeve, Nicholas; Musilli, Stefania; Stefani, Johanna; Nicolas, Nour; Delissen, Olivia; Dublineau, Isabelle; Bertho, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    Strontium 90 ((90)Sr) remains in the environment long after a major nuclear disaster occurs. As a result, populations living on contaminated land are potentially exposed to daily ingesting of low quantities of (90)Sr. The potential long-term health effects of such chronic contamination are unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to evaluate the effects of (90)Sr ingestion on the immune system, the animals were chronically exposed to (90)Sr in drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq/l, for a daily ingestion of 80-100 Bq/day. This resulted in a reduced number of CD19(+) B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in steady-state conditions. In contrast, the results from a vaccine experiment performed as a functional test of the immune system showed that in response to T-dependent antigens, there was a reduction in IgG specific to tetanus toxin (TT), a balanced Th1/Th2 response inducer antigen, but not to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), a strong Th2 response inducer antigen. This was accompanied by a reduction in Th1 cells in the spleen, consistent with the observed reduction in specific IgG concentration. The precise mechanisms by which (90)Sr acts on the immune system remain to be elucidated. However, our results suggest that (90)Sr ingestion may be responsible for some of the reported effects of internal contamination on the immune system in civilian populations exposed to the Chernobyl fallout.

  5. Characterization of mouse models of early pancreatic lesions induced by alcohol and chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shiping; Chheda, Chintan; Ouhaddi, Yassine; Benhaddou, Hajar; Bourhim, Mouloud; Grippo, Paul J.; Principe, Daniel R.; Mascariñas, Emman; DeCant, Brian; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Pandol, Stephen J.; Edderkaoui, Mouad

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the first mouse model of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions induced by alcohol in the presence and absence of chronic pancreatitis. Methods Pdx1-Cre; LSL-Kras (KC) mice were exposed to Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet for 6 weeks with cerulein injections. PanIN lesions and markers of fibrosis, inflammation, histone de-acetylation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stemness were measured by immuno-histochemistry and Western. Results Exposure of KC mice to an alcohol diet significantly stimulated fibrosis and slightly, but not significantly, increased the level of PanIN lesions associated with an increase in tumor-promoting M2-macrophages. Importantly, the alcohol diet did not increase activation of stellate cells. Alcohol diet and cerulein injections resulted in synergistic and additive effects on PanIN lesion and M2-Macrophage phenotype induction, respectively. Cerulein-pancreatitis caused stellate cell activation, EMT, and cancer stemness in the pancreas. Pancreatitis caused histone deacetylation which was promoted by the alcohol diet. Pancreatitis increased EMT and cancer stemness markers which not further affected by the alcohol diet. Conclusion The results suggest that alcohol has independent effects on promotion of PDAC associated with fibrosis formed through a stellate cell-independent mechanism and that it further promotes early PDAC and M2 macrophage induction in the context of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:26166469

  6. Chronic cannabinoid receptor stimulation selectively prevents motor impairments in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Bellocchio, Luigi; Ruiz-Calvo, Andrea; Cabanas, Magali; Du, Zhuowei; Guzmán, Manuel; Garret, Maurice; Cho, Yoon H

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in motor abilities, as well as in cognitive and social behaviors. Most of these behavioral deficits are recapitulated in the R6/1 transgenic mouse, which can therefore be used as an experimental model to identify the neurobiological substrates of HD pathology and to design novel therapeutic approaches. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a relevant candidate to participate in the etiopathology of HD as it is a key modulator of brain function, especially in areas primarily affected by HD dysfunction such as the striatum. Thus, some studies have demonstrated an association between HD progression and alterations in the expression of several ECS elements, thereby suggesting that improving ECS function may constitute a useful strategy to eliminate or at least delay the appearance of HD symptoms. Here this hypothesis was specifically tested by evaluating whether the administration of a well-characterized cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212), either acutely or chronically, improves the HD-like symptoms in R6/1 mice. While acute treatment did not change the behavioral phenotype of transgenic animals, chronic administration was able to prevent the appearance of motor deficits, to increase the number of striatal huntingtin inclusions and to prevent the loss of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons, without affecting the social or cognitive alterations. These findings suggest that prolonged administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists could be an appropriate strategy for selectively improving motor symptoms and stimulating neuroprotective processes in HD patients.

  7. Effects of Chung-Pae Inhalation Therapy on a Mouse Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lee, Beom-Joon; Jung, Hee Jae; Kim, Kwan-Il; Choi, Jun-Yong; Joo, Myungsoo; Jung, Sung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Chung-pae (CP) inhalation therapy is a method frequently used in Korea to treat lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the effects of CP inhalation on a COPD animal model. C57BL/6 mice received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alternately three times for 3 weeks to induce COPD. Then, CP (5 or 20 mg/kg) was administered every 2 h after the final LPS administration. The effect of CP was evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis of lung tissue, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, and tumor growth factor- (TGF-) β. Intratracheal CP administration reduced the number of leukocytes and neutrophils in BAL fluid, inhibited the histological appearance of lung damage, and decreased the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β. Intratracheal CP administration effectively decreased the chronic inflammation and pathological changes in a PPE- and LPS-induced COPD mouse model. Therefore, we suggest that CP is a promising strategy for COPD.

  8. EXERCISE PREVENTS DEVELOPMENT OF AUTONOMIC DYSREGULATION AND HYPERALGESIA IN A MOUSE MODEL OF CHRONIC MUSCLE PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Chapleau, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) conditions, like fibromyalgia, are associated with widespread pain and alterations in autonomic function. Regular physical activity prevents development of CMP and can reduce autonomic dysfunction. We tested if there were alterations in autonomic function in sedentary mice with CMP, and if exercise reduced the autonomic dysfunction and pain induced by CMP. CMP was induced by two intramuscular injections of pH 5 in combination with a single fatiguing exercise task. A running wheel was placed into cages so that the mouse had free access for either 5 days or 8 weeks (exercise groups) and these animals were compared to sedentary mice without running wheels. Autonomic function and nociceptive withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle were assessed before and after induction of CMP in exercised and sedentary mice. In sedentary mice, we show decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased blood pressure variability, decreased heart rate variability and decreased withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle 24h after induction of CMP. There were no sex differences after induction of the CMP in any outcome measure. We further show that both 5 days and 8 weeks of physical activity prevent the development of autonomic dysfunction and decreases in withdrawal threshold induced by CMP. Thus, this study uniquely shows development of autonomic dysfunction in animals with chronic muscle hyperalgesia that can be prevented with as little as 5 days of physical activity, and suggest that physical activity may prevent the development of pain and autonomic dysfunction in people with CMP. PMID:26313406

  9. Exercise prevents development of autonomic dysregulation and hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Rasmussen, Lynn; Sluka, Kathleen A; Chapleau, Mark W

    2016-02-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) conditions, like fibromyalgia, are associated with widespread pain and alterations in autonomic functions. Regular physical activity prevents the development of CMP and can reduce autonomic dysfunction. We tested if there were alterations in autonomic function of sedentary mice with CMP, and whether exercise reduced the autonomic dysfunction and pain induced by CMP. Chronic musculoskeletal pain was induced by 2 intramuscular injections of pH 5.0 in combination with a single fatiguing exercise task. A running wheel was placed into cages so that the mouse had free access to it for either 5 days or 8 weeks (exercise groups) and these animals were compared to sedentary mice without running wheels. Autonomic function and nociceptive withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle were assessed before and after induction of CMP in exercised and sedentary mice. In sedentary mice, we show decreased baroreflex sensitivity, increased blood pressure variability, decreased heart rate variability, and decreased withdrawal thresholds of the paw and muscle 24 hours after induction of CMP. There were no sex differences after induction of the CMP in any outcome measure. We further show that both 5 days and 8 weeks of physical activity prevent the development of autonomic dysfunction and decreases in withdrawal threshold induced by CMP. Thus, this study uniquely shows the development of autonomic dysfunction in animals with chronic muscle hyperalgesia, which can be prevented with as little as 5 days of physical activity, and suggest that physical activity may prevent the development of pain and autonomic dysfunction in people with CMP.

  10. Nociceptive and Inflammatory Mediator Upregulation in a Mouse Model of Chronic Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Erica S.; Xie, Amy; La, Jun-Ho; Gebhart, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, characterized by genitourinary pain in the pelvic region in the absence of an identifiable cause, is common in adult males. Surprisingly, the sensory innervation of the prostate and mediators that sensitize its innervation have received little attention. We thus characterized a mouse model of chronic prostatitis, focusing on the prostate innervation and how organ inflammation affects gene expression of putative nociceptive markers in prostate afferent somata in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and mediators in the prostate. Retrograde tracing (fast blue, FB) from the prostate revealed that thoracolumbar (TL) and lumbosacral (LS) DRG are the principal sources of somata of prostate afferents. Nociceptive markers (e.g., TRP, TREK and P2X channels) were upregulated in FB-labeled TL and LS somata for up to four weeks after inflaming the prostate (intra-prostate injection of zymosan). Prostatic inflammation was evident histologically, by monocyte infiltration and a significant increase in mast cell tryptase activity 14, 21 and 28 days after zymosan injection. Interleukin-10 and NGF were also significantly upregulated in the prostate throughout the four weeks of inflammation. Open field pain-related behaviors (e.g., rearing) were unchanged in prostate-inflamed mice, suggesting the absence of ongoing nociception, but withdrawal thresholds to lower abdominal pressure were significantly reduced. The increases in IL-10, mast cell tryptase and NGF in the inflamed prostate were cotemporaneous with reduced thresholds to probing of the abdomen and upregulation of nociceptive markers in DRG somata innervating the prostate. The results provide insight and direction for study of mechanisms underlying pain in chronic prostatitis. PMID:25915147

  11. Effects of chronic low-dose ultraviolet B radiation on DNA damage and repair in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D L; Greinert, R; de Gruijl, F R; Guikers, K L; Breitbart, E W; Byrom, M; Gallmeier, M M; Lowery, M G; Volkmer, B

    1999-06-15

    Chronic exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer in humans, yet little is known about how habitual exposure to low doses of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) affects DNA damage in the skin. We treated Skh-1 hairless mice with daily doses of suberythemal UVB for 40 days and analyzed the amount and distribution of DNA photodamage using RIAs and immunofluorescence micrography. We found that DNA damage accumulated in mouse skin as a result of chronic irradiation and that this damage persisted in the dermis and epidermis for several weeks after the chronic treatment was terminated. Although the persistent damage was evenly distributed throughout the dermis, it remained in the epidermis as a small number of heavily damaged cells at the dermal-epidermal boundary. Rates of DNA damage induction and repair were determined at different times over the course of chronic treatment in response to a higher challenge dose of UVB light. The amount of damage induced by the challenge dose increased in response to chronic exposure, and excision repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone dimers was significantly reduced. The sensitization of mouse epidermal DNA to photoproduct induction, the reduction in excision repair, and the accumulation of nonrepairable DNA damage in the dermis and epidermis suggest that chronic low-dose exposure to sunlight may significantly enhance the predisposition of mammalian skin to sunlight-induced carcinogenesis.

  12. PARP inhibition treatment in a nonconventional experimental mouse model of chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zaffini, Raffaela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Menegazzi, Marta

    2016-12-01

    Allergic asthma is an immunological disease that occurs as a consequence of aeroallergen exposure. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) in conventional models of asthma-like reaction has emerged as an effective anti-inflammatory and airway remodeling intervention. In a house dust mite (HDM) exposure mouse model, we investigated the impact of PARP inhibition on allergic airway inflammation, sensitization, and remodeling. Mice were intranasally exposed to a HDM extract for 5 days per week for up to 5 weeks. Mice were administered, or not, by PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA) or 5-aminoisoquinolinone (5-AIQ) during the last 2 weeks of HDM treatment. Mice treated with PARP inhibitors after HDM stimulation showed a significant decrease in the number of total cells and eosinophils detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as compared with the HDM-stimulated ones. In vitro HDM-stimulated splenocyte culture produced considerable amounts of the Th2 cytokines that were not affected by treatment with PARP inhibitors. Immunoglobulin levels in the serum were also unchanged. In the lung tissue, collagen deposition was decreased, whereas α-smooth muscle actin thickening was not significantly affected. Moreover, in HDM-stimulated PARP inhibitor-treated groups, we found a downregulation in the activation of signal transducer and activator of trascription-6 (STAT-6) and a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of C-C motif chemokine 11 (CCL11). In this mouse model of chronic asthma PARP inhibition treatment, although it does not affect sensitization, it effectively reduces the allergic airway inflammation and affects the remodeling through a mechanism involving STAT6 and CCL11.

  13. Neonatal mouse assay for tumorigenicity: alternative to the chronic rodent bioassay.

    PubMed

    Flammang, T J; Tungeln, L S; Kadlubar, F F; Fu, P P

    1997-10-01

    The chronic rodent bioassay for tumors has been utilized systematically for 25 years to identify chemicals with carcinogenic potential in man. In general, those chemicals exhibiting tumorigenicity at multiple sites in both mice and rats have been regarded as possessing strong carcinogenic potential in humans. In comparison, the value of data collected for those test chemicals exhibiting more sporadic tumorigenicity results (e.g., single species/single sex or dose-independent) has been questioned. As knowledge of the carcinogenic process has increased, several alternative test systems, usually faster and less expensive than the 2-year bioassay, have been suggested for identification of the strongly acting, transspecies carcinogens. The International Conference on Harmonization for Technical Requirements for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use has proposed an international standard that allows for the use of one long-term rodent carcinogenicity study, plus one supplementary study to identify potential human pharmaceutical carcinogens. The neonatal mouse assay for tumorigenicity has been used since 1959; however, relative to other alternate tests, little has been written about this system. It is clear that this assay system successfully identifies transspecies carcinogens from numerous chemical classes, thus recommending itself as a strong candidate for a supplementary study to identify potential human carcinogens. In contrast, there are decidedly less data available from this assay in response to pharmaceuticals shown to exhibit weak and/or conflicting results in the 2-year bioassay, knowledge invaluable to the regulatory process. This paper reviews the historical development and our experience with the neonatal mouse assay and includes suggestions for a standardized protocol and strategies to document its response to "weak" and/or "nongenotoxic" carcinogens.

  14. Chronically ischemic mouse skeletal muscle exhibits myopathy in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pipinos, Iraklis I; Swanson, Stanley A; Zhu, Zhen; Nella, Aikaterini A; Weiss, Dustin J; Gutti, Tanuja L; McComb, Rodney D; Baxter, B Timothy; Lynch, Thomas G; Casale, George P

    2008-07-01

    A myopathy characterized by mitochondrial pathology and oxidative stress is present in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD differ in disease severity, mode of presentation, and presence of comorbid conditions. In this study, we used a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia to isolate and directly investigate the effects of chronic inflow arterial occlusion on skeletal muscle microanatomy, mitochondrial function and expression, and oxidative stress. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by staged ligation/division of the common femoral and iliac arteries in C57BL/6 mice, and muscles were harvested 12 wk later. Muscle microanatomy was examined by bright-field microscopy, and mitochondrial content was determined as citrate synthase activity in muscle homogenates and ATP synthase expression by fluorescence microscopy. Electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I through IV were analyzed individually by respirometry. Oxidative stress was assessed as total protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts and altered expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Ischemic muscle exhibited histological features of myopathy and increased mitochondrial content compared with control muscle. Complex-dependent respiration was significantly reduced for ETC complexes I, III, and IV in ischemic muscle. Protein carbonyls, HNE adducts, and MnSOD expression were significantly increased in ischemic muscle. MnSOD activity was not significantly changed, suggesting MnSOD inactivation. Using a mouse model, we have demonstrated for the first time that inflow arterial occlusion alone, i.e., in the absence of other comorbid conditions, causes myopathy with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, recapitulating the muscle pathology of PAD patients.

  15. Functional characterization of T cell populations in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Eppert, Bryan L.; Wortham, Brian W.; Flury, Jennifer L.; Borchers, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by chronic peribronchial, perivascular and alveolar inflammation. The inflammatory cells consist primarily of macrophage, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although myeloid cells are well studied, the role of lymphocyte populations in pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear. Using a mouse model of CS-induced emphysema our laboratory has previously demonstrated that CS exposure causes changes in the T cell receptor repertoire suggestive of an antigen specific response and triggers a pathogenic T cell response sufficient to cause alveolar destruction and inflammation. We extend these findings to demonstrate that T cells from CS-exposed mice of Balb/cJ or C57B6 strain are sufficient to transfer pulmonary pathology to CS-naïve, immunosufficient mice. CS exposure causes a proinflammatory phenotype among pulmonary T cells consistent with from COPD patients. We provide evidence that donor T cells from CS-exposed mice depend on antigen recognition to transfer alveolar destruction using MHC class I deficient recipient mice. Neither CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells from donor mice exposed to CS are alone sufficient to cause inflammation or pathology in recipient mice. We found no evidence of impaired suppression of T cell proliferation among regulatory T cells from CS-exposed mice. These results suggest that CS exposure initiates an antigen specific response that leads to pulmonary destruction and inflammation that involves both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. These results are direct evidence for an autoimmune response initiated by CS exposure. PMID:23264660

  16. Chronic maternal morphine alters calbindin D-28k expression pattern in postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Fiorito, Filomena; Della Morte, Rossella; Maharajan, Veeramani; Costagliola, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The distribution pattern of calbindin (CB)-D28k-expressing neurons results to be altered in several brain regions of chronic morphine exposed adult mice. In this study, the influence of chronic maternal exposure to morphine on the distribution pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neurons in the brain of mouse offspring was investigated. Females of CD-1 mice were daily administered with saline or morphine for 7 days before mating, during the whole gestation period, and until 21 day post-partum. Their offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 18, and the brains were examined by histology using cresyl violet and by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal anti-CB-D28k antibody. Histology revealed no significant differences in the distribution pattern and the number of neurons between the offspring forebrain of the control group of mice and the two groups of mice treated with different doses of morphine. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of CB-D28k-immunoreactive neurons remarkably decreased in the cingulate cortex, in the layers II-IV of the parietal cortex and in all regions of the hippocampus, while it increased in the layers V-VI of the parietal cortex and in the subicular region of the offspring brain of morphine treated mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that maternal exposure to morphine alters the pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neuron pattern in specific regions of murine developing brain, in a layer- and dose-dependent way, thus suggesting that these alterations might represent a mechanism by which morphine modifies the functional aspects of developing brain.

  17. Syk Regulates Neutrophilic Airway Hyper-Responsiveness in a Chronic Mouse Model of Allergic Airways Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen; Scott, Jeremy A.; Chow, Chung-Wai

    2017-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation and remodeling. We previously showed that Syk modulates methacholine-induced airways contractility in naïve mice and in mice with allergic airways inflammation. We hypothesize that Syk plays a role in the pathogenesis of AHR; this was evaluated in a chronic 8-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation. Methods We used the Sykflox/flox//rosa26CreERT2 conditional Syk knock-out mice to assess the role of Syk prior to HDM exposure, and treated HDM-sensitized mice with the Syk inhibitor, GSK143, to evaluate its role in established allergic airways inflammation. Respiratory mechanics and methacholine (MCh)-responsiveness were assessed using the flexiVent® system. Lungs underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to isolate inflammatory cells or were frozen for determination of gene expression in tissues. Results MCh-induced AHR was observed following HDM sensitization in the Syk-intact (Sykflox/flox) and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice. MCh responsiveness was reduced to control levels in HDM-sensitized Sykdel/del mice and in BALB/c and Sykflox/flox mice treated with GSK143. Both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice mounted appropriate immune responses to HDM, with HDM-specific IgE levels that were comparable to Sykflox/flox and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice. HDM-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were attenuated in both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice, due primarily to decreased neutrophil recruitment. Gene expression analysis of lung tissues revealed that HDM-induced expression of IL-17 and CXCL-1 was significantly attenuated in both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice. Conclusion Syk inhibitors may play a role in the management of neutrophilic asthma. PMID:28107345

  18. Effect of chronic valproic Acid treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in wfs1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Punapart, Marite; Eltermaa, Mall; Oflijan, Julia; Sütt, Silva; Must, Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero; Soomets, Ursel; Terasmaa, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype.

  19. Connective tissue growth factor production by activated pancreatic stellate cells in mouse alcoholic chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Alyssa; Brigstock, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is characterized by pancreatic necrosis, inflammation, and scarring, the latter of which is due to excessive collagen deposition by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). The aim of this study was to establish a model of ACP in mice, a species that is usually resistant to the toxic effects of alcohol, and to identify the cell type(s) responsible for production of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a pro-fibrotic molecule. C57Bl/6 male mice received intraperitoneal ethanol injections for three weeks against a background of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Peak blood alcohol levels remained consistently high in ethanol-treated mice as compared to control mice. In mice receiving ethanol plus cerulein, there was increased collagen deposition as compared to other treatment groups as well as increased frequency of α-smooth muscle actin and desmin-positive PSC which also demonstrated significantly enhanced CTGF protein production. Expression of mRNA for collagen α1(I), α-smooth muscle actin or CTGF were all increased and co-localized exclusively to activated PSC in ACP. Pancreatic expression of mRNA for key profibrotic markers were all increased in ACP. In conclusion, a mouse model of ACP has been developed that mimics key pathophysiological features of the disease in humans and which shows that activated PSC are the principal producers of collagen and CTGF. PSC-derived CTGF is thus a candidate therapeutic target in anti-fibrotic strategies for ACP. PMID:20368699

  20. Complement protein C3 exacerbates prion disease in a mouse model of chronic wasting disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows a critical role of the complement system in facilitating attachment of prions to both B cells and follicular dendritic cells and assisting in prion replication. Complement activation intensifies disease in prion-infected animals, and elimination of complement components inhibits prion accumulation, replication and pathogenesis. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly infectious prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervid populations that utilizes the complement system for efficient peripheral prion replication and most likely efficient horizontal transmission. Here we show that complete genetic or transient pharmacological depletion of C3 prolongs incubation times and significantly delays splenic accumulation in a CWD transgenic mouse model. Using a semi-quantitative prion amplification scoring system we show that C3 impacts disease progression in the early stages of disease by slowing the rate of prion accumulation and/or replication. The delayed kinetics in prion replication correlate with delayed disease kinetics in mice deficient in C3. Taken together, these data support a critical role of C3 in peripheral CWD prion pathogenesis. PMID:24038599

  1. Chronic intermittent hypoxia preserves bone density in a mouse model of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marta; Montserrat, Josep M; Pavía, Javier; Dalmases, Mireia; Ros, Domenec; Fernandez, Yolanda; Barbé, Ferran; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Very recent clinical research has investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may modulate bone homeostasis but the few data available are conflicting. Here we report novel data obtained in a mouse study specifically designed to determine whether chronic intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA modifies bone mineral density (BMD). Normal male and female mice and orchidectomized mice (N=10 each group) were subjected to a pattern of high-frequency intermittent hypoxia (20s at 5% and 40s at 21%, 60 cycles/h) for 6h/day. Identical groups breathing room air (normoxia) were the controls. After 32 days of intermittent hypoxia/normoxia the trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the peripheral femora were measured by micro-CT scanning. When compared with normoxia (two-way ANOVA), intermittent hypoxia did not significantly modify BMD in the three animal groups tested. Data in this study suggest that the type of intermittent hypoxia characterizing OSA, applied as a single challenge, preserves bone homeostasis.

  2. Priming of the Cells: Hypoxic Preconditioning for Stem Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng Z; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Zhang, James Y; McCrary, Myles R; Wang, Song; Zhang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Shan-Ping; Wei, Ling

    2017-10-05

    Stem cell-based therapies are promising in regenerative medicine for protecting and repairing damaged brain tissues after injury or in the context of chronic diseases. Hypoxia can induce physiological and pathological responses. A hypoxic insult might act as a double-edged sword, it induces cell death and brain damage, but on the other hand, sublethal hypoxia can trigger an adaptation response called hypoxic preconditioning or hypoxic tolerance that is of immense importance for the survival of cells and tissues. This review was based on articles published in PubMed databases up to August 16, 2017, with the following keywords: "stem cells," "hypoxic preconditioning," "ischemic preconditioning," and "cell transplantation." Original articles and critical reviews on the topics were selected. Hypoxic preconditioning has been investigated as a primary endogenous protective mechanism and possible treatment against ischemic injuries. Many cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of hypoxic preconditioning have been identified. In cell transplantation therapy, hypoxic pretreatment of stem cells and neural progenitors markedly increases the survival and regenerative capabilities of these cells in the host environment, leading to enhanced therapeutic effects in various disease models. Regenerative treatments can mobilize endogenous stem cells for neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the adult brain. Furthermore, transplantation of stem cells/neural progenitors achieves therapeutic benefits via cell replacement and/or increased trophic support. Combinatorial approaches of cell-based therapy with additional strategies such as neuroprotective protocols, anti-inflammatory treatment, and rehabilitation therapy can significantly improve therapeutic benefits. In this review, we will discuss the recent progress regarding cell types and applications in regenerative medicine as well as future applications.

  3. Chronic morphine administration induces over-expression of aldolase C with reduction of CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Pu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-05-01

    In recent studies, alterations in the activity and expression of metabolic enzymes, such as those involved in glycolysis, have been detected in morphine-dependent patients and animals. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hippocampus is an important brain region associated with morphine dependence, but the molecular events occurring in the hippocampus following chronic exposure to morphine are poorly understood. Aldolase C is the brain-specific isoform of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase which is a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing reactions in the glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and fructose metabolic pathways. Using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays, we found the expression of aldolase C was markedly increased in the mouse hippocampus following chronic morphine treatment. Naloxone pretreatment before morphine administration suppressed withdrawal jumping, weight loss, and overexpression of aldolase C. CREB is a transcription factor regulated through phosphorylation on Ser133, which is known to play a key role in the mechanism of morphine dependence. When detecting the expression of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the mouse hippocampus using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found CREB phosphorylation was clearly decreased following chronic morphine treatment. Interestingly, laser-confocal microscopy showed that overexpression of aldolase C in mouse hippocampal neurons was concomitant with the decreased immunoreactivity of p-CREB. The results suggest potential links between the morphine-induced alteration of aldolase C and the regulation of CREB phosphorylation, a possible mechanism of morphine dependence.

  4. Soluble erythropoietin receptor is present in the mouse brain and is required for the ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Soliz, Jorge; Gassmann, Max; Joseph, Vincent

    2007-08-15

    While erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) have been widely investigated in brain, the expression and function of the soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR) remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that sEpoR, a negative regulator of Epo's binding to the EpoR, is present in the mouse brain and is down-regulated by 62% after exposure to normobaric chronic hypoxia (10% O2 for 3 days). Furthermore, while normoxic minute ventilation increased by 58% in control mice following hypoxic acclimatization, sEpoR infusion in brain during the hypoxic challenge efficiently reduced brain Epo concentration and abolished the ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH). These observations imply that hypoxic downregulation of sEpoR is required for adequate ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia, thereby underlying the function of Epo as a key factor regulating oxygen delivery not only by its classical activity on red blood cell production, but also by regulating ventilation.

  5. Soluble erythropoietin receptor is present in the mouse brain and is required for the ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Soliz, Jorge; Gassmann, Max; Joseph, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    While erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor (EpoR) have been widely investigated in brain, the expression and function of the soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR) remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that sEpoR, a negative regulator of Epo's binding to the EpoR, is present in the mouse brain and is down-regulated by 62% after exposure to normobaric chronic hypoxia (10% O2 for 3 days). Furthermore, while normoxic minute ventilation increased by 58% in control mice following hypoxic acclimatization, sEpoR infusion in brain during the hypoxic challenge efficiently reduced brain Epo concentration and abolished the ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH). These observations imply that hypoxic downregulation of sEpoR is required for adequate ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia, thereby underlying the function of Epo as a key factor regulating oxygen delivery not only by its classical activity on red blood cell production, but also by regulating ventilation. PMID:17584830

  6. Evaluation of the BDCA2-DTR Transgenic Mouse Model in Chronic and Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, Manuela; Drechsler, Maik; Jansen, Yvonne; Neideck, Carlos; Noels, Heidi; Faussner, Alexander; Soehnlein, Oliver; Weber, Christian; Döring, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a small subset of dendritic cells and the main producers of type I interferons. Besides their contribution to tolerance, they are known to be involved in autoimmune diseases and have recently been implicated in atherosclerosis. However, their precise involvement, particularly in advanced lesion development, remains elusive. Hence, we investigated the role of pDCs in atherogenesis vs atheroprogression by specifically depleting this cell population using the BDCA2-DTR mouse model bred to Apolipoprotein E (Apoe-/-) deficient mice. Methods and Results Our results revealed that continuous diphtheria toxin-induced pDC depletion in Apoe-/- BDCA2-DTR mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks did not alter lesion size or composition. Instead, these mice displayed increased B cell numbers and altered levels of inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of depletion efficiency showed that complete pDC depletion could only be sustained for one week and reoccurring pDCs sorted after 4 weeks did not express DTR anymore. Consequently, we analyzed lesion development in a model of partial carotid ligation, inducing established lesions after 5 weeks of HFD feeding, and only depleted pDCs during the last week of 5 weeks HFD feeding. Despite short-term, but efficient pDC depletion, we observed no differences in atherosclerotic lesion development, but changes in inflammatory cytokine titers. To assure the functionality of the BDCA2-DTR model in acute settings, we additionally examined the effect of pDC depletion in an indirect acute lung injury (iALI) model. This time, efficient pDC depletion resulted in a significantly reduced macrophage and neutrophil accumulation in the lung 12 hours after LPS challenge, underlining a pro-inflammatory role of pDCs in the innate immune response in iALI. Conclusion Taken together, the BDCA2-DTR mouse model only allows efficient pDC depletion for one week, which subsequently restricts its

  7. Hypoxic radiosensitization: adored and ignored.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Jens

    2007-09-10

    Since observations from the beginning of the last century, it has become well established that solid tumors may contain oxygen-deficient hypoxic areas and that cells in such areas may cause tumors to become radioresistant. Identifying hypoxic cells in human tumors has improved by the help of new imaging and physiologic techniques, and a substantial amount of data indicates the presence of hypoxia in many types of human tumors, although with a considerable heterogeneity among individual tumors. Controlled clinical trials during the last 40 years have indicated that this source of radiation resistance can be eliminated or modified by normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen or by the use of nitroimidazoles as hypoxic radiation sensitizers. More recently, attention has been given to hypoxic cytotoxins, a group of drugs that selectively or preferably destroys cells in a hypoxic environment. An updated systematic review identified 10,108 patients in 86 randomized trials designed to modify tumor hypoxia in patients treated with curative attempted primary radiation therapy alone. Overall modification of tumor hypoxia significantly improved the effect of radiotherapy, with an odds ratio of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.86) for the outcome of locoregional control and with an associated significant overall survival benefit (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.95). No significant influence was found on the incidence of distant metastases or on the risk of radiation-related complications. Ample data exist to support a high level of evidence for the benefit of hypoxic modification. However, hypoxic modification still has no impact on general clinical practice.

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) but not HIF-2 is essential for hypoxic induction of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases in primary newborn mouse epiphyseal growth plate chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aro, Ellinoora; Khatri, Richa; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita; Mangiavini, Laura; Myllyharju, Johanna; Schipani, Ernestina

    2012-10-26

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the master regulators of hypoxia-responsive genes. They play a critical role in the survival, development, and differentiation of chondrocytes in the avascular hypoxic fetal growth plate, which is rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) and in its main component, collagens. Several genes involved in the synthesis, maintenance, and degradation of ECM are regulated by HIFs. Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (C-P4Hs) are key enzymes in collagen synthesis because the resulting 4-hydroxyprolines are necessary for the stability of all collagen molecules. The vertebrate C-P4Hs are α(2)β(2) tetramers with three isoforms of the catalytic α subunit, yielding C-P4Hs of types I-III. C-P4H-I is the main form in most cells, but C-P4H-II is the major form in chondrocytes. We postulated here that post-translational modification of collagens, particularly 4-hydroxylation of proline residues, could be one of the modalities by which HIF regulates the adaptive responses of chondrocytes in fetal growth plates. To address this hypothesis, we used primary epiphyseal growth plate chondrocytes isolated from newborn mice with conditionally inactivated genes for HIF-1α, HIF-2α, or the von Hippel-Lindau protein. The data obtained showed that C-P4H α(I) and α(II) mRNA levels were increased in hypoxic chondrocytes in a manner dependent on HIF-1 but not on HIF-2. Furthermore, the increases in the C-P4H mRNA levels were associated with both increased amounts of the C-P4H tetramers and augmented C-P4H activity in hypoxia. The hypoxia inducibility of the C-P4H isoenzymes is thus likely to ensure sufficient C-P4H activity for collagen synthesis occurring in chondrocytes in a hypoxic environment.

  9. Chronic hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial dysfunction and protects kidney in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Zarzuelo, María José; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; O'Valle, Francisco; López-Farré, Antonio José; Algieri, Francesca; Gálvez, Julio; Pérez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Sabio, José Mario; Duarte, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Hydroxychloroquine has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine-treated lupus patients showed a lower incidence of thromboembolic disease. Endothelial dysfunction, the earliest indicator of the development of cardiovascular disease, is present in lupus. Whether hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial function in lupus is not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hydroxychloroquine on hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal injury in a female mouse model of lupus. NZBWF1 (lupus) and NZW/LacJ (control) mice were treated with hydroxychloroquine 10 mg/kg per day by oral gavage, or with tempol and apocynin in the drinking water, for 5 weeks. Hydroxychloroquine treatment did not alter lupus disease activity (assessed by plasma double-stranded DNA autoantibodies) but prevented hypertension, cardiac and renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, and renal injury in lupus mice. Aortae from lupus mice showed reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and enhanced contraction to phenylephrine, which were normalized by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidant treatments. No differences among all experimental groups were found in both the relaxant responses to acetylcholine and the contractile responses to phenylephrine in rings incubated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Vascular reactive oxygen species content and mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits NOX-1 and p47(phox) were increased in lupus mice and reduced by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidants. Chronic hydroxychloroquine treatment reduced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and organ damage in severe lupus mice, despite the persistent elevation of anti-double-stranded DNA, suggesting the involvement of new additional mechanisms to improve cardiovascular complications.

  10. Chronic kidney disease accelerates cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, through angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yu; Uekawa, Ken; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding an adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains. There was no significant difference regarding the severity of CKD induced by adenine between the strains. In 5XFAD mice, the CKD group exhibited significant cognitive impairment while the control group (control diet-fed group) did not, as evidenced by a passive avoidance test. On the other hand, in wild-type mice, neither the CKD group nor the control group showed cognitive impairment. Thus, CKD itself appears to accelerate cognitive impairment in AD mice. (2) We also examined the effect of olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on 5XFAD mice with CKD to elucidate the potential involvement of angiotensin II. As evidenced by the findings of the water maze test, olmesartan treatment significantly ameliorated the impairment of spatial learning and memory function induced by CKD in 5XFAD mice. Olmesartan treatment significantly ameliorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption induced by CKD in 5XFAD mice. Furthermore, olmesartan reduced hippocampal oxidative stress in 5XFAD with CKD to similar levels to the control group of 5XFAD fed standard diet. Hence, the amelioration of CKD-induced cognitive impairment in 5XFAD mice by olmesartan appears to be mediated by the suppression of BBB disruption or oxidative stress. In conclusion, we obtained the evidence suggesting that CKD itself accelerates cognitive impairment in AD mice, through angiotensin II. Thus, our work provides a novel insight into the underlying mechanism of the link

  11. Bruton's tyrosine kinase mediated signaling enhances leukemogenesis in a mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kil, Laurens P; de Bruijn, Marjolein Jw; van Hulst, Jennifer Ac; Langerak, Anton W; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2013-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) signals from the B cell receptor (BCR) play a major role in disease development and progression. In this light, new therapies that specifically target signaling molecules downstream of the BCR continue to be developed. While first studies on the selective small molecule inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), demonstrated that Btk inhibition sensitizes CLL cells to apoptosis and alters their migratory behavior, these studies however did not address whether Btk-mediated signaling is involved in the process of CLL leukemogenesis. To investigate the requirement of Btk signaling for CLL development, we modulated Btk expression in the IgH.ETμ CLL mouse model, which is based on sporadic expression of the simian oncovirus SV40 T-antigen in mature B cells. To this end, we crossed IgH.ETμ mice on a Btk-deficient background or introduced a human Btk transgene (CD19-hBtk). Here we show that Btk deficiency fully abrogates CLL formation in IgH.ETμ mice, and that leukemias formed in Btk haplo-insufficient mice selectively expressed the wild-type Btk allele on their active X chromosome. Conversely, Btk overexpression accelerated CLL onset, increased mortality, and was associated with selection of non-stereotypical BCRs into CLL clones. Taken together, these data show that Btk expression represents an absolute prerequisite for CLL development and that Btk mediated signaling enhances leukemogenesis in mice. We therefore conclude that in CLL Btk expression levels set the threshold for malignant transformation.

  12. Chronic methamphetamine treatment reduces the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and changes their DNA methylation status in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2015-12-10

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that may cause long-lasting synaptic dysfunction and abnormal gene expression. We aimed to explore the differential expression of synaptic plasticity genes in chronic METH-treated mouse brain. We used the RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and the real-time quantitative PCR to characterize differentially expressed synaptic plasticity genes in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of chronic METH-treated mice compared with normal saline-treated mice. We further used pyrosequencing to assess DNA methylation changes in the CpG region of the five immediate early genes (IEGs) in chronic METH-treated mouse brain. We detected six downregulated genes in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus of chronic METH-treated mice, including five IEGs (Arc, Egr2, Fos, Klf10, and Nr4a1) and one neuronal receptor gene (Grm1), compared with normal saline-treated group, but only four genes (Arc, Egr2, Fos, and Nr4a1) were confirmed to be different. Furthermore, we found several CpG sites of the Arc and the Fos that had significant changes in DNA methylation status in the frontal cortex of chronic METH-treated mice, while the klf10 and the Nr4a1 that had significant changes in the hippocampus. Our results show that chronic administration of METH may lead to significant downregulation of the IEGs expression in both the frontal cortex and the hippocampus, which may partly account for the molecular mechanism of the action of METH. Furthermore, the changes in DNA methylation status of the IEGs in the brain indicate that an epigenetic mechanism-dependent transcriptional regulation may contribute to METH addiction, which warrants additional study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Decreases Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Mouse Ovaries: Relationship to Oocytes Developmental Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xian-Hong; Han, Hui; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang; He, Guo-Ping; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. Methods Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. Results Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn’t affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. Conclusion BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress. PMID:23284991

  14. Chronic alcohol intake promotes tumor growth in a diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis mouse model through increased Wnt/Beta-catenin signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol (EtOH) metabolism is involved in both initiating and promoting mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma progression in chronic alcoholics. In this study, we developed a mouse model to test the hypothesis that chronic EtOH consumption promotes tumor growth irrespective of EtOH-related initiati...

  15. Hypoxic Episodes in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard J.; Di Fiore, Juliann M.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control appears to be the major contributor, typically superimposed upon abnormal respiratory function. As a result, relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and accompanying bradycardia. As this population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension, it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction may also play a role in hypoxic episodes. The natural history of intermittent hypoxic episodes has been well characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD. However, the consequences of these episodes are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. PMID:26593081

  16. Inflammation Oxidative Stress and Preneoplasia in a Mouse Model of Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    2003;361:955-64. 31. Hopkins WJ, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Balish E, Uehling DT. Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in genetically distinct mouse...strains: Time-course and host responses to infection. Infect Immun. 1998;66:2798-2802. 32. Hopkins WJ. Mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection . Chapter

  17. Chronic calcium imaging of neurons in the mouse visual cortex using a troponin C-based indicator.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandre Ferrão; Hübener, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This protocol describes the use of the genetically encoded troponin C-based calcium indicator TN-XXL to chronically monitor the functional properties of single neocortical neurons in the mouse visual cortex. A cranial window is implanted over the brain of a mouse expressing TN-XXL in pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex. Several days later, the visual cortex is mapped and photographed to facilitate repeated imaging of the same region using two-photon microscopy. Initial two-photon imaging may be done ∼2 wk after the window is implanted. We show the application of this technique for long-term in vivo imaging of stimulus response properties. Beyond providing functional information, long-term imaging of TN-XXL-labeled neurons also enables the simultaneous monitoring of structural properties down to the level of single dendritic spines.

  18. Chronic treatment with the GLP1 analogue liraglutide increases cell proliferation and differentiation into neurons in an AD mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hölscher, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a life long process, but the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation decreases with age. In Alzheimer's patients, along with age, the presence of Aβ in the brain inhibits this process by reducing stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation. GLP-1 is a growth factor that has neuroprotective properties. GLP1 receptors are present on neuronal progenitor cells, and the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide has been shown to increase cell proliferation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Here we investigated acute and chronic effects of liraglutide on progenitor cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and their subsequent differentiation into neurons in wild type and APP/PS-1 mice at different ages. APP/PS1 and their littermate controls, aged 3, 6, 12, 15 months were injected acutely or chronically with 25 nmol/kg liraglutide. Acute treatment with liraglutide showed an increase in cell proliferation in APP/PS1 mice, but not in controls whereas chronic treatment increased cell proliferation at all ages (BrdU and Ki67 markers). Moreover, numbers of immature neurons (DCX) were increased in both acute and chronic treated animals at all ages. Most newly generated cells differentiated into mature neurons (NeuN marker). A significant increase was observed with chronically treated 6, 12, 15 month APP/PS1 and WT groups. These results demonstrate that liraglutide, which is currently on the market as a treatment for type 2 diabetes (Victoza(TM)), increases neurogenesis, which may have beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders like AD.

  19. Striking reduction of amyloid plaque burden in an Alzheimer's mouse model after chronic administration of carmustine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently available therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not treat the underlying cause of AD. Anecdotal observations in nursing homes from multiple studies strongly suggest an inverse relationship between cancer and AD. Therefore, we reasoned that oncology drugs may be effective against AD. Methods We screened a library of all the FDA-approved oncology drugs and identified bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU or carmustine) as an effective amyloid beta (Aβ) reducing compound. To quantify Aβ levels, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein 751WT (APP751WT) called 7WD10 cells were exposed to different concentrations of BCNU for 48 hours and the conditioned media were collected. To detect Aβ the conditioned media were immunoprecipitated with Ab9 antibody and subjected to immunoblot detection. Amyloid plaques were quantified in the brains of a mouse model of AD after chronic exposure to BCNU by thoflavin S staining. Results BCNU decreased normalized levels of Aβ starting from 5 μM by 39% (P < 0.05), 10 μM by 51% (P < 0.01) and 20 μM by 63% (P < 0.01) in CHO cells compared to a control group treated with butyl amine, a structural derivative of BCNU. Interestingly, soluble amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) levels were increased to 167% (P < 0.01) at 0.5 μM, 186% (P < 0.05) at 1 μM, 204% (P < 0.01) at 5 μM and 152% (P < 0.05) at 10 μM compared to untreated cells. We also tested the effects of 12 structural derivatives of BCNU on Aβ levels, but none of them were as potent as BCNU. BCNU treatment at 5 μM led to an accumulation of immature APP at the cell surface resulting in an increased ratio of surface to total APP by 184% for immature APP, but no change in mature APP. It is also remarkable that BCNU reduced Aβ generation independent of secretases which were not altered up to 40 μM. Interestingly, levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) were increased at 5 μM (43%, P < 0.05), 10 μM (73%, P

  20. Effect of chronic HTO. beta. or /sup 60/Co. gamma. radiation on preimplantation mouse development in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Yukawa, O.; Asami, K.; Nakazawa, T.

    1982-11-01

    Response of pronuclear, early 2-cell, and late 2-cell mouse embryos to chronic HTO ..beta.. and /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation was investigated. The pronuclear embryos fertilized in vitro and 2-cell stage embryos of BC3F/sub 1/ (C3H/C57BL) mice were grown in vitro in chemically defined medically defied media containing tritium oxide. Activity levels ranged from 100 to 2000 ..mu..Ci/ml. With development to blastocyst as the end point, the LD/sub 50/ was determined to be 118, 230, and 426 ..mu..Ci/ml for pronuclear, early 2-cell, and late 2-cell embryos, respectively. Similar embryos were exposed in vitro to chronic ..gamma.. radiation from /sup 60/Co during the same period of development, and RBE values of HTO ..beta.. radiation relative to /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays were calculated to be within the range of 1.0 to 1.7.

  1. Physiological biomarkers of hypoxic stress in red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii from field and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Bonvillain, Christopher P; Rutherford, D Allen; Kelso, William E; Green, Christopher C

    2012-09-01

    The crayfish industry in Louisiana is the largest in the United States, with crayfish frequently harvested from waters that experience episodic or chronic hypoxia (dissolved oxygen [DO]≤ 2 mg/l). We examined physiological biomarkers (hemolymph lactate, glucose, and protein concentrations) of hypoxic stress in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii from chronically hypoxic natural habitats and laboratory hypoxia experiments. P. clarkii from normoxic and hypoxic areas in the Atchafalaya River Basin were sampled monthly from April to July 2010. Laboratory experiments subjected P. clarkii to severe hypoxia (1 mg/l DO), moderate hypoxia (2 mg/l DO), or normoxic conditions (control: DO>7.5 mg/l) for 12, 24, and 48 h. P. clarkii from normoxic and hypoxic natural habitats did not display significantly different hemolymph lactate or glucose concentrations; however, mean hemolymph protein concentration was significantly lower in crayfish from hypoxic areas. P. clarkii exposed to severe hypoxia in laboratory experiments had significantly higher hemolymph lactate and glucose concentrations for all three exposure times, whereas large differences in protein concentrations were not observed. These results suggest that elevated hemolymph lactate and glucose concentrations are responses to acute hypoxia in P. clarkii, while differences in protein concentrations are the result of chronic hypoxic exposure.

  2. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protected tyrosine hydroxylase function in a chronic MPTP/probenecid mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiu-Qi; Wu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor impairments and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. FLZ (formulated as: N-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2, 5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic derivative of squamosamide from a Chinese herb and has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons in subacute PD models. However, whether FLZ has a neuroprotective effect on chronic PD model is still unknown. The present study was designed to verify the neuroprotection of FLZ on chronic PD mouse model induced by MPTP combined with probenecid (MPTP/p). The results showed that treatment of mice with FLZ for 9 weeks significantly improved motor behavior and dopaminergic neuronal function of mice injected with MPTP/p. The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, as well as decrease of α-synuclein (α-Syn) expression, α-Syn phosphorylation, nitration, and aggregation. Moreover, FLZ decreased the interaction between α-Syn and TH, which eventually improved dopaminergic neuronal function. Mechanistic study demonstrated that FLZ increased Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, suggesting that FLZ activated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and this might be involved in the neuroprotection of FLZ. The present results provided more elaborate in vivo evidences to support the neuroprotective effect of FLZ on dopaminergic neurons of chronic PD mouse model and the potential of FLZ to be developed as new drug to treat PD.

  3. Influence of the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole on the proliferation of well-oxygenated cells in vitro during prolonged exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Deys, B. F.; Stap, J.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of time-lapse cinematographic film permitted the construction of pedigrees from 88 well oxygenated cells of a mouse osteosarcoma (MOS). These cells have been chronically treated with various concentrations of the hypoxic cell sensitizer misonidazole (MIS) over periods of up to 96 h. At concentrations of 0.5 and 7 mM there is a 2--3 h increase in cell-cycle time. Concentrations of 2 mM show an intermitotic time delay of 7.6--10.3 h. At 4 mM cells divided only once. With increasing drug concentration there was an increase in the number of abnormal mitoses. These results were compared with cloning efficiency (PE) experiments. PE at 0.5 mM is 80%, at 1 mM 40 and at 2 mM is reduced to 4%. Cells treated with 2mM MIS over a period of 28.6 h resume their normal cycle when the drug is washed from the culture. This may indicate that DNA is not a major target for MIS. It is concluded that this hypoxic cell sensitizer is also toxic for MOS cells in well oxygenated conditions. PMID:292453

  4. Antidepressant-like effects of aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya leaves in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Martins, Fernanda Amelia; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Quevedo, João; de Campos, Angela Machado; Stefanello, Francieli M; Kaster, Manuella P; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Lencina, Claiton L

    2014-09-01

    Chronic stressful stimuli influence disease susceptibility to depression, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. The present work investigated antidepressant and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract from Cecropia pachystachya in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Our results indicated that acute administration of the aqueous extract (AE) from C. pachystachya (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) produced an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST). The chronic treatment with C. pachystachya extract (200mg/kg, p.o., for 14 days) prevented the depressant-like effect but not the anxiogenic effect induced by CUS. In addition to the behavioral modifications, the 14 days of CUS increased lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus (HP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), decreased total thiol content and glutathione peroxidase activity in the HP. C. pachystachya AE administration during CUS protocol was able to prevent the oxidative damage induced by stress. However, no changes were observed in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the above cited brain areas after the stress protocol and treatment. Our results suggest that C. pachystachya prevented both depressive behavior and oxidative damage induced by CUS, supporting its neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced by chronic stress.

  5. Chronic Fluoxetine Induces the Enlargement of Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Yosuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Hasuo, Hiroshi; Shuto, Takahide; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Sotogaku, Naoki; Togo, Akinobu; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nishi, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant for the treatment of major depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not fully understood. In the dentate gyrus, chronic fluoxetine treatment induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs) as well as neurogenesis. The major input to the dentate gyrus is the perforant path axons (boutons) from the entorhinal cortex (layer II). Through voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that the excitatory neurotransmission of the perforant path synapse onto the GCs in the middle molecular layer of the mouse dentate gyrus (perforant path-GC synapse) is enhanced after chronic fluoxetine treatment (15 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Therefore, we further examined whether chronic fluoxetine treatment affects the morphology of the perforant path-GC synapse, using FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy). A three-dimensional reconstruction of dendritic spines revealed the appearance of extremely large-sized spines after chronic fluoxetine treatment. The large-sized spines had a postsynaptic density with a large volume. However, chronic fluoxetine treatment did not affect spine density. The presynaptic boutons that were in contact with the large-sized spines were large in volume, and the volumes of the mitochondria and synaptic vesicles inside the boutons were correlated with the size of the boutons. Thus, the large-sized perforant path-GC synapse induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment contains synaptic components that correlate with the synapse size and that may be involved in enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission.

  6. Chronic Fluoxetine Induces the Enlargement of Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Yosuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Hasuo, Hiroshi; Shuto, Takahide; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Sotogaku, Naoki; Togo, Akinobu; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nishi, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant for the treatment of major depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not fully understood. In the dentate gyrus, chronic fluoxetine treatment induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs) as well as neurogenesis. The major input to the dentate gyrus is the perforant path axons (boutons) from the entorhinal cortex (layer II). Through voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that the excitatory neurotransmission of the perforant path synapse onto the GCs in the middle molecular layer of the mouse dentate gyrus (perforant path-GC synapse) is enhanced after chronic fluoxetine treatment (15 mg/kg/day, 14 days). Therefore, we further examined whether chronic fluoxetine treatment affects the morphology of the perforant path-GC synapse, using FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy). A three-dimensional reconstruction of dendritic spines revealed the appearance of extremely large-sized spines after chronic fluoxetine treatment. The large-sized spines had a postsynaptic density with a large volume. However, chronic fluoxetine treatment did not affect spine density. The presynaptic boutons that were in contact with the large-sized spines were large in volume, and the volumes of the mitochondria and synaptic vesicles inside the boutons were correlated with the size of the boutons. Thus, the large-sized perforant path-GC synapse induced by chronic fluoxetine treatment contains synaptic components that correlate with the synapse size and that may be involved in enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:26788851

  7. Time-course of neuronal death in the mouse pilocarpine model of chronic epilepsy using Fluoro-Jade C staining.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian; Liu, Yong-Hong; Huang, Yuan-Gui; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2008-11-19

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder in human beings and the long-term pathological events remain largely obscure. We are interested in elucidating long-term brain injury that may occur in the temporal lobe epilepsy, and time-course of neuronal death was examined in a mouse pilocarpine model of chronic epilepsy by Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) dye that can specifically stain the degenerative neurons in the central nervous system. The FJC stain combined with immunohistochemistry to neuronal nuclear specific protein revealed that pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) resulted in massive degenerative death of neuronal cells in brains with their dense distribution in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The FJC-positive degenerating neurons, most of them also expressed apoptosis signaling molecules such as caspase-9 and activated caspase-3, occurred at 4h, increased into peak levels at 12h-3d, and then gradually went down at 7d-14d after onset of SE. More interestingly, a large percentage (about 88%) of FJC-positive degenerative neurons were GABAergic as indicated with their immunoreactivity to glutamic acid decarboxylase-67, implying that inhibitory function of GABAergic neural system might by seriously damaged in brains subject to SE attack in this mouse pilocarpine model. Taken together with previous studies, time-course of degenerative neurons in the mouse pilocarpine model by Fluoro-Jade C staining further benefits understanding of long-term brain pathological changes and recurrent seizure mechanism, and may also result in finding the most suitable time-window in therapeutic manipulation of the chronic epilepsy in human beings.

  8. Initial genetic dissection of serum neuroactive steroids following chronic intermittent ethanol across BXD mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Morrow, A Leslie

    2017-02-01

    Neuroactive steroids modulate alcohol's impact on brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure alters neuroactive steroid levels in rats, humans, and some mouse strains. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the neuroactive steroids (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP), (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC), and pregnenolone across 126-158 individuals and 19 fully inbred strains belonging to the BXD family, which were subjected to air exposure, or chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Neuroactive steroids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in serum following five cycles of CIE or air exposure (CTL). Pregnenolone levels in CTLs range from 272 to 578 pg/mL (strain variation of 2.1 fold with p = 0.049 for strain main effect), with heritability of 0.20 ± 0.006 (SEM), whereas in CIE cases values range from 304 to 919 pg/mL (3.0-fold variation, p = 0.007), with heritability of 0.23 ± 0.005. 3α,5α-THP levels in CTLs range from 375 to 1055 pg/mL (2.8-fold variation, p = 0.0007), with heritability of 0.28 ± 0.01; in CIE cases they range from 460 to 1022 pg/mL (2.2-fold variation, p = 0.004), with heritability of 0.23 ± 0.005. 3α,5α-THDOC levels in CTLs range from 94 to 448 pg/mL (4.8-fold variation, p = 0.002), with heritability of 0.30 ± 0.01, whereas levels in CIE cases do not differ significantly. However, global averages across all BXD strains do not differ between CTL and CIE for any of the steroids. 3α,5α-THDOC levels were lower in females than males in both groups (CTL -53%, CIE -55%, p < 0.001). Suggestive quantitative trait loci are identified for pregnenolone and 3α,5α-THP levels. Genetic variation in 3α,5α-THP was not correlated with two-bottle choice ethanol consumption in CTL or CIE-exposed animals. However, individual variation in 3α,5α-THP correlated negatively with ethanol consumption in both groups. Moreover, strain variation in neuroactive steroid levels

  9. Histopathological Analysis of Salmonella Chronic Carriage in the Mouse Hepatopancreatobiliary System

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Gunn, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected). However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:24349565

  10. Mode of inhibitory actions of acute and chronic chloroquine administration on the electrically stimulated mouse diaphragm in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Okwuasaba, F. K.; Otubu, J. A.; Udoh, F. V.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of bath applied chloroquine (Chlo) and of acute and chronic Chlo administration on skeletal muscle reactivity to electrical stimulation and to drugs have been studied on mouse hemidiaphragm preparations in vitro. 2. Chlo (0.15-150 micrograms) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition twitch and tetanic contractions due to direct muscle stimulation (MS). Acute and chronic administration of Chlo (45 mg kg-1, i.p. daily, for 3-28 days) progressively shifted the concentration-response curve to bath-applied Chlo to the right, with maximum effect occurring from day 14 of Chlo pretreatment. 3. Acute and chronic administration of Chlo decreased the twitch and tetanus tension, raised the minimal fusion frequency (MFR) for tetanic contraction to occur and did not alter the twitch/tetanus tension ratio. Tetanus tension unlike twitch tension was not significantly decreased on day 3. 4. Caffeine (5-500 microM)--and isoprenaline (0.001-0.8 microM)-induced potentiations of twitch contraction were attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner by bath-applied Chlo and by acute and chronic administration of Chlo. Higher concentrations of caffeine (0.1-5 microM) and KCl (10 mM-130 mM) produced contracture of the muscle which was sensitive to inhibition by Chlo (50-150 microM). Moreover, the spike contractions superimposed on caffeine contracture were more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of Chlo than the contracture. 5. The inhibitory effects of dantrolene sodium and (+)-tubocurarine on MS and on indirectly stimulated hemidiaphragm respectively were not significantly altered by acute and chronic administration of Chlo. In contrast, the inhibitory concentration-response curve to procaine was shifted to the right.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2282456

  11. Chronic Subordinate Colony Housing Paradigm: A Mouse Model to Characterize the Consequences of Insufficient Glucocorticoid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Langgartner, Dominik; Füchsl, Andrea M.; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole; Slattery, David A.; Reber, Stefan O.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, in particular chronic psychosocial, stress is a burden of modern societies and known to be a risk factor for numerous somatic and affective disorders (in detail referenced below). However, based on the limited existence of appropriate, and clinically relevant, animal models for studying the effects of chronic stress, the detailed behavioral, physiological, neuronal, and immunological mechanisms linking stress and such disorders are insufficiently understood. To date, most chronic stress studies in animals employ intermittent exposure to the same (homotypic) or to different (heterotypic) stressors of varying duration and intensity. Such models are only of limited value, since they do not adequately reflect the chronic and continuous situation that humans typically experience. Furthermore, application of different physical or psychological stimuli renders comparisons to the mainly psychosocial stressors faced by humans, as well as between the different stress studies almost impossible. In contrast, rodent models of chronic psychosocial stress represent situations more akin to those faced by humans and consequently seem to hold more clinical relevance. Our laboratory has developed a model in which mice are exposed to social stress for 19 continuous days, namely the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm, to help bridge this gap. The main aim of the current review article is to provide a detailed summary of the behavioral, physiological, neuronal, and immunological consequences of the CSC paradigm, and wherever possible relate the findings to other stress models and to the human situation. PMID:25755645

  12. microRNA regulation of the embryonic hypoxic response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Pocock, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Layered strategies to combat hypoxia provide flexibility in dynamic oxygen environments. Here we show that multiple miRNAs are required for hypoxic survival responses during C. elegans embryogenesis. Certain miRNAs promote while others antagonize the hypoxic survival response. We found that expression of the mir-35 family is regulated by hypoxia in a HIF-1-independent manner and loss of mir-35–41 weakens hypoxic survival mechanisms in embryos. In addition, correct regulation of the RNA binding protein, SUP-26, a mir-35 family target, is needed for survival in chronic hypoxia. The identification of the full mRNA target repertoire of these miRNAs will reveal the miRNA-regulated network of hypoxic survival mechanisms in C. elegans. PMID:26063315

  13. Neuroprotective effect of long-term NDI1 gene expression in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber-Singh, Jennifer; Seo, Byoung Boo; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Lau, Yuen-Sum; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao

    2009-08-01

    Previously, we showed that the internal rotenone-insensitive nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) can be successfully inserted into the mitochondria of mice and rats and the expressed enzyme was found to be fully functional. In this study, we investigated the ability of the Ndi1 enzyme to protect the dopaminergic neurons in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson disorder. After expression of the NDI1 gene in the unilateral substantia nigra of male C57BL/6 mice for 8 months, a chronic Parkinsonian model was created by administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) with probenecid and evaluated using neurochemical and behavioral responses 1-4 weeks post-MPTP/probenecid injection. We showed that expression of Ndi1 was able to significantly prevent the loss of dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase as well as the dopaminergic transporters in the striatum of the chronic Parkinsonian mice. Behavioral assessment based on a methamphetamine-induced rotation test and spontaneous swing test further supported neurological preservation in the NDI1-treated Parkinsonian mice. The data presented in this study demonstrate a protective effect of the NDI1 gene in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting its therapeutic potential for Parkinson-like disorders.

  14. Early chronic blockade of NR2B subunits and transient activation of NMDA receptors modulate LTP in mouse auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuting; Zang, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2006-02-16

    In the auditory cortex, the properties of NMDA receptors depend primarily on the ratio of NR2A and NR2B subunits. NR2B subunit expression is high at the beginning of critical period and lower in adulthood. Because NMDA receptors are crucial in triggering long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression, developmental or experience-dependent modification of NMDAR subunit composition is likely to influence synaptic plasticity. To examine how NMDA subunit change during postnatal development affect the adult synaptic plasticity, we employed chronic ifenprodil blockade of NR2B subunits and analyzed evoked field potentials in adult C57BL/6 mice auditory cortex (AC). We found that chronic loss of NR2B activity led to a decline in LTP magnitude in the AC of adult mice. Adding NMDA to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in blocked mice had the opposite effect, producing LTP magnitudes at or exceeding those found in treated or untreated animals. These results suggest that, even in adulthood when NR2B expression is downregulated, these receptor subunits play an important role in experience-dependent plasticity of mouse auditory cortex. Blockade from P60 did not result in any decrease of LTP amplitude, suggesting that chronic block in postnatal period may permanently affect cortical circuits so that they cannot produce significant LTP in adulthood.

  15. Physiological Responses to Two Hypoxic Conditioning Strategies in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chacaroun, Samarmar; Borowik, Anna; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Baillieul, Sébastien; Flore, Patrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Hypoxic exposure can be used as a therapeutic tool by inducing various cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic adaptations. Hypoxic conditioning strategies have been evaluated in patients with chronic diseases using either sustained (SH) or intermittent (IH) hypoxic sessions. Whether hypoxic conditioning via SH or IH may induce different physiological responses remains to be elucidated. Methods: Fourteen healthy active subjects (7 females, age 25 ± 8 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 2.5 kg·m−2) performed two interventions in a single blind, randomized cross-over design, starting with either 3 x SH (48 h apart), or 3 x IH (48 h apart), separated by a 2 week washout period. SH sessions consisted of breathing a gas mixture with reduced inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2), continuously adjusted to reach arterial oxygen saturations (SpO2) of 70–80% for 1 h. IH sessions consisted of 5 min with reduced FiO2 (SpO2 = 70–80%), followed by 3-min normoxia, repeated seven times. During the first (S1) and third (S3) sessions of each hypoxic intervention, cardiorespiratory parameters, and muscle and pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were assessed continuously. Results: Minute ventilation increased significantly during IH sessions (+2 ± 2 L·min−1) while heart rate increased during both SH (+11 ± 4 bpm) and IH (+13 ± 5 bpm) sessions. Arterial blood pressure increased during all hypoxic sessions, although baseline normoxic systolic blood pressure was reduced from S1 to S3 in IH only (−8 ± 11 mmHg). Muscle oxygenation decreased significantly during S3 but not S1, for both hypoxic interventions (S3: SH −6 ± 5%, IH −3 ± 4%); pre-frontal oxygenation decreased in S1 and S3, and to a greater extent in SH vs. IH (−13 ± 3% vs. −6 ± 6%). Heart rate variability indices indicated a significantly larger increase in sympathetic activity in SH vs. IH (lower SDNN, PNN50, and RMSSD values in SH). From S1 to S3, further reduction in

  16. Chronic stress-induced mechanical hyperalgesia is controlled by capsaicin-sensitive neurones in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Scheich, B; Vincze, P; Szőke, É; Borbély, É; Hunyady, Á; Szolcsányi, J; Dénes, Á; Környei, Zs; Gaszner, B; Helyes, Zs

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies demonstrated peripheral nociceptor deficit in stress-related chronic pain states, such as fibromyalgia. The interactions of stress and nociceptive systems have special relevance in chronic pain, but the underlying mechanisms including the role of specific nociceptor populations remain unknown. We investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in chronic stress-related nociceptive changes. Capsaicin-sensitive neurones were desensitized by the capsaicin analogue resiniferatoxin (RTX) in CD1 mice. The effects of desensitization on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced responses were analysed using behavioural tests, chronic neuronal activity assessment in the central nervous system with FosB immunohistochemistry and peripheral cytokine concentration measurements. Chronic restraint stress induced mechanical and cold hypersensitivity and increased light preference in the light-dark box test. Open-field and tail suspension test activities were not altered. Adrenal weight increased, whereas thymus and body weights decreased in response to CRS. FosB immunopositivity increased in the insular cortex, dorsomedial hypothalamic and dorsal raphe nuclei, but not in the spinal cord dorsal horn after the CRS. CRS did not affect the cytokine concentrations of hindpaw tissues. Surprisingly, RTX pretreatment augmented stress-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, abolished light preference and selectively decreased the CRS-induced neuronal activation in the insular cortex. RTX pretreatment alone increased the basal noxious heat threshold without influencing the CRS-evoked cold hyperalgesia and augmented neuronal activation in the somatosensory cortex and interleukin-1α and RANTES production. Chronic restraint stress induces hyperalgesia without major anxiety, depression-like behaviour or peripheral inflammatory changes. Increased stress-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in RTX-pretreated mice is presumably mediated by central mechanisms including cortical plastic

  17. Marine Compound Xyloketal B Reduces Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ai-Jiao; Chen, Wenliang; Xu, Baofeng; Liu, Rui; Turlova, Ekaterina; Barszczyk, Andrew; Sun, Christopher Lf; Liu, Ling; Deurloo, Marielle; Wang, Guan-Lei; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes neurodegeneration and brain injury, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction. Xyloketal B is a novel marine compound isolated from a mangrove fungus Xylaria species (no. 2508) with unique antioxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of xyloketal B on oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal cell death in mouse primary cortical culture and on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice in vivo. We found that xyloketal B reduced anoxia-induced neuronal cell death in vitro, as well as infarct volume in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model in vivo. Furthermore, xyloketal B improved functional behavioral recovery of the animals following hypoxic-ischemic insult. In addition, xyloketal B significantly decreased calcium entry, reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells, reduced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax proteins, and increased the level of Bcl-2 protein after the hypoxic-ischemic injury. Our findings indicate that xyloketal B is effective in models of hypoxia-ischemia and thus has potential as a treatment for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. PMID:25546517

  18. Chronic Social Stress Affects Synaptic Maturation of Newly Generated Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress has been found to suppress adult neurogenesis, but it remains unclear whether it may affect the maturation process of adult-born neurons. Here, we examined the influence of chronic social defeat stress on the morphological and electrophysiological properties of adult-born dentate granule cells at different developmental stages. Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 10 days of chronic social defeat stress followed by a social interaction test 24 hours after the last defeat. Defeated mice were segregated into susceptible and unsusceptible subpopulations based on a measure of social interaction test. Combining electrophysiology with retrovirus-mediated birth-dating and labeling, we examined the impact of chronic social defeat stress on temporal regulation of synaptic plasticity of adult-born dentate granule cells along their maturation. Results: Chronic social defeat stress decreases the survival and dendritic complexity of adult-born dentate granule cells. While chronic social defeat stress doesn’t alter the intrinsic electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission of surviving adult-born dentate granule cells, it promotes the developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors from predominant GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing receptors, which transform the immature synapse of adult-born dentate granule cells from one that exhibits enhanced long-term potentiation to one that has normal levels of long-term potentiation. Furthermore, chronic social defeat stress increases the level of endogenous repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor mRNA in adult-born dentate granule cells, and knockdown of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor in adult-born dentate granule cells rescues chronic social defeat stress-induced morphological deficits and accelerated developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition. Conclusions: These results uncover a previously

  19. Chronic Intake of Japanese Sake Mediates Radiation-Induced Metabolic Alterations in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tetsuo; Vares, Guillaume; Wang, Bing; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Sake is a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage that is gaining popularity worldwide. Although sake is reported to have beneficial health effects, it is not known whether chronic sake consumption modulates health risks due to radiation exposure or other factors. Here, the effects of chronic administration of sake on radiation-induced metabolic alterations in the livers of mice were evaluated. Sake (junmai-shu) was administered daily to female mice (C3H/He) for one month, and the mice were exposed to fractionated doses of X-rays (0.75 Gy/day) for the last four days of the sake administration period. For comparative analysis, a group of mice were administered 15% (v/v) ethanol in water instead of sake. Metabolites in the liver were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry one day following the last exposure to radiation. The metabolite profiles of mice chronically administered sake in combination with radiation showed marked changes in purine, pyrimidine, and glutathione (GSH) metabolism, which were only partially altered by radiation or sake administration alone. Notably, the changes in GSH metabolism were not observed in mice treated with radiation following chronic administration of 15% ethanol in water. Changes in several metabolites, including methionine and valine, were induced by radiation alone, but were not detected in the livers of mice who received chronic administration of sake. In addition, the chronic administration of sake increased the level of serum triglycerides, although radiation exposure suppressed this increase. Taken together, the present findings suggest that chronic sake consumption promotes GSH metabolism and anti-oxidative activities in the liver, and thereby may contribute to minimizing the adverse effects associated with radiation. PMID:26752639

  20. Generation of Functional Neutrophils from a Mouse Model of X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disorder Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sayandip; Santilli, Giorgia; Blundell, Michael P.; Navarro, Susana; Bueren, Juan A.; Thrasher, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Murine models of human genetic disorders provide a valuable tool for investigating the scope for application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Here we present a proof-of-concept study to demonstrate generation of iPSC from a mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), and their successful differentiation into haematopoietic progenitors of the myeloid lineage. We further demonstrate that additive gene transfer using lentiviral vectors encoding gp91phox is capable of restoring NADPH-oxidase activity in mature neutrophils derived from X-CGD iPSC. In the longer term, correction of iPSC from human patients with CGD has therapeutic potential not only through generation of transplantable haematopoietic stem cells, but also through production of large numbers of autologous functional neutrophils. PMID:21408614

  1. A high bandwidth fully implantable mouse telemetry system for chronic ECG measurement.

    PubMed

    Russell, David M; McCormick, Daniel; Taberner, Andrew J; Malpas, Simon C; Budgett, David M

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of a novel system that enables the wireless transmission of high-bandwidth physiological data from a freely moving mouse. The system employs inductive power transfer (IPT) to continuously power a battery-less transmitter using an array of overlapping planar coils placed under the animal. This arrangement provides a minimum of 20 mW at all locations and orientations across the mouse cage by selecting a coil which will sufficiently power the transmitter. Coil selection is performed by feedback control across the 2.4 GHz wireless link. A device was constructed utilizing this novel IPT system and was used to capture high-fidelity electrocardiogram (ECG) signal sampled at 2 kHz in mice. Various attributes of the ECG signal such as QT, QRS, and PR intervals could be obtained with a high degree of accuracy. This system potentially provides lifetime continuous high bandwidth measurement of physiological signals from a fully implanted telemeter in a freely moving mouse.

  2. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. Methods We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Results Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Conclusions Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:22920325

  3. The effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, attenuates inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Han; Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Lin; Dou, Xiaoguang

    2012-08-24

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by progressive fibrosis, pain and loss of exocrine and endocrine functions. The long-standing chronic pancreatitis and its associated pancreatic fibrosis are the most common pathogenic events involved in human pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the therapeutic strategies to chronic pancreatitis and the chemoprevention of pancreatic carcinogenesis are very limited. We investigated the effect of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on inhibition of chronic pancreatitis in a caerulein induced chronic pancreatitis mouse model. Sulindac significantly reduced the severity of chronic pancreatitis including the extent of acini loss, inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis. The protein expression of phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was inhibited in the chronic pancreatic tissues by sulindac treatment as measured by Western blot assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and MCP-1 were also significantly decreased with sulindac treatment, as well as the expression of TGF-β, PDGF-β, SHH and Gli in the chronic pancreatic tissue detected by qPCR assay and confirmed by western blot assay. The activation of pancreatic satellet cells was also inhibited by sulindac as measured by the activity of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the pancreatic tissue of chronic pancreatitis. Sulindac is a promising reagent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis via inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and stromal fibrosis, the inhibitory effect of sulindac on chronic pancreatitis may through targeting the activation ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

  4. Activation of chronic toxoplasmosis by transportation stress in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bang; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Jianxi; Pan, Ming; Xia, Ningbo; Zhang, Weichao; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondiiis an obligate intracellular parasite infecting 25% of the world population and enormous number of animals. It can exist in two forms in intermediate hosts: the fast replicating tachyzoites responsible for acute infection and the slowly replicating bradyzoites responsible for life-long chronic infection. The interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites plays critical roles in the transmission and pathogenesis of T. gondii. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the interconversion are largely unknown. In this study, we established a chronic infection model in mice and examined the impact of transportation stress on the status of chronic infection. Our results demonstrated that, treating chronically infected mice with conditions mimicking transportation stress reduced the levels of several key cytokines that restrict the infection at chronic stage. Increased expression of the tachyzoite specific gene SAG1 (surface antigen 1) was detected in brain cysts of stress treated mice, indicating activation and conversion of bradyzoites to tachyzoites. Using this model, we identified fifteen toxoplasmic proteins that had significant abundance changes during stress induced cysts reactivation. These proteins serve as a basis for further investigation of the mechanisms governing bradyzoite conversion. PMID:27895319

  5. Activation of chronic toxoplasmosis by transportation stress in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bang; Yuan, Yuan; Cheng, Jianxi; Pan, Ming; Xia, Ningbo; Zhang, Weichao; Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2016-12-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite infecting 25% of the world population and enormous number of animals. It can exist in two forms in intermediate hosts: the fast replicating tachyzoites responsible for acute infection and the slowly replicating bradyzoites responsible for life-long chronic infection. The interconversion between tachyzoites and bradyzoites plays critical roles in the transmission and pathogenesis of T. gondii. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the interconversion are largely unknown. In this study, we established a chronic infection model in mice and examined the impact of transportation stress on the status of chronic infection. Our results demonstrated that, treating chronically infected mice with conditions mimicking transportation stress reduced the levels of several key cytokines that restrict the infection at chronic stage. Increased expression of the tachyzoite specific gene SAG1 (surface antigen 1) was detected in brain cysts of stress treated mice, indicating activation and conversion of bradyzoites to tachyzoites. Using this model, we identified fifteen toxoplasmic proteins that had significant abundance changes during stress induced cysts reactivation. These proteins serve as a basis for further investigation of the mechanisms governing bradyzoite conversion.

  6. An autoradiographic analysis of cholinergic receptors in mouse brain after chronic nicotine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, J.R.; Marks, M.J.; Gross, S.D.; Collins, A.C. )

    1991-09-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic procedures were used to examine the effects of chronic nicotine infusion on the number of central nervous system nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Female DBA mice were implanted with jugular cannulas and infused with saline or various doses of nicotine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg/hr) for 10 days. The animals were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and frozen in isopentane. Cryostat sections were collected and prepared for autoradiographic procedures as previously described. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were labeled with L-(3H)nicotine or alpha-(125I)bungarotoxin; (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to measure muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Chronic nicotine infusion increased the number of sites labeled by (3H)nicotine in most brain areas. However, the extent of the increase in binding as well as the dose-response curves for the increase were widely different among brain regions. After the highest treatment dose, binding was increased in 67 of 86 regions measured. Septal and thalamic regions were most resistant to change. Nicotinic binding measured by alpha-(125I)bungarotoxin also increased after chronic treatment, but in a less robust fashion. At the highest treatment dose, only 26 of 80 regions were significantly changes. Muscarinic binding was not altered after chronic nicotine treatment. These data suggest that brain regions are not equivalent in the mechanisms that regulate alterations in nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding after chronic nicotine treatment.

  7. A Chronic Longitudinal Characterization of Neurobehavioral and Neuropathological Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Agent Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Gogce; Hassan, Samira; Abdullah, Laila; Horne, Lauren; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2016-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990–1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM), and Barnes Maze (BM) Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to

  8. Transmission probabilities of mouse parvovirus 1 to sentinel mice chronically exposed to serial dilutions of contaminated bedding.

    PubMed

    Besselsen, David G; Myers, Erin L; Franklin, Craig L; Korte, Scott W; Wagner, April M; Henderson, Kenneth S; Weigler, Benjamin J

    2008-04-01

    Intermittent serodetection of mouse parvovirus (MPV) infections in animal facilities occurs frequently when soiled bedding sentinel mouse monitoring systems are used. We evaluated induction of seroconversion in naïve single-caged weanling ICR mice (n = 10 per group) maintained on 5-fold serially diluted contaminated bedding obtained from SCID mice persistently shedding MPV1e. Soiled bedding from the infected SCID mice was collected, diluted, and redistributed weekly to cages housing ICR mice to represent chronic exposure to MPV at varying prevalence in a research colony. Sera was collected every other week for 12 wk and evaluated for reactivity to MPV nonstructural and capsid antigens by multiplex fluorescent immunoassay. Mice were euthanized after seroconversion, and DNA extracted from lymph node and spleen was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Cumulative incidence of MPV infection for each of the 7 soiled bedding dilution groups (range, 1:5 to 1:78125 [v/v]) was 100%, 100%, 90%, 20%, 70%, 60%, and 20%, respectively. Most seropositive mice (78%) converted within the first 2 to 3 wk of soiled bedding exposure, correlating to viral exposure when mice were 4 to 7 wk of age. Viral DNA was detected in lymphoid tissues collected from all mice that were seropositive to VP2 capsid antigen, whereas viral DNA was not detected in lymphoid tissue of seronegative mice. These data indicate seroconversion occurs consistently in young mice exposed to high doses of virus equivalent to fecal MPV loads observed in acutely infected mice, whereas seroconversion is inconsistent in mice chronically exposed to lower doses of virus.

  9. A Chronic Longitudinal Characterization of Neurobehavioral and Neuropathological Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Agent Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Gogce; Hassan, Samira; Abdullah, Laila; Horne, Lauren; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2015-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM), and Barnes Maze (BM) Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to cover

  10. The role of polyamines in protein-dependent hypoxic tolerance of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic hypoxia is a major component of ischemic diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Drosophila is more tolerant to hypoxia than most mammalian species. It is considered as a useful model organism to identify new mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. The hypoxic tolerance of flies has previously been reported to be enhanced by low protein diets. This study analyses the mechanisms involved. Results Feeding adult Drosophila on a yeast diet dramatically reduced their longevities under chronic hypoxic conditions (5% O2). Mean and maximum longevities became close to the values observed for starving flies. The action of dietary yeast was mimicked by a whole casein hydrolysate and by anyone of the 20 natural amino acids that compose proteins. It was mimicked by amino acid intermediates of the urea cycle such as L-citrulline and L-ornithine, and by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine). α-difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, partially protected hypoxic flies from amino acid toxicity but not from polyamine toxicity. N1-guanyl-1,7 diaminoheptane, a specific inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, partially relieved the toxicities of both amino acids and polyamines. Conclusion Dietary amino acids reduced the longevity of chronically hypoxic flies fed on a sucrose diet. Pharmacological evidence suggests that the synthesis of polyamines and the hypusination of eIF5A contributed to the life-shortening effect of dietary amino acids. PMID:19055734

  11. The role of polyamines in protein-dependent hypoxic tolerance of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2008-12-02

    Chronic hypoxia is a major component of ischemic diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Drosophila is more tolerant to hypoxia than most mammalian species. It is considered as a useful model organism to identify new mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. The hypoxic tolerance of flies has previously been reported to be enhanced by low protein diets. This study analyses the mechanisms involved. Feeding adult Drosophila on a yeast diet dramatically reduced their longevities under chronic hypoxic conditions (5% O2). Mean and maximum longevities became close to the values observed for starving flies. The action of dietary yeast was mimicked by a whole casein hydrolysate and by anyone of the 20 natural amino acids that compose proteins. It was mimicked by amino acid intermediates of the urea cycle such as L-citrulline and L-ornithine, and by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine). alpha-difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, partially protected hypoxic flies from amino acid toxicity but not from polyamine toxicity. N1-guanyl-1,7 diaminoheptane, a specific inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, partially relieved the toxicities of both amino acids and polyamines. Dietary amino acids reduced the longevity of chronically hypoxic flies fed on a sucrose diet. Pharmacological evidence suggests that the synthesis of polyamines and the hypusination of eIF5A contributed to the life-shortening effect of dietary amino acids.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of hypoxic injury to the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Tracy M; Garbow, Joel R; Anderson, Jeff R; Engelbach, John A; Nelson, D Michael; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define placental hypoxic injury associated with fetal growth restriction. On embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) we utilized dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI on a 4.7-tesla small animal scanner to examine the uptake and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agent. Quantitative DCE parameter analysis was performed for the placenta and fetal kidneys of three groups of pregnant C57BL/6 mice: 1) mice that were exposed to Fi(O(2)) = 12% between E15.5 and E18.5, 2) mice in normoxia with food restriction similar to the intake of hypoxic mice between E15.5 and E18.5, and 3) mice in normoxia that were fed ad libitum. After imaging, we assessed fetoplacental weight, placental histology, and gene expression. We found that dams exposed to hypoxia exhibited fetal growth restriction (weight reduction by 28% and 14%, respectively, P < 0.05) with an increased placental-to-fetal ratio. By using MRI-based assessment of placental contrast agent kinetics, referenced to maternal paraspinous muscle, we found decreased placental clearance of contrast media in hypoxic mice, compared with either control group (61%, P < 0.05). This was accompanied by diminished contrast accumulation in the hypoxic fetal kidneys (23%, P < 0.05), reflecting reduced transplacental gadolinium transport. These changes were associated with increased expression of placental Phlda2 and Gcm1 transcripts. Exposure to hypoxia near the end of mouse pregnancy reduces placental perfusion and clearance of contrast. MRI-based DCE imaging provides a novel tool for dynamic, in vivo assessment of placental function.

  13. Antidepressant-like effects of melatonin in the mouse chronic mild stress model.

    PubMed

    Detanico, Bernardo C; Piato, Angelo L; Freitas, Jennifer J; Lhullier, Francisco L; Hidalgo, Maria P; Caumo, Wolney; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin is a hormone primarily synthesized by the pineal gland and has been shown to govern seasonal and circadian rhythms, as well as the immune system, certain behaviours, and responses to stress. Chronic exposure to stress is involved in the etiology of human depression, and depressed patients present changes in circadian and seasonal rhythms. This study investigated the effects of daily exogenous melatonin (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and imipramine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) on the changes in the coat state, grooming behaviour and corticosterone levels induced by the unpredictable chronic mild stress model of depression in mice. As expected, the 5 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress schedule induced significant degradation of the coat state, decreased grooming and increased serum corticosterone levels. All of these unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced changes were counteracted by melatonin (P<0.05) and imipramine (P<0.01). Especially in view of the relevance of stress as a major contributing factor in depression, as well as the alleged importance of normalizing a hyperfunctioning HPA axis and resynchronizing circadian rhythms for a successful treatment of depression, this study reassesses the potential of melatonin as an antidepressant.

  14. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: substituted styryl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nudelman, A; Falb, E; Odesa, Y; Shmueli-Broide, N

    1994-10-01

    A number of novel styryl epoxides, N-substituted-styryl-ethanolamines, N-mono and N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cinnamamides--analogues to the known radiosensitizers RSU-1069, pimonidazole and etanidazole--display selective hypoxic radiosensitizing activity. The styryl group, especially when substituted by electron withdrawing groups, was found to be bioisosteric to the nitroimidazolyl functionality. The most active derivative 2-(2'-nitrophenyl)ethen-1-yl-oxirane 8a displayed a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of 5 relative to misonidazole.

  15. Effects of acute and chronic administration of venlafaxine and desipramine on extracellular monoamine levels in the mouse prefrontal cortex and striatum.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosuke; Ago, Yukio; Umehara, Masato; Kita, Yuki; Fujita, Kazumi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-04-15

    Prefrontal catecholamine neurotransmission plays a key role in the therapeutic actions of drugs for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have recently shown that serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine attenuated horizontal hyperactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model of ADHD, and that these drugs are potential pharmacotherapeutics for ADHD. In this study, we used in vivo microdialysis to study the effects of acute and chronic (once daily for 3 weeks) administration of the serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine on noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin levels, and the expression of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in the mouse prefrontal cortex and striatum. Both acute and chronic venlafaxine administration increased prefrontal noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin levels and striatal noradrenaline and serotonin levels. Both acute and chronic desipramine administration increased prefrontal noradrenaline and dopamine levels and striatal noradrenaline levels, with chronic administration yielding stronger increase. Chronic desipramine did not affect striatal dopamine and serotonin levels. Both acute and chronic venlafaxine administration increased the expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex, whereas chronic, but not acute, desipramine administration increased the expression of c-Fos in the prefrontal cortex. Both acute and chronic venlafaxine administration increased the striatal c-Fos expression to some degree, whereas desipramine administration did not. These results suggest that acute and chronic venlafaxine and chronic desipramine administration maximally activate the prefrontal adrenergic and dopaminergic systems without affecting striatal dopaminergic systems in mice.

  16. Chronic copper exposure exacerbates both amyloid and tau pathology and selectively dysregulates cdk5 in a mouse model of AD.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Cheng, David; Laferla, Frank M

    2009-03-01

    Excess copper exposure is thought to be linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. However, the mechanism by which copper affects the CNS remains unclear. To investigate the effect of chronic copper exposure on both beta-amyloid and tau pathologies, we treated young triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mice with 250 ppm copper-containing water for a period of 3 or 9 months. Copper exposure resulted in altered amyloid precursor protein processing; increased accumulation of the amyloid precursor protein and its proteolytic product, C99 fragment, along with increased generation of amyloid-beta peptides and oligomers. These changes were found to be mediated via up-regulation of BACE1 as significant increases in BACE1 levels and deposits were detected around plaques in mice following copper exposure. Furthermore, tau pathology within hippocampal neurons was exacerbated in copper-exposed 3xTg-AD group. Increased tau phosphorylation was closely correlated with aberrant cdk5/p25 activation, suggesting a role for this kinase in the development of copper-induced tau pathology. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic copper exposure accelerates not only amyloid pathology but also tau pathology in a mouse model of AD.

  17. Influence of chronic ethanol intake on mouse synaptosomal aspartyl aminopeptidase and aminopeptidase A: relationship with oxidative stress indicators.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) and aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP) not only act as neuromodulators in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system, but also release N-terminal acidic amino acids (glutamate and aspartate). The hyperexcitability of amino acid neurotransmitters is responsible for several neurodegenerative processes affecting the central nervous system. The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of chronic ethanol intake, a well known neurotoxic compound, on APA and ASAP activity under resting and K(+)-stimulated conditions at the synapse level. APA and ASAP activity were determined against glutamate- and aspartate-β-naphthylamide respectively in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and in their incubation supernatant in a Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The neurotoxic effects were analyzed by determining free radical generation, peroxidation of membrane lipids and the oxidation of synaptosomal proteins. In addition, the bioenergetic behavior of synaptosomes was analyzed under different experimental protocols. We obtained several modifications in oxidative stress parameters and a preferential inhibitor effect of chronic ethanol intake on APA and ASAP activities. Although previous in vitro studies failed to show signs of neurodegeneration, these in vivo modifications in oxidative stress parameters do not seem to be related to changes in APA and ASAP, invalidating the idea that an excess of free acidic amino acids released by APA and ASAP induces neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic low-dose-rate ionising radiation affects the hippocampal phosphoproteome in the ApoE−/− Alzheimer's mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Stefan J.; Janik, Dirk; Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Braga-Tanaka, Ignacia; Tanaka, Satoshi; Neff, Frauke; Saran, Anna; Larsen, Martin R.; Tapio, Soile

    2016-01-01

    Accruing data indicate that radiation-induced consequences resemble pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect on hippocampus of chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposure (1 mGy/day or 20 mGy/day) given over 300 days with cumulative doses of 0.3 Gy and 6.0 Gy, respectively. ApoE deficient mutant C57Bl/6 mouse was used as an Alzheimer's model. Using mass spectrometry, a marked alteration in the phosphoproteome was found at both dose rates. The radiation-induced changes in the phosphoproteome were associated with the control of synaptic plasticity, calcium-dependent signalling and brain metabolism. An inhibition of CREB signalling was found at both dose rates whereas Rac1-Cofilin signalling was found activated only at the lower dose rate. Similarly, the reduction in the number of activated microglia in the molecular layer of hippocampus that paralleled with reduced levels of TNFα expression and lipid peroxidation was significant only at the lower dose rate. Adult neurogenesis, investigated by Ki67, GFAP and NeuN staining, and cell death (activated caspase-3) were not influenced at any dose or dose rate. This study shows that several molecular targets induced by chronic low-dose-rate radiation overlap with those of Alzheimer's pathology. It may suggest that ionising radiation functions as a contributing risk factor to this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27708245

  19. Astrocytic adaptation during cerebral angiogenesis follows the new vessel formation induced through chronic hypoxia in adult mouse cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamoto, Kazuto; Kanno, Iwao

    2014-03-01

    We examined longitudinal changes of the neuro-glia-vascular unit during cerebral angiogenesis induced through chronic hypoxia in the adult mouse cortex. Tie2-GFP mice in which the vascular endothelial cells expressed green fluorescent proteins (GFP) were exposed to chronic hypoxia, while the spatiotemporal developments of the cortical capillary sprouts and the neighboring astrocytic remodeling were characterized with repeated two-photon microscopy. The capillary sprouts appeared at early phases of the hypoxia adaptation (1-2 weeks), while the morphological changes of the astrocytic soma and processes were not detected in this phase. In the later phases of the hypoxia adaptation (> 2 weeks), the capillary sprouts created a new connection with existing capillaries, and its neighboring astrocytes extended their processes to the newly-formed vessels. The findings show that morphological adaptation of the astrocytes follow the capillary development during the hypoxia adaptation, which indicate that the newly-formed vessels provoke cellular interactions with the neighboring astrocytes to strengthen the functional blood-brain barrier.

  20. Elevation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in the Mouse Brain after Chronic Nonylphenol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Mao, Zhen; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Han, Bao-Ping; Chen, Ling-Tong; Li, Jing; Li, Fei

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of nonylphenol (NP) on the expression of inflammation-related genes in the brains of mice. NP was given orally by gavages at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/d. The expression of inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting assays. The nitric oxide (NO) level and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were also measured by biochemical analyses. The results showed that NP at a high dose (200 mg/kg/d) significantly increased the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in both the hippocampus and cortex. In parallel with the increase in iNOS expression, the NO level was significantly greater at the dose of 200 mg/kg/d, compared to the control. The activity of NOS was also increased in the brain of mice at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/d. These findings demonstrate that NP may have the potential to induce the chronic inflammation or cause neurotoxicity in the mouse brain. PMID:19325730

  1. Dynamic activation of basilar membrane macrophages in response to chronic sensory cell degeneration in aging mouse cochleae.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mitchell D; Yang, Weiping; Zhang, Celia; Xiong, Binbin; Hu, Bo Hua

    2017-02-01

    In the sensory epithelium, macrophages have been identified on the scala tympani side of the basilar membrane. These basilar membrane macrophages are the spatially closest immune cells to sensory cells and are able to directly respond to and influence sensory cell pathogenesis. While basilar membrane macrophages have been studied in acute cochlear stresses, their behavior in response to chronic sensory cell degeneration is largely unknown. Here we report a systematic observation of the variance in phenotypes, the changes in morphology and distribution of basilar membrane tissue macrophages in different age groups of C57BL/6J mice, a mouse model of age-related sensory cell degeneration. This study reveals that mature, fully differentiated tissue macrophages, not recently infiltrated monocytes, are the major macrophage population for immune responses to chronic sensory cell death. These macrophages display dynamic changes in their numbers and morphologies as age increases, and the changes are related to the phases of sensory cell degeneration. Notably, macrophage activation precedes sensory cell pathogenesis, and strong macrophage activity is maintained until sensory cell degradation is complete. Collectively, these findings suggest that mature tissue macrophages on the basilar membrane are a dynamic group of cells that are capable of vigorous adaptation to changes in the local sensory epithelium environment influenced by sensory cell status.

  2. Effect of nicotine on the renal microcirculation in anesthetized rats: a potential for medullary hypoxic injury?

    PubMed

    Heyman, Samuel N; Goldfarb, Marina; Rosenberger, Christian; Shina, Ahuva; Rosen, Seymour

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been associated with accelerated renal dysfunction among patients with chronic renal disease. Conceivably, repeated parenchymal hypoxic injury, induced by nicotine-related vasomotor changes, might contribute to the progression of renal failure in smokers. Renal blood flow and selective cortical and outer medullary blood flows were determined in anesthetized rats. Changes in total renal, cortical and medullary vascular resistance were calculated. Nicotine was repeatedly infused at rising doses (50-200 microg/kg) to intact (CTR) animals and to rats chronically administered with nicotine in their drinking water (NIC). In a complementary study, nicotine-treated and control rats were subjected to medullary hypoxic stress, induced by radiocontrast and indomethacin. Chronic nicotine exposure led to lower baseline renal blood flow and creatinine clearance. Nicotine infusion induced a transient dose-dependent rise in blood pressure, renal blood flow and cortical flow, with a corresponding decline in renal vascular resistance and cortical resistance in both experimental groups. However, while medullary flow increased in CTR by up to 16 +/- 6%, it remained unchanged or even somewhat declined in the NIC group. Calculated medullary resistance reciprocally declined in CTR while it rose in the NIC group (p < 0.001). In animals subjected to radiocontrast and indomethacin, nicotine intensified renal dysfunction, associated with focal medullary hypoxic damage. Chronic exposure to nicotine selectively compromises the outer medullary microcirculation, blunting a local vasodilatory response to acute nicotine administration. Repeated acute-on-chronic exposure to nicotine may predispose to hypoxic medullary injury.

  3. Cardiac fibrosis in mouse expressing DsRed tetramers involves chronic autophagy and proteasome degradation insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Mei-Ru; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Liu, Shan-Wen; Hsu, Ching-Han; Liou, Gan-Guang; Kao, Yu-Ying; Dong, Guo-Chung; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Proteinopathy in the heart which often manifests excessive misfolded/aggregated proteins in cardiac myocytes can result in severe fibrosis and heart failure. Here we developed a mouse model, which transgenically express tetrameric DsRed, a red fluorescent protein (RFP), in an attempt to mimic the pathological mechanisms ofcardiac fibrosis. Whilst DsRed is expressed and forms aggregation in most mouse organs, certain pathological defects are specifically recapitulated in cardiac muscle cells including mitochondria damages, aggresome-like residual bodies, excessive ubiquitinated proteins, and the induction of autophagy. The proteinopathy and cellular injuries caused by DsRed aggregates may be due to impaired or overburdened ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy-lysosome systems. We further identified that DsRed can be ubiquitinated and associated with MuRF1, a muscle-specific E3 ligase. Concomitantly, an activation of NF-κB signaling and a strong TIMP1 induction were noted, suggesting that RFP-induced fibrosis was augmented by a skewed balance between TIMP1 and MMPs. Taken together, our study highlights the molecular consequences of uncontrolled protein aggregation leading to congestive heart failure, and provides novel insights into fibrosis formation that can be exploited for improved therapy. PMID:27494843

  4. Metabolic profiles in serum of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Shupei

    2011-08-01

    The toxicity of Nanjing drinking water on mouse (Mus musculus) was detected by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic method. Three groups of mice were fed with drinking water (produced by Nanjing BHK Water Plant), 3.8 μg/L benzo(a)pyrene as contrast, and clean water as control, respectively, for 90 days. It was observed that the levels of lactate, alanine, and creatinine in the mice fed with drinking water were increased and that of valine was decreased. The mice of drinking water group were successfully separated from control. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates (PAEs), and other organic pollutants in the drinking water were 0.23 μg/L, 4.57 μg/L, and 0.34 μg/L, respectively. In this study, Nanjing drinking water was found to induce distinct perturbations of metabolic profiles on mouse including disorders of glucose-alanine cycle, branched-chain amino acid and energy metabolism, and dysfunction of kidney. This study suggests that metabonomic method is feasible and sensitive to evaluate potential toxic effects of drinking water.

  5. Gene expression profiles in liver of mouse after chronic exposure to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Xuxiang; Kong, Zhiming; Cheng, Shupei

    2009-10-01

    cDNA micorarray approach was applied to hepatic transcriptional profile analysis in male mouse (Mus musculus, ICR) to assess the potential health effects of drinking water in Nanjing, China. Mice were treated with continuous exposure to drinking water for 90 days. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays, and pathway analysis was carried out by Molecule Annotation System 2.0 and KEGG pathway database. A total of 836 genes were found to be significantly altered (1.5-fold, P < or = 0.05), including 294 up-regulated genes and 542 down-regulated genes. According to biological pathway analysis, drinking water exposure resulted in aberration of gene expression and biological pathways linked to xenobiotic metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle and oxidative stress response. Further, deregulation of several genes associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including Ccnd1, Egfr, Map2k3, Mcm2, Orc2l and Smad2 was observed. Although transcription changes in identified genes are unlikely to be used as a sole indicator of adverse health effects, the results of this study could enhance our understanding of early toxic effects of drinking water exposure and support future studies on drinking water safety.

  6. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

    2014-01-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  7. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-11-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation.

  8. ATM facilitates mouse gammaherpesvirus reactivation from myeloid cells during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Kulinski, Joseph M; Darrah, Eric J; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Mboko, Wadzanai P; Mounce, Bryan C; Malherbe, Laurent P; Corbett, John A; Gauld, Stephen B; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Gammaherpesviruses are cancer-associated pathogens that establish life-long infection in most adults. Insufficiency of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase leads to a poor control of chronic gammaherpesvirus infection via an unknown mechanism that likely involves a suboptimal antiviral response. In contrast to the phenotype in the intact host, ATM facilitates gammaherpesvirus reactivation and replication in vitro. We hypothesized that ATM mediates both pro- and antiviral activities to regulate chronic gammaherpesvirus infection in an immunocompetent host. To test the proposed proviral activity of ATM in vivo, we generated mice with ATM deficiency limited to myeloid cells. Myeloid-specific ATM deficiency attenuated gammaherpesvirus infection during the establishment of viral latency. The results of our study uncover a proviral role of ATM in the context of gammaherpesvirus infection in vivo and support a model where ATM combines pro- and antiviral functions to facilitate both gammaherpesvirus-specific T cell immune response and viral reactivation in vivo.

  9. Avian embryos in hypoxic environments.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Monge-C, C

    2004-08-12

    Avian embryos at high altitude do not benefit of the maternal protection against hypoxia as in mammals. Nevertheless, avian embryos are known to hatch successfully at altitudes between 4,000 and 6,500 m. This review considers some of the processes that bring about the outstanding modifications in the pressure differences between the environment and mitochondria of avian embryos in hypoxic environments. Among species, some maintain normal levels of oxygen consumption ( VO2) have a high oxygen carrying capacity, lower the air cell-arterial pressure difference ( PAO2 - PaO2 ) with a constant pH. Other species decrease VO2, increase only slightly the oxygen carrying capacity, have a higher PAO2 - PaO2 difference than sea-level embryos and lower the PCO2 and pH. High altitude embryos, and those exposed to hypoxia have an accelerated decline of erythrocyte ATP levels during development and an earlier stimulation of 2,3-BPG synthesis. A higher Bohr effect may ensure high tissue PO2 in the presence of the high-affinity hemoglobin. Independently of the strategy used, they serve together to promote suitable rates of development and successful hatching of high altitude birds in hypoxic environments.

  10. The influence of chronic ibuprofen treatment on proteins expressed in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kenji; Otani, Mieko; Takano, Masaoki; Kadoyama, Keiichi; Matsuyama, Shogo

    2015-04-05

    Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), treatment with which has been shown to delay the onset, slows the cognitive decline, and decreases the incidence of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) in epidemiological and clinical studies. However, a comprehensive understanding of its mechanism of action remains unclear. To elucidate the prophylactic effect of ibuprofen on the onset of the learning and memory disturbances of AD, we performed proteomic analysis of the hippocampus of chronic ibuprofen-treated mice using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight proteins and seven phosphoproteins were identified to be significantly changed in the hippocampus of chronic ibuprofen-treated mice: translationally controlled tumor protein, thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase, and peroxiredoxin 6 were increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, EF-hand domain-containing protein D2, and 14-3-3ζ were decreased. These identified proteins and phosphoproteins could be classified as cytoskeletal, neuronal development, chaperone, metabolic, apoptosis, neurotransmitter release, ATP synthase, deubiquitination, proteasome, NOS inhibitor, adapter, vesicle transport, signal transduction, antioxidant enzyme, proton transport, synaptogenesis, and serine/threonine phosphatase types. Western blot analysis showed the changes in dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, heat shock protein 8, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase PGP9.5, and γ-enolase levels in the hippocampus of chronic ibuprofen-treated mice. These findings showed that the chronic treatment with ibuprofen changed the levels of some proteins and phosphoproteins in the hippocampus. We propose that these identified proteins and phosphoproteins play an important role in decreasing the incidence of AD, especially impaired learning and memory functions.

  11. The development and characterization of two types of chronic responses in irradiated mouse colon

    SciTech Connect

    Followill, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis to be tested is that there are two distinct types of chronic responses in irradiated normal tissues, each resulting from damage to different cell populations in the tissue. The first is a sequela of chronic epithelial depletion in which the tissue's integrity cannot be maintained. The other response is due to cell loss in the connective tissue and/or vascular stroma, i.e. a primary' chronic response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis in the murine colon by first, establishing a model of each chronic response and then, by determining whether the responses differed in timing of expression, histology, and expression of specific collagen types. The model of late damage used was colonic obstructions/strictures induced by a single dose of 27 Gy ( consequential' response) and two equal doses of 14.75 Gy (t = 10 days) ( primary' response). Consequential' lesions appeared as early as 5 weeks after 27 Gy and were characterized by a deep mucosal ulceration and a thickened fibrotic serosa containing excessive accumulations of collagen types I and III. Both types were commingled in the scar at the base of the ulcer. Fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen types I and III mRNA 10 weeks prior to measurable increases in collagen. A significant decrease in the ratio of collagen types I:III was associated with the consequential' response at 4-5 months post-irradiation. The primary' response, on the other hand, did not appear until 40 weeks after the split dose even though the total dose delivered was approximately the same as that for the consequential' response. The primary' response was characterized with an intact mucosa and a thickened fibrotic submucosa which contained excessive amounts of only collagen type I. An increased number of fibroblasts were synthesizing pro-collagen type I mRNA nearly 25 weeks before collage type I levels were increased.

  12. Chronic optogenetic activation augments aβ pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Tanei, Zen-Ichi; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Wakabayashi, Tomoko; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Naka, Yasushi; Yizhar, Ofer; Fenno, Lief E; Fukayama, Masashi; Bito, Haruhiko; Cirrito, John R; Holtzman, David M; Deisseroth, Karl; Iwatsubo, Takeshi

    2015-05-12

    In vivo experimental evidence indicates that acute neuronal activation increases Aβ release from presynaptic terminals, whereas long-term effects of chronic synaptic activation on Aβ pathology remain unclear. To address this issue, we adopted optogenetics and transduced stabilized step-function opsin, a channelrhodopsin engineered to elicit a long-lasting neuronal hyperexcitability, into the hippocampal perforant pathway of APP transgenic mice. In vivo microdialysis revealed a ∼24% increase in the hippocampal interstitial fluid Aβ42 levels immediately after acute light activation. Five months of chronic optogenetic stimulation increased Aβ burden specifically in the projection area of the perforant pathway (i.e., outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus) of the stimulated side by ∼2.5-fold compared with that in the contralateral side. Epileptic seizures were observed during the course of chronic stimulation, which might have partly contributed to the Aβ pathology. These findings implicate functional abnormalities of specific neuronal circuitry in Aβ pathology and Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Different microRNA profiles in chronic epilepsy versus acute seizure mouse models.

    PubMed

    Kretschmann, Anita; Danis, Benedicte; Andonovic, Lidija; Abnaof, Khalid; van Rikxoort, Marijke; Siegel, Franziska; Mazzuferi, Manuela; Godard, Patrice; Hanon, Etienne; Fröhlich, Holger; Kaminski, Rafal M; Foerch, Patrik; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy affects around 50 million people worldwide, and in about 65% of patients, the etiology of disease is unknown. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Here, we compared microRNA expression patterns in the hippocampus using two chronic models of epilepsy characterised by recurrent spontaneous seizures (pilocarpine and self-sustained status epilepticus (SSSE)) and an acute 6-Hz seizure model. The vast majority of microRNAs deregulated in the acute model exhibited increased expression with 146 microRNAs up-regulated within 6 h after a single seizure. In contrast, in the chronic models, the number of up-regulated microRNAs was similar to the number of down-regulated microRNAs. Three microRNAs-miR-142-5p, miR-331-3p and miR-30a-5p-were commonly deregulated in all three models. However, there is a clear overlap of differentially expressed microRNAs within the chronic models with 36 and 15 microRNAs co-regulated at 24 h and at 28 days following status epilepticus, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that the altered microRNAs are associated with inflammation, innate immunity and cell cycle regulation. Taken together, the identified microRNAs and the pathways they modulate might represent candidates for novel molecular approaches for the treatment of patients with epilepsy.

  14. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Ceredig, R A; Matifas, A; Vonesch, J-L; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2016-01-28

    Delta opioid (DOP) receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor-positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased DOP receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline-treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces DOP receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits.

  15. CHRONIC INTERMITTENT ETHANOL EXPOSURE REDUCES PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE NEUROTRANSMISSION IN THE MOUSE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Rose, Jamie H.; Huggins, Kimberly N.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Jones, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increasing evidence suggests that chronic ethanol exposure decreases dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), contributing to a hypodopaminergic state during withdrawal. However, few studies have investigated adaptations in presynaptic DA terminals after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. In monkeys and rats, chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been shown to increase DA uptake and D2 autoreceptor sensitivity. METHODS The current study examined the effects of ethanol on DA terminals in CIE exposed mice during two time-points after the cessation of CIE exposure. DA release and uptake were measured using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc core slices from C57BL/6J mice, 0 and 72 hours following three weekly cycles (4 days of 16 hrs ethanol vapor/8 hrs room air/day + 3 days withdrawal) of CIE vapor exposure. RESULTS Current results showed that DA release was reduced, uptake rates were increased, and inhibitory D2-type autoreceptor activity was augmented following CIE exposure in mice. CONCLUSIONS Overall, these CIE-induced adaptations in the accumbal DA system reduce DA signaling and therefore reveal several potential mechanisms contributing to a functional hypodopaminergic state during alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25765483

  16. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure reduces presynaptic dopamine neurotransmission in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Huggins, Kimberly N; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K; Jones, Sara R

    2015-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that chronic ethanol exposure decreases dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), contributing to a hypodopaminergic state during withdrawal. However, few studies have investigated adaptations in presynaptic DA terminals after chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. In monkeys and rats, chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been shown to increase DA uptake and D2 autoreceptor sensitivity. The current study examined the effects of ethanol on DA terminals in CIE exposed mice during two time-points after the cessation of CIE exposure. DA release and uptake were measured using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc core slices from C57BL/6J mice, 0h and 72h following three weekly cycles (4 days of 16h ethanol vapor/8h room air/day+3 days withdrawal) of CIE vapor exposure. Current results showed that DA release was reduced, uptake rates were increased, and inhibitory D2-type autoreceptor activity was augmented following CIE exposure in mice. Overall, these CIE-induced adaptations in the accumbal DA system reduce DA signaling and therefore reveal several potential mechanisms contributing to a functional hypodopaminergic state during alcohol withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mast cells are dispensable in a genetic mouse model of chronic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sulcova, Jitka; Meyer, Michael; Guiducci, Eva; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Werner, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, affect a large percentage of the population, but the role of different immune cells in the pathogenesis of these disorders is largely unknown. Recently, we found that mice lacking fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (Fgfr1) and Fgfr2 (K5-R1/R2 mice) in the epidermis have a severe impairment in the epidermal barrier, which leads to the development of a chronic inflammatory skin disease that shares many features with human atopic dermatitis. Using Fgfr1-/Fgfr2-deficient mice, we analyzed the consequences of the loss of mast cells. Mast cells accumulated and degranulated in the skin of young Fgfr1-/Fgfr2-deficient mice, most likely as a consequence of increased expression of the mast cell chemokine Ccl2. The increase in mast cells occurred before the development of histological abnormalities, indicating a functional role of these cells in the inflammatory skin phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we mated the Fgfr1-/Fgfr2-deficient mice with mast cell-deficient CreMaster mice. Surprisingly, loss of mast cells did not or only mildly affect keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal thickness, epidermal barrier function, accumulation and activation of different immune cells, or expression of different proinflammatory cytokines in the skin. These results reveal that mast cells are dispensable for the development of chronic inflammation in response to a defect in the epidermal barrier. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  19. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Eric, Erbs; Lauren, Faget; Alice, Ceredig Rhian; Audrey, Matifas; Jean-Luc, Vonesch; L., Kieffer Brigitte; Dominique, Massotte

    2015-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased delta opioid receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces delta opioid receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits. PMID:26480813

  20. Acute and chronic effects of clozapine on cholinergic transmission in cultured mouse superior cervical ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Saur, Taixiang; Cohen, Bruce M; Ma, Qi; Babb, Suzann M; Buttner, Edgar A; Yao, Wei-Dong

    Cholinergic dysfunction contributes to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia, possibly through modulation of the cholinergic system. However, little is known about specific underlying mechanisms. We investigated the acute and chronic effects of clozapine on cholinergic synaptic transmission in cultured superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) were detected and were reversibly inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine, confirming that the synaptic responses were primarily mediated by nicotinic receptors. Bath application of clozapine at therapeutic concentrations rapidly and reversely inhibited both the amplitude and frequency of sEPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, without changing either rise or decay time, suggesting that clozapine effects have both presynaptic and postsynaptic origins. The acute effects of clozapine on sEPSCs were recapitulated by chronic treatment of SCG cultures with similar concentrations of clozapine, as clozapine treatment for 4 d reduced the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs without affecting their kinetics. Cell survival analysis indicated that SCG neuron cell counts after chronic clozapine treatment were comparable to the control group. These results demonstrate that therapeutic concentrations of clozapine suppress nicotinic synaptic transmission in SCG cholinergic synapses, a simple in vitro preparation of cholinergic transmission.

  1. Metronidazole lacks activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of latency

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Lee G.; Sutherland, Lesley A.; Bishai, William R.; Karakousis, Petros C.

    2009-01-01

    During human latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, dormant bacilli putatively reside within the hypoxic environment of caseating lung granulomas. The anaerobic drug metronidazole has antituberculous activity under hypoxic conditions in vitro, but lacks activity against murine TB. In this study, we used the hypoxia marker pimonidazole to demonstrate the presence of tissue hypoxia in a novel in vivo granuloma model of M. tuberculosis latency. We also used a high-throughput, microarray-based technique to identify hypoxia-essential mycobacterial genes, and showed that this in vivo model correctly identified 51% of hypoxia-attenuated mutants, a significantly larger percentage than that identified by the mouse (29%) and guinea pig (29%) aerosol models of TB. Although isoniazid showed activity during the first 28 days of therapy, and rifampin was active against dormant bacilli after the establishment of tissue hypoxia, metronidazole showed no antituberculous activity in this in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of M. tuberculosis dormancy. PMID:18491971

  2. The influence of chronic nicotine treatment on proteins expressed in the mouse hippocampus and cortex.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kenji; Otani, Mieko; Takano, Masaoki; Kadoyama, Keiichi; Matsuyama, Shogo

    2016-06-05

    Chronic treatment with nicotine, the primary psychoactive substance in tobacco smoke, affects central nervous system functions, such as synaptic plasticity. Here, to clarify the effects of chronic nicotine treatment on the higher brain functions, proteomic analysis of the hippocampus and cortex of mice treated for 6 months with nicotine was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry. There was significant change in the expression of 16 proteins and one phosphoprotein in the hippocampus (increased tubulin β-5, atp5b, MDH1, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1, Hsc70, dynamin, profilin-2, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial isoform 1 precursor, calpain small subunit 1, and vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase subunit B and decreased γ-actin, α-tubulin isotype M-α-2, putative β-actin, tubulin β-2A, NDUFA10, and G6PD) and 24 proteins and two phosphoproteins in the cortex (increased spectrin α chain, non-erythrocytic 1 isoform 1, tubulin β-5, γ-actin, creatine kinase B-type, LDH-B, secernin-1, UCH-L1, 14-3-3 γ, type II peroxiredoxin 1, PEBP-1, and unnamed protein product and decreased tubulin α-1C, α-internexin, γ-enolase, PDHE1-B, DPYL2, vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase subunit A, vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase subunit B, TCTP, NADH dehydrogenase Fe-S protein 1, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, hnRNP H2, γ-actin, atp5b, and unnamed protein product). Additionally, Western blotting validated the changes in dynamin, Hsc70, MDH1, NDUFA10, α-internexin, tubulin β-5 chain, and secernin-1. Thus, these findings indicate that chronic nicotine treatment changes the expression of proteins and phosphoproteins in the hippocampus and cortex. We propose that effect of smoking on higher brain functions could be mediated by alterations in expression levels of these proteins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Altered colonic function and microbiota profile in a mouse model of chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Park, A J; Collins, J; Blennerhassett, P A; Ghia, J E; Verdu, E F; Bercik, P; Collins, S M

    2013-09-01

    Depression often coexists with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which is characterized by alterations in gut function. There is emerging evidence that the microbial composition (microbiota) of the gut is altered in IBS, but the basis for this is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the induction of chronic depression results in changes in the colonic function and in its microbial community, and to explore underlying mechanisms. Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBx) was used to induce depression-like behavior in mice. Colonic function was assessed by measuring muscle contractility, pellet excretion, c-fos activity, and serotonin levels. Microbiota profiles were obtained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) was assessed by the hypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In separate studies, mice without OBx received CRH via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion for 4 weeks prior to assessing colonic function and microbiota profiles. Olfactory bulbectomy mice demonstrated chronic depression- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with elevated central CRH expression and increases in c-Fos activity, serotonin levels, and motility in the colon. These changes were accompanied by an altered intestinal microbial profile. Central CRH administration produced similar changes in behavior and motility and altered the microbiota profile in the colon. The induction of chronic depression alters motor activity and the microbial profile in the colon likely via activation of the HPA. These findings provide a basis for linking the behavioral and gastrointestinal manifestations of IBS. © 2013 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Altered colonic function and microbiota profile in a mouse model of chronic depression

    PubMed Central

    Park, A J; Collins, J; Blennerhassett, P A; Ghia, J E; Verdu, E F; Bercik, P; Collins, S M

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression often coexists with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which is characterized by alterations in gut function. There is emerging evidence that the microbial composition (microbiota) of the gut is altered in IBS, but the basis for this is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the induction of chronic depression results in changes in the colonic function and in its microbial community, and to explore underlying mechanisms. Methods Bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBx) was used to induce depression-like behavior in mice. Colonic function was assessed by measuring muscle contractility, pellet excretion, c-fos activity, and serotonin levels. Microbiota profiles were obtained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) was assessed by the hypothalamic expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In separate studies, mice without OBx received CRH via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion for 4 weeks prior to assessing colonic function and microbiota profiles. Key Results Olfactory bulbectomy mice demonstrated chronic depression- and anxiety-like behaviors associated with elevated central CRH expression and increases in c-Fos activity, serotonin levels, and motility in the colon. These changes were accompanied by an altered intestinal microbial profile. Central CRH administration produced similar changes in behavior and motility and altered the microbiota profile in the colon. Conclusions & Inferences The induction of chronic depression alters motor activity and the microbial profile in the colon likely via activation of the HPA. These findings provide a basis for linking the behavioral and gastrointestinal manifestations of IBS. PMID:23773726

  5. Chronic nicotine improves short-term memory selectively in a G72 mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hambsch, B; Keyworth, H; Lind, J; Otte, D M; Racz, I; Kitchen, I; Bailey, A; Zimmer, A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia patients is exceptionally high; it is not known why but many researchers suggest that smoking constitutes a form of self-medication. Among the symptoms of schizophrenia that may be improved by nicotine are cognitive deficits. Hence, we studied the effects of long-term nicotine administration on cognition in a genetic animal model of schizophrenia susceptibility, G72-transgenic (G72Tg) mice. Experimental Approach The effect of long-term nicotine or saline, administered by osmotic minipumps, on different cognitive domains was assessed in G72Tg mice and controls using a battery of behavioural tests. To investigate the mechanism underlying phenotypic differences, quantitative autoradiographic mapping of nACh receptor subtypes was performed in forebrain structures to explore effects of chronic nicotine exposure on nACh receptor density in wild-type (WT) and G72Tg mice. Key Results Genotype significantly affected the cognitive effects of chronic nicotine administration. Whereas chronic nicotine disrupted cognitive performance in WT mice, it was effective at restoring impaired prepulse inhibition, working memory and social recognition in G72Tg mice. However, long-term spatial learning was further impaired by nicotine in transgenic animals. In contrast, associative learning was protected by G72-expression against the adverse nicotine effects seen in WT animals. G72-expression did not decisively influence nicotine-induced up-regulation of the α4β2*subtype, whereas α7nACh receptor density was differentially altered by genotype or by a genotype·treatment interaction in specific brain areas, most notably hippocampal subregions. Conclusions and Implications Our data support the hypothesis that nicotine self-medication of schizophrenics improves cognitive symptoms, possibly by facilitating nicotine-induced α7nACh receptor activation in the hippocampus. PMID:24417347

  6. Deficiency in mouse hyaluronidase 2: a new mechanism of chronic thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Onclinx, Cécile; Dogne, Sophie; Jadin, Laurence; Andris, Fabienne; Grandfils, Christian; Jouret, François; Mullier, François; Flamion, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Hyaluronan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and glycocalyx. Its main somatic degrading enzymes are hyaluronidases 1 and 2, neither of which is active in the bloodstream. We generated hyaluronidase 2-deficient mice. These animals suffer from chronic, mild anemia and thrombocytopenia, in parallel with a 10-fold increase in plasma hyaluronan concentration. In this study we explored the mechanism of these hematologic anomalies. The decreased erythrocyte and platelet counts were attributed to peripheral consumption. The erythrocyte half-life was reduced from 25 to 8 days without signs of premature aging. Hyaluronidase 2-deficient platelets were functional. Major intrinsic defects in erythrocyte membrane or stability, as well as detrimental effects of high hyaluronan levels on erythrocytes, were ruled out in vitro. Normal erythrocytes transfused into hyaluronidase 2-deficient mice were quickly destroyed but neither splenectomy nor anti-C5 administration prevented chronic hemolysis. Schistocytes were present in blood smears from hyaluronidase 2-deficient mice at a level of 1% to 6%, while virtually absent in control mice. Hyaluronidase 2-deficient mice had increased markers of endothelial damage and microvascular fibrin deposition, without renal failure, accumulation of ultra-large multimers of von Willebrand factor, deficiency of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin type 1 motifs, member 13 (ADAMTS13), or hypertension. There was no sign of structural damage in hepatic or splenic sinusoids, or in any other microvessels. We conclude that hyaluronidase 2 deficiency induces chronic thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolytic anemia in mice. The link between this uncommon condition and hyaluronidase 2 remains to be explored in humans. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. Differential responsiveness in VEGF receptor subtypes to hypoxic stress in various tissues of plateau animals.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-Chun; Li, Jin-Gang; He, Jian-Ping

    2017-05-04

    provide the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for hypoxic environment in plateau animals, having an impact on research of physiological and ecological adaptive responses to acute or chronic hypoxic stress in humans who living at high attitude and who live at a normal sea level but suffer from hypoxic disorders.

  8. Thioredoxin-1 Protects against Neutrophilic Inflammation and Emphysema Progression in a Mouse Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Naoya; Hoshino, Yuma; Marumo, Satoshi; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Sato, Susumu; Kinose, Daisuke; Uno, Kazuko; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Yodoi, Junji; Mishima, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by acute enhancement of airway neutrophilic inflammation under oxidative stress and can be involved in emphysema progression. However, pharmacotherapy against the neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema progression associated with exacerbation has not been established. Thioredoxin-1 has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and it can ameliorate neutrophilic inflammation through anti-chemotactic effects and prevent cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema. We aimed to determine whether thioredoxin-1 can suppress neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema progression in a mouse model of COPD exacerbation and if so, to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Results Mice were exposed to CS and then challenged with polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], an agonist for virus-induced innate immunity. Airway neutrophilic inflammation, oxidative stress and lung apoptosis were enhanced in smoke-sensitive C57Bl/6, but not in smoke-resistant NZW mice. Exposure to CS and poly(I:C) challenge accelerated emphysema progression in C57Bl/6 mice. Thioredoxin-1 suppressed neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema progression. Poly(I:C) caused early neutrophilic inflammation through keratinocyte-derived chemokine and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release in the lung exposed to CS. Late neutrophilic inflammation was caused by persistent GM-CSF release, which thioredoxin-1 ameliorated. Thioredoxin-1 enhanced pulmonary mRNA expression of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), and the suppressive effects of thioredoxin-1 on prolonged GM-CSF release and late neutrophilic inflammation disappeared by inhibiting MKP-1. Conclusion Using a mouse model of COPD exacerbation, we demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 ameliorated neutrophilic inflammation by suppressing GM-CSF release, which prevented emphysema progression. Our findings deepen understanding of the mechanisms underlying the

  9. Chronic treatment with lithium does not improve neuromuscular phenotype in a mouse model of severe spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dachs, E; Piedrafita, L; Hereu, M; Esquerda, J E; Calderó, J

    2013-10-10

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by defective levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMA causes spinal motoneuron (MN) loss, and progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. Currently, there is no effective therapy to cure this disease. Although different strategies focused on increasing the expression of functional SMN protein have been assayed, numerous SMN-independent therapeutic approaches have been demonstrated to have potential effectiveness in improving the SMA phenotype in mouse models and clinical trials. Recent works have shown that compounds which inhibit GSK-3β activity are effective in promoting MN survival and ameliorating lifespan in models of MN diseases including SMA. Taking into account the reported neuroprotective actions of lithium (Li) through the inhibition of GSK-3β in different studies, we tested here its potential efficiency as a therapeutic agent in a mouse model of severe SMA (SMNΔ7 mice). We show that the chronic treatment with Li initiated before the appearance of disease symptoms, although inhibited GSK-3β, did not improve the median survival, motor behavior, and spinal MN loss linked to SMA. Li administration did not either ameliorate the microglial and astroglial reaction in the spinal cord or the depletion of glutamatergic synapses on MNs observed in SMNΔ7 animals. Moreover, Li treatment did not mitigate muscle atrophy or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) downregulation in the neuromuscular junctions linked to the disease. However, a significant reduction in apoptotic cell death found in the skeletal muscle of SMA mice was observed after Li treatment. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endurance exercise promotes cardiorespiratory rehabilitation without neurorestoration in the chronic mouse model of parkinsonism with severe neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarrah, M; Pothakos, K; Novikova, L; Smirnova, I V; Kurz, M J; Stehno-Bittel, L; Lau, Y-S

    2007-10-12

    Physical rehabilitation with endurance exercise for patients with Parkinson's disease has not been well established, although some clinical and laboratory reports suggest that exercise may produce a neuroprotective effect and restore dopaminergic and motor functions. In this study, we used a chronic mouse model of Parkinsonism, which was induced by injecting male C57BL/6 mice with 10 doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (25 mg/kg) and probenecid (250 mg/kg) over 5 weeks. This chronic parkinsonian model displays a severe and persistent loss of nigrostriatal neurons, resulting in robust dopamine depletion and locomotor impairment in mice. Following the induction of Parkinsonism, these mice were able to sustain an exercise training program on a motorized rodent treadmill at a speed of 18 m/min, 0 degrees of inclination, 40 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. At the end of exercise training, we examined and compared their cardiorespiratory capacity, behavior, and neurochemical changes with that of the probenecid-treated control and sedentary parkinsonian mice. The resting heart rate after 4 weeks of exercise in the chronic parkinsonian mice was significantly lower than the rate before exercise, whereas the resting heart rate at the beginning and 4 weeks afterward in the control or sedentary parkinsonian mice was unchanged. Exercised parkinsonian mice also recovered from elevated electrocardiogram R-wave amplitude that was detected in the parkinsonian mice without exercise for 4 weeks. The values of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and body heat generation in the exercised parkinsonian mice before and during the Bruce maximal exercise challenge test were all significantly lower than that of their sedentary counterparts. Furthermore, the exercised parkinsonian mice demonstrated a greater mass in the left ventricle of the heart and an increased level of citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscles. The amphetamine-induced, dopamine

  11. Hypoxic Adaptation during Development: Relation to Pattern of Neurological Presentation and Cognitive Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Fenella J.; Datta, Avijit K.

    2006-01-01

    Children with acute hypoxic-ischaemic events (e.g. stroke) and chronic neurological conditions associated with hypoxia frequently present to paediatric neurologists. Failure to adapt to hypoxia may be a common pathophysiological pathway linking a number of other conditions of childhood with cognitive deficit. There is evidence that congenital…

  12. Hypoxic Adaptation during Development: Relation to Pattern of Neurological Presentation and Cognitive Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Fenella J.; Datta, Avijit K.

    2006-01-01

    Children with acute hypoxic-ischaemic events (e.g. stroke) and chronic neurological conditions associated with hypoxia frequently present to paediatric neurologists. Failure to adapt to hypoxia may be a common pathophysiological pathway linking a number of other conditions of childhood with cognitive deficit. There is evidence that congenital…

  13. Chronic imaging of mouse visual cortex using a thinned-skull preparation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Emily A; Majewska, Ania K

    2010-10-25

    In vivo imaging using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) allows the study of living cells and neuronal processes in the intact brain. The technique presented here allows the imaging of the same area of the brain at several time points (chronic imaging) with microscopic resolution allowing the tracking of dendritic spines which are the small structures that represent the majority of postsynaptic excitatory sites in the CNS. The ability to clearly resolve fine cortical structures over several time points has many advantages, specifically in the study of brain plasticity in which morphological changes at synapses and circuit remodeling may help explain underlying mechanisms. In this video and supplementary material, we show a protocol for chronic in vivo imaging of the intact brain using a thinned-skull preparation. The thinned-skull preparation is a minimally invasive approach, which avoids potential damage to the dura and/or cortex, thus reducing the onset of an inflammatory response. When this protocol is performed correctly, it is possible to clearly monitor changes in dendritic spine characteristics in the intact brain over a prolonged period of time.

  14. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-02-09

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system.

  15. Chronic antioxidant therapy reduces oxidative stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Siedlak, Sandra L; Casadesus, Gemma; Webber, Kate M; Pappolla, Miguel A; Atwood, Craig S; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2009-02-01

    Oxidative modifications are a hallmark of oxidative imbalance in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases and their respective animal models. While the causes of oxidative stress are relatively well-documented, the effects of chronically reducing oxidative stress on cognition, pathology and biochemistry require further clarification. To address this, young and aged control and amyloid-beta protein precursor-over-expressing mice were fed a diet with added R-alpha lipoic acid for 10 months to determine the effect of chronic antioxidant administration on the cognition and neuropathology and biochemistry of the brain. Both wild type and transgenic mice treated with R-alpha lipoic acid displayed significant reductions in markers of oxidative modifications. On the other hand, R-alpha lipoic acid had little effect on Y-maze performance throughout the study and did not decrease end-point amyloid-beta load. These results suggest that, despite the clear role of oxidative stress in mediating amyloid pathology and cognitive decline in ageing and AbetaPP-transgenic mice, long-term antioxidant therapy, at levels within tolerable nutritional guidelines and which reduce oxidative modifications, have limited benefit.

  16. Chronic imaging of amyloid plaques in the live mouse brain using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacskai, Brian J.; Kajdasz, Stephen T.; Christie, R. H.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Kasischke, Karl A.; Webb, Watt W.; Hyman, B. T.

    2001-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) develop amyloid plaques as they age. These plaques resemble those found in the human disease. Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy combined with a novel surgical approach was used to measure amyloid plaque dynamics chronically in the cortex of living transgenic mice. Thioflavine S (thioS) was used as a fluorescent marker of amyloid deposits. Multiphoton excitation allowed visualization of amyloid plaques up to 200 micrometers deep into the brain. The surgical site could be imaged repeatedly without overt damage to the tissue, and individual plaques within this volume could be reliably identified over periods of several days to several months. On average, plaque sizes remained constant over time, supporting a model of rapid deposition, followed by relative stability. Alternative reporters for in vivo histology include thiazine red, and FITC-labeled amyloid-(Beta) peptide. We also present examples of multi-color imaging using Hoechst dyes and FITC-labeled tomato lectin. These approaches allow us to observe cell nuclei or microglia simultaneously with amyloid-(Beta) deposits in vivo. Chronic imaging of a variety of reporters in these transgenic mice should provide insight into the dynamics of amyloid-(Beta) activity in the brain.

  17. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  18. Physical activity: benefit or weakness in metabolic adaptations in a mouse model of chronic food restriction?

    PubMed

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Caron, Emilie; Zgheib, Sara; Stievenard, Aliçia; Zizzari, Philippe; Tolle, Virginie; Cortet, Bernard; Lucas, Stéphanie; Prévot, Vincent; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-02-01

    In restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, physical activity is usually associated with food restriction, but its physiological consequences remain poorly characterized. In female mice, we evaluated the impact of voluntary physical activity with/without chronic food restriction on metabolic and endocrine parameters that might contribute to AN. In this protocol, FRW mice (i.e., food restriction with running wheel) reached a crucial point of body weight loss (especially fat mass) faster than FR mice (i.e., food restriction only). However, in contrast to FR mice, their body weight stabilized, demonstrating a protective effect of a moderate, regular physical activity. Exercise delayed meal initiation and duration. FRW mice displayed food anticipatory activity compared with FR mice, which was strongly diminished with the prolongation of the protocol. The long-term nature of the protocol enabled assessment of bone parameters similar to those observed in AN patients. Both restricted groups adapted their energy metabolism differentially in the short and long term, with less fat oxidation in FRW mice and a preferential use of glucose to compensate for the chronic energy imbalance. Finally, like restrictive AN patients, FRW mice exhibited low leptin levels, high plasma concentrations of corticosterone and ghrelin, and a disruption of the estrous cycle. In conclusion, our model suggests that physical activity has beneficial effects on the adaptation to the severe condition of food restriction despite the absence of any protective effect on lean and bone mass. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Chronic cocaine causes long-term alterations in circadian period and photic entrainment in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Stowie, A C; Amicarelli, M J; Prosser, R A; Glass, J D

    2015-01-22

    The disruptive effects of cocaine on physiological, behavioral and genetic processes are well established. However, few studies have focused on the actions of cocaine on the adult circadian timekeeping system, and none have explored the circadian implications of long-term (weeks to months) cocaine exposure. The present study was undertaken to explore the actions of such long-term cocaine administration on core circadian parameters in mice, including rhythm period, length of the nocturnal activity period and photic entrainment. For cocaine dosing over extended periods, cocaine was provided in drinking water using continuous and scheduled regimens. The impact of chronic cocaine on circadian regulation was evidenced by disruptions of the period of circadian entrainment and intrinsic free-running circadian period. Specifically, mice under a skeleton photoperiod (1-min pulse of dim light delivered daily) receiving continuous ad libitum cocaine entrained rapidly to the light pulse at activity onset. Conversely, water controls entrained more slowly at activity offset through a process of phase-delays, which resulted in their activity rhythms being entrained 147° out of phase with the cocaine group. This pattern persisted after cocaine withdrawal. Next, mice exposed to scheduled daily cocaine presentations exhibited free-running periods under constant darkness that were significantly longer than water controls and which also persisted after cocaine withdrawal. These cocaine-induced perturbations of clock timing could produce chronic psychological and physiological stress, contributing to increased cocaine use and dependence. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol extract of the tuber of Alisma orientale reduces the pathologic features in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyun Ha; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Sadikot, Ruxana T; Joo, Myungsoo

    2016-07-21

    The tuber of Alismataceae Alisma orientale Juzepzuk has been prescribed as a remedy for treating the diseases associated with body fluid dysfunction such as edema and inflammatory lung diseases. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating, inflammatory lung disease without effective treatment. Along with persistent inflammation, autophagy has been recently reported to contribute to COPD. Here, by employing a murine model, we examined whether the tuber of the plant is effective against COPD MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale Juzepzuk (EEAO) was fingerprinted by HPLC. For the establishment of COPD lung, mice received single intratracheal (i.t.) spraying of elastase and LPS per week for 2 weeks. After approximated to the dose prescribed typically to patients, EEAO was administered to the lung 2h after each LPS treatment. Morphometric analyses, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and western blot were performed to evaluate the effects of EEAO on emphysema, inflammation, and autophagy in mouse lungs. The effect of EEAO on autophagy was also assessed by western blot at the cellular level with murine macrophages and human lung epithelial cells. When receiving i.t. elastase and LPS for 2 weeks, mice developed emphysema and inflammation in the lung. EEAO treatment, however, significantly reduced emphysema and inflammatory cell infiltration to the lung with concomitant decrease of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β, signature cytokines of COPD. Unlike control mice, the lungs of the COPD mice expressed LC3-II, a biomarker for autophagy formation, which was decreased by EEAO treatment. EEAO also lowered the expression of LC3-II in murine macrophage, RAW 264.7, and human lung epithelial cell, BEAS-2B, which was associated with EEAO activating mTOR. EEAO relieved COPD pathologic features in a mouse model, which was associated with suppression of lung inflammation, emphysema, and autophagy

  1. Evaluation of maduramicin and alborixin in a SCID mouse model of chronic cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mead, J R; You, X; Pharr, J E; Belenkaya, Y; Arrowood, M J; Fallon, M T; Schinazi, R F

    1995-01-01

    Two polyether ionophores, maduramicin and alborixin, were evaluated for anticryptosporidial activity in a severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mouse model of cryptosporidiosis. Groups of SCID mice were inoculated with 10(6) oocysts of bovine origin by oral gavage. Maduramicin or alborixin was administered beginning 4 weeks postinfection at 3 mg/kg of body weight per day. Maduramicin treatment resulted in a 96% reduction in fecal parasite load over the 3-week treatment period (P < 0.003). This reduction correlated with decreases in tissue parasite loads observed in histological sections of the small intestine (P < 0.000002) and the colon (P < 0.000006). A significant decrease in oocyst shedding was also observed after a 3-week treatment with alborixin (71% reduction, P < 0.01). Maduramicin was also evaluated in a relapsing model of cryptosporidiosis in which the infection was observed to recur after treatments were discontinued. Some toxicity, as demonstrated by weight loss, was observed with both maduramicin and alborixin. Both drugs exhibited significant anticryptosporidial activities with concomitant moderate toxicity. These polyether ionophores should be valuable as positive controls in compound evaluation studies and as lead compounds for chemical optimization (modification). PMID:7785984

  2. Chronic Contractile Dysfunction without Hypertrophy Does Not Provoke a Compensatory Transcriptional Response in Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, David R.; McMullen, Julie R.; Woodcock, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Diseased myocardium from humans and experimental animal models shows heightened expression and activity of a specific subtype of phospholipase C (PLC), the splice variant PLCβ1b. Previous studies from our group showed that increasing PLCβ1b expression in adult mouse hearts by viral transduction was sufficient to cause sustained contractile dysfunction of rapid onset, which was maintained indefinitely in the absence of other pathological changes in the myocardium. We hypothesized that impaired contractility alone would be sufficient to induce a compensatory transcriptional response. Unbiased, comprehensive mRNA-sequencing was performed on 6 biological replicates of rAAV6-treated blank, PLCβ1b and PLCβ1a (closely related but inactive splice variant) hearts 8 weeks after injection, when reduced contractility was manifest in PLCβ1b hearts without evidence of induced hypertrophy. Expression of PLCβ1b resulted in expression changes in only 9 genes at FDR<0.1 when compared with control and these genes appeared unrelated to contractility. Importantly, PLCβ1a caused similar mild expression changes to PLCβ1b, despite a complete lack of effect of this isoform on cardiac contractility. We conclude that contractile depression caused by PLCβ1b activation is largely independent of changes in the transcriptome, and thus that lowered contractility is not sufficient in itself to provoke measurable transcriptomic alterations. In addition, our data stress the importance of a stringent control group to filter out transcriptional changes unrelated to cardiac function. PMID:27359099

  3. Modulation of Sox10, HIF-1α, Survivin, and YAP by Minocycline in the Treatment of Neurodevelopmental Handicaps following Hypoxic Insult.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Tsuneki, Masayuki; Krauthammer, Michael; Couture, Rachael; Schwartz, Michael; Madri, Joseph A

    2015-09-01

    Premature infants are at an increased risk of developing cognitive and motor handicaps due to chronic hypoxia. Although the current therapies have reduced the incidence of these handicaps, untoward side effects abound. Using a murine model of sublethal hypoxia, we demonstrated reduction in several transcription factors that modulate expression of genes known to be involved in several neural functions. We demonstrate the induction of these genes by minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with noncanonical functions, in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Specifically, there was induction of genes, including Sox10, Hif1a, Hif2a, Birc5, Yap1, Epo, Bdnf, Notch1 (cleaved), Pcna, Mag, Mobp, Plp1, synapsin, Adgra2, Pecam1, and reduction in activation of caspase 3, all known to affect proliferation, apoptosis, synaptic transmission, and nerve transmission. Minocycline treatment of mouse pups reared under sublethal hypoxic conditions resulted in improvement in open field testing parameters. These studies demonstrate beneficial effects of minocycline treatment following hypoxic insult, document up-regulation of several genes associated with improved cognitive function, and support the possibility of minocycline as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of neurodevelopmental handicaps observed in the very premature newborn population. Additionally, these studies may aid in further interpretation of the effects of minocycline in the treatment trials and animal model studies of fragile X syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

  4. Long-term upregulation of cortical glutamatergic AMPA receptors in a mouse model of chronic visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shui-Bing; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Shi, Jiao; Lu, Jing-Shan; Zhuo, Min

    2015-11-19

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and it causes long-lasting visceral pain and discomfort. AMPA receptor mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) has been shown to play a critical role in animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. No report is available for central changes in the ACC of mice with chronic visceral pain. In this study, we used integrative methods to investigate potential central plastic changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of a visceral pain mouse model induced by intracolonic injection of zymosan. We found that visceral pain induced an increased expression of AMPA receptors (at the post synapses) in the ACC via an enhanced trafficking of the AMPA receptors to the membrane. Both GluA1 and GluA2/3 subunits were significantly increased. Supporting biochemical changes, excitatory synaptic transmission in the ACC were also significantly enhanced. Microinjection of AMPA receptor inhibitor IEM1460 into the ACC inhibited visceral and spontaneous pain behaviors. Furthermore, we found that the phosphorylation of GluA1 at the Ser845 site was increased, suggesting that GluA1 phosphorylation may contribute to AMPA receptor trafficking. Using genetically knockout mice lacking calcium-calmodulin stimulated adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1), we found that AMPA receptor phosphorylation and its membrane trafficking induced by zymosan injection were completely blocked. Our results provide direct evidence for cortical AMPA receptors to contribute to zymosan-induced visceral and spontaneous pain and inhibition of AC1 activity may help to reduce chronic visceral pain.

  5. Evaluation of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Function after Chronic Administration of Thymosin β-4 in the Dystrophin Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Spurney, Christopher F.; Cha, Hee-Jae; Sali, Arpana; Pandey, Gouri S.; Pistilli, Emidio; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tβ4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ) and mdx mice, 8–10 weeks old, were treated with 150 µg of Tβ4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tβ4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tβ4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tβ4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tβ4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:20126456

  6. Toxicity of chronic high alcohol intake on mouse natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, R M; Starkey, J R; Meadows, G G

    1988-02-01

    The toxicity of chronic alcohol intake on natural killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from well-nourished, female C57BL/6 mice was studied in a 4-hour cytolytic chromium-release assay against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. Mice were fed a nutritionally complete crystalline amino acid diet and received 20% w/v alcohol solution for 12 weeks. Ad libitum and pair-fed control mice were given diet and either an isocaloric glucose solution or water. Decreased NK cell activity was observed in alcohol-consuming mice relative to all other control groups. NK cell activity was moderately decreased by feeding mice a high glucose diet, but more severely lowered in pair-fed groups compared to ad libitum control groups.

  7. Human chronic lymphocytic leukemia modeled in mouse by targeted TCL1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Bichi, Roberta; Shinton, Susan A.; Martin, Eric S.; Koval, Anatoliy; Calin, George A.; Cesari, Rossano; Russo, Giandomenico; Hardy, Richard R.; Croce, Carlo M.

    2002-01-01

    The TCL1 gene at 14q32.1 is involved in chromosomal translocations and inversions in mature T cell leukemias. These leukemias are classified either as T prolymphocytic leukemias, which occur very late in life, or as T chronic lymphocytic leukemias, which often arise in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) at a young age. In transgenic animals, the deregulated expression of TCL1 leads to mature T cell leukemia, demonstrating the role of TCL1 in the initiation of malignant transformation in T cell neoplasia. Expression of high levels of Tcl1 have also been found in a variety of human tumor-derived B cell lines ranging from pre-B cell to mature B cell. Here we describe the phenotype of transgenic mice, Eμ-TCL1, established with TCL1 under the control of a VH promoter-IgH-Eμ enhancer to target TCL1 expression to immature and mature B cells. Flow cytometric analysis reveals a markedly expanded CD5+ population in the peritoneal cavity of Eμ-TCL1 mice starting at 2 mo of age that becomes evident in the spleen by 3–5 mo and in the bone marrow by 5–8 mo. Analysis of Ig gene rearrangements indicates monoclonality or oligoclonality in these populations, suggesting a preneoplastic expansion of CD5+ B cell clones, with the elder mice eventually developing a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like disorder resembling human B-CLL. Our findings provide an animal model for CLL, the most common human leukemia, and demonstrate that deregulation of the Tcl1 pathway plays a crucial role in CLL pathogenesis. PMID:12011454

  8. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca2+ mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca2+ mobilization. Ca2+ mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  9. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2015-03-31

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca(2+) mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca(2+) mobilization. Ca(2+) mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction.

  10. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marielza Andrade; Schöwe, Natalia Mendes; Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  11. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (1.2 mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained. PMID:26605788

  12. Escin attenuates behavioral impairments, oxidative stress and inflammation in a chronic MPTP/probenecid mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindasamy Pushpavathi; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan

    2014-10-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results mainly due to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), and subsequently has an effect on one's motor function and coordination. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of escin, a natural triterpene-saponin on chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p) induced mouse model of PD. Administration of MPTP led to the depleted striatal dopamine content, impaired patterns of behavior, enhanced oxidative stress and diminished expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2). The expressions of interleukin-6 and -10, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in SN were also enhanced. Oral treatment of escin significantly attenuated MPTP/p induced dopaminergic markers depletion, physiological abnormalities, oxidative stress and inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expressions in SN. The result of our study confirmed that escin mediated its protection against experimental PD through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of surface immunoglobulin, mouse rosettes, and CD5 in the immunophenotyping of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and reactive lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Batata, A; Shen, B

    1991-07-15

    Peripheral blood from 167 B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and 119 reactive lymphocytosis (RLC) patients were analyzed to evaluate the immunophenotypic diagnostic value of mouse rosettes (M-rosette), and weak expression of monoclonal surface immunoglobulin (SIg). In B-CLL, 145 cases were M-rosette+ (86.83%), 135 surface immunoglobulin (SIg)+ (80.84%), and 117 M-rosette+ SIg+ (70.06%). Of 32 SIg- cases, 28 were M-rosette+; and of 22 M-rosette-cases, 18 were SIg+. By combining results of the two assays and accepting positivity of either one or both as sufficient for diagnosis, B-CLL was diagnosed in 163 cases (97.60%). CD5 was performed in 49 cases of the 167 with paired data for SIg and M-rosettes. By combining the results of the three assays and accepting positivity of any two or all three as sufficient for diagnosis, all 49 cases (100%) were diagnosed. Correlation analysis showed no significant association between M-rosette, SIg, and CD5 expression. The results demonstrate the independent expression of the three markers, and their complementary role in immunophenotyping B-CLL. In RLC, all 119 cases were T-lineage and SIg-, and 115 were M-rosette-, indicating the role of the two markers in differentiating B-CLL from RLC. Three of the four M-rosette+ T-RLC were subsequently diagnosed as B-CLL, suggesting the necessity of follow-up of such cases.

  14. Chronic antihypertensive treatment improves pulse pressure but not large artery mechanics in a mouse model of congenital vascular stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Carmen M.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Ye, Li; Mecham, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is a common characteristic of humans with Williams-Beuren syndrome and mouse models of elastin insufficiency. Arterial stiffness is associated with multiple negative cardiovascular outcomes, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death. Therefore, identifying therapeutic interventions that improve arterial stiffness in response to changes in elastin levels is of vital importance. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of chronic pharmacologic therapy with different classes of antihypertensive medications on arterial stiffness in elastin insufficiency. Elastin-insufficient mice 4–6 wk of age and wild-type littermates were subcutaneously implanted with osmotic micropumps delivering a continuous dose of one of the following: vehicle, losartan, nicardipine, or propranolol for 8 wk. At the end of treatment period, arterial blood pressure and large artery compliance and remodeling were assessed. Our results show that losartan and nicardipine treatment lowered blood pressure and pulse pressure in elastin-insufficient mice. Elastin and collagen content of abdominal aortas as well as ascending aorta and carotid artery biomechanics were not affected by any of the drug treatments in either genotype. By reducing pulse pressure and shifting the working pressure range of an artery to a more compliant region of the pressure-diameter curve, antihypertensive medications may mitigate the consequences of arterial stiffness, an effect that is drug class independent. These data emphasize the importance of early recognition and long-term management of hypertension in Williams-Beuren syndrome and elastin insufficiency. PMID:26232234

  15. The effect of serine protease inhibitors on airway inflammation in a chronic allergen-induced asthma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Che; Lin, Li-Jen; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Lin, Joseph; Kao, Shung-Te

    2014-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors reportedly attenuated airway inflammation and had antioxidant in multiorgan. However, the effects of the serine protease inhibitors nafamostat mesilate (FUT), gabexate mesilate (FOY), and ulinastatin (UTI) on a long-term challenged mouse model of chronic asthma are unclear. BALB/c mice (6 mice/group) were intratracheally inoculated with five doses of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p; 50 μL, 1 mg/mL) at one-week intervals. Therapeutic doses of FUT (0.0625 mg/kg), FOY (20 mg/kg), or UTI (10,000 U/kg) were, respectively, injected intraperitoneally into these mice. Control mice received sterile PBS. At 3 days after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed to assess airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), remodeling, and inflammation; lung histological features; and cytokine expression profiles. Compared with untreated controls, mice treated with FUT, FOY, and UTI had decreased AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia, decreased eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration, decreased Der p-induced IL-4 levels in serum and IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in lung tissues. The serine protease inhibitors FUT, FOY, and UTI have potential therapeutic benefits for treating asthma by downregulating Th2 cytokines and Th17 cell function and inhibiting NF-κB activation in lung tissue.

  16. Metabolomic identification of biochemical changes induced by fluoxetine and imipramine in a chronic mild stress mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Jung, Yang-Hee; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-03-09

    Metabolomics was applied to a C57BL/6N mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS). Such mice were treated with two antidepressants from different categories: fluoxetine and imipramine. Metabolic profiling of the hippocampus was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on samples prepared under optimized conditions, followed by principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses. Body weight measurement and behavior tests including an open field test and the forced swimming test were completed with the mice as a measure of the phenotypes of depression and antidepressive effects. As a result, 23 metabolites that had been differentially expressed among the control, CMS, and antidepressant-treated groups demonstrated that amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, adenosine receptors, and neurotransmitters are commonly perturbed by drug treatment. Potential predictive markers for treatment effect were identified: myo-inositol for fluoxetine and lysine and oleic acid for imipramine. Collectively, the current study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of two widely used medications.

  17. Metabolomic identification of biochemical changes induced by fluoxetine and imipramine in a chronic mild stress mouse model of depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Jung, Yang-Hee; Jang, Choon-Gon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Jeongmi

    2015-03-01

    Metabolomics was applied to a C57BL/6N mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS). Such mice were treated with two antidepressants from different categories: fluoxetine and imipramine. Metabolic profiling of the hippocampus was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on samples prepared under optimized conditions, followed by principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses. Body weight measurement and behavior tests including an open field test and the forced swimming test were completed with the mice as a measure of the phenotypes of depression and antidepressive effects. As a result, 23 metabolites that had been differentially expressed among the control, CMS, and antidepressant-treated groups demonstrated that amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, adenosine receptors, and neurotransmitters are commonly perturbed by drug treatment. Potential predictive markers for treatment effect were identified: myo-inositol for fluoxetine and lysine and oleic acid for imipramine. Collectively, the current study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of two widely used medications.

  18. Induction of galanin after chronic sertraline treatment in mouse ventral dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Misa; Makino, Yuya; Hashimoto, Tomio; Sugiyama, Azusa; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Saitoh, Akiyoshi

    2013-06-21

    A number of studies implicate neuroplasticity in the therapeutic mechanisms of antidepressants, specifically neuroplasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. The dorsal hippocampal region in rodents is preferentially involved in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampal region plays a more important role in stress, emotion, and affective behaviors. These findings led us to investigate behavioral changes and gene expression changes in the ventral and dorsal dentate gyrus differentially after chronic treatment in mice with the antidepressant sertraline. Four-week treatment with sertraline significantly decreased immobility in the modified forced swim test, a behavioral test for assessing antidepressant-like effects in rodents. In the novelty-suppressed feeding test, performance of which is affected by functional changes in the dentate gyrus, sertraline treatment significantly decreased latency to feed. Next, we examined the expression of several neuroplasticity-related genes (those for Notch receptors, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and related factors, SoxC transcription factors, and glial-related genes) by real-time RT-PCR in the ventral and dorsal dentate gyrus of mice after the sertraline treatment. The gene encoding the neuropeptide galanin was significantly induced in only ventral dentate gyrus, not in dorsal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that sertraline-related galanin induction in ventral dentate gyrus may play an important role in therapeutic mechanisms for depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of chronic morphine treatment of excitatory junction potentials in the mouse vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    North, R. A.; Vitek, L. V.

    1980-01-01

    1 Intracellular recordings were made from smooth muscle cells of vasa deferentia in vitro. Vasa from two groups of mice were studied; the first were naive and the second had been chronically pretreated with morphine for 3 days. The vasa from morphine-pretreated mice were maintained in Krebs solution containing normorphine (300 nM). 2 The resting membrane potentials of the smooth muscle cells were the same in both groups of mice. 3 The excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) evoked by stimulation of the intramural nerves were depressed by normorphine in both groups of mice. The EC50 for this action of normorphine was 560 nM for the naive group and 6.6 microM for the morphine-pretreated group. 4 The EC50 for adenosine in depressing e.j.p. amplitude was the same in the two groups. 5 Naloxone did not change the resting membrane potential in cells from either group of mice. In morphine-pretreated mice, naloxone caused a marked increase in the amplitude of the evoked e.j.p. 6 The EC50 for noradrenaline in causing a contractile response of the isolated vas deferens was the same in both groups of mice. 7 The results indicate that changes in postsynaptic sensitivity to transmitter do not occur following morphine pretreatment. PMID:7052335

  20. Chronic ethanol intake modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities in mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Carrera, M P; Cobo, M; Camacho, B; Martínez Martos, J M

    2005-04-01

    In developing cerebellum, where critical periods of vulnerability have been established for several basic substances, it has been extensively studied the wide array of abnormalities induced by exposure to ethanol (EtOH). However, little is known about the effects of EtOH consumption on cerebellar functions in adult individuals. Several studies show participation in cognitive activities to be concentrated in the lateral cerebellum (hemispheres), whereas basic motor functions such as balance and coordination are represented in the medial parts of the cerebellum (vermis and paravermis). In addition to the circulating renin angiotensin system (RAS), a local system has been postulated in brain. The effector peptides of the RAS are formed via the activity of several aminopeptidases (AP). The present work analyses the effect of chronic EtOH intake on the RAS-regulating AP activities in the soluble and membrane-bound fractions of two cerebellar locations: the hemispheres and the vermis. We hypothesize that cerebellar RAS is involved in basic motor functions rather than in cognitive activities.

  1. Effects of Chronic Mental Stress and atherogenic diet on the immune inflammatory environment in mouse aorta

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi; Zhukov, Viktor; Bradlow, Henry; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Gonzalez, Alejandro Sanchez; Curtiss, Linda K.; Conti, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and stress are regarded as two important atherogenic factors. Because stress can affect leukocyte distribution, we hypothesized that stress-mediated leukocyte extravasation can modify the inflammatory environment of the arterial wall possibly contributing to atherogenesis. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the inflammatory environment of the aorta in C57Bl/6 mice subjected to 3 and to 12 months of chronic stress and compared it to age matched non-stressed animals. Experiments were carried out in mice fed regular chow or atherogenic diets. Both treatments increased the expression of vascular and leukocyte adhesion molecules and leukocyte accumulation. At 3 months, stress but not an atherogenic diet elevated the number of CD4 cells, CD8 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils. These changes were associated with elevation of transcripts for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, E-Selectin and Neuropeptide Y. At 12 months, stress or high cholesterol acted similarly to elevate the number of CD8 and macrophages, and synergistically on the number of all cell types investigated. At this time-point, strong synergism was also observed on the level of E-selectin and NPY in the aorta, but not in the circulation. Despite these effects, histological and morphological alterations of the arterial wall were severe in the atherogenic diet, but not in the stress groups. Thus, although stress and an atherogenic diet may both affect leukocyte accumulation in the aorta, they may contribute differently to atherogenesis. PMID:21722726

  2. Effects of chronic caffeine intake in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Ferrante, Antonella; Pèzzola, Antonella; Matteucci, Alessandra; Puopolo, Maria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist; chronic consumption has proved protective toward neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The present study was designed to determine whether caffeine intake affected survival and/or motor performance in a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SOD1(G93A) mice received caffeine through drinking water from 70 days of age until death. Body weight, motor performance and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, the expression of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A) Rs), glial glutamate transporter (GLT1), and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) were evaluated by Western blotting. The results showed that caffeine intake significantly shortened the survival of SOD1(G93A) mice (log rank test, P = 0.01) and induced a nonsignificant advancing of disease onset. The expression of A(2A) R, GLT1, and GFAP was altered in the spinal cords of ALS mice, but caffeine did not influence their expression in either wild-type or SOD1(G93) mice. These data indicate that adenosine receptors may play an important role in ALS.

  3. Olive polyphenol effects in a mouse model of chronic ethanol addiction.

    PubMed

    Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Mauro; Cestari, Vincenzo; Natella, Fausta; Bello, Cristiano; Coccurello, Roberto; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Fiore, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol addiction elicits oxidative imbalance and it is well known that polyphenols possess antioxidant properties. We investigated whether or not polyphenols could confer a protective potential against alcohol-induced oxidative stress. We administered (per os) for two months 20 mg/kg of olive polyphenols containing mostly hydroxytyrosol in alcoholic adult male mice. Hydroxytyrosol metabolites as hydroxytyrosol sulfate 1 and hydroxytyrosol sulfate 2 were found in the serum of mice administered with polyphenols with the highest amount in animals treated with both polyphenols and alcohol. Oxidative stress was evaluated by FORT (free oxygen radical test) and FORD (free oxygen radical defense) tests. Alcoholic mice showed a worse oxidative status than nonalcoholic mice (higher FORT and lower FORD) but polyphenol supplementation partially counteracted the alcohol pro-oxidant effects, as evidenced by FORT. A better understanding of the antioxidant protection provided by polyphenols might be of primary interest for drug discovery and dietary-based prevention of the damage associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Nicotine Attenuates Phencyclidine-Induced Impulsivity in a Mouse Serial Reaction Time Task

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Daniel; Taylor, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. While positive symptoms can be effectively treated with typical antipsychotic medication, which generally affects the dopaminergic system, negative and cognitive symptoms, including attentional deficits and impulsive behavior, are less sensitive to standard treatments. It has further been well documented that schizophrenic patients use tobacco products at a rate much higher than the general population, and this persists despite treatment. It has been argued this behavior may be a form of self-medication, to alleviate some symptoms of schizophrenia. It has further been posited that prefrontal glutamatergic hypofunction may underlie some aspects of schizophrenia, and in accordance with this model, systemic phencyclidine has been used to model the disease. We employed a modified 5-choice serial reaction time test, a paradigm that is often used to investigate many of the treatment-resistant symptoms of schizophrenia including impulsivity, selective attention, and sustained attention/cognitive vigilance, to determine the medicinal effects of nicotine. We demonstrate that chronic oral, but not acute injections of, nicotine can selectively attenuate phencyclidine-induced increases in impulsivity without affecting other measures of attention. This suggests that nicotine use by schizophrenics may provide some relief of distinct symptoms that involve impulsive behaviors. PMID:24239695

  5. Anti-fatigue effect of Myelophil in a chronic forced exercise mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil. ICR male mice (10 weeks old) were forced to run for 1 hour, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Each running session was followed by administration of distilled water, Myelophil (50 or 100 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1h later. Equal proportions of Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix were extracted using 30% ethanol, and formulated into Myelophil. To evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of Myelophil, exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests were conducted. Underlying mechanisms, including oxidant-antioxidant balance, inflammatory response, and energy metabolism, were investigated by analyzing skeletal muscle tissues and/or sera. Myelophil significantly increased exercise ability and latency times, and decreased the number of electric shocks and immobility time on exercise tolerance and forced swimming tests compared with control group. Myelophil also significantly ameliorated fatigue-induced alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by multiple assays, including enzyme activity assays and western blotting, as well as alterations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Myelophil normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers in sera. These findings suggest that Myelophil reduces the effects of chronic fatigue, likely by attenuating oxidative and inflammatory responses and normalizing energy metabolism. Consequently, this study provides evidence for the clinical relevance of Myelophil.

  6. Establishment of mouse Mac-2 binding protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its application for mouse chronic liver disease models.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ayumi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Ebisutani, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Akiko; Ueda, Yui; Arai, Hitomi; Fujii, Hironobu; Takamatsu, Shinji; Maruyama, Nobuhiro; Maeda, Masahiro; Takehara, Tetsuo; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2017-08-01

    We identified Mac-2 (galectin-3) binding protein (Mac-2bp) as a novel diagnostic and liver fibrosis predicting biomarker for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in humans. In mouse models, there are no serum biomarkers predicting liver disease severity. In this study, we developed a mouse Mac-2bp enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system and determined its efficacy for predicting the severity of liver disease in mouse models, especially in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models. We established several rat monoclonal antibodies against mouse Mac-2bp, selected two clones for the ELISA, and checked the accuracy and reproducibility of the ELISA, especially for NAFLD models and liver fibrosis models. We also investigated the relationships between serum levels and hepatic gene expression of Mac-2bp in mouse models. Our ELISA system had high accuracy and reproducibility (R(2)  = 0.999). The intra-assay and inter-assay results for the coefficient of variation were 2.0-3.7% and 1.7-6.9%, respectively. The levels of bilirubin, hemoglobin, and chyle did not affect the Mac-2bp serum levels detected by our ELISA kit. In the mouse models, serum Mac-2bp levels increased with liver disease progression (F0/F1/F2/F3, 239.1 ± 36.7 / 259.1 ± 43.0 / 457.5 ± 162.0 / 643.7 ± 116.0 ng/mL; P < 0.0001), and were significantly correlated with hepatic gene expression of Mac-2bp (R = 0.42, P < 0.0001). Our mouse Mac-2bp ELISA system effectively predicts severity of NAFLD and liver fibrosis in mouse models. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  7. Antidepressant-like effects of oleoylethanolamide in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Yu, Hai-Ling; Tian-Lan; Zhang, Feng; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2015-06-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endocannabinoid analog that belongs to a family of endogenous acylethanolamides. Increasing evidence suggests that OEA may act as an endogenous neuroprotective factor and participate in the control of mental disorder-related behaviors. In this study, we examined whether OEA is effective against depression and investigated the role of circulating endogenous acylethanolamides during stress. Mice were subjected to 28days of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and during the last 21days, treated with oral OEA (1.5-6mg/kg) or 6mg/kg fluoxetine. Sucrose preference and open field test activity were used to evaluate depression-like behaviors during CUMS and after OEA treatment. Weights of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were determined, and the adrenal index was measured. Furthermore, changes in serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were detected. Our findings indicate that OEA normalized sucrose preferences, locomotion distances, rearing frequencies, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal atrophy, and adrenal indices. In addition, OEA reversed the abnormalities of BDNF and MDA levels and SOD activities in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as changes in serum levels of ACTH, CORT, and T-AOC. The antidepressant effects of OEA may be related to the regulation of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, antioxidant defenses, and normalizing hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of chronic restraint-induced stress on radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Katsube, Takanori; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Varès, Guillaume; Kawagoshi, Taiki; Shiomi, Naoko; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Liu, Qiang; Morita, Akinori; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    Both ionizing radiation (IR) and psychological stress (PS) cause detrimental effects on humans. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced PS (CRIPS) diminished the functions of Trp53 and enhanced radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous (Trp53(+/-)) mice. These findings had a marked impact on the academic field as well as the general public, particularly among residents living in areas radioactively contaminated by nuclear accidents. In an attempt to elucidate the modifying effects of CRIPS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53(+/+)) animals, investigations involving multidisciplinary analyses were performed. We herein demonstrated that CRIPS induced changes in the frequency of IR-induced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in splenocytes. Five-week-old male Trp53(+/+) C57BL/6J mice were restrained for 6h per day for 28 consecutive days, and total body irradiation (TBI) at a dose of 4Gy was performed on the 8th day. Metaphase chromosome spreads prepared from splenocytes at the end of the 28-day restraint regimen were painted with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for chromosomes 1, 2, and 3. The results obtained showed that CRIPS alone did not induce CAs, while TBI caused significant increases in CAs, mostly translocations. Translocations appeared at a lower frequency in mice exposed to TBI plus CRIPS than in those exposed to TBI alone. No significant differences were observed in the frequencies of the other types of CAs (insertions, dicentrics, and fragments) visualized with FISH between these experimental groups (TBI+CRIPS vs. TBI). These results suggest that CRIPS does not appear to synergize with the clastogenicity of IR.

  9. Chronic intermittent hypoxia causes hepatitis in a mouse model of diet-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Savransky, Vladimir; Bevans, Shannon; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Smith, Philip L; Torbenson, Michael S; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2007-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep. OSA is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in obese individuals and may contribute to progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from steatosis to NASH. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CIH induces inflammatory changes in the liver in mice with diet-induced hepatic steatosis. C57BL/6J mice (n = 8) on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet were exposed to CIH for 6 mo and were compared with mice on the same diet exposed to intermittent air (control; n = 8). CIH caused liver injury with an increase in serum ALT (461 +/- 58 U/l vs. 103 +/- 16 U/l in the control group; P < 0.01) and AST (637 +/- 37 U/l vs. 175 +/- 13 U/l in the control group; P < 0.001), whereas alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were unchanged. Histology revealed hepatic steatosis in both groups, with mild accentuation of fat staining in the zone 3 hepatocytes in mice exposed to CIH. Animals exposed to CIH exhibited lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, which were not evident in control mice. CIH caused significant increases in lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue; significant increases in hepatic levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and CXC chemokine MIP-2; a trend toward an increase in TNF-alpha; and an increase in alpha1(I)-collagen mRNA. We conclude that CIH induces lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the livers of mice on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.

  10. Anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol in mouse models of acute and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderó; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Tonello, Raquel; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; Ferreira, Juliano; Trevisan, Gabriela

    2017-08-18

    Stigmasterol is a common sterol found in plants, but the anti-nociceptive effect of this compound and its mechanism of action are not fully explored. Thus, in the present study, the anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol was investigated in acute and chronic models of pain and its mechanism of action. We used adult male albino Swiss mice (25-35 g) to observe the anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol in acetic-acid writhing test or in complete Freund's adjuvant injection, surgical incision in hind paw, or partial sciatic nerve ligation. Moreover, we investigate the involvement of opioid receptors (naloxone, 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) in stigmasterol anti-nociceptive effect and stigmasterol action on acetylcholinesterase activity. Some possible adverse effects caused by stigmasterol were also investigated. Stigmasterol (0.3-3 mg/kg, orally) exhibited an anti-nociceptive effect on acetic-acid-induced writhing test. Furthermore, it markedly attenuated the mechanical allodynia caused by surgical incision (after acute treatment with stigmasterol, preventive and curative effects were observed) and partial sciatic nerve ligation (after acute treatment with stigmasterol) and complete Freund's adjuvant (after acute or repeated treatment with stigmasterol). The anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol was not reversed by naloxone. Moreover, stigmasterol did not alter in vitro acetylcholinesterase activity in spinal cord or brain samples. Also, stigmasterol did not cause gastric ulcers or alter the gastrointestinal transit of mice. Taken together, these results support the potential anti-nociceptive effect of stigmasterol in different models of pain.

  11. Erythrina abyssinica prevents meningoencephalitis in chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nasimolo, Johnson; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Gathumbi, Peter Karuri; Makanya, Andrew Ndegwa; Kagira, John Maina

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is prevalent in Sub-sahara African countries that lie between 14° North and 29° south of the equator. Sixty million people are at risk of infection. Trypanosoma brucei gambesience occurs in West and Central Africa while Trypanosoma brucei rhodesience occurs in East and Southern Africa. The neurological stage of the disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. About 10% of patients treated with the recommended drug, melarsoprol develop post treatment reactive encephalopathy, which is fatal in 50% of these patients, thus melarsoprol is fatal in 5% of all treated patients. This study was aimed at establishing the potential activity of Erythrina abyssinica in reducing neuroinflammation following infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Swiss white mice were divided into ten groups, two control groups and eight infected groups. Infected mice received either methanol or water extract of Erythrina abyssinica at 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight. Parasite counts were monitored in peripheral circulation from the third day post infection up to the end of the study. Brains were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Following infection, trypanosomes were observed in circulation 3 days post-infection, with the parasitaemia occurring in waves. In the cerebrum, typical brain pathology of chronic trypanosomiasis was reproduced. This was exhibited as astrocytosis, perivascular cuffing and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the neuropil. However, mice treated with Erythrina abyssinica water extract exhibited significant reduction in perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic infiltration and astrocytosis in the cerebrum. The methanol extract did not have a significant difference compared to the non-treated group. This study provides evidence of anti-inflammatory properties of Erythrina abyssinica and may support its wide use as a medicinal plant by various communities in Kenya.

  12. Chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis, and effect of an anti-VEGFR therapy in a mouse model and in human patients with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nihei, Mayumi; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Ebihara, Satoru; Kobayashi, Makoto; Niu, Kaijun; Gui, Peijun; Tamai, Tokiwa; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Yamaya, Mutsuo; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Ebihara, Takae; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation induces lymphangiogenesis and blood vessel remodelling. Since aged pneumonia patients often have repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia, the pathogenesis may involve chronic inflammation. For lymphangiogenesis, VEGFR-3 and its ligand VEGF-C are key factors. No previous studies have examined chronic inflammation or vascular changes in aspiration pneumonia or its mouse models. In lung inflammation, little is known about the effect of blocking VEGFR-3 on lung lymphangiogenesis and, moreover, its effect on the disease condition. This study aimed to establish a mouse model of aspiration pneumonia, examine the presence of chronic inflammation and vascular changes in the model and in patients, and evaluate the effect of inhibiting VEGFR-3 on the lymphangiogenesis and disease condition in this model. To induce aspiration pneumonia, we repeated inoculation of pepsin at low pH and LPS into mice for 21-28 days, durations in which bronchioalveolar lavage and plasma leakage in the lung suggested the presence of exaggerated inflammation. Conventional and immunohistochemical analysis of tracheal whole mounts suggested the presence of chronic inflammation, lymphangiogenesis, and blood vessel remodelling in the model. Quantitative RT-PCR of the trachea and lung suggested the involvement of lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C, VEGFR-3, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the lung, the aspiration model showed the presence of chronic inflammation and exaggerated lymphangiogenesis. Treatment with the VEGFR inhibitor axitinib or the VEGFR-3 specific inhibitor SAR131675 impaired lymphangiogenesis in the lung and improved oxygen saturation in the aspiration model. Since the lung is the main site of aspiration pneumonia, the changes were intensive in the lung and mild in the trachea. Human lung samples also showed the presence of chronic inflammation and exaggerated lymphangiogenesis, suggesting the relevance of the model to the disease. These results suggest lymphatics in

  13. VHL: Cullin-g the hypoxic response.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Nadia J; Babon, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-03

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated response to hypoxic conditions is turned off by VHL-mediated ubiquitination of HIFα. To achieve this, VHL binds HIFα and recruits it to a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, a Cullin-RING-ligase. In this issue of Structure, Nguyen et al. provide a structural view of how VHL engages the ligase in order to inhibit the hypoxic response.

  14. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  15. Game performance and intermittent hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Hinckson, E A; Hamlin, M J; Wood, M R; Hopkins, W G

    2007-08-01

    Live high-train low altitude exposure simulated by hypoxic devices may improve athletic performance. In this study, intermittent normobaric hypoxia was achieved with the GO2altitude hypoxicator to determine its effects on sea level performance in rugby players. Ten players were randomly assigned to two groups. Players in each group received 14 sessions of either hypoxic (10-15% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) exposure at rest over 14 consecutive days in a single blind fashion. Various performance measures were obtained consecutively in a single testing session pre- and post-exposure. Effects of hypoxic exposure on maximum speed and sprint times were trivial (<1.0%) but unclear (90% likely range, +/-5% to +/-9%). In rugby simulation, hypoxic exposure produced impairments of peak power in two scrums (15%, +/-8%; 9%, +/-7%) and impairments of time in offensive sprints (7%, +/-8%) and tackle sprints (11%, +/-9%). Pending further research, rugby players would be unwise to use normobaric intermittent hypoxic exposure to prepare for games at sea level.

  16. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse fatigue and its relevance to chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Teng; Du, Xiu-Ming; Ma, Xiu-Juan; Zong, Ying; Chen, Ji-Kuai; Yu, Chen-Lin; Liu, Yan-Gang; Chen, Yong-Chun; Zhao, Li-Jun; Lu, Guo-Cai

    2016-04-05

    The NLRP3 inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is an intracellular protein complex that plays an important role in innate immune sensing. Its activation leads to the maturation of caspase-1 and regulates the cleavage of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Various studies have shown that activation of the immune system plays a pivotal role in the development of fatigue. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between immune activation and fatigue remained elusive, and few reports have described the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in fatigue. We established a mouse fatigue model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3 mg/kg) challenge combined with swim stress. Both behavioural and biochemical parameters were measured to illustrate the characteristics of this model. We also assessed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the mouse diencephalon, which is the brain region that has been suggested to be responsible for fatigue sensation. To further identify the role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), NLRP3 KO mice were also subjected to LPS treatment and swim stress, and the same parameters were evaluated. Mice challenged with LPS and subjected to the swim stress test showed decreased locomotor activity, decreased fall-off time in a rota-rod test and increased serum levels of IL-1β and IL-6 compared with untreated mice. Serum levels of lactic acid and malondialdehyde (MDA) were not significantly altered in the treated mice. We demonstrated increased NLRP3 expression, IL-1β production and caspase-1 activation in the diencephalons of the treated mice. In NLRP3 KO mice, we found remarkably increased locomotor activity with longer fall-off times and decreased serum IL-1β levels compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice after LPS challenge and the swim stress test. IL-1β levels in the diencephalon were also significantly decreased in the NLRP3 KO mice. By contrast, IL-6 levels were

  17. Variable effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on ethanol drinking in a genetically diverse mouse cohort.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Becker, Howard C

    2017-02-01

    The BXD family of mice were generated by crossing and inbreeding ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J and ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J strains that differ greatly in genome sequence and other behaviors. This study evaluated variations in the level of voluntary ethanol intake in a cohort of 42 BXD strains and both progenitor strains using a model of alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. A total of 119 BXDs (85 males, 34 females) (n ∼ 4 per genotype; 1/genotype/sex/group) were evaluated along with males from both progenitor strains (n = 14-15/genotype). Mice were evaluated for intake using limited access (2 h/day) 2-bottle (15% v/v ethanol vs. water) model for 6 weeks (baseline intake). Each animal received 4 weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure (CIE group) or air control exposure (CTL group) (16 h/day × 4 days) interleaved by 5-day drinking test cycles. Blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) ranged from 150 to 300 mg/dl across genotypes. Baseline intake varied greatly among cases-from ∼0.8 to ∼2.9 g/kg. As expected, CIE exposure induced a significant increase in ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J relative to baseline as well as air controls that remained relatively stable over the four test cycles. In contrast, DBA/2J cases did not show a significant increase in consumption. Heritability of variation in baseline consumption, calculated from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains is about 54% but this increases following treatment to 60-80%. As expected from the marked difference between progenitors, ethanol intake and level of escalation varied greatly among BXDs after exposure (∼-1.3 to 2.6 g/kg). Interestingly, the magnitude and direction of changes in ethanol intake did not relate to BEC values of the preceding CIE exposure cycle. Overall, these data indicate significant variation in consumption and even escalation, much of it under genetic control, following repeated CIE treatment.

  18. Initiation of premature senescence by Bcl-2 in hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Desheng; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Senescence, a state of cell cycle arrest, has been regarded as an intrinsic barrier to malignance. Although being repressed in most immortal tumors, the genetic program of senescence can be reactivated by critical regulators, including the apoptosis regulator Bcl-2. We showed here that hypoxic condition resulted in an irreversible senescence-like phenotype with increased expression of Bcl-2 in mouse melanoma B16 cells. In CoCl2-simulating hypoxic condition, characteristic morphological alterations and increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) can be detected with high level of Bcl-2, which was confirmed by western blot and co-staining of SA-β-gal and Bcl-2 by immunocytochemistry. Accordingly, Bcl-2 silence by specific siRNA ahead of hypoxia treatment interrupted the senescent development. Moreover Bcl-2 overexpression led to early onset of senescence. We propose that Bcl-2 is required to initiate and maintain the senescent phenotype. In addition, p53 and p16 were not involved in hypoxia-induced senescence according to the expression levels during senescent process. These results suggest that when encountering harmful stress (hypoxia), melanoma cells overexpress Bcl-2 and turn to senescence, a permanent cell-cycle arrest, for prolonged survival.

  19. Channa striatus cream down-regulates tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene expression and alleviates chronic-like dermatitis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Isa, Irma Izani; Abu Bakar, Suhaili; Md Tohid, Siti Farah; Mat Jais, Abdul Manan

    2016-12-24

    Haruan, Channa striatus, is a freshwater fish which has been well-known locally to accelerate wound healing during post-operative and post-partum periods. The fish extract also has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. To assess topical anti-inflammatory effect of Haruan cream on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced chronic-like dermatitis in mice. Male ICR mice were randomized into six groups of five mice each: acetone (vehicle), TPA alone (negative control), three Haruan treatment groups (Haruan 1%, Haruan 5% and Haruan 10%) and hydrocortisone 1% (positive control). Briefly, both surfaces of mouse ears were applied with TPA (2.5μg/20μl acetone) for five times on alternate days and with Haruan or hydrocortisone 1% cream for the last three days. Mouse ear thickness was measured 24h after final treatment with the cream and the ears were harvested for further histological analysis and gene expression studies of TNF-α by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Topical application of Haruan cream had reduced the mouse ear thickness 18.1-28%) with comparable effect to the positive control. In addition, histopathological comparison had shown evident reduction in various parameters of cutaneous inflammation including dermal oedema, inflammatory cells infiltration and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, TPA application had resulted in the up-regulation of TNF-α gene expression by 353-fold, which was subsequently down-regulated by the Haruan cream (34- to 112-fold). Haruan is an effective topical anti-inflammatory agent in this mouse model of chronic-like dermatitis, thus suggesting its potential as a non-steroidal treatment option for chronic inflammatory dermatoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Varsha G.; Herman, Eugene H.; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; Lewis, Sherry M.; Davis, Kelly J.; George, Nysia I.; Lee, Taewon; Kerr, Susan; Fuscoe, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue injury. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were administered intravenous DOX at 3 mg/kg body weight, or an equivalent volume of saline, once a week for 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were sacrificed a week following the last dose. A significant reduction in body weight gain was observed in mice following exposure to a weekly DOX dose for 1 week and longer compared to saline-treated controls. DOX treatment also resulted in declines in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit compared to saline-treated controls after the 2nd weekly dose until the 8th and 9th doses, followed by a modest recovery. All DOX-treated mice had significant elevations in cardiac troponin T concentrations in plasma compared to saline-treated controls, indicating cardiac tissue injury. Also, a dose-related increase in the severity of cardiac lesions was seen in mice exposed to 24 mg/kg DOX and higher cumulative doses. Mice treated with cumulative DOX doses of 30 mg/kg and higher showed a significant decline in heart rate, suggesting drug-induced cardiac dysfunction. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the development of DOX-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice. -- Highlights: ► 24 mg/kg was a cumulative cardiotoxic dose of doxorubicin in male B6C3F{sub 1} mice. ► Doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity was in association with splenomegaly. ► Doxorubicin induced severe testicular toxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} male mice.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of FGF23 changes and mineral metabolism abnormalities in a mouse model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Jason R; He, Nan; Idiculla, Arun; Gillihan, Ryan; Liu, Shiguang; David, Valentin; Hong, Yan; Quarles, L Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic and vitamin D-regulatory hormone of putative bone origin that is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanisms responsible for elevations of FGF23 and its role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) remain uncertain. We investigated the association between FGF23 serum levels and kidney disease progression, as well as the phenotypic features of CKD-MBD in a Col4a3 null mouse model of human autosomal-recessive Alport syndrome. These mice exhibited progressive renal failure, declining 1,25(OH)(2)D levels, increments in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and FGF23, late-onset hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, high-turnover bone disease, and increased mortality. Serum levels of FGF23 increased in the earliest stages of renal damage, before elevations in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. FGF23 gene transcription in bone, however, did not increase until late-stage kidney disease, when serum FGF23 levels were exponentially elevated. Further evaluation of bone revealed trabecular osteocytes to be the primary cell source for FGF23 production in late-stage disease. Changes in FGF23 mirrored the rise in serum PTH and the decline in circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D. The rise in PTH and FGF23 in Col4a3 null mice coincided with an increase in the urinary fractional excretion of phosphorus and a progressive decline in sodium-phosphate cotransporter gene expression in the kidney. Our findings suggest elevations of FGF23 in CKD to be an early marker of renal injury that increases before BUN and serum creatinine. An increased production of FGF23 by bone may not be responsible for early increments in FGF23 in CKD but does appear to contribute to FGF23 levels in late-stage disease. Elevations in FGF23 and PTH coincide with an increase in urinary phosphate excretion that likely prevents the early onset of hyperphosphatemia in the face of increased bone turnover and a

  2. Effect of chronic coffee consumption on weight gain and glycaemia in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rustenbeck, I; Lier-Glaubitz, V; Willenborg, M; Eggert, F; Engelhardt, U; Jörns, A

    2014-06-30

    Epidemiological evidence shows that chronic coffee consumption in humans is correlated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For the experimental exploration of the underlying mechanisms, this effect needs to be replicated in an animal model of type 2 diabetes with a short lifespan. Male C57BL/6 mice consumed regular coffee or water ad libitum and the development of obesity and diabetes caused by high-fat diet (55% lipids, HFD) was observed from week 10 on for 35 weeks in comparison with mice feeding on a defined normal diet (9% lipids, ND). The massive weight gain in HFD mice was dose-dependently retarded (P=0.034), the moderate weight gain in ND mice was abolished (P<0.001) by coffee consumption, probably because of a lower feeding efficiency. The consumption of fluid (water or coffee) was significantly diminished by HFD (P<0.001), resulting in a higher coffee exposure of ND mice. On week 21 intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) showed a dose-dependent faster decline of elevated glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P=0.016), but not in ND mice. Remarkably, a spontaneous decrease in non-fasting glycaemia occurred after week 21 in all treatment groups (P<0.001). On week 39 the IPGTT showed diminished peak of glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P<0.05). HFD mice were hyperinsulinaemic and had significantly (P<0.001) enlarged islets. Coffee consumption did not affect islet size or parameters of beta-cell apoptosis, proliferation and insulin granule content. Coffee consumption retarded weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and corresponding controls. This gives rise to the expectation that further insight into the mechanism of the diabetes-preventive effect of coffee consumption in humans may be gained by this approach.

  3. Alterations in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial [U-13C]Glucose Metabolism in a Chronic Epilepsy Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-13C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy. The enrichment of 13C in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were quantified in hippocampal extracts using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy, along with the measurement of the activities of enzymes in each pathway. We show that there is reduced incorporation of 13C in the intermediates of glycolysis, with the percentage enrichment of all downstream intermediates being highly correlated with those of glucose 6-phosphate. Furthermore, the activities of all enzymes in this pathway including hexokinase and phosphofructokinase were unaltered, suggesting that glucose uptake is reduced in this model without further impairments in glycolysis itself. The key findings were 33% and 55% losses in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, along with reduced 13C enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. This lower 13C enrichment is best explained in part by the reduced enrichment in glycolytic intermediates, whereas the reduction of key TCA cycle enzyme activity indicates that TCA cycling is also impaired in the hippocampal formation. Together, these data suggest that multitarget approaches may be necessary to restore metabolism in the epileptic brain. PMID:28303258

  4. Chronic food shortage and seasonal modulations of daily torpor and locomotor activity in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Blanc, Stéphane; Aujard, Fabienne; Bertrand, Frédéric; Gilbert, Caroline; Perret, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The extent to which seasonal plasticity in torpor displayed by one of the smallest Malagasy primates (Microcebus murinus) will help survival in the context of ongoing global change-induced chronic food shortage, is unknown. Body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were measured by telemetry in short- (SD, winter-acclimated) and long-days (LD, summer-acclimated) males (n = 24) during an experimental 35-day calorie restriction of 40 or 80%. Under SD exposure, regardless of calorie restriction intensity, mouse lemurs immediately increased torpor depth and duration by 4.6-fold, and showed greater phase-advanced entry into torpor (2.4-fold). Tb adjustments were efficient under 40% calorie restriction to maintain body mass, whereas they did not prevent a 0.71 +/- 0.11 g/day mass loss during 80% calorie restriction. The 40% food-deprived LD animals combined an early shallow deepening of torpor (1 degrees C) and a late 18% decrease in locomotor activity, resulting in a moderate 6% mass loss. After 15 days of 80% calorie restriction, LD animals exhibited a SD phenotype by increasing their torpor duration and phase-advancing the entry of torpor (16 min/day). Those adjustments had no impact on mass loss (0.93 +/- 0.07 g/day) as locomotor activity increased four-fold. Daily torpor allows M. murinus to face moderate food shortage whatever the photoperiod but poorly mitigates energy imbalance during severe food deprivation, especially under LD exposure. Although the behavioral thermoregulation role warrants further investigation in energy savings, M. murinus survival would be impaired during long-term food shortage in summer.

  5. Effect of chronic coffee consumption on weight gain and glycaemia in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rustenbeck, I; Lier-Glaubitz, V; Willenborg, M; Eggert, F; Engelhardt, U; Jörns, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological evidence shows that chronic coffee consumption in humans is correlated with a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For the experimental exploration of the underlying mechanisms, this effect needs to be replicated in an animal model of type 2 diabetes with a short lifespan. Design: Male C57BL/6 mice consumed regular coffee or water ad libitum and the development of obesity and diabetes caused by high-fat diet (55% lipids, HFD) was observed from week 10 on for 35 weeks in comparison with mice feeding on a defined normal diet (9% lipids, ND). Results: The massive weight gain in HFD mice was dose-dependently retarded (P=0.034), the moderate weight gain in ND mice was abolished (P<0.001) by coffee consumption, probably because of a lower feeding efficiency. The consumption of fluid (water or coffee) was significantly diminished by HFD (P<0.001), resulting in a higher coffee exposure of ND mice. On week 21 intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) showed a dose-dependent faster decline of elevated glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P=0.016), but not in ND mice. Remarkably, a spontaneous decrease in non-fasting glycaemia occurred after week 21 in all treatment groups (P<0.001). On week 39 the IPGTT showed diminished peak of glucose levels in coffee-consuming HFD mice (P<0.05). HFD mice were hyperinsulinaemic and had significantly (P<0.001) enlarged islets. Coffee consumption did not affect islet size or parameters of beta-cell apoptosis, proliferation and insulin granule content. Conclusion: Coffee consumption retarded weight gain and improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and corresponding controls. This gives rise to the expectation that further insight into the mechanism of the diabetes-preventive effect of coffee consumption in humans may be gained by this approach. PMID:24979152

  6. The Spectrum of Neurobehavioral Sequelae after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L.; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T.; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury. PMID:24766454

  7. Alterations in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial [U-(13)C]Glucose Metabolism in a Chronic Epilepsy Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tanya S; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy. The enrichment of (13)C in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle were quantified in hippocampal extracts using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, along with the measurement of the activities of enzymes in each pathway. We show that there is reduced incorporation of (13)C in the intermediates of glycolysis, with the percentage enrichment of all downstream intermediates being highly correlated with those of glucose 6-phosphate. Furthermore, the activities of all enzymes in this pathway including hexokinase and phosphofructokinase were unaltered, suggesting that glucose uptake is reduced in this model without further impairments in glycolysis itself. The key findings were 33% and 55% losses in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, respectively, along with reduced (13)C enrichment in TCA cycle intermediates. This lower (13)C enrichment is best explained in part by the reduced enrichment in glycolytic intermediates, whereas the reduction of key TCA cycle enzyme activity indicates that TCA cycling is also impaired in the hippocampal formation. Together, these data suggest that multitarget approaches may be necessary to restore metabolism in the epileptic brain.

  8. Neurodegeneration severity can be predicted from early microglia alterations monitored in vivo in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Alejandra; Romero, Cesar O.; Breen, Kevin T.; Chagovetz, Alexis A.; Steele, Michael R.; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Vetter, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microglia serve key homeostatic roles, and respond to neuronal perturbation and decline with a high spatiotemporal resolution. The course of all chronic CNS pathologies is thus paralleled by local microgliosis and microglia activation, which begin at early stages of the disease. However, the possibility of using live monitoring of microglia during early disease progression to predict the severity of neurodegeneration has not been explored. Because the retina allows live tracking of fluorescent microglia in their intact niche, here we investigated their early changes in relation to later optic nerve neurodegeneration. To achieve this, we used the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma, which develops progressive retinal ganglion cell degeneration of variable severity during aging, and represents a useful model to study pathogenic mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell decline that are similar to those in human glaucoma. We imaged CX3CR1+/GFP microglial cells in vivo at ages ranging from 1 to 5 months by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) and quantified cell density and morphological activation. We detected early microgliosis at the optic nerve head (ONH), where axonopathy first manifests, and could track attenuation of this microgliosis induced by minocycline. We also observed heterogeneous and dynamic patterns of early microglia activation in the retina. When the same animals were aged and analyzed for the severity of optic nerve pathology at 10 months of age, we found a strong correlation with the levels of ONH microgliosis at 3 to 4 months. Our findings indicate that live imaging and monitoring the time course and levels of early retinal microgliosis and microglia activation in glaucoma could serve as indicators of future neurodegeneration severity. PMID:25755083

  9. Dendritic Spine Loss and Chronic White Matter Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Highly Repetitive Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Charisse N.; Noël, Anastasia; Neustadtl, Aidan; Parsadanian, Maia; Barton, David J.; Chellappa, Deepa; Wilkins, Tiffany E.; Alikhani, Andrew D.; Zapple, David N.; Villapol, Sonia; Planel, Emmanuel; Burns, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an emerging risk for chronic behavioral, cognitive, and neurodegenerative conditions. Athletes absorb several hundred mTBIs each year; however, rodent models of repeat mTBI (rmTBI) are often limited to impacts in the single digits. Herein, we describe the effects of 30 rmTBIs, examining structural and pathological changes in mice up to 365 days after injury. We found that single mTBI causes a brief loss of consciousness and a transient reduction in dendritic spines, reflecting a loss of excitatory synapses. Single mTBI does not cause axonal injury, neuroinflammation, or cell death in the gray or white matter. Thirty rmTBIs with a 1-day interval between each mTBI do not cause dendritic spine loss; however, when the interinjury interval is increased to 7 days, dendritic spine loss is reinstated. Thirty rmTBIs cause white matter pathology characterized by positive silver and Fluoro-Jade B staining, and microglial proliferation and activation. This pathology continues to develop through 60 days, and is still apparent at 365 days, after injury. However, rmTBIs did not increase β-amyloid levels or tau phosphorylation in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Our data reveal that single mTBI causes a transient loss of synapses, but that rmTBIs habituate to repetitive injury within a short time period. rmTBI causes the development of progressive white matter pathology that continues for months after the final impact. PMID:26857506

  10. Differential effect of chronic stress on mouse hippocampal memory and affective behavior: Role of major ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Karisetty, Bhanu Chandra; Maitra, Swati; Wahul, Abhipradnya Bipin; Musalamadugu, Anusha; Khandelwal, Nitin; Guntupalli, Sumasri; Garikapati, Ramya; Jhansyrani, Thatiparthi; Kumar, Arvind; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of depression-like pathophysiology in female rodent models are less reported compared to males, despite its higher prevalence in human females. Moreover, the stress-response in brain circuitries including reward and cognition circuitries varies with age or hormonal status of the females. So, to understand the stress-induced mood and cognitive disorders in intact females (with ovaries) and ovariectomized (OVX) females, we studied changes in mouse hippocampus, a functionally heterogeneous neural structure involved in both affective and cognitive behaviors. Here, we used a 6-day Chronic Unpredictable Stress (CUS) paradigm in mice to induce depression and related mood disorders. Interestingly, intact females and OVX females showed difference in mood disorder sub-phenotypes to CUS. Similar to an earlier report of CUS affecting the critical reward circuitry structure the nucleus accumbens differently in females with and without ovaries, cognitive behavior in intact females and OVX females also responded differentially to CUS, as evident from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test results. We report that the presence or absence of ovarian hormones, particularly the estrogen, has a significant impact in altering the hippocampus related spatial memory and affective behavior, in females. Our results also illustrate that estrogen administration improves both reward and cognitive behavior, and plays a significant role in alleviating stress-induced despair behavior and enhancing spatial reference memory following a brief 6-day stressful paradigm. Further, it also indicates that the NMDA receptor subunits, GRIN2A and GRIN2B, might mediate the effects of estrogen in the hippocampal functions, thus suggestive of a translational significance of the finding.

  11. Chronic coexistence of two troponin T isoforms in adult transgenic mouse cardiomyocytes decreased contractile kinetics and caused dilatative remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Bin; Wei, Hongguang; Jin, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Our previous in vivo and ex vivo studies suggested that coexistence of two or more troponin T (TnT) isoforms in adult cardiac muscle decreased cardiac function and efficiency (Huang QQ, Feng HZ, Liu J, Du J, Stull LB, Moravec CS, Huang X, Jin JP, Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 294: C213-C22, 2008; Feng HZ, Jin JP, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299: H97-H105, 2010). Here we characterized Ca(2+)-regulated contractility of isolated adult cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice coexpressing a fast skeletal muscle TnT together with the endogenous cardiac TnT. Without the influence of extracellular matrix, coexistence of the two TnT isoforms resulted in lower shortening amplitude, slower shortening and relengthening velocities, and longer relengthening time. The level of resting cytosolic Ca(2+) was unchanged, but the peak Ca(2+) transient was lowered and the durations of Ca(2+) rising and decaying were longer in the transgenic mouse cardiomyocytes vs. the wild-type controls. Isoproterenol treatment diminished the differences in shortening amplitude and shortening and relengthening velocities, whereas the prolonged durations of relengthening and Ca(2+) transient in the transgenic cardiomyocytes remained. At rigor state, a result from depletion of Ca(2+), resting sarcomere length of the transgenic cardiomyocytes became shorter than that in wild-type cells. Inhibition of myosin motor diminished this effect of TnT function on cross bridges. The length but not width of transgenic cardiomyocytes was significantly increased compared with the wild-type controls, corresponding to longitudinal addition of sarcomeres and dilatative remodeling at the cellular level. These dominantly negative effects of normal fast TnT demonstrated that chronic coexistence of functionally distinct variants of TnT in adult cardiomyocytes reduces contractile performance with pathological consequences.

  12. The spectrum of neurobehavioral sequelae after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury: a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Chen, Michael; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Viterise, Tyler; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken; Huang, Jason H

    2014-07-01

    There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury.

  13. Dendritic Spine Loss and Chronic White Matter Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Highly Repetitive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Winston, Charisse N; Noël, Anastasia; Neustadtl, Aidan; Parsadanian, Maia; Barton, David J; Chellappa, Deepa; Wilkins, Tiffany E; Alikhani, Andrew D; Zapple, David N; Villapol, Sonia; Planel, Emmanuel; Burns, Mark P

    2016-03-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an emerging risk for chronic behavioral, cognitive, and neurodegenerative conditions. Athletes absorb several hundred mTBIs each year; however, rodent models of repeat mTBI (rmTBI) are often limited to impacts in the single digits. Herein, we describe the effects of 30 rmTBIs, examining structural and pathological changes in mice up to 365 days after injury. We found that single mTBI causes a brief loss of consciousness and a transient reduction in dendritic spines, reflecting a loss of excitatory synapses. Single mTBI does not cause axonal injury, neuroinflammation, or cell death in the gray or white matter. Thirty rmTBIs with a 1-day interval between each mTBI do not cause dendritic spine loss; however, when the interinjury interval is increased to 7 days, dendritic spine loss is reinstated. Thirty rmTBIs cause white matter pathology characterized by positive silver and Fluoro-Jade B staining, and microglial proliferation and activation. This pathology continues to develop through 60 days, and is still apparent at 365 days, after injury. However, rmTBIs did not increase β-amyloid levels or tau phosphorylation in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Our data reveal that single mTBI causes a transient loss of synapses, but that rmTBIs habituate to repetitive injury within a short time period. rmTBI causes the development of progressive white matter pathology that continues for months after the final impact. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recombinant cccDNA of hepatitis B virus induces long-term viral persistence with chronic hepatitis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaiyun; Zhu, Yuanfei; Shao, Dianhui; Chang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Dongming; Gao, Yueqiu; Lan, Ke; Deng, Qiang

    2017-07-27

    Covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical for viral persistence in vivo. We recently reported a technique involving recombinant (r) cccDNA of HBV by site-specific DNA recombination. Using hydrodynamic injection, rcccDNA induces a temporarily prolonged HBV anigenemia in immunocompetent mice, similar to acute resolving HBV infection. In this study, we simulated the pathophysiological impact of chronic hepatitis by which to reproduce (r)cccDNA persistence in mouse models. We showed that rcccDNA achieved long-lasting persistence in the presence of a compromised immune response or when transcriptional activity was repressed. To closely mimic chronic hepatitis, we used a replication-defective recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vector to deliver rcccDNA to the liver, which led to prominent HBV persistence throughout the experiment duration (>62 weeks) in Alb-Cre transgenic mice. A sustained necroinflammatory response and fibrosis were identified in mouse livers, with dysplastic lesions commonly seen during the late stage of viral persistence, analogous to the progressive pathology of clinical chronic hepatitis. (r)cccDNA was intrinsically stable in vivo, enabling long-term persistence in the context of chronic hepatitis. Viral persistence, in turn, may promote progression of chronic liver disease. Our study also presented a valuable surrogate model of HBV cccDNA persistence in mice that could greatly advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Novel Roles for Protein Kinase Cδ-dependent Signaling Pathways in Acute Hypoxic Stress-induced Autophagy*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jo-Lin; Lin, Her H.; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lin, Anning; Forman, Henry J.; Ann, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Macroautophagy, a tightly orchestrated intracellular process for bulk degradation of cytoplasmic proteins or organelles, is believed to be essential for cell survival or death in response to stress conditions. Recent observations indicate that autophagy is an adaptive response in cells subjected to prolonged hypoxia. However, the signaling mechanisms that activate autophagy under acute hypoxic stress are not clearly understood. In this study, we show that acute hypoxic stress by treatment with 1% O2 or desferroxamine, a hypoxia-mimetic agent, of cells renders a rapid induction of LC3-II level changes and green fluorescent protein-LC3 puncta accumulation, hallmarks of autophagic processing, and that this process involves protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and occurs prior to the induction of BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3). Interestingly, hypoxic stress leads to a rapid and transient activation of JNK in Pa-4 or mouse embryo fibroblast cells. Acute hypoxic stress-induced changes in LC3-II level and JNK activation are attenuated in Pa-4 cells by dominant negative PKCδKD or in mouse embryo fibroblast/PKCδ-null cells. Intriguingly, the requirement of PKCδ is not apparent for starvation-induced autophagy. The importance of PKCδ in hypoxic stress-induced adaptive responses is further supported by our findings that inhibition of PKCδ-facilitated autophagy by 3-methyladenine or Atg5 knock-out renders a greater prevalence of cell death following prolonged desferroxamine treatment, whereas PKCδ- or JNK1-deficient cells exhibit resistance to extended hypoxic exposure. These results uncover dual roles of PKCδ-dependent signaling in the cell fate determination upon hypoxic exposure. PMID:18836180

  16. Hypoxic viscosity and diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, T; Fleming, J; Kohner, E M

    1990-01-01

    Diabetic and sickle retinopathy have features in common--for example, venous dilatation, microaneurysms, and capillary closure preceding neovascularisation. Bearing in mind that haemoglobin in poorly controlled diabetes is abnormal and that extremely low oxygen tensions (known to cause sickling) exist in the healthy cat retina, we wished to explore the possibility that diabetic blood, like that of sickle cell disease, may become more viscous when deoxygenated. To do this we measured whole blood viscosity, under oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions, of 23 normal persons, 23 diabetic patients without retinopathy, and 34 diabetic patients with retinopathy. The shear rate used was 230 s-1, which is similar to that thought to prevail in the major retinal veins. The viscosity of blood from normal persons, corrected for packed cell volume, did not change significantly on deoxygenation: mean 4.54 (SD 0.38) cps, versus, 4.57 (0.39) paired t test, p = 0.66. Similarly the blood from diabetics without retinopathy showed no change: 4.42 (0.45) versus 4.42 (0.30), p = 0.98; whereas the blood from patients with retinopathy changed from 4.82 (0.48) to 4.95 (0.63), p = 0.027. The hypoxic viscosity ratio (deoxygenated divided by oxygenated viscosity) correlated with total serum cholesterol (r = 0.44, p = 0.018) but not with HbA1, serum glucose, triglycerides, or age. A disproportionate increase in venous viscosity relative to arterial viscosity would lead to increased intraluminal and transmural pressure and therefore exacerbate leakage across capillary walls. PMID:2378855

  17. Hypoxic viscosity and diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, T; Fleming, J; Kohner, E M

    1990-07-01

    Diabetic and sickle retinopathy have features in common--for example, venous dilatation, microaneurysms, and capillary closure preceding neovascularisation. Bearing in mind that haemoglobin in poorly controlled diabetes is abnormal and that extremely low oxygen tensions (known to cause sickling) exist in the healthy cat retina, we wished to explore the possibility that diabetic blood, like that of sickle cell disease, may become more viscous when deoxygenated. To do this we measured whole blood viscosity, under oxygenated and deoxygenated conditions, of 23 normal persons, 23 diabetic patients without retinopathy, and 34 diabetic patients with retinopathy. The shear rate used was 230 s-1, which is similar to that thought to prevail in the major retinal veins. The viscosity of blood from normal persons, corrected for packed cell volume, did not change significantly on deoxygenation: mean 4.54 (SD 0.38) cps, versus, 4.57 (0.39) paired t test, p = 0.66. Similarly the blood from diabetics without retinopathy showed no change: 4.42 (0.45) versus 4.42 (0.30), p = 0.98; whereas the blood from patients with retinopathy changed from 4.82 (0.48) to 4.95 (0.63), p = 0.027. The hypoxic viscosity ratio (deoxygenated divided by oxygenated viscosity) correlated with total serum cholesterol (r = 0.44, p = 0.018) but not with HbA1, serum glucose, triglycerides, or age. A disproportionate increase in venous viscosity relative to arterial viscosity would lead to increased intraluminal and transmural pressure and therefore exacerbate leakage across capillary walls.

  18. Chronic hypoxia selectively enhances L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity in pulmonary artery by upregulating Cav1.2 and Cav3.2

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Yamamura, Aya; Zimnicka, Adriana M.; Voiriot, Guillaume; Smith, Kimberly A.; Tang, Haiyang; Ayon, Ramon J.; Choudhury, Moumita S. R.; Ko, Eun A.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen; Makino, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is characterized by sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, both of which are mediated by pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction and proliferation, respectively. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and an important stimulus for cell proliferation in PASMCs. Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) is an important pathway for the regulation of [Ca2+]cyt. The potential role for L- and T-type VDCC in the development of HPH is still unclear. Using a hypoxic-induced pulmonary hypertension mouse model, we undertook this study to identify if VDCC in pulmonary artery (PA) are functionally upregulated and determine which type of VDCC are altered in HPH. Mice subjected to chronic hypoxia developed pulmonary hypertension within 4 wk, and high-K+- and U-46619-induced contraction of PA was greater in chronic hypoxic mice than that in normoxic control mice. Additionally, we demonstrate that high-K+- and U-46619-induced Ca2+ influx in PASMC is significantly increased in the hypoxic group. The VDCC activator, Bay K8864, induced greater contraction of the PA of hypoxic mice than in that of normoxic mice in isometric force measurements. L-type and T-type VDCC blockers significantly attenuated absolute contraction of the PA in hypoxic mice. Chronic hypoxia did not increase high-K+- and U-46619-induced contraction of mesenteric artery (MA). Compared with MA, PA displayed higher expression of calcium channel voltage-dependent L-type α1C-subunit (Cav1.2) and T-type α1H-subunit (Cav3.2) upon exposure to chronic hypoxia. In conclusion, both L-type and T-type VDCC were functionally upregulated in PA, but not MA, in HPH mice, which could result from selectively increased expression of Cav1.2 and Cav3.2. PMID:23686856

  19. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of mouse cerebellum reveals alterations in RasGRF1 expression following in vivo chronic treatment with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Graziano; Rusconi, Francesco; Rubino, Tiziana; Cattaneo, Angela; Martegani, Enzo; Parolaro, Daniela; Bachi, Angela; Zippel, Renata

    2009-02-01

    We have applied transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to identify changes in the RNA and the protein levels in the mouse cerebellum after chronic treatment with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Among approximately 14,000 transcripts in a mouse cDNA microarray library, we found 11 genes with altered expression. RasGRF1, a neuron-specific Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor, showed a reduction both at the RNA and protein levels with a specific decrease of the protein pool associated to cell membranes. In addition, proteomic analysis on cerebellum obtained from chronically THC-treated mice detected quantitative changes of additional 27 spots, mostly in the membranous fraction. We found enrichment of alpha (Galphao, Galphaq) and beta subunits (beta4/beta2 and beta5) of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and of two calcium-binding proteins, calretinin and hippocalcin-like protein-1. In addition, we also detected a significant increase in the membrane fraction of proteins involved in exo-endocytosis such as septins, dynamin-1, and vesicle protein sorting 29. By western blotting, we confirmed increased membrane localization of calretinin and of dynamin-1 isoforms with higher isoelectric point, indicative for an underphosphorylated state of the molecule. In conclusion, our results indicate that chronic THC modulates the expression and subcellular localization of proteins implicated in Ras signaling, calcium-buffering potential, and trafficking.

  20. D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL is neuroprotective in a chronic Parkinson's disease mouse model and increases BNDF expression while reducing neuroinflammation and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Liu, WeiZhen; Li, Lin; Hölscher, Christian

    2017-02-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection. The drug reduced damage to the dopaminergic neurons and increased CREB-mediated Bcl-2 expression to prevent apoptosis and reduced chronic inflammation in the brain. In the present study, we further tested the effects of chronic treatment by D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL in a chronic PD mouse model induced by MPTP (25mg/kg ip.) combination with probenecid (250mg/kg ip.) injection for 5 weeks. The results demonstrated that chronic treatment with D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL inhibits MPTP -induced Parkinsonism-like motor disorders in mice, and that the drug prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Moreover, D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL also inhibited the increased levels of expression of α-synuclein in the SNpc and striatum induced by MPTP. Furthermore, drug treatment reduced chronic neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and increased the expression of BDNF. These findings show that GIP signaling is neuroprotective and holds promise as a novel treatment of PD.

  1. Deletion of STAT5a/b in Vascular Smooth Muscle Abrogates the Male Bias in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Mice: Implications in the Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang-Ming; Yuan, Huijuan; Edwards, John G; Skayian, Yester; Ochani, Kanta; Miller, Edmund J; Sehgal, Pravin B

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia typically elicits pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice with a male-dominant phenotype. There is an opposite-sex bias in human PH, with a higher prevalence in women, but greater survival (the “estrogen paradox”). We investigated the involvement of the STAT5a/b species, previously established to mediate sexual dimorphism in other contexts, in the sex bias in PH. Mice with heterozygous or homozygous deletions of the STAT5a/b locus in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were generated in crosses between STAT5a/bfl/fl and transgelin (SM22α)-Cre+/+ parents. Wild-type (wt ) males subjected to chronic hypoxia showed significant PH and pulmonary arterial remodeling, with wt females showing minimal changes (a male-dominant phenotype). However, in conditional STAT5+/− or STAT5−/− mice, hypoxic females showed the severest manifestations of PH (a female-dominant phenotype). Immunofluorescence studies on human lung sections showed that obliterative pulmonary arterial lesions in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) or hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH), both male and female, overall had reduced STAT5a/b, reduced PY-STAT5 and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) GTPase atlastin-3 (ATL3). Studies of SMCs and endothelial cell (EC) lines derived from vessels isolated from lungs of male and female IPAH patients and controls revealed instances of coordinate reductions in STAT5a, STAT5b and ATL3 in IPAH-derived cells, including SMCs and ECs from the same patient. Taken together, these data provide the first definitive evidence for a contribution of STAT5a/b to the sex bias in PH in the hypoxic mouse and implicate reduced STAT5 in the pathogenesis of the human disease. PMID:25470773

  2. Chemoreceptor stimulation and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Levitzky, M G

    1979-07-01

    Dogs with electromagnetic flow probes implanted on their left (QL) and main (QT) pulmonary arteries, catheters in their left atria and external jugular veins, and chronic tracheostomies were trained to accept Carlens dual-lumen endotracheal tubes into their tracheostomies, thus allowing separate ventilation of the two lungs. Swan-Ganz catheters were inserted through the jugular vein catheters. Pneumotachographs measured air flow to each lung. During bilateral ventilation with room air or O2, QL was about 36% of QT. When the left lung was ventilated with N2 while the right remained on O2, PAO2 was above 90 mmHg and QL fell to about 25% of QT. When the left lung was ventilated with N2 and the right with room air, PAO2 fell below 40 mm Hg and QL increased to control levels. This increase in perfusion of the hypoxic lung during systemic hypoxemia was not seen in dogs after surgical deafferentation of the systemic arterial chemoreceptors, indicating that stimulation of the arterial chemoreceptors may interfere with the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  3. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD. PMID:26010758

  4. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    PubMed

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  5. Environmentally Relevant Chronic Low-Dose Tritium and Gamma Exposures do not Increase Somatic Intrachromosomal Recombination in pKZ1 Mouse Spleen.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Laura; Serran, Mandy; Bertrand, Lindsey; Klokov, Dmitry; Wyatt, Heather; Blimkie, Melinda; Gueguen, Yann; Priest, Nicholas; Jourdain, Jean-René; Sykes, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    The toxicity of tritium is a public health concern given its presence and mobility in the environment. For risk predictions using radiological protection models, it is essential to allocate an appropriate radiation weighting factor (WR). This in turn should be consistent with the observed relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta radiation. Although the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently recommends a WR of 1 for the calculation of committed effective dose for X rays, gamma rays and electrons of all energies, including tritium energies, there are concerns that tritium health risks are underestimated and that current regulatory tritium drinking water standards need revision. In this study, we investigated potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in mouse spleen after one month and eight months of chronic exposure to low-dose tritiated water (HTO). The dose regimes studied were designed to mimic human chronic consumption of HTO at levels of 10 kBq/l, 1 MBq/l and 20 MBq/l. The total doses from these radiation exposures ranged from 0.01 to 180 mGy. We also compared the biological effects of exposure to HTO with equivalent exposure to external whole-body (60)Co gamma rays. Changes in spleen weight and somatic intrachromosomal recombination (DNA inversions) in spleen tissue of pKZ1(Tg/+) mice were monitored. Our results showed no overall changes in either spleen organ weights and no increase mouse splenic intrachromosomal recombination frequencies, indicating that current drinking water standards for tritium exposure in the form of HTO are likely to be adequately protective against cytotoxic and genotoxic damage in spleen. These results demonstrate no evidence for cytotoxicity or genotoxicity in mouse spleen following chronic exposures to HTO activities (or equivalent gamma doses) up to 20 MBq/L.

  6. Sensitization of hypoxic normal tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radiosensitization by misonidazole of three normal tissues in the unanaeshtetized mouse (femoral marrow, intestinal crypts and the target tissue for tail necrosis) has been studied. At 1 mg/g body weight, no sensitization was observed for the former two tissues, and no cytotoxicity for marrow was demonstrated. Sensitization of fully anoxic marrow or tail shown, by a factor of 1.8--1.9, in comparison with normal tails (factor 1.5). Clamping experiments revealed the homogenous nature of the natural hypoxia in the tissue responsible for tail necrosis, and an effective increase in the oxygenation was seen at Day 7 after a large priming dose. PMID:277235

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates post-hypoxic vascular pruning of cerebral blood vessels by degrading laminin and claudin-5.

    PubMed

    Boroujerdi, Amin; Welser-Alves, Jennifer V; Milner, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Vascular remodeling involves a highly coordinated break-down and build-up of the vascular basal lamina and inter-endothelial tight junction proteins. In light of the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tissue remodeling, the goal of this study was to examine the role of MMP-9 in remodeling of cerebral blood vessels, both in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and in the vascular pruning that accompanies the switch from hypoxia back to normoxia. In a chronic mild hypoxia model of cerebrovascular remodeling, gel zymography revealed that MMP-9 levels were increased, both during hypoxic-induced angiogenesis and in the post-hypoxic pruning response. Interestingly, compared to wild-type mice, MMP-9 KO mice showed no alteration in hypoxic-induced angiogenesis, but did show marked delay in post-hypoxic vascular pruning. In wild-type mice, vascular pruning was associated with fragmentation of vascular laminin and the tight junction protein claudin-5, while this process was markedly attenuated in MMP-9 KO mice. In vitro experiments showed that hypoxia stimulated MMP-9 expression in brain endothelial cells but not pericytes. These results show that while MMP-9 is not essential for hypoxic-induced cerebral angiogenesis, it plays an important role in post-hypoxic vascular pruning by degrading laminin and claudin-5.

  8. T-Cell Activation under Hypoxic Conditions Enhances IFN-γ Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Jessica; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Guo, Jia; Sugunan, Siva; Meednu, Nida; Packirisamy, Gopinath; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Golding, Amit; Semenza, Gregg; Georas, Steve N.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues are characterized by hypoxic microenvironments, both in the steady state and during inflammation. Although hypoxia regulates T-cell metabolism and survival, very little is known about whether or how hypoxia influences T-cell activation. We stimulated mouse CD4+ T cells in vitro with antibodies directed against the T-cell receptor (CD3) and CD28 under normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. Here we report that stimulation under hypoxic conditions augments the secretion of effector CD4+ T-cell cytokines, especially IFN-γ. The enhancing effects of hypoxia on IFN-γ secretion were independent of mouse strain, and were also unaffected using CD4+ T cells from mice lacking one copy of the gene encoding hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Using T cells from IFN-γ receptor–deficient mice and promoter reporter studies in transiently transfected Jurkat T cells, we found that the enhancing effects of hypoxia on IFN-γ expression were not due to effects on IFN-γ consumption or proximal promoter activity. In contrast, deletion of the transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45–related factor 2 attenuated the enhancing effect of hypoxia on IFN-γ secretion and other cytokines. We conclude that hypoxia is a previously underappreciated modulator of effector cytokine secretion in CD4+ T cells. PMID:19372249

  9. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2008-07-04

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  10. Chronic alcohol exposure affects pancreatic acinar mitochondrial thiamin pyrophosphate uptake: studies with mouse 266-6 cell line and primary cells

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Nabokina, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Thiamin is essential for normal metabolic activity of all mammalian cells, including those of the pancreas. Cells obtain thiamin from their surroundings and enzymatically convert it into thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) in the cytoplasm; TPP is then taken up by mitochondria via a specific carrier the mitochondrial TPP transporter (MTPPT; product of the SLC25A19 gene). Chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts the health of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on physiological/molecular parameters of MTPPT is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse pancreatic acinar tumor cell line 266-6 and primary PAC of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC25A19 promoter that were fed alcohol chronically. Chronic alcohol exposure of 266-6 cells (but not to its nonoxidative metabolites ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate) led to a significant inhibition in mitochondrial TPP uptake, which was associated with a decreased expression of MTPPT protein, mRNA, and activity of the SLC25A19 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of mice led to a significant inhibition in expression of MTPPT protein, mRNA, heterogeneous nuclear RNA, as well as in activity of SLC25A19 promoter in PAC. While chronic alcohol exposure did not affect DNA methylation of the Slc25a19 promoter, a significant decrease in histone H3 euchromatin markers and an increase in H3 heterochromatin marker were observed. These findings show, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts pancreatic MTPPT, and that this effect is exerted, at least in part, at the level of Slc25a19 transcription and appears to involve epigenetic mechanism(s). PMID:26316591

  11. Combining hypoxic methods for peak performance.

    PubMed

    Millet, Gregoire P; Roels, B; Schmitt, L; Woorons, X; Richalet, J P

    2010-01-01

    New methods and devices for pursuing performance enhancement through altitude training were developed in Scandinavia and the USA in the early 1990s. At present, several forms of hypoxic training and/or altitude exposure exist: traditional 'live high-train high' (LHTH), contemporary 'live high-train low' (LHTL), intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest (IHE) and intermittent hypoxic exposure during continuous session (IHT). Although substantial differences exist between these methods of hypoxic training and/or exposure, all have the same goal: to induce an improvement in athletic performance at sea level. They are also used for preparation for competition at altitude and/or for the acclimatization of mountaineers. The underlying mechanisms behind the effects of hypoxic training are widely debated. Although the popular view is that altitude training may lead to an increase in haematological capacity, this may not be the main, or the only, factor involved in the improvement of performance. Other central (such as ventilatory, haemodynamic or neural adaptation) or peripheral (such as muscle buffering capacity or economy) factors play an important role. LHTL was shown to be an efficient method. The optimal altitude for living high has been defined as being 2200-2500 m to provide an optimal erythropoietic effect and up to 3100 m for non-haematological parameters. The optimal duration at altitude appears to be 4 weeks for inducing accelerated erythropoiesis whereas <3 weeks (i.e. 18 days) are long enough for beneficial changes in economy, muscle buffering capacity, the hypoxic ventilatory response or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. One critical point is the daily dose of altitude. A natural altitude of 2500 m for 20-22 h/day (in fact, travelling down to the valley only for training) appears sufficient to increase erythropoiesis and improve sea-level performance. 'Longer is better' as regards haematological changes since additional benefits have been shown as hypoxic exposure

  12. Important role of PLC-γ1 in hypoxic increase in intracellular calcium in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vishal R.; Song, Tengyao; Joseph, Leroy; Mei, Lin; Zheng, Yun-Min

    2013-01-01

    An increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) induces hypoxic cellular responses in the lungs; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We report, for the first time, that acute hypoxia significantly enhances phospholipase C (PLC) activity in mouse resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs), but not in mesenteric arteries. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining reveal the expression of PLC-γ1 protein in PAs and PASMCs, respectively. The activity of PLC-γ1 is also augmented in PASMCs following hypoxia. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated gene knockdown of mitochondrial complex III Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents hypoxia from increasing PLC-γ1 activity in PASMCs. Myxothiazol, a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, reduces the hypoxic response as well. The PLC inhibitor U73122, but not its inactive analog U73433, attenuates the hypoxic vasoconstriction in PAs and hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs. PLC-γ1 knockdown suppresses its protein expression and the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i. Hypoxia remarkably increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production, which is blocked by U73122. The IP3 receptor (IP3R) antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or xestospongin-C inhibits the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i. PLC-γ1 knockdown or U73122 reduces H2O2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and contraction in PAs. 2-APB and xestospongin-C produce similar inhibitory effects. In conclusion, our findings provide novel evidence that hypoxia activates PLC-γ1 by increasing RISP-dependent mitochondrial ROS production in the complex III, which causes IP3 production, IP3R opening, and Ca2+ release, playing an important role in hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in PASMCs. PMID:23204067

  13. Important role of PLC-γ1 in hypoxic increase in intracellular calcium in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vishal R; Song, Tengyao; Joseph, Leroy; Mei, Lin; Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Yong-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    An increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) induces hypoxic cellular responses in the lungs; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We report, for the first time, that acute hypoxia significantly enhances phospholipase C (PLC) activity in mouse resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs), but not in mesenteric arteries. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining reveal the expression of PLC-γ1 protein in PAs and PASMCs, respectively. The activity of PLC-γ1 is also augmented in PASMCs following hypoxia. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated gene knockdown of mitochondrial complex III Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents hypoxia from increasing PLC-γ1 activity in PASMCs. Myxothiazol, a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, reduces the hypoxic response as well. The PLC inhibitor U73122, but not its inactive analog U73433, attenuates the hypoxic vasoconstriction in PAs and hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs. PLC-γ1 knockdown suppresses its protein expression and the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Hypoxia remarkably increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) production, which is blocked by U73122. The IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or xestospongin-C inhibits the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). PLC-γ1 knockdown or U73122 reduces H(2)O(2)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs and contraction in PAs. 2-APB and xestospongin-C produce similar inhibitory effects. In conclusion, our findings provide novel evidence that hypoxia activates PLC-γ1 by increasing RISP-dependent mitochondrial ROS production in the complex III, which causes IP(3) production, IP(3)R opening, and Ca(2+) release, playing an important role in hypoxic Ca(2+) and contractile responses in PASMCs.

  14. Early Onset of Hypersynchronous Network Activity and Expression of a Marker of Chronic Seizures in the Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bezzina, Charlotte; Verret, Laure; Juan, Cécile; Remaud, Jessica; Halley, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal hypersynchrony of neuronal networks seems to be an early event in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Many mouse models of the disease also present neuronal network hypersynchrony, as evidenced by higher susceptibility to pharmacologically-induced seizures, electroencephalographic seizures accompanied by spontaneous interictal spikes and expression of markers of chronic seizures such as neuropeptide Y ectopic expression in mossy fibers. This network hypersynchrony is thought to contribute to memory deficits, but whether it precedes the onset of memory deficits or not in mouse models remains unknown. The earliest memory impairments in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease have been observed at 3 months of age. We thus assessed network hypersynchrony in Tg2576 and non-transgenic male mice at 1.5, 3 and 6 months of age. As soon as 1.5 months of age, Tg2576 mice presented higher seizure susceptibility to systemic injection of a GABAA receptor antagonist. They also displayed spontaneous interictal spikes on EEG recordings. Some Tg2576 mice presented hippocampal ectopic expression of neuropeptide Y which incidence seems to increase with age among the Tg2576 population. Our data reveal that network hypersynchrony appears very early in Tg2576 mice, before any demonstrated memory impairments. PMID:25768013

  15. Gold nanoparticles enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jae-Won; Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won-Gun; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Materials and Methods Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Results Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. Conclusion In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors. PMID:27730800

  16. Hypoxic stress, brain vascular system, and β-amyloid: a primary cell culture study.

    PubMed

    Muche, Abebe; Bürger, Susanne; Arendt, Thomas; Schliebs, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    This study stresses the hypothesis whether hypoxic events contribute to formation and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in cerebral blood vessels by affecting the processing of endothelial amyloid precursor protein (APP). Therefore, cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) derived from transgenic Tg2576 mouse brain, were subjected to short periods of hypoxic stress, followed by assessment of formation and secretion of APP cleavage products sAPPα, sAPPβ, and Aβ as well as the expression of endothelial APP. Hypoxic stress of EC leads to enhanced secretion of sAPPβ into the culture medium as compared to normoxic controls, which is accompanied by increased APP expression, induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis, nitric oxide production, and differential changes in endothelial p42/44 (ERK1/2) expression. The hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of p42/44 at a particular time of incubation was accompanied by a corresponding down-regulation of the phosphorylated form of p42/44. To reveal any role of hypoxia-induced VEGF in endothelial APP processing, ECs were exposed by VEGF. VEGF hardly affected the amount of sAPPβ and Aβ(1-40) secreted into the culture medium, whereas the suppression of the VEGF receptor action by SU-5416 resulted in decreased release of sAPPβ and Aβ(1-40) in comparison to control incubations, suggesting a role of VEGF in controlling the activity of γ-secretase, presumably via the VEGF receptor-associated tyrosine kinase. The data suggest that hypoxic stress represents a mayor risk factor in causing Aβ deposition in the brain vascular system by favoring the amyloidogenic route of endothelial APP processing. The hypoxic-stress-induced changes in β-secretase activity are presumably mediated by altering the phosphorylation status of p42/44, whereas the stress-induced up-regulation of VEGF appears to play a counteracting role by maintaining the balance of physiological APP processing.

  17. Desvenlafaxine prevents white matter injury and improves the decreased phosphorylation of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis in a chronic mouse model of depression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junhui; Qiao, Jinping; Zhang, Yanbo; Wang, Hongxing; Zhu, Shenghua; Zhang, Handi; Hartle, Kelly; Guo, Huining; Guo, Wei; He, Jue; Kong, Jiming; Huang, Qingjun; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-10-01

    Serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors antidepressants exert their effects by increasing serotonin and norepinephrine in the synaptic cleft. Studies show it takes 2-3 weeks for the mood-enhancing effects, which indicate other mechanisms may underlie their treatment effects. Here, we investigated the role of white matter in treatment and pathogenesis of depression using an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) mouse model. Desvenlafaxine (DVS) was orally administrated to UCMS mice at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day 1 week before they went through a 7-week stress procedure and lasted for over 8 weeks before the mice were killed. No significant changes were found for protein markers of neurons and astrocytes in UCMS mice. However, myelin and oligodendrocyte-related proteins were significantly reduced in UCMS mice. DVS prevented the stress-induced injury to white matter and the decrease of phosphorylated 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase protein expression. DVS increased open arm entries in an elevated plus-maze test, sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test and decreased immobility in tail suspension and forced swimming tests. These findings suggest that stress induces depression-like behaviors and white matter deficits in UCMS mice. DVS may ameliorate the oligodendrocyte dysfunction by affecting cholesterol synthesis, alleviating the depression-like phenotypes in these mice. We examined the possible role of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the pathological changes of depression with an unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) mouse model. Oligodendrocyte-related proteins in the mouse brain were specifically changed during the stress period. The depressive-like behaviors and oligodendrocyte deficits could be prevented by the administration of desvenlafaxine. Oligodendrocyte and myelin may be an essential target of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of depression. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Chronic GluN2B antagonism disrupts behavior in wild-type mice without protecting against synapse loss or memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jesse E; Meilandt, William J; Gogineni, Alvin; Reynen, Paul; Herrington, James; Weimer, Robby M; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-06-11

    Extensive evidence implicates GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2B-NMDARs) in excitotoxic-insult-induced neurodegeneration and amyloid β (Aβ)-induced synaptic dysfunction. Therefore, inhibiting GluN2B-NMDARs would appear to be a potential therapeutic strategy to provide neuroprotection and improve cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there are no reports of long-term in vivo treatment of AD mouse models with GluN2B antagonists. We used piperidine18 (Pip18), a potent and selective GluN2B-NMDAR antagonist with favorable pharmacokinetic properties, for long-term dosing in AD mouse models. Reduced freezing behavior in Tg2576 mice during fear conditioning was partially reversed after subchronic (17 d) Pip18 treatment. However, analysis of freezing behavior in different contexts indicated that this increased freezing likely involves elevated anxiety or excessive memory generalization in both nontransgenic (NTG) and Tg2576 mice. In PS2APP mice chronically fed with medicated food containing Pip18 for 4 months, spatial learning and memory deficits were not rescued, plaque-associated spine loss was not affected, and synaptic function was not altered. At the same time, altered open field activity consistent with increased anxiety and degraded performance in an active avoidance task were observed in NTG after chronic treatment. These results indicate that long-term treatment with a GluN2B-NMDAR antagonist does not provide a disease-modifying benefit and could cause cognitive liabilities rather than symptomatic benefit in AD mouse models. Therefore, these results challenge the expectation of the therapeutic potential for GluN2B-NMDAR antagonists in AD.

  19. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  20. Chronic Treatment with the AMPK Agonist AICAR Prevents Skeletal Muscle Pathology but Fails to Improve Clinical Outcome in a Mouse Model of Severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cerveró, Clàudia; Montull, Neus; Tarabal, Olga; Piedrafita, Lídia; Esquerda, Josep E; Calderó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by spinal and brainstem motor neuron (MN) loss and skeletal muscle paralysis. Currently, there is no effective treatment other than supportive care to ameliorate the quality of life of patients with SMA. Some studies have reported that physical exercise, by improving muscle strength and motor function, is potentially beneficial in SMA. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) has been reported to be an exercise mimetic agent that is able to regulate muscle metabolism and increase endurance both at rest and during exercise. Chronic AICAR administration has been shown to ameliorate the dystrophic muscle phenotype and motor behavior in the mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigated whether chronic AICAR treatment was able to elicit beneficial effects on motor abilities and neuromuscular histopathology in a mouse model of severe SMA (the SMNΔ7 mouse). We report that AICAR improved skeletal muscle atrophy and structural changes found in neuromuscular junctions of SMNΔ7 animals. However, although AICAR prevented the loss of glutamatergic excitatory synapses on MNs, this compound was not able to mitigate MN loss or the microglial and astroglial reaction occurring in the spinal cord of diseased mice. Moreover, no improvement in survival or motor performance was seen in SMNΔ7 animals treated with AICAR. The beneficial effects of AICAR in SMA found in our study are SMN-independent, as no changes in the expression of this protein were seen in the spinal cord and skeletal muscle of diseased animals treated with this compound.

  1. Diacylglycerol regulates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction via TRPC6

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an essential mechanism of the lung that matches blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation to optimize gas exchange. Recently we have demonstrated that acute but not sustained HPV is critically dependent on the classical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) channel. However, the mechanism of TRPC6 activation during acute HPV remains elusive. We hypothesize that a diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent activation of TRPC6 regulates acute HPV. Methods We investigated the effect of the DAG analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) on normoxic vascular tone in isolated perfused and ventilated mouse lungs from TRPC6-deficient and wild-type mice. Moreover, the effects of OAG, the DAG kinase inhibitor R59949 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 on the strength of HPV were investigated compared to those on non-hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction elicited by the thromboxane mimeticum U46619. Results OAG increased normoxic vascular tone in lungs from wild-type mice, but not in lungs from TRPC6-deficient mice. Under conditions of repetitive hypoxic ventilation, OAG as well as R59949 dose-dependently attenuated the strength of acute HPV whereas U46619-induced vasoconstrictions were not reduced. Like OAG, R59949 mimicked HPV, since it induced a dose-dependent vasoconstriction during normoxic ventilation. In contrast, U73122, a blocker of DAG synthesis, inhibited acute HPV whereas U73343, the inactive form of U73122, had no effect on HPV. Conclusion These findings support the conclusion that the TRPC6-dependency of acute HPV is induced via DAG. PMID:21294865

  2. Lung tumorigenic response of strain A mice exposed to hypoxic cell sensitizers alone and in combination with gamma-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, T.A.; Theiss, J.C.; Grdina, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of metronidazole, misonidazole, and desmethylmisonidazole on the induction of lung adenomas in the strain A mouse was examined. Two dose levels of the hypoxic cell sensitizers, 0.2 and 0.6 mg/g, were used either alone or in combination with 900 rads of gamma-radiation in a fractionated dose schedule of twice a week for 3 weeks. In the groups of mice which received hypoxic cell sensitizers only, the prevalence and the mean number of lung tumors per mouse were somewhat increased (p less than 0.10) in the group receiving the higher dose (0.6 mg/g) of misonidazole but was not significantly different from results for the control animals in the other two sensitizer groups. The combination of hypoxic cell sensitizer and radiation did not show any significant enhancement of lung tumor response when compared with the group which received radiation only. The dose of radiation used in this study significantly enhanced lung tumor formation in mice when compared with that in the control group. Thus, under the experimental exposure conditions used in this investigation, which were somewhat similar to the exposure conditions occurring in clinical treatment, each of the hypoxic cell sensitizers tested failed to sensitize significantly the mice to the carcinogenic effects of gamma-radiation.

  3. Regulation of the distribution and function of [(125)I]epibatidine binding sites by chronic nicotine in mouse embryonic neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Cristian A; Salamander, Rakel M; Collins, Allan C; Grady, Sharon R; Marks, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Chronic nicotine produces up-regulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (* denotes that an additional subunit may be part of the receptor). However, the extent of up-regulation to persistent ligand exposure varies across brain regions. The aim of this work was to study the cellular distribution and function of nAChRs after chronic nicotine treatment in primary cultures of mouse brain neurons. Initially, high-affinity [(125)I]epibatidine binding to cell membrane homogenates from primary neuronal cultures obtained from diencephalon and hippocampus of C57BL/6J mouse embryos (embryonic days 16-18) was measured. An increase in α4β2*-nAChR binding sites was observed in hippocampus, but not in diencephalon, after 24 h of treatment with 1 μM nicotine. However, a nicotine dose-dependent up-regulation of approximately 3.5- and 0.4-fold in hippocampus and diencephalon, respectively, was found after 96 h of nicotine treatment. A significant fraction of total [(125)I]epibatidine binding sites in both hippocampus (45%) and diencephalon (65%) was located on the cell surface. Chronic nicotine (96 h) up-regulated both intracellular and surface binding in both brain regions without changing the proportion of those binding sites compared with control neurons. The increase in surface binding was not accompanied by an increase in nicotine-stimulated Ca(2+) influx, suggesting persistent desensitization or inactivation of receptors at the plasma membrane occurred. Given the differences observed between hippocampus and diencephalon neurons exposed to nicotine, multiple mechanisms may play a role in the regulation of nAChR expression and function.

  4. Rat, Mouse, and Primate Models of Chronic Glaucoma Show Sustained Elevation of Extracellular ATP and Altered Purinergic Signaling in the Posterior Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wennan; Hu, HuiLing; Sévigny, Jean; Gabelt, B'Ann T.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Johnson, Elaine C.; Morrison, John C.; Zode, Gulab S.; Sheffield, Val C.; Zhang, Xiulan; Laties, Alan M.; Mitchell, Claire H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The cellular mechanisms linking elevated IOP with glaucomatous damage remain unresolved. Mechanical strains and short-term increases in IOP can trigger ATP release from retinal neurons and astrocytes, but the response to chronic IOP elevation is unknown. As excess extracellular ATP can increase inflammation and damage neurons, we asked if sustained IOP elevation was associated with a sustained increase in extracellular ATP in the posterior eye. Methods. No ideal animal model of chronic glaucoma exists, so three different models were used. Tg-MyocY437H mice were examined at 40 weeks, while IOP was elevated in rats following injection of hypertonic saline into episcleral veins and in cynomolgus monkeys by laser photocoagulation of the trabecular meshwork. The ATP levels were measured using the luciferin-luciferase assay while levels of NTPDase1 were assessed using qPCR, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Results. The ATP levels were elevated in the vitreal humor of rats, mice, and primates after a sustained period of IOP elevation. The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 was elevated in optic nerve head astrocytes exposed to extracellular ATP for an extended period. NTPDase1 was also elevated in the retinal tissue of rats, mice, and primates, and in the optic nerve of rats, with chronic elevation in IOP. Conclusions. A sustained elevation in extracellular ATP, and upregulation of NTPDase1, occurs in the posterior eye of rat, mouse, and primate models of chronic glaucoma. This suggests the elevation in extracellular ATP may be sustained in chronic glaucoma, and implies a role for altered purinergic signaling in the disease. PMID:26024091

  5. Chronic variable stress in fathers alters paternal and social behavior but not pup development in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; de Jong, Trynke R; Yang, Vanessa; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Stress and chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels have been shown to disrupt parental behavior in mothers; however, almost no studies have investigated corresponding effects in fathers. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that chronic variable stress inhibits paternal behavior and consequently alters pup development in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). First-time fathers were assigned to one of three experimental groups: chronic variable stress (CVS, n=8), separation control (SC, n=7), or unmanipulated control (UC, n=8). The CVS paradigm (3 stressors per day for 7 days) successfully stressed mice, as evidenced by increased baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations, increased adrenal mass, decreased thymus mass, and a decrease in body mass over time. CVS altered paternal and social behavior of fathers, but major differences were observed only on day 6 of the 7-day paradigm. At that time point, CVS fathers spent less time with their pairmate and pups, and more time autogrooming, as compared to UC fathers; SC fathers spent more time behaving paternally and grooming the female mate than CVS and UC fathers. Thus, CVS blocked the separation-induced increase in social behaviors observed in the SC fathers. Nonetheless, chronic stress in fathers did not appear to alter survival or development of their offspring: pups from the three experimental conditions did not differ in body mass gain over time, in the day of eye opening, or in basal or post-stress corticosterone levels. These results demonstrate that chronic stress can transiently disrupt paternal and social behavior in P. californicus fathers, but does not alter pup development or survival under controlled, non-challenging laboratory conditions. © 2013.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors contribute to apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in the spinal cord of spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy) sustaining chronic mechanical compression.

    PubMed

    Inukai, Tomoo; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Yayama, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Mwaka, Erisa S; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2009-12-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: To examine the distribution of apoptotic cells and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and its receptors in the spinal hyperostotic mouse (twy/twy) with chronic cord compression using immunohistochemical methods. OBJECTIVE.: To study the mechanisms of apoptosis, particularly in oligodendrocytes, which could contribute to degenerative change and demyelination in chronic mechanical cord compression. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: TNF-alpha acts as an external signal initiating apoptosis in neurons and oligodendrocytes after spinal cord injury. Chronic spinal cord compression caused neuronal loss, myelin destruction, and axonal degeneration. However, the biologic mechanisms of apoptosis in chronically compressed spinal cord remain unclear. METHODS.: The cervical spinal cord of 34 twy mice aged 20 to 24 weeks and 11 control animals were examined. The apoptotic cells were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expression and the localization of TNF-alpha, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) were examined using immunoblot and immnohistochemical analysis. RESULTS.: The number of TUNEL-positive cells in the white matter increased with the severity of compression, which was further increased bilaterally in the white matter of twy/twy mice. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that the number of cells positive for TUNEL and RIP, a marker of oligodendrocytes, increased in the white matter with increased severity of cord compression. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated overexpression of TNF-alpha, TNFR1, and TNFR2 in severe compression. The expression of TNF-alpha appeared in local cells including microglia while that of TNFR1 and TNFR2 was noted in apoptotic oligodendrocytes. CONCLUSION.: Our results suggested that the proportion of apoptotic oligodendrocytes, causing spongy axonal degeneration and demyelination, correlated with the magnitude of cord

  7. In Vivo Acute on Chronic Ethanol Effects in Liver: A Mouse Model Exhibiting Exacerbated Injury, Altered Metabolic and Epigenetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Aroor, Annayya R; Restrepo, Ricardo; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-11-20

    Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease.

  8. An investigation of renal function in chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation has been made into various parameters of renal function in patients with chronic bronchitis and in a group of hypoxic controls. Abnormalities of glomerular filtration rate and of water handling have been demostrated in chronic bronchitic patients but not in hypoxic controls. The abnormalities are related to the arterial Pco2. A hypothesis is presented as to the role of CO2 in causing abnormalities of renal function in chronic bronchitis. PMID:17853

  9. Chronic 5-HT4 receptor agonist treatment restores learning and memory deficits in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression.

    PubMed

    Darcet, Flavie; Gardier, Alain M; David, Denis J; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-11

    Cognitive disturbances are often reported as serious invalidating symptoms in patients suffering from major depression disorders (MDD) and are not fully corrected by classical monoaminergic antidepressant drugs. If the role of 5-HT4 receptor agonists as cognitive enhancers is well established in naïve animals or in animal models of cognitive impairment, their cognitive effects in the context of stress need to be examined. Using a mouse model of anxiety/depression (CORT model), we reported that a chronic 5-HT4 agonist treatment (RS67333, 1.5mg/kg/day) restored chronic corticosterone-induced cognitive deficits, including episodic-like, associative and spatial learning and memory impairments. On the contrary, a chronic monoaminergic antidepressant drug treatment with fluoxetine (18mg/kg/day) only partially restored spatial learning and memory deficits and had no effect in the associative/contextual task. These results suggest differential mechanisms underlying cognitive effects of these drugs. Finally, the present study highlights 5-HT4 receptor stimulation as a promising therapeutic mechanism to alleviate cognitive symptoms related to MDD.

  10. Mouse Mast Cell Tryptase mMCP-6 Is a Critical Link between Adaptive and Innate Immunity in the Chronic Phase of Trichinella spiralis Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kichul; Watts, Gerald F. M.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Friend, Daniel S.; Pemberton, Alan D.; Gurish, Michael F.; Lee, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the innate immune function of mast cells in the acute phase of parasitic and bacterial infections is well established, their participation in chronic immune responses to indolent infection remains incompletely understood. In parasitic infection with Trichinella spiralis, the immune response incorporates both lymphocyte and mast cell-dependent effector functions for pathogen eradication. Among the mechanistic insights still unresolved in the reaction to T. spiralis are the means by which mast cells respond to parasites and the mast cell effector functions that contribute to the immunologic response to this pathogen. We hypothesized that mast cell elaboration of tryptase may comprise an important effector component in this response. Indeed, we find that mice deficient in the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6 (mMCP-6) display a significant difference in their response to T. spiralis larvae in chronically infected skeletal muscle tissue. Mechanistically, this is associated with a profound inability to recruit eosinophils to larvae in mMCP-6-deficient mice. Analysis of IgE-deficient mice demonstrates an identical defect in eosinophil recruitment. These findings establish that mast cell secretion of the tryptase mMCP-6, a function directed by the activity of the adaptive immune system, contributes to eosinophil recruitment to the site of larval infection, thereby comprising an integral link in the chronic immune response to parasitic infection. PMID:18354212

  11. Interdependence of HIF-1α and TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in normoxic and hypoxic renal epithelial cell collagen expression

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajit K.; Hubchak, Susan; Hayashida, Tomoko; Runyan, Constance E.; Schumacker, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that chronic kidney disease may develop following acute kidney injury and that this may be due, in part, to hypoxia-related phenomena. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is stabilized in hypoxic conditions and regulates multiple signaling pathways that could contribute to renal fibrosis. As transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is known to mediate renal fibrosis, we proposed a profibrotic role for cross talk between the TGF-β1 and HIF-1α signaling pathways in kidney cells. Hypoxic incubation increased HIF-1α protein expression in cultured human renal tubular epithelial cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. TGF-β1 treatment further increased HIF-1α expression in cells treated with hypoxia and also increased HIF-1α in normoxic conditions. TGF-β1 did not increase HIF-1α mRNA levels nor decrease the rate of protein degradation, suggesting that it enhances normoxic HIF-1α translation. TGF-β receptor (ALK5) kinase activity was required for increased HIF-1α expression in response to TGF-β1, but not to hypoxia. A dominant negative Smad3 decreased the TGF-β-stimulated reporter activity of a HIF-1α-sensitive hypoxia response element. Conversely, a dominant negative HIF-1α construct decreased Smad-binding element promoter activity in response to TGF-β. Finally, blocking HIF-1α transcription with a biochemical inhibitor, a dominant negative construct, or gene-specific knockdown decreased basal and TGF-β1-stimulated type I collagen expression, while HIF-1α overexpression increased both. Taken together, our data demonstrate cooperation in signaling between Smad3 and HIF-1α and suggest a new paradigm in which HIF-1α is necessary for normoxic, TGF-β1-stimulated renal cell fibrogenesis. PMID:21209004

  12. Transepithelial Ion Transport is Suppressed in Hypoxic Sinonasal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Angela; Zhang, Shaoyan; Chestnut, Michael; Hixon, Brian; Skinner, Daniel; Sorscher, Eric J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sinonasal respiratory epithelial mucociliary clearance (MCC) is dependent on the transepithelial transport of ions such as Cl−. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of oxygen restriction in 1) Cl− transport across primary sinonasal epithelial monolayers, 2) expression of the apical Cl− channels CFTR and TMEM16A, and 3) the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Study Design In vitro investigation. Methods Murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE, wild type) and human sinonasal epithelial (HSNE) cultures were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2, 5% CO2). Cultures were mounted in Ussing chambers for ion transport measurements. CFTR and TMEM16A expression were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results The change in short-circuit current (ΔISC (µA/cm2) attributable to CFTR (forskolin-stimulated) was significantly decreased due to a 12 hour hypoxia exposure in both MNSE (13.55+/− 0.46 vs. 19.23+/−0.18) and HSNE (19.55+/−0.56 vs. 25.49+/−1.48 (control); p<0.05. TMEM16A (UTP-stimulated transport) was inhibited by 48 hours of hypoxic exposure in MNSE (15.92+/−2.87 vs. 51.44+/−3.71(control) p<0.05] and by 12 hours of hypoxic exposure in HSNE (16.75+/−0.68 vs. 24.15+/−1.35 (control). Quantitative RT-PCR (reported as relative mRNA levels+/−S.D.) demonstrated significant reductions in both CFTR and TMEM16A mRNA expression in MNSE and HSNE due to airway epithelial hypoxia. Conclusions Sinonasal epithelial CFTR and TMEM16A-mediated Cl− transport and mRNA expression were robustly decreased in an oxygen restricted environment. The findings in the present study indicate persistent hypoxia may lead to acquired defects in sinonasal Cl− transport in a fashion likely to confer mucociliary dysfunction in CRS. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:22024847

  13. EETs promote hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction via constrictor prostanoids.

    PubMed

    Kandhi, Sharath; Zhang, Bin; Froogh, Ghezal; Qin, Jun; Alruwaili, Norah; Le, Yicong; Yang, Yang-Ming; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D; Wolin, Michael S; Huang, An; Sun, Dong

    2017-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) facilitate pulmonary responses to hypoxia, male wild-type (WT) and soluble-epoxide hydrolase knockout (sEH-KO) mice, and WT mice chronically fed a sEH inhibitor (t-TUCB; 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) were used. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was recorded under control and hypoxic conditions. The control RVSP was comparable among all groups. However, hypoxia elicited increases in RVSP in all groups with predominance in sEH-KO and t-TUCB-treated mice. 14,15-EEZE (an EET antagonist) attenuated the hypoxia-induced greater elevation of RVSP in sEH-deficient mice, suggesting an EET-mediated increment. Exogenous 5,6-; 8,9-, or 14,15-EET (0.05 ng/g body wt) did not change RVSP in any conditions, but 11,12-EET enhanced RVSP under hypoxia. Isometric tension was recorded from pulmonary arteries isolated from WT and sEH-KO mice, vessels that behaved identically in their responsiveness to vasoactive agents and vessel stretch. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV, expressed as increases in hypoxic force) was significantly greater in vessels of sEH-KO than WT vessels; the enhanced component was inhibited by EEZE. Treatment of WT vessels with 11,12-EET enhanced HPV to the same level as sEH-KO vessels, confirming EETs as primary players. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COXs) significantly enhanced HPV in WT vessels, but attenuated HPV in sEH-KO vessels. Blocking/inhibiting COX-1, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2)/thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptors and TXA synthase prevented the enhanced HPV in sEH-KO vessels but had no effects on WT vessels. In conclusion, an EET-dependent alteration in PG metabolism that favors the action of vasoconstrictor PGH2 and TXA2 potentiates HPV and hypoxia-induced elevation of RVSP in sEH-deficient mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Molecular chaperones and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hua, Cong; Ju, Wei-Na; Jin, Hang; Sun, Xin; Zhao, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a disease that occurs when the brain is subjected to hypoxia, resulting in neuronal death and neurological deficits, with a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitatory amino acid release, cellular proteolysis, reactive oxygen species generation, nitric oxide synthesis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular changes in HIE include protein misfolding, aggregation, and destruction of organelles. The apoptotic pathways activated by ischemia and hypoxia include the mitochondrial pathway, the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathway. Numerous treatments for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury caused by HIE have been developed over the last half century. Hypothermia, xenon gas treatment, the use of melatonin and erythropoietin, and hypoxic-ischemic preconditioning have proven effective in HIE patients. Molecular chaperones are proteins ubiquitously present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A large number of molecular chaperones are induced after brain ischemia and hypoxia, among which the heat shock proteins are the most important. Heat shock proteins not only maintain protein homeostasis; they also exert anti-apoptotic effects. Heat shock proteins maintain protein homeostasis by helping to transport proteins to their target destinations, assisting in the proper folding of newly synthesized polypeptides, regulating the degradation of misfolded proteins, inhibiting the aggregation of proteins, and by controlling the refolding of misfolded proteins. In addition, heat shock proteins exert anti-apoptotic effects by interacting with various signaling pathways to block the activation of downstream effectors in numerous apoptotic pathways, including the intrinsic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum-stress mediated pathway and the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway. Molecular chaperones play a key role in neuroprotection in HIE. In this review, we

  15. Molecular chaperones and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Cong; Ju, Wei-na; Jin, Hang; Sun, Xin; Zhao, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a disease that occurs when the brain is subjected to hypoxia, resulting in neuronal death and neurological deficits, with a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitatory amino acid release, cellular proteolysis, reactive oxygen species generation, nitric oxide synthesis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular changes in HIE include protein misfolding, aggregation, and destruction of organelles. The apoptotic pathways activated by ischemia and hypoxia include the mitochondrial pathway, the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathway. Numerous treatments for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury caused by HIE have been developed over the last half century. Hypothermia, xenon gas treatment, the use of melatonin and erythropoietin, and hypoxic-ischemic preconditioning have proven effective in HIE patients. Molecular chaperones are proteins ubiquitously present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A large number of molecular chaperones are induced after brain ischemia and hypoxia, among which the heat shock proteins are the most important. Heat shock proteins not only maintain protein homeostasis; they also exert anti-apoptotic effects. Heat shock proteins maintain protein homeostasis by helping to transport proteins to their target destinations, assisting in the proper folding of newly synthesized polypeptides, regulating the degradation of misfolded proteins, inhibiting the aggregation of proteins, and by controlling the refolding of misfolded proteins. In addition, heat shock proteins exert anti-apoptotic effects by interacting with various signaling pathways to block the activation of downstream effectors in numerous apoptotic pathways, including the intrinsic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum-stress mediated pathway and the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway. Molecular chaperones play a key role in neuroprotection in HIE. In this review, we

  16. Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Term Infant

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, Ali; Wilson, Mary Ann; Johnston, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Hypoxia-ischemia in the perinatal period is an important cause of cerebral palsy and associated disabilities in children. There has been significant research progress in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy over the last two decades and many new molecular mechanisms have been identified. Despite all these advances, therapeutic interventions are still limited. In this review paper, we discuss a number of molecular pathways involved in hypoxia-ischemia, and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:19944838

  17. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxic control of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Erler, Janine T; Giaccia, Amato J

    2006-11-01

    Hypoxic cancer cells pose a great challenge to the oncologist because they are especially aggressive, metastatic, and resistant to therapy. Recently, we showed that elevation of the extracellular matrix protein lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic disease and is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In an orthotopic rodent model of breast cancer, a small-molecule or antibody inhibitor of LOX abolished metastasis, offering preclinical validation of this enzyme as a therapeutic target.

  18. Altered Hypoxic-Adenosine Axis and Metabolism in Group III Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morales, Luis J; Chen, Ning-Yuan; Weng, Tingting; Luo, Fayong; Davies, Jonathan; Philip, Kemly; Volcik, Kelly A; Melicoff, Ernestina; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Bunge, Raquel R; Bruckner, Brian A; Loebe, Matthias; Eltzschig, Holger K; Pandit, Lavannya M; Blackburn, Michael R; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Group III pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a highly prevalent and deadly lung disorder with limited treatment options other than transplantation. Group III PH affects patients with ongoing chronic lung injury, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Between 30 and 40% of patients with IPF are diagnosed with PH. The diagnosis of PH has devastating consequences to these patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality, yet the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of PH in patients with chronic lung disease remain elusive. Our hypothesis was that the hypoxic-adenosinergic system is enhanced in patients with group III PH compared with patients with IPF with no PH. Explanted lung tissue was analyzed for markers of the hypoxic-adenosine axis, including expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1A, adenosine A2B receptor, CD73, and equilibrative nucleotide transporter-1. In addition, we assessed whether altered mitochondrial metabolism was present in these samples. Increased expression of HIF-1A was observed in tissues from patients with group III PH. These changes were consistent with increased evidence of adenosine accumulation in group III PH. A novel observation of our study was of evidence suggesting altered mitochondrial metabolism in lung tissue from group III PH leading to increased succinate levels that are able to further stabilize HIF-1A. Our data demonstrate that the hypoxic-adenosine axis is up-regulated in group III PH and that subsequent succinate accumulation may play a part in the development of group III PH.

  19. Peripheral nerve injury is associated with chronic, reversible changes in global DNA methylation in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tajerian, Maral; Alvarado, Sebastian; Millecamps, Magali; Vachon, Pascal; Crosby, Cecilia; Bushnell, M Catherine; Szyf, Moshe; Stone, Laura S

    2013-01-01

    Changes in brain structure and cortical function are associated with many chronic pain conditions including low back pain and fibromyalgia. The magnitude of these changes correlates with the duration and/or the intensity of chronic pain. Most studies report changes in common areas involved in pain modulation, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and pain-related pathological changes in the PFC can be reversed with effective treatment. While the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown, they must be dynamically regulated. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression in response to experience and environment is reversible and dynamic. Epigenetic modulation by DNA methylation is associated with abnormal behavior and pathological gene expression in the central nervous system. DNA methylation might also be involved in mediating the pathologies associated with chronic pain in the brain. We therefore tested a) whether alterations in DNA methylation are found in the brain long after chronic neuropathic pain is induced in the periphery using the spared nerve injury modal and b) whether these injury-associated changes are reversible by interventions that reverse the pathologies associated with chronic pain. Six months following peripheral nerve injury, abnormal sensory thresholds and increased anxiety were accompanied by decreased global methylation in the PFC and the amygdala but not in the visual cortex or the thalamus. Environmental enrichment attenuated nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity and reversed the changes in global PFC methylation. Furthermore, global PFC methylation correlated with mechanical and thermal sensitivity in neuropathic mice. In summary, induction of chronic pain by peripheral nerve injury is associated with epigenetic changes in the brain. These changes are detected long after the original injury, at a long distance from the site of injury and are reversible with environmental manipulation. Changes in brain structure and cortical function that

  20. Analgesia induced by the epigenetic drug, L-acetylcarnitine, outlasts the end of treatment in mouse models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Notartomaso, Serena; Mascio, Giada; Bernabucci, Matteo; Zappulla, Cristina; Scarselli, Pamela; Cannella, Milena; Imbriglio, Tiziana; Gradini, Roberto; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2017-01-01

    Background L-acetylcarnitine, a drug marketed for the treatment of chronic pain, causes analgesia by epigenetically up-regulating type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors in the spinal cord. Because the epigenetic mechanisms are typically long-lasting, we hypothesized that analgesia could outlast the duration of L-acetylcarnitine treatment in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Results A seven-day treatment with L-acetylcarnitine (100 mg/kg, once a day, i.p.) produced an antiallodynic effect in the complete Freund adjuvant mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain. L-Acetylcarnitine-induced analgesia persisted for at least 14 days after drug withdrawal. In contrast, the analgesic effect of pregabalin, amitryptiline, ceftriaxone, and N-acetylcysteine disappeared seven days after drug withdrawal. L-acetylcarnitine treatment enhanced mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal region of the spinal cord. This effect also persisted for two weeks after drug withdrawal and was associated with increased levels of acetylated histone H3 bound to the Grm2 gene promoter in the dorsal root ganglia. A long-lasting analgesic effect of L-acetylcarnitine was also observed in mice subjected to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. In these animals, a 14-day treatment with pregabalin, amitryptiline, tramadol, or L-acetylcarnitine produced a significant antiallodynic effect, with pregabalin displaying the greatest efficacy. In mice treated with pregabalin, tramadol or L-acetylcarnitine the analgesic effect was still visible 15 days after the end of drug treatment. However, only in mice treated with L-acetylcarnitine analgesia persisted 37 days after drug withdrawal. This effect was associated with an increase in mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord. Conclusions Our findings suggest that L-acetylcarnitine has the unique property to cause a long-lasting analgesic effect that might reduce relapses in patients suffering from

  1. Analgesia induced by the epigenetic drug, L-acetylcarnitine, outlasts the end of treatment in mouse models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Notartomaso, Serena; Mascio, Giada; Bernabucci, Matteo; Zappulla, Cristina; Scarselli, Pamela; Cannella, Milena; Imbriglio, Tiziana; Gradini, Roberto; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Background L-acetylcarnitine, a drug marketed for the treatment of chronic pain, causes analgesia by epigenetically up-regulating type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors in the spinal cord. Because the epigenetic mechanisms are typically long-lasting, we hypothesized that analgesia could outlast the duration of L-acetylcarnitine treatment in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Results A seven-day treatment with L-acetylcarnitine (100 mg/kg, once a day, i.p.) produced an antiallodynic effect in the complete Freund adjuvant mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain. L-Acetylcarnitine-induced analgesia persisted for at least 14 days after drug withdrawal. In contrast, the analgesic effect of pregabalin, amitryptiline, ceftriaxone, and N-acetylcysteine disappeared seven days after drug withdrawal. L-acetylcarnitine treatment enhanced mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal region of the spinal cord. This effect also persisted for two weeks after drug withdrawal and was associated with increased levels of acetylated histone H3 bound to the Grm2 gene promoter in the dorsal root ganglia. A long-lasting analgesic effect of L-acetylcarnitine was also observed in mice subjected to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. In these animals, a 14-day treatment with pregabalin, amitryptiline, tramadol, or L-acetylcarnitine produced a significant antiallodynic effect, with pregabalin displaying the greatest efficacy. In mice treated with pregabalin, tramadol or L-acetylcarnitine the analgesic effect was still visible 15 days after the end of drug treatment. However, only in mice treated with L-acetylcarnitine analgesia persisted 37 days after drug withdrawal. This effect was associated with an increase in mGlu2/3 receptor protein levels in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord. Conclusions Our findings suggest that L-acetylcarnitine has the unique property to cause a long-lasting analgesic effect that might reduce relapses in patients suffering from

  2. Cyctotoxicities of mitomycin C and x rays to aerobic and hypoxic cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, S.

    1982-01-01

    Aerobic and hypoxic EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells in exponential growth in vitro were used to study cell survival after treatment with radiation (250k V X rays) and mitomycin C in various combinations. The cytotoxicities of the two agents were found to be additive as judged by comparing dose-response curves for each agent alone with survival curves after combination therapy and by isobologram analysis. The cytotoxicities resulting from combination treatments were found to be independent of the sequence of the treatments or the interval between treatments.

  3. Peptidylarginine Deiminases as Drug Targets in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lange, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen deprivation and infection are major causes of perinatal brain injury leading to cerebral palsy and other neurological disabilities. The identification of novel key factors mediating white and gray matter damage are crucial to allow better understanding of the specific contribution of different cell types to the injury processes and pathways for clinical intervention. Recent studies in the Rice-Vannucci mouse model of neonatal hypoxic ischemia (HI) have highlighted novel roles for calcium-regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) and demonstrated neuroprotective effects of pharmacological PAD inhibition following HI and synergistic infection mimicked by lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

  4. Digoxin inhibits development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Edsel M.; Maylor, Julie; Undem, Clark; Punjabi, Arjun; Zaiman, Ari L.; Myers, Allen C.; Sylvester, J. T.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Shimoda, Larissa A.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia is an inciting factor for the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The mechanisms involved in the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) include hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)–dependent transactivation of genes controlling pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and pH. Recently, digoxin was shown to inhibit HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that digoxin could prevent and reverse the development of HPH. Mice were injected daily with saline or digoxin and exposed to room air or ambient hypoxia for 3 wk. Treatment with digoxin attenuated the development of right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy and prevented the pulmonary vascular remodeling and increases in PASMC [Ca2+]i, pH, and RV pressure that occur in mice exposed to chronic hypoxia. When started after pulmonary hypertension was established, digoxin attenuated the hypoxia-induced increases in RV pressure and PASMC pH and [Ca2+]i. These preclinical data support a role for HIF-1 inhibitors in the treatment of HPH. PMID:22232678

  5. TCL1 transgenic mouse model as a tool for the study of therapeutic targets and microenvironment in human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bresin, A; D'Abundo, L; Narducci, M G; Fiorenza, M T; Croce, C M; Negrini, M; Russo, G

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell malignancy with a mature phenotype. In spite of its relatively indolent nature, no radical cure is as yet available. CLL is not associated with either a unique cytogenetic or a molecular defect, which might have been a potential therapeutic target. Instead, several factors are involved in disease development, such as environmental signals which interact with genetic abnormalities to promote survival, proliferation and an immune surveillance escape. Among these, PI3-Kinase signal pathway alterations are nowadays considered to be clearly important. The TCL1 gene, an AKT co-activator, is the cause of a mature T-cell leukemia, as well as being highly expressed in all B-CLL. A TCL1 transgenic mouse which reproduces leukemia with a distinct immunophenotype and similar to the course of the human B-CLL was developed several years ago and is widely used by many groups. This is a review of the CLL biology arising from work of many independent investigators who have used TCL1 transgenic mouse model focusing on pathogenetic, microenviroment and therapeutic targets. PMID:26821067

  6. TCL1 transgenic mouse model as a tool for the study of therapeutic targets and microenvironment in human B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bresin, A; D'Abundo, L; Narducci, M G; Fiorenza, M T; Croce, C M; Negrini, M; Russo, G

    2016-01-28

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell malignancy with a mature phenotype. In spite of its relatively indolent nature, no radical cure is as yet available. CLL is not associated with either a unique cytogenetic or a molecular defect, which might have been a potential therapeutic target. Instead, several factors are involved in disease development, such as environmental signals which interact with genetic abnormalities to promote survival, proliferation and an immune surveillance escape. Among these, PI3-Kinase signal pathway alterations are nowadays considered to be clearly important. The TCL1 gene, an AKT co-activator, is the cause of a mature T-cell leukemia, as well as being highly expressed in all B-CLL. A TCL1 transgenic mouse which reproduces leukemia with a distinct immunophenotype and similar to the course of the human B-CLL was developed several years ago and is widely used by many groups. This is a review of the CLL biology arising from work of many independent investigators who have used TCL1 transgenic mouse model focusing on pathogenetic, microenviroment and therapeutic targets.

  7. Genetic Depletion of Complement Receptors CD21/35 Prevents Terminal Prion Disease in a Mouse Model of Chronic Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Brady; Ferguson, Adam; Johnson, Theodore; Bender, Heather; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Pulford, Bruce; von Teichman, Adriana; Seelig, Davis; Weis, John H.; Telling, Glenn C.; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The complement system has been shown to facilitate peripheral prion pathogenesis. Mice lacking complement receptors CD21/35 partially resist terminal prion disease when infected i.p. with mouse-adapted scrapie prions. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervid populations that, similar to scrapie, has been shown to involve the immune system, which probably contributes to their relatively facile horizontal and environmental transmission. In this study, we show that mice overexpressing the cervid prion protein and susceptible to CWD (Tg(cerPrP)5037 mice) but lack CD21/35 expression completely resist clinical CWD upon peripheral infection. CD21/35-deficient Tg5037 mice exhibit greatly impaired splenic prion accumulation and replication throughout disease, similar to CD21/35-deficient murine prion protein mice infected with mouse scrapie. TgA5037;CD21/35−/− mice exhibited little or no neuropathology and deposition of misfolded, protease-resistant prion protein associated with CWD. CD21/35 translocate to lipid rafts and mediates a strong germinal center response to prion infection that we propose provides the optimal environment for prion accumulation and replication. We further propose a potential role for CD21/35 in selecting prion quasi-species present in prion strains that may exhibit differential zoonotic potential compared with the parental strains. PMID:23002439

  8. Chronically increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue leads to lactate production and improved insulin sensitivity rather than obesity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S; Franckhauser, S; Elias, I; Ferré, T; Hidalgo, A; Monteys, A M; Molas, M; Cerdán, S; Pujol, A; Ruberte, J; Bosch, F

    2010-11-01

    In adipocytes, triacylglycerol synthesis depends on the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate, which originates either from glucose, through glycolysis, or from lactate, through glyceroneogenesis. However, glucose is traditionally viewed as the main precursor of the glycerol backbone and thus, enhanced glucose uptake would be expected to result in increased triacylglycerol synthesis and contribute to obesity. To further explore this issue, we generated a mouse model with chronically increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue by expressing Gck, which encodes the glucokinase enzyme. Here we show that the production of high levels of glucokinase led to increased adipose tissue glucose uptake and lactate production, improved glucose tolerance and higher whole-body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. There was no parallel increase in glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis in vivo, fat accumulation or obesity. Moreover, at high glucose concentrations, in cultured fat cells overproducing glucokinase, glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis from pyruvate decreased, while glyceroneogenesis increased in fat cells overproducing hexokinase II. These findings indicate that the absence of glucokinase inhibition by glucose 6-phosphate probably led to increased glycolysis and blocked glyceroneogenesis in the mouse model. Furthermore, this study suggests that under physiological conditions, when blood glucose increases, glyceroneogenesis may prevail over glycolysis for triacylglycerol formation because of the inhibition of hexokinase II by glucose 6-phosphate. Together these results point to the indirect pathway (glucose to lactate to glycerol 3-phosphate) being key for fat deposition in adipose tissue.

  9. miR-181b as a therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the Eµ-TCL1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bresin, Antonella; Callegari, Elisa; D'Abundo, Lucilla; Cattani, Caterina; Bassi, Cristian; Zagatti, Barbara; Narducci, M Grazia; Caprini, Elisabetta; Pekarsky, Yuri; Croce, Carlo M; Sabbioni, Silvia; Russo, Giandomenico; Negrini, Massimo

    2015-08-14

    The involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis suggests the possibility of anti-CLL therapeutic approaches based on miRNAs. Here, we used the Eµ-TCL1 transgenic mouse model, which reproduces leukemia with a similar course and distinct immunophenotype as human B-CLL, to test miR-181b as a therapeutic agent.In vitro enforced expression of miR-181b mimics induced significant apoptotic effects in human B-cell lines (RAJI, EHEB), as well as in mouse Eµ-TCL1 leukemic splenocytes. Molecular analyses revealed that miR-181b not only affected the expression of TCL1, Bcl2 and Mcl1 anti-apoptotic proteins, but also reduced the levels of Akt and phospho-Erk1/2. Notably, a siRNA anti-TCL1 could similarly down-modulate TCL1, but exhibited a reduced or absent activity in other relevant proteins, as well as a reduced effect on cell apoptosis and viability. In vivo studies demonstrated the capability of miR-181b to reduce leukemic cell expansion and to increase survival of treated mice.These data indicate that miR-181b exerts a broad range of actions, affecting proliferative, survival and apoptotic pathways, both in mice and human cells, and can potentially be used to reduce expansion of B-CLL leukemic cells.

  10. Action of SNAIL1 in Cardiac Myofibroblasts Is Important for Cardiac Fibrosis following Hypoxic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Hirak; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic injury to the heart results in cardiac fibrosis that leads to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. SNAIL1 is a zinc finger transcription factor implicated in fibrosis following organ injury and cancer. To determine if the action of SNAIL1 contributed to cardiac fibrosis following hypoxic injury, we used an endogenous SNAIL1 bioluminescence reporter mice, and SNAIL1 knockout mouse models. Here we report that SNAIL1 expression is upregulated in the infarcted heart, especially in the myofibroblasts. Utilizing primary cardiac fibroblasts in ex vivo cultures we find that pro-fibrotic factors and collagen I increase SNAIL1 protein level. SNAIL1 is required in cardiac fibroblasts for the adoption of myofibroblast fate, collagen I expression and expression of fibrosis-related genes. Taken together this data suggests that SNAIL1 expression is induced in the cardiac fibroblasts after hypoxic injury and contributes to myofibroblast phenotype and a fibrotic scar formation. Resultant collagen deposition in the scar can maintain elevated SNAIL1 expression in the myofibroblasts and help propagate fibrosis. PMID:27706205

  11. Targeting lactate-fueled respiration selectively kills hypoxic tumor cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sonveaux, Pierre; Végran, Frédérique; Schroeder, Thies; Wergin, Melanie C.; Verrax, Julien; Rabbani, Zahid N.; De Saedeleer, Christophe J.; Kennedy, Kelly M.; Diepart, Caroline; Jordan, Bénédicte F.; Kelley, Michael J.; Gallez, Bernard; Wahl, Miriam L.; Feron, Olivier; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Tumors contain oxygenated and hypoxic regions, so the tumor cell population is heterogeneous. Hypoxic tumor cells primarily use glucose for glycolytic energy production and release lactic acid, creating a lactate gradient that mirrors the oxygen gradient in the tumor. By contrast, oxygenated tumor cells have been thought to primarily use glucose for oxidative energy production. Although lactate is generally considered a waste product, we now show that it is a prominent substrate that fuels the oxidative metabolism of oxygenated tumor cells. There is therefore a symbiosis in which glycolytic and oxidative tumor cells mutually regulate their access to energy metabolites. We identified monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) as the prominent path for lactate uptake by a human cervix squamous carcinoma cell line that preferentially utilized lactate for oxidative metabolism. Inhibiting MCT1 with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC) or siRNA in these cells induced a switch from lactate-fueled respiration to glycolysis. A similar switch from lactate-fueled respiration to glycolysis by oxygenated tumor cells in both a mouse model of lung carcinoma and xenotransplanted human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells was observed after administration of CHC. This retarded tumor growth, as the hypoxic/glycolytic tumor cells died from glucose starvation, and rendered the remaining cells sensitive to irradiation. As MCT1 was found to be expressed by an array of primary human tumors, we suggest that MCT1 inhibition has clinical antitumor potential. PMID:19033663

  12. A comparative immunological analysis of CoCl2 treated cells with in vitro hypoxic exposure.

    PubMed

    Shweta; Mishra, K P; Chanda, S; Singh, S B; Ganju, L

    2015-02-01

    The hypoxic preconditioning of mammalian cells has been shown to have beneficial effects against hypoxic injuries. However, very little information is available on the comparative analysis of immunological responses to hypoxic and hypoxia mimetic exposure. Therefore, in the present study, mouse peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes were subjected to hypoxia exposure (0.5 % O2) and hypoxia mimetic Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) treatment to evaluate their effect on immune response and delineate the underlying signaling mechanisms. The results obtained indicated that super oxide generation increased while TLR4 expression and cell surface markers like CD25, CD40 and CD69 were suppressed in both the treatments as compared to normoxia. Cobalt chloride treatment increased NF-κB expression, nitric oxide (NO) and iNOS expression, cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 as compared to hypoxia exposure. Our study showed that CoCl2 stabilizes HIF-1α to create hypoxia like conditions but it mainly influences the inflammatory response via NF-κB signaling pathway by skewing the production of proinflammatory molecules like TNF-α, IL-6 and NO.

  13. NDRG1 deficiency attenuates fetal growth and the intrauterine response to hypoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jacob; Chen, Baosheng; Shi, Xiao-Hua; Mishima, Takuya; Kokame, Koichi; Barak, Yaacov; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2014-03-01

    Intrauterine mammalian development depends on the preservation of placental function. The expression of the protein N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is increased in placentas of human pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction and in hypoxic primary human trophoblasts, where NDRG1 attenuates cell injury. We sought to assess the function of placental NDRG1 in vivo and tested the hypothesis that NDRG1 deficiency in the mouse embryo impairs placental function and consequently intrauterine growth. We found that Ndrg1 knock-out embryos were growth restricted in comparison to wild-type or heterozygous counterparts. Furthermore, hypoxia reduced the survival of female, but not male, knock-out embryos. Ndrg1 deletion caused significant alterations in placental gene expression, with a marked reduction in transcription of several lipoproteins in the placental labyrinth. These transcriptional changes were associated with reduced fetal:maternal serum cholesterol ratio exclusively in hypoxic female embryos. Collectively, our findings indicate that NDRG1 promotes fetal growth and regulates the metabolic response to intrauterine hypoxic injury in a sexually dichotomous manner.

  14. Up-regulation of nucleotide excision repair in mouse lung and liver following chronic exposure to aflatoxin B{sub 1} and its dependence on p53 genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, Jeanne E.; Bondy, Genevieve S.; Mehta, Rekha; Massey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is biotransformed in vivo into an epoxide metabolite that forms DNA adducts that may induce cancer if not repaired. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the regulation of global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Male heterozygous p53 knockout (B6.129-Trp53{sup tm1Brd}N5, Taconic) and wild-type mice were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} for 26 weeks. NER activity was assessed with an in vitro assay, using AFB{sub 1}-epoxide adducted plasmid DNA as a substrate. For wild-type mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua adducts was 124% and 96% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} respectively, and 224% greater in liver extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05). In heterozygous p53 knockout mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua was only 45% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05), and no effect was observed in lung extracts from mice treated with 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} or in liver extracts from mice treated with either AFB{sub 1} concentration. p53 genotype did not affect basal levels of repair. AFB{sub 1} exposure did not alter repair of AFB{sub 1}-derived formamidopyrimidine adducts in lung or liver extracts of either mouse genotype nor did it affect XPA or XPB protein levels. In summary, chronic exposure to AFB{sub 1} increased NER activity in wild-type mice, and this response was diminished in heterozygous p53 knockout mice, indicating that loss of one allele of p53 limits the ability of NER to be up-regulated in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • Mice are chronically exposed to low doses of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). • The effects of AFB{sub 1} and p53 status on nucleotide excision repair are investigated. • AFB{sub 1} increases nucleotide excision repair in wild type mouse lung and liver. • This increase is attenuated in p53 heterozygous mouse lung and liver. • Results portray the role of p53 in

  15. Interleukin-33 drives activation of alveolar macrophages and airway inflammation in a mouse model of acute exacerbation of chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Melissa M; Shadie, Alexander M; Flesher, Rylie P; Nikiforova, Valentina; Garthwaite, Linda; Tedla, Nicodemus; Herbert, Cristan; Kumar, Rakesh K

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of interleukin-33 (IL-33) in airway inflammation in an experimental model of an acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, which reproduces many of the features of the human disease. Systemically sensitized female BALB/c mice were challenged with a low mass concentration of aerosolized ovalbumin for 4 weeks to induce chronic asthmatic inflammation and then received a single moderate-level challenge to trigger acute airway inflammation simulating an asthmatic exacerbation. The inflammatory response and expression of cytokines and activation markers by alveolar macrophages (AM) were assessed, as was the effect of pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody to IL-33. Compared to chronically challenged mice, AM from an acute exacerbation exhibited significantly enhanced expression of markers of alternative activation, together with enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and of cell surface proteins associated with antigen presentation. In parallel, there was markedly increased expression of both mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-33 in the airways. Neutralization of IL-33 significantly decreased both airway inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by AM. Collectively, these data indicate that in this model of an acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, IL-33 drives activation of AM and has an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation.

  16. Physiological responses to chronic heat exposure in an aging non-human primate species, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

    PubMed

    Terrien, J; Blanc, S; Zizzari, P; Epelbaum, J; Aujard, F

    2011-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence related to increased death from hyperthermia suggests higher frailty in the elderly when exposed to high ambient temperatures. Despite the recent awareness of such public health problems, integrative studies investigating the effects of age on the physiological responses to heat wave thermal conditions remain scarce. Daily rhythmicity of core temperature (T(c)) and locomotor activity (LA), as well as parameters representative of energy balance and IGF-1 levels which are involved in the aging process and stress resistance, were monitored in a non-human primate species, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Adult and aged animals, acclimated to long days (LD) or short days (SD), were monitored during 8-day periods of exposure to 25 ° C and 34 ° C. Adult animals displayed efficient coping with heat exposure, regardless of the photoperiod. Hence, efficient responses resulted in decrease of energy intake, energy expenditure, IGF-1 levels and LA levels, promoting hyperthermia avoidance. Positive energy balance was maintained and water turnover did not change significantly after heat exposure. In contrast, while aged animals acclimated to LD responded similarly to adults, aged mouse lemurs acclimated to SD showed great difficulties coping with heat exposure. Indeed, in this group, normothermia impairment was associated with increased T(c) levels, alterations in daily rhythmicity, negative energy balance and increased IGF-1 levels. Impaired responses to heat exposure were seen in aged mouse lemurs acclimated to SD only. The main effects were observed during diurnal resting periods, suggesting decreased capacities with age to dissipate excess body heat. Taken together, these data highlight daily rhythmicity and IGF-1 pathway as main targets in the impaired response to heat exposure in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Complement Component 5 Mediates Development of Fibrosis, via Activation of Stellate Cells, in 2 Mouse Models of Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sendler, Matthias; Beyer, Georg; Mahajan, Ujjwal M.; Kauschke, Vivien; Maertin, Sandrina; Schurmann, Claudia; Homuth, Georg; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Halangk, Walter; Wartmann, Thomas; Weiss, Frank-Ulrich; Hegyi, Peter; Lerch, Markus M.; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of chronic pancreatitis. We investigated the roles of complement component 5 (C5) in pancreatic fibrogenesis in mice and patients. Methods Chronic pancreatitis was induced by ligation of the midpancreatic duct, followed by a single supramaximal intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, in C57Bl6 (control) and C5-deficient mice. Some mice were given injections of 2 different antagonists of the receptor for C5a over 21 days. In a separate model, mice were given injections of cerulein for 10 weeks to induce chronic pancreatitis. Direct effects of C5 were studied in cultured primary cells. We performed genotype analysis for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs 17611 and rs 2300929 in C5 in patients with pancreatitis and healthy individuals (controls). Blood cells from 976 subjects were analyzed by transcriptional profiling. Results During the initial phase of pancreatitis, levels of pancreatic damage were similar between C5-deficient and control mice. During later stages of pancreatitis, C5-deficient mice and mice given injections of C5a-receptor antagonists developed significantly less pancreatic fibrosis than control mice. Primary pancreatic stellate cells were activated in vitro by C5a. There were no differences in the rs 2300929 SNP between subjects with or without pancreatitis, but the minor allele rs17611 was associated with a significant increase in levels of C5 in whole blood. Conclusions In mice, loss of C5 or injection of a C5a-receptor antagonist significantly reduced the level of fibrosis of chronic pancreatitis, but this was not a consequence of milder disease in early stages of pancreatitis. C5 might be a therapeutic target for chronic pancreatitis. PMID:26001927

  18. Effects of chronic and acute methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) administration on locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalizations, and neuromotor development in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups.

    PubMed

    Penner, M R; McFadyen, M P; Carrey, N; Brown, R E

    2001-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic and acute treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) on isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations, spontaneous locomotor activity, and neuromotor coordination in 3- to 11-day-old CD-1 mouse pups. In Experiment 1, 3- to 11-day-old pups received daily injections of saline, 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of methylphenidate hydrochloride, or no injection and were tested on postnatal Days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Both doses of methylphenidate resulted in significant increases in locomotor activity at all ages, but had no significant effect on body weight, neuromotor development, or emission of ultrasonic vocalizations. In Experiment 2, pups were given a single dose of methylphenidate (5 or 20 mg/kg), saline, or no injection on one of postnatal Days 5, 7, 9, or 11. This acute methylphenidate treatment increased locomotor activity, but had no significant effects on ultrasonic vocalizations or neuromotor coordination. These results indicate that short-term, chronic methylphenidate treatment elevates locomotor responses, but has no immediate effects on anxietylike responses or on the development of neuromotor behavior of CD-1 mice in the first 11 days of life.

  19. Loss of a chromosomal region with synteny to human 13q14 occurs in mouse chronic lymphocytic leukemia that originates from early-generated B1 B cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Kyoko; Formica, Anthony M.; Colombo, Matthew J.; Shinton, Susan A.; Brill-Dashoff, Joni; Morse, Herbert C.; Li, Yue-Sheng; Hardy, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    A common feature of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is chromosomal loss of 13q14, containing the miR15a/16-1 locus controlling B cell proliferation. However, CLL etiology remains unclear. CLL is an adult leukemia with an incidence that increases with advancing age. A unique feature of CLL is biased B cell antigen receptor (BCR) usage, autoreactivity with polyreactivity, and CD5 expression, all suggest a role for the BCR in driving CLL pathogenesis. Among human CLLs, BCRs autoreactive with non-muscle myosin IIA (AMyIIA) are recurrent. Here we identify an unmutated AMyIIA BCR in mouse, with distinctive CDR3 segments capable of promoting leukemogenesis. B cells with this AMyIIA BCR are generated by BCR-dependent signaling during B-1 fetal/neonatal development with CD5 induction, but not in adults. These early-generated AMyIIA B1 B cells self-renew, increase during aging, and can progress to become monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis, followed by aggressive CLL in aged mice, often with loss of a chromosomal region containing the miR15a/16-1 locus of varying length, as in human CLL. Thus, the ability to generate this defined autoreactive BCR by B1 B cells is a key predisposing step in mice, promoting progression to chronic leukemia. PMID:27055869

  20. [Autonomic regulation at emotional stress under hypoxic conditions in the elderly with physiological and accelerated aging: effect of hypoxic training].

    PubMed

    Os'mak, E D; Asanov, É O

    2014-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic training on autonomic regulation in psycho-emotional stress conditions in hypoxic conditions in older people with physiological (25 people) and accelerated (28 people) aging respiratory system. It is shown that hypoxic training leads to an increase in vagal activity indicators (HF) and reduced simpatovagal index (LF/HF), have a normalizing effect on the autonomic balance during stress loads in older people with different types of aging respiratory system.

  1. Opiorphin is a master regulator of the hypoxic response in corporal smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shibo; Tar, Moses Tarndie; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin Paul

    2014-01-01

    Men with sickle cell disease (SCD) risk developing priapism. Recognizing that SCD is a disease of hypoxia, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on gene expression in corporal smooth muscle (CSM) cells. Rat CSM cells in vitro were treated with CoCl2 or low oxygen tension to mimic hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions increased expression of genes previously associated with priapism in animal models. Variable coding sequence a1 (Vcsa1; the rat opiorphin homologue, sialorphin), hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (Hif-1a), and A2B adenosine receptor (a2br) were increased by 10-, 4-, and 6-fold, respectively, by treatment with CoCl2, whereas low oxygen tension caused increases in expression of 3-, 4-, and 1.5-fold, respectively. Sialorphin-treated CSM cells increased expression of Hif-1a and a2br by 4-fold, and vcsa1-siRNA treatment reduced expression by ∼50%. Using a Hif-1a inhibitor, we demonstrated up-regulation of a2br by sialorphin is dependent on Hif-1a, and knockdown of vcsa1 expression with vcsa1-siRNA demonstrated that hypoxic-up-regulation of Hif-1a is dependent on vcsa1. In CSM from a SCD mouse, there was 15-fold up-regulation of opiorphin at a life stage prior to priapism. We conclude that in CSM, opiorphins are master regulators of the hypoxic response. Opiorphin up-regulation in response to SCD-associated hypoxia activates CSM “relaxant” pathways; excessive activation of these pathways results in priapism.—Fu, S., Tar, M. T., Melman, A., Davies, K. P. Opiorphin is a master regulator of the hypoxic response in corporal smooth muscle cells. PMID:24803544

  2. Novel role of the renin-angiotensin system in preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension and the effects of exercise in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Genest, Dominique S; Falcao, Stéphanie; Michel, Catherine; Kajla, Sonia; Germano, Mark F; Lacasse, Andrée-Anne; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L

    2013-12-01

    Gestational hypertensive disorders, such as preeclampsia, affect 6% to 8% of all pregnancies in North America, and they are the leading cause of maternal mortality in industrialized countries, accounting for 16% of deaths. Women with hypertension have an increased risk (15% to 25%) of developing preeclampsia. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms implicated in preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension and in the protective effects of exercise in a mouse model. Female mice overexpressing human angiotensinogen and human renin were used as a model of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. In the trained group, mothers were placed in cages with access to a wheel before mating, and they remained within these throughout gestation. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry. We found that angiotensin II type I receptor was increased, whereas the Mas receptor was decreased in the placenta and the aorta of pregnant sedentary transgenic mice. This would produce a decrease in angiotensin-(1-7) effects in favor of angiotensin II. Supporting the functional contribution of this modulation, we found that the prevention of most pathological features in trained transgenic mice was associated with a normalization of placental angiotensin II type 1 and Mas receptors and an increase in aortic Mas receptor. We also found reduced circulating and placental soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 in trained transgenic mice compared with sedentary mice. This study demonstrates that modulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a key mechanism in the development of preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, which can be altered by exercise training to prevent disease features in an animal model.

  3. Modeling month-season of birth as a risk factor in mouse models of chronic disease: from multiple sclerosis to autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jacob D; Case, Laure K; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Raza, Abbas; Bartiss, Rose; Teuscher, Cory

    2017-03-14

    Month-season of birth (M-SOB) is a risk factor in multiple chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), where the lowest and greatest risk of developing MS coincide with the lowest and highest birth rates, respectively. To determine whether M-SOB effects in such chronic diseases as MS can be experimentally modeled, we examined the effect of M-SOB on susceptibility of C57BL/6J mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As in MS, mice that were born during the M-SOB with the lowest birth rate were less susceptible to EAE than mice born during the M-SOB with the highest birth rate. We also show that the M-SOB effect on EAE susceptibility is associated with differential production of multiple cytokines/chemokines by neuroantigen-specific T cells that are known to play a role in EAE pathogenesis. Taken together, these results support the existence of an M-SOB effect that may reflect seasonally dependent developmental differences in adaptive immune responses to self-antigens independent of external stimuli, including exposure to sunlight and vitamin D. Moreover, our documentation of an M-SOB effect on EAE susceptibility in mice allows for modeling and detailed analysis of mechanisms that underlie the M-SOB effect in not only MS but in numerous other diseases in which M-SOB impacts susceptibility.-Reynolds, J. D., Case, L. K., Krementsov, D. N., Raza, A., Bartiss, R., Teuscher, C. Modeling month-season of birth as a risk factor in mouse models of chronic disease: from multiple sclerosis to autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

  4. Chronic levodopa treatment alters expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in the MPTP/p mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cote, Samantha R; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-01-12

    Chronic treatment with levodopa or antipsychotics results in manifestation of side-effects such as dyskinesia which correlates with changes in expression and function of receptors and signaling proteins. Previous studies have suggested a role for the dopamine D3 receptor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and tardive dyskinesia. Yet the expression and signaling function of D3 receptor in these disorders is not well understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic levodopa treatment alters both expression and function of D3 receptors in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid (MPTP/p) mouse model of PD. drd3-EGFP reporter mice were injected biweekly with saline or MPTP and probenecid for a 5-week period. During the last two weeks of the 5-week period, the mice were administered saline or levodopa twice daily. Locomotor activity was measured during the treatment period. D3 receptor expression was determined by western blot analysis. D3 receptor signaling function was determined at tissue and single cell level by measuring the activation of D3 receptor-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The drd3-EGFP mice administered MPTP/p exhibited akinesia/bradykinesia. Expression of D3 receptor protein in the dorsal striatum specifically increased in the MPTP/p-treated mice administered levodopa. In the dorsal striatum of levodopa and MPTP/p-treated drd3-EGFP mice, administration of a D3 receptor-selective dose of agonist, PD128907, failed to activate D3 receptor-MAPK signaling. These results suggest that MPTP-induced lesion and chronic levodopa treatment alters D3 receptor expression and function in the dorsal striatum which could contribute to the development of dyskinesias and other motor side-effects.

  5. NREM sleep hypersomnia and reduced sleep/wake continuity in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression based on chronic corticosterone administration.

    PubMed

    Le Dantec, Y; Hache, G; Guilloux, J P; Guiard, B P; David, D J; Adrien, J; Escourrou, P

    2014-08-22

    Sleep/wake disorders are frequently associated with anxiety and depression and to elevated levels of cortisol. Even though these alterations are increasingly sought in animal models, no study has investigated the specific effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration on sleep. We characterized sleep/wake disorders in a neuroendocrine mouse model of anxiety/depression, based on chronic CORT administration in the drinking water (35 μg/ml for 4 weeks, "CORT model"). The CORT model was markedly affected during the dark phase by non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) increase without consistent alteration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Total sleep duration (SD) and sleep efficiency (SE) increased concomitantly during both the 24h and the dark phase, due to the increase in the number of NREM sleep episodes without a change in their mean duration. Conversely, the total duration of wake decreased due to a decrease in the mean duration of wake episodes despite an increase in their number. These results reflect hypersomnia by intrusion of NREM sleep during the active period as well as a decrease in sleep/wake continuity. In addition, NREM sleep was lighter, with an increased electroencephalogram (EEG) theta activity. With regard to REM sleep, the number and the duration of episodes decreased, specifically during the first part of the light period. REM and NREM sleep changes correlated respectively with the anxiety and the anxiety/depressive-like phenotypes, supporting the notion that studying sleep could be of predictive value for altered emotional behavior. The chronic CORT model in mice that displays hallmark characteristics of anxiety and depression provides an insight into understanding the changes in overall sleep architecture that occur under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of chronic mild stress on serotonergic markers in the skin and brain of the NC/Nga atopic-like mouse strain.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Aram; El-Nour, Husameldin; Blakely, Randy D; Lonne-Rahm, Sol-Britt; Forsberg, Johan; Johansson, Björn; Theodorsson, Elvar; Nordlind, Klas

    2011-11-01

    of serotonergic markers in the eczematous skin and brain of the atopic-like mouse during chronic mild stress.

  7. Enhanced hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, M D; Alimento, M; Berti, M; Fiorentini, C; Galli, C; Tamborini, G

    1989-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may be enhanced in systemic hypertension. The hypothesis took origin from the following two considerations: alveolar hypoxia constricts the pulmonary vessels by enhancing the Ca2+ penetration across sarcolemma of the smooth muscle cells and systemic high blood pressure is associated with an elevation of tone and reactivity of the lung vessels, which seems to depend on an excessive cytosol free Ca2+ concentration due to alterations in sodium handling and in the Na+-Ca2+ exchange system. These considerations suggest the possibility that the disorders in the biochemistry of smooth muscle contraction in hypertension facilitate the rise of cytosol Ca2+ concentration during alveolar hypoxia, thus resulting in a potentiation of the vasoconstrictor properties of this stimulus. In 43 hypertensive and 17 normotensive men, pulmonary arteriolar resistance has been evaluated during air respiration and after 15 minutes of breathing 17%, 15%, and 12% oxygen in nitrogen. Curves relating changes in pulmonary arteriolar resistance to oxygen breathing contents had similar configuration in the two populations but in hypertension were steeper and significantly shifted to the left, reflecting a lower threshold and an enhanced reactivity. This pattern was not related to differences in severity of the hypoxic stimulus, plasma catecholamine concentration, or hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis induced by hypoxia and probably was not mediated through alpha-receptor activation. Calcium channel blockade with nifedipine was able to almost abolish both the normotensive and the hypertensive pulmonary vasoconstriction reaction. These findings support the hypothesis that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction may be enhanced in systemic hypertension.

  8. Germination under Extreme Hypobaric and Hypoxic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    Is the agriculture on Mars without a pressured greenhouse dome possible? In order to inves-tigate a possibility of plant cultivation for the space agriculture on Mars, germination rate for six species of plant, Jute, Chrysanthemum, Komatsuna, Cucumber, Okra, and Eggplant under extreme hypobaric and hypoxic condition was measured. Oxygen partial pressure was 1kPa which was equal to 1/100 of normal earth atmosphere. Seeds of Jute and Cucumber were able to germinate in six species. In the case of Jute, germination rate under the oxygen partial pressure of 1kPa was very high, 70

  9. MRI characterization of structural mouse brain changes in response to chronic exposure to the glufosinate ammonium herbicide.

    PubMed

    Meme, Sandra; Calas, André-Guilhem; Montécot, Céline; Richard, Oliver; Gautier, Hélène; Gefflaut, Thierry; Doan, Bich Thuy; Même, William; Pichon, Jacques; Beloeil, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is the active component of herbicides widely used in agriculture, truck farming, or public domains. GLA acts by inhibiting the plant glutamine synthetase (GlnS). It also inhibits mammalian GlnS in vitro and ex vivo. In the central nervous system this enzyme is exclusively localized in glial cells. Whereas acute neurotoxic effects of GLA are well documented, long-term effects during chronic exposure at low doses remain largely undisclosed. In the present work, C57BL/6J mice were treated intraperitoneally with 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of GLA three times a week during 10 weeks. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments were performed at high field (9.4 T) and the images were analyzed with four texture analysis (TA) methods. TA highlighted structural changes in seven brain structures after chronic GLA treatments. Changes are dose dependent and can be seen at a dose as low as 2.5 mg/kg for two areas, namely hippocampus and somatosensorial cortex. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the same seven brain structures and GlnS activity in the hippocampus and cortex areas were also studied. The number of GFAP-positive cells is modified in six out of the seven areas examined. GlnS activity was significantly increased in the hippocampus but not in the cortex. These results indicate some kind of suffering at the cerebral level after chronic GLA treatment. Changes in TA were compared with the modification of the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the studied brain areas after GLA treatment. We show that the noninvasive MRI-TA is a sensitive method and we suggest that it would be a very helpful tool that can efficiently contribute to the detection of cerebral alterations in vivo during chronic exposure to xenobiotics.

  10. NADPH oxidase-4 mediates protection against chronic load-induced stress in mouse hearts by enhancing angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Brewer, Alison C.; Schröder, Katrin; Santos, Celio X. C.; Grieve, David J.; Wang, Minshu; Anilkumar, Narayana; Yu, Bin; Dong, Xuebin; Walker, Simon J.; Brandes, Ralf P.; Shah, Ajay M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac failure occurs when the heart fails to adapt to chronic stresses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling is implicated in cardiac stress responses, but the role of different ROS sources remains unclear. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) facilitates cardiac adaptation to chronic stress. Unlike other Nox proteins, Nox4 activity is regulated mainly by its expression level, which increases in cardiomyocytes under stresses such as pressure overload or hypoxia. To investigate the functional role of Nox4 during the cardiac response to stress, we generated mice with a genetic deletion of Nox4 or a cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of Nox4. Basal cardiac function was normal in both models, but Nox4-null animals developed exaggerated contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and cardiac dilatation during exposure to chronic overload whereas Nox4-transgenic mice were protected. Investigation of mechanisms underlying this protective effect revealed a significant Nox4-dependent preservation of myocardial capillary density after pressure overload. Nox4 enhanced stress-induced activation of cardiomyocyte hypoxia inducible factor 1 and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor, resulting in increased paracrine angiogenic activity. These data indicate that cardiomyocyte Nox4 is a unique inducible regulator of myocardial angiogenesis, a key determinant of cardiac adaptation to overload stress. Our results also have wider relevance to the use of nonspecific antioxidant approaches in cardiac disease and may provide an explanation for the failure of such strategies in many settings. PMID:20921387

  11. Synaptic NMDA Receptors Mediate Hypoxic Excitotoxic Death

    PubMed Central

    Wroge, Christine M.; Hogins, Joshua; Eisenman, Larry; Mennerick, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NMDA receptor activation and excitotoxicity underlies pathology in many neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including hypoxia/ischemia. Thus, the development of effective therapeutics for these disorders demands a complete understanding of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during excitotoxic insults. The extrasynaptic NMDAR hypothesis posits that synaptic NMDARs are neurotrophic/neuroprotective and extrasynaptic NMDARs are neurotoxic. In part, the extrasynaptic hypothesis is built on observed selectivity for extrasynaptic receptors of a neuroprotective use-dependent NMDAR channel blocker, memantine. In rat hippocampal neurons we found that a neuroprotective concentration of memantine shows little selectivity for extrasynaptic NMDARs when all receptors are tonically activated by exogenous glutamate. This led us to test the extrasynaptic NMDAR hypothesis using metabolic challenge, where the source of excitotoxic glutamate buildup may be largely synaptic. Three independent approaches suggest strongly that synaptic receptors participate prominently in hypoxic excitotoxicity. First, block of glutamate transporters with a non-substrate antagonist exacerbated rather than prevented damage, consistent with a primarily synaptic source of glutamate. Second, selective, preblock of synaptic NMDARs with a slowly reversible, use-dependent antagonist protected nearly fully against prolonged hypoxic insult. Third, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), which degrades ambient but not synaptic glutamate, did not protect against hypoxia but protected against exogenous glutamate damage. Together, these results suggest that synaptic NMDARs can mediate excitotoxicity, particularly when the glutamate source is synaptic and when synaptic receptor contributions are rigorously defined. Moreover, the results suggest that in some situations therapeutically targeting extrasynaptic receptors may be inappropriate. PMID:22573696

  12. Evaluation of nitrobenzimidazoles as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.; Frank, L.R.; Bush, D.; Harrison, G.H.

    1983-07-01

    Radiobiological and pharmacokinetic assays were performed to determine the potential of 2-nitrobenzimidazole (NBI) as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizing agent. As judged by comparing survival curve slopes of Serratia marcescens irradiated under aerated and hypoxic conditions, the NBI enhancement ratio (ER) at 2 mM concentration was 2.4 +/- 0.2, compared with an oxygen enhancement ratio of 3.3 +/- 0.3. 2,5-Dinitrobenzimidazole (DNBI) was investigated in vitro; its ER was 3.0 +/- 0.3 at 4 mM concentration. Very poor tissue penetration of DNBI precluded further testing in vivo. Acute toxic signs appeared in C3H/HeJ mice following ip injection of NBI at 100 mg/kg. These would be partly attributable to the stress caused by the high pH of the injection vehicle. The LD50 was estimated to be 125-150 mg/kg. Mammary adenocarcinoma tumors grown in the flanks of these mice exhibited maximum NBI levels at 5 min postinjection (ip). Peak tumor radiosensitization occurred in the interval between 5 and 10 min postinjection. The ER for tumor regrowth delay was 2.1 +/- 0.3 following 50 mg/kg injected into mice 5 min before irradiation. Functional evaluation up to 40 days after treatment revealed no evidence of neurological deficit.

  13. Endocannabinoid anandamide mediates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Daniela; Matthey, Michaela; Bindila, Laura; Lerner, Raissa; Lutz, Beat; Zimmer, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K.

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are important regulators of organ homeostasis. Although their role in systemic vasculature has been extensively studied, their impact on pulmonary vessels remains less clear. Herein, we show that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is a key mediator of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)-dependent metabolites. This is underscored by the prominent vasoconstrictive effect of AEA on pulmonary arteries and strongly reduced HPV in FAAH−/− mice and wild-type mice upon pharmacological treatment with FAAH inhibitor URB597. In addition, mass spectrometry measurements revealed a clear increase of AEA and the FAAH-dependent metabolite arachidonic acid in hypoxic lungs of wild-type mice. We have identified pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells as the source responsible for hypoxia-induced AEA generation. Moreover, either FAAH−/− mice or wild-type mice treated with FAAH inhibitor URB597 are protected against hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and the concomitant vascular remodeling in the lung. Thus, the AEA/FAAH pathway is an important mediator of HPV and is involved in the generation of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24167249

  14. Polyphyllin D exerts potent anti-tumour effects on Lewis cancer cells under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ma, D-D; Lu, H-X; Xu, L-S; Xiao, W

    2009-01-01

    Paris polyphylla has been used to treat cancer in China for many years and components of the plant, such as polyphyllin D, may have potent antiproliferative effects in vitro. To investigate the potential antitumour effects of polyphyllin D on cancer cells under hypoxia, Lewis lung cancer cells and mouse tracheal epithelial cells were cultured with or without polyphyllin D under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Proliferation and apoptosis of cells were assayed. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA. Polyphyllin D decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibited expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF mRNAs in Lewis cells. These effects were greater under hypoxic than normoxic conditions. Polyphyllin D did not show a cytotoxic effect in non-tumour cells (mouse skin fibroblasts and tracheal epithelial cells). These results suggest that polyphyllin D potentially has anticancer effects in vitro under hypoxia.

  15. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase promotes hypoxic survival by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, X R; Kaufman, D M; Crowder, C M

    2016-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the mouse nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase type 1 (Nmnat1) produce two remarkable phenotypes: protection against traumatic axonal degeneration and reduced hypoxic brain injury. Despite intensive efforts, the mechanism of Nmnat1 cytoprotection remains elusive. To develop a new model to define this mechanism, we heterologously expressed a mouse Nmnat1 non-nuclear-localized gain-of-function mutant gene (m-nonN-Nmnat1) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it provides protection from both hypoxia-induced animal death and taxol-induced axonal pathology. Additionally, we find that m-nonN-Nmnat1 significantly lengthens C. elegans lifespan. Using the hypoxia-protective phenotype in C. elegans, we performed a candidate screen for genetic suppressors of m-nonN-Nmnat1 cytoprotection. Loss of function in two genes, haf-1 and dve-1, encoding mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) factors were identified as suppressors. M-nonN-Nmnat1 induced a transcriptional reporter of the mitoUPR gene hsp-6 and provided protection from the mitochondrial proteostasis toxin ethidium bromide. M-nonN-Nmnat1 was also protective against axonal degeneration in C. elegans induced by the chemotherapy drug taxol. Taxol markedly reduced basal expression of a mitoUPR reporter; the expression was restored by m-nonN-Nmnat1. Taken together, these data implicate the mitoUPR as a mechanism whereby Nmnat1 protects from hypoxic and axonal injury. PMID:26913604

  16. Chronic mild stress and imipramine treatment elicit opposite changes in behavior and in gene expression in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Erburu, M; Cajaleon, L; Guruceaga, E; Venzala, E; Muñoz-Cobo, I; Beltrán, E; Puerta, E; Tordera, R M

    2015-08-01

    Many studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a target limbic region for stress response because a dysfunction here is linked to anhedonia, a decrease in reactivity to rewards, and to anxiety. It is suggested that stress-induced persistent molecular changes in this brain region could bring some light on the mechanisms perpetuating depressive episodes. In order to address this issue, here we have studied the long-term PFC gene expression pattern and behavioral effects induced by a chronic mild stress (CMS) model and antidepressant treatment in mice. CMS was applied to mice for six weeks and imipramine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline treatment was administered for five weeks starting from the third week of CMS. Mice were sacrificed one month after CMS and following two weeks after the discontinuation of drug treatment and the PFC was dissected and prepared for gene (mRNA) and protein expression studies. Using the same experimental design, a separate group of mice was tested for anhedonia, recognition memory, social interaction and anxiety. CMS induced a long-term altered gene expression profile in the PFC that was partially reverted by imipramine. Specifically, the circadian rhythm signaling pathway and functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders were affected. Of these, some changes of the circadian rhythm pathway (Hdac5, Per1, and Per2) were validated by RT-PCR and western-blot. Moreover, CMS induced long-lasting anhedonia that was reverted by imipramine treatment. Impaired memory, decreased social interaction and anxiety behavior were also induced by chronic stress. We have identified in the PFC molecular targets oppositely regulated by CMS and imipramine that could be relevant for chronic depression and antidepressant action. Among these, a possible candidate for further investigation could be the circadian rhythm pathway.

  17. Acute and Chronic Plasma Metabolomic and Liver Transcriptomic Stress Effects in a Mouse Model with Features of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; D’Arpa, Peter; Donohue, Duncan E.; Muhie, Seid; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Luke, Brian T.; Grapov, Dmitry; Carroll, Erica E.; Meyerhoff, James L.; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Acute responses to intense stressors can give rise to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD diagnostic criteria include trauma exposure history and self-reported symptoms. Individuals who meet PTSD diagnostic criteria often meet criteria for additional psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers promise to contribute to reliable phenotypes of PTSD and comorbidities by linking biological system alterations to behavioral symptoms. Here we have analyzed unbiased plasma metabolomics and other stress effects in a mouse model with behavioral features of PTSD. In this model, C57BL/6 mice are repeatedly exposed to a trained aggressor mouse (albino SJL) using a modified, resident-intruder, social defeat paradigm. Our recent studies using this model found that aggressor-exposed mice exhibited acute stress effects including changed behaviors, body weight gain, increased body temperature, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic histopathologies and transcriptomic changes of heart tissue. Some of these acute stress effects persisted, reminiscent of PTSD. Here we report elevated proteins in plasma that function in inflammation and responses to oxidative stress and damaged tissue at 24 hrs post-stressor. Additionally at this acute time point, transcriptomic analysis indicated liver inflammation. The unbiased metabolomics analysis showed altered metabolites in plasma at 24 hrs that only partially normalized toward control levels after stress-withdrawal for 1.5 or 4 wks. In particular, gut-derived metabolites were altered at 24 hrs post-stressor and remained altered up to 4 wks after stress-withdrawal. Also at the 4 wk time point, hyperlipidemia and suppressed metabolites of amino acids and carbohydrates in plasma coincided with transcriptomic indicators of altered liver metabolism (activated xenobiotic and lipid metabolism). Collectively, these system-wide sequelae to repeated intense stress suggest that the simultaneous perturbed functioning of multiple organ systems (e.g., brain, heart

  18. Acute and chronic plasma metabolomic and liver transcriptomic stress effects in a mouse model with features of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Aarti; D'Arpa, Peter; Donohue, Duncan E; Muhie, Seid; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Luke, Brian T; Grapov, Dmitry; Carroll, Erica E; Meyerhoff, James L; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Acute responses to intense stressors can give rise to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD diagnostic criteria include trauma exposure history and self-reported symptoms. Individuals who meet PTSD diagnostic criteria often meet criteria for additional psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers promise to contribute to reliable phenotypes of PTSD and comorbidities by linking biological system alterations to behavioral symptoms. Here we have analyzed unbiased plasma metabolomics and other stress effects in a mouse model with behavioral features of PTSD. In this model, C57BL/6 mice are repeatedly exposed to a trained aggressor mouse (albino SJL) using a modified, resident-intruder, social defeat paradigm. Our recent studies using this model found that aggressor-exposed mice exhibited acute stress effects including changed behaviors, body weight gain, increased body temperature, as well as inflammatory and fibrotic histopathologies and transcriptomic changes of heart tissue. Some of these acute stress effects persisted, reminiscent of PTSD. Here we report elevated proteins in plasma that function in inflammation and responses to oxidative stress and damaged tissue at 24 hrs post-stressor. Additionally at this acute time point, transcriptomic analysis indicated liver inflammation. The unbiased metabolomics analysis showed altered metabolites in plasma at 24 hrs that only partially normalized toward control levels after stress-withdrawal for 1.5 or 4 wks. In particular, gut-derived metabolites were altered at 24 hrs post-stressor and remained altered up to 4 wks after stress-withdrawal. Also at the 4 wk time point, hyperlipidemia and suppressed metabolites of amino acids and carbohydrates in plasma coincided with transcriptomic indicators of altered liver metabolism (activated xenobiotic and lipid metabolism). Collectively, these system-wide sequelae to repeated intense stress suggest that the simultaneous perturbed functioning of multiple organ systems (e.g., brain, heart

  19. Increased Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Protein Underlies Chronic Nicotine-Induced Up-Regulation of Nicotinic Agonist Binding Sites in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    McClure-Begley, Tristan D.; Whiteaker, Paul; Salminen, Outi; Brown, Robert W. B.; Cooper, John; Collins, Allan C.; Lindstrom, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic nicotine treatment elicits a brain region-selective increase in the number of high-affinity agonist binding sites, a phenomenon termed up-regulation. Nicotine-induced up-regulation of α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in cell cultures results from increased assembly and/or decreased degradation of nAChRs, leading to increased nAChR protein levels. To evaluate whether the increased binding in mouse brain results from an increase in nAChR subunit proteins, C57BL/6 mice were treated with nicotine by chronic intravenous infusion. Tissue sections were prepared, and binding of [125I]3-((2S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-iodo-pyridine (A85380) to β2*-nAChR sites, [125I]monoclonal antibody (mAb) 299 to α4 nAChR subunits, and [125I]mAb 270 to β2 nAChR subunits was determined by quantitative autoradiography. Chronic nicotine treatment dose-dependently increased binding of all three ligands. In regions that express α4β2-nAChR almost exclusively, binding of all three ligands increased coordinately. However, in brain regions containing significant β2*-nAChR without α4 subunits, relatively less increase in mAb 270 binding to β2 subunits was observed. Signal intensity measured with the mAbs was lower than that with [125I]A85380, perhaps because the small ligand penetrated deeply into the sections, whereas the much larger mAbs encountered permeability barriers. Immunoprecipitation of [125I]epibatidine binding sites with mAb 270 in select regions of nicotine-treated mice was nearly quantitative, although somewhat less so with mAb 299, confirming that the mAbs effectively recognize their targets. The patterns of change measured using immunoprecipitation were comparable with those determined autoradiographically. Thus, increases in α4β2*-nAChR binding sites after chronic nicotine treatment reflect increased nAChR protein. PMID:21228066

  20. Impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its partial reversal by chronic treatment of fluoxetine in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Godavarthi, Swetha K; Dey, Parthanarayan; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-04

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits, caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited Ube3a. Ube3a-maternal deficient mice (AS model mice) recapitulate many essential features of AS, but how the deficiency of Ube3a lead to such behavioural abnormalities is poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated significant impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice brain. Although, the number of BrdU and Ki67-positive cell in the hippocampal DG region was nearly equal at early postnatal days among wild type and AS mice, they were significantly reduced in adult AS mice compared to wild type controls. Reduced number of doublecortin-positive immature neurons in this region of AS mice further indicated impaired neurogenesis. Unaltered BrdU and Ki67-positive cells number in the sub ventricular zone of adult AS mice brain along with the absence of imprinted expression of Ube3a in the neural progenitor cell suggesting that Ube3a may not be directly linked with altered neurogenesis. Finally, we show that the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in these mice can be partially rescued by the chronic treatment of antidepressant fluoxetine. These results suggest that the chronic stress may lead to reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice and that impaired neurogenesis could contribute to cognitive disturbances observed in these mice.

  1. Myocardial Infarct Size Measurement in the Mouse Chronic Infarction Model: Comparison of Area- and Length-Based Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Takagawa, Junya; Zhang, Yan; Wong, Maelene L.; Sievers, Richard E.; Kapasi, Neel K.; Wang, Yan; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Lee, Randall J.; Grossman, William; Springer, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Efficacy of potential treatments for myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly assessed by histological measurement of infarct size in rodent models. In experiments involving an acute MI setting, measurement of the infarcted area in tissue sections of the left ventricle (LV) is a standard approach to determine infarct size. This approach has also been used in the chronic infarct setting to measure infarct area several weeks post-MI. We tested the hypothesis that due to wall thinning that is known to occur in the chronic setting, the area measurement approach would be less appropriate. We compared infarct measurements in tissue sections based on (1) infarct area, (2) epicardial and endocardial infarct arc lengths, and (3) midline infarct arc length. Infarct size from all three measurement approaches correlated significantly with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and wall motion abnormality. However, the infarct size values derived from area measurement were significantly smaller than those from the other measurements, and the range of values obtained was compressed 0.4-fold. The midline method was able to detect the expected size differences between infarcts of variable severity resulting from proximal vs. distal ligation of the coronary artery. Segmental infarct size was correlated with segmental wall motion abnormality. We conclude that both area- and length-based measurements can determine relative infarct size over a wide range of severity but the area-based measurements are substantially more compressed due to wall thinning, and that the estimation of infarct midlines is a simple, reliable approach to infarct size assessment. PMID:17347379

  2. Chronic Caffeine Alters the Density of Adenosine, Adrenergic, Cholinergic, GABA, and Serotonin Receptors and Calcium Channels in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dan; Nikodijević, Olga; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Chronic ingestion of caffeine by male NIH strain mice alters the density of a variety of central receptors. 2. The density of cortical A1 adenosine receptors is increased by 20%, while the density of striatal A2A adenosine receptors is unaltered. 3. The densities of cortical β1 and cerebellar β2 adrenergic receptors are reduced by ca. 25%, while the densities of cortical α1 and α2 adrenergic receptors are not significantly altered. Densities of striatal D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors are unaltered. The densities of cortical 5 HT1 and 5 HT2 serotonergic receptors are increased by 26–30%. Densities of cortical muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are increased by 40–50%. The density of cortical benzodiazepine-binding sites associated with GABAA receptors is increased by 65%, and the affinity appears slightly decreased. The density of cortical MK-801 sites associated with NMDA-glutaminergic receptors appear unaltered. 4. The density of cortical nitrendipine-binding sites associated with calcium channels is increased by 18%. 5. The results indicate that chronic ingestion of caffeine equivalent to about 100 mg/kg/day in mice causes a wide range of biochemical alterations in the central nervous system. PMID:8242688

  3. Possible role of lysophosphatidic acid in rat model of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the vascular wall of pulmonary arteries. We hypothesized that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lipid, is implicated in this vascular remodeling in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Exposure of Wistar rats to 10% O2 for 3 weeks induced an increase in the mean serum levels of LPA, to 40.9 (log-detransformed standard deviations: 23.4–71.7) μM versus 21.6 (11.0–42.3) μM in a matched control animal group (P = 0.037). We also observed perivascular LPA immunohistochemical staining in lungs of hypoxic rats colocalized with the secreted lysophospholipase D autotaxin (ATX). Moreover, ATX colocalized with mast cell tryptase, suggesting implication of these cells in perivascular LPA production. Hypoxic rat lungs expressed more ATX transcripts (2.4-fold) and more transcripts of proteins implicated in cell migration: β2 integrin (1.74-fold), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; 1.84-fold), and αM integrin (2.70-fold). Serum from the hypoxic group of animals had significantly higher chemoattractant properties toward rat primary lung fibroblasts, and this increase in cell migration could be prevented by the LPA receptor 1 and 3 antagonists. LPA also increased adhesive properties of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells as well as those of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, via the activation of LPA receptor 1 or 3 followed by the stimulation of gene expression of ICAM-1, β-1, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule integrins. In conclusion, chronic hypoxia increases circulating and tissue levels of LPA, which might induce fibroblast migration and recruitment of mononuclear cells in pulmonary vasculature, both of which contribute to pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:25621161

  4. Ascorbate prevents placental oxidative stress and enhances birth weight in hypoxic pregnancy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Richter, H G; Camm, E J; Modi, B N; Naeem, F; Cross, C M; Cindrova-Davies, T; Spasic-Boskovic, O; Dunster, C; Mudway, I S; Kelly, F J; Burton, G J; Poston, L; Giussani, D A

    2012-01-01

    This study isolated the effects of maternal hypoxia independent of changes in maternal nutrition on maternal circulatory and placental molecular indices of oxidative stress and determined whether maternal antioxidant treatment conferred protection. Pregnant rats were subjected to normoxic pregnancy or 13% O2 chronic hypoxia for most of gestation with and without maternal treatment with vitamin C in the drinking water. Maternal hypoxia with and without vitamin C did not affect maternal food or water intake and led to a significant increase in maternal and fetal haematocrit. At gestational day 20, maternal plasma urate and l-cysteine concentrations, and placental levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and heat shock protein 70 were increased while placental heat shock protein 90 levels were decreased in hypoxic pregnancy. The induction of maternal circulatory and placental molecular indices of oxidative stress in hypoxic pregnancies was prevented by maternal treatment with vitamin C. Maternal hypoxia during pregnancy with or without vitamin C increased placental weight, but not total or compartmental volumes. Maternal treatment with vitamin C increased birth weight in both hypoxic and normoxic pregnancies. The data show that maternal hypoxia independent of maternal undernutrition promotes maternal and placental indices of oxidative stress, effects that can be prevented by maternal treatment with vitamin C in hypoxic pregnancy. While vitamin C may not be the ideal candidate of choice for therapy in pregnant women, and taking into consideration differences in ascorbic acid metabolism between rats and humans, the data do underlie that antioxidant treatment may provide a useful intervention to improve placental function and protect fetal growth in pregnancy complicated by fetal hypoxia. PMID:22289909

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in a mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengwei; Chi, Feifei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Chen, Yongquan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1107 was screened for high antioxidative activity from 55 lactobacilli. The present study attempted to explore the protective properties of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 in alcoholic liver injury. A mouse model was induced by orally feeding alcohol when simultaneously treated with L. rhamnosus CCFM1107, the drug Hu-Gan- Pian (HGP), L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), and L. plantarum CCFM1112 for 3 months. Biochemical analysis was performed for both serum and liver homogenate. Detailed intestinal flora and histological analyses were also carried out. Our results indicated that the administration of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 significantly inhibited the increase in the levels of serum aminotransferase and endotoxin, as well as the levels of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) in the serum and in the liver. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased. The enteric dysbiosis caused by alcohol was restored by increasing the numbers of both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and decreasing the numbers of both enterococci and enterobacter. Histological analysis confirmed the protective effect of L. rhamnosus CCFM1107. Compared with the other lactobacilli and to the drug Hu-Gan-Pian, there is a high chance that L. rhamnosus CCFM1107 provides protective effects on alcoholic liver injury by reducing oxidative stress and restoring the intestinal flora.

  6. Chronic exposure to aluminum and melatonin through the diet: neurobehavioral effects in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Celeste; Reverte, Ingrid; Colomina, Maria Teresa; Domingo, José L; Gómez, Mercedes

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxic element involved in the etiology of some serious neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Antioxidants like melatonin might protect neurons against the damage produced in AD. The APPSWE (Tg2576) transgenic mouse is one of the most used animal models developed to mimic AD damage. In the present study, wild type and Tg2576 mice were orally exposed during 14 months to Al, melatonin, and citric acid, as well as to all possible combinations between them. At 17 months of age, mice were evaluated for behavior using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Transgenic animals exposed to melatonin only and to Al plus citric acid plus melatonin showed a good acquisition. No effects on acquisition in the Morris water maze were observed in wild type mice. With respect to the retention of the task, only melatonin wild type animals, and Al plus citric acid plus melatonin transgenic mice showed retention during the acquisition. Control wild type animals and Al plus citric acid plus melatonin transgenic mice showed good long term retention. Melatonin improved learning and spatial memory in Al-exposed transgenic mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic treatment with a novel γ-secretase modulator, JNJ-40418677, inhibits amyloid plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Broeck, B; Chen, J-M; Tréton, G; Desmidt, M; Hopf, C; Ramsden, N; Karran, E; Mercken, M; Rowley, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE γ-Secretase modulators represent a promising therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they selectively decrease amyloid β 42 (Aβ42), a particularly neurotoxic Aβ species that accumulates in plaques in the brains of patients with AD. In the present study, we describe the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of a potent novel γ-secretase modulator, 2-(S)-(3,5-bis(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)phenyl)-4-methylpentanoic acid (JNJ-40418677). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The potency and selectivity of JNJ-40418677 for Aβ reduction was investigated in human neuroblastoma cells, rat primary neurones and after treatment with single oral doses in non-transgenic mouse brains. To evaluate the effect of JNJ-40418677 on plaque formation, Tg2576 mice were treated from 6 until 13 months of age via the diet. KEY RESULTS JNJ-40418677 selectively reduced Aβ42 secretion in human neuroblastoma cells and rat primary neurones, but it did not inhibit Notch processing or formation of other amyloid precursor protein cleavage products. Oral treatment of non-transgenic mice with JNJ-40418677 resulted in an excellent brain penetration of the compound and a dose- and time-dependent decrease of brain Aβ42 levels. Chronic treatment of Tg2576 mice with JNJ-40418677 reduced brain Aβ levels, the area occupied by plaques and plaque number in a dose-dependent manner compared with transgenic vehicle-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS JNJ-40418677 selectively decreased Aβ42 production, showed an excellent brain penetration after oral administration in mice and lowered brain Aβ burden in Tg2576 mice after chronic treatment. JNJ-40418677 therefore warrants further investigation as a potentially effective disease-modifying therapy for AD. PMID:21232036

  8. Effect of chronic morphine treatment on alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mediated autoinhibition of transmitter release from sympathetic varicosities of the mouse vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Karunanithi, S; Lavidis, N A

    2001-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic morphine treatment (CMT) on sympathetic innervation of the mouse vas deferens and on alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mediated autoinhibition has been examined using intracellular recording of excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) and histochemistry. 2. In chronically saline treated (CST) preparations, morphine (1 microM) and the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (clonidine, 1 microM) decreased the mean amplitude of EJPs evoked with 0.03 Hz stimulation by 81+/-8% (n=16) and 92+/-6% (n=7) respectively. In CMT preparations, morphine (1 microM) and clonidine (1 microM) decreased mean EJP amplitude by 68+/-8% (n=7) and 79+/-8% (n=7) respectively. 3. When stimulating the sympathetic axons at 0.03 Hz, the mean EJP amplitude recorded from smooth muscles acutely withdrawn from CMT was four times greater than for CST smooth muscles (40.7+/-3.8 mV, n=7 compared with 9.9+/-0.3 mV, n=7). 4. Part of the increase in mean EJP amplitude following CMT was produced by a 31% increase in the density of sympathetic axons and varicosities innervating the smooth muscle. 5. Results from the present study indicate that the effectiveness of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mediated autoinhibition is only slightly reduced in CMT preparations. Most of the cross tolerance which develops between morphine, clonidine and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mediated autoinhibition occurs as a consequence of increased efficacy of neuromuscular transmission which is produced by an increase in the probability of transmitter release and an increase in the density of sympathetic innervation.

  9. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Novel Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine-Oxidase Inhibitor SzV-1287 in Chronic Arthritis Models of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Ádám; Menghis, Awt; Botz, Bálint; Borbély, Éva; Kemény, Ágnes; Tékus, Valéria; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Juhász, Tamás; Zákány, Róza; Bogdán, Dóra; Mátyus, Péter; Keeble, Julie; Pintér, Erika; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) catalyses oxidative deamination of primary amines. Since there is no data about its function in pain and arthritis mechanisms, we investigated the effects of our novel SSAO inhibitor SzV-1287 in chronic mouse models of joint inflammation. Effects of SzV-1287 (20 mg/kg i.p./day) were investigated in the K/BxN serum-transfer and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-evoked active immunization models compared to the reference SSAO inhibitor LJP-1207. Mechanonociception was assessed by aesthesiometry, oedema by plethysmometry, clinical severity by scoring, joint function by grid test, myeloperoxidase activity by luminescence, vascular leakage by fluorescence in vivo imaging, histopathological changes by semiquantitative evaluation, and cytokines by Luminex assay. SzV-1287 significantly inhibited hyperalgesia and oedema in both models. Plasma leakage and keratinocyte chemoattractant production in the tibiotarsal joint, but not myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by SzV-1287 in K/BxN-arthritis. SzV-1287 did not influence vascular and cellular mechanisms in CFA-arthritis, but significantly decreased histopathological alterations. There was no difference in the anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of SzV-1287 and LJP-1207, but only SzV-1287 decreased CFA-induced tissue damage. Unlike SzV-1287, LJP-1207 induced cartilage destruction, which was confirmed in vitro. SzV-1287 exerts potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions in chronic arthritis models of distinct mechanisms, without inducing cartilage damage. PMID:28067251

  10. Restoration of Haemoglobin Level Using Hydrodynamic Gene Therapy with Erythropoietin Does Not Alleviate the Disease Progression in an Anaemic Mouse Model for TGFβ1-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lea; Wogensen, Lise; Marcussen, Niels; Cecchi, Claudia R; Dalsgaard, Trine; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin, Epo, is a 30.4 kDa glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the fetal liver and the adult kidney. Epo exerts its haematopoietic effects by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes with subsequent improved tissue oxygenation. Epo receptors are furthermore expressed in non-haematopoietic tissue and today, Epo is recognised as a cytokine with many pleiotropic effects. We hypothesize that hydrodynamic gene therapy with Epo can restore haemoglobin levels in anaemic transgenic mice and that this will attenuate the extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidneys. The experiment is conducted by hydrodynamic gene transfer of a plasmid encoding murine Epo in a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses TGF-β1 locally in the kidneys. This model develops anaemia due to chronic kidney disease characterised by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of mesangial matrix and mild interstitial fibrosis. A group of age matched wildtype littermates are treated accordingly. After a single hydrodynamic administration of plasmid DNA containing murine EPO gene, sustained high haemoglobin levels are observed in both transgenic and wildtype mice from 7.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L to 9.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L and 10.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L to 15.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. We did not observe any effects in the thickness of glomerular or tubular basement membrane, on the expression of different collagen types in the kidneys or in kidney function after prolonged treatment with Epo. Thus, Epo treatment in this model of chronic kidney disease normalises haemoglobin levels but has no effect on kidney fibrosis or function.

  11. Chronic administration of the nitroxyl donor 1-nitrosocyclo hexyl acetate limits left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetes mellitus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nga; Wong, Yung George; Rosli, Sarah; Kiriazis, Helen; Huynh, Karina; Qin, Chengxue; Du, Xiao-Jun; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K; Ritchie, Rebecca H

    2015-05-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO), a redox congener of nitric oxide (NO·), is a novel regulator of cardiovascular function, combining concomitant positive inotropic, lusitropic, and vasodilator properties. Moreover, HNO exhibits myocardial antihypertrophic and superoxide-suppressing actions. Despite these favorable actions, the impact of chronic HNO administration has yet to be reported in the context of cardiomyopathy. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by early diastolic dysfunction and adverse left ventricular (LV) structural remodeling, with LV superoxide generation playing a major causal role. We tested the hypothesis that the HNO donor 1-nitrosocyclohexylacetate (1-NCA) limits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and LV diastolic dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetes mellitus in vivo. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male FVB/N mice using streptozotocin. After 4 weeks, diabetic and nondiabetic mice were allocated to 1-NCA therapy (83 mg/kg per day IP) or vehicle and followed up for a further 4 weeks. Diabetes mellitus-induced LV diastolic dysfunction was evident on echocardiography-derived E and A wave velocities, E:A ratio, deceleration, and isovolumic relaxation times; LV systolic function was preserved. Increased LV cardiomyocyte size, hypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression, and upregulation of LV superoxide were also evident. These characteristics of diabetic cardiomyopathy were largely prevented by 1-NCA treatment. Selectivity of 1-NCA as an HNO donor was demonstrated by sensitivity of acute 1-NCA to l-cysteine but not to hydroxocobalamin in the normal rat heart ex vivo. Our studies provide the first evidence that HNO donors may represent a promising strategy for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy and implies therapeutic efficacy in settings of chronic heart failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Restoration of Haemoglobin Level Using Hydrodynamic Gene Therapy with Erythropoietin Does Not Alleviate the Disease Progression in an Anaemic Mouse Model for TGFβ1-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Lea; Wogensen, Lise; Marcussen, Niels; Cecchi, Claudia R.; Dalsgaard, Trine; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin, Epo, is a 30.4 kDa glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the fetal liver and the adult kidney. Epo exerts its haematopoietic effects by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes with subsequent improved tissue oxygenation. Epo receptors are furthermore expressed in non-haematopoietic tissue and today, Epo is recognised as a cytokine with many pleiotropic effects. We hypothesize that hydrodynamic gene therapy with Epo can restore haemoglobin levels in anaemic transgenic mice and that this will attenuate the extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidneys. The experiment is conducted by hydrodynamic gene transfer of a plasmid encoding murine Epo in a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses TGF-β1 locally in the kidneys. This model develops anaemia due to chronic kidney disease characterised by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of mesangial matrix and mild interstitial fibrosis. A group of age matched wildtype littermates are treated accordingly. After a single hydrodynamic administration of plasmid DNA containing murine EPO gene, sustained high haemoglobin levels are observed in both transgenic and wildtype mice from 7.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L to 9.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L and 10.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L to 15.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. We did not observe any effects in the thickness of glomerular or tubular basement membrane, on the expression of different collagen types in the kidneys or in kidney function after prolonged treatment with Epo. Thus, Epo treatment in this model of chronic kidney disease normalises haemoglobin levels but has no effect on kidney fibrosis or function. PMID:26046536

  13. The pathophysiology underlying repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in a novel mouse model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Petraglia, Anthony L; Plog, Benjamin A; Dayawansa, Samantha; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Czerniecka, Katarzyna; Walker, Corey T; Chen, Michael; Hyrien, Ollivier; Iliff, Jeffrey J; Deane, Rashid; Huang, Jason H; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    An animal model of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is essential for further understanding the pathophysiological link between repetitive head injury and the development of chronic neurodegenerative disease. We previously described a model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in mice that encapsulates the neurobehavioral spectrum characteristic of patients with CTE. We aimed to study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this animal model. Our previously described model allows for controlled, closed head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Briefly, 12-week-old mice were divided into three groups: Control, single, and repetitive mTBI. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily, for 7 days. Mice were then subsequently sacrificed for macro- and micro-histopathologic analysis at 7 days, 1 month, and 6 months after the last TBI received. Brain sections were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for astrocytes, CD68 for activated microglia, and AT8 for phosphorylated tau protein. Brains from single and repetitive mTBI mice lacked macroscopic tissue damage at all time-points. Single mTBI resulted in an acute rea ctive astrocytosis at 7 days and increased phospho-tau immunoreactivity that was present acutely and at 1 month, but was not persistent at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI resulted in a more marked neuroinflammatory response, with persistent and widespread astrogliosis and microglial activation, as well as significantly elevated phospho-tau immunoreactivity to 6-months. The neuropathological findings in this new model of repetitive mTBI resemble some of the histopathological hallmarks of CTE, including increased astrogliosis, microglial activation, and hyperphosphorylated tau protein accumulation.

  14. Hepcidin-dependent and hepcidin-independent regulation of erythropoiesis in a mouse model of anemia of chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Jacqueline M; Yates, Saiah C; Femnou, Laurette K; McCranor, Bryan J; Cheadle, Chris; Xue, Qian-Li; Vaulont, Sophie; Civin, Curt I; Walston, Jeremy D; Roy, Cindy N

    2014-05-01

    Increased hepcidin antimicrobial peptide correlates with hypoferremia and anemia in various disease states, but its requirement for anemia of inflammation has not been adequately demonstrated. Anemia of inflammation is usually described as normocytic and normochromic, while diseases associated with over expression of hepcidin, alone, are often microcytic and hypochromic. These differences in erythrocyte parameters suggest anemia in many inflammatory states may not be fully explained by hepcidin-mediated iron sequestration. We used turpentine-induced sterile abscesses to model chronic inflammation in mice with targeted disruption of Hepcidin 1 [Hepc1 (-/-)] or its positive regulator, Interleukin-6 [IL-6 (-/-)], to determine whether these genes are required for features characteristic of anemia of inflammation. Although hemoglobin levels did not decline in Hepc1 (-/-) mice with sterile abscesses, erythrocyte numbers were significantly reduced compared to untreated Hepc1 (-/-) mice. In contrast, both hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte number declined significantly in wild type and IL-6 (-/-) mice with sterile abscesses. Both Hepc1 (-/-) and IL-6 (-/-) mice had increased erythrocyte mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin following sterile abscesses, while wild types had no change. Thus, IL-6 (-/-) mice with sterile abscesses exhibit an intermediate phenotype between wild type and Hepc1 (-/-). Our results demonstrate the requirement of Hepc1 for the development of anemia in this rodent model. Simultaneously, our results demonstrate hepcidin-independent effects of inflammation on the suppression of erythropoiesis. Our results suggest chronic anemia associated with inflammation may benefit from interventions protecting erythrocyte number in addition to anti-hepcidin interventions aimed at enhancing iron availability.

  15. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  16. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor expression and anxiety-like behaviors in the female mouse.

    PubMed

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-11-01

    In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BnST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST.

  17. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    PubMed

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  18. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R.; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M.; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A.; Cripton, Peter A.; Wellington, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8–16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI. PMID:26784694

  19. Effects of Chronic Scopolamine Treatment on Cognitive Impairments and Myelin Basic Protein Expression in the Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Ha; Choi, Hyun Young; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Jung Hoon; Chung, Jin-Young; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kang, Il Jun; Kim, Jong-Dai

    2016-08-01

    Myelin plays an important role in learning and memory, and degradation of myelin is a key feature in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders involving cognitive dysfunction. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is one of the most abundant structural proteins in myelin and is essential for myelin formation and compaction. In this study, we first examined changes in the distribution of MBP-immunoreactive myelinated fibers and MBP levels according to hippocampal subregion in mice following chronic systemic treatment with 1 mg/kg scopolamine (SCO) for 4 weeks. We found that SCO-induced cognitive impairments, as assayed by the water maze and passive avoidance tests, were significantly reduced 1 week after SCO treatment and the impairments were maintained without any hippocampal neuronal loss. MBP-immunoreactive myelinated fibers were easily detected in the stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of the hippocampus proper (CA1-3 region) and in the molecular and polymorphic layers of the dentate gyrus. The distribution of MBP-immunoreactive myelinated fibers was not altered 1 week after SCO treatment. However, the density of MBP-immunoreactive myelinated fibers was significantly decreased 2 weeks after SCO treatment; thereafter, the density gradually, though not significantly, decreased with time. In addition, the changing pattern of MBP levels in the hippocampus following SCO treatment corresponded to immunohistochemical changes. In brief, this study shows that chronic systemic treatment with SCO induced significant degradation of MBP in the hippocampus without neuronal loss at least 2 weeks after SCO treatment, although cognitive impairments occurred 1 week after SCO treatment.

  20. Chronic inflammation promotes myeloid-derived suppressor cell activation blocking antitumor immunity in transgenic mouse melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christiane; Sevko, Alexandra; Ramacher, Marcel; Bazhin, Alexandr V.; Falk, Christine S.; Osen, Wolfram; Borrello, Ivan; Kato, Masashi; Schadendorf, Dirk; Baniyash, Michal; Umansky, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is characterized by chronic inflammation represented by infiltrating leukocytes and soluble mediators, which lead to a local and systemic immunosuppression associated with cancer progression. Here, we used the ret transgenic spontaneous murine melanoma model that mimics human melanoma. Skin tumors and metastatic lymph nodes showed increased levels of inflammatory factors such as IL-1β, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ, which correlated with tumor progression. Moreover, Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), known to inhibit tumor reactive T cells, were enriched in melanoma lesions and lymphatic organs during tumor progression. MDSC infiltration was associated with a strong TCR ζ-chain down-regulation in all T cells. Coculturing normal splenocytes with tumor-derived MDSC induced a decreased T-cell proliferation and ζ-chain expression, verifying the MDSC immunosuppressive function and suggesting that the tumor inflammatory microenvironment supports MDSC recruitment and immunosuppressive activity. Indeed, upon manipulation of the melanoma microenvironment with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil, we observed reduced levels of numerous inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, VEGF, S100A9) in association with decreased MDSC amounts and immunosuppressive function, indicating an antiinflammatory effect of sildenafil. This led to a partial restoration of ζ-chain expression in T cells and to a significantly increased survival of tumor-bearing mice. CD8 T-cell depletion resulted in an abrogation of sildenafil beneficial outcome, suggesting the involvement of MDSC and CD8 T cells in the observed therapeutic effects. Our data imply that inhibition of chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment should be applied in conjunction with melanoma immunotherapies to increase their efficacy. PMID:21969559

  1. Antidepressant-like effects of Sanyuansan in the mouse forced swim test, tail suspension test, and chronic mild stress model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuo; You, Zi-Li; Zhao, Qiu-Ying; Peng, Cheng; He, Gang; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Natural products have been widely reported as effective therapeutic alternatives for treatment of depression. Sanyuansan is a compound recipe composed of ginseng total saponins, fish oil, and valeriana. The aims of this study were to validate whether Sanyuansan has antidepressant-like effects through acute behavioral tests including the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), locomotor activity test, and chronic mild stress (CMS) mice model of depression. C57BL/6 mice were given oral administration of 30 mg/kg imipramine, Sanyuansan, and saline, respectively. The acute behavioral tests including the TST, FST, and locomotor activity test were done after the administration of drugs for consecutively three times (24 hours, 1 hour, and 0.5 hour prior to the tests). Furthermore, the sucrose preference and the serum corticosterone level of mice in the CMS model were examined. Sanyuansan only at 900 mg/kg markedly reduced immobility time in the TST compared with the saline-treated group of mice. Sanyuansan at doses of 225 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg significantly reduced immobility time of mice in the FST. Sanyuansan reversed the CMS-induced anhedonia and hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. In addition, our results showed that neither imipramine nor Sanyuansan at any dosage increased spontaneous motor activity. These results suggested that Sanyuansan induced significant antidepressant-like effects in mice in both acute and chronic animal models, which seemed unlikely to be attributed to an increase in locomotor activities of mice, and had no sedative-like effects.

  2. Chronic Melatonin Administration Reduced Oxidative Damage and Cellular Senescence in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin administration improves spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in the adult Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, a model of Down syndrome (DS). This functional benefit of melatonin was accompanied by protection from cholinergic neurodegeneration and the attenuation of several hippocampal neuromorphological alterations in TS mice. Because oxidative stress contributes to the progression of cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in DS, this study evaluates the antioxidant effects of melatonin in the brains of TS mice. Melatonin was administered to TS and control mice from 6 to 12 months of age and its effects on the oxidative state and levels of cellular senescence were evaluated. Melatonin treatment induced antioxidant and antiaging effects in the hippocampus of adult TS mice. Although melatonin administration did not regulate the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase) in the cortex or hippocampus, melatonin decreased protein and lipid oxidative damage by reducing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC) levels in the TS hippocampus due to its ability to act as a free radical scavenger. Consistent with this reduction in oxidative stress, melatonin also decreased hippocampal senescence in TS animals by normalizing the density of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells in the hippocampus. These results showed that this treatment attenuated the oxidative damage and cellular senescence in the brain of TS mice and support the use of melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in adults with DS.

  3. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tzekov, Radouil; Dawson, Clint; Orlando, Megan; Mouzon, Benoit; Reed, Jon; Evans, James; Crynen, Gogce; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL), tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A), microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B), collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3) and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1), APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the involvement of

  4. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tzekov, Radouil; Dawson, Clint; Orlando, Megan; Mouzon, Benoit; Reed, Jon; Evans, James; Crynen, Gogce; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI) results in neuropathological and biochemical consequences in the human visual system. Using a recently developed mouse model of r-mTBI, with control mice receiving repetitive anesthesia alone (r-sham) we assessed the effects on the retina and optic nerve using histology, immunohistochemistry, proteomic and lipidomic analyses at 3 weeks post injury. Retina tissue was used to determine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number, while optic nerve tissue was examined for cellularity, myelin content, protein and lipid changes. Increased cellularity and areas of demyelination were clearly detectable in optic nerves in r-mTBI, but not in r-sham. These changes were accompanied by a ~25% decrease in the total number of Brn3a-positive RGCs. Proteomic analysis of the optic nerves demonstrated various changes consistent with a negative effect of r-mTBI on major cellular processes like depolymerization of microtubules, disassembly of filaments and loss of neurons, manifested by decrease of several proteins, including neurofilaments (NEFH, NEFM, NEFL), tubulin (TUBB2A, TUBA4A), microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1A, MAP1B), collagen (COL6A1, COL6A3) and increased expression of other proteins, including heat shock proteins (HSP90B1, HSPB1), APOE and cathepsin D. Lipidomic analysis showed quantitative changes in a number of phospholipid species, including a significant increase in the total amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), including the molecular species 16:0, a known demyelinating agent. The overall amount of some ether phospholipids, like ether LPC, ether phosphatidylcholine and ether lysophosphatidylethanolamine were also increased, while the majority of individual molecular species of ester phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were decreased. Results from the biochemical analysis correlate well with changes detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods and indicate the involvement of

  5. The grey mouse lemur uses season-dependent fat or protein sparing strategies to face chronic food restriction.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Sylvain; Perret, Martine; Stein, Peter; Goudable, Joëlle; Aujard, Fabienne; Gilbert, Caroline; Robin, Jean Patrice; Le Maho, Yvon; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Momken, Iman

    2010-01-21

    During moderate calorie restriction (CR) the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression or summering torpor avoidance. We investigated body composition, whole body protein turnover, and daily energy expenditure (DEE), during a graded (40 and 80%) 35-day CR in short-days (winter; SD40 and SD80, respectively) and long-days (summer; LD40 and LD80, respectively) acclimated animals. LD40 animals showed no change in fat mass (FM) but a 12% fat free mass (FFM) reduction. Protein balance being positive after CR, the FFM loss was early and rapid. The 25% DEE reduction, in LD40 group was mainly explained by FFM changes. LD80 animals showed a steady body mass loss and were excluded from the CR trial at day 22, reaching a survival-threatened body mass. No data were available for this group. SD40 animals significantly decreased their FM level by 21%, but maintained FFM. Protein sparing was achieved through a 35 and 39% decrease in protein synthesis and catabolism (protein turnover), respectively, overall maintaining nitrogen balance. The 21% reduction in energy requirement was explained by the 30% nitrogen flux drop but also by torpor as DEE FFM-adjusted remained 13% lower compared to ad-libitum. SD80 animals were unable to maintain energy and nitrogen balances, losing both FM and FFM. Thus summering mouse lemurs equilibrate energy balance by a rapid loss of active metabolic mass without using torpor, whereas wintering animals spare protein and energy through increased torpor expression. Both strategies have direct fitness implication: 1) to maintain activities at a lower body size during the mating season and 2) to preserve an optimal wintering muscle mass and function.

  6. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  7. CD4+ T cell vaccination overcomes defective cross-presentation of fungal antigens in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonella De; Iannitti, Rossana G.; Bozza, Silvia; Beau, Remi; Casagrande, Andrea; D’Angelo, Carmen; Moretti, Silvia; Cunha, Cristina; Giovannini, Gloria; Massi-Benedetti, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Boon, Louis; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Romani, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a model fungal pathogen and a common cause of infection in individuals with the primary immunodeficiency chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Although primarily considered a deficiency of innate immunity, CGD is also linked to dysfunctional T cell reactivity. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells mediate vaccine-induced protection from experimental aspergillosis, but the molecular mechanisms leading to the generation of protective immunity and whether these mechanisms are dysregulated in individuals with CGD have not been determined. Here, we show that activation of either T cell subset in a mouse model of CGD is contingent upon the nature of the fungal vaccine, the involvement of distinct innate receptor signaling pathways, and the mode of antigen routing and presentation in DCs. Aspergillus conidia activated CD8+ T cells upon sorting to the Rab14+ endosomal compartment required for alternative MHC class I presentation. Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells failed to occur in mice with CGD due to defective DC endosomal alkalinization and autophagy. However, long-lasting antifungal protection and disease control were successfully achieved upon vaccination with purified fungal antigens that activated CD4+ T cells through the endosome/lysosome pathway. Our study thus indicates that distinct intracellular pathways are exploited for the priming of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to A. fumigatus and suggests that CD4+ T cell vaccination may be able to overcome defective antifungal CD8+ T cell memory in individuals with CGD. PMID:22523066

  8. Quercetin along with piperine prevents cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation associated with mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Rinwa, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2013-07-16

    Stress occurs in everyday life and persistence of it causes memory loss. Bioflavonoids like quercetin are reported to have poor bioavailability and limited therapeutic potential against stress induced neurological disorders. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to elucidate the therapeutic potency of combination of quercetin with piperine; a bioavailability enhancer against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. Laca mice were subjected to a series of stressful events for a period of 28 days. Quercetin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.), piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and their combinations were administered daily 30 min before CUS procedure. Piracetam (100 mg/kg, i.p.) served as a standard control. CUS caused impaired spatial navigation in Morris water maze test and poor retention in elevated plus maze task. Further, there was significant increase in brain oxidative stress markers and neuro-inflammation (TNF-α). This was coupled with marked rise in acetylcholinesterase and serum corticosterone levels. Co-administration of piperine with quercetin significantly elevated their potential to restore these behavioral, biochemical and molecular changes associated with mouse model of CUS. These results suggest that piperine enhances the neuroprotective effects of quercetin against CUS-induced oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and memory deficits.

  9. Effect of rapamycin on mouse chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the development of nonhematopoietic malignancies in Emu-TCL1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zanesi, Nicola; Aqeilan, Rami; Drusco, Alessandra; Kaou, Mohamed; Sevignani, Cinzia; Costinean, Stefan; Bortesi, Laura; La Rocca, Gaspare; Koldovsky, Pavel; Volinia, Stefano; Mancini, Rita; Calin, George; Scott, Charles P; Pekarsky, Yuri; Croce, Carlo M

    2006-01-15

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the world. The TCL1 gene, responsible for prolymphocytic T cell leukemia, is also overexpressed in human B cell malignancies and overexpression of the Tcl1 protein occurs frequently in CLL. Aging transgenic mice that overexpress TCL1 under control of the mu immunoglobulin gene enhancer, develop a CD5+ B cell lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking human CLL and implicating TCL1 in the pathogenesis of CLL. In the current study, we exploited this transgenic mouse to investigate two different CLL-related issues: potential treatment of CLL and characterization of neoplasms that accompany CLL. We successfully transplanted CLL cells into syngeneic mice that led to CLL development in the recipient mice. This approach allowed us to verify the involvement of the Tcl1/Akt/mTOR biochemical pathway in the disease by testing the ability of a specific pharmacologic agent, rapamycin, to slow CLL. We also showed that 36% of these transgenic mice were affected by solid malignancies, in which the expression of the Tcl1 protein was absent. These findings indicate that other oncogenic mechanism(s) may be involved in the development of solid tumors in Emu-TCL1 transgenic mice.

  10. Chronic administration of SUMO‑1 has negative effects on novel object recognition memory as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Dae Won; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Chung, Jin Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Choi, Soo Young; Hwang, In Koo

    2017-09-01

    Post‑translational modifications have been associated with developmental and aging processes, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of small ubiquitin‑like modifier 1 (SUMO‑1) on hippocampal dependent memory function, cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. To facilitate the delivery of SUMO‑1 into hippocampal neurons, a transactivator of transcription (Tat)‑SUMO‑1 fusion protein was constructed and mice were divided into two groups: A vehicle (Tat peptide)‑treated group and a Tat‑SUMO‑1‑treated group. The vehicle or Tat‑SUMO‑1 was administered intraperitoneally to 7‑week‑old mice once daily for 3 weeks, and a novel object recognition test was conducted following the final treatment; the animals were sacrificed 2 h following the test for further analysis. Administration of Tat‑SUMO‑1 significantly decreased exploration of a new object in a novel object recognition test compared with mice in the vehicle‑treated group. In addition, cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation analyses (based on Ki67 and doublecortin immunohistochemistry, respectively) revealed that the administration of Tat‑SUMO‑1 significantly reduced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. These results suggested that chronic supplementation of Tat‑SUMO‑1 affects hippocampal functions by decreasing cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse dentate gyrus.

  11. Transplantation of Donor-Origin Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Thymic Epithelial Progenitors Prevents the Development of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Liu, Yalan; Su, Min; Song, Yinhong; Rood, Debra; Lai, Laijun

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant diseases. However, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a significant cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic HSCT. cGVHD often manifests as autoimmune syndrome. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a critical role in supporting negative selection and regulatory T-cell (Treg) generation. Studies have shown that damage in TECs is sufficient to induce cGVHD. We have previously reported that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be selectively induced to generate thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPs) in vitro. When transplanted in vivo, mESC-TEPs further develop into TECs that support T-cell development. We show here that transplantation of donor-origin mESC-TEPs into cGVHD recipients induces immune tolerance to both donor and host antigens and prevents the development of cGVHD. This is associated with more TECs and Tregs. Our results suggest that embryonic stem cell-derived TEPs may offer a new tool to control cGVHD. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:121-130.

  12. Transplantation of Donor-Origin Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Thymic Epithelial Progenitors Prevents the Development of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Liu, Yalan; Su, Min; Song, Yinhong; Rood, Debra; Lai, Laijun

    2016-08-02

    : Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant diseases. However, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a significant cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic HSCT. cGVHD often manifests as autoimmune syndrome. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a critical role in supporting negative selection and regulatory T-cell (Treg) generation. Studies have shown that damage in TECs is sufficient to induce cGVHD. We have previously reported that mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can be selectively induced to generate thymic epithelial progenitors (TEPs) in vitro. When transplanted in vivo, mESC-TEPs further develop into TECs that support T-cell development. We show here that transplantation of donor-origin mESC-TEPs into cGVHD recipients induces immune tolerance to both donor and host antigens and prevents the development of cGVHD. This is associated with more TECs and Tregs. Our results suggest that embryonic stem cell-derived TEPs may offer a new tool to control cGVHD.

  13. Neuroprotective Strategies after Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brandon J.; Reis, Cesar; Ho, Wing Mann; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating disease that primarily causes neuronal and white matter injury and is among the leading cause of death among infants. Currently there are no well-established treatments; thus, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and elucidate complications that are creating a gap between basic science and clinical translation. In the development of neuroprotective strategies and translation of experimental results in HIE, there are many limitations and challenges to master based on an appropriate study design, drug delivery properties, dosage, and use in neonates. We will identify understudied targets after HIE, as well as neuroprotective molecules that bring hope to future treatments such as melatonin, topiramate, xenon, interferon-beta, stem cell transplantation. This review will also discuss some of the most recent trials being conducted in the clinical setting and evaluate what directions are needed in the future. PMID:26389893

  14. Early life hypoxic or hypoxic/hypercapnic stress alters acute ventilatory sensitivity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Huang, Pengjing; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Radford, Thomas; Babcock, Gerald; Boron, Walter F; Lamanna, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of early life conditioning (hypoxia ± hypercapnia) on adult acute ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Mice were exposed to either hypoxia (5% O(2)) or hypoxia/hypercapnia (5% O(2)/8% CO(2)) in a normobaric chamber for 2 h at postnatal day 2 (P2), and then returned to normoxia. At 3 months of age, hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) were measured using a plethysmograph system. Results showed that HVR was significantly decreased in the P2-hypoxia mice but not in the P2 hypoxia/hypercapnia mice as compared to the P2-normoxic mice, respectively. However, HCVR was significantly decreased in the P2 hypoxia-hypercapnia group but not in the P2-hypoxia group. These data suggest early postnatal hypoxic stress vs. hypoxic/hypercapnic stress plays different roles in fetal programming of the respiratory control system as shown by altered adult acute ventilatory sensitivity.

  15. Vascular adaptations to hypobaric hypoxic training in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Masato; Kawakami, Ryoko; Saito, Kazuto; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Takekura, Hiroaki; Ogita, Futoshi

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exercise training in hypoxia on arterial stiffness and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in postmenopausal women. Sixteen postmenopausal women (56±1 years) were assigned to a normoxic exercise group (Normoxic group, n=8) or a hypoxic exercise group (Hypoxic group, n=8). The Hypoxic group performed exercise under hypobaric hypoxic conditions corresponding to 2000 m above sea level, and was exposed to these conditions for 2 h per session. Aquatic exercise was performed at an intensity of around 50% peak oxygen uptake for 30min, 4days per week, for 8 weeks. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and FMD was evaluated by peak diameter of the popliteal artery during reactive hyperemia. After the 8 weeks of training, the Normoxic group showed no significant changes. In contrast, baPWV (P < 0.05) was significantly reduced and peak diameter (P<0.05) and %FMD (P<0.01) were significantly increased in the Hypoxic group after training. These results suggest that exercise training under mild intermittent hypoxic conditions could more effectively reduce arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women, compared with exercise training performed at the same relative intensity under normoxic conditions. Our data also indicate that hypoxic exercise training may induce vascular functional adaptation, for example an increase in FMD response. These findings therefore could have important implications for the development of a new effective exercise prescription program.

  16. Chronic hyperglycemia induced via the heterozygous knockout of Pdx1 worsens neuropathological lesion in an Alzheimer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chuang; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Jia-Yi; Ding, Chen; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Chai, Rui; Wang, Xu; Wang, Zhan-You

    2016-01-01

    Compelling evidence has indicated that dysregulated glucose metabolism links Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) via glucose metabolic products. Nevertheless, because of the lack of appropriate animal models, whether chronic hyperglycemia worsens AD pathologies in vivo remains to be confirmed. Here, we crossed diabetic mice (Pdx1+/− mice) with Alzheimer mice (APP/PS1 transgenic mice) to generate Pdx1+/−/APP/PS1. We identified robust increases in tau phosphorylation, the loss of the synaptic spine protein, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and plaque formation associated with increased microglial and astrocyte activation proliferation, which lead to exacerbated memory and cognition deficits. More importantly, we also observed increased glucose intolerance accompanied by Pdx1 reduction, the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and the activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) signaling pathways during AD progression; these changes are thought to contribute to the processing of Aβ precursor proteins and result in increased Aβ generation and decreased Aβ degradation. Protein glycation, increased oxidative stress and inflammation via hyperglycemia are the primary mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of AD. These results indicate the pathological relationship between these diseases and provide novel insights suggesting that glycemic control may be beneficial for decreasing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying AD progression. PMID:27406855

  17. The antifibrotic drug pirfenidone promotes pulmonary cavitation and drug resistance in a mouse model of chronic tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ahidjo, Bintou A; Maiga, Mariama C; Ihms, Elizabeth A; Maiga, Mamoudou; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Cheung, Laurene S; Beck, Sarah; Andrade, Bruno B; Jain, Sanjay; Bishai, William R

    2016-09-08

    Pirfenidone is a recently approved antifibrotic drug for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Because tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by granulomatous inflammation in conjunction with parenchymal destruction and replacement fibrosis, we sought to determine whether the addition of pirfenidone as an adjunctive, host-directed therapy provides a beneficial effect during antimicrobial treatment of TB. We hypothesized that pirfenidone's antiinflammatory and antifibrotic properties would reduce inflammatory lung damage and increase antimicrobial drug penetration in granulomas to accelerate treatment response. The effectiveness of adjunctive pirfenidone during TB drug therapy was evaluated using a murine model of chronic TB. Mice treated with standard therapy 2HRZ/4HR (H, isoniazid; R, rifampin; and Z, pyrazinamide) were compared with 2 alternative regimens containing pirfenidone (Pf) (2HRZPf/4HRPf and 2HRZPf/4HR). Contrary to our hypothesis, adjunctive pirfenidone use leads to reduced bacterial clearance and increased relapse rates. This treatment failure is closely associated with the emergence of isoniazid monoresistant bacilli, increased cavitation, and significant lung pathology. While antifibrotic agents may eventually be used as part of adjunctive host-directed therapy of TB, this study clearly demonstrates that caution must be exercised. Moreover, as pirfenidone becomes more widely used in clinical practice, increased patient monitoring would be required in endemic TB settings.

  18. Dietary phosphate restriction suppresses phosphaturia but does not prevent FGF23 elevation in a mouse model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqin; Gillihan, Ryan; He, Nan; Fields, Timothy; Liu, Shiguang; Green, Troy; Stubbs, Jason R

    2013-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone that in end-stage renal disease is markedly increased in serum; however, the mechanisms responsible for this increase are unclear. Here, we tested whether phosphate retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for the elevation of FGF23 in serum using Col4α3 knockout mice, a murine model of Alport disease exhibiting CKD. We found a significant elevation in serum FGF23 in progressively azotemic 8- and 12-week-old CKD mice along with an increased fractional excretion of phosphorus. Both moderate and severe phosphate restriction reduced fractional excretion of phosphorus by 8 weeks, yet serum FGF23 levels remained strikingly elevated. By 12 weeks, FGF23 levels were further increased with moderate phosphate restriction, while severe phosphate restriction led to severe bone mineralization defects and decreased FGF23 production in bone. CKD mice on a control diet had low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) levels and 3-fold higher renal Cyp24α1 gene expression compared to wild-type mice. Severe phosphate restriction increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels in CKD mice by 8 weeks and lowered renal Cyp24α1 gene expression despite persistently elevated serum FGF23. Renal klotho gene expression declined in CKD mice on a control diet, but improved with severe phosphate restriction. Thus, dietary phosphate restriction reduces the fractional excretion of phosphorus independent of serum FGF23 levels in mice with CKD.

  19. Chronic hypoxia in pregnancy affects thymus development in Balb/c mouse offspring via IL2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Lingjun; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qingqing; Zhang, Pengjie; Tang, Jiaqi; He, Yu; Zhu, Di; Xu, Zhice

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia during pregnancy can adversely affect development. This study, addressed the impact of prenatal hypoxia on thymus development in the rodent offspring. Pregnant Balb/c mice were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia during pregnancy, and the thymuses of their offspring were tested. Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy resulted in significantly decreased fetal body weight, with an increased thymus-to-body weight ratio. Histological analysis revealed a smaller cortical zone in the thymus of the offspring exposed to hypoxia. A reduction in the cortical T lymphocyte population corresponded to increased mRNA abundance of caspase 3 (Casp3) and decreased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (Mki67). Differences in T lymphocyte sub-populations in the thymus further indicate that thymus development in offspring was retarded or stagnated by prenatal hypoxia. The abundance of IL2 and its receptor was reduced in the thymus following prenatal hypoxia. This was accompanied by an increase in thymus HIF1A and IKKβ and a decrease in phosphorylated NFKB, MAP2K1, and MAPK1/3 compared to control pregnancies. Together, these results implicate deficiencies in IL2-mediated signaling as one source of prenatal-hypoxia-impaired thymus development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. YAP is up-regulated in the bronchial airway smooth muscle of the chronic asthma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by leukocytic infiltration and tissue remodeling with structural changes