Kramer, Carolyn D; Genco, Caroline Attardo
Several host-adapted pathogens and commensals have evolved mechanisms to evade the host innate immune system inducing a state of low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological studies have also documented the association of a subset of these microorganisms with chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating the role of the microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases and discuss how specific microorganisms subvert or inhibit protective signaling normally induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs). We highlight our work on the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and discuss the role of microbial modulation of lipid A structures in evasion of TLR4 signaling and resulting systemic immunopathology associated with atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis intrinsically expresses underacylated lipid A moieties and can modify the phosphorylation of lipid A, leading to altered TLR4 signaling. Using P. gingivalis mutant strains expressing distinct lipid A moieties, we demonstrated that expression of antagonist lipid A was associated with P. gingivalis-mediated systemic inflammation and immunopathology, whereas strains expressing agonist lipid A exhibited modest systemic inflammation. Likewise, mice deficient in TLR4 were more susceptible to vascular inflammation after oral infection with P. gingivalis wild-type strain compared to mice possessing functional TLR4. Collectively, our studies support a role for P. gingivalis-mediated dysregulation of innate and adaptive responses resulting in immunopathology and systemic inflammation. We propose that anti-TLR4 interventions must be designed with caution, given the balance between the protective and destructive roles of TLR signaling in response to microbiota and associated immunopathologies.
Kramer, Carolyn D.; Genco, Caroline Attardo
Several host-adapted pathogens and commensals have evolved mechanisms to evade the host innate immune system inducing a state of low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological studies have also documented the association of a subset of these microorganisms with chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating the role of the microbiota in chronic inflammatory diseases and discuss how specific microorganisms subvert or inhibit protective signaling normally induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs). We highlight our work on the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and discuss the role of microbial modulation of lipid A structures in evasion of TLR4 signaling and resulting systemic immunopathology associated with atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis intrinsically expresses underacylated lipid A moieties and can modify the phosphorylation of lipid A, leading to altered TLR4 signaling. Using P. gingivalis mutant strains expressing distinct lipid A moieties, we demonstrated that expression of antagonist lipid A was associated with P. gingivalis-mediated systemic inflammation and immunopathology, whereas strains expressing agonist lipid A exhibited modest systemic inflammation. Likewise, mice deficient in TLR4 were more susceptible to vascular inflammation after oral infection with P. gingivalis wild-type strain compared to mice possessing functional TLR4. Collectively, our studies support a role for P. gingivalis-mediated dysregulation of innate and adaptive responses resulting in immunopathology and systemic inflammation. We propose that anti-TLR4 interventions must be designed with caution, given the balance between the protective and destructive roles of TLR signaling in response to microbiota and associated immunopathologies. PMID:28348558
O'Byrne, K J; Dalgleish, A G
Several chronic infections known to be associated with malignancy have established oncogenic properties. However the existence of chronic inflammatory conditions that do not have an established infective cause and are associated with the development of tumours strongly suggests that the inflammatory process itself provides the prerequisite environment for the development of malignancy. This environment includes upregulation of mediators of the inflammatory response such as cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins which themselves may suppress cell mediated immune responses and promote angiogenesis. These factors may also impact on cell growth and survival signalling pathways resulting in induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Furthermore, chronic inflammation may lead to the production of reactive oxygen species and metabolites such as malondialdehyde within the affected cells that may in turn induce DNA damage and mutations and, as a result, be carcinogenic. Here it is proposed that the conditions provided by a chronic inflammatory environment are so essential for the progression of the neoplastic process that therapeutic intervention aimed at inhibiting inflammation, reducing angiogenesis and stimulating cell mediated immune responses may have a major role in reducing the incidence of common cancers. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506482
Nenci, Arianna; Becker, Christoph; Wullaert, Andy; Gareus, Ralph; van Loo, Geert; Danese, Silvio; Huth, Marion; Nikolaev, Alexei; Neufert, Clemens; Madison, Blair; Gumucio, Deborah; Neurath, Markus F; Pasparakis, Manolis
Deregulation of intestinal immune responses seems to have a principal function in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The gut epithelium is critically involved in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis-acting as a physical barrier separating luminal bacteria and immune cells, and also expressing antimicrobial peptides. However, the molecular mechanisms that control this function of gut epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a master regulator of pro-inflammatory responses, functions in gut epithelial cells to control epithelial integrity and the interaction between the mucosal immune system and gut microflora. Intestinal epithelial-cell-specific inhibition of NF-kappaB through conditional ablation of NEMO (also called IkappaB kinase-gamma (IKKgamma)) or both IKK1 (IKKalpha) and IKK2 (IKKbeta)-IKK subunits essential for NF-kappaB activation-spontaneously caused severe chronic intestinal inflammation in mice. NF-kappaB deficiency led to apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, impaired expression of antimicrobial peptides and translocation of bacteria into the mucosa. Concurrently, this epithelial defect triggered a chronic inflammatory response in the colon, initially dominated by innate immune cells but later also involving T lymphocytes. Deficiency of the gene encoding the adaptor protein MyD88 prevented the development of intestinal inflammation, demonstrating that Toll-like receptor activation by intestinal bacteria is essential for disease pathogenesis in this mouse model. Furthermore, NEMO deficiency sensitized epithelial cells to tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis, whereas TNF receptor-1 inactivation inhibited intestinal inflammation, demonstrating that TNF receptor-1 signalling is crucial for disease induction. These findings demonstrate that a primary NF-kappaB signalling defect in intestinal epithelial cells disrupts immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract
Isailovic, Natasa; Daigo, Kenji; Mantovani, Alberto; Selmi, Carlo
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) includes several cytokines among which IL-17A is considered as one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine being central to the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-17 is produced by unconventional T cells, members of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), mast cells, as well as typical innate immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages located in the epithelial barriers and characterised by a rapid response to infectious agents by recruiting neutrophils as first line of defence and inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Th17 responses appear pivotal in chronic and acute infections by bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. The data discussed in this review cumulatively indicate that innate-derived IL-17 constitutes a major element in the altered immune response against self antigens or the perpetuation of inflammation, particularly at mucosal sites. New drugs targeting the IL17 pathway include brodalumab, ixekizumab, and secukinumab and their use in psoriatic disease is expected to dramatically impact our approach to this systemic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barth, Kenneth; Remick, Daniel G; Genco, Caroline A
Activation of the immune response is a tightly regulated, coordinated effort that functions to control and eradicate exogenous microorganisms, while also responding to endogenous ligands. Determining the proper balance of inflammation is essential, as chronic inflammation leads to a wide array of host pathologies. Bacterial pathogens can instigate chronic inflammation via an extensive repertoire of evolved evasion strategies that perturb immune regulation. In this review, we discuss two model pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which efficiently escape various aspects of the immune system within professional and non-professional immune cell types to establish chronic inflammation.
Barth, Kenneth; Remick, Daniel G.; Genco, Caroline A.
Activation of the immune response is a tightly regulated, coordinated effort that functions to control and eradicate exogenous microorganisms, while also responding to endogenous ligands. Determining the proper balance of inflammation is essential, as chronic inflammation leads to a wide array of host pathologies. Bacterial pathogens can instigate chronic inflammation via an extensive repertoire of evolved evasion strategies that perturb immune regulation. In this review, we discuss two model pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which efficiently escape various aspects of the immune system within professional and non-professional immune cell types to establish chronic inflammation. PMID:23255141
Dubois, Raymond N
Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for many different diseases. It is clear that inflammation is associated with degenerative brain diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Throughout the past 100 years, changes in the causes of death in the US have been dramatic. The most recent data indicate that cardiovascular disease and cancer are now responsible for 63% of mortality in the US population. Although progression of these diseases is related to diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors, a common but often unrecognized link is the presence of underlying chronic inflammation. As of 2014, 83.6 million people were living with some form of cardiovascular disease, 29.1 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes, 14 million people carried the diagnosis of cancer, and 5.2 million people were living with Alzheimer disease. These diseases are a huge burden on our health care system and all have been associated with chronic inflammation.
Dubois, Raymond N.
Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for many different diseases. It is clear that inflammation is associated with degenerative brain diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Throughout the past 100 years, changes in the causes of death in the US have been dramatic. The most recent data indicate that cardiovascular disease and cancer are now responsible for 63% of mortality in the US population. Although progression of these diseases is related to diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors, a common but often unrecognized link is the presence of underlying chronic inflammation. As of 2014, 83.6 million people were living with some form of cardiovascular disease, 29.1 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes, 14 million people carried the diagnosis of cancer, and 5.2 million people were living with Alzheimer disease. These diseases are a huge burden on our health care system and all have been associated with chronic inflammation. PMID:26330682
Meirow, Yaron; Baniyash, Michal
Chronic inflammation arising in a diverse range of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases, dysregulates immunity and exposes patients to a variety of complications. These include immunosuppression, tissue damage, cardiovascular diseases and more. In cancer, chronic inflammation and related immunosuppression can directly support tumor growth and dramatically reduce the efficacies of traditional treatments, as well as novel immune-based therapies, which require a functional immune system. Nowadays, none of the immune biomarkers, regularly used by clinicians can sense a developing chronic inflammation, thus complications can only be detected upon their appearance. This review focuses on the necessity for such immune status biomarkers, which could predict complications prior to their appearance. Herein we bring examples for the use of cellular and molecular biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients suffering from various cancers, for prediction of response to immune-based anti-cancer therapy and for prediction of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients. Monitoring such biomarkers is expected to have a major clinical impact in addition to unraveling of the entangled complexity underlying dysregulated immunity in chronic inflammation. Thus, newly discovered biomarkers and those that are under investigation are projected to open a new era towards combating the silent damage induced by chronic inflammation.
Ish-Shalom, Eliran; Meirow, Yaron; Sade-Feldman, Moshe; Kanterman, Julia; Wang, Lynn; Mizrahi, Olga; Klieger, Yair; Baniyash, Michal
Chronic inflammation is associated with immunosuppression and downregulated expression of the TCR CD247. In searching for new biomarkers that could validate the impaired host immune status under chronic inflammatory conditions, we discovered that sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), a protein that participates in early stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is downregulated as well under such conditions. SNX9 expression was affected earlier than CD247 by the generated harmful environment, suggesting that it is a potential marker sensing the generated immunosuppressive condition. We found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are elevated in the course of chronic inflammation, are responsible for the observed SNX9 reduced expression. Moreover, SNX9 downregulation is reversible, as its expression levels return to normal and immune functions are restored when the inflammatory response and/or myeloid-derived suppressor cells are neutralized. SNX9 downregulation was detected in numerous mouse models for pathologies characterized by chronic inflammation such as chronic infection (Leishmania donovani), cancer (melanoma and colorectal carcinoma), and an autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis). Interestingly, reduced levels of SNX9 were also observed in blood samples from colorectal cancer patients, emphasizing the feasibility of its use as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker sensing the host's immune status and inflammatory stage. Our new discovery of SNX9 as being regulated by chronic inflammation and its association with immunosuppression, in addition to the CD247 regulation under such conditions, show the global impact of chronic inflammation and the generated immune environment on different cellular pathways in a diverse spectrum of diseases.
Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Macfarlane, Gary J; Geenen, Rinie; Smit, Johannes H; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in chronic pain, although study findings are inconsistent. This cross-sectional study examined whether basal inflammatory markers and the innate immune response are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. Data were used on 1632 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire was used to determine the presence and severity of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. Subjects were categorized in a chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain group (n=754) and a control group (n=878). Blood levels of the basal inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined. To obtain a measure of the innate immune response, 13 inflammatory markers were assessed after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in a subsample (n=707). Subjects with chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain showed elevated levels of basal inflammatory markers compared with controls, but statistical significance was lost after adjustment for lifestyle and disease variables. For some LPS-stimulated inflammatory markers, we did find elevated levels in subjects with chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain both before and after adjustment for covariates. Pain severity was not associated with inflammation within chronic pain subjects. An enhanced innate immune response in chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain may be examined as a potential biomarker for the onset or perpetuation of chronic pain.
Desvignes, Ludovic; Weidinger, Carl; Shaw, Patrick; Vaeth, Martin; Ribierre, Theo; Liu, Menghan; Fergus, Tawania; Kozhaya, Lina; McVoy, Lauren; Unutmaz, Derya; Ernst, Joel D; Feske, Stefan
Chronic infections induce a complex immune response that controls pathogen replication, but also causes pathology due to sustained inflammation. Ca2+ influx mediates T cell function and immunity to infection, and patients with inherited mutations in the gene encoding the Ca2+ channel ORAI1 or its activator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) are immunodeficient and prone to chronic infection by various pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here, we demonstrate that STIM1 is required for T cell-mediated immune regulation during chronic Mtb infection. Compared with WT animals, mice with T cell-specific Stim1 deletion died prematurely during the chronic phase of infection and had increased bacterial burdens and severe pulmonary inflammation, with increased myeloid and lymphoid cell infiltration. Although STIM1-deficient T cells exhibited markedly reduced IFN-γ production during the early phase of Mtb infection, bacterial growth was not immediately exacerbated. During the chronic phase, however, STIM1-deficient T cells displayed enhanced IFN-γ production in response to elevated levels of IL-12 and IL-18. The lack of STIM1 in T cells was associated with impaired activation-induced cell death upon repeated TCR engagement and pulmonary lymphocytosis and hyperinflammation in Mtb-infected mice. Chronically Mtb-infected, STIM1-deficient mice had reduced levels of inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs) due to a T cell-intrinsic requirement for STIM1 in iTreg differentiation and excessive production of IFN-γ and IL-12, which suppress iTreg differentiation and maintenance. Thus, STIM1 controls multiple aspects of T cell-mediated immune regulation to limit injurious inflammation during chronic infection.
Gibson, Frank C; Ukai, Takashi; Genco, Caroline A
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors, which play an important role in innate immune signaling in response to microbial infection. It has been demonstrated that TLRs are differentially up regulated in response to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The expression of TLRs are markedly augmented in human atherosclerotic lesions and this occurs preferentially by endothelial cells and macrophages in areas infiltrated with inflammatory cells. Furthermore polymorphisms in the human gene encoding one TLR receptor (TLR4) which attenuates receptor signaling and diminishes the inflammatory response to gram-negative pathogens, is associated with low levels of certain circulating mediators of inflammation and a decreased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Recent advances have established a fundamental role for inflammation in mediating all stages of atherosclerosis. However, the triggers that initiate and sustain the inflammatory process have not been definitively identified. Although definitive proof of a role of infection contributing to atherogenesis is lacking, multiple investigations have demonstrated that infectious agents evoke cellular and molecular changes supportive of such a role. Evidence in humans suggesting that periodontal infection predisposes to atherosclerosis is derived from studies demonstrating that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis resides in the wall of atherosclerotic vessels and seroepidemiological studies demonstrating an association between pathogen-specific IgG antibodies and atherosclerosis. Our recent work with P. gingivalis has demonstrated the effectiveness of specific intervention strategies (immunization) in the prevention of pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis. We have also established that the inflammatory signaling pathways that P. gingivalis utilizes is dependent on the cell type and this specificity clearly influences innate
Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L
Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD.
Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Machiah, Deepa; Aitken, Jesse D; Putty, Kalyani; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Chassaing, Benoit; Parkos, Charles A; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Vijay-Kumar, Matam
Objectives Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an innate immune protein expressed by a variety of cells and is highly upregulated during several pathological conditions including immune-complex (IC) mediated inflammatory/autoimmune disorders. However, the function of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation is largely unknown. Therefore our objective was to investigate the role of Lcn2 in IC-mediated diseases. Methods The upregulation of Lcn2 was determined by ELISA in three different mouse models of IC-mediated autoimmune disease: systemic lupus erythematosus, collagen-induced arthritis and serum-induced arthritis. The in vivo role of Lcn2 during IC-mediated inflammation was investigated using Lcn2 knockout (Lcn2KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. Results Lcn2 levels were significantly elevated in all the three autoimmune disease models. Further, in an acute skin inflammation model, Lcn2KO mice demonstrated a 50% reduction in inflammation with histopathological analysis revealing strikingly reduced immune cell infiltration compared to WT mice. Administration of recombinant Lcn2 to Lcn2KO mice restored inflammation to levels observed in WT mice. Neutralization of Lcn2 using a monoclonal antibody significantly reduced inflammation in WT mice. In contrast, Lcn2KO mice developed more severe serum-induced arthritis compared to WT mice. Histological analysis revealed extensive tissue and bone destruction with significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration but considerably more macrophage migration in Lcn2KO mice when compared to WT. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Lcn2 may regulate immune cell recruitment to the site of inflammation, a process essential for the controlled initiation, perpetuation and resolution of inflammatory processes. Thus, Lcn2 may present a promising target in the treatment of IC-mediated inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. PMID:23280250
Marschan, E; Kuitunen, M; Kukkonen, K; Poussa, T; Sarnesto, A; Haahtela, T; Korpela, R; Savilahti, E; Vaarala, O
Probiotics are widely studied both in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases, but their mode of action is poorly known. Our aim was to examine the effect of probiotic bacteria on in vivo cytokine, antibody, and inflammatory responses in allergy-prone infants. In a randomized double-blind study, probiotic bacteria or placebo were given for 1 month before delivery to mothers and for 6 months to infants with a family history of allergy. Plasma samples were analysed for C-reactive protein (CRP), total IgA and IgE, food-specific IgA, IgG, and IgE, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma. We analysed the associations of immunological and inflammatory parameters at age 6 months with probiotic treatment and allergic phenotype at 2 years. Infants receiving probiotic bacteria had higher plasma levels of CRP (P=0.008), total IgA (P=0.016), total IgE (P=0.047), and IL-10 (P=0.002) than infants in the placebo group. Increased plasma CRP level at age 6 months was associated with a decreased risk of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.99], P=0.046], and with a decreased risk of allergic disease [OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.16-0.87), P=0.023] at age 2 years, when adjusted with probiotic use. The association of CRP with a decreased risk of eczema at 2 years of age in allergy-prone children supports the view that chronic, low-grade inflammation protects from eczema. Probiotic-induced low-grade inflammation was characterized by elevation of IgE, IgA, and IL-10, the changes typically observed in helminth infection-associated induction of regulatory mechanisms. The findings emphasize the role of chronic microbial exposure as an immune modulator protecting from allergy.
Senba, Masachika; Mori, Naoki
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has developed strategies to escape eradication by innate and adaptive immunity. Immune response evasion has been considered an important aspect of HPV persistence, which is the main contributing factor leading to HPV-related cancers. HPV-induced cancers expressing viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are potentially recognized by the immune system. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are patrolled by natural killer cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, respectively. This system of recognition is a main target for the strategies of immune evasion deployed by viruses. The viral immune evasion proteins constitute useful tools to block defined stages of the MHC class I presentation pathway, and in this way HPV avoids the host immune response. The long latency period from initial infection to persistence signifies that HPV evolves mechanisms to escape the immune response. It has now been established that there are oncogenic mechanisms by which E7 binds to and degrades tumor suppressor Rb, while E6 binds to and inactivates tumor suppressor p53. Therefore, interaction of p53 and pRb proteins can give rise to an increased immortalization and genomic instability. Overexpression of NF-κB in cervical and penile cancers suggests that NF-κB activation is a key modulator in driving chronic inflammation to cancer. HPV oncogene-mediated suppression of NF-κB activity contributes to HPV escape from the immune system. This review focuses on the diverse mechanisms of the virus immune evasion with HPV that leads to chronic inflammation and cancer. PMID:25992215
Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong
In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.
Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong
In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. PMID:26999194
Agita, Arisya; Alsagaff, M Thaha
The immune system, inflammation and hypertension are related to each other. Innate and adaptive immunity system triggers an inflammatory process, in which blood pressure may increase, stimulating organ damage. Cells in innate immune system produce ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which aimed at killing pathogens. Long-term inflammation process increases ROS production, causing oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is to regulate blood vessel tone and structure. When inflammation lasts, NO bioavailability decreases, disrupting its main function as vasodilator, so that blood vessels relaxation and vasodilatation are absent. Effector T cells and regulatory lymphocytes, part of the adaptive immune system, plays role in blood vessels constriction in hypertension. Signals from central nervous system and APC activates effector T lymphocyte differentiation and accelerate through Th-1 and Th-17 phenotypes. Th-1 and Th-17 effectors participate in inflammation which leads to increased blood pressure. One part of CD4+ is the regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune response activation as they produce immunosuppressive cytokines, such as TGF-β and IL-10. Adoptive transfer of Tregs cells can reduce oxidative stress in blood vessels, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of aortic macrophages and T cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma circulation.
Umashankar, P R; Arun, T; Kumary, T V
Decellularised tissue produces a variety of host responses ranging from constructive remodeling to scarring on account of its differences in the source of tissue, processing or sterilization methods. In this study, in vivo regeneration induced by decellularised bovine pericardium with or without mild glutaraldehyde crosslinking was studied in relation to its immune and inflammatory response using rat abdominal regeneration model. Mild glutaraldehyde crosslinking was done to subdue inflammatory and immune response without compromising host cell incorporation and graft remodeling. Evaluations were done at both 21 and 90 days. Un-crosslinked decellularised bovine pericardium showed more intense macrophage response predominantly of M2 phenotype at 90 days indicating chronic inflammatory response compared to mildly crosslinked group. This group also showed significant increase in plasma cell and lymphocyte count indicating immune stimulation. Lymphocyte transformation test detected presence of bovine pericardial antigen sensitized lymphocytes at both periods in un-crosslinked group. Lymphocytes from mildly crosslinked group failed to respond in this test at both periods. Significantly higher antibody response was also noted at both periods in un-crosslinked group. However, abdominal wall regeneration was observed only in animals implanted with un-crosslinked decellularised bovine pericardium at 90 days. From the above findings, it is inferred that un-crosslinked decellularised bovine pericardium produced significant chronic inflammatory response at 90 days and stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune response in comparison to mildly crosslinked decellularised bovine pericardium. Yet this group produced skeletal muscle formation within graft at 90 days. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mei, Changlin; Zheng, Feng
Chronic inflammation, characterized by increased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and the presence of inflammatory-related diseases, are seen commonly in aging. Both the dysregulation of immune cells and phenotypic changes in parenchymal cells may contribute to chronic inflammation in aging. Moreover, senescent cells are an important source of inflammatory factors. Oxidative stress, via activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and induction of cell senescence, is likely to play a critical role in inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum stress also may be present in aging and be involved in inflammation. Advanced glycation end products also are important contributors to inflammation in aging. Because the kidney is a major site for the excretion, and perhaps the degradation, of advanced glycation end products and small inflammatory molecules, reduced renal function in aging may promote oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic inflammation in turn may potentiate the initiation and progression of lesions in the aging kidney.
Rogovskii, Vladimir Stanislavovich
Inflammation is linked to immune tolerance. In pregnancy and in immune privileged organs constitutive low-grade inflammation is required for maintaining immunological tolerance. Apart from immune tolerance in normality, there is the phenomenon of immune tolerance in cancer which mediates tumor escape from the immune system. It is widely accepted that, in many situations, chronic inflammation critically contributes to cancer. Like other types of immune tolerance, tumor-induced tolerance is also mediated by inflammation. In this review, the main mechanisms that link inflammation and tolerance are considered. We discuss drug targets that are in use to interfere with inflammation in cancer.
McKenzie, Andrew N J; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles throughout the duration of immune responses, participating in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity and contributing to chronic inflammation. The proximity of ILCs to epithelial surfaces and their constitutive strategic positioning in other tissues throughout the body ensures that, in spite of their rarity, ILCs are able to regulate immune homeostasis effectively. Dysregulation of ILC function might result in chronic pathologies such as allergies, autoimmunity, and inflammation. A new role for ILCs in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis has started to emerge, underlining their importance in fundamental physiological processes beyond infection and immunity.
MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING
The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025
Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing
The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation.
Chang, Shu-Chun; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian
Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells. Therefore, uncontrolled proinflammatory responses could conceivably create a chronic inflammatory state, promoting a tumor-favorable microenvironment and potentially triggering immune overactivation and cancer growth. To further understand how hyperglycemia contributes to immune overactivation, the tumor microenvironment and the development of chronic inflammation-associated tumors may provide insights into tumor biology and immunology. This paper provides a brief introduction to hyperglycemia-associated diseases, followed by a comprehensive overview of the current findings of regulatory molecular mechanisms of glycosylation on proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix under hyperglycemic conditions. Then, the authors discuss the role of hyperglycemia in tumorigenesis (particularly in prostate, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers), as well as the contribution of hyperglycemia to chronic inflammation. The authors end with a brief discussion on the future perspectives of hyperglycemia/tumorigenesis and potential applications of alternative/effective therapeutic strategies for hyperglycemia-associated cancers.
Chronic inflammation is linked to the development and progression of multiple cancers, including those of the lung, stomach, liver, colon, breast and skin. Inflammation not only drives the oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells under the stress of chronic infection and autoimmune diseases, but also promotes the growth, progression and metastatic spread of cancers. Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells are comprised of a diverse population of myeloid and immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cells, and others. Different myeloid and lymphoid cells within tumor microenvironment exert diverse, often contradicting, effects during skin cancer development and progression. The nature of tumor-immune interaction determines the rate of cancer progression and the outcome of cancer treatment. Inflammatory environment within skin tumor also inhibits naturally occurring anti-tumor immunity and limits the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. In this article we aim to give an overview on the mechanism by which inflammation interferes with the development and therapeutic intervention of cancers, especially those of the skin.
Plants rely exclusively upon mechanisms of innate immunity. Current concepts of the plant innate immune system are based largely on two forms of immunity that engage distinct classes of immune receptors. These receptors enable the recognition of non-self structures that are either conserved between members of a microbial class or specific to individual strains of a microbe. One type of receptor comprises membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect widely conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) on the cell surface. A second type of mainly intracellular immune sensors, designated resistance (R) proteins, recognizes either the structure or function of strain-specific pathogen effectors that are delivered inside host cells. Phytopathogenic microorganisms have evolved a repertoire of effectors, some of which are delivered into plant cells to sabotage MAMP-triggered immune responses. Plants appear to have also evolved receptors that sense cellular injury by the release and perception of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). It is possible that the integration of MAMP and DAMP responses is critical to mount robust MAMP-triggered immunity. This signal integration might help to explain why plants are colonized in nature by remarkably diverse and seemingly asymptomatic microbial communities. PMID:20415853
Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang
Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research. PMID:27973441
Zhao, Ruilong; Liang, Helena; Clarke, Elizabeth; Jackson, Christopher; Xue, Meilang
Non-healing chronic wounds present a major biological, psychological, social, and financial burden on both individual patients and the broader health system. Pathologically extensive inflammation plays a major role in the disruption of the normal healing cascade. The causes of chronic wounds (venous, arterial, pressure, and diabetic ulcers) can be examined through a juxtaposition of normal healing and the rogue inflammatory response created by the common components within chronic wounds (ageing, hypoxia, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and bacterial colonisation). Wound bed care through debridement, dressings, and antibiotics currently form the basic mode of treatment. Despite recent setbacks, pharmaceutical adjuncts form an interesting area of research.
Baniyash, Michal; Sade-Feldman, Moshe; Kanterman, Julia
Chronic inflammation typical to various chronic diseases is associated with immunosuppression, mediated primarily by immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). A variety of factors induce MDSC differentiation arrest, thus manipulating the host's immune function and suppressing the innate and adaptive immune systems, as reflected by their impaired status associated with down-regulated expression of the CD247 molecule. Such chronic inflammation-induced immunosuppressive features are also found in many tumors, generating tumor micro- and macro-environments that act as critical barriers to effective anti-tumor responses and therapies. This knowledge offers new and novel candidate immune targets for therapeutic interventions, in combination with more conventional approaches as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and cancer cell targeted therapy. Therapeutic manipulation of chronic inflammation during cancer development is likely to enhance efficacy of treatments such as vaccinations, and adoptive T cell transfer, thus switching the chronic pro-cancer inflammatory environments into an anti-cancer milieu. Based on the functional relevance of immune networking in tumors, it is advantageous to merge monitoring immune biomarkers into the traditional patient's categorization and treatment regiments, which will provide new prognostic and/or predictive tools to clinical practice. A better identification of environmental and tumor-specific inflammatory mechanisms will allow directing the clinical management of cancer toward a more personalized medicine.
Ingersoll, Molly A; Platt, Andrew M; Potteaux, Stephane; Randolph, Gwendalyn J
Environmental signals at the site of inflammation mediate rapid monocyte mobilization and dictate differentiation programs whereby these cells give rise to macrophages or dendritic cells. Monocytes participate in tissue healing, clearance of pathogens and dead cells, and initiation of adaptive immunity. However, recruited monocytes can also contribute to the pathogenesis of infection and chronic inflammatory disease, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we explore monocyte trafficking in the context of acute inflammation, relying predominantly on data from microbial infection models. These mechanisms will be compared to monocyte trafficking during chronic inflammation in experimental models of atherosclerosis. Recent developments suggest that monocyte trafficking shares common themes in diverse inflammatory diseases; however, important differences exist between monocyte migratory pathways in acute and chronic inflammation.
Oschman, James L; Chevalier, Gaétan; Brown, Richard
Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing) produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1) inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2) alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground) of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation. PMID:25848315
Oschman, James L; Chevalier, Gaétan; Brown, Richard
Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing) produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1) inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2) alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground) of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation.
Looijer–van Langen, Mirjam A.C.; Dieleman, Levinus A.
Prebiotics are nondigestible fermentable fibers that are reported to have health benefits for the host. Older as well as more recent studies show beneficial effects in experimental colitis and lately also in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic pouchitis. In this review we give an overview of the benefits of prebiotics in rodent IBD models and in IBD patients and discuss their possible protective mechanisms. Commensal intestinal bacteria induce and perpetuate chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas others are protective. However, most of the current medications are directed against the exaggerated proinflammatory immune response of the host, some of them toxic and costly. Feeding prebiotics changes the composition of the intestinal microflora toward more protective intestinal bacteria and alters systemic and mucosal immune responses of the host. Therapy for IBD targeting intestinal bacteria and their function is just emerging. Prebiotics have the promise to be relatively safe, inexpensive, and easy to administer. Unraveling their protective mechanisms will help to develop rational applications of prebiotics. However, the initial promising results with dietary prebiotics in preclinical trials as well as small studies in human IBD will need to be confirmed in large randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:18831524
de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión
Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.
Meyer, Christiane; Sevko, Alexandra; Ramacher, Marcel; Bazhin, Alexandr V.; Falk, Christine S.; Osen, Wolfram; Borrello, Ivan; Kato, Masashi; Schadendorf, Dirk; Baniyash, Michal; Umansky, Viktor
Tumor microenvironment is characterized by chronic inflammation represented by infiltrating leukocytes and soluble mediators, which lead to a local and systemic immunosuppression associated with cancer progression. Here, we used the ret transgenic spontaneous murine melanoma model that mimics human melanoma. Skin tumors and metastatic lymph nodes showed increased levels of inflammatory factors such as IL-1β, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ, which correlated with tumor progression. Moreover, Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), known to inhibit tumor reactive T cells, were enriched in melanoma lesions and lymphatic organs during tumor progression. MDSC infiltration was associated with a strong TCR ζ-chain down-regulation in all T cells. Coculturing normal splenocytes with tumor-derived MDSC induced a decreased T-cell proliferation and ζ-chain expression, verifying the MDSC immunosuppressive function and suggesting that the tumor inflammatory microenvironment supports MDSC recruitment and immunosuppressive activity. Indeed, upon manipulation of the melanoma microenvironment with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil, we observed reduced levels of numerous inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, VEGF, S100A9) in association with decreased MDSC amounts and immunosuppressive function, indicating an antiinflammatory effect of sildenafil. This led to a partial restoration of ζ-chain expression in T cells and to a significantly increased survival of tumor-bearing mice. CD8 T-cell depletion resulted in an abrogation of sildenafil beneficial outcome, suggesting the involvement of MDSC and CD8 T cells in the observed therapeutic effects. Our data imply that inhibition of chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment should be applied in conjunction with melanoma immunotherapies to increase their efficacy. PMID:21969559
Tanaka, Toshio; Narazaki, Masashi; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu
Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases. PMID:25190079
Chatenoud, L; You, S; Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Michaud, B; Bach, J-F
Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes is a prototypic organ-specific autoimmune disease resulting from the selective destruction of insulin-secreting β cells within pancreatic islets of Langerhans by an immune-mediated inflammation involving autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes which infiltrate pancreatic islets. Current treatment is substitutive, i.e. chronic use of exogenous insulin which, in spite of significant advances, is still associated with major constraints (multiple daily injections, risks of hypoglycaemia) and lack of effectiveness over the long term in preventing severe degenerative complications. Finding a cure for autoimmune diabetes by establishing effective immune-based therapies is a real medical health challenge, as the disease incidence increases steadily in industrialized countries. As the disease affects mainly children and young adults, any candidate immune therapy must therefore be safe and avoid a sustained depression of immune responses with the attendant problems of recurrent infection and drug toxicity. Thus, inducing or restoring immune tolerance to target autoantigens, controlling the pathogenic response while preserving the host reactivity to exogenous/unrelated antigens, appears to be the ideal approach. Our objective is to review the major progress accomplished over the last 20 years towards that aim. In addition, we would like to present another interesting possibility to access new preventive strategies based on the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, which proposes a causal link between the increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases, including diabetes, and the decrease of the infectious burden. The underlying rationale is to identify microbial-derived compounds mediating the protective activity of infections which could be developed therapeutically. PMID:20415859
Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.
Chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms. One potential mechanism is that chronic inflammation can generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that allows advantages for tumor formation and progression. The immunosuppressive environment in certain chronic inflammatory diseases and solid cancers is characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory mediators, infiltration of immune suppressor cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways in effector T cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of how immunosuppression contributes to cancer and how proinflammatory mediators induce the immunosuppressive microenvironment via induction of immunosuppressive cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways. PMID:26354776
Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo
Preface Autophagy is a fundamental cell biological pathway affecting immunity. Whereas autophagy is an antimicrobial effector of conventional pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), autophagic adaptors termed SLRs represent a new subset of PRRs and provide the mechanistic basis for autophagic elimination of intracellular microbes. Autophagy controls inflammation via regulatory interactions with innate immunity signalling, by removing endogenous inflammasome agonists, and thorough effects on secretion of immune mediators. Autophagy contributes to antigen presentation, T cell homeostasis, and affects T cell repertories and polarization including Th17 inflammation. Here, we review the above relationships organized into four principal roles of autophagy in infection, inflammation, and immunity. PMID:24064518
Deleidi, Michela; Jäggle, Madeline; Rubino, Graziella
As we age, the immune system undergoes a process of senescence accompanied by the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, a chronic subclinical condition named as “inflammaging”. Emerging evidence from human and experimental models suggest that immune senescence also affects the central nervous system and promotes neuronal dysfunction, especially within susceptible neuronal populations. In this review we discuss the potential role of immune aging, inflammation and metabolic derangement in neurological diseases. The discovery of novel therapeutic strategies targeting age-linked inflammation may promote healthy brain aging and the treatment of neurodegenerative as well as neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26089771
Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping
Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978
González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Tuñón, María J
Flavonoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds widely present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants. These molecules have been reported to possess a wide range of activities in the prevention of common diseases, including CHD, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and others. The effects appear to be related to the various biological/pharmacological activities of flavonoids. A large number of publications suggest immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of these compounds. However, almost all studies are in vitro studies with limited research on animal models and scarce data from human studies. The majority of in vitro research has been carried out with single flavonoids, generally aglycones, at rather supraphysiological concentrations. Few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of physiologically attainable flavonoid concentrations in healthy subjects, and more epidemiological studies and prospective randomised trials are still required. This review summarises evidence for the effects of fruit and tea flavonoids and their metabolites in inflammation and immunity. Mechanisms of effect are discussed, including those on enzyme function and regulation of gene and protein expression. Animal work is included, and evidence from epidemiological studies and human intervention trials is reviewed. Biological relevance and functional benefits of the reported effects, such as resistance to infection or exercise performance, are also discussed.
Lowry, S F
The remarkable advances in molecular and cell biology occurring over the past four decades have served the cause of surgical science well. Our understanding of basic disease mechanisms and insights into potential new therapeutic strategies have occurred at a staggering pace. Perhaps nowhere in surgical biology are these mechanistic insights and therapeutic prospects more evident than in research defining the cytokine mediators of inflammation, injury, and repair. These proteins are secreted to some degree by virtually all immune cell types as well as by a diverse array of other nucleated cells, and their functions encompass a regulatory role on and among many components of the immune system. Such intense interest is well deserved because abnormalities or dysregulation of tissue and wound repair as well as of natural (innate) or specific (acquired) immune function underlie much of the morbidity and mortality associated with surgical practice. Indeed, it is evident that the insights gained from the study of such inflammatory mediators cross virtually every specialty of surgery, from the acute sequelae of severe injury and invasive infection to the chronic manifestations of benign and malignant processes.
Blom, Arjen B; van Lent, Peter L; van Vuuren, Hanneke; Holthuysen, Astrid E; Jacobs, Cor; van de Putte, Leo B; van de Winkel, Jan G; van den Berg, Wim B
Introduction: Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) present on cells of the haematopoietic lineage communicate with IgG-containing immune complexes that are abundant in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In mice, three classes of FcγR (RI, RII, and RIII) have been described. Binding of these receptors leads to either activation (FcγRI and RIII) or deactivation (FcγRII) of intracellular transduction pathways. Together, the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors is thought to drive immune-complex-mediated diseases. Earlier studies in our laboratory showed that macrophages of the synovial lining are of utmost importance in the onset and propagation of immune-complex-driven arthritic diseases. Selective depletion of macrophages in the joint downregulated both inflammation and cartilage destruction. As all three classes of FcγR are expressed on synovial macrophages, these cells are among the first that come in contact with immune complexes deposited in the joint. Recently, we observed that when immune complexes were injected into the knee joints of mice, strains susceptible to collagen-type-II arthritis (DBA/1, B10.RIII) developed more severe arthritis than nonsusceptible strains did, or even developed chronic arthritis. One reason why these strains are more susceptible might be their higher levels of FcγRs on macrophage membranes. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of FcγRs in inflammation and cartilage damage during immune-complex-mediated arthritis (ICA). First, we studied arthritis and subsequent cartilage damage in mice lacking functional FcγRI and RIII (FcR γ-chain-/- mice). Next, DBA/1 mice, which are prone to develop collagen-type-II arthritis (`collagen-induced arthritis'; CIA) and are hypersensitive to immune complexes, were compared with control C57BL/6 mice as regards cartilage damage and the expression and function of FcγRs on their macrophages. Aims: To examine whether FcγR expression on macrophages is
Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro
Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.
Grootjans, Joep; Kaser, Arthur; Kaufman, Randal J.; Blumberg, Richard S.
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved pathway that allows the cell to manage endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is imposed by the secretory demands associated with environmental forces. In this role, the UPR has increasingly been shown to have crucial functions in immunity and inflammation. In this Review, we discuss the importance of the UPR in the development, differentiation, function and survival of immune cells in meeting the needs of an immune response. In addition, we review current insights into how the UPR is involved in complex chronic inflammatory diseases and, through its role in immune regulation, antitumour responses. PMID:27346803
Adipose tissue has traditionally been defined as connective tissue that stores excess calories in the form of triacylglycerol. However, the physiologic functions attributed to adipose tissue are expanding, and it is now well established that adipose tissue is an endocrine gland. Among the endocrine factors elaborated by adipose tissue are the adipokines; hormones, similar in structure to cytokines, produced by adipose tissue in response to changes in adipocyte triacylglycerol storage and local and systemic inflammation. They inform the host regarding long-term energy storage and have a profound influence on reproductive function, blood pressure regulation, energy homeostasis, the immune response, and many other physiologic processes. The adipokines possess pro- and anti-inflammatory properties and play a critical role in integrating systemic metabolism with immune function. In calorie restriction and starvation, proinflammatory adipokines decline and anti-inflammatory adipokines increase, which informs the host of energy deficits and contributes to the suppression of immune function. In individuals with normal metabolic status, there is a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. This balance shifts to favor proinflammatory mediators as adipose tissue expands during the development of obesity. As a consequence, the proinflammatory status of adipose tissue contributes to a chronic low-grade state of inflammation and metabolic disorders associated with obesity. These disturbances are associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and many other pathological conditions. This review focuses on the impact of energy homeostasis on the adipokines in immune function.
Adipose tissue has traditionally been defined as connective tissue that stores excess calories in the form of triacylglycerol. However, the physiologic functions attributed to adipose tissue are expanding, and it is now well established that adipose tissue is an endocrine gland. Among the endocrine factors elaborated by adipose tissue are the adipokines; hormones, similar in structure to cytokines, produced by adipose tissue in response to changes in adipocyte triacylglycerol storage and local and systemic inflammation. They inform the host regarding long-term energy storage and have a profound influence on reproductive function, blood pressure regulation, energy homeostasis, the immune response, and many other physiologic processes. The adipokines possess pro- and anti-inflammatory properties and play a critical role in integrating systemic metabolism with immune function. In calorie restriction and starvation, proinflammatory adipokines decline and anti-inflammatory adipokines increase, which informs the host of energy deficits and contributes to the suppression of immune function. In individuals with normal metabolic status, there is a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines. This balance shifts to favor proinflammatory mediators as adipose tissue expands during the development of obesity. As a consequence, the proinflammatory status of adipose tissue contributes to a chronic low-grade state of inflammation and metabolic disorders associated with obesity. These disturbances are associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and many other pathological conditions. This review focuses on the impact of energy homeostasis on the adipokines in immune function. PMID:27529061
Garcia, Gabriela E; Truong, Luan D; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Johnson, Richard J; Feng, Lili
Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) in Wistar-Kyoto rats progresses to lethal kidney failure by macrophage (Mφ)-mediated mechanisms. Mφs in nephritic glomeruli express adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), the activation of which suppresses inflammation. Here, we pharmacologically activated the A(2A)Rs with a selective agonist, CGS 21680, and inactivated them with a selective antagonist, ZM241385, to test the effects on established GN. When activation was delayed until antiglomerular basement membrane GN and extracellular matrix deposition were established, glomerular Mφ infiltration was reduced by 83%. There was also a marked improvement in glomerular lesion histology, as well as decreased proteinuria. A(2A)R activation significantly reduced type I, III, and IV collagen deposition, and E-cadherin expression was restored in association with a reduction of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts in the interstitium and glomeruli. In contrast, pharmacological inactivation of A(2A)Rs increased glomerular crescent formation, type I, III, and IV collagen expression, and enhanced E-cadherin loss. Activation of A(2A)Rs suppressed the expression of the Mφ-linked glomerular damage mediators, transforming growth factor-β, osteopontin-1, thrombospondin-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Thus, A(2A)R activation can arrest GN and prevent progressive fibrosis in established pathological lesions.
Raffetto, J D
Chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) occur in approximately 1% of the general population. Risk factors for chronic venous disease (CVD) include heredity, age, female sex and obesity. Although not restricted to the elderly, the prevalence of CVD, especially leg ulcers, increases with age. CVD has a considerable impact on health-care resources. It has been estimated that venous ulcers cause the loss of approximately two million working days and incur treatment costs of approximately $3 billion per year in the USA. Overall, CVD has been estimated to account for 1-3% of the total health-care budgets in countries with developed health-care systems. The pathophysiology of dermal abnormalities in CVU is reflective of a complex interplay that involves sustained venous hypertension, inflammation, changes in microcirculation, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, resulting in altered cellular function and delayed wound healing.
Rovina, Nikoletta; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Koulouris, Nikolaos G
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic inflammatory and immune responses play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. Recent data provide evidence for a role in the NLRP3 inflammasome in the airway inflammation observed in COPD. Cigarette smoke activates innate immune cells by triggering pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to release "danger signal". These signals act as ligands to Toll-like receptors (TLRs), triggering the production of cytokines and inducing innate inflammation. In smokers who develop COPD there appears to be a specific pattern of inflammation in the airways and parenchyma as a result of both innate and adaptive immune responses, with the predominance of CD8+ and CD4+ cells, and in the more severe disease, with the presence of lymphoid follicles containing B lymphocytes and T cells. Furthermore, viral and bacterial infections interfere with the chronic inflammation seen in stable COPD and exacerbations via pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Finally, autoimmunity is another novel aspect that may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. This review is un update of the currently discussed roles of inflammatory and immune responses in the pathogenesis of COPD.
There is a strong relationship between metabolism and immunity, which can become deleterious under conditions of metabolic stress. Obesity, considered a chronic inflammatory disease, is one example of this link. Chronic inflammation is increasingly being recognized as an etiology in several cancers, particularly those of epithelial origin, and therefore a potential link between obesity and cancer. In this review, the connection between the different factors that can lead to the chronic inflammatory state in the obese individual, as well as their effect in tumorigenesis, is addressed. Furthermore, the association between obesity, inflammation, and esophageal, liver, colon, postmenopausal breast, and endometrial cancers is discussed. PMID:23819063
Nasef, Noha Ahmed; Mehta, Sunali; Ferguson, Lynnette R
Chronic inflammation is defined by the persistence of inflammatory processes beyond their physiological function, resulting in tissue destruction. Chronic inflammation is implicated in the progression of many chronic diseases and plays a central role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease. As such, this review aims to collate some of the latest research in relation to genetic and environmental susceptibilities to chronic inflammation. In the genetic section, we discuss some of the updates in cytokine research and current treatments that are being developed. We also discuss newly identified canonical and non-canonical genes associated with chronic inflammation. In the environmental section, we highlight some of the latest updates and evidence in relation to the role that infection, diet and stress play in promoting inflammation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the latest research to build on our current understanding of chronic inflammation. It highlights the complexity associated with chronic inflammation, as well as provides insights into potential new targets for therapies that could be used to treat chronic inflammation and consequently prevent disease progression.
It has recently become apparent that obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and several common types of cancer development. Although several events were proposed to be involved in these pathologies, the precise mechanisms underlying obesity-associated inflammation and cancer largely remain unclear. Here, we show that senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) plays crucial roles in promoting obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in mice. Dietary or genetic obesity induces alterations of gut microbiota, thereby increasing the levels of a bacterial metabolite that cause DNA damage. The enterohepatic circulation of the bacterial metabolites provokes SASP phenotype in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which in turn, secretes various inflammatory and tumour promoting factors in the liver, thus facilitating HCC development in mice after exposure to chemical carcinogen. Importantly, reducing gut bacteria efficiently prevents HCC development in obese mice. Similar results were also observed in mice lacking an SASP inducer or depleted of senescent HSCs, indicating that the induction of SASP by the gut bacterial metabolite in HSCs plays key roles in obesity-associated HCC development. Interestingly, moreover, signs of SASP were also observed in the HSCs in the area of HCC arising in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), implying that a similar pathway may contribute to at least certain aspects of obesity-associated HCC development in humans as well. These findings provide valuable new insights into the development of obesity-associated cancer.
Nou, Eric; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to uninfected controls. Although traditional risk factors contribute to this increased risk of cardiovascular disease, HIV-specific mechanisms likely also play a role. Systemic inflammation has been linked to cardiovascular disease in several populations suffering from chronic inflammation, including people living with HIV. Although antiretroviral therapy reduces immune activation, levels of inflammatory markers remain elevated compared to uninfected controls. The causes of this sustained immune response are likely multifactorial and incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the evidence describing the relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease and discuss potential anti-inflammatory treatment options for cardiometabolic disease in people living with HIV.
Palazon, Asis; Goldrath, Ananda; Nizet, Victor
The hypoxic response in cells and tissues is mediated by the family of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors that play an integral role in the metabolic changes that drive cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. HIF expression and stabilization in immune cells can be triggered by hypoxia, but also by other factors associated with pathological stress: e.g., inflammation, infectious microorganisms, and cancer. HIF induces a number of aspects of host immune function, from boosting phagocyte microbicidal capacity to driving T cell differentiation and cytotoxic activity. Cellular metabolism is emerging as a key regulator of immunity, and it constitutes another layer of fine-tuned immune control by HIF that can dictate myeloid cell and lymphocyte development, fate, and function. Here we discuss how oxygen sensing in the immune microenvironment shapes immunological response and examine how HIF and the hypoxia pathway control innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:25367569
Palazon, Asis; Goldrath, Ananda W; Nizet, Victor; Johnson, Randall S
The hypoxic response in cells and tissues is mediated by the family of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors; these play an integral role in the metabolic changes that drive cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. HIF expression and stabilization in immune cells can be triggered by hypoxia, but also by other factors associated with pathological stress: e.g., inflammation, infectious microorganisms, and cancer. HIF induces a number of aspects of host immune function, from boosting phagocyte microbicidal capacity to driving T cell differentiation and cytotoxic activity. Cellular metabolism is emerging as a key regulator of immunity, and it constitutes another layer of fine-tuned immune control by HIF that can dictate myeloid cell and lymphocyte development, fate, and function. Here we discuss how oxygen sensing in the immune microenvironment shapes immunological response and examine how HIF and the hypoxia pathway control innate and adaptive immunity.
Mescher, Anthony L; Neff, Anton W; King, Michael W
The ability of vertebrates to regenerate amputated appendages is increasingly well-understood at the cellular level. Cells mediating an innate immune response and inflammation in the injured tissues are a prominent feature of the limb prior to formation of a regeneration blastema, with macrophage activity necessary for blastema growth and successful development of the new limb. Studies involving either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory agents suggest that the local inflammation produced by injury and its timely resolution are both important for regeneration, with blastema patterning inhibited in the presence of unresolved inflammation. Various experiments with Xenopus larvae at stages where regenerative competence is declining show improved digit formation after treatment with certain immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant agents. Similar work with the larval Xenopus tail has implicated adaptive immunity with regenerative competence and suggests a requirement for regulatory T cells in regeneration, which also occurs in many systems of tissue regeneration. Recent analyses of the human nail organ indicate a capacity for local immune tolerance, suggesting roles for adaptive immunity in the capacity for mammalian appendage regeneration. New information and better understanding regarding the neuroendocrine-immune axis in the response to stressors, including amputation, suggest additional approaches useful for investigating effects of the immune system during repair and regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cappellano, Giuseppe; Carecchio, Miryam; Fleetwood, Thomas; Magistrelli, Luca; Cantello, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto; Comi, Cristoforo
Immune reactions inside the central nervous system are finely regulated, thanks to the presence of several checkpoints that have the fundamental purpose to preserve this fragile tissue form harmful events. The current knowledge on the role of neuroinflammation and neuro-immune interactions in the fields of multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease is reviewed. Moreover, a focus on the potential role of both active and passive immunotherapy is provided. Finally, we propose a common perspective, which implies that, under pathological conditions, inflammation may exert both detrimental and protective functions, depending on local factors and the timing of immune activation and shutting-off systems. PMID:23844334
Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping
Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune-privileged tissue as a result of its unique anatomic and physiologic properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate-immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergoes low levels of activation (parainflammation). In many cases, this parainflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration, this parainflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal parainflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors, and old age. Dysregulated parainflammation (chronic inflammation) in age-related macular degeneration damages the blood retina barrier, resulting in the breach of retinal-immune privilege, leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate-immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in age-related macular degeneration and explores the difference between beneficial parainflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of age-related macular degeneration. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
Velin, Dominique; Straubinger, Kathrin; Gerhard, Markus
The tight control of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the stomach mucosa during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is of prime importance for the bacteria to persist and for the host to prevent inflammation-driven diseases. This review summarizes recent data on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses during H. pylori/host interactions. In addition, the latest preclinical developments of H. pylori vaccines are discussed with a special focus on the clinical trial reported by Zeng et al., who provided evidence that oral vaccination significantly reduces the acquisition of natural H. pylori infection in children.
Rubinow, Katya B; Rubinow, David R
The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights. In this perspective article, we propose alternative paradigms for understanding the role of the immune system in chronic disease. By invoking allostasis or systems biology rather than inflammation, we can ascribe greater functional significance to immune mediators, gain newfound appreciation of the adaptive facets of altered immune activity, and better avoid the potentially disastrous effects of translating erroneous assumptions into novel therapeutic strategies.
Halderman, Ashleigh; Lane, Andrew P
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a prevalent condition that is heterogeneous in disease characteristics and multifactorial in cause. Although sinonasal mucosal inflammation in CRS is often either reversible or well-managed medically and surgically, a significant proportion of patients has a refractory form of CRS despite maximal therapy. Two of the several described factors thought to contribute to disease recalcitrance are genetic influences and dysfunction of the host immune system. Current evidence for a genetic basis of CRS is reviewed, as it pertains to putative abnormalities in innate and adaptive immune function. The role of systemic immunodeficiencies in refractory CRS is discussed. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The mammalian immune system and the nervous system coevolved under the influence of infection and sterile injury. Knowledge of homeostatic mechanisms by which the nervous system controls organ function was originally applied to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and other body systems. Development of advanced neurophysiological and immunological techniques recently enabled the study of reflex neural circuits that maintain immunological homeostasis, and are essential for health in mammals. Such reflexes are evolutionarily ancient, dating back to invertebrate nematode worms that possess primitive immune and nervous systems. Failure of these reflex mechanisms in mammals contributes to nonresolving inflammation and disease. It is also possible to target these neural pathways using electrical nerve stimulators and pharmacological agents to hasten the resolution of inflammation and provide therapeutic benefit. PMID:22665702
Immune system plays an important role in brain development and function. With the discovery of increased circulating inflammatory cytokine levels in depression over two decades ago, evidence implicating immune system alterations in the disease has increasingly accumulated. To assess the underlying etiology and pathophysiology, a brief overview of the hypothesis free genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies in depression is presented here in order to specifically examine if the immune and inflammation hypothesis of depression is supported. It is observed that genes identified in genome-wide association studies, and genes showing differential expression in transcriptomic studies in human depression do separately overrepresent processes related to both development as well as functioning of the immune system, and inflammatory response. These processes are also enriched in differentially expressed genes reported in animal models of antidepressant treatment. It is further noted that some of the genes identified in genome sequencing and proteomic analyses in human depression, and transcriptomic studies in chronic social defeat stress, an established animal model of depression, relate to immune and inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, integrative genomics evidence supports the immune and inflammation hypothesis of depression.
Thompson, Patricia A; Khatami, Mahin; Baglole, Carolyn J; Sun, Jun; Harris, Shelley A; Moon, Eun-Yi; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Brown, Dustin G; Colacci, Annamaria; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Amedei, Amedeo; Hamid, Roslida A; Lowe, Leroy; Guarnieri, Tiziana; Bisson, William H
An emerging area in environmental toxicology is the role that chemicals and chemical mixtures have on the cells of the human immune system. This is an important area of research that has been most widely pursued in relation to autoimmune diseases and allergy/asthma as opposed to cancer causation. This is despite the well-recognized role that innate and adaptive immunity play as essential factors in tumorigenesis. Here, we review the role that the innate immune cells of inflammatory responses play in tumorigenesis. Focus is placed on the molecules and pathways that have been mechanistically linked with tumor-associated inflammation. Within the context of chemically induced disturbances in immune function as co-factors in carcinogenesis, the evidence linking environmental toxicant exposures with perturbation in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is reviewed. Reported effects of bisphenol A, atrazine, phthalates and other common toxicants on molecular and cellular targets involved in tumor-associated inflammation (e.g. cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2, nuclear factor kappa B, nitric oxide synthesis, cytokines and chemokines) are presented as example chemically mediated target molecule perturbations relevant to cancer. Commentary on areas of additional research including the need for innovation and integration of systems biology approaches to the study of environmental exposures and cancer causation are presented.
Thompson, Patricia A.; Khatami, Mahin; Baglole, Carolyn J.; Sun, Jun; Harris, Shelley; Moon, Eun-Yi; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Brown, Dustin; Colacci, Annamaria; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K.; Amedei, Amedeo; Hamid, Roslida A.; Lowe, Leroy; Guarnieri, Tiziana
An emerging area in environmental toxicology is the role that chemicals and chemical mixtures have on the cells of the human immune system. This is an important area of research that has been most widely pursued in relation to autoimmune diseases and allergy/asthma as opposed to cancer causation. This is despite the well-recognized role that innate and adaptive immunity play as essential factors in tumorigenesis. Here, we review the role that the innate immune cells of inflammatory responses play in tumorigenesis. Focus is placed on the molecules and pathways that have been mechanistically linked with tumor-associated inflammation. Within the context of chemically induced disturbances in immune function as co-factors in carcinogenesis, the evidence linking environmental toxicant exposures with perturbation in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is reviewed. Reported effects of bisphenol A, atrazine, phthalates and other common toxicants on molecular and cellular targets involved in tumor-associated inflammation (e.g. cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2, nuclear factor kappa B, nitric oxide synthesis, cytokines and chemokines) are presented as example chemically mediated target molecule perturbations relevant to cancer. Commentary on areas of additional research including the need for innovation and integration of systems biology approaches to the study of environmental exposures and cancer causation are presented. PMID:26106141
Fay, Nathan S.; Larson, Emily C.; Jameson, Julie M.
The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are gamma delta T lymphocytes (γδ T cells) that are unique in their T cell receptor usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by γδ T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces γδ T cell activation. Once activated, γδ T cells function to repair tissue, induce inflammation, recruit leukocytes, and lyse cells. Many of these functions are mediated via the production of cytokines and growth factors upon γδ T cell activation. Pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases involves γδ T cells; some of which are exacerbated by their presence, while others are improved. γδ T cells require a delicate balance between their need for acute inflammatory mediators to function normally and the detrimental impact imparted by chronic inflammation. This review will focus on the recent progress made in understanding how epithelial γδ T cells influence the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and how a balance between acute and chronic inflammation impacts γδ T cell function. Future studies will be important to understand how this balance is achieved. PMID:27303404
Huang, Zhi; Rose, Aaron H; Hoffmann, Peter R
Dietary selenium (]Se), mainly through its incorporation into selenoproteins, plays an important role in inflammation and immunity. Adequate levels of Se are important for initiating immunity, but they are also involved in regulating excessive immune responses and chronic inflammation. Evidence has emerged regarding roles for individual selenoproteins in regulating inflammation and immunity, and this has provided important insight into mechanisms by which Se influences these processes. Se deficiency has long been recognized to negatively impact immune cells during activation, differentiation, and proliferation. This is related to increased oxidative stress, but additional functions such as protein folding and calcium flux may also be impaired in immune cells under Se deficient conditions. Supplementing diets with above-adequate levels of Se can also impinge on immune cell function, with some types of inflammation and immunity particularly affected and sexually dimorphic effects of Se levels in some cases. In this comprehensive article, the roles of Se and individual selenoproteins in regulating immune cell signaling and function are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to how Se and selenoproteins are linked to redox signaling, oxidative burst, calcium flux, and the subsequent effector functions of immune cells. Data obtained from cell culture and animal models are reviewed and compared with those involving human physiology and pathophysiology, including the effects of Se levels on inflammatory or immune-related diseases including anti-viral immunity, autoimmunity, sepsis, allergic asthma, and chronic inflammatory disorders. Finally, the benefits and potential adverse effects of intervention with Se supplementation for various inflammatory or immune disorders are discussed.
Bashir, Arif; Miskeen, Abid Yousuf; Hazari, Younis Mohammad; Asrafuzzaman, Syed; Fazili, Khalid Majid
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an identified proinflammatory autochthonous bacterium implicated in human colorectal cancer. It is also abundantly found in patients suffering from chronic gut inflammation (inflammatory bowel disease), consequently contributing to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Majority of the studies have reported that colorectal tumors/colorectal adenocarcinomas are highly enriched with F. nucleatum compared to noninvolved adjacent colonic tissue. During the course of multistep development of colorectal cancer, tumors have evolved many mechanisms to resist the antitumor immune response. One of such favorite ploy is providing access to pathogenic bacteria, especially F. nucleatum in the colorectal tumor microenvironment, wherein both (colorectal tumors and F. nucleatum) exert profound effect on each other, consequently attracting tumor-permissive myeloid-derived suppressor cells, suppressing cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and inhibiting NK cell-mediated cancer cell killing. In this review, we have primarily focused on how this bug modulates the immune response, consequently rendering the antitumor immune cells inactive.
Dutra, Fabianno F.; Bozza, Marcelo T.
Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prosthetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion, and hemorrhage. The plasma scavenger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavenge heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce reactive oxygen species generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases. PMID:24904418
Castello, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Curley, Steven A; Izzo, Francesco
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health problem because of its incidence and pathogenicity. It might evolve into chronic disease, cirrhosis, and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the outcome is mainly determined by the host immune response. For viral clearance, combined innate and adaptive immune responses are required; resolution requires a vigorous, durable, polyclonal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell response, with an increase in virus-specific CD8(+) T cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Failure of efficient immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling through cell growth, apoptosis and/or necrosis and induction of oxidative stress. Development of fibrosis and/or cirrhosis plus a microenvironment conducive to genomic instability mutations will promote neoplastic transformation. System governance derives from cellular (regulatory cells) and humoral (cytokines and chemokines) immune networks. Therefore, HCC pathogenesis may be a model to study the disease progression from chronic inflammation to cancer allowing design of new strategies targeting the immune response, thereby modifying disease outcome.
Motrich, Ruben D; Breser, María L; Sánchez, Leonardo R; Godoy, Gloria J; Prinz, Immo; Rivero, Virginia E
Pain and inflammation in the absence of infection are hallmarks in chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) patients. The etiology of CP/CPPS is unclear, and autoimmunity has been proposed as a cause. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) models have long been used for studying CP/CPPS. Herein, we studied prostate inflammation induction and chronic pelvic pain development in EAP using IL-12p40-KO, IL-4-KO, IL-17-KO, and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. Prostate antigen (PAg) immunization in C57BL/6 mice induced specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses and severe prostate inflammation and cell infiltration, mainly composed of CD4 T cells and macrophages. Moreover, chronic pelvic pain was evidenced by increased allodynia responses. In immunized IL-17-KO mice, the presence of a prominent PAg-specific Th1 immune response caused similar prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. Furthermore, markedly high PAg-specific Th1 immune responses, exacerbated prostate inflammation, and chronic pelvic pain were detected in immunized IL-4-KO mice. Conversely, immunized IL-12p40-KO mice developed PAg-specific Th2 immune responses, characterized by high IL-4 secretion and neither infiltration nor damage in the prostate. As observed in wild-type control animals, IL12p40-KO mice did not evidence tactile allodynia responses. Our results suggest that, as in patients, chronic pelvic pain is a consequence of prostate inflammation. After PAg immunization, a Th1-associated immune response develops and induces prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. The absence of Th1 or Th2 cytokines, respectively, diminishes or enhances EAP susceptibility. In addition, IL-17 showed not to be essential for pathology induction and chronic pelvic pain development.
Multhoff, Gabriele; Radons, Jürgen
Chronic inflammation has emerged as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Inflammation also plays a pivotal role in modulating radiation responsiveness of tumors. As discussed in this review, ionizing radiation (IR) leads to activation of several transcription factors modulating the expression of numerous mediators in tumor cells and cells of the microenvironment promoting cancer development. Novel therapeutic approaches thus aim to interfere with the activity or expression of these factors, either in single-agent or combinatorial treatment or as supplements of the existing therapeutic concepts. Among them, NF-κB, STAT-3, and HIF-1 play a crucial role in radiation-induced inflammatory responses embedded in a complex inflammatory network. A great variety of classical or novel drugs including nutraceuticals such as plant phytochemicals have the capacity to interfere with the inflammatory network in cancer and are considered as putative radiosensitizers. Thus, targeting the inflammatory signaling pathways induced by IR offers the opportunity to improve the clinical outcome of radiation therapy by enhancing radiosensitivity and decreasing putative metabolic effects. Since inflammation and sex steroids also impact tumorigenesis, a therapeutic approach targeting glucocorticoid receptors and radiation-induced production of tumorigenic factors might be effective in sensitizing certain tumors to IR. PMID:22675673
Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C
Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients. PMID:24409051
Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C
Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.
The innate immune response and the process of inflammation are interwoven. Excessive and continuing cytokine production in response to bacterial lipopolysacharides (LPS) or superantigens is a hallmark of the systemic inflammatory response (IR), which can be life-threatening. Dissemination of these bacterial products induces waves of proinflammatory cytokines that cause vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction. Both LPS and superantigens induce signaling to the nucleus in mononuclear phagocytes and T cells, respectively. These signaling pathways are mediated by NF-kappaB and other stress-responsive transcription factors (SRTFs), which play a critical role in reprogramming gene expression. The nuclear import of NF-kappaB allows transcriptional activation of over 100 genes that encode mediators of inflammatory and immune responses. We have developed a novel method to block nuclear import of NF-kappaB through cell-permeable peptide transduction in monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Strikingly, a cell-permeable peptide that antagonizes nuclear import of NF-kappaB and other SRTFs, suppressed the systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and interferon gamma) in mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS, and increased their survival by at least 90%. Thus, systemic inflammatory responses are critically dependent on the transcriptional activation ofcytokine genes that are controlled by NF-kappaB and other SRTFs.
Jarrott, Bevyn; Williams, Spencer J
It is now recognised that the brain and the peripheral immune system have bidirectional communication in both health and neuronal diseases. Brain inflammation results after both acute injury and also with the appearance of mutated proteins or endogenous neurotoxic metabolites associated with slow neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and some psychiatric disorders. Microglia play a key role in brain inflammation by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and with ageing, microglia exhibit 'priming' leading to increased basal release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Neurochemical targets to reduce or slow chronic brain inflammation include cyclooxygenase enzymes, Nrf2 transcription factor, angiotensin AT1 receptors and sigma-1 receptors. Development of more selective drugs to act at these targets is occurring but large scale clinical trials to validate the drugs will take significant time.
Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio
Type 2 (Th2) immune responses play important roles in intestinal immunity by contributing to the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis, not only conferring protection against helminthic infection but also participating in pro-inflammatory pathways in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. The current review focuses on recent developments regarding the role of Th2 responses in intestinal inflammation. Th2 gut mucosal responses are promoted by mediators that are released following injury to the epithelium, and act as alarmin-type danger signals. Interleukin (IL)-33 is prominent among such factors and demonstrates a dichotomous function, exerting either protective or pro-inflammatory effects, depending on its cellular compartmentalization. The pool of type 2 effector cells has been enriched recently to include not only classical CD4+ Th2 lymphocytes but also a subset of innate lymphocytes (ILC2s) that express the transcriptional factor GATA binding protein 3 and secrete IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. ILC2s play important roles during infection with helminths and bi-directionally interact with Th2 CD4+ lymphocytes, thus establishing a transition from innate to adaptive immunological pathways. Th2 responses are also involved in pro-inflammatory pathways at the intestinal mucosa, and neutralization of the pivotal cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 has been shown to regulate experimental intestinal inflammation. In striking contrast, however, neutralization of human IL-13 had no therapeutic effect in patients with ulcerative colitis. Further studies will be required to delineate the specific mechanisms of type 2 mucosal immunity in inflammatory bowel disease and examine the applicability of Th2-targeted therapies for intestinal inflammation.
Komatsu, Noriko; Takayanagi, Hiroshi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated disease of the joints that is characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia that eventually lead to cartilage and bone destruction. Synovial fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells recognized as a key cell population in RA due to their hyperproliferative and hypersensitive properties in the inflammatory milieu and hyperproduction of both inflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading enzymes. On the immune cell side, a wealth of evidence has shown that CD4(+)T-cells, especially IL-17 producing helper T (Th17) cells, play a prominent role, particularly in the initiation of systemic immune response in RA. However, it is still unclear how the local chronic inflammation in the joint is elicited by a systemic immune response. Recent studies have shed light on the importance of the interaction between immune and mesenchymal cells in joints including synovial fibroblasts. In particular, mesenchymal cells contribute to the Th17-mediated chronic inflammation in RA by promoting the migration of Th17 cells to the inflamed site and then the homeostatic proliferation and concomitant increase in IL-17 production. In addition, recent progress in osteoimmunology has provided new insight into the pathogenesis of the bone destruction which takes place in RA. Th17-related cytokines have been shown to enhance osteoclastogenesis, mainly via synovial fibroblasts. Thus, mesenchymal cells are a determinant of the development of RA that links the systemic immune response and the local disorder in the joints. In addition, the interaction of immune and mesenchymal cells plays a key role in both the chronic inflammation and bone destruction seen in RA. Elucidation of the precise events involved in this interaction will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation and bone destruction in joint results from a systemic immune response, and also will help provide a molecular basis for novel therapeutic
Komatsu, Noriko; Takayanagi, Hiroshi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated disease of the joints that is characterized by chronic inflammation and synovial hyperplasia that eventually lead to cartilage and bone destruction. Synovial fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells recognized as a key cell population in RA due to their hyperproliferative and hypersensitive properties in the inflammatory milieu and hyperproduction of both inflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading enzymes. On the immune cell side, a wealth of evidence has shown that CD4+T-cells, especially IL-17 producing helper T (Th17) cells, play a prominent role, particularly in the initiation of systemic immune response in RA. However, it is still unclear how the local chronic inflammation in the joint is elicited by a systemic immune response. Recent studies have shed light on the importance of the interaction between immune and mesenchymal cells in joints including synovial fibroblasts. In particular, mesenchymal cells contribute to the Th17-mediated chronic inflammation in RA by promoting the migration of Th17 cells to the inflamed site and then the homeostatic proliferation and concomitant increase in IL-17 production. In addition, recent progress in osteoimmunology has provided new insight into the pathogenesis of the bone destruction which takes place in RA. Th17-related cytokines have been shown to enhance osteoclastogenesis, mainly via synovial fibroblasts. Thus, mesenchymal cells are a determinant of the development of RA that links the systemic immune response and the local disorder in the joints. In addition, the interaction of immune and mesenchymal cells plays a key role in both the chronic inflammation and bone destruction seen in RA. Elucidation of the precise events involved in this interaction will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation and bone destruction in joint results from a systemic immune response, and also will help provide a molecular basis for novel therapeutic
Lawrence, Toby; Gilroy, Derek W
Inflammation has evolved as a protective response to insult or injury, it's a primordial response that eliminates or neutralises foreign organisms or material, the resolution of inflammation encompasses the endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms that protect us against excessive tissue injury and promote the restoration of tissue structure and function. In fact, our well being and survival depends upon its efficiency and carefully-balanced control. In general, the innate inflammatory response initiates within minutes and, if all is well, resolves within hours. In contrast, chronic inflammation persists for weeks, months or even years. Here, we are going to discuss the key endogenous checkpoints necessary for mounting an effective yet limited inflammatory response and the crucial biochemical pathways necessary to prevent its persistence. PMID:17408451
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory disease that results in a significant decrease in patient quality of life and a large economic burden. However, the lack of population-based epidemiologic studies and robust model systems has made it difficult to fully elucidate the key inflammatory pathways that drive the chronic inflammatory responses observed in CRS. This review will highlight the wide variety of factors that likely contribute to CRS disease pathogenesis. Defects in the innate immune function of the airway epithelium, including decreases in barrier function, mucociliary clearance, and production of antimicrobial peptides, all likely play a role in the initial inflammatory response. Subsequent recruitment and activation of eosinophils, mast cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) further contributes to the chronic inflammatory response and directly activates adaptive immune cells, including T and B cells. However, development of new tools and model systems is still needed to further understand the chronicity of this inflammatory response and which specific factors are necessary or sufficient to drive CRS pathogenesis. Such studies will be critical for the development of improved therapeutic strategies aimed at treating this highly prevalent and costly disease. PMID:26677109
Cheung, Wai W; Paik, Kyung Hoon; Mak, Robert H
Chronic inflammation is associated with cachexia and increased mortality risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Inflammation suppresses appetite and causes the loss of protein stores. In CKD patients, increased serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines may be caused by reduced renal function, volume overload, oxidative or carbonyl stress, decreased levels of antioxidants, increased susceptibility to infection in uremia, and the presence of comorbid conditions. Cachexia is brought about by the synergistic combination of a dramatic decrease in appetite and an increase in the catabolism of fat and lean body mass. Pro-inflammatory cytokines act on the central nervous system to alter appetite and energy metabolism and to provide a signal-through the nuclear factor-kappaB and ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathways-that causes muscle wasting. Further research into the molecular pathways leading to inflammation and cachexia may lead to novel therapeutic therapies for this devastating and potentially fatal complication of chronic disease.
Lotem, Joseph; Levanon, Ditsa; Negreanu, Varda; Bauer, Omri; Hantisteanu, Shay; Dicken, Joseph; Groner, Yoram
In this chapter we summarize the pros and cons of the notion that Runx3 is a major tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Inactivation of TSGs in normal cells provides a viability/growth advantage that contributes cell-autonomously to cancer. More than a decade ago it was suggested that RUNX3 is involved in gastric cancer development, a postulate extended later to other epithelial cancers portraying RUNX3 as a major TSG. However, evidence that Runx3 is not expressed in normal gastric and other epithelia has challenged the RUNX3-TSG paradigm. In contrast, RUNX3 is overexpressed in a significant fraction of tumor cells in various human epithelial cancers and its overexpression in pancreatic cancer cells promotes their migration, anchorage-independent growth and metastatic potential. Moreover, recent high-throughput quantitative genome-wide studies on thousands of human samples of various tumors and new investigations of the role of Runx3 in mouse cancer models have unequivocally demonstrated that RUNX3 is not a bona fide cell-autonomous TSG. Importantly, accumulating data demonstrated that RUNX3 functions in control of immunity and inflammation, thereby indirectly influencing epithelial tumor development.
Deeks, Steven G.; Tracy, Russell; Douek, Daniel C.
Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection improves immune function and eliminates the risk of AIDS-related complications, but does not restore full health. HIV-infected adults have excess risk of cardiovascular, liver, kidney, bone and neurologic diseases. Many markers of inflammation are elevated in HIV disease and strongly predictive of the risk of morbidity and mortality. A conceptual model has emerged to explain this syndrome of diseases where HIV-mediated destruction of gut mucosa leads to local and systemic inflammation. Translocated microbial products then pass through the liver, contributing to hepatic damage, impaired microbial clearance and impaired protein synthesis. Chronic activation of monocytes and altered liver protein synthesis subsequently contribute to a hypercoagulable state. The combined effect of systemic inflammation and excess clotting on tissue function leads to end-organ disease. Multiple therapeutic interventions designed to reverse these pathways are now being tested in the clinic. It is likely that knowledge gained on how inflammation affect health in HIV disease could have implications for our understanding of other chronic inflammatory diseases and the biology of aging. PMID:24138880
Shalapour, Shabnam; Karin, Michael
Cancer development and its response to therapy are strongly influenced by innate and adaptive immunity, which either promote or attenuate tumorigenesis and can have opposing effects on therapeutic outcome. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor development, progression, and metastatic dissemination, as well as treatment resistance. However, cancer development and malignant progression are also associated with accumulation of genetic alterations and loss of normal regulatory processes, which cause expression of tumor-specific antigens and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that can activate antitumor immune responses. Although signals that trigger acute inflammatory reactions often stimulate dendritic cell maturation and antigen presentation, chronic inflammation can be immunosuppressive. This antagonism between inflammation and immunity also affects the outcome of cancer treatment and needs to be considered when designing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26325032
Shalapour, Shabnam; Karin, Michael
Cancer development and its response to therapy are strongly influenced by innate and adaptive immunity, which either promote or attenuate tumorigenesis and can have opposing effects on therapeutic outcome. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor development, progression, and metastatic dissemination, as well as treatment resistance. However, cancer development and malignant progression are also associated with accumulation of genetic alterations and loss of normal regulatory processes, which cause expression of tumor-specific antigens and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that can activate antitumor immune responses. Although signals that trigger acute inflammatory reactions often stimulate dendritic cell maturation and antigen presentation, chronic inflammation can be immunosuppressive. This antagonism between inflammation and immunity also affects the outcome of cancer treatment and needs to be considered when designing new therapeutic approaches.
Huang, Zhi; Rose, Aaron H.
Abstract Dietary selenium (]Se), mainly through its incorporation into selenoproteins, plays an important role in inflammation and immunity. Adequate levels of Se are important for initiating immunity, but they are also involved in regulating excessive immune responses and chronic inflammation. Evidence has emerged regarding roles for individual selenoproteins in regulating inflammation and immunity, and this has provided important insight into mechanisms by which Se influences these processes. Se deficiency has long been recognized to negatively impact immune cells during activation, differentiation, and proliferation. This is related to increased oxidative stress, but additional functions such as protein folding and calcium flux may also be impaired in immune cells under Se deficient conditions. Supplementing diets with above-adequate levels of Se can also impinge on immune cell function, with some types of inflammation and immunity particularly affected and sexually dimorphic effects of Se levels in some cases. In this comprehensivearticle, the roles of Se and individual selenoproteins in regulating immune cell signaling and function are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to how Se and selenoproteins are linked to redox signaling, oxidative burst, calcium flux, and the subsequent effector functions of immune cells. Data obtained from cell culture and animal models are reviewed and compared with those involving human physiology and pathophysiology, including the effects of Se levels on inflammatory or immune-related diseases including anti-viral immunity, autoimmunity, sepsis, allergic asthma, and chronic inflammatory disorders. Finally, the benefits and potential adverse effects of intervention with Se supplementation for various inflammatory or immune disorders are discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 705–743. PMID:21955027
Pisetsky, David S
Histones are highly cationic proteins that are essential components of the cell nucleus, interacting with DNA to form the nucleosome and regulating transcription. Histones, however, can transit from the cell nucleus during cell death and, once in an extracellular location, can serve as danger signals and activate immune cells. An article in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2013. 43: 3336-3342] reports that histones can activate monocyte-derived DCs via the NRLP3 inflammasome to induce the production of IL-1β. As such, histones, which can also stimulate TLRs, may drive events in the immunopathogenesis of a wide range of acute and chronic diseases marked by sterile inflammation. While the mechanism of this stimulation is not known, the positive charge of histones may provide a structural element to promote interaction with cells and activation of downstream signaling systems.
Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Banerjee, Manas; Pal, Debashis
Introduction Diseases of lacrimal drainage system account for nearly 3% of visits to eye clinic. Chronic dacryocystitis is a frequently encountered disorder among these patients. Histomorphology of specimens obtained after Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is a pertinent indicator of prognostic outcome. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate histopathology of specimens obtained after DCR and to elucidate patterns and score of chronic inflammation encountered. Materials and Methods The study was conducted for a period of one year. Total of 50 patients who were clinically diagnosed as Chronic Dacryocystitis and underwent DCR were included. Following DCR, specimens of lacrimal sac, nasal mucous membrane and nasal bone were collected. Histopathological slides were examined for chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis and capillary proliferation and were graded according to severity, in each specimen. A Chronic Inflammation Score (CIS) was recorded for each case. Results The average age of patients was 39.04±14.22 years and their age ranged between 13 and 62 years. There were 28 (56%) females and 22 (44%) males in the study group. The nasal bone did not reveal any abnormality in any case. The nasal mucous membrane showed mild chronic inflammatory cell infiltration in 46 (92%) cases and moderate degree in 4 (8%) patients. Chronic inflammation with granulation tissue formation was noted in lacrimal sacs of all patients. The CIS revealed that 14 (28%) cases belonged to “mild” group, 26 (52%) to “moderate” group and 10 (20%) to “severe” category. Conclusion The inclusion of CIS in histomorphological evaluation of DCR specimens is recommended since it is one of the parameters that influence course of the disease. PMID:27630848
Lund, Amanda W.; Medler, Terry R.; Leachman, Sancy A.; Coussens, Lisa M.
Skin is a highly ordered immune organ that coordinates rapid responses to external insult while maintaining self-tolerance. In healthy tissue, lymphatic vessels drain fluid and coordinate local immune responses; however, environmental factors induce lymphatic vessel dysfunction, leading to lymph stasis and perturbed regional immunity. These same environmental factors drive the formation of local malignancies, which are also influenced by local inflammation. Herein, we discuss clinical and experimental evidence supporting the tenet that lymphatic vessels participate in regulation of cutaneous inflammation and immunity, are important contributors to malignancy and potential biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy. PMID:26552413
Kimbara, Shiro; Kondo, Shunsuke
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is one of the most deadly malignant neoplasms, and the efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is far from satisfactory. Recent research studies have revealed that immunosuppression and inflammation are associated with oncogenesis, as well as tumor development, invasion, and metastasis in PAC. Thus, immunosuppression-related signaling, especially that involving immune checkpoint and inflammation, has emerged as novel treatment targets for PAC. However, PAC is an immune-resistant tumor, and it is still unclear whether immune checkpoint or anti-inflammation therapies would be an ideal strategy. In this article, we will review immune checkpoint and inflammation as potential targets, as well as clinical trials and the prospects for immunotherapy in PAC. PMID:27672267
Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Fukuda, Asami; Kusunoki, Yuji; Narato, Ritsuko; Saito, Hitoshi; Gemma, Akihiko
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is one of the leading causes of severe pulmonary hypertension. According to previously reported studies in the pertinent literature, chronic inflammatory conditions may be implicated in the development of CTEPH. We herein describe the case of a 56-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CTEPH in association with chronic infection. The patient had experienced five episodes of pneumonia in the five years prior to the diagnosis of CTEPH. Blood tests from the previous five years of outpatient follow-up demonstrated that the C-reactive protein level was slightly elevated. This case suggests that a relationship exists between chronic inflammation and CTEPH, and furthermore, may contribute towards elucidating the pathophysiology of CTEPH.
Heikenwalder, Mathias; Zeller, Nicolas; Seeger, Harald; Prinz, Marco; Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Schwarz, Petra; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Weissmann, Charles; Aguzzi, Adriano
Prions typically accumulate in nervous and lymphoid tissues. Because proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells are required for lymphoid prion replication, we tested whether inflammatory conditions affect prion pathogenesis. We administered prions to mice with five inflammatory diseases of the kidney, pancreas, or liver. In all cases, chronic lymphocytic inflammation enabled prion accumulation in otherwise prion-free organs. Inflammatory foci consistently correlated with lymphotoxin up-regulation and ectopic induction of FDC-M1+ cells expressing the normal cellular prion protein PrPC. By contrast, inflamed organs of mice lacking lymphotoxin-α or its receptor did not accumulate the abnormal isoform PrPSc, nor did they display infectivity upon prion inoculation. By expanding the tissue distribution of prions, chronic inflammatory conditions may act as modifiers of natural and iatrogenic prion transmission.
Cohen, S.; Hayashi, H.; Saito, K.; Takada, A.
This book contains five sections, each consisting of several papers. The section tiles are: Activation of Inflammatory Cells, Mechanisms of Tissue Injury, Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation, Lympokines and Related Factors, and Mechanisms of Granulomatous Inflammation.
Raman, Kripa; Wang, Huaqing; Troncone, Michael J; Khan, Waliul I; Pare, Guillaume; Terry, Jefferson
Breakdown of the balance between maternal pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways is thought to allow an anti-fetal maternal immune response that underlies development of chronic placental inflammation. Chronic placental inflammation is manifested by the influx of maternal inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes, histiocytes, and plasma cells, into the placental membranes, villi, and decidua. These infiltrates are recognized pathologically as chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis of unknown etiology, and chronic deciduitis. Each of these histological entities is associated with adverse fetal outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Studying the gene expression patterns in chronically inflamed placenta, particularly when overlapping histologies are present, may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Therefore, this study compared tissue with and without chronic placental inflammation, manifested as overlapping chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis of unknown etiology, and chronic deciduitis. RNA expression profiling was conducted on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded placental tissue using Illumina microarrays. IGJ was the most significant differentially expressed gene identified and had increased expression in the inflamed tissue. In addition, IGLL1, CXCL13, CD27, CXCL9, ICOS, and KLRC1 had increased expression in the inflamed placental samples. These differentially expressed genes are associated with T follicular helper cells, natural killer cells, and B cells. Furthermore, these genes differ from those typically associated with the individual components of chronic placental inflammation, such as chronic villitis, suggesting that the inflammatory infiltrate associated with overlapping chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis of unknown etiology, and chronic deciduitis differs is unique. To further explore and validate gene expression findings, we conducted immunohistochemical assessment of protein level
Lund, Amanda W; Medler, Terry R; Leachman, Sancy A; Coussens, Lisa M
Skin is a highly ordered immune organ that coordinates rapid responses to external insult while maintaining self-tolerance. In healthy tissue, lymphatic vessels drain fluid and coordinate local immune responses; however, environmental factors induce lymphatic vessel dysfunction, leading to lymph stasis and perturbed regional immunity. These same environmental factors drive the formation of local malignancies, which are also influenced by local inflammation. Herein, we discuss clinical and experimental evidence supporting the tenet that lymphatic vessels participate in regulation of cutaneous inflammation and immunity, and are important contributors to malignancy and potential biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy. The tumor microenvironment and tumor-associated inflammation are now appreciated not only for their role in cancer progression but also for their response to therapy. The lymphatic vasculature is a less-appreciated component of this microenvironment that coordinates local inflammation and immunity and thereby critically shapes local responses. A mechanistic understanding of the complexities of lymphatic vessel function in the unique context of skin provides a model to understand how regional immune dysfunction drives cutaneous malignancies, and as such lymphatic vessels represent a biomarker of cutaneous immunity that may provide insight into cancer prognosis and effective therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.
In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health. PMID:26074674
Pruimboom, Leo; Raison, Charles L; Muskiet, Frits A J
In recent years, it has become clear that chronic systemic low-grade inflammation is at the root of many, if not all, typically Western diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome. While much focus has been given to sedentary lifestyle as a cause of chronic inflammation, it is less often appreciated that chronic inflammation may also promote a sedentary lifestyle, which in turn causes chronic inflammation. Given that even minor increases in chronic inflammation reduce brain volume in otherwise healthy individuals, the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and sedentary behaviour may explain why humans have lost brain volume in the last 30,000 years and also intelligence in the last 30 years. We review evidence that lack of physical activity induces chronic low-grade inflammation and, consequently, an energy conflict between the selfish immune system and the selfish brain. Although the notion that increased physical activity would improve health in the modern world is widespread, here we provide a novel perspective on this truism by providing evidence that recovery of normal human behaviour, such as spontaneous physical activity, would calm proinflammatory activity, thereby allocating more energy to the brain and other organs, and by doing so would improve human health.
Winer, Shawn; Winer, Daniel A
Over the past decade, chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has gained acceptance as a lead promoter of insulin resistance in obesity. A great deal of evidence has pointed to the role of adipokines and innate immune cells, in particular, adipose tissue macrophages, in the regulation of fat inflammation and glucose homeostasis. However, more recently, cells of the adaptive immune system, specifically B and T lymphocytes, have emerged as unexpected promoters and controllers of insulin resistance. These adaptive immune cells infiltrate obesity expanded VAT and through cytokine secretion and macrophage modulation dictate the extent of the local inflammatory response, thereby directly impacting insulin resistance. The remarkable ability of our adaptive immune system to regulate insulin sensitivity and metabolism has unmasked a novel physiological function of this system, and promises new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage the disease. This review highlights critical roles of adipose tissue lymphocytes in governing glucose homeostasis.
Sansbury, Brian E; Spite, Matthew
Acute inflammation is a host-protective response that is mounted in response to tissue injury and infection. Initiated and perpetuated by exogenous and endogenous mediators, acute inflammation must be resolved for tissue repair to proceed and for homeostasis to be restored. Resolution of inflammation is an actively regulated process governed by an array of mediators as diverse as those that initiate inflammation. Among these, resolvins have emerged as a genus of evolutionarily conserved proresolving mediators that act on specific cellular receptors to regulate leukocyte trafficking and blunt production of inflammatory mediators, while also promoting clearance of dead cells and tissue repair. Given that chronic unresolved inflammation is emerging as a central causative factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, an understanding of the endogenous processes that govern normal resolution of acute inflammation is critical for determining why sterile maladaptive cardiovascular inflammation perpetuates. Here, we provide an overview of the process of resolution with a focus on the enzymatic biosynthesis and receptor-dependent actions of resolvins and related proresolving mediators in immunity, thrombosis, and vascular biology. We discuss how nutritional and current therapeutic approaches modulate resolution and propose that harnessing resolution concepts could potentially lead to the development of new approaches for treating chronic cardiovascular inflammation in a manner that is not host disruptive.
Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Qu, Ning; Kuerban, Maimaiti; Musha, Muhetaerjiang; Itoh, Masahiro
Lymphangiogenesis occurs in various organs under inflammatory conditions. Recently, it was demonstrated that activated macrophages play an important role in the process of lymphangiogenesis. However, lymphangiogenesis during testicular inflammation has not yet been studied. Here, we investigated lymphangiogenesis in experimental autoimmune orchitis, a immunologic male infertility model, in mice. Histological changes were observed using immunohistochemical staining with the monoclonal antibodies against F4/80 (mature macrophage marker), lymph vessel endothelium HA-receptor 1 (LYVE-1) (lymphatic endothelial cells marker) and CD31 (endothelial cells marker). The expression of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and TNF-α, which are secreted by activated macrophages, were examined using real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that lymphangiogenesis occurred along the undersurface of the tunica albuginea but not into the interstitium proper between the seminiferous tubules (STs) during the orchitis. It was noted that some F4/80-positive macrophages expressed LYVE-1 at the undersurface of the tunica albuginea and also in the testicular interstitium proper. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expressions of VEGF-A, VEGF-D and TNF-α were significantly increased but that of VEGF-C remained unchanged in the inflammatory testes. This study suggests that testicular macrophages are involved in the specific lymphangiogenesis in the chronic inflammation.
Vida, Carmen; González, Eva M; De la Fuente, Mónica
According to the oxidation-inflammation theory of aging, chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory stress situations (with higher levels of oxidant and inflammatory compounds and lower antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses) are the basis of the agerelated impairment of organism functions, including those of the nervous and immune systems, as well as of the neuroimmune communication, which explains the altered homeostasis and the resulting increase of morbidity and mortality. Overproduction of oxidant compounds can induce an inflammatory response, since oxidants are inflammation effectors. Thus, oxidation and inflammation are interlinked processes and have many feedback loops. However, the nature of their potential interactions, mainly in the brain and immune cells, and their key involvement in aging remain unclear. Moreover, in the context of the neuroimmune communication, it has been described that an oxidative-inflammatory situation occurs in subjects with anxiety, and this situation contributes to an immunosenescence, alteration of survival responses and shorter life span. As an example of this, a model of premature aging in mice, in which animals show a poor response to stress and high levels of anxiety, an oxidative stress in their immune cells and tissues, as well as a premature immunosenescence and a shorter life expectancy, will be commented in the present review. This model supports the hypothesis that anxiety can be a situation of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, especially in brain and immune cells, and this accelerates the rate of aging.
Fantuzzi, G; Faggioni, R
Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is a pleiotropic molecule that regulates food intake as well as metabolic and endocrine functions. Leptin also plays a regulatory role in immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Alterations in immune and inflammatory responses are present in leptin- or leptin-receptor-deficient animals, as well as during starvation and malnutrition, two conditions characterized by low levels of circulating leptin. Both leptin and its receptor share structural and functional similarities with the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. Leptin exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic activities in a variety of cell types, including T lymphocytes, leukemia cells, and hematopoietic progenitors. Leptin also affects cytokine production, the activation of monocytes/macrophages, wound healing, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. Moreover, leptin production is acutely increased during infection and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of leptin in the modulation of the innate immune response, inflammation, and hematopoiesis.
Hekim, Nezih; Cetin, Zafer; Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Cort, Aysegul; Saygili, Eyup Ilker
Radiation therapy (RT) is a well-established but still under optimization branch of Cancer Therapy (CT). RT uses electromagnetic waves or charged particles in order to kill malignant cells, by accumulating the energy onto these cells. The issue at stake for RT, as well as for any other Cancer Therapy technique, is always to kill only cancer cells, without affecting the surrounding healthy ones. This perspective of CT is usually described under the terms "specificity" and "selectivity". Specificity and selectivity are the ideal goal, but the ideal is never entirely achieved. Thus, in addition to killing healthy cells, changes and effects are observed in the immune system after irradiation. In this review, we mainly focus on the effects of ionizing radiation on the immune system and its components like bone marrow. Additionally, we are interested in the effects and benefits of low-dose ionizing radiation on the hematopoiesis and immune response. Low dose radiation has been shown to induce biological responses like inflammatory responses, innate immune system activation and DNA repair (adaptive response). This review reveals the fact that there are many unanswered questions regarding the role of radiation as either an immune-activating (low dose) or immunosuppressive (high dose) agent.
Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Tsuji, Takao; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
Inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to originate from the activation of innate immunity by a danger signal (first hit), although this mechanism does not readily explain why the inflammation becomes chronic. Here, we propose a two-hit hypothesis explaining why inflammation becomes chronic in patients with COPD. A more severe degree of inflammation exists in the lungs of patients who develop COPD than in the lungs of healthy smokers, and the large amounts of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species released from inflammatory cells are likely to induce DNA double-strand breaks (second hit) in the airways and pulmonary alveolar cells, causing apoptosis and cell senescence. The DNA damage response and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) are also likely to be activated, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These pro-inflammatory cytokines further stimulate inflammatory cell infiltration, intensifying cell senescence and SASP through a positive-feedback mechanism. This vicious cycle, characterised by mutually reinforcing inflammation and DNA damage, may cause the inflammation in COPD patients to become chronic. Our hypothesis helps explain why COPD tends to occur in the elderly, why the inflammation worsens progressively, why inflammation continues even after smoking cessation, and why COPD is associated with lung cancer.
Chen, Nelson K F; Chong, Tsung Wen; Loh, Hwai-Liang; Lim, Kiat Hon; Gan, Valerie H L; Wang, Marian; Kon, Oi Lian
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic inflammation and increased risk of infections, particularly of tissues exposed to the external environment. However, the causal molecular mechanisms that affect immune cells and their functions in diabetes are unclear. Here we show, by transcript and protein analyses, signatures of glucose-induced tissue damage, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and dysregulated expression of multiple inflammation- and immunity-related molecules in diabetic kidneys compared with non-diabetic controls. Abnormal signaling involving cytokines, G-protein coupled receptors, protein kinase C isoforms, mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), and Toll-like receptors (TLR) were evident. These were accompanied by overexpression of negative regulators of NFκB, TLR, and other proinflammatory pathways, e.g., A20, SOCS1, IRAK-M, IκBα, Triad3A, Tollip, SIGIRR, and ST2L. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules, e.g., IL-10, IL-4, and TSLP that favor TH2 responses were strongly induced. These molecular indicators of immune dysfunction led us to detect the cryptic presence of bacteria and human cytomegalovirus in more than one third of kidneys of diabetic subjects but none in non-diabetic kidneys. Similar signaling abnormalities could be induced in primary human renal tubular epithelial (but not mesangial) cell cultures exposed to high glucose, proinflammatory cytokines and methylglyoxal, and were reversed by combined pharmacological treatment with an antioxidant and a PKC inhibitor. Our results suggest that diabetes impairs epithelial immunity as a consequence of chronic and inappropriate activation of counter-regulatory immune responses, which are otherwise physiological protective mechanisms against inflammation. The immune abnormalities and cryptic renal infections described here may contribute to progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Bang, Heejin; Bae, Go Eun; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Yeon Mee; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jung-Sun
Background: Chronic placental inflammation, such as villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) and chronic chorioamnionitis (CCA), is considered a placental manifestation of maternal anti-fetal rejection. The aim of this study is to investigate its frequency in twin pregnancies compared to singleton pregnancies. Methods: Three hundred twin placentas and 1,270 singleton placentas were consecutively collected at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 2009 to 2012. Hematoxylin and eosin sections of tissue samples (full-thickness placental disc and chorioamniotic membranes) were reviewed. Results: Non-basal VUE was more frequent in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (6.0% vs 3.2%, p < .05). In preterm birth, CCA was found less frequently in twin placentas than in singleton placentas (9.6% vs 14.8%, p < .05), reaching its peak at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas (29–32 weeks) than in singleton placentas (33–36 weeks). CCA was more frequent in twin pregnancies with babies of a different sex than with those with the same sex (13.8% vs 6.9%, p=.052). Separate dichorionic diamniotic twin placentas were affected by chronic deciduitis more frequently than singleton placentas (16.9% vs 9.7%, p<.05). Conclusions: The higher frequency of non-basal VUE in twin placentas and of CCA in twin placentas with different fetal sex supports the hypothesis that the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is maternal anti-fetal rejection related to increased fetal antigens in twin pregnancies. The peak of CCA at an earlier gestational age in twin placentas than in singleton placentas suggests that CCA is influenced by placental maturation. PMID:26459409
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Patejdl, Robert; Penner, Iris K; Noack, Thomas K; Zettl, Uwe K
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of non-traumatic disability among young and middle-aged adults in the western world. One of its most prevalent and debilitating symptoms is fatigue. Despite the general acceptance of the idea of an immune pathogenesis of MS itself, the role of autoimmunity in the course of MS-fatigue is a matter of debate. Both immune-related processes (acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, immune-mediated neurodegeneration, immune-mediated alterations of endocrine functions related to fatigue) and presumably non-immune-mediated disturbances and factors (sleep disturbances, depression, cognitive alterations, chronic infections, adverse effects of medications) contribute to the clinical picture. Data from in vitro and animal experiments has provided evidence for a role of cytokines as IL-1 and TNF-alpha. This association could not be verified directly in blood samples from humans whereas whole blood stimulation protocols gave some indirect evidence for a role of cytokines in MS-fatigue. MRI being able to detect acute and chronic immune mediated damage to the CNS could depict that global atrophy of gray or white matter does not correlate with fatigue. Rather, distinctive clusters of lesions and atrophy at different locations, mostly bifrontal or in subcortical structures, correlate specifically with fatigue. Regardless of the difficulties in pinpointing the immunogenesis of MS-fatigue, an important role of autoimmunity is strongly supported by an indirect route: A growing amount of data shows that the highly effective immunotherapeutics which have been introduced to MS-treatment over the last years effectively and sustainably stabilize and ameliorate fatigue in parallel to their dampening effects on the neuroinflammatory process. This review summarizes the existing data on the relation between inflammation, patterns of CNS-lesions and the effects of immunotherapeutics
Buckley, Christopher D; Barone, Francesca; Nayar, Saba; Bénézech, Cecile; Caamaño, Jorge
Inflammation is an unstable state. It either resolves or persists. Why inflammation persists and the factors that define tissue tropism remain obscure. Increasing evidence suggests that tissue-resident stromal cells not only provide positional memory but also actively regulate the differential accumulation of inflammatory cells within inflamed tissues. Furthermore, at many sites of chronic inflammation, structures that mimic secondary lymphoid tissues are observed, suggesting that chronic inflammation and lymphoid tissue formation share common activation programs. Similarly, blood and lymphatic endothelial cells contribute to tissue homeostasis and disease persistence in chronic inflammation. This review highlights our increasing understanding of the role of stromal cells in inflammation and summarizes the novel immunological role that stromal cells exert in the persistence of inflammatory diseases.
Nita, Małgorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentín
The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). PMID:25214719
Liu, Xin; Ma, Xiangrui; Lei, Zhengge; Feng, Hao; Wang, Shasha; Cen, Xiao; Gao, Shiyu; Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Jian; Chen, Qianming; Tang, Yajie; Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been known to be a highly aggressive disease associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. To investigate the relationship between HPV and chronic inflammation in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, we collected 140 oral mucous fresh specimens including 50 OPSCC patients, 50 cancer in situ, 30 precancerous lesions, and 10 normal oral mucous. Our data demonstrated that there was a significantly higher proportion of severe chronic inflammation in dysplastic epithelia in comparison with that in normal tissues (P<0.001). The positive rate of HPV 16 was parallel with the chronic inflammation degrees from mild to severe inflammation (P<0.05). The positive rate of HPV 16 was progressively improved with the malignant progression of oral mucous (P<0.05). In addition, CD11b+ LIN- HLA-DR-CD33+ MDSCs were a critical cell population that mediates inflammation response and immune suppression in HPV-positive OPSCC. These indicated that persistent chronic inflammation-related HPV infection might drive oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and MDSCs might pay an important role during this process. Thus, a combination of HPV infection and inflammation expression might become a helpful biomedical marker to predict oropharyngeal carcinogenesis.
Liu, Xin; Ma, Xiangrui; Lei, Zhengge; Feng, Hao; Wang, Shasha; Cen, Xiao; Gao, Shiyu; Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Jian; Chen, Qianming; Tang, Yajie; Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been known to be a highly aggressive disease associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. To investigate the relationship between HPV and chronic inflammation in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, we collected 140 oral mucous fresh specimens including 50 OPSCC patients, 50 cancer in situ, 30 precancerous lesions, and 10 normal oral mucous. Our data demonstrated that there was a significantly higher proportion of severe chronic inflammation in dysplastic epithelia in comparison with that in normal tissues (P<0.001). The positive rate of HPV 16 was parallel with the chronic inflammation degrees from mild to severe inflammation (P<0.05). The positive rate of HPV 16 was progressively improved with the malignant progression of oral mucous (P<0.05). In addition, CD11b+ LIN- HLA-DR-CD33+ MDSCs were a critical cell population that mediates inflammation response and immune suppression in HPV-positive OPSCC. These indicated that persistent chronic inflammation-related HPV infection might drive oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and MDSCs might pay an important role during this process. Thus, a combination of HPV infection and inflammation expression might become a helpful biomedical marker to predict oropharyngeal carcinogenesis. PMID:26193368
You, Tongjian; Arsenis, Nicole C; Disanzo, Beth L; Lamonte, Michael J
Chronic, systemic inflammation is an independent risk factor for several major clinical diseases. In obesity, circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated, possibly due to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from several tissues/cells, including macrophages within adipose tissue, vascular endothelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent evidence supports that adipose tissue hypoxia may be an important mechanism through which enlarged adipose tissue elicits local tissue inflammation and further contributes to systemic inflammation. Current evidence supports that exercise training, such as aerobic and resistance exercise, reduces chronic inflammation, especially in obese individuals with high levels of inflammatory biomarkers undergoing a longer-term intervention. Several studies have reported that this effect is independent of the exercise-induced weight loss. There are several mechanisms through which exercise training reduces chronic inflammation, including its effect on muscle tissue to generate muscle-derived, anti-inflammatory 'myokine', its effect on adipose tissue to improve hypoxia and reduce local adipose tissue inflammation, its effect on endothelial cells to reduce leukocyte adhesion and cytokine production systemically, and its effect on the immune system to lower the number of pro-inflammatory cells and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production per cell. Of these potential mechanisms, the effect of exercise training on adipose tissue oxygenation is worth further investigation, as it is very likely that exercise training stimulates adipose tissue angiogenesis and increases blood flow, thereby reducing hypoxia and the associated chronic inflammation in adipose tissue of obese individuals.
He, Yan; Yue, Yuan; Zheng, Xi; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Shaohua; Du, Zhiyun
It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases.
Lugade, Amit A; Bogner, Paul N; Thatcher, Thomas H; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P; Thanavala, Yasmin
The detrimental impact of tobacco on human health is clearly recognized, and despite aggressive efforts to prevent smoking, close to one billion individuals worldwide continue to smoke. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are susceptible to recurrent respiratory infections with pathogens, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), yet the reasons for this increased susceptibility are poorly understood. Because mortality rapidly increases with multiple exacerbations, development of protective immunity is critical to improving patient survival. Acute NTHI infection has been studied in the context of cigarette smoke exposure, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate chronic infection and the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI after chronic smoke exposure. After chronic NTHI infection, mice that had previously been exposed to cigarette smoke developed increased lung inflammation and compromised adaptive immunity relative to air-exposed controls. Importantly, NTHI-specific T cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and B cells produced reduced levels of Abs against outer-membrane lipoprotein P6, with impaired IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA class switching. However, production of IL-17, which is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, was enhanced. Interestingly, cigarette smoke-exposed mice exhibited a similar defect in the generation of adaptive immunity after immunization with P6. Our study has conclusively demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure has a profound suppressive effect on the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI and suggests the mechanism by which prior cigarette smoke exposure predisposes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to recurrent infections, leading to exacerbations and contributing to mortality.
Ipp, Hayley; Zemlin, Annalise
HIV-infection is associated with ongoing activation of the immune system and persistent inflammation. These are key driving forces in the loss of CD4+ T cells, progression to AIDS and development of non-HIV-related complications such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Diseases associated with accelerated aging are increasing in incidence despite good anti-retroviral therapy (ART). The common underlying mechanism appears to be chronic inflammation. HIV-specific mechanisms as well as non-specific generalized responses to infection contribute to the chronic and aberrant activation of the immune system. An early loss of gut mucosal integrity, the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, co-infections and later, marked destruction of lymph node architecture are all factors contributing to the ongoing activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. These factors paradoxically promote CD4+ T cell loss, both by providing additional substrate for viral infection in the form of activated CD4+ T cells, as well as by priming non-infected 'bystander' CD4+ T cells for death by apoptosis. However, the relative contributions of each of these mechanisms to ongoing immune activation remain to be determined. Cost-effective markers of inflammation and selective anti-inflammatory agents are important fields of current and future research.
Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K
Chronic wounds represent a major and rising socioeconomic threat affecting over 6.5 million people in the United States costing in excess of US $25 billion annually. Wound healing is a physiological response to injury that is conserved across tissue systems. In humans, wounding is followed by instant response aimed at hemostasis, which in turn provides the foundation for inflammatory processes that closely follow. Inflammation is helpful and a prerequisite for healing as long as it is mounted and resolved in a timely manner. Chronic inflammation derails the healing cascade resulting in impaired wound closure. Disruption of Dicer, the RNase III enzyme that generates functional miRNAs, has a major impact on the overall immune system. Emerging studies indicate that miRNAs, especially miR-21, miR-146a/b, and miR-155, play a key role in regulating several hubs that orchestrate the inflammatory process. Direct evidence from studies addressing wound inflammation being limited, the current work represents a digest of the relevant literature that is aimed at unveiling the potential significance of miRNAs in the regulation of wound inflammation. Such treatment would help establish new paradigms highlighting a central role of miRs in the understanding and management of dysregulated inflammation as noted in conjunction with chronic wounds.
Hart, Ailsa L; Ng, Siew C; Mann, Elizabeth; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Bernardo, David; Knight, Stella C
Rather like a satellite navigation system directing a vehicle to a particular destination defined by post-code, immune cells have homing molecules or "immune post-codes" enabling them to be recruited to specific organs, such as the intestine or skin. An efficient system would be designed such that the site of entry of an antigen influences the homing of effector T cells back to the appropriate organ. For example, to mount an immune response against an intestinal pathogen, T cells with a propensity to home to the gut to clear the infection would be induced. In health, there is such a sophisticated and finely tuned system in operation, enabling an appropriate balance of immune activity in different anatomical compartments. In disease states such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is characterized by intestinal inflammation and often an inflammatory process involving other organs such as skin, joints, liver, and eye, there is accumulating evidence that there is malfunction of this immune cell trafficking system. The clinical importance of dysregulated immune cell trafficking in IBD is reflected in recently proven efficacious therapies that target trafficking pathways such as natalizumab, an α4 integrin antibody, and Traficet-EN, a chemokine receptor-9 (CCR9) antagonist. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the homing of immune cells to different tissues, in particular the intestine, and focus on alterations in immune cell homing pathways in IBD. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the immune post-code system would assist in achieving the goal of tissue-specific immunotherapy.
Shipkowski, Kelly Anne
The field of nanotechnology is continually advancing, and increasing amounts of consumer goods are being produced using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). The health risks of occupational and/or consumer exposure to ENMs are not completely understood, although significant research indicates that pulmonary exposure to nanomaterials induces toxic effects in the lungs of exposed animals. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are a specific category of ENMs and consist of sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders that are multiple layers thick in order to strengthen their rigidity. MWCNTs have a fiber-like shape, similar to that of asbestos, which allows for a high aspect ratio and makes them difficult to clear from the lung. Studies with rodent models have demonstrated that pulmonary exposure to ENMs, in particular MWCNTs, results in acute lung inflammation and the subsequent development of chronic fibrosis, suggesting a potential human health risk to individuals involved in the manufacturing of products utilizing these nanomaterials. Induction of IL-1beta secretion via activation of the inflammasome is a prime mechanism of MWCNT-induced inflammation. The inflammasome is a multi-protein scaffold found in a variety of cell types that forms in response to a variety of immune signals, including particulates. Sensitization with allergens, such as house dust mite (HDM), increases levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in mice and in humans, and there is particular cause for concern in cases of MWCNT exposure in individuals with pre-existing allergic airway disease, such as asthma. MWCNT exposure exacerbates airway inflammation and fibrosis in animal models of pre-existing allergic asthma, suggesting that individuals suffering from asthma are more susceptible to the toxic pulmonary effects of MWCNT exposure. Asthma is an exceptionally prominent human disease, and therefore the goal of this research was to better understand how pre-existing allergic airway
Chronic inflammation of the larger airways is a common occurrence in children. A number of factors such as younger age, premature birth, male gender, exposure to environmental smoke or pollution, and crowded housing can increase a child's susceptibility to chronic lung disease. Chronic bronchitis may be caused by an underlying humoral immunodeficiency if the clinical course is recurrent or prolonged. Primary humoral immunodeficiency accounts for approximately 70% of all immunodeficiencies. The differential of chronic bronchitis also includes Cystic Fibrosis, ciliary defects and immune cellular and phagocytic defects. This review will summarize the most common humoral antibody based immune based deficiencies associated with chronic pulmonary disease.
Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Livneh, Avi
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes. Although the typical clinical course of FMF is characterized by bouts of painful inflammation, this presentation represents only the tip of the iceberg. In many patients inflammation can persist in attack-free periods, as shown by high levels of acute-phase proteins, cytokines and inflammation-induced proteins. This subclinical inflammation puts patients at risk of developing complications such as anemia, splenomegaly, decreased bone mineral density, heart disease and life-threatening amyloid A amyloidosis, among others. In this article, we review the published data on markers and other factors involved in the persistence of inflammation in patients with FMF during attack-free periods, examine the risk factors for the development of this subclinical inflammation, summarize the complications of chronic inflammation in FMF and propose a new strategy for treatment, based on these data.
Elliott, David E; Summers, Robert W; Weinstock, Joel V
Immune-mediated diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes) are increasing in prevalence and emerge as populations adopt meticulously hygienic lifestyles. This change in lifestyles precludes exposure to helminths (parasitic worms). Loss of natural helminth exposure removes a previously universal Th2 and regulatory immune biasing imparted by these organisms. Helminths protect animals from developing immune-mediated diseases (colitis, reactive airway disease, encephalitis and diabetes). Clinical trials show that exposure to helminths can reduce disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. This paper summarises work by multiple groups demonstrating that colonization with helminths alters immune reactivity and protects against disease from dysregulated inflammation.
Walduck, Anna; Andersen, Leif P; Raghavan, Sukanya
During the last year, a variety of studies have been published that increases our understanding of the basic mechanisms of immunity and inflammation in Helicobacter pylori infection and progression to gastric cancer. Innate immune regulation and epithelial cell response were covered by several studies that contribute with new insights in the host response to H. pylori infection. Also, the adaptive immune response to H. pylori and particularly the role of IL-22 have been addressed in some studies. These advances may improve vaccine development where new strategies have been published. Two major studies analyzed H. pylori genomes of 39 worldwide strains and looked at the protein profiles. In addition, multi-epitope vaccines for therapeutic use have been investigated. Studies on different adjuvants and delivery systems have also given us new insights. This review presents articles from the last year that reveal detailed insight into immunity and regulation of inflammation, the contribution of immune cells to the development of gastric cancer, and understanding mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection.
Biedermann, Tilo; Skabytska, Yuliya; Kaesler, Susanne; Volz, Thomas
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease predominantly mediated by T helper cells. While numerous adaptive immune mechanisms in AD pathophysiology have been elucidated in detail, deciphering the impact of innate immunity in AD pathogenesis has made substantial progress in recent years and is currently a fast evolving field. As innate and adaptive immunity are intimately linked, cross-talks between these two branches of the immune system are critically influencing the resulting immune response and disease. Innate immune recognition of the cutaneous microbiota was identified to substantially contribute to immune homeostasis and shaping of protective adaptive immunity in the absence of inflammation. Disturbances in the composition of the skin microbiome with reduced microbial diversity and overabundance of Staphylococcus spp. have been shown to be associated with AD inflammation. Distinct Staphylococcus aureus associated microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) binding to TLR2 heterodimers could be identified to initiate long-lasting cutaneous inflammation driven by T helper cells and consecutively local immune suppression by induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells further favoring secondary skin infections as often seen in AD patients. Moreover dissecting cellular and molecular mechanisms in cutaneous innate immune sensing in AD pathogenesis paved the way for exploiting regulatory and anti-inflammatory pathways to attenuate skin inflammation. Activation of the innate immune system by MAMPs of non-pathogenic bacteria on AD skin alleviated cutaneous inflammation. The induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells, interleukin-10 expression and regulatory Tr1 cells were shown to mediate this beneficial effect. Thus, activation of innate immunity by MAMPs of non-pathogenic bacteria for induction of regulatory T cell phenotypes seems to be a promising strategy for treatment of inflammatory skin disorders such as AD. These new findings
Licastro, Federico; Candore, Giuseppina; Lio, Domenico; Porcellini, Elisa; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Franceschi, Claudio; Caruso, Calogero
The process of maintaining life for the individual is a constant struggle to preserve his/her integrity. This can come at a price when immunity is involved, namely systemic inflammation. Inflammation is not per se a negative phenomenon: it is the response of the immune system to the invasion of viruses or bacteria and other pathogens. During evolution the human organism was set to live 40 or 50 years; today, however, the immune system must remain active for much a longer time. This very long activity leads to a chronic inflammation that slowly but inexorably damages one or several organs: this is a typical phenomenon linked to ageing and it is considered the major risk factor for age-related chronic diseases. Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes and even sarcopenia and cancer, just to mention a few – have an important inflammatory component, though disease progression seems also dependent on the genetic background of individuals. Emerging evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory genotypes are related to unsuccessful ageing, and, reciprocally, controlling inflammatory status may allow a better chance of successful ageing. In other words, age-related diseases are "the price we pay" for a life-long active immune system: this system has also the potential to harm us later, as its fine tuning becomes compromised. Our immune system has evolved to control pathogens, so pro-inflammatory responses are likely to be evolutionarily programmed to resist fatal infections with pathogens aggressively. Thus, inflammatory genotypes are an important and necessary part of the normal host responses to pathogens in early life, but the overproduction of inflammatory molecules might also cause immune-related inflammatory diseases and eventually death later. Therefore, low responder genotypes involved in regulation of innate defence mechanisms, might better control inflammatory responses and age-related disease development, resulting in an increased chance of long life survival
Because both LPS and TBI elicit inflammatory processes and LPS-induced inflammation induces body odor changes, we hypothesized that (1) TBI would...8217eavesdrop’ on metabolic processes associated with inflammatory processes – such as traumatic brain injury. 2. KEYWORDS: Biosensor; Body...evaluated between these two time periods). Rapid onset of odor change (within days of exposure) suggests that innate immunity processes were responsible
Dinarello, Charles A; Nold-Petry, Claudia; Nold, Marcel; Fujita, Mayumi; Li, Suzhao; Kim, Soohyun; Bufler, Philip
IL-37 is unique in the IL-1 family in that unlike other members of the family, IL-37 broadly suppresses innate immunity. IL-37 can be elevated in humans with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases where it likely functions to limit inflammation. Transgenic mice expressing human IL-37 (IL37-tg) exhibit less severe inflammation in models of endotoxin shock, colitis, myocardial infarction, lung, and spinal cord injury. IL37-tg mice have reduced antigen-specific responses and dendritic cells (DCs) from these mice exhibit characteristics of tolerogenic DCs. Compared to aging wild-type (WT) mice, aging IL37-tg mice are protected against B-cell leukemogenesis and heart failure. Treatment of WT mice with recombinant human IL-37 has been shown to be protective in several models of inflammation and injury. IL-37 binds to the IL-18 receptor but then recruits the orphan IL-1R8 (formerly TIR8 or SIGIRR) in order to function as an inhibitor. Here, we review the discovery of IL-37, its production, release, and mechanisms by which IL-37 reduces inflammation and suppresses immune responses. The data reviewed here suggest a therapeutic potential for IL-37. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Casserly, Brian P; Sears, Edmund H; Gartman, Eric J
The natriuretic peptides (NPs) are a family of widely distributed, but evolutionarily conserved, polypeptide mediators that exert a range of effects throughout the body. There is growing realization that NP actions go far beyond volume and blood pressure homeostasis. Their pleiotropic effects include a significant role in regulating the immune system. Localization of NP receptors in various immune organs as well as in modulation of inflammation in vascular disease supports this hypothesis. Immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes, express receptors for NPs. NPs are also involved in polarizing the immune response to allergens. NPs play an important role in shaping the early immune response to environmental antigens and appear to play a critical role in the interaction between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The recent explosion of basic and clinical research has resulted in improved understanding of their molecular structure. This has facilitated development of chimeric forms of NPs as well as more convenient routes of administration. Thus, the NPs and their receptors could be exploited to develop therapeutics for the inflammatory and immune responses in wide range of diseases. Also discussed are several patents regarding NPs in the present review.
Wong, Raymond S M; Bakshi, Kalpana; Brainsky, Andres
An increased risk of thromboembolic events among patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia has been reported but is still not fully understood. A thrombophilia panel (factors suspected/known to denote a thrombophilic state or indicate activation of the clotting cascade) was measured in previously treated patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia enrolled in an eltrombopag trial to assess potential thrombophilia risk markers. Of 167 patients, 136 (81%) had abnormal levels of at least 1 known or suspected thrombosis risk marker or coagulation cascade activation marker. Six patients reported thromboembolic events, and all of these patients had at least two abnormal analytes in the thrombophilia panel. The presence of multiple baseline thrombophilia risk markers support the theory that chronic immune thrombocytopenia is a pro-thrombotic disease.
Kopp, Marcel A.; Brommer, Benedikt; Popovich, Phillip G.
During the transition from acute to chronic stages of recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), there is an evolving state of immunologic dysfunction that exacerbates the problems associated with the more clinically obvious neurologic deficits. Since injury directly affects cells embedded within the “immune privileged/specialized” milieu of the spinal cord, maladaptive or inefficient responses are likely to occur. Collectively, these responses qualify as part of the continuum of “SCI disease” and are important therapeutic targets to improve neural repair and neurological outcome. Generic immune suppressive therapies have been largely unsuccessful, mostly because nflammation and immunity exert both beneficial (plasticity enhancing) and detrimental (e.g. glia- and neurodegenerative; secondary damage) effects and these functions change over time. Moreover, “compartmentalized” investigations, limited to only intraspinal inflammation and associated cellular or molecular changes in the spinal cord, neglect the reality that the structure and function of the CNS is influenced by systemic immune challenges and that the immune system is hardwired into the nervous system. Here, we consider this interplay during the progression from acute to chronic SCI. Specifically, we survey impaired/non-resolving intraspinal inflammation and the paradox of systemic inflammatory responses in the face of ongoing chronic immune suppression and autoimmunity. The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) and ‘neurogenic’ spinal cord injury-induced immune depression syndrome (SCI-IDS) are discussed as determinants of impaired ‘host-defense’ and trauma-induced autoimmunity. PMID:25017893
Deakin, Julia; Lennox, Belinda R; Yolken, Robert; Jones, Peter B
Complex interactions between the immune system and the brain might have important aetiological and therapeutic implications for neuropsychiatric brain disorders. A possible association between schizophrenia and the immune system was postulated over a century ago, and is supported by epidemiological and genetic studies pointing to links with infection and inflammation. Contrary to the traditional view that the brain is an immunologically privileged site shielded behind the blood–brain barrier, studies in the past 20 years have noted complex interactions between the immune system, systemic inflammation, and the brain, which can lead to changes in mood, cognition, and behaviour. In this Review, we describe some of the important areas of research regarding innate and adaptive immune response in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders that, we think, will be of interest to psychiatric clinicians and researchers. We discuss potential mechanisms and therapeutic implications of these findings, including studies of anti-inflammatory drugs in schizophrenia, describe areas for development, and offer testable hypotheses for future investigations. PMID:26359903
McGettrick, Anne F; O'Neill, Luke A J
The interplay between immunity, inflammation, and metabolic changes is a growing field of research. Toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors are families of innate immune receptors, and their role in the human immune response is well documented. Exciting new evidence is emerging with regard to their role in the regulation of metabolism and the activation of inflammatory pathways during the progression of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β appears to play a central role in these disorders. There is also evidence that metabolites such as NAD(+) (acting via deacetylases such as SIRT1 and SIRT2) and succinate (which regulates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) are signals that regulate innate immunity. In addition, the extracellular overproduction of metabolites such as uric acid and cholesterol crystals acts as a signal sensed by NLRP3, leading to the production of IL-1β. These observations cast new light on the role of metabolism during host defense and inflammation.
Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Kung, Andrew L.
Inflammation is a fundamental aspect of many human diseases. In this video report, we demonstrate non-invasive bioluminescence imaging techniques that distinguish acute and chronic inflammation in mouse models. With tissue damage or pathogen invasion, neutrophils are the first line of defense, playing a major role in mediating the acute inflammatory response. As the inflammatory reaction progresses, circulating monocytes gradually migrate into the site of injury and differentiate into mature macrophages, which mediate chronic inflammation and promote tissue repair by removing tissue debris and producing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Intraperitoneal injection of luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione, sodium salt) enables detection of acute inflammation largely mediated by tissue-infiltrating neutrophils. Luminol specifically reacts with the superoxide generated within the phagosomes of neutrophils since bioluminescence results from a myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated reaction. Lucigenin (bis-N-methylacridinium nitrate) also reacts with superoxide in order to generate bioluminescence. However, lucigenin bioluminescence is independent of MPO and it solely relies on phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Phox) in macrophages during chronic inflammation. Together, luminol and lucigenin allow non-invasive visualization and longitudinal assessment of different phagocyte populations across both acute and chronic inflammatory phases. Given the important role of inflammation in a variety of human diseases, we believe this non-invasive imaging method can help investigate the differential roles of neutrophils and macrophages in a variety of pathological conditions. PMID:23978851
Severance, Emily G.; Alaedini, Armin; Yang, Shuojia; Halling, Meredith; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Stallings, Cassie R.; Origoni, Andrea E.; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F. Markus; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.
Immune factors are implicated in normal brain development and in brain disorder pathogenesis. Pathogen infection and food antigen penetration across gastrointestinal barriers are means by which environmental factors might affect immune-related neurodevelopment. Here, we test if gastrointestinal inflammation is associated with schizophrenia and therefore, might contribute to bloodstream entry of potentially neurotropic milk and gluten exorphins and/or immune activation by food antigens. IgG antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA, a marker of intestinal inflammation), bovine milk casein, wheat-derived gluten, and 6 infectious agents were assayed. Cohort 1 included 193 with non-recent onset schizophrenia, 67 with recent onset schizophrenia and 207 non-psychiatric controls. Cohort 2 included 103 with first episode schizophrenia, 40 of whom were antipsychotic-naïve. ASCA markers were significantly elevated and correlated with food antigen antibodies in recent onset and non-recent onset schizophrenia compared to controls (p ≤ 0.00001–0.004) and in unmedicated individuals with first episode schizophrenia compared to those receiving antipsychotics (p ≤ 0.05–0.01). Elevated ASCA levels were especially evident in non-recent onset females (p ≤ 0.009), recent onset males (p ≤ 0.01) and in antipsychotic-naïve males (p ≤ 0.03). Anti-food antigen antibodies were correlated to antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, an intestinally-infectious pathogen, particularly in males with recent onset schizophrenia (p ≤ 0.002). In conclusion, gastrointestinal inflammation is a relevant pathology in schizophrenia, appears to occur in the absence of but may be modified by antipsychotics, and may link food antigen sensitivity and microbial infection as sources of immune activation in mental illness. PMID:22446142
Severance, Emily G; Alaedini, Armin; Yang, Shuojia; Halling, Meredith; Gressitt, Kristin L; Stallings, Cassie R; Origoni, Andrea E; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F Markus; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H
Immune factors are implicated in normal brain development and in brain disorder pathogenesis. Pathogen infection and food antigen penetration across gastrointestinal barriers are means by which environmental factors might affect immune-related neurodevelopment. Here, we test if gastrointestinal inflammation is associated with schizophrenia and therefore, might contribute to bloodstream entry of potentially neurotropic milk and gluten exorphins and/or immune activation by food antigens. IgG antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA, a marker of intestinal inflammation), bovine milk casein, wheat-derived gluten, and 6 infectious agents were assayed. Cohort 1 included 193 with non-recent onset schizophrenia, 67 with recent onset schizophrenia and 207 non-psychiatric controls. Cohort 2 included 103 with first episode schizophrenia, 40 of whom were antipsychotic-naïve. ASCA markers were significantly elevated and correlated with food antigen antibodies in recent onset and non-recent onset schizophrenia compared to controls (p≤0.00001-0.004) and in unmedicated individuals with first episode schizophrenia compared to those receiving antipsychotics (p≤0.05-0.01). Elevated ASCA levels were especially evident in non-recent onset females (p≤0.009), recent onset males (p≤0.01) and in antipsychotic-naïve males (p≤0.03). Anti-food antigen antibodies were correlated to antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, an intestinally-infectious pathogen, particularly in males with recent onset schizophrenia (p≤0.002). In conclusion, gastrointestinal inflammation is a relevant pathology in schizophrenia, appears to occur in the absence of but may be modified by antipsychotics, and may link food antigen sensitivity and microbial infection as sources of immune activation in mental illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Papadopoulos, George; Kramer, Carolyn D; Slocum, Connie S; Weinberg, Ellen O; Hua, Ning; Gudino, Cynthia V; Hamilton, James A; Genco, Caroline A
Chronic inflammation is a major driver of pathological tissue damage and a unifying characteristic of many chronic diseases in humans including neoplastic, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory diseases. Emerging evidence implicates pathogen-induced chronic inflammation in the development and progression of chronic diseases with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of chronic disease, designing experiments for proof of causality and the establishment of mechanistic links is nearly impossible in humans. An advantage of using animal models is that both genetic and environmental factors that may influence the course of a particular disease can be controlled. Thus, designing relevant animal models of infection represents a key step in identifying host and pathogen specific mechanisms that contribute to chronic inflammation. Here we describe a mouse model of pathogen-induced chronic inflammation at local and systemic sites following infection with the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium closely associated with human periodontal disease. Oral infection of specific-pathogen free mice induces a local inflammatory response resulting in destruction of tooth supporting alveolar bone, a hallmark of periodontal disease. In an established mouse model of atherosclerosis, infection with P. gingivalis accelerates inflammatory plaque deposition within the aortic sinus and innominate artery, accompanied by activation of the vascular endothelium, an increased immune cell infiltrate, and elevated expression of inflammatory mediators within lesions. We detail methodologies for the assessment of inflammation at local and systemic sites. The use of transgenic mice and defined bacterial mutants makes this model particularly suitable for identifying both host and microbial factors involved in the initiation, progression, and outcome of disease. Additionally, the model can be used to screen for novel therapeutic strategies
Hsiao, Hsi-Min; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Colas, Romain A.; Serhan, Charles N.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized, in part, by chronic inflammation that persists even after smoking cessation, suggesting that a failure to resolve inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. It is widely recognized that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, governed by specialized proresolving lipid mediators, including lipoxins, resolvins, maresins, and protectins. Here, we report that proresolving signaling and metabolic pathways are disrupted in lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that supplementation with proresolving lipid mediators might reduce the development of emphysema by controlling chronic inflammation. Groups of mice were exposed long-term to cigarette smoke and treated with the proresolving mediator resolvin D1. Resolvin D1 was associated with a reduced development of cigarette smoke–induced emphysema and airspace enlargement, with concurrent reductions in inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death. Interestingly, resolvin D1 did not promote the differentiation of M2 macrophages and did not promote tissue fibrosis. Taken together, our results suggest that cigarette smoking disrupts endogenous proresolving pathways and that supplementation with specialized proresolving lipid mediators is an important therapeutic strategy in chronic lung disease, especially if endogenous specialized proresolving lipid mediator signaling is impaired. PMID:26468975
Asghar, Ambreen; Sheikh, Nadeem
The frequency of obesity is enormously growing worldwide. Obesity results when energy intake exceeds, energy expenditure. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor in the progress of various metabolic disorders accounting insulin resistance, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovarian disease and several types of cancers. Obesity is characterized by pro-inflammatory condition in which hypertrophied adipose tissue along with immune cells contribute to increase the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Immune cells are the key players in inducing low grade chronic inflammation in obesity and are main factor responsible for pathogenesis of insulin resistance resulting Type 2 diabetes. The current review is aimed to investigate the mechanism of pro-inflammatory responses and insulin resistance involving immune cells and their products in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schaible, Hans-Georg; Straub, Rainer H
Joints are densely innervated by postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers. These fibers control the blood flow in the joint and vascular permeability, either directly or indirectly, in cooperation with leukocytes. Chemical sympathectomy or suppression of adrenergic signaling significantly reduces inflammatory processes in the initial acute state of inflammation whereas the same procedures may increase inflammation at later stages. These findings indicate that the sympathetic nervous system supports the development of inflammation but may reduce inflammation at more chronic stages. During chronic inflammation the density of sympathetic nerve fibers in synovial tissue is reduced but other tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells secreting noradrenaline appear in the inflamed joint. In addition to local vascular effects in the joint, the sympathetic nervous system influences numerous immune processes in the joint and in lymphoid organs. Hence the net effect of the sympathetic nervous system on inflamed tissue results from local sympathetic effects in the joint as well as from sympathetic influences on major systemic immune processes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Arrese, Marco; Cabrera, Daniel; Kalergis, Alexis M; Feldstein, Ariel E
Inflammation and hepatocyte injury and death are the hallmarks of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a currently burgeoning public health problem. Innate immune activation is a key factor in triggering and amplifying hepatic inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Thus, identification of the underlying mechanisms by which immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage signals or the presence of pathogens or pathogen-derived factors that activate them is relevant from a therapeutic perspective. In this review, we present new insights into the factors promoting the inflammatory response in NASH including sterile cell death processes resulting from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes as well as into the altered gut-liver axis function, which involves translocation of bacterial products into portal circulation as a result of gut leakiness. We further delineate the key immune cell types involved and how they recognize both damage-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-associated molecular patterns through binding of surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors, which initiate signaling cascades leading to injury amplification. The relevance of modulating these inflammatory signaling pathways as potential novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of NASH is summarized.
Maurizi, Giulia; Della Guardia, Lucio; Maurizi, Angela; Poloni, Antonella
Obesity is a condition likely associated with several dysmetabolic conditions or worsening of cardiovascular and other chronic disturbances. A key role in this mechanism seem to be played by the onset of low-grade systemic inflammation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between adipocytes and immune system cells. Adipocytes express a complex and highly adaptive biological profile being capable to selectively activate different metabolic pathways in order to respond to environmental stimuli. It has been demonstrated how adipocytes, under appropriate stimulation, can easily differentiate and de-differentiate thereby converting themselves into different phenotypes according to metabolic necessities. Although underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, growing in adipocyte size and the inability of storing triglycerides under overfeeding conditions seem to be crucial for the switching to a dysfunctional metabolic profile, which is characterized by inflammatory and apoptotic pathways activation, and by the shifting to pro-inflammatory adipokines secretion. In obesity, changes in adipokines secretion along with adipocyte deregulation and fatty acids release into circulation contribute to maintain immune cells activation as well as their infiltration into regulatory organs. Over the well-established role of macrophages, recent findings suggest the involvement of new classes of immune cells such as T regulatory lymphocytes and neutrophils in the development inflammation and multi systemic worsening. Deeply understanding the pathways of adipocyte regulation and the de-differentiation process could be extremely useful for developing novel strategies aimed at curbing obesity-related inflammation and related metabolic disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cleary, Daniel R; Heinricher, Mary M
Despite similar behavioral hypersensitivity, acute and chronic pain have distinct neural bases. We used intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant to directly compare activity of pain-modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in acute vs chronic inflammation. Heat-evoked and von Frey-evoked withdrawal reflexes and corresponding RVM neuronal activity were recorded in lightly anesthetized animals either during the first hour after complete Freund's adjuvant injection (acute) or 3 to 10 days later (chronic). Thermal and modest mechanical hyperalgesia during acute inflammation were associated with increases in the spontaneous activity of pain-facilitating ON-cells and suppression of pain-inhibiting OFF-cells. Acute hyperalgesia was reversed by RVM block, showing that the increased activity of RVM ON-cells is necessary for acute behavioral hypersensitivity. In chronic inflammation, thermal hyperalgesia had resolved but mechanical hyperalgesia had become pronounced. The spontaneous discharges of ON- and OFF-cells were not different from those in control subjects, but the mechanical response thresholds for both cell classes were reduced into the innocuous range. RVM block in the chronic condition worsened mechanical hyperalgesia. These studies identify distinct contributions of RVM ON- and OFF-cells to acute and chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia. During early immune-mediated inflammation, ON-cell spontaneous activity promotes hyperalgesia. After inflammation is established, the antinociceptive influence of OFF-cells is dominant, yet the lowered threshold for the OFF-cell pause allows behavioral responses to stimuli that would normally be considered innocuous. The efficacy of OFF-cells in counteracting sensitization of ascending transmission pathways could therefore be an important determining factor in development of chronic inflammatory pain.
Kou, Yu Ru; Kwong, Kevin; Lee, Lu-Yuan
Airway hypersensitivity, characterized by enhanced excitability of airway sensory nerves, is a prominent pathophysiological feature in patients with airway inflammatory diseases. Although the underlying pathogenic mechanism is not fully understood, chronic airway inflammation is believed to be primarily responsible. Cigarette smoking is known to cause chronic airway inflammation, accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness. Experimental evidence indicates that enhanced excitability of vagal bronchopulmonary sensory nerves and increased tachykinin synthesis in these nerves resulting from chronic inflammation are important contributing factors to the airway hyperresponsiveness. Multiple inflammatory mediators released from various types of structural and inflammatory cells are involved in the smoking-induced airway inflammation, which is mainly regulated by redox-sensitive signaling pathways and transcription factors. Furthermore, recent studies have reported potent sensitizing and stimulatory effects of these inflammatory mediators such as prostanoids and reactive oxygen species on these sensory nerves. In summary, these studies using cigarette smoking as an experimental approach have identified certain potentially important cell signaling pathways and underlying mechanisms of the airway hypersensitivity induced by chronic airway inflammation. PMID:21397052
Steelman, Samantha M; Johnson, Daisy; Wagner, Bettina; Stokes, Ashleym; Chowdhary, Bhanu P
Chronic equine laminitis causes persistent pain and lameness in affected animals and often necessitates euthanasia when pain management strategies become ineffective. Published studies as well as anecdotal reports suggest that this chronic inflammatory disease is associated with systemic alterations in immune responsiveness, perhaps involving an autoimmune component. We investigated this broad hypothesis by measuring a variety of immune indicators in healthy control horses (CON) and horses with chronic laminitis (LMN). We found that white blood cells from LMN horses produced more IFNγ than did cells from CON horses when stimulated in vitro with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], possibly due to an elevated number of circulating monocytes. No differences between groups were observed in plasma concentrations of IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, or rheumatoid factor. Laminar tissue from LMN horses expressed elevated levels of keratinocyte damage-related genes as well as inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which corresponded with a modest amount of neutrophil infiltration as shown by histological staining of fixed tissue and accumulation of neutrophil elastase protein. Taken together, our results do not support the hypothesis of an autoimmune component in chronic laminitis, although the strong induction of neutrophil chemokines and the presence of tissue neutrophils suggests that this cell type is likely involved in perpetuating the inflammation and tissue damage associated with this disease.
Rennard, S I
COPD is characterized by chronic inflammation and injury of both the airways and the parenchymal structures of the lung. These processes are associated with ongoing repair. Whether repair leads to restoration of normal tissue architecture or to altered tissue structure with loss of function depends on complex interrelationships of a variety of interacting mediators. The possibility that repair processes can be modulated by exogenous agents raises the possibility that therapeutic strategies aimed at repair can be effective. Such strategies offer tremendous promise both for slowing the relentlessly progressive natural history which most often characterizes COPD and, possibly, for restoring lung function. Rennard SI. Inflammation and repair processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Ranieri, Roberta; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio; Marasco, Daniela; Malfitano, Anna M
Cannabinoid receptors are involved in the neuro-pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system and their expression can be modulated during diseases. In this manuscript we highlight the function of cannabinoid receptors, their signalling and expression at peripheral and central levels in order to understand their implication in neuro-inflammation and review the effects of cannabinoids in neuro-inflammatory disorders. Brain inflammatory processes are characterized by infiltration of numerous types of cells: both peripheral and brain resident immune cells and other neuronal cells. The disruption of the blood brain barrier favours cell infiltration in the central nervous system with consequent neuronal damage, a common event in many neuro-inflammatory diseases. Cannabinoids affect brain adaptive and immune response, regulate inflammatory mediators and can exert a role in blood brain barrier damage prevention. Various patents describe the beneficial properties of cannabinoids in numerous neurodegenerative diseases with inflammatory components and overall effects support the therapeutic application of cannabinoids.
Lou, Yunwei; Liu, Suxia
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE) family are recently identified proteins which are important for maintaining immune homeostasis. The mammalian TNFAIP8 family consists of four members: TNFAIP8, the first identified member of this family, TNFAIP8L1 (TNF-alpha-induced protein 8-like 1, TIPE1), TIPE2, and TIPE3, which share high degrees of sequence homology and involve in proliferation, inflammation, and cell death. Among the members, TNFAIP8 is considered to be associated with carcinogenesis, TIPE2 is an essential negative regulator of both innate and adaptive immunity and the depletion of TIPE2 would cause serve inflammatory disease. Whereas, little is known about TIPE1 and TIPE3.
Prasad, Sahdeo; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Most chronic diseases - such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, arthritis, diabetes and obesity - are becoming leading causes of disability and death all over the world. Some of the most common causes of these age-associated chronic diseases are lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. All the risk factors linked to these chronic diseases have been shown to up-regulate inflammation. Therefore, downregulation of inflammation-associated risk factors could prevent or delay these age-associated diseases. Although modern science has developed several drugs for treating chronic diseases, most of these drugs are enormously expensive and are associated with serious side effects and morbidity. In this review, we present evidence on how chronic inflammation leads to age-associated chronic disease. Furthermore, we discuss diet and lifestyle as solutions for age-associated chronic disease. PMID:22178471
Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R
There is strong evidence that depression involves alterations in multiple aspects of immunity that may contribute to the development or exacerbation of a number of medical disorders and also may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. Accordingly, aggressive management of depressive disorders in medically ill populations or individuals at risk for disease may improve disease outcome or prevent disease development. On the other hand, in light of data suggesting that immune processes may interact with the pathophysiologic pathways known to contribute to depression, novel approaches to the treatment of depression may target relevant aspects of the immune response. Taken together, the data provide compelling evidence that a psychoimmunologic frame of reference may have profound implications regarding the consequences and treatment of depression. In addition, this approach may be used to investigate the possibility that peripheral and central production of cytokines may account for neuropsychiatric symptoms in inflammatory diseases. This article summarizes evidence for a cytokine-mediated pathogenesis of depression and fatigue in MS. The effects of central inflammatory processes may account for some of the behavioral symptoms seen in patients who have MS that cannot be explained by psychosocial factors or CNS damage. This immune-mediated hypothesis is supported by indirect evidence from experimental and clinical studies of the effect of cytokines on behavior, which have found that both peripheral and central cytokines may cause depressive symptoms. Emerging clinical data from patients who have MS support an association of central inflammation (as measured by MRI) and inflammatory markers with depressive symptoms and fatigue. Based on the literature reviewed in this article, subtypes of MS fatigue and depression may exist that are caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, including inflammation and CNS damage as well as psychosocial factors or
Zhao, Ge; Usui, Marcia L.; Lippman, Soyeon I.; James, Garth A.; Stewart, Philip S.; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E.
Significance The incidence, cost, morbidity, and mortality associated with non-healing of chronic skin wounds are dramatic. With the increasing numbers of people with obesity, chronic medical conditions, and an increasing life expectancy, the healthcare cost of non-healing ulcers has recently been estimated at $25 billion annually in the United States. The role played by bacterial biofilm in chronic wounds has been emphasized in recent years, particularly in the context of the prolongation of the inflammatory phase of repair. Recent Advances Rapid high-throughput genomic approaches have revolutionized the ability to identify and quantify microbial organisms from wounds. Defining bacterial genomes and using genetic approaches to knock out specific bacterial functions, then studying bacterial survival on cutaneous wounds is a promising strategy for understanding which genes are essential for pathogenicity. Critical Issues When an animal sustains a cutaneous wound, understanding mechanisms involved in adaptations by bacteria and adaptations by the host in the struggle for survival is central to development of interventions that favor the host. Future Directions Characterization of microbiomes of clinically well characterized chronic human wounds is now under way. The use of in vivo models of biofilm-infected cutaneous wounds will permit the study of the mechanisms needed for biofilm formation, persistence, and potential synergistic interactions among bacteria. A more complete understanding of bacterial survival mechanisms and how microbes influence host repair mechanisms are likely to provide targets for chronic wound therapy. PMID:24527355
Zhao, Ge; Usui, Marcia L; Lippman, Soyeon I; James, Garth A; Stewart, Philip S; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E
The incidence, cost, morbidity, and mortality associated with non-healing of chronic skin wounds are dramatic. With the increasing numbers of people with obesity, chronic medical conditions, and an increasing life expectancy, the healthcare cost of non-healing ulcers has recently been estimated at $25 billion annually in the United States. The role played by bacterial biofilm in chronic wounds has been emphasized in recent years, particularly in the context of the prolongation of the inflammatory phase of repair. Rapid high-throughput genomic approaches have revolutionized the ability to identify and quantify microbial organisms from wounds. Defining bacterial genomes and using genetic approaches to knock out specific bacterial functions, then studying bacterial survival on cutaneous wounds is a promising strategy for understanding which genes are essential for pathogenicity. When an animal sustains a cutaneous wound, understanding mechanisms involved in adaptations by bacteria and adaptations by the host in the struggle for survival is central to development of interventions that favor the host. Characterization of microbiomes of clinically well characterized chronic human wounds is now under way. The use of in vivo models of biofilm-infected cutaneous wounds will permit the study of the mechanisms needed for biofilm formation, persistence, and potential synergistic interactions among bacteria. A more complete understanding of bacterial survival mechanisms and how microbes influence host repair mechanisms are likely to provide targets for chronic wound therapy.
Shakespear, Melanie R; Halili, Maria A; Irvine, Katharine M; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove an acetyl group from lysine residues of target proteins to regulate cellular processes. Small-molecule inhibitors of HDACs cause cellular growth arrest, differentiation and/or apoptosis, and some are used clinically as anticancer drugs. In animal models, HDAC inhibitors are therapeutic for several inflammatory diseases, but exacerbate atherosclerosis and compromise host defence. Loss of HDAC function has also been linked to chronic lung diseases in humans. These contrasting effects might reflect distinct roles for individual HDACs in immune responses. Here, we review the current understanding of innate and adaptive immune pathways that are regulated by classical HDAC enzymes. The objective is to provide a rationale for targeting (or not targeting) individual HDAC enzymes with inhibitors for future immune-related applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, Silvia S.
The central nervous system (CNS) is a remarkably complex structure that utilizes electrochemical signaling to coordinate activities throughout the entire body. Because the nervous system contains nonreplicative cells, it is postulated that, through evolutionary pressures, this compartment has acquired specialized mechanisms to limit damage. One potential source of damage comes from our immune system, which has the capacity to survey the CNS and periphery for the presence of foreign material. The immune system is equipped with numerous effector mechanisms and can greatly alter the homeostasis and function of the CNS. Degeneration, autoimmunity, and pathogen infection can all result in acute, and sometimes chronic, inflammation within the CNS. Understanding the specialized functionality of innate and adaptive immune cells within the CNS is critical to the design of more efficacious treatments to mitigate CNS inflammatory conditions. Much of our knowledge of CNS-immune interactions stems from seminal studies that have used static and dynamic imaging approaches to visualize inflammatory cells responding to different CNS conditions. This review will focus on how imaging techniques have elevated our understanding of CNS inflammation as well as the exciting prospects that lie ahead as we begin to pursue investigation of the inflamed CNS in real time. PMID:19521688
Nita, Małgorzata; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ascaso, Francisco J; Huerva, Valentín
The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages).
Jupelli, Madhulika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chiba, Norika; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Jones, Heather D.; Peterson, Ellena; Chen, Shuang
Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5×105 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis. PMID:24204830
Neutrophils have long been considered simple suicide killers at the bottom of the hierarchy of the immune response. That view began to change 10–20 yr ago, when the sophisticated mechanisms behind how neutrophils locate and eliminate pathogens and regulate immunity and inflammation were discovered. The last few years witnessed a new wave of discoveries about additional novel and unexpected functions of these cells. Neutrophils have been proposed to participate in protection against intracellular pathogens such as viruses and mycobacteria. They have been shown to intimately shape the adaptive immune response at various levels, including marginal zone B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T cell populations, and even to control NK cell homeostasis. Neutrophils have been shown to mediate an alternative pathway of systemic anaphylaxis and to participate in allergic skin reactions. Finally, neutrophils were found to be involved in physiological and pathological processes beyond the immune system, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and thrombus formation. Many of those functions appear to be related to their unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. This review summarizes those novel findings on versatile functions of neutrophils and how they change our view of neutrophil biology in health and disease. PMID:23825232
Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M; Engwerda, Christian R
Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed.
Lazzerini, Pietro Enea; Capecchi, Pier Leopoldo; Laghi-Pasini, Franco
The long QT syndrome (LQTS), classified as congenital or acquired, is a multi-factorial disorder of myocardial repolarization predisposing to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, particularly torsades de pointes. In the latest years, inflammation and immunity have been increasingly recognized as novel factors crucially involved in modulating ventricular repolarization. In the present paper, we critically review the available information on this topic, also analyzing putative mechanisms and potential interplays with the other etiologic factors, either acquired or inherited. Accumulating data indicate inflammatory activation as a potential cause of acquired LQTS. The putative underlying mechanisms are complex but essentially cytokine-mediated, including both direct actions on cardiomyocyte ion channels expression and function, and indirect effects resulting from an increased central nervous system sympathetic drive on the heart. Autoimmunity represents another recently arising cause of acquired LQTS. Indeed, increasing evidence demonstrates that autoantibodies may affect myocardial electric properties by directly cross-reacting with the cardiomyocyte and interfering with specific ion currents as a result of molecular mimicry mechanisms. Intriguingly, recent data suggest that inflammation and immunity may be also involved in modulating the clinical expression of congenital forms of LQTS, possibly triggering or enhancing electrical instability in patients who already are genetically predisposed to arrhythmias. In this view, targeting immuno-inflammatory pathways may in the future represent an attractive therapeutic approach in a number of LQTS patients, thus opening new exciting avenues in antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:26798623
D'Mello, Charlotte; Swain, Mark G
A growing body of evidence now highlights a key role for inflammation in mediating sickness behaviors and depression. Systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic liver disease have high comorbidity with depression. How the periphery communicates with the brain to mediate changes in neurotransmission and thereby behavior is not completely understood. Traditional routes of communication between the periphery and the brain involve neural and humoral pathways with TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 being the three main cytokines that have primarily been implicated in mediating signaling via these pathways. However, in recent years communication via peripheral immune-cell-to-brain and the gut-microbiota-to-brain routes have received increasing attention for their ability to modulate brain function. In this chapter we discuss periphery-to-brain communication pathways and their potential role in mediating inflammation-associated sickness behaviors and depression.
Hermouet, Sylvie; Bigot-Corbel, Edith; Gardie, Betty
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of clonal diseases characterized by the excessive and chronic production of mature cells from one or several of the myeloid lineages. Recent advances in the biology of MPNs have greatly facilitated their molecular diagnosis since most patients present with mutation(s) in the JAK2, MPL, or CALR genes. Yet the roles played by these mutations in the pathogenesis and main complications of the different subtypes of MPNs are not fully elucidated. Importantly, chronic inflammation has long been associated with MPN disease and some of the symptoms and complications can be linked to inflammation. Moreover, the JAK inhibitor clinical trials showed that the reduction of symptoms linked to inflammation was beneficial to patients even in the absence of significant decrease in the JAK2-V617F mutant load. These observations suggested that part of the inflammation observed in patients with JAK2-mutated MPNs may not be the consequence of JAK2 mutation. The aim of this paper is to review the different aspects of inflammation in MPNs, the molecular mechanisms involved, the role of specific genetic defects, and the evidence that increased production of certain cytokines depends or not on MPN-associated mutations, and to discuss possible nongenetic causes of inflammation.
Hermouet, Sylvie; Bigot-Corbel, Edith; Gardie, Betty
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of clonal diseases characterized by the excessive and chronic production of mature cells from one or several of the myeloid lineages. Recent advances in the biology of MPNs have greatly facilitated their molecular diagnosis since most patients present with mutation(s) in the JAK2, MPL, or CALR genes. Yet the roles played by these mutations in the pathogenesis and main complications of the different subtypes of MPNs are not fully elucidated. Importantly, chronic inflammation has long been associated with MPN disease and some of the symptoms and complications can be linked to inflammation. Moreover, the JAK inhibitor clinical trials showed that the reduction of symptoms linked to inflammation was beneficial to patients even in the absence of significant decrease in the JAK2-V617F mutant load. These observations suggested that part of the inflammation observed in patients with JAK2-mutated MPNs may not be the consequence of JAK2 mutation. The aim of this paper is to review the different aspects of inflammation in MPNs, the molecular mechanisms involved, the role of specific genetic defects, and the evidence that increased production of certain cytokines depends or not on MPN-associated mutations, and to discuss possible nongenetic causes of inflammation. PMID:26538820
Máñez, S; Recio, M C; Giner, R M; Ríos, J L
The activity of four natural triterpenoids on a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate multiple-dose model of skin chronic inflammation was studied. Erythrodiol and ursolic acid were significantly effective. The most important features concerning structure-activity relationship and previous data on the effect of these triterpenoids on other inflammatory conditions are discussed.
Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn
Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Cutolo, Maurizio; Paolino, Sabrina; Pizzorni, Carmen
Several chronic inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases involving different organs and tissues have been found at risk of progression to cancer. A wide array of proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, nitric oxide products, and matricellular proteins are closely involved in premalignant and malignant transition of cells almost always in a background of chronic inflammation. Interestingly, epigenetic perturbations (i.e. miRNA aberrations, altered DNA methylation) together with important steroid hormone metabolic changes (i.e. oestrogens), or the altered vitamin D concentrations that may unbalance the immune / inflammatory response, have been found linked to the risk and severity in several chronic inflammatory conditions, as well as in cancer. In particular, it is evident, that not only the parent oestrogen but also oestrogen metabolites should be taken into account when this process is evaluated, specially the formation of catecholoestrogen metabolites, that are capable of forming either stable or depurinating DNA adducts, which can cause extensive DNA damage. It is interesting that today the successful treatment of several chronic immune/inflammatory rheumatic diseases is obtained also by using medications initially developed for their use in oncology. The circadian increase of growth factors, specially during the late night, in both chronic inflammation and in cancer patients, as well as the presence of oestrogen-regulated circadian mechanisms, suggests further important links.
Straub, Rainer H.; Cutolo, Maurizio; Pacifici, Roberto
Objective Bone loss is typical in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, pemphigus vulgaris, and others. It is also typical in transplantation-related inflammation and during the process of aging. While we recognized that bone loss is tightly linked to immune system activation or inflammaging in the form of acute, chronic active, or chronic smoldering inflammation, bone loss is typically discussed to be an “accident of inflammation”. Methods Extensive literature search in PubMed central. Results Using elements of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation of homeostasis and immune function, we work out that bone waste is an adaptive, evolutionarily positively selected program that is absolutely necessary during acute inflammation. However, when acute inflammation enters a chronic state due to the inability to terminate inflammation (e.g., in autoimmunity or in continuous immunity against microbes), the acute program of bone loss is a misguided adaptive program. Conclusions The article highlights the complexity of interwoven pathways of osteopenia. PMID:26044543
Hussain, Khalid; Padidela, Raja; Kapoor, Ritika R; James, Chela; Banerjee, Kausik; Harper, John; Wilson, Louise C; Hennekam, Raoul C M
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by dysregulation of the immune system leading to inflammation and selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Mild to moderate pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is found in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus may also be part of a syndrome occasionally involving hair and skin abnormalities. We report our observations on two siblings with insulin-dependent diabetes, severe exocrine pancreatic deficiency, pigmented hypertrichotic skin patches with induration and chronic inflammation. The first sibling presented at the age of 9 months with hypertrichosis and hyperpigmentation, particularly on her back and legs and then developed diabetes mellitus at the age of 4 yr. The second sibling presented with exactly the same clinical features but at a later age of 12 yr. Both siblings had severe pancreatic exocrine deficiency with chronic persistent inflammation. Some of the clinical features in these siblings resemble those described by Prendiville et al. although our patients had additional features. The chronic inflammatory response in both siblings is highly suggestive of some form of immune dysregulation. The presence of consanguinity in the parents and similarity of clinical features in the siblings are suggestive of a novel autoimmune disorder, possibly secondary to autosomal recessive inheritance.
Ligthart, Symen; Marzi, Carola; Aslibekyan, Stella; Mendelson, Michael M; Conneely, Karen N; Tanaka, Toshiko; Colicino, Elena; Waite, Lindsay L; Joehanes, Roby; Guan, Weihua; Brody, Jennifer A; Elks, Cathy; Marioni, Riccardo; Jhun, Min A; Agha, Golareh; Bressler, Jan; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Chen, Brian H; Huan, Tianxiao; Bakulski, Kelly; Salfati, Elias L; Fiorito, Giovanni; Wahl, Simone; Schramm, Katharina; Sha, Jin; Hernandez, Dena G; Just, Allan C; Smith, Jennifer A; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Pilling, Luke C; Pankow, James S; Tsao, Phil S; Liu, Chunyu; Zhao, Wei; Guarrera, Simonetta; Michopoulos, Vasiliki J; Smith, Alicia K; Peters, Marjolein J; Melzer, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Fornage, Myriam; Prokisch, Holger; Bis, Joshua C; Chu, Audrey Y; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Yao, Chen; Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F; Lin, Honghuang; Horvath, Steve; Fallin, Daniele; Hofman, Albert; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wiggins, Kerri L; Feinberg, Andrew P; Starr, John M; Visscher, Peter M; Murabito, Joanne M; Kardia, Sharon L R; Absher, Devin M; Binder, Elisabeth B; Singleton, Andrew B; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Matullo, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Joel D; Demerath, Ellen W; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Franco, Oscar H; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Levy, Daniel; Turner, Stephen T; Deary, Ian J; Ressler, Kerry J; Dupuis, Josée; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ong, Ken K; Assimes, Themistocles L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Koenig, Wolfgang; Arnett, Donna K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Benjamin, Emelia J; Dehghan, Abbas
Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a sensitive marker of low-grade inflammation, in a large European population (n = 8863) and trans-ethnic replication in African Americans (n = 4111). We found differential methylation at 218 CpG sites to be associated with CRP (P < 1.15 × 10(-7)) in the discovery panel of European ancestry and replicated (P < 2.29 × 10(-4)) 58 CpG sites (45 unique loci) among African Americans. To further characterize the molecular and clinical relevance of the findings, we examined the association with gene expression, genetic sequence variants, and clinical outcomes. DNA methylation at nine (16%) CpG sites was associated with whole blood gene expression in cis (P < 8.47 × 10(-5)), ten (17%) CpG sites were associated with a nearby genetic variant (P < 2.50 × 10(-3)), and 51 (88%) were also associated with at least one related cardiometabolic entity (P < 9.58 × 10(-5)). An additive weighted score of replicated CpG sites accounted for up to 6% inter-individual variation (R2) of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted CRP, independent of known CRP-related genetic variants. We have completed an EWAS of chronic low-grade inflammation and identified many novel genetic loci underlying inflammation that may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions for inflammation.
FERNANDES, JOSÉ VERÍSSIMO; DE MEDEIROS FERNANDES, THALES ALLYRIO ARAÚJO; DE AZEVEDO, JENNER CHRYSTIAN VERÍSSIMO; COBUCCI, RICARDO NEY OLIVEIRA; DE CARVALHO, MARIA GORETTI FREIRE; ANDRADE, VANIA SOUSA; DE ARAÚJO, JOSÉLIO MARIA GALVÃO
Inflammation is a defense strategy against invading agents and harmful molecules that is activated immediately following a stimulus, and involves the release of cytokines and chemokines, which activate the innate immune response. These mediators act together to increase blood flow and vascular permeability, facilitating recruitment of effector cells to the site of injury. Following resolution of the injury and removal of the stimulus, inflammation is disabled, but if the stimulus persists, inflammation becomes chronic and is strongly associated with cancer. This is likely to be due to the fact that the inflammation leads to a wound that does not heal, requiring a constant renewal of cells, which increases the risk of neoplastic transformation. Debris from phagocytosis, including the reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen that cause damage to DNA already damaged by the leukotrienes and prostaglandins, has an impact on inflammation and various carcinogenic routes. There is an association between chronic inflammation, persistent infection and cancer, where oncogenic action is mediated by autocrine and paracrine signals, causing changes in somatic cells under the influence of the microbial genome or of epigenetic factors. Among the infectious agents associated with cancer, certain genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) stand out. HPV is responsible for virtually all cases of cervical cancer and a lower proportion of cancers of the vagina, vulva, anus, penis and a number of extragenital cancers. In the present review, recent advances in the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response are presented with their participation in the process of carcinogenesis, emphasizing the role of chronic inflammation in the development of HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:25663851
Schleimer, Robert P.
Innate immune responses appear to be partially responsible for maintaining inflammation and tissue destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the early stages of the disease in smokers, the airways are bombarded with large quantities of particulate material, and activation of phagocytic cells results in the release of many of the mediators believed to remodel the airways. Ironically, failure of the innate immune defense system, either by inherited deficiency or as a result of chronic smoke inhalation, is likely to result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is well known that deficiencies in the production of collectins, pentraxins, and complement can lead to increased infections, and several studies indicate that deficiency in one or another innate defense component is associated with increased exacerbations. Corticosteroids reduce exacerbations in part because of their ability to boost the production of innate host-defense molecules. Therapeutic approaches that stimulate the generation of antimicrobial molecules in the lungs might be able to reduce disease exacerbations. PMID:16267360
Vishwanath, Mandagere R; Jain, Arpita; Carley, Fiona
Patients with chronic headache associated with ocular symptoms regularly seek ophthalmologists' opinions. We report an unusual case of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH), a rare but well-described variant of cluster headache in a female presenting to an eye department with recurrent episodes of severe unilateral periorbital swelling with a chronic history of headaches. Clinical features, review of literature, and therapeutic response to indomethacin helped to establish the diagnosis as CPH. This is the first report of severe orbital inflammation with CPH to our knowledge.
Morphological phenomena in rheumatoid arthritis are closely correlated to the biochemical aberrations of connective tissue metabolism. Both, morphological and biochemical analysis of the altered tissue portions demonstrate evidence for uncontrolled proliferation resp. metabolism similar to human and experimental malignoma. The present state of biochemical knowledge in this field permits to describe the metabolic state of the afflicted tissue by means of enzyme activity and substrate pattern and to draw some conclusions in respect to the pathogenesis of inflammatory processes involved in chronic rheumatic diseases.
Lee, Hyojung; Kim, Youngeun; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Soojin; Jang, Young Pyo; Jung, Sungki; Jung, Heejae; Bae, Hyunsu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by airway obstruction, leads to, as the two major forms of COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of herbal formula, PM014, in a murine model of COPD. Balb/c mice were treated once with each herb extract in PM014 or PM014 mixture via an oral injection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or elastase/LPS were administrated to the mice to induce a disease that resembles COPD. PM014 treatment significantly attenuated the increased accumulation of immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared to control mice. In addition, the TNF-α and IL-6 levels in BALF were decreased in the PM014 mice. Furthermore, histological analysis demonstrated that PM014 attenuated the hazardous effects of lung inflammation. These data suggest that PM014 exerts beneficial effects against forms of COPD such as lung inflammation. PMID:22778777
Graziottin, Alessandra; Skaper, Stephen D; Fusco, Mariella
Inflammatory and neuroinflammatory processes are increasingly recognized as critical pathophysiologic steps in the development of multiple chronic diseases and in the etiology of persistent pain and depression. Mast cells are immune cells now viewed as cellular sensors in inflammation and immunity. When stimulated, mast cells release an array of mediators to orchestrate an inflammatory response. These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, and may also regulate the activity of other immune cells, including central microglia. New evidence supports the involvement of peripheral and central mast cells in the development of pain processes as well as in the transition from acute, to chronic and neuropathic pain. That behavioral and endocrine states can increase the number and activation of peripheral and brain mast cells suggests that mast cells represent the immune cells that peripherally and centrally coordinate inflammatory processes in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety which are associated with chronic pelvic pain. Given that increasing evidence supports the activated mast cell as a director of common inflammatory pathways/mechanisms contributing to chronic and neuropathic pelvic pain and comorbid neuropsychiatric diseases, mast cells may be considered a viable target for the multifactorial management of both pain and depression.
Ludewig, Burkhard; Freigang, Stefan; Jäggi, Martin; Kurrer, Michael O.; Pei, Yao-Chang; Vlk, Lenka; Odermatt, Bernhard; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans
Arterial inflammatory responses are thought to be a significant component of atherosclerotic disease. We describe here, using a transgenic approach, the mutual perpetuation of immune-mediated arterial inflammation and cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. Mice expressing the bacterial transgene β-galactosidase exclusively in cardiomyocytes and in smooth muscle cells in lung arteries and the aorta (SM-LacZ), and hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient SM-LacZ mice (SM-LacZ/apoE−/−) developed myocarditis and arteritis after immunization with dendritic cells presenting a β-galactosidase-derived immunogenic peptide. Hypercholesterolemia amplified acute arteritis and perpetuated chronic arterial inflammation in SM-LacZ/apoE−/− mice, but had no major impact on acute myocarditis or the subsequent development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Conversely, arteritis significantly accelerated cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the linkage of immune-mediated arteritis and hypercholesterolemia favors initiation and maintenance of atherosclerotic lesion formation. Therapeutic strategies to prevent or disrupt such self-perpetuating vicious circles may be crucial for the successful treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:11050173
Ge, Rong-Ti; Mo, Li-Hua; Wu, Ruijin; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Zhanju; Yang, Ping-Chang
The pathogenesis of some chronic inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease is unclear. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) has active immune regulatory capability. This study aims to investigate into the mechanism by which IGF1 modulates the monocyte (Mo) properties to inhibit immune inflammation in the intestine. In this study, the production of IGF1 by intestinal epithelial cells was evaluated by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Mos were analyzed by flow cytometry. A mouse colitis model was created with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. The results showed that mouse IECs produced IGF1, which could be up regulated by exposure to CpG-ODN (CpG-oligodeoxynueleotides) in the culture. Culture the CpG-ODN-primed IEC cells and Mos or exposure of Mos to IGF1 in the culture induced the Mos to express IL-10. The IGF1-primed Mos showed the immune suppressive effect on inhibiting the immune inflammation in the mouse colon. In conclusion, the IGF1-primed Mos are capable of suppressing immune inflammation in the intestine. PMID:25588622
Physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, is a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases.
Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death in the world and chronic inflammation is a key contributor to many chronic diseases. Accordingly, interventions that reduce inflammation may be effective in treating multiple adverse chronic conditions. In this context, physical activity is documented to reduce systemic low-grade inflammation and is acknowledged as an anti-inflammatory intervention. Furthermore, physically active individuals are at a lower risk of developing chronic diseases. However the mechanisms mediating this anti-inflammatory phenotype and range of health benefits are unknown. We hypothesize that the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" (CAP) mediates the anti-inflammatory phenotype and range of health benefits associated with physical activity. The CAP is an endogenous, physiological mechanism by which acetylcholine from the vagus nerve, interacts with the innate immune system to modulate and restrain the inflammatory cascade. Importantly, higher levels of physical activity are associated with enhanced parasympathetic (vagal) tone and lower levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation. Accordingly, physical activity, by enhancing parasympathetic tone and activating the CAP, may be a therapeutic strategy to restrain chronic inflammation and prevent many chronic diseases.
Carneiro, Leticia A. M.; Travassos, Leonardo H.
Since they were first described as cytosolic sensors of microbial molecules a decade ago, the Nod-like receptors (NLRs) have been shown to have many different and important roles in various aspects of immune and inflammatory responses, ranging from antimicrobial mechanisms to control of adaptive responses. In this review, we focus on the interplay between NLRs and autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that is crucial for homeostasis and has recently been shown to be involved in the protective response against infections. Furthermore, the association between mutations of NLRs as well as proteins that form the autophagic machinery and inflammatory diseases such as Crohn’s disease highlight the importance of these proteins and their interactions in the regulation of inflammation. PMID:24273538
Olofsson, Peder S.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Levine, Yaakov A.; Tracey, Kevin J.
Summary Neural reflex circuits regulate cytokine release to prevent potentially damaging inflammation and maintain homeostasis. In the inflammatory reflex, sensory input elicited by infection or injury travels through the afferent vagus nerve to integrative regions in the brainstem, and efferent nerves carry outbound signals that terminate in the spleen and other tissues. Neurotransmitters from peripheral autonomic nerves subsequently promote acetylcholine-release from a subset of CD4+ T cells that relay the neural signal to other immune cells, e.g. through activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on macrophages. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of the inflammatory reflex and discuss potential therapeutic implications of current findings in this evolving field. PMID:22725962
Cruz-Migoni, Sara; Caamaño, Jorge
Fat-associated lymphoid clusters (FALCs) are atypical lymphoid tissues that were originally identified in mouse and human mesenteries due to that they contain a high number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells/nuocytes/natural helper cells. FALCs are located on adipose tissues in mucosal surfaces such as the mediastinum, pericardium, and gonadal fat. Importantly, these clusters contain B1, B2 and T lymphocytes as well as myeloid and other innate immune cell populations. The developmental cues of FALC formation have started to emerge, showing that these clusters depend on a different set of molecules and cells than secondary lymphoid tissues for their formation. Here, we review the current knowledge on FALC formation, and we compare FALCs and omental milky spots and their responses to inflammation. PMID:28066422
Immune response has been divided into innate immunity and acquired immunity. We focused on the role of innate immunity during the formation of uveitis and choroidal neovascularization (CNV)-related diseases. To carry out a comprehensive analysis of ocular inflammatory responses in patients with uveitis, vitreous fluid was analyzed using a microbead-based multiplex ELIZA system. We found that cytokines which were related with innate immunity were elevated, but cytokines which were related with acquired immunity were not. We also found that the role of IL-17 was to produce Th17 cells in the chronic phase of experimental uveitis. Next, we investigated the role of the natural killer (NK) T cells which restrict CD1 and participate in the innate immune response in laser-induced experimental CNV. We studied the CNV formation in two independent NK T cell-deficient strains of mice, CD1 knockout (KO) mice and Jalpha18 KO mice, and found that both KO mice showed significant reduction of the effects of experimental CNV. After laser treatment, both CD1 KO mice and Jalpha18 KO mice showed a decrease in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in retina and choroid. Interestingly, intravitreous inoculation of a galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer), which is the ligand of NK Tcells, inhibited CNV in C57BL6 mice. Collectively, we conclude that NK T cells play an important role in forming CNV as one of the inducers of VEGS. Because NK T cells bear the potential to regulate immune response, alphaGalCer might activate NK T cells differently to produce angiostatic factors and have a therapeutic potential in vivo. During the clinical process of CNV-related diseases, not only CNV formation, but also subretinal scarring is thought to be another important step. We thus established the experimental model of subretinal scaring by injecting peritoneal exudating macrophases into the subretinal space. This scaring was inhibited by inoculation of anti-IL-6 antibody and
De la Fuente, Mónica; Miquel, Jaime
The aging process is one of the best examples of the effects of a deterioration of homeostasis, since aging is accompanied by an impairment of the physiological systems including the homeostatic systems such as the immune system. We propose an integrative theory of aging providing answers to the how (oxidation), where first (mitochondria of differentiated cells) and why (pleiotropic genes) this process occurs. In agreement with this oxidation-mitochondrial theory of aging, we have observed that the age-related changes of immune functions have as their basis an oxidative and inflammatory stress situation, which has among its intracellular mechanisms the activation of NFkappaB in immune cells. Moreover, we have also observed that several functions of immune cells are good markers of biological age and predictors of longevity. Based on the above we have proposed the theory of oxidation-inflammation as the main cause of aging. Accordingly, the chronic oxidative stress that appears with age affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and the communication between them. This fact prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. We have also proposed a key involvement of the immune system in the aging process of the organism, concretely in the rate of aging, since there is a relation between the redox state and functional capacity of the immune cells and the longevity of individuals. Moreover, the role of the immune system in senescence could be of universal application. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that the administration of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet, improves the immune functions, decreasing their oxidative stress, and consequently increases the longevity of the subjects.
Broides, Arnon; Sagi, Orli; Pinsk, Vered; Levy, Jacov; Yerushalmi, Baruch
Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species. Non-infectious colitis is common in chronic granulomatous disease, and high levels of antimicrobial antibodies that are associated with Crohn's disease are common even without colitis. Fecal calprotectin concentration is a marker for intestinal inflammation. We sought to determine whether subclinical intestinal inflammation occurs in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients. Asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients without overt gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of colitis at the time of enrollment were studied for fecal calprotectin concentration, antibodies associated with Crohn's disease and systemic inflammatory markers. Eight patients were included, aged 54-176 months. In 7/8 (87.5 %) fecal calprotectin concentration was normal (<50) and elevated (137 mg/kg) in only one patient. This patient later developed colitis. In 7/8 (87.5 %) anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody was positive. C-reactive protein, albumin, complete blood count and p-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were normal in all 8 patients. Subclinical colitis is not evident in most asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients; however, in some patients, fecal calprotectin concentration may be elevated, possibly indicating the presence of subclinical colitis and predicting the occurrence of clinically relevant colitis. Serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody concentrations do not seem to correlate with fecal calprotectin concentration in asymptomatic chronic granulomatous disease patients.
Breser, María L; Salazar, Florencia C; Rivero, Viginia E; Motrich, Rubén D
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain.
Breser, María L.; Salazar, Florencia C.; Rivero, Viginia E.; Motrich, Rubén D.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain. PMID:28824626
BARRIONUEVO, P; BEIGIER-BOMPADRE, M; FERNANDEZ, G C; GOMEZ, S; ALVES-ROSA, M F; PALERMO, M S; ISTURIZ, M A
The interaction between receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcγRs) from monocytes/macrophages and immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Recently, we have demonstrated that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. Taking into account that the regulation of MHC class II molecules is a crucial event in the immune response, in this report we extend our previous studies analysing the effect of STAT-1 phosphorylation in the down-regulatory process, the fate of the intracellular pool of MHC class II molecules and the effect of complement on MHC class II down-regulation induced by IC. We also studied the effect of IC on the expression of MHC class II (I-Ad) in macrophages using a mouse model of chronic inflammation. We demonstrate that IC induce a depletion not only on surface expressed but also on intracellular MHC class II content and that IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is not mediated by the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. On the other hand, the effect of IC is not specific for the down-regulation of MHC class II, for it could be restricted to other molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Our experiments also show that the activation of the complement system could be a crucial step on the regulation of the effect of IC on MHC class II expression. In agreement with our in vitro experiments using human monocytes, IC treatment reduces the expression of MHC class II in a mouse model of chronic inflammation. PMID:12869025
Mendel, Itzhak; Yacov, Niva; Harats, Dror; Breitbart, Eyal
Atherosclerosis is a smoldering disease of the vasculature that can lead to the occlusion of the arteries, resulting in ischemia of the heart and brain. For many years, the asserted underlying mechanism of atherosclerosis, supported by its epidemiology, was based on the "cholesterol hypothesis" that people with high blood cholesterol are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This hypothesis instigated a vigorous search for treatment that yielded the generation of statins, which specifically reduce LDL cholesterol. Since then, statins have revolutionized the way people are treated for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Nonetheless, despite this potent class of drugs, cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in many parts of the world, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in disease pathogenesis. Intensive research has revealed that the atherosclerotic plaque is enriched with leukocytes, and that macrophages constitute the majority of immune cells in the lesion. Monocytes/macrophages are now recognized as the prime immune cells involved in the development of atherosclerosis and are implicated to affect the size, composition and vulnerability of the atherosclerotic plaque. While many of the macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory mechanisms associated with atherogenesis have been characterized, such as cell adhesion, cytokine production and protease secretion, there is a dearth of drugs that specifically target innate immunity for treating patients with atherosclerosis. This review presents pre-clinical studies, and in most cases following clinical trials with antagonists and agonists that have been designed to counteract inflammation in atherosclerosis and associated diseases, highlighting targets expressed predominantly in monocytes.
Pauly, John L.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine
Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps. PMID:21772847
Landskron, Glauben; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Thuwajit, Peti; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Hermoso, Marcela A.
Acute inflammation is a response to an alteration induced by a pathogen or a physical or chemical insult, which functions to eliminate the source of the damage and restore homeostasis to the affected tissue. However, chronic inflammation triggers cellular events that can promote malignant transformation of cells and carcinogenesis. Several inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-10, have been shown to participate in both the initiation and progression of cancer. In this review, we explore the role of these cytokines in important events of carcinogenesis, such as their capacity to generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their potential mutagenic effect, and their involvement in mechanisms for epithelial mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Finally, we will provide an in-depth analysis of the participation of these cytokines in two types of cancer attributable to chronic inflammatory disease: colitis-associated colorectal cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:24901008
Pauly, John L; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine
Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps.
Gamm, H; Huber, C; Chapel, H; Lee, M; Ries, F; Dicato, M A
The most common complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is infection, which occurs mainly in advanced stages of disease or in those patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) has been shown to be a useful prophylactic therapy against infections in such patients. A randomized, double-blind study on 36 patients receiving either 500 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg IVIG every 4 weeks was undertaken to determine the dose regimen required. There was no significant difference in the two treatment groups and we found that CLL patients were equally protected with low-dose IVIG. PMID:8033428
Khalmuratova, Roza; Park, Jong-Wan
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common presentations of upper airway illness and severely affects patient quality of life. Its frequency is not surprising given levels of environmental exposure to microbes, pollutants, and allergens. Inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and airway remodeling have been detected in the sinonasal mucosae of CRS patients, although the precise pathophysiological mechanisms causing such persistent inflammation remain unclear. Given its high prevalence and considerable associated morbidity, continued research into CRS is necessary to increase our understanding of factors likely to contribute to its pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding immune cell responses and epithelial alterations in CRS. PMID:28261021
Weiss, Miriam; Byrne, Adam J; Blazek, Katrina; Saliba, David G; Pease, James E; Perocheau, Dany; Feldmann, Marc; Udalova, Irina A
Whereas the importance of macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases is well recognized, there is an increasing awareness that neutrophils may also play an important role. In addition to the well-documented heterogeneity of macrophage phenotypes and functions, neutrophils also show remarkable phenotypic diversity among tissues. Understanding the molecular pathways that control this heterogeneity should provide abundant scope for the generation of more specific and effective therapeutics. We have shown that the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) polarizes macrophages toward an inflammatory phenotype. IRF5 is also expressed in other myeloid cells, including neutrophils, where it was linked to neutrophil function. In this study we explored the role of IRF5 in models of acute inflammation, including antigen-induced inflammatory arthritis and lung injury, both involving an extensive influx of neutrophils. Mice lacking IRF5 accumulate far fewer neutrophils at the site of inflammation due to the reduced levels of chemokines important for neutrophil recruitment, such as the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1. Furthermore we found that neutrophils express little IRF5 in the joints and that their migratory properties are not affected by the IRF5 deficiency. These studies extend prior ones suggesting that inhibiting IRF5 might be useful for chronic macrophage-induced inflammation and suggest that IRF5 blockade would ameliorate more acute forms of inflammation, including lung injury.
Background Most hemodialysis patients present with chronic systemic inflammation characterized by the elevation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and/or the production of proinflammatory interleukins by the immune system in response to the hemodialysis process. Plasma ferritin(PF) is one of the parameters used to correct anemia. An PF level of >500 ng/mL is not recommended for correction of anemia because of the uncertainty of whether these levels are elevated because of anemia or a mere reaction to inflammation. we aimed to study the effects of inflammation on seminal ferritin (SF) levels and hypothesized that SF is not affected because of the testicular immune privilege. Methods A prospective prevalence study was conducted at the Department of Hemodialysis of the University Hospital of Brasília (HuB) between June 2010 and July 2011. The sample included 60 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis and 20 control subjects from the health promotion general outpatient clinic. All participants were males aged 18–60 years. Inflammation was assessed through serum CRP levels, and the testicular condition was determined by measuring sex hormone levels. In the patient group, inflammation was considered to be present when CRP was >5 mg/L (n = 27) and absent when CRP was ≤5 mg/L (n = 33). Control group (n = 20) CRP was ≤1 mg/L. Blood and semen were collected via arm venoclysis and after voluntary masturbation, respectively. CRP was measured by turbidimetry; PF, SF, and sex hormone levels by immunochemoluminescence. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was no significant difference in mean SF levels among patients with inflammation (295.34 ± 145.39 ng/mL), those without inflammation (324.42 ± 145.51 mg/mL), and controls (335.70 ± 075.90 ng/mL; p = 0.49). There was no correlation between mean SF and PF levels in the patients with and without inflammation). All participants were eugonadal with mean
Introduction Chronic inflammation is a profound systemic modification of the cellular microenvironment which could affect survival, repair and maintenance of muscle stem cells. The aim of this study was to define the role of chronic inflammation on the regenerative potential of satellite cells in human muscle. Methods As a model for chronic inflammation, 11 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were included together with 16 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) as controls. The mean age of both groups was 64 years, with more females in the RA group compared to the OA group. During elective knee replacement surgery, a muscle biopsy was taken from the distal musculus vastus medialis. Cell populations from four RA and eight OA patients were used for extensive phenotyping because these cell populations showed no spontaneous differentiation and myogenic purity greater than 75% after explantation. Results After mononuclear cell explantation, myogenic purity, viability, proliferation index, number of colonies, myogenic colonies, growth speed, maximum number of population doublings and fusion index were not different between RA and OA patients. Furthermore, the expression of proteins involved in replicative and stress-induced premature senescence and apoptosis, including p16, p21, p53, hTERT and cleaved caspase-3, was not different between RA and OA patients. Mean telomere length was shorter in the RA group compared to the OA group. Conclusions In the present study we found evidence that chronic inflammation in RA does not affect the in vitro regenerative potential of human satellite cells. Identification of mechanisms influencing muscle regeneration by modulation of its microenvironment may, therefore, be more appropriate. PMID:22171690
Eapen, Mathew Suji; Myers, Stephen; Walters, Eugene Haydn; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily an airway condition, which mainly affects cigarette smokers and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and poorly reversible. In COPD research, there has been a long held belief that airway disease progression is due to inflammation. Although this may be true in the airway lumen with innate immunity activated by the effect of smoke or secondary to infection, the accurate picture of inflammatory cells in the airway wall, where the pathophysiological COPD remodeling occurs, is uncertain and debatable. Areas covered: The current review provides a comprehensive literature survey of the changes in the main inflammatory cells in human COPD patients and focuses on contrarian views that affect the prevailing dogma on inflammation. The review also delves into the role of oxidative stress and inflammasomes in modulating the immune response in COPD. Further, the effects of inflammation in affecting the epithelium, fibroblasts, and airway remodeling are discussed. Expert commentary: Inflammation as a driving force for airway wall damage and remodelling in early COPD is at the very least 'oversimplified' and is likely to be misleading. This has serious implications for rational thinking about the illness, including pathogenesis and designing therapy.
Miller, Mark W; Lin, Alex P; Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Danielle R
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a serious and often disabling syndrome that develops in response to a traumatic event. Many individuals who initially develop the disorder go on to experience a chronic form of the condition that in some cases can last for many years. Among these patients, psychiatric and medical comorbidities are common, including early onset of age-related conditions such as chronic pain, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive disorders, and dementia. The hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress-recurrent sensory-memory reexperiencing of the trauma(s)-are associated with concomitant activations of threat- and stress-related neurobiological pathways that occur against a tonic backdrop of sleep disturbance and heightened physiological arousal. Emerging evidence suggests that the molecular consequences of this stress-perpetuating syndrome include elevated systemic levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this article we review evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic PTSD and the neurobiological consequences of these processes, including accelerated cellular aging and neuroprogression. Our aim is to update and expand upon previous reviews of this rapidly developing literature and to discuss magnetic resonance spectroscopy as an imaging technology uniquely suited to measuring oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in vivo. Finally, we highlight future directions for research and avenues for the development of novel therapeutics targeting oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with PTSD.
Liu, Dongmei; Wang, Ru; Grant, Ana R; Zhang, Jinming; Gordon, Paul M; Wei, Yuqin; Chen, Peijie
Endurance exercise training, especially the high-intensity training, exhibits a strong influence on the immune system. However, the mechanisms underpinning the immune-regulatory effect of exercise remain unclear. Consequently, we chose to investigate the alterations in the transcriptional profile of blood leukocytes in young endurance athletes as compared with healthy sedentary controls, using Affymetrix human gene 1.1 ST array. Group differences in the transcriptome were analyzed using Intensity-based Hierarchical Bayes method followed by a Logistic Regression-based gene set enrichment method. We identified 72 significant transcripts differentially expressed in the leukocyte transcriptome of young endurance athletes as compared with non-athlete controls with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, comprising mainly the genes encoding ribosomal proteins and the genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Gene set enrichment analysis identified three major gene set clusters: two were up-regulated in athletes including gene translation and ribosomal protein production, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation and biogenesis; one gene set cluster identified as transcriptionally downregulated in athletes was related to inflammation and immune activity. Our data indicates that in young healthy individuals, intense endurance exercise training (exemplifed by athletic training) can chronically induce transcriptional changes in the peripheral blood leukocytes, upregulating genes related to protein production and mitochondrial energetics, and downregulating genes involved in inflammatory response. The findings of the study also provide support for the notion that peripheral blood can be used as a surrogate tissue to study the systemic effect of exercise training.
Background 17α-Ethynyl-5-androsten-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (HE3286) is a synthetic derivative of an endogenous steroid androstenetriol (β-AET), a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid deyhdroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with broad anti-inflammatory activities. We tested the ability of this novel synthetic steroid with improved pharmacological properties to limit non-productive lung inflammation in rodents and attempted to gauge its immunological impact. Methods and Results In mice, oral treatment with HE3286 (40 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased neutrophil counts and exudate volumes (~50%) in carrageenan-induced pleurisy, and myeloperoxidase in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. HE3286 (40 mg/kg) was not found to be profoundly immune suppressive in any of the classical animal models of immune function, including those used to evaluate antigen specific immune responses in vivo (ovalbumin immunization). When mice treated for two weeks with HE3286 were challenged with K. pneumoniae, nearly identical survival kinetics were observed in vehicle-treated, HE3286-treated and untreated groups. Conclusions HE3286 represents a novel, first-in-class anti-inflammatory agent that may translate certain benefits of β-AET observed in rodents into treatments for chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease. PMID:21034489
Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A.; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut
Background Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Results Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT
González-Chávez, Antonio; Elizondo-Argueta, Sandra; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; León-Pedroza, José Israel
The different theories about the mechanisms involved in the development of metabolic disease and its complications converge in the presence of an etiologic chronic proinflammatory state. Chronic inflammation is, at present, the central pathophysiological mechanism involved in the genesis of metabolic diseases. The multiple interactions between the immune system, adipose tissue, the vascular wall and the pancreas are the issues addressed in this review, focusing on specific intracellular and molecular aspects that may become new therapeutic targets. These lead to a proinflammatory, prothrombotic state as well as to proapoptotic endothelial damage that allows the development of atherosclerosis and, consequently, cardiovascular disease. The multiple immunopathological processes associated with the etiology and pathophysiology of different chronic diseases is still in the process of being fully elucidated, allowing the development of new therapeutic targets.
Lundy, Steven K.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.
Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways. PMID:23429492
Ward, Jane Elizabeth; Tan, Xiahui
Inflammation is a major component in the pathology of chronic lung diseases, including asthma. Anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids is not effective in all patients. Thus, new therapeutic options are required to control diverse cellular functions that are currently not optimally targeted by these drugs in order to inhibit inflammation and its sequelae in lung disease. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), originally characterised as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, offer marked potential in this respect. PPARs are expressed in both lung infiltrating and resident immune and inflammatory cells, as well as in resident and structural cells in the lungs, and play critical roles in the regulation of airway inflammation. In vitro, endogenous and synthetic ligands for PPARs regulate expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemoattractants, and cell proliferation and survival. In murine models of allergen-induced inflammation, PPARα and PPARγ ligands reduce the influx of inflammatory cells, cytokine and mucus production, collagen deposition, and airways hyperresponsiveness. The activity profiles of PPAR ligands differ to corticosteroids, supporting the hypothesis that PPARs comprise additional therapeutic targets to mimimise the contribution of inflammation to airway remodelling and dysfunction. PMID:18000530
Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E.; Zhai, Zili; Akram, Hammad; Pye, Quentin N.; Hensley, Kenneth; Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal; Ramirez, Dario C.
Human life expectancy and welfare has decreased because of the increase in environmental stressors in the air. An environmental stressor is a natural or human-made component present in our environment that upon reaching an organic system produces a coordinated response. This response usually involves a modification of the metabolism and physiology of the system. Inhaled environmental stressors damage the airways and lung parenchyma, producing irritation, recruitment of inflammatory cells, and oxidative modification of biomolecules. Oxidatively modified biomolecules, their degradation products, and adducts with other biomolecules can reach the systemic circulation, and when found in higher concentrations than normal they are considered to be biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. We classify them as metabolic stressors because they are not inert compounds; indeed, they amplify the inflammatory response by inducing inflammation in the lung and other organs. Thus the lung is not only the target for environmental stressors, but it is also the source of a number of metabolic stressors that can induce and worsen pre-existing chronic inflammation. Metabolic stressors produced in the lung have a number of effects in tissues other than the lung, such as the brain, and they can also abrogate the mechanisms of immunotolerance. In this review, we discuss recent published evidence that suggests that inflammation in the lung is an important connection between air pollution and chronic inflammatory diseases such as autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, and we highlight the critical role of metabolic stressors produced in the lung. The understanding of this relationship between inhaled environmental pollutants and systemic inflammation will help us to: 1) understand the molecular mechanism of environment-associated diseases, and 2) find new biomarkers that will help us prevent the exposure of susceptible individuals and/or design novel therapies. PMID:18977456
Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Chatterjee, Prabal K; Mazzon, Emanuela; Dugo, Laura; Serraino, Ivana; Britti, Domenico; Mazzullo, Giuseppe; Caputi, Achille P; Thiemermann, Christoph
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor which plays a pivotal role in the induction of genes involved in physiological processes as well as in the response to injury and inflammation. Dithiocarbamates are antioxidants which are potent inhibitors of NF-κB. We postulated that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) would attenuate inflammation. In the present study we investigate the effects of PDTC in animal models of acute and chronic inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy and collagen-induced arthritis). We report here for the first time that PDTC (given at 100, 30 or 10 mg kg−1 i.p. in the pleurisy model or at 10 mg kg−1 i.p. every 48 h in the arthritis model) exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects (e.g. significant reduction of (A) pleural exudate formation, (B) polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, (C) lipid peroxidation, (D) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and nitric oxide production (E) plasma and pleural exudates levels of interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α, (F) histological injury and (G) delayed development of clinical indicators). Furthermore, PDTC reduced immunohistochemical evidence of (A) formation of nitrotyrosine, (B) activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), (C) expression of iNOS and (D) expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the lungs of carrageenan-treated mice and in the joints from collagen-treated mice. Additionally, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissue revealed that PDTC prevented degradation of IKB-α and translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that prevention of the activation of NF-κB by PDTC reduces the development of acute and chronic inflammation. Therefore, inhibition of NF-κB may represent a novel approach for the therapy of inflammation. PMID:11815386
Mira, Juan C; Gentile, Lori F; Mathias, Brittany J; Efron, Philip A; Brakenridge, Scott C; Mohr, Alicia M; Moore, Frederick A; Moldawer, Lyle L
To provide an appraisal of the evolving paradigms in the pathophysiology of sepsis and propose the evolution of a new phenotype of critically ill patients, its potential underlying mechanism, and its implications for the future of sepsis management and research. Literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Sepsis remains one of the most debilitating and expensive illnesses, and its prevalence is not declining. What is changing is our definition(s), its clinical course, and how we manage the septic patient. Once thought to be predominantly a syndrome of over exuberant inflammation, sepsis is now recognized as a syndrome of aberrant host protective immunity. Earlier recognition and compliance with treatment bundles has fortunately led to a decline in multiple organ failure and in-hospital mortality. Unfortunately, more and more sepsis patients, especially the aged, are suffering chronic critical illness, rarely fully recover, and often experience an indolent death. Patients with chronic critical illness often exhibit "a persistent inflammation-immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome," and it is proposed here that this state of persisting inflammation, immunosuppression and catabolism contributes to many of these adverse clinical outcomes. The underlying cause of inflammation-immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome is currently unknown, but there is increasing evidence that altered myelopoiesis, reduced effector T-cell function, and expansion of immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells are all contributory. Although newer therapeutic interventions are targeting the inflammatory, the immunosuppressive, and the protein catabolic responses individually, successful treatment of the septic patient with chronic critical illness and persistent inflammation-immunosuppression and catabolism syndrome may require a more complementary approach.
Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen
The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526
Lotem, Joseph; Levanon, Ditsa; Negreanu, Varda; Bauer, Omri; Hantisteanu, Shay; Dicken, Joseph; Groner, Yoram
Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) in normal cells provides a viability/growth advantage that contributes cell-autonomously to cancer. More than a decade ago claims arose that the RUNX3 member of the RUNX transcription factor family is a major TSG inactivated in gastric cancer, a postulate extended later to other cancers. However, evidence that Runx3 is not expressed in normal gastric and other epithelia has challenged the RUNX3-TSG paradigm. Here we critically re-appraise this paradigm in light of recent high-throughput, quantitative genome-wide studies on thousands of human samples of various tumors and new investigations of the role of Runx3 in mouse cancer models. Collectively, these studies unequivocally demonstrate that RUNX3 is not a bona fide cell-autonomous TSG. Accordingly, RUNX3 is not recognized as a TSG and is not included among the 2000 cancer genes listed in the "Cancer Gene Census" or "Network for Cancer Genes" repositories. In contrast, RUNX3 does play important functions in immunity and inflammation and may thereby indirectly influence epithelial tumor development.
Beghdadi, Walid; Madjene, Lydia Célia; Benhamou, Marc; Charles, Nicolas; Gautier, Gregory; Launay, Pierre; Blank, Ulrich
Mast cells are localized in tissues. Intense research on these cells over the years has demonstrated their role as effector cells in the maintenance of tissue integrity following injury produced by infectious agents, toxins, metabolic states, etc. After stimulation they release a sophisticated array of inflammatory mediators, cytokines, and growth factors to orchestrate an inflammatory response. These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, but they have also been shown to regulate other infiltrating immune cell functions. Research in recent years has revealed that the outcome of mast cell actions is not always detrimental for the host but can also limit disease development. In addition, mast cell functions highly depend on the physiological context in the organism. Depending on the genetic background, strength of the injurious event, the particular microenvironment, mast cells direct responses ranging from pro- to anti-inflammatory. It appears that they have evolved as cellular sensors to discern their environment in order to initiate an appropriate physiological response either aimed to favor inflammation for repair or at the contrary limit the inflammatory process to prevent further damage. Like every sophisticated machinery, its dysregulation leads to pathology. Given the broad distribution of mast cells in tissues this also explains their implication in many inflammatory diseases. PMID:22566827
Heron, Samantha E; Elahi, Shokrollah
, unraveling how HIV compromises the integrity of the oral mucosal tissues and innate immune components of the oral cavity and its association with induction of chronic inflammation are critical for the development of effective preventive interventions and therapeutic strategies.
Heron, Samantha E.; Elahi, Shokrollah
. Therefore, unraveling how HIV compromises the integrity of the oral mucosal tissues and innate immune components of the oral cavity and its association with induction of chronic inflammation are critical for the development of effective preventive interventions and therapeutic strategies. PMID:28326084
Fuster, Antonia; Sauleda, Jaume; Sala, Ernest; Barceló, Bernardí; Pons, Jaume; Carrera, Miguel; Noguera, Aina; Togores, Bernat; Agustí, Alvar GN
Objective Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present systemic inflammation. Strenuous resistive breathing induces systemic inflammation in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the increased respiratory load that characterizes COPD can contribute to systemic inflammation in these patients. Patients and methods To test this hypothesis, we compared leukocyte numbers and levels of circulating cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), before and 1 hour after maximal incremental inspiratory loading in 13 patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 29 ± 2.5% ref) and in 8 healthy sedentary subjects (FEV1 98 ± 5% ref). Results We found that: (1) at baseline, patients with COPD showed higher leukocyte counts and IL-8 levels than controls (p < 0.01); and, (2) one hour after maximal inspiratory loading these values were unchanged, except for IL-10, which increased in controls (p < 0.05) but not in patients with COPD. Conclusions This study confirms the presence of systemic inflammation in COPD, shows that maximal inspiratory loading does not increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8) in COPD patients or controls, but suggests that the former may be unable to mount an appropriate systemic anti-inflammatory response to exercise. PMID:18488438
Yu, Hua; Pardoll, Drew; Jove, Richard
Commensurate with their roles in regulating cytokine-dependent inflammation and immunity, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are central in determining whether immune responses in the tumour microenvironment promote or inhibit cancer. Persistently activated STAT3 and, to some extent, STAT5 increase tumour cell proliferation, survival and invasion while suppressing anti-tumour immunity. The persistent activation of STAT3 also mediates tumour-promoting inflammation. STAT3 has this dual role in tumour inflammation and immunity by promoting pro-oncogenic inflammatory pathways, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)–GP130–Janus kinase (JAK) pathways, and by opposing STAT1- and NF-κB-mediated T helper 1 anti-tumour immune responses. Consequently, STAT3 is a promising target to redirect inflammation for cancer therapy. PMID:19851315
Yu, Hua; Pardoll, Drew; Jove, Richard
Commensurate with their roles in regulating cytokine-dependent inflammation and immunity, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are central in determining whether immune responses in the tumour microenvironment promote or inhibit cancer. Persistently activated STAT3 and, to some extent, STAT5 increase tumour cell proliferation, survival and invasion while suppressing anti-tumour immunity. The persistent activation of STAT3 also mediates tumour-promoting inflammation. STAT3 has this dual role in tumour inflammation and immunity by promoting pro-oncogenic inflammatory pathways, including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-GP130-Janus kinase (JAK) pathways, and by opposing STAT1- and NF-kappaB-mediated T helper 1 anti-tumour immune responses. Consequently, STAT3 is a promising target to redirect inflammation for cancer therapy.
Paddibhatla, Indira; Lee, Mark J.; Govind, Shubha
To counter systemic risk of infection by parasitic wasps, Drosophila larvae activate humoral immunity in the fat body and mount a robust cellular response resulting in encapsulation of the wasp egg. Innate immune reactions are tightly regulated and are resolved within hours. To understand the mechanisms underlying activation and resolution of the egg encapsulation response and examine if failure of the latter develops into systemic inflammatory disease, we correlated parasitic wasp-induced changes in the Drosophila larva with systemic chronic conditions in sumoylation-deficient mutants. We have previously reported that loss of either Cactus, the Drosophila (IκB) protein or Ubc9, the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, leads to constitutive activation of the humoral and cellular pathways, hematopoietic overproliferation and tumorogenesis. Here we report that parasite infection simultaneously activates NF-κB-dependent transcription of Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE) and cactus. Endogenous Spätzle protein (the Toll ligand) is expressed in immune cells and excessive SPE or Spätzle is pro-inflammatory. Consistent with this function, loss of Spz suppresses Ubc9− defects. In contrast to the pro-inflammatory roles of SPE and Spätzle, Cactus and Ubc9 exert an anti-inflammatory effect. We show that Ubc9 maintains steady state levels of Cactus protein. In a series of immuno-genetic experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a robust bidirectional interaction between blood cells and the fat body and propose that wasp infection activates Toll signaling in both compartments via extracellular activation of Spätzle. Within each organ, the IκB/Ubc9-dependent inhibitory feedback resolves immune signaling and restores homeostasis. The loss of this feedback leads to chronic inflammation. Our studies not only provide an integrated framework for understanding the molecular basis of the evolutionary arms race between insect hosts and their parasites, but also offer insights into
Paddibhatla, Indira; Lee, Mark J; Kalamarz, Marta E; Ferrarese, Roberto; Govind, Shubha
To counter systemic risk of infection by parasitic wasps, Drosophila larvae activate humoral immunity in the fat body and mount a robust cellular response resulting in encapsulation of the wasp egg. Innate immune reactions are tightly regulated and are resolved within hours. To understand the mechanisms underlying activation and resolution of the egg encapsulation response and examine if failure of the latter develops into systemic inflammatory disease, we correlated parasitic wasp-induced changes in the Drosophila larva with systemic chronic conditions in sumoylation-deficient mutants. We have previously reported that loss of either Cactus, the Drosophila (IκB) protein or Ubc9, the SUMO-conjugating enzyme, leads to constitutive activation of the humoral and cellular pathways, hematopoietic overproliferation and tumorogenesis. Here we report that parasite infection simultaneously activates NF-κB-dependent transcription of Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE) and cactus. Endogenous Spätzle protein (the Toll ligand) is expressed in immune cells and excessive SPE or Spätzle is pro-inflammatory. Consistent with this function, loss of Spz suppresses Ubc9⁻ defects. In contrast to the pro-inflammatory roles of SPE and Spätzle, Cactus and Ubc9 exert an anti-inflammatory effect. We show that Ubc9 maintains steady state levels of Cactus protein. In a series of immuno-genetic experiments, we demonstrate the existence of a robust bidirectional interaction between blood cells and the fat body and propose that wasp infection activates Toll signaling in both compartments via extracellular activation of Spätzle. Within each organ, the IκB/Ubc9-dependent inhibitory feedback resolves immune signaling and restores homeostasis. The loss of this feedback leads to chronic inflammation. Our studies not only provide an integrated framework for understanding the molecular basis of the evolutionary arms race between insect hosts and their parasites, but also offer insights into
Sina, Christian; Lipinski, Simone; Gavrilova, Olga; Aden, Konrad; Rehman, Ateequr; Till, Andreas; Rittger, Andrea; Podschun, Rainer; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Haesler, Robert; Midtling, Emilie; Pütsep, Katrin; McGuckin, Michael A; Schreiber, Stefan; Saftig, Paul; Rosenstiel, Philip
Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease that has pleiotropic roles in bone resorption, arthritis, atherosclerosis, blood pressure regulation, obesity and cancer. Recently, it was demonstrated that cathepsin K-deficient (Ctsk(-/-) ) mice are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune arthritis and encephalomyelitis, which implies a functional role for cathepsin K in chronic inflammatory responses. Here, the authors address the relevance of cathepsin K in the intestinal immune response during chronic intestinal inflammation. Chronic colitis was induced by administration of 2% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in distilled water. Mice were assessed for disease severity, histopathology and endoscopic appearance. Furthermore, DSS-exposed Ctsk(-/-) mice were treated by rectal administration of recombinant cathepsin K. Intestinal microflora was assessed by real-time PCR and 16srDNA molecular fingerprinting of ileal and colonic mucosal and faecal samples. Using Ctsk(-/-) mice, the authors demonstrate a protective role of cathepsin K against chronic DSS colitis. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms the authors found cathepsin K to be present in intestinal goblet cells and the mucin layer. Furthermore, a direct cathepsin K-mediated bactericidal activity against intestinal bacteria was demonstrated, which potentially explains the alteration of intestinal microbiota observed in Ctsk(-/-) mice. Rectal administration of recombinant cathepsin K in DSS-treated Ctsk(-/-) mice ameliorates the severity of intestinal inflammation. These data identify extracellular cathepsin K as an intestinal antibacterial factor with anti-inflammatory potential and suggest that topical administration of cathepsin K might provide a therapeutic option for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Liu, Wenli; Rodgers, Griffin P
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is an olfactomedin domain-containing glycoprotein. Multiple signaling pathways and factors, including NF-κB, Wnt, Notch, PU.1, retinoic acids, estrogen receptor, and miR-486, regulate its expression. OLFM4 interacts with several other proteins, such as gene associated with retinoic-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), cadherins, lectins, nucleotide oligomerization domain-1 (NOD1) and nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2), and cathepsins C and D, known to regulate important cellular functions. Recent investigations using Olfm4-deficient mouse models have provided important clues about its in vivo biological functions. Olfm4 inhibited Helicobacter pylori-induced NF-κB pathway activity and inflammation and facilitated H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach. Olfm4-deficient mice exhibited enhanced immunity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Olfm4 deletion in a chronic granulomatous disease mouse model rescued them from S. aureus infection. Olfm4 deletion in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate led to robust intestinal inflammation and intestinal crypt hyperplasia. Olfm4 deletion in Apc (Min/+) mice promoted intestinal polyp formation as well as adenocarcinoma development in the distal colon. Further, Olfm4-deficient mice spontaneously developed prostatic epithelial lesions as they age. OLFM4 expression is correlated with cancer differentiation, stage, metastasis, and prognosis in a variety of cancers, suggesting its potential clinical value as an early-stage cancer marker or a therapeutic target. Collectively, these data suggest that OLFM4 plays important roles in innate immunity against bacterial infection, gastrointestinal inflammation, and cancer. In this review, we have summarized OLFM4's initial characterization, expression, regulation, protein interactions, and biological functions.
Downs, Charles A; Faulkner, Melissa Spezia
Diabetes affects at least 382 million people worldwide and the incidence is expected to reach 592 million by 2035. The incidence of diabetes in youth is skyrocketing as evidenced by a 21% increase in type 1 diabetes and a 30.5% increase in type 2 diabetes in the United States between 2001 and 2009. The effects of toxic stress, the culmination of biological and environmental interactions, on the development of diabetes complications is gaining attention. Stress impacts the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and contributes to inflammation, a key biological contributor to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its associated complications. This review provides an overview of common diabetic complications such as neuropathy, cognitive decline, depression, nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. The review also provides a discussion of the role of inflammation and stress in the development and progression of chronic complications of diabetes, associated symptomatology and importance of early identification of symptoms of depression, fatigue, exercise intolerance and pain. PMID:25987953
Beringer, Audrey; Noack, Melissa; Miossec, Pierre
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine which elicits protection against extracellular bacterial and fungal infections and which plays important roles in inflammation. However, when produced in excess, it contributes to chronic inflammation associated with many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. This has made IL-17 an attractive therapeutic target. The present review describes the structure of the IL-17 family, the IL-17 receptor complex, and the cells producing IL-17. The contributions of IL-17 to disease as well as new IL-17-based treatment options are discussed. Finally, the results of IL-17 or IL-17 receptor inhibitors in clinical trials are detailed. With a fruitful outlook, drug registration has now been granted for psoriasis psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and also bears great potential in a growing number of conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kryczek, Ilona; Wu, Ke; Zhao, Ende; Wei, Shuang; Vatan, Linhua; Szeliga, Wojciech; Huang, Emina; Greenson, Joel; Chang, Alfred; Roliński, Jacek; Radwan, Piotr; Fang, Jingyuan; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping
Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells inhibit immune responses and temper inflammation. IL-17(+)CD4(+) T (Th17) cells mediate inflammation of autoimmune diseases. A small population of IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells has been observed in peripheral blood in healthy human beings. However, the biology of IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells remains poorly understood in humans. We investigated their phenotype, cytokine profile, generation, and pathological relevance in patients with ulcerative colitis. We observed that high levels of IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells were selectively accumulated in the colitic microenvironment and associated colon carcinoma. The phenotype and cytokine profile of IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells was overlapping with Th17 and Treg cells. Myeloid APCs, IL-2, and TGF-β are essential for their induction from memory CCR6(+) T cells or Treg cells. IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells functionally suppressed T cell activation and stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in the colitic tissues. Our data indicate that IL-17(+)Foxp3(+) cells may be "inflammatory" Treg cells in the pathological microenvironments. These cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis through inducing inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting local T cell immunity, and in turn may mechanistically link human chronic inflammation to tumor development. Our data therefore challenge commonly held beliefs of the anti-inflammatory role of Treg cells and suggest a more complex Treg cell biology, at least in the context of human chronic inflammation and associated carcinoma.
Huggenberger, Reto; Detmar, Michael
The blood and lymphatic vasculature play an important role in skin homeostasis. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis – the growth of new vessels from existing ones - have received tremendous interest because of their role in promoting cancer spread. However, there is increasing evidence that both vessel types also play a major role in acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Vessels change their phenotype in inflammation (vascular remodeling). In inflamed skin, vascular remodeling consists of a hyperpermeable, enlarged network of vessels with increased blood flow, and influx of inflammatory cells. During chronic inflammation, the activated endothelium expresses adhesion molecules, cytokines, and other molecules that lead to leukocyte rolling, attachment and migration into the skin. Recent studies reveal that inhibition of blood vessel activation exerts potent anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs might be used to treat inflammatory conditions. In particular, topical application of anti-angiogenic drugs might be ideally suited to circumvent the adverse effects of systemic therapy with angiogenesis inhibitors. Our recent results indicate that stimulation of lymphatic vessel growth and function unexpectedly represents a novel approach for treating chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:22076324
Bibi, Fehmida; Yasir, Muhammad; Sohrab, Sayed S; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Kamal, Mohammad A; Naseer, Muhammad I
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of brain that is associated with dementia, brain atrophy, accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and amyloid-beta peptide in hippocampus and cortex region of the brain. The development of AD is a multifactorial process that may also involve infection with bacterial pathogens. Recent studies suggest that bacteria including spirochetes have the potential to initiate cascade of events, leading to inflammatory condition of the central nervous system. Bacteria and spirochetes are activators of proinflammatory cytokines, generate free radicals, nitric oxide and further induction of apoptosis. Infection with these microbes may be considered as a risk factor for pathophysiology of AD or to cognitive changes. Recent studies have revealed that exposure to these microorganisms induces Aβ accumulation and tau protein phosphorylation, and chronic infections with these pathogenic bacteria can possibly contribute to progression of AD. In this article, we update and review the role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of AD resulting from initiation of cascade events in chronic inflammations and amyloidogenesis. Controlling these chronic infections with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory drugs will allow preventing inflammation, a risk factor for AD.
Changing demographics have made aging and age-related chronic diseases an enormous and growing biomedical and societal challenge. The biological processes of aging may involve a role for the gut microbiota. Aspects of host physiology such as immune homeostasis and energy balance are profoundly influenced by the microbiota. Immune dysregulation characterizes old age and constitutes a major pathomechanism underlying frailty and age-associated chronic diseases. A growing body of literature implicates age-related perturbations in the gut microbial ecology as contributing to a global inflammatory state in the elderly. A better understanding of the nature and determinants of the host-microbe relationship in old age has the potential to translate into strategies that promote healthy aging and extend life span. This review summarizes our current understanding of the configuration of the age-related gut microbiota and its likely role in determining the immune phenotype in the elderly. It also highlights the specific components of the microbiota that can be targeted to modulate the age-related chronic inflammation.
Nagaraja, Sridevi; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques; Mitrophanov, Alexander Y
Chronic inflammation is rapidly becoming recognized as a key contributor to numerous pathologies. Despite detailed investigations, understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating inflammation is incomplete. Knowledge of such critical regulatory processes and informative indicators of chronic inflammation is necessary for efficacious therapeutic interventions and diagnostic support to clinicians. We used a computational modeling approach to elucidate the critical factors responsible for chronic inflammation and to identify robust molecular indicators of chronic inflammatory conditions. Our kinetic model successfully captured experimentally observed cell and cytokine dynamics for both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Using sensitivity analysis, we identified macrophage influx and efflux rate modulation as the strongest inducing factor of chronic inflammation for a wide range of scenarios. Moreover, our model predicted that, among all major inflammatory mediators, IL-6, TGF-β, and PDGF may generally be considered the most sensitive and robust indicators of chronic inflammation, which is supported by existing, but limited, experimental evidence.
Pichler, Raimund; Afkarian, Maryam; Dieter, Brad P; Tuttle, Katherine R
Increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes have made diabetic kidney disease (DKD) the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease worldwide. Despite current pharmacological treatments, including strategies for optimizing glycemic control and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, DKD still makes up almost one-half of all cases of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Compelling and mounting evidence has clearly demonstrated that immunity and inflammation play a paramount role in the pathogenesis of DKD. This article reviews the involvement of the immune system in DKD and identifies important roles of key immune and inflammatory mediators. One of the most recently identified biomarkers is serum amyloid A, which appears to be relatively specific for DKD. Novel and evolving treatment approaches target protein kinases, transcription factors, chemokines, adhesion molecules, growth factors, advanced glycation end-products, and other inflammatory molecules. This is the beginning of a new era in the understanding and treatment of DKD, and we may have finally reached a tipping point in our fight against the growing burden of DKD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
KONNAI, Satoru; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko
Recently, dysfunction of antigen-specific T cells is well documented as T-cell exhaustion and has been defined by the loss of effector functions during chronic infections and cancer in human. The exhausted T cells are characterized phenotypically by the surface expression of immunoinhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (Tim-3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). However, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the immunoinhibitory receptors in the fields of veterinary medicine. In particular, very little is known about mechanism of T cell dysfunction in chronic infection in cattle. Recent our studies have revealed that immunoinhibitory molecules including PD-1/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play critical roles in immune exhaustion and disease progression in case of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, Johne’s disease and bovine anaplasmosis. This review includes some recent data from us. PMID:27725355
Mayo, Lior; Cunha, Andre Pires Da; Madi, Asaf; Beynon, Vanessa; Yang, Zhiping; Alvarez, Jorge I.; Prat, Alexandre; Sobel, Raymond A.; Kobzik, Lester; Lassmann, Hans; Quintana, Francisco J.
See Winger and Zamvil (doi:10.1093/brain/aww121) for a scientific commentary on this article. The innate immune system plays a central role in the chronic central nervous system inflammation that drives neurological disability in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis, for which there are no effective treatments. The mucosal immune system is a unique tolerogenic organ that provides a physiological approach for the induction of regulatory T cells. Here we report that nasal administration of CD3-specific antibody ameliorates disease in a progressive animal model of multiple sclerosis. This effect is IL-10-dependent and is mediated by the induction of regulatory T cells that share a similar transcriptional profile to Tr1 regulatory cells and that suppress the astrocyte inflammatory transcriptional program. Treatment results in an attenuated inflammatory milieu in the central nervous system, decreased microglia activation, reduced recruitment of peripheral monocytes, stabilization of the blood–brain barrier and less neurodegeneration. These findings suggest a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of progressive forms of multiple sclerosis and potentially other types of chronic central nervous system inflammation. PMID:27246324
Subramanian, V.; Ramachandran, S.; Banan, B.; Bharat, A.; Wang, X.; Benshoff, N.; Kreisel, D.; Gelman, A. E.; Mohanakumar, T.
Immune responses against lung-associated self-antigens (self-Ags) are hypothesized to play a role in the development of chronic lung graft rejection. We determined whether immune responses to lung self-Ags, K-alpha-1-tubulin (Kα1T) and Collagen V (Col-V) in the absence of alloimmunity, could promote airway inflammation and fibrosis. Following syngeneic murine orthotopic lung transplantation (LTx) we administered antibodies (Abs) to either Kα1T or Col-V or in combination to both of these self-Ags. As compared to recipients of isotype control Abs Kα1T Abs and/or Col-V Abs-treated recipients had marked lung graft cellular infiltration and bronchiolar fibrosis, This inflammation was also associated the accumulation of Kα1T and Col-V specific IFN-γ+ and IL-17+ T cells. Notably, the administration of Abs to Kα1T led to cellular and humoral immune responses to Col-V prior to development of fibrosis, and vice versa, indicating that epitope spreading can occur rapidly in an alloantigen independent manner. Collectively, these data support a model of chronic lung transplant rejection where the progressive loss of self-tolerance through epitope spreading promotes airway fibrosis. Strategies that target autoreactive Abs may be useful to inhibit chronic rejection of lung grafts. PMID:25220332
Veres, Tibor Z; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Braun, Armin
Despite recent advances in the development of anti-asthmatic medication, asthma continues to be a major health problem worldwide. The symptoms of asthmatic patients include wheezing, chest tightness, cough and shortness of breath, which, together with airway hyperresponiveness, previously have been attributed to a dysfunction of airway nerves. However, research in the last two decades identified Th2-sensitization and the subsequent allergic reaction to innocuous environmental antigens as a basic immunological mechanism leading to chronic airway inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that the development of allergic asthma is influenced by events and circumstances in early childhood and even in utero. Allergen, ozone or stress exposure, as well as RSV infection in early life could be able to induce irreversible changes in the developing epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit of the airways. The co-existence of chronic inflammation and neural dysfunction have recently drawn attention to the involvement of interaction pathways between the nervous and the immune system in the airways. Intensive basic research has accumulated morphological as well as functional evidence for the interaction between nerves and immune cells. Neuropeptides and neurotrophins have come into focus of attention as the key mediators of neuro-immune interactions, which lead to the development of several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting these molecules. This review will integrate our current knowledge on the involvement of neuro-immune pathways in asthma on the cellular and molecular level. It will summarize the results of pharmacological studies addressing the potential of neuropeptides and neurotrophins as novel therapeutic targets in asthma.
Chen, S-J; Duan, Y-G; Haidl, G; Allam, J-P
Chronic testicular inflammation and infection have been regarded as important factors in the pathogenesis of azoospermia. As key effector cells in innate and adaptive immune system, mast cells (MCs) were observed in inflammation and autoimmune disease. Furthermore, increased expression of tryptase-positive MCs has been reported in testicular disorders associated with male infertility/subfertility. However, little is known about the potential relationship between MCs and chronic testicular inflammation in azoospermic patients. Moreover, the preferential expression of MCs' subtypes in testis of these patients is still far from being understood. Thus, this study aimed to investigate characteristics of testicular MCs as well as their subtypes in azoospermic men with chronic testicular inflammation (AZI, n = 5) by immunohistochemical techniques. Our results showed significant increase of MCs in AZI, and more importantly, considerable numbers of tryptase-positive/chymase-positive MCs could also be demonstrated in AZI, when compared to control groups representing azoospermia without chronic testicular inflammation (AZW, n = 5) and normal spermatogenesis (NT, n = 5) respectively. Most interestingly, immunofluorescence staining revealed autoimmune-associated interleukin (IL)-17-producing MCs in AZI, whereas co-expression of MC markers with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10 and IL-1β could not be detected. In conclusion, AZI is associated with significant increase of tryptase-positive/chymase-positive MCs expressing IL-17, and these MCs might contribute to the pathogenesis of AZI.
Wu, Jia-Feng; Chang, Mei-Hwei
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in endemic areas usually starts since infancy and early childhood and persists lifelong. The clinical course varies among different chronic infected subjects. Majority of chronic HBV infected children present with immune-tolerant status initially, experience the immune clearance phase with various degree of liver injury during or beyond puberty, and then enter the inactive phase after hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. Part of them may have HBV DNA titers elevation with hepatitis flare after HBeAg seroconversion, the so call HBeAg-negative hepatitis flare. Liver cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma may develop afterward.The complex course of chronic HBV infection is associated with the age/route of viral acquisition, host factors such as immune and endocrine factors, viral factors, and host-viral interactions. The adrenarche and puberty onset modulate the start of immune clearance and the severity of liver inflammation in chronic HBV infected children. The genotype and phenotype of human cytokines, innate immunity, and human leukocyte antigens are also associated with the onset of immune clearance of HBV and severity of inflammation. Immune escape HBV mutant strains, emerged during the immune clearance phase under host immune surveillance, may cause different impacts on viral biosynthesis, host immune responses, and clinical course.Early events in childhood during chronic HBV infection may serve as important predictors for the later outcome in adulthood. Understanding the mechanisms triggering liver inflammation and their long-term impacts may enhance the development of better and earlier therapeutic strategies for patients with chronic HBV infection.
Livingston, Robert S; Myles, Mathew H; Livingston, Beth A; Criley, Jennifer M; Franklin, Craig L
Helicobacter hepaticus is a bacterial pathogen of mice that has been reported to cause chronic intestinal inflammation in A/JCr, germfree Swiss Webster, and immunodeficient mice. To the authors' knowledge, the influence of sex on development of chronic intestinal inflammation in H. hepaticus-infected mice has not been investigated. The purposes of the study reported here were to determine whether severity of intestinal inflammation differs between male and female A/JCr mice chronically infected with H. hepaticus and to characterize the mucosal immune response in these mice. The cecum of male and female A/JCr mice infected with H. hepaticus for 1 month and 3 months was objectively evaluated histologically for intestinal disease. Also, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was done to measure interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) mRNA values in the cecal tissue of these mice. Significant differences in cecal lesion scores were not present at 1 month after infection. However, infected female mice had significantly up-regulated expression of cecal IL-10, MIP-1alpha, IP-10, and MIG mRNA compared with that in uninfected females, and expression of IL-10 and MIP-1alpha was significantly greater than that detected in infected male mice (P < or = 0.05). At 3 months after infection, cecal lesion scores were significantly (P < or = 0.05) increased in female and male mice compared with uninfected controls, and infected female mice had significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher cecal lesion scores than did infected male mice. In addition, infected females had significant (P < or = 0.05) increases in cecal IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10, MIP-1alpha, IP-10, and MIG mRNA values compared with values in uninfected females and infected males
Verinaud, Liana; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Prado, Isabel Cristina Naranjo; Zanucoli, Fábio; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Di Gangi, Rosária; Issayama, Luidy Kazuo; Carvalho, Ana Carolina; Bonfanti, Amanda Pires; Niederauer, Guilherme Francio; Duran, Nelson; Costa, Fábio Trindade Maranhão; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues; Höfling, Maria Alice da Cruz; Machado, Dagmar Ruth Stach; Thomé, Rodolfo
Inflammation is a necessary process to control infection. However, exacerbated inflammation, acute or chronic, promotes deleterious effects in the organism. Violacein (viola), a quorum sensing metabolite from the Gram-negative bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, has been shown to protect mice from malaria and to have beneficial effects on tumors. However, it is not known whether this drug possesses anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated whether viola administration is able to reduce acute and chronic autoimmune inflammation. For that purpose, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 μg of LPS and were treated with viola (3.5mg/kg) via i.p. at the same time-point. Three hours later, the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the sera and phenotypical characterization of leukocytes were determined. Mice treated with viola presented a significant reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines compared with untreated mice. Interestingly, although viola is a compound derived from bacteria, it did not induce inflammation upon administration to naïve mice. To test whether viola would protect mice from an autoimmune inflammation, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)-inflicted mice were given viola i.p. at disease onset, at the 10th day from immunization. Viola-treated mice developed mild EAE disease in contrast with placebo-treated mice. The frequencies of dendritic cells and macrophages were unaltered in EAE mice treated with viola. However, the sole administration of viola augmented the levels of splenic regulatory T cells (CD4+Foxp3+). We also found that adoptive transfer of viola-elicited regulatory T cells significantly reduced EAE. Our study shows, for the first time, that violacein is able to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. Amelioration relied in suppression of cytokine production (in acute inflammation) and stimulation of regulatory T cells (in chronic inflammation). New studies must be conducted in order to
Verinaud, Liana; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Prado, Isabel Cristina Naranjo; Zanucoli, Fábio; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Di Gangi, Rosária; Issayama, Luidy Kazuo; Carvalho, Ana Carolina; Bonfanti, Amanda Pires; Niederauer, Guilherme Francio; Duran, Nelson; Costa, Fábio Trindade Maranhão; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues; Höfling, Maria Alice da Cruz; Machado, Dagmar Ruth Stach; Thomé, Rodolfo
Inflammation is a necessary process to control infection. However, exacerbated inflammation, acute or chronic, promotes deleterious effects in the organism. Violacein (viola), a quorum sensing metabolite from the Gram-negative bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, has been shown to protect mice from malaria and to have beneficial effects on tumors. However, it is not known whether this drug possesses anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated whether viola administration is able to reduce acute and chronic autoimmune inflammation. For that purpose, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 μg of LPS and were treated with viola (3.5mg/kg) via i.p. at the same time-point. Three hours later, the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the sera and phenotypical characterization of leukocytes were determined. Mice treated with viola presented a significant reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines compared with untreated mice. Interestingly, although viola is a compound derived from bacteria, it did not induce inflammation upon administration to naïve mice. To test whether viola would protect mice from an autoimmune inflammation, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)-inflicted mice were given viola i.p. at disease onset, at the 10th day from immunization. Viola-treated mice developed mild EAE disease in contrast with placebo-treated mice. The frequencies of dendritic cells and macrophages were unaltered in EAE mice treated with viola. However, the sole administration of viola augmented the levels of splenic regulatory T cells (CD4+Foxp3+). We also found that adoptive transfer of viola-elicited regulatory T cells significantly reduced EAE. Our study shows, for the first time, that violacein is able to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. Amelioration relied in suppression of cytokine production (in acute inflammation) and stimulation of regulatory T cells (in chronic inflammation). New studies must be conducted in order to
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0388 TITLE: Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients by Genetic and Immune Profiling...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Subgrouping Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients By Genetic And Immune Profiling 5b. GRANT...at the HLA level that makes you more susceptible to have Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) or any differences between the cases and controls. In order
Dada, Tahani; Rosenzweig, Jason M; Al Shammary, Mofeedah; Firdaus, Wance; Al Rebh, Shorouq; Borbiev, Talaibek; Tekes, Aylin; Zhang, Jiangyang; Alqahtani, Eman; Mori, Susumu; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Johnston, Michael V; Burd, Irina
Preterm infants, especially those that are exposed to prenatal intrauterine infection or inflammation, are at a major risk for adverse neurological outcomes, including cognitive, motor and behavioral disabilities. We have previously shown in a mouse model that there is an acute fetal brain insult associated with intrauterine inflammation. The objectives of this study were: (1) to elucidate long-term (into adolescence and adulthood) neurological outcomes by assessing neurobehavioral development, MRI, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry of cells of immune origin and (2) to determine whether there are any sex-specific differences in brain development associated with intrauterine inflammation. Our results have shown that prenatal exposure appeared to lead to changes in MRI and behavior patterns throughout the neonatal period and during adulthood. Furthermore, we observed chronic brain inflammation in the offspring, with persistence of microglial activation and increased numbers of macrophages in the brain, ultimately resulting in neuronal loss. Moreover, our study highlights the sex-specific differences in long-term sequelae. This study, while extending the growing literature of adverse neurologic outcomes following exposure to inflammation during early development, presents novel findings in the context of intrauterine inflammation.
Thabet, Khaled; Asimakopoulos, Anastasia; Shojaei, Maryam; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Mangia, Alessandra; Irving, William L.; Berg, Thomas; Dore, Gregory J.; Grønbæk, Henning; Sheridan, David; Abate, Maria Lorena; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Weltman, Martin; Mollison, Lindsay; Cheng, Wendy; Riordan, Stephen; Fischer, Janett; Spengler, Ulrich; Nattermann, Jacob; Wahid, Ahmed; Rojas, Angela; White, Rose; Douglas, Mark W.; McLeod, Duncan; Powell, Elizabeth; Liddle, Christopher; van der Poorten, David; George, Jacob; Eslam, Mohammed; Gallego-Duran, Rocio; Applegate, Tanya; Bassendine, Margaret; Rosso, Chiara; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Leung, Reynold; Malik, Barbara; Matthews, Gail; Grebely, Jason; Fragomeli, Vincenzo; Jonsson, Julie R.; Santaro, Rosanna
Cirrhosis likely shares common pathophysiological pathways despite arising from a variety of liver diseases. A recent GWAS identified rs641738, a polymorphism in the MBOAT7 locus, as being associated with the development of alcoholic cirrhosis. Here we explore the role of this variant on liver inflammation and fibrosis in two cohorts of patients with chronic hepatitis C. In 2,051 patients, rs641738 associated with severe hepatic inflammation and increased risk of fibrosis, as well as fast fibrosis progression. At functional level, rs641738 associated with MBOAT7 transcript and protein levels in liver and blood, and with serum inflammatory, oxidative stress and macrophage activation markers. MBOAT7 was expressed in immune cell subsets, implying a role in hepatic inflammation. We conclude that the MBOAT7 rs641738 polymorphism is a novel risk variant for liver inflammation in hepatitis C, and thereby for liver fibrosis. PMID:27630043
Ko, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chang, Kuo-Chu
Introduction Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg−1 day−1 lipopolysaccharide) for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (τ) was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. Results Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp). However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered τ. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp. However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in τ. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content. Conclusion Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs. PMID:23874978
Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Maeda, Megumi; Lee, Suni; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Kojima, Yoko; Tabata, Rika; Kishimoto, Takumi; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Otsuki, Takemi
Asbestos causes lung fibrosis known as asbestosis as well as cancers such as malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. Asbestos is a mineral silicate containing iron, magnesium, and calcium with a core of SiO2. The immunological effect of silica, SiO2, involves the dysregulation of autoimmunity because of the complications of autoimmune diseases found in silicosis. Asbestos can therefore cause alteration of immunocompetent cells to result in a decline of tumor immunity. Additionally, due to its physical characteristics, asbestos fibers remain in the lung, regional lymph nodes, and the pleural cavity, particularly at the opening sites of lymphatic vessels. Asbestos can induce chronic inflammation in these areas due to the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. As a consequence, immunocompetent cells can have their cellular and molecular features altered by chronic and recurrent encounters with asbestos fibers, and there may be modification by the surrounding inflammation, all of which eventually lead to decreased tumor immunity. In this paper, the brief results of our investigation regarding reduction of tumor immunity of immunocompetent cells exposed to asbestos in vitro are discussed, as are our findings concerned with an investigation of chronic inflammation and analyses of peripheral blood samples derived from patients with pleural plaque and mesothelioma that have been exposed to asbestos. PMID:22500091
Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli. Hypertension is associated with the infiltration of T cells into the kidney and vasculature, where they release cytokines, including IFN-g, IL-17A, and TNFa, which promote sodium retention, vasoconstriction and oxidative injury. Recently, we have found that angiotensin II has striking effects on dendritic cells (DCs), promoting their propensity to activate T cells. Our data indicate that angiotensin II infusion increases DC superoxide production by 5-fold and causes a striking accumulation isoketals, oxidized products of arachidonic acid in these cells. These form covalent bonds to lysines of proteins and these modified proteins become immunogenic. Several isoketal scavengers, including 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) prevent DC activation, the ability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation and prevent hypertension. This is most prevalent in monocyte-derived DCs that are CD11c/CD11b/MHCII positive. The precise mechanism for formation of these cells is under investigation. A major impetus for immune cell activation seems to be increased sympathetic outflow, stimulated by the central actions of angiotensin II. By lesioning the AV3 V region of the forebrain of mice or inactivating the NADPH oxidase in the subfornical organ using Cre Lox technology, we have prevented the central actions of angiotensin II and found that this inhibits both T cell activation and hypertension. Renal denervation likewise
McPhee, Joseph B; Schertzer, Jonathan D
The bacteria that inhabit us have emerged as factors linking immunity and metabolism. Changes in our microbiota can modify obesity and the immune underpinnings of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. Obesity coincides with a low-level systemic inflammation, which also manifests within metabolic tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. This metabolic inflammation can promote insulin resistance and dysglycaemia. However, the obesity and metabolic disease-related immune responses that are compartmentalized in the intestinal environment do not necessarily parallel the inflammatory status of metabolic tissues that control blood glucose. In fact, a permissive immune environment in the gut can exacerbate metabolic tissue inflammation. Unravelling these discordant immune responses in different parts of the body and establishing a connection between nutrients, immunity and the microbiota in the gut is a complex challenge. Recent evidence positions the relationship between host gut barrier function, intestinal T cell responses and specific microbes at the crossroads of obesity and inflammation in metabolic disease. A key problem to be addressed is understanding how metabolite, immune or bacterial signals from the gut are relayed and transferred into systemic or metabolic tissue inflammation that can impair insulin action preceding Type 2 diabetes. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Valin, Alvaro; Pablos, José L.
Chronic inflammation is a common process connecting pathologies that vary in their etiology and pathogenesis such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infections. The response of the immune system to tissue damage involves a carefully choreographed series of cellular interactions between immune and non-immune cells. In recent years, it has become clear that stromal resident cells have an essential role perpetuating the inflammatory environment and dictating in many cases the outcome of inflammatory based pathologies. Signal transduction pathways remain the main focus of study to understand how stimuli contribute to perpetuating the inflammatory response, mainly due to their potential role as therapeutic targets. However, molecular events orchestrated in the nucleus by transcription factors add additional levels of complexity and may be equally important for understanding the phenotypic differences of activated stromal components during the chronic inflammatory process. In this review, we focus on the contribution of transcription factors to the selective regulation of inducible proinflammatory genes, with special attention given to the regulation of the stromal fibroblastic cell function and response. PMID:26501341
Alboni, Silvia; Benatti, Cristina; Montanari, Claudia; Tascedda, Fabio; Brunello, Nicoletta
To gain insight into the possible immune targets of antidepressant, we evaluated the expression of several inflammatory mediators in the hypothalamus of rats chronically (28 days) treated with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (5mg/kg, i.p.) or the tricyclic compound imipramine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). We focused our attention on the hypothalamus as it plays a key role in determining many of the somatic symptoms experienced by depressed patients. This brain region, critical also for expression of motivated behaviours, participates in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and in stress response as well as coordinates physiological functions such as sleep and food intake that have been found altered in a high percentage of depressed patients. Notably, hypothalamus is a key structure for brain cytokine expression and function as it integrates signals from the neuro, immune, endocrine systems. By means of quantitative Real Time PCR experiments we demonstrated that a chronic treatment with either fluoxetine or imipramine resulted in a reduction of IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNAs and increased IL-4 mRNA expression in the rat hypothalamus. Moreover, we demonstrated that hypothalamic expression of members of IL-18 system was differentially affected by chronic antidepressant treatments. Chronically administered fluoxetine decreased IL-8 and CX3CL1 hypothalamic expression, while a chronic treatment with imipramine decreased p11 mRNA. Our data suggest that a shift in the balance of the inflammation toward an anti-inflammatory state in the hypothalamus may represent a common mechanism of action of both the chronic treatments with fluoxetine and imipramine. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kurmaeva, Elvira; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Goodman, Wendy; Omenetti, Sara; Merendino, Amber; Berney, Seth; Pizarro, Theresa; Ostanin, Dmitry V.
Chronic colitis is accompanied by extensive myelopoiesis and accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells in spleens and secondary lymphoid tissues. Although cells with similar phenotype have been described in cancer, chronic infection, or autoimmunity, where they were associated with suppression of T cell responses, little is known regarding how these cells affect CD4 T cell responses in the context of chronic intestinal inflammation. Therefore, we undertook this study to characterize the interplay between colitis-induced myeloid cells and CD4 T cell. Within the CD11b+Gr-1+ population, only monocytes (Ly6GnegLy6Chigh) but not other myeloid cell subsets suppressed proliferation and production of cytokines by CD4 T cells. Suppression was mediated by cell-contact, NO and partially by IFN-γ and PGs. Interestingly, Ly6Chigh MDCs, isolated from colitic colons, showed up-regulation of iNOS and arginase-1 and were more potent suppressors than those isolated from spleen. On a single-cell level, MDCs inhibited Th1 responses but enhanced generation of foxp3+ T cells. MDCs, cocultured with activated/Teffs, isolated from inflamed colons under hypoxic (1% O2) conditions typical for the inflamed intestine, suppressed proliferation but not their production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Taken together, expansion of monocytes and MDCs and activation of their suppressive properties may represent a homeostatic mechanism aimed at restraining excessive T cell activation during chronic inflammatory settings. The contribution of immunosuppressive monocytes/MDCs to chronic colitis and their role in shaping T cell responses in vivo require further investigation. PMID:24696357
Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Anthony, Desiree; McQualter, Jonathan; Anderson, Gary; Irving, Louis; Steinfort, Daniel
Cigarette smoking has reached epidemic proportions within many regions of the world and remains the highest risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Squamous cell lung cancer is commonly detected in heavy smokers, where the risk of developing lung cancer is not solely defined by tobacco consumption. Although therapies that target common driver mutations in adenocarcinomas are showing some promise, they are proving ineffective in smoking-related squamous cell lung cancer. Since COPD is characterized by an excessive inflammatory and oxidative stress response, this review details how aberrant innate, adaptive and systemic inflammatory processes can contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in COPD. Activated leukocytes release increasing levels of proteases and free radicals as COPD progresses and tertiary lymphoid aggregates accumulate with increasing severity. Reactive oxygen species promote formation of reactive carbonyls that are not only tumourigenic through initiating DNA damage, but can directly alter the function of regulatory proteins involved in host immunity and tumour suppressor functions. Systemic inflammation is also markedly increased during infective exacerbations in COPD and the interplay between tumour-promoting serum amyloid A (SAA) and IL-17A is discussed. SAA is also an endogenous allosteric modifier of FPR2 expressed on immune and epithelial cells, and the therapeutic potential of targeting this receptor is proposed as a novel strategy for COPD-lung cancer overlap.
Ruffin, Nicolas; Thang, Pham Hong; Rethi, Bence; Nilsson, Anna; Chiodi, Francesca
One important pathogenic feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection is chronic immune activation and impaired survival of T and B cells. A decline of resting memory B cells was reported to occur in both children and adults infected with HIV-1; these cells are responsible for maintaining an adequate serological response to antigens previously encountered in life through natural infection or vaccination. Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to impaired B cell differentiation and germinal center reaction might be essential to design new HIV vaccines and therapies that could improve humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals. In the present article we summarize the literature and present our view on critical mechanisms of B cell development impaired during HIV-1 infection. We also discuss the impact of microbial translocation, a driving force for persistent inflammation during HIV-1 infection, on survival of terminally differentiated B cells and how the altered expression of cytokines/chemokines pivotal for communication between T and B cells in lymphoid tissues may impair formation of memory B cells.
Ruffin, Nicolas; Thang, Pham Hong; Rethi, Bence; Nilsson, Anna; Chiodi, Francesca
One important pathogenic feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection is chronic immune activation and impaired survival of T and B cells. A decline of resting memory B cells was reported to occur in both children and adults infected with HIV-1; these cells are responsible for maintaining an adequate serological response to antigens previously encountered in life through natural infection or vaccination. Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to impaired B cell differentiation and germinal center reaction might be essential to design new HIV vaccines and therapies that could improve humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals. In the present article we summarize the literature and present our view on critical mechanisms of B cell development impaired during HIV-1 infection. We also discuss the impact of microbial translocation, a driving force for persistent inflammation during HIV-1 infection, on survival of terminally differentiated B cells and how the altered expression of cytokines/chemokines pivotal for communication between T and B cells in lymphoid tissues may impair formation of memory B cells. PMID:22566879
Madden, Kelley S
This review will highlight recently discovered mechanisms underlying sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation of the immune system in hematopoiesis, thermogenesis, and inflammation. This work in mammals illuminates potential mechanisms by which the nervous and immune systems may interact in invertebrate and early vertebrate species and allow diverse organisms to thrive under varying and extreme conditions and ultimately improve survival.
Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms.
Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms. PMID:27808112
Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An
The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms.
Talero, Elena; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Ávila-Román, Javier; Rodríguez-Luna, Azahara; Alcaide, Antonio; Motilva, Virginia
The risk of onset of cancer is influenced by poorly controlled chronic inflammatory processes. Inflammatory diseases related to cancer development include inflammatory bowel disease, which can lead to colon cancer, or actinic keratosis, associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Chronic inflammatory states expose these patients to a number of signals with tumorigenic effects, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins release and ROS production. In addition, the participation of inflammasomes, autophagy and sirtuins has been demonstrated in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Chemoprevention consists in the use of drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to reduce the risk of developing or having a recurrence of cancer. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have established the potential colon and skin cancer chemopreventive properties of substances from marine environment, including microalgae species and their products (carotenoids, fatty acids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and proteins). This review summarizes the main mechanisms of actions of these compounds in the chemoprevention of these cancers. These actions include suppression of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic responses and increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26437418
Talero, Elena; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Ávila-Román, Javier; Rodríguez-Luna, Azahara; Alcaide, Antonio; Motilva, Virginia
The risk of onset of cancer is influenced by poorly controlled chronic inflammatory processes. Inflammatory diseases related to cancer development include inflammatory bowel disease, which can lead to colon cancer, or actinic keratosis, associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Chronic inflammatory states expose these patients to a number of signals with tumorigenic effects, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins release and ROS production. In addition, the participation of inflammasomes, autophagy and sirtuins has been demonstrated in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Chemoprevention consists in the use of drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to reduce the risk of developing or having a recurrence of cancer. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have established the potential colon and skin cancer chemopreventive properties of substances from marine environment, including microalgae species and their products (carotenoids, fatty acids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and proteins). This review summarizes the main mechanisms of actions of these compounds in the chemoprevention of these cancers. These actions include suppression of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic responses and increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
Radulovic, Miroslav; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill M; LaFountaine, Michael; Kahn, Nighat; Hobson, Joshua; Singh, Kamaldeep; Renzi, Christopher; Yen, Christina; Schilero, Gregory J
In addition to lung volume restriction, individuals with chronic tetraplegia exhibit reduced airway caliber and bronchodilator responsiveness similar to persons with asthma. In asthma, airflow obstruction is closely linked to airway inflammation. Conversely, little is known regarding the airway inflammatory response in tetraplegia. To compare levels of biomarkers of inflammation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and serum in subjects with chronic tetraplegia, mild asthma, and able-bodied controls.Prospective, observational pilot study. Thirty-four subjects participated: tetraplegia (n = 12), asthma (n = 12), controls (n = 10). Biomarkers in EBC [8-isoprostane (8-IP), leukotriene B4 (LT-B4), prostaglandin E2 (PG-E2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6)] and serum (8-IP, LT-B4, TNF-α, IL-6) were determined using commercially available EIA kits (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI). Separate, one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post-hoc analyses were performed to determine group differences in demographic and dependent variables [EBC and serum biomarkers, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), pulmonary function parameters, and specific airway conductance (sGaw)]. The tetraplegia group had significantly elevated 8-IP levels in EBC compared to the asthma (68 ± 38 versus 21 ± 13 pg ml(-1); p < 0.001) and control groups (22 ± 13 pg ml(-1); p < 0.01), respectively. FeNO levels were significantly elevated in the asthma compared to the control group (26 ± 18 versus 11 ± 4 ppb; p < 0.05), and trended higher than levels in the tetraplegia group (15 ± 6; p = 0.08). Levels of serum biomarkers did not differ significantly among groups. Through analysis of EBC, levels of 8-IP were significantly elevated compared to levels found in individuals with mild asthma and healthy controls. Further studies are needed to extend upon these preliminary findings that suggest the presence of airway inflammation in subjects with chronic tetraplegia, and how this
Juvet, Stephen; Scott, Jeremy A.; Chow, Chung-Wai
Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airways hyper-responsiveness (AHR), reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation and remodeling. We previously showed that Syk modulates methacholine-induced airways contractility in naïve mice and in mice with allergic airways inflammation. We hypothesize that Syk plays a role in the pathogenesis of AHR; this was evaluated in a chronic 8-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation. Methods We used the Sykflox/flox//rosa26CreERT2 conditional Syk knock-out mice to assess the role of Syk prior to HDM exposure, and treated HDM-sensitized mice with the Syk inhibitor, GSK143, to evaluate its role in established allergic airways inflammation. Respiratory mechanics and methacholine (MCh)-responsiveness were assessed using the flexiVent® system. Lungs underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to isolate inflammatory cells or were frozen for determination of gene expression in tissues. Results MCh-induced AHR was observed following HDM sensitization in the Syk-intact (Sykflox/flox) and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice. MCh responsiveness was reduced to control levels in HDM-sensitized Sykdel/del mice and in BALB/c and Sykflox/flox mice treated with GSK143. Both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice mounted appropriate immune responses to HDM, with HDM-specific IgE levels that were comparable to Sykflox/flox and vehicle-treated BALB/c mice. HDM-induced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts were attenuated in both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice, due primarily to decreased neutrophil recruitment. Gene expression analysis of lung tissues revealed that HDM-induced expression of IL-17 and CXCL-1 was significantly attenuated in both Sykdel/del and GSK143-treated mice. Conclusion Syk inhibitors may play a role in the management of neutrophilic asthma. PMID:28107345
Kim, Connie J; Walmsley, Sharon L; Raboud, Janet M; Kovacs, Colin; Coburn, Bryan; Rousseau, Rodney; Reinhard, Robert; Rosenes, Ron; Kaul, Rupert
Despite substantial improvements in HIV outcomes with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), morbidity and mortality remain above population norms. The gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored by cART, and the resultant microbial translocation may contribute to chronic inflammation, inadequate CD4 T-cell recovery, and increased rates of serious non-AIDS events. Since the microbial environment surrounding a CD4 T cell may influence its development and function, we hypothesize that probiotics provided during cART might reduce inflammation and improve gut immune health in HIV-positive treatment-naïve individuals (PROOV IT I) and individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery on cART (PROOV IT II). These prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter pilot studies will assess the impact of the probiotic Visbiome at 900 billion bacteria daily. Forty HIV positive cART-naïve men will be randomized in the PROOV IT I study, coincident with antiretroviral initiation, and be followed for 24 weeks. In PROOV IT II, 36 men on cART, but with a CD4 T-cell count below 350 cells/mm(3) will be followed for 48 weeks. The primary outcome for both studies is the comparison of blood CD8 T-cell immune activation. Secondary analyses will include comparison of blood inflammatory biomarkers, microbial translocation, blood and gut immunology and HIV levels, the bacterial community composition, diet, intestinal permeability, and the safety, adherence and tolerability of the study product. These studies will evaluate the ability of probiotics as a safe and tolerable therapeutic intervention to reduce systemic immune activation and to accelerate gut immune restoration in people living with HIV.
Zhong, Zhenyu; Sanchez-Lopez, Elsa; Karin, Michael
Summary Autophagy, a cellular waste disposal process, has well-established tumor suppressive properties. New studies indicate that in addition to its cell autonomous anti-tumorigenic functions, autophagy inhibits cancer development by orchestrating inflammation and immunity. While attenuating tumor-promoting inflammation, autophagy enhances the processing and presentation of tumor antigens and thereby stimulates anti-tumor immunity. Although cancer cells can escape immunosurveillance by tuning down autophagy, certain chemotherapeutic agents with immunogenic properties may enhance anti-tumor immunity by inducing autophagic cell death. Understanding the intricate and complex relationships within this troika and how they are affected by autophagy enhancing drugs should improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27419869
Zhong, Zhenyu; Sanchez-Lopez, Elsa; Karin, Michael
Autophagy, a cellular waste disposal process, has well-established tumor-suppressive properties. New studies indicate that, in addition to its cell-autonomous anti-tumorigenic functions, autophagy inhibits cancer development by orchestrating inflammation and immunity. While attenuating tumor-promoting inflammation, autophagy enhances the processing and presentation of tumor antigens and thereby stimulates anti-tumor immunity. Although cancer cells can escape immunosurveillance by tuning down autophagy, certain chemotherapeutic agents with immunogenic properties may enhance anti-tumor immunity by inducing autophagic cell death. Understanding the intricate and complex relationships within this troika and how they are affected by autophagy enhancing drugs should improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.
Tanabe, Naoya; Hoshino, Yuma; Marumo, Satoshi; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Sato, Susumu; Kinose, Daisuke; Uno, Kazuko; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Yodoi, Junji; Mishima, Michiaki
Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by acute enhancement of airway neutrophilic inflammation under oxidative stress and can be involved in emphysema progression. However, pharmacotherapy against the neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema progression associated with exacerbation has not been established. Thioredoxin-1 has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties and it can ameliorate neutrophilic inflammation through anti-chemotactic effects and prevent cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema. We aimed to determine whether thioredoxin-1 can suppress neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema progression in a mouse model of COPD exacerbation and if so, to reveal the underlying mechanisms. Results Mice were exposed to CS and then challenged with polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], an agonist for virus-induced innate immunity. Airway neutrophilic inflammation, oxidative stress and lung apoptosis were enhanced in smoke-sensitive C57Bl/6, but not in smoke-resistant NZW mice. Exposure to CS and poly(I:C) challenge accelerated emphysema progression in C57Bl/6 mice. Thioredoxin-1 suppressed neutrophilic inflammation and emphysema progression. Poly(I:C) caused early neutrophilic inflammation through keratinocyte-derived chemokine and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release in the lung exposed to CS. Late neutrophilic inflammation was caused by persistent GM-CSF release, which thioredoxin-1 ameliorated. Thioredoxin-1 enhanced pulmonary mRNA expression of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), and the suppressive effects of thioredoxin-1 on prolonged GM-CSF release and late neutrophilic inflammation disappeared by inhibiting MKP-1. Conclusion Using a mouse model of COPD exacerbation, we demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 ameliorated neutrophilic inflammation by suppressing GM-CSF release, which prevented emphysema progression. Our findings deepen understanding of the mechanisms underlying the
Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael
This paper proposes a neuro-immune model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A wide range of immunological and neurological abnormalities have been reported in people suffering from ME/CFS. They include abnormalities in proinflammatory cytokines, raised production of nuclear factor-κB, mitochondrial dysfunctions, autoimmune responses, autonomic disturbances and brain pathology. Raised levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), together with reduced levels of antioxidants are indicative of an immuno-inflammatory pathology. A number of different pathogens have been reported either as triggering or maintaining factors. Our model proposes that initial infection and immune activation caused by a number of possible pathogens leads to a state of chronic peripheral immune activation driven by activated O&NS pathways that lead to progressive damage of self epitopes even when the initial infection has been cleared. Subsequent activation of autoreactive T cells conspiring with O&NS pathways cause further damage and provoke chronic activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. The subsequent upregulation of proinflammatory compounds may activate microglia via the vagus nerve. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines together with raised O&NS conspire to produce mitochondrial damage. The subsequent ATP deficit together with inflammation and O&NS are responsible for the landmark symptoms of ME/CFS, including post-exertional malaise. Raised levels of O&NS subsequently cause progressive elevation of autoimmune activity facilitated by molecular mimicry, bystander activation or epitope spreading. These processes provoke central nervous system (CNS) activation in an attempt to restore immune homeostatsis. This model proposes that the antagonistic activities of the CNS response to peripheral inflammation, O&NS and chronic immune activation are responsible for the remitting-relapsing nature of ME/CFS. Leads for future research are suggested based on this
Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is very poorly understood, particularly it's underlying etiology. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are strongly associated with chronic low grade inflammation, are becoming increasingly understood to underlie a raft of morbid states including upper limb pain syndromes, diabetes (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and central nervous system dysfunction and degeneration. Notwithstanding age, two of the strongest established risk factors for AC are DM and CVD. The hypothesis argues that similar to DM and CVD, the inflammation and capsular fibrosis seen in AC is precipitated by metabolic syndrome and chronic low grade inflammation. These pathophysiological mechanisms are highly likely to be perpetuated by upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, sympathetic dominance of autonomic balance, and neuro-immune activation. The hypothesis predicts and describes how these processes may etiologically underpin and induce each sub-classification of AC. An improved understanding of the etiology of AC may lead to more accurate diagnosis, improved management, treatment outcomes, and reduce or prevent pain, disability and suffering associated with the disease. The paper follows on with a discussion of similarities between the pathophysiology of AC to general systemic inflammatory control mechanisms whereby connective tissue (CT) fibrosis is induced as a storage depot for leukocytes and chronic inflammatory cells. The potential role of hyaluronic acid (HA), the primary component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and CT, in the pathophysiology of AC is also discussed with potential treatment implications. Lastly, a biochemical link between physical and mental health through the ECM is described and the concept of a periventricular-limbic central driver of CT dysfunction is introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xue, Bai; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Nie, Jing; Jusko, William J.; DuBois, Debra C.; Almon, Richard R.
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is progressive and involves multiple tissues. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats are a polygenic model with elevated blood glucose, peripheral insulin resistance, a non-obese phenotype, and exhibit many degenerative changes observed in human T2DM. As part of a systems analysis of disease progression in this animal model, this study characterized the contribution of adipose tissue to pathophysiology of the disease. We sacrificed subgroups of GK rats and appropriate controls at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and carried out a gene array analysis of white adipose tissue. We expanded our physiological analysis of the animals that accompanied our initial gene array study on the livers from these animals. The expanded analysis included adipose tissue weights, HbA1c, additional hormonal profiles, lipid profiles, differential blood cell counts, and food consumption. HbA1c progressively increased in the GK animals. Altered corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin profiles were also documented in GK animals. Gene array analysis identified 412 genes that were differentially expressed in adipose tissue of GKs relative to controls. The GK animals exhibited an age-specific failure to accumulate body fat despite their relatively higher calorie consumption which was well supported by the altered expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of these animals, including Fasn, Acly, Kklf9, and Stat3. Systemic inflammation was reflected by chronically elevated white blood cell counts. Furthermore, chronic inflammation in adipose tissue was evident from the differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and activation of natural immunity, including two interferon regulated genes, Ifit and Iipg, as well as MHC class II genes. This study demonstrates an age specific failure to accumulate adipose tissue in the GK rat and the presence of chronic inflammation in adipose
Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Campbell, Robert A.; Weyrich, Andrew S.
Platelets are chief effector cells in hemostasis. In addition, however, their specializations include activities and intercellular interactions that make them key effectors in inflammation and in the continuum of innate and adaptive immunity. This review focuses on the immune features of human platelets and platelets from experimental animals and on interactions between inflammatory, immune, and hemostatic activities of these anucleate but complex and versatile cells. The experimental findings and evidence for physiologic immune functions include previously unrecognized biologic characteristics of platelets and are paralleled by new evidence for unique roles of platelets in inflammatory, immune, and thrombotic diseases. PMID:21818701
Ioannidou, Anna; Goulielmaki, Evi; Garinis, George A.
To lessen the “wear and tear” of existence, cells have evolved mechanisms that continuously sense DNA lesions, repair DNA damage and restore the compromised genome back to its native form. Besides genome maintenance pathways, multicellular organisms may also employ adaptive and innate immune mechanisms to guard themselves against bacteria or viruses. Recent evidence points to reciprocal interactions between DNA repair, DNA damage responses and aspects of immunity; both self-maintenance and defense responses share a battery of common players and signaling pathways aimed at safeguarding our bodily functions over time. In the short-term, this functional interplay would allow injured cells to restore damaged DNA templates or communicate their compromised state to the microenvironment. In the long-term, however, it may result in the (premature) onset of age-related degeneration, including cancer. Here, we discuss the beneficial and unrewarding outcomes of DNA damage-driven inflammation in the context of tissue-specific pathology and disease progression. PMID:27826317
Haellgren, R.F.; Feltelius, N.; Garcia, R.; Venge, P.; Lindh, U. )
The mass fraction of certain elements was measured in isolated granulocytes and isolated granulocyte granule fractions from patients with active inflammatory arthritides (N = 6) and healthy controls (N = 6). The patients had significantly increased amounts of Ca in the granulocytes, in the specific and light azurophil granules, but normal Ca amounts in the dense azurophil granules. Sr was below the detection limit in the granulocytes and granule fraction from controls, but it appeared in high concentrations in the granulocytes and all granule fractions from the patients. The patients had considerably increased granulocyte amounts of Mn but only slightly increased Mn concentrations in the specific granules. Mn was not detectable in azurophil granules from patients and controls. A prominent accumulation of Fe was seen in the granulocytes from the patients, together with an Fe accumulation in the specific granules. Fe was below the detection limit in azurophil granules from patients and controls. The patients had reduced granulocyte Zn and reduced amounts of Zn in the dense and light azurophil granules but normal Zn amounts in the specific granules. The results obtained indicate that the granulocyte accumulation of Ca, Sr, and Fe observed during chronic inflammation is associated with corresponding granule accumulation of these metals; the considerable Mn accumulation in granulocytes during inflammation is not localized in their granules; and the granule subpopulations differ in their capacity to store certain metals.
Chen, J; Winston, J H; Sarna, S K
The role of inflammation in inducing visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in ulcerative colitis patients remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute ulcerative colitis-like inflammation does not induce VHS. However, it sets up molecular conditions such that chronic stress following inflammation exaggerates single-unit afferent discharges to colorectal distension. We used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce ulcerative colitis-like inflammation and a 9-day heterotypic chronic stress protocol in rats. DSS upregulated Nav1.8 mRNA in colon-responsive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, TRPV1 in colonic muscularis externae (ME) and BDNF in spinal cord without affecting the spike frequency in spinal afferents or VMR to CRD. By contrast, chronic stress did not induce inflammation but it downregulated Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 mRNA in DRG neurons, and upregulated TRPA1 and nerve growth factor in ME, which mediated the increase of spike frequency and VMR to CRD. Chronic stress following inflammation exacerbated spike frequency in spinal afferent neurons. TRPA1 antagonist suppressed the sensitization of afferent neurons. DSS-inflammation did not affect the composition or excitation thresholds of low-threshold and high-threshold fibers. Chronic stress following inflammation increased the percent composition of high-threshold fibers and lowered the excitation threshold of both types of fibers. We conclude that not all types of inflammation induce VHS, whereas chronic stress induces VHS in the absence of inflammation.
Objective: Green tea proposes anti-inflammatory properties which may attenuate chronic inflammation-induced fibrosis of vessels. This study evaluated whether green tea polyphenols (GTP) can avert fibrosis or vascular disruption along with mechanisms in rats with chronic inflammation. Treatments: Fo...
Talero, Elena; Ávila-Roman, Javier; Motilva, Virginia
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by deregulated immune responses in a genetically predisposed individual. This is a complex process mediated by cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, cytoplasm nuclear receptors, among others. Recent data support a participation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in IBD. Moreover, now it is evident that chronic degenerative pathologies, including IBD, share comparable disease mechanisms at the cellular level with alteration of the autophagy mechanisms. Mounting evidence suggests that the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) is dramatically increased in patients with chronic inflammatory disease. Chronic inflammation in IBD exposes these patients to a number of signals known to have tumorigenic effects including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Chemoprevention consists in the use of drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to reduce the risk of developing, or having a recurrence of cancer. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have established the potential colon cancer chemopreventive properties of phytochemicals derived from both plants (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin or genistein) and substances from marine environment, including microalgae species and their products. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which these naturally occurring compounds may mediate chemopreventive effects on cancer. These actions include induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, stimulation of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic responses and increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.
The effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and exercise training on carcinogenesis were examined in adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasma (APC Min+/-) mice, a genetic strain which is predisposed to developing adenomatous polyposis. The mice were randomized to one of four 11 week treatments in a 2×2 design involving sleep restriction (by 4 h/day) vs. normal sleep and exercise training (1 h/day) vs. sedentary control. Wild-type control mice underwent identical experimental treatments. Compared with the wild-type mice, APC Min+/- mice had disrupted hematology and enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production from peritoneal exudate cells. Among the APC Min+/- mice, consistent interactions of sleep loss and exercise were found for measures of polyp formation, inflammation, and hematology. Sleep loss had little effect on these variables under sedentary conditions, but sleep loss had clear detrimental effects under exercise conditions. Exercise training resulted in improvements in these measures under normal sleep conditions, but exercise tended to elicit no effect or to exacerbate the effects of sleep restriction. Significant correlations of inflammation with polyp burden were observed. Among wild-type mice, similar, but less consistent interactions of sleep restriction and exercise were found. These data suggest that the benefits of exercise on carcinogenesis and immune function were impaired by chronic moderate sleep restriction, and that harmful effects of sleep restriction were generally realized only in the presence of exercise. PMID:22433899
Levy, Olivier; Calippe, Bertrand; Lavalette, Sophie; Hu, Shulong J; Raoul, William; Dominguez, Elisa; Housset, Michael; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Combadiere, Christophe; Guillonneau, Xavier; Sennlaub, Florian
Physiologically, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses immunosuppressive signals such as FAS ligand (FASL), which prevents the accumulation of leukocytes in the subretinal space. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a breakdown of the subretinal immunosuppressive environment and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We show that subretinal MPs in AMD patients accumulate on the RPE and express high levels of APOE. MPs of Cx3cr1−/− mice that develop MP accumulation on the RPE, photoreceptor degeneration, and increased choroidal neovascularization similarly express high levels of APOE. ApoE deletion in Cx3cr1−/− mice prevents pathogenic age- and stress-induced subretinal MP accumulation. We demonstrate that increased APOE levels induce IL-6 in MPs via the activation of the TLR2-CD14-dependent innate immunity receptor cluster. IL-6 in turn represses RPE FasL expression and prolongs subretinal MP survival. This mechanism may account, in part, for the MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1−/− mice. Our results underline the inflammatory role of APOE in sterile inflammation in the immunosuppressive subretinal space. They provide rationale for the implication of IL-6 in AMD and open avenues toward therapies inhibiting pathogenic chronic inflammation in late AMD. PMID:25604058
Barone, Francesca; Gardner, David H; Nayar, Saba; Steinthal, Nathalie; Buckley, Christopher D; Luther, Sanjiv A
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are organized aggregates of lymphocytes, myeloid, and stromal cells that provide ectopic hubs for acquired immune responses. TLS share phenotypical and functional features with secondary lymphoid organs (SLO); however, they require persistent inflammatory signals to arise and are often observed at target sites of autoimmune disease, chronic infection, cancer, and organ transplantation. Over the past 10 years, important progress has been made in our understanding of the role of stromal fibroblasts in SLO development, organization, and function. A complex and stereotyped series of events regulate fibroblast differentiation from embryonic life in SLOs to lymphoid organ architecture observed in adults. In contrast, TLS-associated fibroblasts differentiate from postnatal, locally activated mesenchyme, predominantly in settings of inflammation and persistent antigen presentation. Therefore, there are critical differences in the cellular and molecular requirements that regulate SLO versus TLS development that ultimately impact on stromal and hematopoietic cell function. These differences may contribute to the pathogenic nature of TLS in the context of chronic inflammation and malignant transformation and offer a window of opportunity for therapeutic interventions in TLS associated pathologies.
Barone, Francesca; Gardner, David H.; Nayar, Saba; Steinthal, Nathalie; Buckley, Christopher D.; Luther, Sanjiv A.
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are organized aggregates of lymphocytes, myeloid, and stromal cells that provide ectopic hubs for acquired immune responses. TLS share phenotypical and functional features with secondary lymphoid organs (SLO); however, they require persistent inflammatory signals to arise and are often observed at target sites of autoimmune disease, chronic infection, cancer, and organ transplantation. Over the past 10 years, important progress has been made in our understanding of the role of stromal fibroblasts in SLO development, organization, and function. A complex and stereotyped series of events regulate fibroblast differentiation from embryonic life in SLOs to lymphoid organ architecture observed in adults. In contrast, TLS-associated fibroblasts differentiate from postnatal, locally activated mesenchyme, predominantly in settings of inflammation and persistent antigen presentation. Therefore, there are critical differences in the cellular and molecular requirements that regulate SLO versus TLS development that ultimately impact on stromal and hematopoietic cell function. These differences may contribute to the pathogenic nature of TLS in the context of chronic inflammation and malignant transformation and offer a window of opportunity for therapeutic interventions in TLS associated pathologies. PMID:27877173
Lee, Do Yeon; Choo, Byung Kil; Yoon, Taesook; Cheon, Myeong Sook; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, A Yeong; Kim, Ho Kyoung
Although Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (Liliaceae) has long been used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, the underlying mechanism(s) by which these effects are induced remains to be defined. We investigated the effects of 70% ethanolic extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill (ACE) on skin inflammation in mice. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta), activation of myeloperoxidase, and histological assessment were examined in acute and chronic skin inflammation using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema. We also performed acetic acid-induced vascular permeability test. ACE inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear, following administration at 200mg/kg (i.p.), leading to substantial reductions in skin thickness and tissue weight, inflammatory cytokine production, neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and various histopathological indicators. Furthermore, ACE was effective at reducing inflammatory damage induced by chronic TPA exposure and evoked a significant inhibition of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice. These results demonstrate that ACE is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis, and suggest that the compound may have therapeutic potential in a variety of immune-related cutaneous diseases.
Schmidt, D V; Schmagel; Mozgovaia, L A; Beliaeva, O V
The aim of this work was the determination of the state of local immunity in periodontal complex in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP). 96 individuals were examined (mean age 43.6+/-1.2 years). All the patients were divided into 2 groups: basic group with CGP patients (76 persons) and comparative group - individuals with intact periodontium (20 persons). To evaluate local immunity in dentogingival fluids the determination of concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA immunoglobulins has been used, as well as TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, INF-gamma, IL-1ra, IL-10, and IL-4 cytokines, and also factors controlling the state of bone tissue, namely, osteoprotegerine (OPG), and RANK-ligand. In gingival fluid of CGP patients the increase in both pro-, and anti-inflammatory mediators with indication to Th2-deviation (decrease of INF-gamma level and elevation of IL-4 level) was observed. CGP patients exhibited in their periodontal complex marked increase of IgG, IgM, and IgA concentrations that apparently evidenced to the consequence of local polyclonal activation of B-lymphocytes. Gingival fluid of CGP patients showed the elevation of RANKL, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 levels, and the decrease in OPG concentration that could be the reason for osteoclast activation and subsequent destruction of bone tissue. In case of CGP in the zone of periodontium developed
Thomson, John C
Chronic inflammation is not an infrequent histologic finding in symptomatic gynecologic patients. It is present in 14.6% of peritoneal biopsies in women with chronic pelvic pain in whom no other cause of pain is evident. It is found in almost all vaginal biopsies in noninfected women with dyspareunia and discharge of vaginal mucosal origin. It represents a local immunologically activated inflammatory disorder. When investigations are car ried out as to whether it is a local representation of a systemic disorder, numerous systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders are discovered. A study of chronic pain reveals that the immune system is intimately involved in the production, conduction and exacerbation of pain and of its clinicalfeatures, such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Immune modification using local steroids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, are known to inhibit inflammatory cells and cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor, which are responsible for pain and tissue damage. These drugs are found to be effective in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain when of an inflammatory nature and for symptomatic chronic inflammation of the vagina.
Subramanian, Manikandan; Ozcan, Lale; Ghorpade, Devram Sampat; Ferrante, Anthony W.; Tabas, Ira
Obesity-induced inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a major contributor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whereas innate immune cells, notably macrophages, contribute to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation and insulin resistance, the role of adaptive immunity is less well defined. To address this critical gap, we used a model in which endogenous activation of T cells was suppressed in obese mice by blocking MyD88-mediated maturation of CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. VAT CD11c+ cells from Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control Myd88fl/fl mice were defective in activating T cells in vitro, and VAT T and B cell activation was markedly reduced in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl obese mice. However, neither macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation nor systemic inflammation were altered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl mice, thereby enabling a focused analysis on adaptive immunity. Unexpectedly, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and the glucose response to glucose and insulin were completely unaltered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control obese mice. Thus, CD11c+ cells activate VAT T and B cells in obese mice, but suppression of this process does not have a discernible effect on macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation or systemic glucose homeostasis. PMID:26317499
Gold, Stefan M; Irwin, Michael R
An increasing body of evidence suggests that patients who have major depressive disorder show alterations in immunologic markers including increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and inflammation. Inflammation of the central nervous system is a pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients affected by this disease also show a high incidence of depression. Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggests that some aspects of depression and fatigue in MS may be linked to inflammatory markers. This article reviews the current knowledge in the field and illustrates how the sickness behavior model may be applied to investigate depressive symptoms in inflammatory neurologic diseases.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with dementia, brain atrophy and the aggregation and accumulation of a cortical amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). Chronic bacterial infections are frequently associated with amyloid deposition. It had been known from a century that the spirochete Treponema pallidum can cause dementia in the atrophic form of general paresis. It is noteworthy that the pathological hallmarks of this atrophic form are similar to those of AD. Recent observations showed that bacteria, including spirochetes contain amyloidogenic proteins and also that Abeta deposition and tau phosphorylation can be induced in or in vivo following exposure to bacteria or LPS. Bacteria or their poorly degradable debris are powerful inflammatory cytokine inducers, activate complement, affect vascular permeability, generate nitric oxide and free radicals, induce apoptosis and are amyloidogenic. All these processes are involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Old and new observations, reviewed here, indicate that to consider the possibility that bacteria, including several types of spirochetes highly prevalent in the population at large or their persisting debris may initiate cascade of events leading to chronic inflammation and amyloid deposition in AD is important, as appropriate antibacterial and antiinflammatory therapy would be available to prevent dementia.
Pittock, Sean J; Debruyne, Jan; Krecke, Karl N; Giannini, Caterina; van den Ameele, Jelle; De Herdt, Veerle; McKeon, Andrew; Fealey, Robert D; Weinshenker, Brian G; Aksamit, Allen J; Krueger, Bruce R; Shuster, Elizabeth A; Keegan, B Mark
The classification and pathological mechanisms of many central nervous system inflammatory diseases remain uncertain. In this article we report eight patients with a clinically and radiologically distinct pontine-predominant encephalomyelitis we have named 'chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids' (CLIPPERS). The patients were assessed clinically, radiologically and pathologically at Mayo Clinic, USA and Ghent University Hospital, Belgium from 1999 to 2009. Median follow-up duration from clinical onset was 22 months (range 7-144 months). Patients underwent extensive laboratory (serum and cerebrospinal fluid), radiological and pathological testing (conjunctival, transbronchial and brain biopsies) to search for causes of an inflammatory central nervous system disorder. All eight patients (five female, three male) presented with episodic diplopia or facial paresthesias with subsequent brainstem and occasionally myelopathic symptoms and had a favourable initial response to high dose glucocorticosteroids. All patients had symmetric curvilinear gadolinium enhancement peppering the pons and extending variably into the medulla, brachium pontis, cerebellum, midbrain and occasionally spinal cord. Radiological improvement accompanied clinical response to glucocorticosteroids. Patients routinely worsened following glucocorticosteroid taper and required chronic glucocorticosteroid or other immunosuppressive therapy. Neuropathology of biopsy material from four patients demonstrated white matter perivascular, predominantly T lymphocytic, infiltrate without granulomas, infection, lymphoma or vasculitis. Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids is a definable, chronic inflammatory central nervous system disorder amenable to immunosuppressive treatment. The T cell predominant inflammatory pathology in affected central nervous system lesions and the clinical and radiological
Gardini, Andrea Casadei; Scarpi, Emanuela; Faloppi, Luca; Scartozzi, Mario; Silvestris, Nicola; Santini, Daniele; de Stefano, Giorgio; Marisi, Giorgia; Negri, Francesca V.; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Valgiusti, Martina; Ercolani, Giorgio; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca
We evalueted a systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with the aim to explored their prognostic value in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with sorafenib. 56 advanced HCC patients receiving sorafenib were available for our analysis. Lymphocyte, neutrophil and platelet were measured before beginning of treatment and after one month. Patient with SII ≥ 360 showed lower median PFS (2.6 vs. 3.9 months, P < 0.026) and OS (5.6 vs. 13.9 months, P = 0.027) with respect to patients with SII < 360. NLR ≥ 3 had a lower median PFS (2.6 vs. 3.3 months, P < 0.049) but not OS (5.6 vs. 13.9 months, P = 0.062) than those with NLR < 3. After adjusting for clinical covariates SII and NLR remained an independent prognostic factor for OS. The SII and NLR represent potential prognostic indicator in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. PMID:27613839
Belkaid, Yasmine; Hand, Timothy
The microbiota plays a fundamental role on the induction, training and function of the host immune system. In return, the immune system has largely evolved as a means to maintain the symbiotic relationship of the host with these highly diverse and evolving microbes. When operating optimally this immune system–microbiota alliance allows the induction of protective responses to pathogens and the maintenance of regulatory pathways involved in the maintenance of tolerance to innocuous antigens. However, in high-income countries overuse of antibiotics, changes in diet, and elimination of constitutive partners such as nematodes has selected for a microbiota that lack the resilience and diversity required to establish balanced immune responses. This phenomenon is proposed to account for some of the dramatic rise in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in parts of the world where our symbiotic relationship with the microbiota has been the most affected. PMID:24679531
Tian, Dongping; Lei, Zhijin; Chen, Donglin; Xu, Zexin; Su, Min
Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk of cancer development, whereas the link between chronic inflammation and esophageal carcinogenesis is still obscure heretofore. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chronic inflammation and DNA damage, as well as the possible role of DNA damage in esophageal carcinogenic process. Endoscopic esophageal biopsies from 109 individuals from Chaoshan littoral, a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), were examined to evaluate the association between chronic inflammation and histological severity, while additional 204 esophageal non-tumor samples from patients with ESCC were collected. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the oxidative DNA damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Significantly positive correlation was observed between degree of chronic inflammation and esophageal precursor lesions (rs = 0.37, P < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that oxidative DNA damage level was positively correlated with the degree of chronic inflammation (rs = 0.21, P < 0.05). Moreover, the level of oxidative DNA damage positively correlated with histological severity (rs = 0.49, P < 0.01). We found that the extent of DSBs was progressively increased with inflammation degree (P < 0.01) and the progression of precancerous lesions (P < 0.001). Collectively, these findings provide evidence linking chronic inflammation-associated genomic instability with esophageal carcinogenesis and suggest possibilities for early detection and intervention of esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:27028857
Carvalho, Frederic A; Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia K; Johansson, Malin E V; Nalbantoglu, Ilke; Aitken, Jesse D; Su, Yueju; Chassaing, Benoit; Walters, William A; González, Antonio; Clemente, Jose C; Cullender, Tyler C; Barnich, Nicolas; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Knight, Rob; Ley, Ruth E; Gewirtz, Andrew T
Colitis results from breakdown of homeostasis between intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system, with both environmental and genetic influencing factors. Flagellin receptor TLR5-deficient mice (T5KO) display elevated intestinal proinflammatory gene expression and colitis with incomplete penetrance, providing a genetically sensitized system to study the contribution of microbiota to driving colitis. Both colitic and noncolitic T5KO exhibited transiently unstable microbiotas, with lasting differences in colitic T5KO, while their noncolitic siblings stabilized their microbiotas to resemble wild-type mice. Transient high levels of proteobacteria, especially enterobacteria species including E. coli, observed in close proximity to the gut epithelium were a striking feature of colitic microbiota. A Crohn's disease-associated E. coli strain induced chronic colitis in T5KO, which persisted well after the exogenously introduced bacterial species had been eliminated. Thus, an innate immune deficiency can result in unstable gut microbiota associated with low-grade inflammation, and harboring proteobacteria can drive and/or instigate chronic colitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It has been speculated that the rise of the adaptive immune system in jawed vertebrates some 400 million years ago gave them a superior protection to detect and defend against pathogens that became more elusive and/or virulent to the host that had only innate immune system. First, this line of thought implies that adaptive immune system was a new, more sophisticated layer of host defense that operated independently of the innate immune system. Second, the natural consequence of this scenario would be that pathogens would have exercised so strong an evolutionary pressure that eventually no host could have afforded not to have an adaptive immune system. Neither of these arguments is supported by the facts. First, new experimental evidence has firmly established that operation of adaptive immune system is critically dependent on the ability of the innate immune system to detect invader-pathogens and second, the absolute majority of animal kingdom survives just fine with only an innate immune system. Thus, these data raise the dilemma: If innate immune system was sufficient to detect and protect against pathogens, why then did adaptive immune system develop in the first place? In contrast to the innate immune system, the adaptive immune system has one important advantage, precision. By precision I mean the ability of the defense system to detect and remove the target, for example, infected cells, without causing unwanted bystander damage of surrounding tissue. While the target precision per se is not important for short-term immune response, it becomes a critical factor when the immune response is long-lasting, as during chronic infection. In this paper I would like to propose new, "toxic index" hypothesis where I argue that the need to reduce the collateral damage to the tissue during chronic infection(s) was the evolutionary pressure that led to the development of the adaptive immune system.
Nurden, Alan T
While platelets have long been known to be essential for maintaining hemostasis in the vasculature, their role in tissue repair, inflammation and innate and adaptive immunity is a more recent science. The ability of platelets to attach to the vessel wall, form aggregates and promote fibrin formation, key elements of blood clotting, has been said to both favor and dampen inflammation, to fight infection and to assure an adequate immune response. To fulfill their different roles platelets often synchronize with leukocytes and cells of the immune system. But just as the molecular pathways of platelets in preventing blood loss can lead to arterial thrombosis and stroke if occurring in an uncontrolled manner, the failure to control inflammation can lead to sepsis and inadequate platelet function and can aggravate many major illnesses. This review is aimed to present a global picture of multifaceted platelet biology and platelet involvement in selected non-hemostatic events.
Merchant, Juanita L; Ding, Lin
Since its initial discovery in Drosophila, Hedgehog (HH) signaling has long been associated with foregut development. The mammalian genome expresses 3 HH ligands, with sonic hedgehog (SHH) levels highest in the mucosa of the embryonic foregut. More recently, interest in the pathway has shifted to improving our understanding of its role in gastrointestinal cancers. The use of reporter mice proved instrumental in our ability to probe the expression pattern of SHH ligand and the cell types responding to canonical HH signaling during homeostasis, inflammation, and neoplastic transformation. SHH is highly expressed in parietal cells and is required for these cells to produce gastric acid. Furthermore, myofibroblasts are the predominant cell type responding to HH ligand in the uninfected stomach. Chronic infection caused by Helicobacter pylori and associated inflammation induces parietal cell atrophy and the expansion of metaplastic cell types, a precursor to gastric cancer in human subjects. During Helicobacter infection in mice, canonical HH signaling is required for inflammatory cells to be recruited from the bone marrow to the stomach and for metaplastic development. Specifically, polarization of the invading myeloid cells to myeloid-derived suppressor cells requires the HH-regulated transcription factor GLI1, thereby creating a microenvironment favoring wound healing and neoplastic transformation. In mice, GLI1 mediates the phenotypic shift to gastric myeloid-derived suppressor cells by directly inducing Schlafen 4 (slfn4). However, the human homologs of SLFN4, designated SLFN5 and SLFN12L, also correlate with intestinal metaplasia and could be used as biomarkers to predict the subset of individuals who might progress to gastric cancer and benefit from treatment with HH antagonists.
Johnson, Gerhard J.; Slater, Billie C. S.; Leis, Linda A.; Rector, Thomas S.; Bach, Ronald R.
Background More than twenty years following the end of the 1990–1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research. Objective This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI. Design A surveillance study of 85 Gulf War Veteran volunteers identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs Minnesota Gulf War registry was performed. All subjects were deployed to the Gulf War. Fifty seven subjects had GWI defined by CDC criteria, and 28 did not have symptomatic criteria for a diagnosis of GWI. Statistical analyses were performed on peripheral blood counts and assays of 61 plasma proteins using the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to compare biomarker distributions and stepwise logistic regression to formulate a diagnostic model. Results Lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were higher in GWI subjects. Six serum proteins associated with inflammation were significantly different in GWI subjects. A diagnostic model of three biomarkers—lymphocytes, monocytes, and C reactive protein—had a predicted probability of 90% (CI 76–90%) for diagnosing GWI when the probability of having GWI was above 70%. Significance The results of the current study indicate that inflammation is a component of the pathobiology of GWI. Analysis of the data resulted in a model utilizing three readily measurable biomarkers that appears to significantly augment the symptom-based case definition of GWI. These new observations are highly relevant to the diagnosis of GWI, and to therapeutic trials. PMID:27352030
Shahani, Lokesh; Hamill, Richard J
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is characterized by improvement in a previously incompetent human immune system manifesting as worsening of clinical symptoms secondary to the ability of the immune system to now mount a vigorous inflammatory response. IRIS was first recognized in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus, and this clinical setting continues to be where it is most frequently encountered. Hallmarks of the pathogenesis of IRIS, independent of the clinical presentation and the underlying pathogen, include excessive activation of the immune system, with increased circulating effector memory T cells, and elevated levels of serum cytokines and inflammatory markers. Patients with undiagnosed opportunistic infections remain at risk for unmasking IRIS at the time of active antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Systematic screening for opportunistic infections before starting ART is a key element to prevent this phenomenon. Appropriate management of IRIS requires prompt recognition of the syndrome and exclusion of alternative diagnoses, particularly underlying infections and drug resistance. Controlled studies supporting the use of pharmacologic interventions in IRIS are scare, and recommendations are based on case series and expert opinions. The only controlled trial published to date, showed reduction in morbidity in patients with paradoxical tuberculosis-related IRIS with the use of oral corticosteroids. There are currently limited data to recommend other anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory therapies that are discussed in this review, and further research is needed. Ongoing research regarding the immune pathogenesis of IRIS will likely direct future rational therapeutic approaches and clinical trials. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Prendergast, Andrew J.; Rukobo, Sandra; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Jones, Andrew; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Humphrey, Jean H.
associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy and that low-grade chronic inflammation may impair infant growth. PMID:24558364
treatment with LPS in humans . Urine samples collected from humans receiving a small dose of LPS (or control) were subjected to discrimination tasks by...a human sensory panel as well as chemical analyses. Both assays suggested that treatment with LPS results in a detectable alteration of urine...volatiles. From these experiments, we conclude that LPS-induced inflammation alters urine in both mice and humans . Furthermore, these changes can be
Khokha, Rama; Murthy, Aditya; Weiss, Ashley
Over the past 50 years, steady growth in the field of metalloproteinase biology has shown that the degradation of extracellular matrix components represents only a fraction of the functions performed by these enzymes and has highlighted their fundamental roles in immunity. Metalloproteinases regulate aspects of immune cell development, effector function, migration and ligand-receptor interactions. They carry out ectodomain shedding of cytokines and their cognate receptors. Together with their endogenous inhibitors TIMPs (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases), these enzymes regulate signalling downstream of the tumour necrosis factor receptor and the interleukin-6 receptor, as well as that downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor and Notch, which are all pertinent for inflammatory responses. This Review discusses the metalloproteinase family as a crucial component in immune cell development and function.
IL-10, TGFβ; colitis; intestinal inflammation; immunosuppression 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...inflammatory bowel disease; mesenchymal stem cells; Tregs; IL-10, TGFβ; colitis; intestinal inflammation; immuno-suppression; 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Major Goals
Periodontitis is a dysbiotic inflammatory disease with an adverse impact on systemic health. Recent studies have provided insights into the emergence and persistence of dysbiotic oral microbial communities, which can mediate inflammatory pathology at local as well as distant sites. This Review discusses mechanisms of microbial immune subversion that tip the balance from homeostasis to disease in oral or extraoral sites. PMID:25534621
DeNardo, David G; Coussens, Lisa M
Recent insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer development have revealed that immune cells functionally regulate epithelial cancer development and progression. Moreover, accumulated clinical and experimental data indicate that the outcome of an immune response toward an evolving breast neoplasm is largely determined by the type of immune response elicited. Acute tumor-directed immune responses involving cytolytic T lymphocytes appear to protect against tumor development, whereas immune responses involving chronic activation of humoral immunity, infiltration by Th2 cells, and protumor-polarized innate inflammatory cells result in the promotion of tumor development and disease progression. Herein we review this body of literature and summarize important new findings revealing the paradoxical role of innate and adaptive leukocytes as regulators of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:17705880
Alexander, Margaret; O'Connell, Ryan M
Inflammatory responses are essential for the clearance of pathogens and the repair of injured tissues; however, if these responses are not properly controlled chronic inflammation can occur. Chronic inflammation is now recognized as a contributing factor to many age-associated diseases including metabolic disorders, arthritis, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease. Due to the connection between chronic inflammation and these diseases, it is essential to understand underlying mechanisms behind this process. In this review, factors that contribute to chronic inflammation are discussed. Further, we emphasize the emerging roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and other noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) in regulating chronic inflammatory states, making them important future diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.
Dougan, Michael; Dranoff, Glenn
Mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity play a pivotal role in the development of cancer. Chronic inflammation can drive tumor development, but antitumor immunity can also restrict or even prevent tumor growth. New data show that feed-forward signals downstream of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) can fuel chronic inflammation, creating a microenvironment that is ideal for tumor formation.
Koelwyn, Graeme J.; Wennerberg, Erik; Demaria, Sandra; Jones, Lee W.
Pharmacologic manipulation of the immune system is emerging as a viable and robust treatment for some cancer patients. Exercise-induced modulation of the immune system may be another adjunctive strategy for inhibiting tumor initiation and progression. In healthy individuals, exercise has been shown to modulate a number of cell subsets involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge pertaining to exercise modulation of the inflammation-immune axis in cancer. The current evidence suggests that exercise may be a promising adjunctive strategy that can favorably alter numerous components of the immune system, which, in turn, may modulate tumorigenesis. However, many important knowledge gaps are evident. To this end, we propose a framework to guide future research efforts investigating the immune effects of exercise in cancer. PMID:26676894
Umezawa, Yoshinori; Kotov, Nikolay V.; Williams, Gareth; Clop, Alex; Ainali, Crysanthi; Ouzounis, Christos; Tsoka, Sophia; Nestle, Frank O.
Inflammation is characterized by altered cytokine levels produced by cell populations in a highly interdependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism of an inflammatory reaction, we have developed a mathematical model for immune cell interactions via the specific, dose-dependent cytokine production rates of cell populations. The model describes the criteria required for normal and pathological immune system responses and suggests that alterations in the cytokine production rates can lead to various stable levels which manifest themselves in different disease phenotypes. The model predicts that pairs of interacting immune cell populations can maintain homeostatic and elevated extracellular cytokine concentration levels, enabling them to operate as an immune system switch. The concept described here is developed in the context of psoriasis, an immune-mediated disease, but it can also offer mechanistic insights into other inflammatory pathologies as it explains how interactions between immune cell populations can lead to disease phenotypes. PMID:21152006
Balestro, Elisabetta; Calabrese, Fiorella; Turato, Graziella; Lunardi, Francesca; Bazzan, Erica; Marulli, Giuseppe; Biondini, Davide; Rossi, Emanuela; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Rea, Federico; Rigobello, Chiara; Gregori, Dario; Baraldo, Simonetta; Spagnolo, Paolo
The clinical course in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is highly heterogeneous, with some patients having a slow progression and others an accelerated clinical and functional decline. This study aims to clinically characterize the type of progression in IPF and to investigate the pathological basis that might account for the observed differences in disease behavior. Clinical and functional data were analyzed in 73 IPF patients, followed long-time as candidates for lung transplantation. The forced vital capacity (FVC) change/year (< or ≥10% predicted) was used to define “slow” or “rapid” disease progression. Pathological abnormalities were quantified in the explanted lung of 41 out of 73 patients undergoing lung transplantation. At diagnosis, slow progressors (n = 48) showed longer duration of symptoms and lower FVC than rapid progressors (n = 25). Eleven slow and 3 rapid progressors developed an acute exacerbation (AE) during follow-up. Quantitative lung pathology showed a severe innate and adaptive inflammatory infiltrate in rapid progressors, markedly increased compared to slow progressors and similar to that observed in patients experiencing AE. The extent of inflammation was correlated with the yearly FVC decline (r = 0.52, p = 0.005). In conclusion an innate and adaptive inflammation appears to be a prominent feature in the lung of patients with IPF and could contribute to determining of the rate of disease progression. PMID:27159038
Balestro, Elisabetta; Calabrese, Fiorella; Turato, Graziella; Lunardi, Francesca; Bazzan, Erica; Marulli, Giuseppe; Biondini, Davide; Rossi, Emanuela; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Rea, Federico; Rigobello, Chiara; Gregori, Dario; Baraldo, Simonetta; Spagnolo, Paolo; Cosio, Manuel G; Saetta, Marina
The clinical course in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is highly heterogeneous, with some patients having a slow progression and others an accelerated clinical and functional decline. This study aims to clinically characterize the type of progression in IPF and to investigate the pathological basis that might account for the observed differences in disease behavior. Clinical and functional data were analyzed in 73 IPF patients, followed long-time as candidates for lung transplantation. The forced vital capacity (FVC) change/year (< or ≥10% predicted) was used to define "slow" or "rapid" disease progression. Pathological abnormalities were quantified in the explanted lung of 41 out of 73 patients undergoing lung transplantation. At diagnosis, slow progressors (n = 48) showed longer duration of symptoms and lower FVC than rapid progressors (n = 25). Eleven slow and 3 rapid progressors developed an acute exacerbation (AE) during follow-up. Quantitative lung pathology showed a severe innate and adaptive inflammatory infiltrate in rapid progressors, markedly increased compared to slow progressors and similar to that observed in patients experiencing AE. The extent of inflammation was correlated with the yearly FVC decline (r = 0.52, p = 0.005). In conclusion an innate and adaptive inflammation appears to be a prominent feature in the lung of patients with IPF and could contribute to determining of the rate of disease progression.
Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B.
The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324
Longenecker, Chris T.; Sullivan, Claire; Baker, Jason V.
Purpose of review To describe the potential contribution of immune activation in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD)—a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV positive persons with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings We review recent literature that suggests abnormalities in both adaptive and innate immunity contributes to CVD risk among persons with HIV infection. In particular, potentially atherogenic T-cell mechanisms include persistent high-level T-cell activation (and associated pro-inflammatory mechanisms), as well as the presence of co-pathogens (e.g., CMV) providing an ongoing stimulus for cytotoxic T-cell responses. More recent data has then emphasized the potential impact of monocyte/macrophage-mediated inflammation and injury within atherosclerotic lesions. The pathology driving innate immune activation many not fully reverse with ART treatment, highlighting the need for interventions that target inflammation as a CVD prevention strategy. Summary Premature CVD among persons with HIV infection is due, in part, to persistent abnormalities in immune activation and systemic inflammation despite viral suppression. Prevention strategies for persons with HIV infection include those that target traditional CVD risk factors as well as newer candidate treatments with potential immunomodulatory benefits. PMID:26599166
Wang, Zhongfang; Loh, Liyen; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Kedzierska, Katherine
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulate naturally in wild aquatic birds, infect domestic poultry, and are capable of causing sporadic bird-to-human transmissions. AIVs capable of infecting humans include a highly pathogenic AIV H5N1, first detected in humans in 1997, and a low pathogenic AIV H7N9, reported in humans in 2013. Both H5N1 and H7N9 cause severe influenza disease in humans, manifested by acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates of 60% and 35%, respectively. Ongoing circulation of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in wild birds and poultry, and their ability to infect humans emphasizes their epidemic and pandemic potential and poses a public health threat. It is, thus, imperative to understand the host immune responses to the AIVs so we can control severe influenza disease caused by H5N1 or H7N9 and rationally design new immunotherapies and vaccines. This review summarizes our current knowledge on AIV epidemiology, disease symptoms, inflammatory processes underlying the AIV infection in humans, and recent studies on universal pre-existing CD8+ T cell immunity to AIVs. Immune responses driving the host recovery from AIV infection in patients hospitalized with severe influenza disease are also discussed. PMID:26973644
Biro, Maté; Munoz, Marcia A; Weninger, Wolfgang
Leukocytes are unmatched migrators capable of traversing barriers and tissues of remarkably varied structural composition. An effective immune response relies on the ability of its constituent cells to infiltrate target sites. Yet, unwarranted mobilization of immune cells can lead to inflammatory diseases and tissue damage ranging in severity from mild to life-threatening. The efficacy and plasticity of leukocyte migration is driven by the precise spatiotemporal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The small GTPases of the Rho family (Rho-GTPases), and their immediate downstream effector kinases, are key regulators of cellular actomyosin dynamics and are therefore considered prime pharmacological targets for stemming leukocyte motility in inflammatory disorders. This review describes advances in the development of small-molecule inhibitors aimed at modulating the Rho-GTPase-centric regulatory pathways governing motility, many of which stem from studies of cancer invasiveness. These inhibitors promise the advent of novel treatment options with high selectivity and potency against immune-mediated pathologies. This article is part of a themed section on Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Matrix, Cell Migration, Wound Healing and Related Topics. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-24. © 2014 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley &. Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.
Miklossy, Judith; McGeer, Patrick L.
Strong epidemiologic evidence and common molecular mechanisms support an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2-diabetes. Local inflammation and amyloidosis occur in both diseases and are associated with periodontitis and various infectious agents. This article reviews the evidence for the presence of local inflammation and bacteria in type 2 diabetes and discusses host pathogen interactions in chronic inflammatory disorders. Chlamydophyla pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and spirochetes are demonstrated in association with dementia and brain lesions in AD and islet lesions in type 2 diabetes. The presence of pathogens in host tissues activates immune responses through Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Evasion of pathogens from complement-mediated attack results in persistent infection, inflammation and amyloidosis. Amyloid beta and the pancreatic amyloid called amylin bind to lipid bilayers and produce Ca(2+) influx and bacteriolysis. Similarly to AD, accumulation of amylin deposits in type 2 diabetes may result from an innate immune response to chronic bacterial infections, which are known to be associated with amyloidosis. Further research based on an infectious origin of both AD and type 2 diabetes may lead to novel treatment strategies. PMID:26961231
Miklossy, Judith; McGeer, Patrick L
Strong epidemiologic evidence and common molecular mechanisms support an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2-diabetes. Local inflammation and amyloidosis occur in both diseases and are associated with periodontitis and various infectious agents. This article reviews the evidence for the presence of local inflammation and bacteria in type 2 diabetes and discusses host pathogen interactions in chronic inflammatory disorders. Chlamydophyla pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and spirochetes are demonstrated in association with dementia and brain lesions in AD and islet lesions in type 2 diabetes. The presence of pathogens in host tissues activates immune responses through Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Evasion of pathogens from complement-mediated attack results in persistent infection, inflammation and amyloidosis. Amyloid beta and the pancreatic amyloid called amylin bind to lipid bilayers and produce Ca(2+) influx and bacteriolysis. Similarly to AD, accumulation of amylin deposits in type 2 diabetes may result from an innate immune response to chronic bacterial infections, which are known to be associated with amyloidosis. Further research based on an infectious origin of both AD and type 2 diabetes may lead to novel treatment strategies.
Byrne, Michelle L; Badcock, Paul B; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Pettitt, Adam; Olsson, Craig A; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B
Family environments and parenting have been associated with inflammation and immune activation in children and adolescents; however, it remains unclear which specific aspects of parenting drive this association. In this study, we cross-sectionally examined the association between 5 discrete parenting styles and inflammation and immune activation in late childhood. Data were drawn from 102 families (55 with female children, mean age 9.50 years, SD = 0.34) participating in the Imaging Brain Development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study. Children provided saliva samples from which inflammation (C-reactive protein) and immune competence/activation (secretory immunoglobulin A) were measured. Parents completed the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, which measures 5 aspects of parenting style-positive parental involvement, positive disciplinary techniques, consistency in disciplinary techniques, corporal punishment, and monitoring and supervision. Results showed that higher scores on the poor parental monitoring scale were associated with higher levels of both inflammation and immune activation in children. This study highlights parental monitoring and supervision as a specific aspect of parenting behavior that may be important for children's physical and mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record
Yang, XueZhi; Chang, Yan; Wei, Wei
Inflammation, as a feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), leads to the activation of endothelial cells (ECs). Activated ECs induce atherosclerosis through an increased expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is recognized as a failure of endothelial repair mechanisms. It is also an early preclinical marker of atherosclerosis and is commonly found in RA patients. RA is now established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, while mechanistic determinants of ED in RA are still poorly understood. An expanding body of study has shown that EC at a site of RA is both active participant and regulator of inflammatory process. Over the last decade, a role for endothelial dysfunction in RA associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been hypothesized. At the same time, several maintenance drugs targeting this phenomenon have been tested, which has promising results. Assessment of endothelial function may be a useful tool to identify and monitor RA patients. PMID:27122657
Obermeier, Florian; Hofmann, Claudia; Falk, Werner
From numerous studies during the last years it became evident that bacteria and bacterial constituents play a decisive role both in the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis as well as in the development and perpetuation of chronic intestinal inflammation. In this review we focus on the role of bacterial DNA which is a potent immunomodulatory component of the bacterial flora. Bacterial DNA has been shown to be protective against experimental colitis. In contrast bacterial DNA essentially contributes to the perpetuation of an already established chronic intestinal inflammation in a Toll-like receptor (TLR)9-dependent manner. This dichotomic action may be explained by a different activation status of essential regulators of TLR signaling like Glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) depending on the pre-activation status of the intestinal immune system. In this review we suggest that regulators of TLR signaling may be interesting therapeutic targets in IBD aiming at the restoration of intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:21188217
Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Doths, Sandra; Stroet, Anke; Schwarze, Jürgen
Background In asthma, mechanisms contributing to chronicity remain to be determined. Recent models of sensitisation with prolonged airway allergen challenges reproduce typical features of chronic asthma. However, the interplay between inflammation, structural changes and lung function is poorly understood. This study was performed to delineate functional, structural and immunological airway changes after cessation of long term challenges to elucidate factors contributing to the development of prolonged lung function changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice sensitised systemically were consecutively challenged intranasally with ovalbumin for two or eight weeks. After the end of challenges, lung function, airway inflammation, features of airway remodelling, local T-cell cytokines and systemic ovalbumin-specific antibodies were monitored. Long term challenges resulted in airway hyperresponsiveness lasting 2 weeks and reduced baseline lung function for 6 weeks after their cessation. In contrast, these changes resolved within one week after short term challenges. Prolonged transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1 production and marked peribronchial fibrosis were only induced by long term challenges. Importantly, fibrosis became apparent only after the onset of lung function changes and outlasted them. Further, long term challenges led to prolonged and intense airway inflammation with marked lymphocytosis, but moderate eosinophilia, sustained IL-5 production and ovalbumin-specific IgG2a antibodies, the latter suggesting a Th1 component to the immune response. In contrast, following short term challenges airway inflammation was dominated by eosinophils and associated with a strong, but transient IL-13 response. Conclusions Prolonged lung function changes after long term allergen challenges seem to develop and resolve independently of the persistent peribronchial fibrosis. They are more closely associated with intense airway inflammation, marked lymphocytosis
Dantzer, Robert; O’Connor, Jason C.; Freund, Gregory G.; Johnson, Rodney W.; Kelley, Keith W.
In response to a peripheral infection, innate immune cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokines that act on the brain to cause sickness behaviour. When activation of the peripheral immune system continues unabated, such as during systemic infections, cancer or autoimmune diseases, the ensuing immune signalling to the brain can lead to an exacerbation of sickness and the development of symptoms of depression in vulnerable individuals. These phenomena might account for the increased prevalence of clinical depression in physically ill people. Inflammation is therefore an important biological event that might increase the risk of major depressive episodes, much like the more traditional psychosocial factors. PMID:18073775
Chavan, Sangeeta S; Ma, Pingchuan; Chiu, Isaac M
Sensory and autonomic neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) play a critical role in regulating the immune system during tissue inflammation and host defense. Recent studies have identified the molecular mechanisms underlying the bidirectional communication between the nervous system and the immune system. Here, we highlight the studies that demonstrate the importance of the neuro-immune interactions in health and disease. Nociceptor sensory neurons detect immune mediators to produce pain, and release neuropeptides that act on the immune system to regulate inflammation. In parallel, neural reflex circuits including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex are physiological regulators of inflammatory responses and cytokine production. In transplantation, neuro-immune communication could significantly impact the processes of host-pathogen defense, organ rejection, and wound healing. Emerging approaches to target the PNS such as bioelectronics could be useful in improving the outcome of transplantation. Therefore, understanding how the nervous system shapes the immune response could have important therapeutic ramifications for transplantation medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Löbel, Madlen; Bauer, Sandra; Meisel, Christian; Eisenreich, Andreas; Kudernatsch, Robert; Tank, Juliane; Rauch, Ursula; Kühl, Uwe; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Poller, Wolfgang; Scheibenbogen, Carmen
In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the effect of CCN1 on the migration of human immune cells. The molecule CCN1, produced by fibroblasts and endothelial cells, is considered as an important matrix protein promoting tissue repair and immune cell adhesion by binding various integrins. We recently reported that CCN1 therapy is able to suppress acute inflammation in vivo. Here, we show that CCN1 binds to various immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and monocytes. The addition of CCN1 in vitro enhances both actin polymerization and transwell migration. Prolonged incubation with CCN1, however, results in the inhibition of migration of immune cells by a mechanism that involves downregulation of PI3Kγ, p38, and Akt activation. Furthermore, we observed that immune cells themselves produce constitutively CCN1 and secretion is induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. In line with this finding, patients suffering from acute inflammation had enhanced serum levels of CCN1. These findings extend the classical concept of CCN1 as a locally produced cell matrix adhesion molecule and suggest that CCN1 plays an important role in regulating immune cell trafficking by attracting and locally immobilizing immune cells.
Bäck, Magnus; Hlawaty, Hanna; Labat, Carlos; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Brink, Charles
Background Aging may be accompanied by a low grade chronic up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. A variety of endogenous locally released mediators as well as inflammatory cells have been reported in the human oral cavity. The aim of this investigation was to determine the presence of different classes of inflammatory mediators in human saliva and correlate the levels with age. Methodology and Principal Findings Unstimulated whole buccal salivary samples were obtained in the morning from 94 healthy volunteers within 30 minutes after waking. None of the participants had taken aspirin in the week prior to the saliva collection. Lysozyme activity, eicosanoid levels (prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4) and MMP-9 activity were measured. The antimicrobial activity (lysozyme activity) was not correlated with age whereas PGE2 levels were markedly correlated with age (r = 0.29; P<0.05; n = 56). Saliva from healthy subjects (≤40 years) compared with data derived from older volunteers (>40 years) demonstrated a significant increase in the mean values for PGE2 and MMP-9 activity with age. In addition, significant correlations were observed between LTB4 and PGE2 (r = 0.28; P<0.05; n = 56) and between LTB4 levels and MMP-9 activity in smokers (r = 0.78; P<0.001; n = 15). Conclusions/Significance The presence of significant levels and activity of inflammatory mediators in saliva suggests that the oral cavity of healthy subjects may be in a constant low state of inflammation associated with age. PMID:18159234
Tupin, Emmanuel; Benhnia, Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi; Kinjo, Yuki; Patsey, Rebeca; Lena, Christopher J; Haller, Matthew C; Caimano, Melissa J; Imamura, Masakazu; Wong, Chi-Huey; Crotty, Shane; Radolf, Justin D; Sellati, Timothy J; Kronenberg, Mitchell
Borrelia burgdorferi is the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, a multisystem inflammatory disorder that principally targets the skin, joints, heart, and nervous system. The role of T lymphocytes in the development of chronic inflammation resulting from B. burgdorferi infection has been controversial. We previously showed that natural killer T (NKT) cells with an invariant (i) TCR alpha chain (iNKT cells) recognize glycolipids from B. burgdorferi, but did not establish an in vivo role for iNKT cells in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Here, we evaluate the importance of iNKT cells for host defense against these pathogenic spirochetes by using Valpha14i NKT cell-deficient (Jalpha18(-/-)) BALB/c mice. On tick inoculation with B. burgdorferi, Jalpha18(-/-) mice exhibited more severe and prolonged arthritis as well as a reduced ability to clear spirochetes from infected tissues. Valpha14i NKT cell deficiency also resulted in increased production of antibodies directed against both B. burgdorferi protein antigens and borrelial diacylglycerols; the latter finding demonstrates that anti-glycolipid antibody production does not require cognate help from Valpha14i NKT cells. Valpha14i NKT cells in infected wild-type mice expressed surface activation markers and produced IFNgamma in vivo after infection, suggesting a participatory role for this unique population in cellular immunity. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the antigen-specific activation of Valpha14i NKT cells is important for the prevention of persistent joint inflammation and spirochete clearance, and they counter the long-standing notion that humoral rather than cellular immunity is sufficient to facilitate Lyme disease resolution.
Kimani, Stanley Gititu; Geng, Ke; Kasikara, Canan; Kumar, Sushil; Sriram, Ganapathy; Wu, Yi; Birge, Raymond B.
The rapid and efficient clearance of apoptotic cells results in the elimination of auto-antigens and provides a strong anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive signal to prevent autoimmunity. While professional and non-professional phagocytes utilize a wide array of surface receptors to recognize apoptotic cells, the recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells by PS receptors on phagocytes is the emblematic signal for efferocytosis in metazoans. PS-dependent efferocytosis is associated with the production of anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-10 and TGF-β that function, in part, to maintain tolerance to auto-antigens. In contrast, when apoptotic cells fail to be recognized and processed for degradation, auto-antigens persist, such as self-nucleic acids, which can trigger immune activation leading to autoantibody production and autoimmunity. Despite the fact that genetic mouse models clearly demonstrate that loss of PS receptors can lead to age-dependent auto-immune diseases reminiscent of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the link between PS and defective clearance in chronic inflammation and human autoimmunity is not well delineated. In this perspective, we review emerging questions developing in the field that may be of relevance to SLE and human autoimmunity. PMID:25426118
Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Stephanie M. C.; Mitchell, Gordon S.
Abstract Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark of sleep apnoea, a condition associated with diverse clinical disorders. CIH and sleep apnoea are characterized by increased reactive oxygen species formation, peripheral and CNS inflammation, neuronal death and neurocognitive deficits. Few studies have examined the role of microglia, the resident CNS immune cells, in models of CIH. Thus, little is known concerning their direct contributions to neuropathology or the cellular mechanisms regulating their activities during or following pathological CIH. In this review, we identify gaps in knowledge regarding CIH‐induced microglial activation, and propose mechanisms based on data from related models of hypoxia and/or hypoxia–reoxygenation. CIH may directly affect microglia, or may have indirect effects via the periphery or other CNS cells. Peripheral inflammation may indirectly activate microglia via entry of pro‐inflammatory molecules into the CNS, and/or activation of vagal afferents that trigger CNS inflammation. CIH‐induced release of damage‐associated molecular patterns from injured CNS cells may also activate microglia via interactions with pattern recognition receptors expressed on microglia. For example, Toll‐like receptors activate mitogen‐activated protein kinase/transcription factor pathways required for microglial inflammatory gene expression. Although epigenetic effects from CIH have not yet been studied in microglia, potential epigenetic mechanisms in microglial regulation are discussed, including microRNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation. Epigenetic effects can occur during CIH, or long after it has ended. A better understanding of CIH effects on microglial activities may be important to reverse CIH‐induced neuropathology in patients with sleep disordered breathing. PMID:26890698
Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Artis, David
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently described group of innate immune cells that can regulate immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair in multiple anatomical compartments, particularly the barrier surfaces of the skin, airways, and intestine. Broad categories of ILCs have been defined based on transcription factor expression and the ability to produce distinct patterns of effector molecules. Recent studies have revealed that ILC populations can regulate commensal bacterial communities, contribute to resistance to helminth and bacterial pathogens, promote inflammation, and orchestrate tissue repair and wound healing. This review will examine the phenotype and function of murine and human ILCs and discuss the critical roles these innate immune cells play in health and disease. PMID:23084914
Neumann, Silke; Shields, Nicholas J.; Balle, Thomas; Chebib, Mary; Clarkson, Andrew N.
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability, with limited treatment options available. Inflammation contributes to damage tissue in the central nervous system across a broad range of neuropathologies, including Alzheimer’s disease, pain, Schizophrenia, and stroke. While the immune system plays an important role in contributing to brain damage produced by ischemia, the damaged brain, in turn, can exert a powerful immune-suppressive effect that promotes infections and threatens the survival of stroke patients. Recently the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, in particular its modulation using α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) ligands, has shown potential as a strategy to dampen the inflammatory response and facilitate functional recovery in stroke patients. Here we discuss the current literature on stroke-induced inflammation and the effects of α7-nAChR modulators on innate immune cells. PMID:26690125
Libby, Peter; Hansson, Göran K.
The hypothesis that immunity and inflammation participate in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases has now gained widespread recognition and stimulated work around the globe. Broadening knowledge has extended the recognition of the role of immune and inflammatory mechanisms to all of the layers of the artery, to all levels of the arterial tree, and implicated virtually all arms, cellular “players,” and effector molecules and pathways involved in these crucial host defenses, that turn against us in disease. We provide here a guide to a compendium series of papers that aimed to look forward, and broaden the traditional focus of immunopathogenesis of arterial disease, with the goal of integrating the “players” and the “layers” involved. While the field has advanced remarkably, much remains to be done, and this commentary also aims to highlight some of the gaps that future research should strive to close regarding the participation of inflammation and immunity in arterial diseases. PMID:25593275
Fox, Lisa; Hegde, Subramanya
Natural killer T cells are an innate population of T lymphocytes that recognize antigens derived from host lipids and glycolipids. In this review, we focus on how these unique T cells are positioned to influence both acute and chronic inflammatory processes through their early recruitment to sites of inflammation, interactions with myeloid antigen presenting cells, and recognition of lipids associated with inflammation. PMID:20850561
Liu, Fangwei; Dai, Wujing; Li, Chao; Lu, Xiaowei; Chen, Ying; Weng, Dong; Chen, Jie
Silicosis is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis, which are seriously harmful to human health. Previous research demonstrated that uncontrolled T-helper (Th) cell immune responses were involved in the pathogenesis of silicosis. Lymphocytes also are reported to have important roles. Existing studies on lymphocyte regulation of Th immune responses were limited to T cells, such as the regulatory T (Treg) cell, which could negatively regulate inflammation and promote the process of silicosis. However, other regulatory subsets in silicosis have not been investigated in detail, and the mechanism of immune homeostasis modulation needs further exploration. Another regulatory lymphocyte, the regulatory B cell, has recently drawn increasing attention. In this study, we comprehensively showed the role of IL-10-producing regulatory B cell (B10) in a silicosis model of mice. B10 was inducible by silica instillation. Insufficient B10 amplified inflammation and attenuated lung fibrosis by promoting the Th1 immune response. Insufficient B10 clearly inhibited Treg and decreased the level of IL-10. Our study indicated that B10 could control lung inflammation and exacerbate lung fibrosis by inhibiting Th1 response and modulating the Th balance. The regulatory function of B10 could be associated with Treg induction and IL-10 secretion. PMID:27354007
Routy, Jean-Pierre; Mehraj, Vikram; Vyboh, Kishanda; Cao, Wei; Kema, Ido; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali
Tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway is associated with a wide variety of pathophysiological processes, of which tumor tolerance and immune dysfunction in several chronic viral infections including HIV are well known. The kynurenine pathway is at the crossroads of metabolism and immunity and plays an important role in inflammation while also playing an opposing role in the control of acute and chronic infections. In this review we have summarized findings from recent studies reporting modulation of tryptophan degrading the kynurenine pathway in the context of HIV infection. This immuno-metabolic pathway is modulated by three distinct inducible enzymes: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and 2 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. Increased expression of these enzymes by antigen-presenting cells leads to local or systemic tryptophan depletion, resulting in a mechanism of defense against certain microorganisms. Conversely, it can also lead to immunosuppression by antigen-specific T-cell exhaustion and recruitment of T regulatory cells. Recently, among these enzymes, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 has been recognized to be an immune response checkpoint that plays an important role in HIV immune dysfunction, even in the context of antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the activation of the kynurenine pathway by HIV proteins Tat and Nef, the tryptophan-degrading bacteria present in the intestinal flora have been associated with dysfunction of gut mucosal CD4 Th17/Th22 cells, leading to microbial translocation and creating a systemic kynurenine pathway activation cycle. This self-sustaining feedback loop has deleterious effects on disease progression and on neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Therapy designed to break the vicious cycle of induced tryptophan degradation is warranted to revert immune exhaustion in HIV-infected persons.
Wilson, R P; Javitt, J C
Five patients with aphakia, glaucoma, and chronic inflammation were treated with ab interno sclerostomy by using the continuous wave Nd:YAG laser focused through a sapphire probe. After a follow-up period of 24 to 28 months, three of five patients had good intraocular pressure control. The sclerostomy failed in one patient when it was occluded by vitreous. The second failure was attributed to closure of the sclerostomy because of chronic intraocular inflammation.
Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter
Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of integumentary colouration have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of signal traits. We tested how dietary carotenoid supplementation, immune activation and immune suppression affect intensity of coccidian infection in captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris, a passerine with carotenoid-based plumage. Immune activation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) decreased body mass among birds not supplemented with lutein, while among the carotenoid-fed birds, PHA had no effect on mass dynamics. Immune suppression with dexamethasone (DEX) induced loss of body mass and reduced the swelling response to PHA. DEX and PHA increased the concentration of circulating heterophils. Lutein supplementation increased plasma carotenoid levels but had no effect on the swelling response induced by PHA. PHA and DEX treatments did not affect plasma carotenoids. Immune stimulation by PHA suppressed the infection, but only among carotenoid-supplemented birds. Priming of the immune system can thus aid in suppressing chronic infection but only when sufficient amount of carotenoids is available. Our experiment shows the importance of carotenoids in immune response, but also the complicated nature of this impact, which could be the reason for inconsistent results in studies investigating the immunomodulatory effects of carotenoids. The findings about involvement of carotenoids in modulation of an immune response against coccidiosis suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments may honestly signal individuals' ability to manage chronic infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mattos, Rafael T; Medeiros, Nayara I; Menezes, Carlos A; Fares, Rafaelle C G; Franco, Eliza P; Dutra, Walderez O; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Juliana A S
Chronic low-grade inflammation is related to the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. Monocytes are main sources of cytokines and play a pivotal role in inflammation. We evaluated monocyte frequency, phenotype and cytokine profile of monocyte subsets, to determine their association with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Children with obesity were evaluated for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Monocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry, considering cytokine production and activation/recognition molecules. Correlation analysis between clinical parameters and immunological data delineated the monocytes contribution for low-grade inflammation. We observed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes in the childhood obesity group (CO) than normal-weight group (NW). All subsets displayed higher TLR4 expression in CO, but their recognition and antigen presentation functions seem to be diminished due to lower expression of CD40, CD80/86 and HLA-DR. All subsets showed a lower expression of IL-10 in CO and correlation analyses showed changes in IL-10 expression profile. The lower expression of IL-10 may be decisive for the maintenance of the low-grade inflammation status in CO, especially for alterations in non-classical monocytes profile. These cells may contribute to supporting inflammation and loss of regulation in the immune response of children with obesity.
Mattos, Rafael T.; Medeiros, Nayara I.; Menezes, Carlos A.; Fares, Rafaelle C. G.; Franco, Eliza P.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Juliana A. S.
Chronic low-grade inflammation is related to the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. Monocytes are main sources of cytokines and play a pivotal role in inflammation. We evaluated monocyte frequency, phenotype and cytokine profile of monocyte subsets, to determine their association with the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Children with obesity were evaluated for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Monocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry, considering cytokine production and activation/recognition molecules. Correlation analysis between clinical parameters and immunological data delineated the monocytes contribution for low-grade inflammation. We observed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes in the childhood obesity group (CO) than normal-weight group (NW). All subsets displayed higher TLR4 expression in CO, but their recognition and antigen presentation functions seem to be diminished due to lower expression of CD40, CD80/86 and HLA-DR. All subsets showed a lower expression of IL-10 in CO and correlation analyses showed changes in IL-10 expression profile. The lower expression of IL-10 may be decisive for the maintenance of the low-grade inflammation status in CO, especially for alterations in non-classical monocytes profile. These cells may contribute to supporting inflammation and loss of regulation in the immune response of children with obesity. PMID:27977792
Broytman, Oleg; Braun, Rudolf K; Morgan, Barbara J; Pegelow, David F; Hsu, Pei-Ning; Mei, Linda S; Koya, Ajay K; Eldridge, Marlowe; Teodorescu, Mihaela
Obstructive sleep apnea aggravates asthma, but its mechanisms are unknown. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is one hallmark feature of sleep apnea. In this study, we tested the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on allergen-induced inflammation in rats. Four groups (n = 9-11/group) of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized Brown-Norway rats underwent intermittent hypoxia (10% oxygen, 30 cycles/h, 10 h/d) or normoxia for 30 days concurrent with weekly OVA or vehicle challenges. Lung physiology, differential leukocyte counts from bronchoalveolar lavage, and histology (Picro Sirius Red staining for collagen content) were compared between groups 2 days after the last challenge. Gene expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells was quantified by quantitative PCR. Compared with normoxia, chronic intermittent hypoxia reduced the FEV0.1/FVC ratio (P = 0.005), peak expiratory flow (P = 0.002), and mean midexpiratory flow (P = 0.004), predominantly in medium and large airways; decreased the baseline eosinophil number (P = 0.01) and amplified the effect of OVA on monocyte number (P = 0.02 for the interaction); in proximal airways, increased (P = 0.008), whereas in distal airways it decreased (P = 0.004), collagen density; induced qualitative emphysematous changes in lung periphery; and increased expression of the M2 macrophage marker YM-1 and augmented OVA-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Chronic intermittent hypoxia alters immune response to allergen toward a more TH-1-predominant cellular phenotype with collagen deposition and matrix degradation, leading to airflow limitation. These findings highlight the potential of sleep apnea to aggravate airway dysfunction in patients with preexistent asthma.
Rubin, Deborah C.; Shaker, Anisa; Levin, Marc S.
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine. The prevalence in the United States is greater than 200 cases per 100,000, with the total number of IBD patients between 1 and 1.5 million. CD may affect all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to anus, but most commonly involves the distal part of the small intestine or ileum, and colon. UC results in colonic inflammation that can affect the rectum only, or can progress proximally to involve part of or the entire colon. Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and weight loss. A serious long-term complication of chronic inflammation is the development of colorectal cancer. A genetic basis for IBD had long been recognized based on the increased familial risk. However, significant discordance for CD in twins, and a much less robust phenotypic concordance for UC, suggested additional factors play a role in disease pathogenesis, including environmental factors. In the past several years, progress in understanding the molecular basis of IBD has accelerated, beginning with the generation of animal models of colitis and progressing to the identification of specific genetic markers from candidate gene, gene linkage, and genome-wide association analyses. Genetic studies have also resulted in the recognition of the importance of environmental factors, particularly the crucial role of the gut microbiota in CD and UC. Altered immune responses to the normal intestinal flora are key factors in IBD pathogenesis. In this research topic, the genetic basis of IBD, the genetic and cellular alterations associated with colitis-associated colon cancer, and the emerging role of the intestinal microbiota and other environmental factors will be reviewed. PMID:22586430
Cappelletti, Cristina; Galbardi, Barbara; Kapetis, Dimos; Vattemi, Gaetano; Guglielmi, Valeria; Tonin, Paola; Salerno, Franco; Morandi, Lucia; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Mantegazza, Renato; Bernasconi, Pia
Autophagy has a large range of physiological functions and its dysregulation contributes to several human disorders, including autoinflammatory/autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). In order to better understand the pathogenetic mechanisms of these muscular disorders, we sought to define the role of autophagic processes and their relation with the innate immune system in the three main subtypes of IIM, specifically sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). We found that although the mRNA transcript levels of the autophagy-related genes BECN1, ATG5 and FBXO32 were similar in IIM and controls, autophagy activation in all IIM subgroups was suggested by immunoblotting results and confirmed by immunofluorescence. TLR4 and TLR3, two potent inducers of autophagy, were highly increased in IIM, with TLR4 transcripts significantly more expressed in PM and DM than in JDM, sIBM and controls, and TLR3 transcripts highly up-regulated in all IIM subgroups compared to controls. Co-localization between autophagic marker, LC3, and TLR4 and TLR3 was observed not only in sIBM but also in PM, DM and JDM muscle tissues. Furthermore, a highly association with the autophagic processes was observed in all IIM subgroups also for some TLR4 ligands, endogenous and bacterial HSP60, other than the high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). These findings indicate that autophagic processes are active not only in sIBM but also in PM, DM and JDM, probably in response to an exogenous or endogenous 'danger signal'. However, autophagic activation and regulation, and also interaction with the innate immune system, differ in each type of IIM. Better understanding of these differences may lead to new therapies for the different IIM types.
Bonnan, Mickael; Barroso, Bruno; Demasles, Stéphanie; Krim, Elsa; Marasescu, Raluca; Miquel, Marie
HIV infects the central nervous system (CNS) during primary infection and persists in resident macrophages. CNS infection initiates a strong local immune response that fails to control the virus but is responsible for by-stander lesions involved in neurocognitive disorders. Although highly active anti-retroviral therapy now offers an almost complete control of CNS viral proliferation, low-grade CNS inflammation persists. This review focuses on HIV-induced intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis. Intrathecal Ig synthesis early occurs in more than three-quarters of patients in response to viral infection of the CNS and persists throughout the course of the disease. Viral antigens are targeted but this specific response accounts for <5% of the whole intrathecal synthesis. Although the nature and mechanisms leading to non-specific synthesis are unknown, this prominent proportion is comparable to that observed in various CNS viral infections. Cerebrospinal fluid-floating antibody-secreting cells account for a minority of the whole synthesis, which mainly takes place in perivascular inflammatory infiltrates of the CNS parenchyma. B-cell traffic and lineage across the blood-brain-barrier have not yet been described. We review common technical pitfalls and update the pending questions in the field. Moreover, since HIV infection is associated with an intrathecal chronic oligoclonal (and mostly non-specific) Ig synthesis and associates with low-grade axonal lesions, this could be an interesting model of the chronic intrathecal synthesis occurring during multiple sclerosis.
Koltsova, Ekaterina K.; Garcia, Zacarias; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Landau, Michael; McArdle, Sara; Scott, Spencer R.; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Galkina, Elena; Miller, Yury I.; Acton, Scott T.; Ley, Klaus
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries characterized by leukocyte accumulation in the vessel wall. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to atherogenesis, but the identity of atherosclerosis-relevant antigens and the role of antigen presentation in this disease remain poorly characterized. We developed live-cell imaging of explanted aortas to compare the behavior and role of APCs in normal and atherosclerotic mice. We found that CD4+ T cells were capable of interacting with fluorescently labeled (CD11c-YFP+) APCs in the aortic wall in the presence, but not the absence, of cognate antigen. In atherosclerosis-prone Apoe–/–CD11c-YFP+ mice, APCs extensively interacted with CD4+ T cells in the aorta, leading to cell activation and proliferation as well as secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α. These cytokines enhanced uptake of oxidized and minimally modified LDL by macrophages. We conclude that antigen presentation by APCs to CD4+ T cells in the arterial wall causes local T cell activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines, which promote atherosclerosis by maintaining chronic inflammation and inducing foam cell formation. PMID:22886300
Hayashi, C.; Gudino, C.V.; Gibson, F.C.; Genco, C.A.
SUMMARY A hallmark of infection with the gram-negative pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is the induction of a chronic inflammatory response. P. gingivalis induces a local chronic inflammatory response that results in oral inflammatory bone destruction, which manifests as periodontal disease. In addition to chronic inflammation at the initial site of infection, mounting evidence has accumulated supporting a role for P. gingivalis-mediated periodontal disease as a risk factor for several systemic diseases including, diabetes, preterm birth, stroke, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A growing number of in vitro studies have demonstrated that P. gingivalis infection stimulates cell activation commensurate with expected responses paralleling inflammatory atherosclerotic-type responses. Furthermore, various mouse models have been used to examine the ability of P. gingivalis to stimulate chronic inflammatory plaque accumulation and recent studies have pointed to a pivotal role for innate immune signaling via the Toll-like receptors in the chronic inflammation associated with P. gingivalis infection. In this review we discuss the pathogen and host cell specificity of these responses and discuss possible mechanisms by which this oral pathogen can induce and maintain a chronic state of inflammation at sites distant from oral infection. PMID:20883220
Zhan, Xiaoxia; Fang, Yimin; Hu, Shengfeng; Wu, Yongjian; Yang, Kun; Liao, Chunxin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Huang, Xi; Wu, Minhao
During chronic inflammation, prolonged over-reactive immune response may lead to tissue destruction, while immune suppression hinders tissue repair and pathogen elimination. Therefore, precise regulation of the immune response is needed to avoid immuno-pathology. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of IFN-γ on CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cell differentiation and function, using a heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced chronic inflammation model. After challenge with heat-killed BCG, two subpopulations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells were generated in the mouse spleen. Phenotypical, morphological and functional analysis indicated that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) Ly6G(high) Ly6C(low) subset was neutrophil-like myeloid-derived inducer cells (N-MDICs), which promoted T cell activation, while the other subset was CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) Ly6G(neg) Ly6C(high) monocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) that displayed extensive suppressor function. IFN-γ treatment dampened N-MDICs-mediated T cell activation through up-regulating T cell suppressive mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase I. While for M-MDSCs, IFN-γ reduced their suppressing activity by decreasing the arginase activity. Our study provides evidence that IFN-γ balances the over-reactive vs compromised immune response through different regulation of distinct myeloid subsets, and therefore displays significant therapeutic potential for effective immuno-therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases.
Rajaiah, Rajesh; Lee, David Y.-W.; Ma, Zhongze; Fan, Arthur Y.; Lao, Lixing; Fong, Harry HS; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.
Ethnopharmacological relevance HLXL is a traditional Chinese medicine that has long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the precise immunological mechanisms by which HLXL mediates its anti-inflammatory activity are not fully defined. Aim of the study To determine the effects of HLXL on antigen-specific immune parameters in adjuvant-induced inflammation model in the Lewis rat. Materials and Methods Rats were fed daily with either HLXL (2.3 g/kg) or vehicle (water) beginning 3 d before subcutaneous injection of heat-killed M. tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb), and then continued for another 6 d. After 9 d of Mtb injection, the draining lymph node cells were tested for T cell proliferative and cytokine responses against mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). Moreover, sera were tested for anti-Bhsp65 antibodies and nitric oxide (NO). Results HLXL-treated rats showed reduced T cell proliferative response to Bhsp65 compared to control rats. Furthermore, HLXL suppressed IL-17 response but enhanced IL-10 response without much effect on IFN-γ. HLXL treatment also reduced the levels of anti-Bhsp65 antibodies but not that of NO. Conclusions HLXL feeding modulated both the cellular and the humoral immune response to Bhsp65 favoring an anti-inflammatory milieu for suppression of adjuvant-induced inflammation. PMID:19429337
Saunders, Sean P; Moran, Tara; Floudas, Achilleas; Wurlod, Felicity; Kaszlikowska, Agnieszka; Salimi, Maryam; Quinn, Emma M; Oliphant, Christopher J; Núñez, Gabriel; McManus, Ross; Hams, Emily; Irvine, Alan D; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S; Fallon, Padraic G
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition that can occur in early life, predisposing to asthma development in a phenomenon known as the atopic march. Although genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to AD and asthma, the mechanisms underlying the atopic march remain poorly understood. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are a major genetic predisposer for the development of AD and progression to AD-associated asthma. We sought to experimentally address whether filaggrin mutations in mice lead to the development of spontaneous eczematous inflammation and address the aberrant immunologic milieu arising in a mouse model of filaggrin deficiency. Filaggrin mutant mice were generated on the proallergic BALB/c background, creating a novel model for the assessment of spontaneous AD-like inflammation. Independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between filaggrin mutations and immunologic phenotypes. Filaggrin-deficient mice on a BALB/c background had profound spontaneous AD-like inflammation with progression to compromised pulmonary function with age, reflecting the atopic march in patients with AD. Strikingly, skin inflammation occurs independently of adaptive immunity and is associated with cutaneous expansion of IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, subjects with filaggrin mutations have an increased frequency of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in the skin in comparison with control subjects. This study provides new insights into our understanding of the atopic march, with innate immunity initiating dermatitis and the adaptive immunity required for subsequent development of compromised lung function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Šedý, John; Bekiaris, Vasileios; Ware, Carl F.
The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and its corresponding receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) form communication pathways required for developmental, homeostatic, and stimulus-responsive processes in vivo. Although this receptor–ligand system operates between many different cell types and organ systems, many of these proteins play specific roles in immune system function. The TNFSF and TNFRSF proteins lymphotoxins, LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator [HVEM], a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes), lymphotoxin-β receptor (LT-βR), and HVEM are used by embryonic and adult innate lymphocytes to promote the development and homeostasis of lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-expressing innate-acting B cells construct microenvironments in lymphoid organs that restrict pathogen spread and initiate interferon defenses. Recent results illustrate how the communication networks formed among these cytokines and the coreceptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 both inhibit and activate innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), innate γδ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Understanding the role of TNFSF/TNFRSF and interacting proteins in innate cells will likely reveal avenues for future therapeutics for human disease. PMID:25524549
Knab, Amy M; Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Cialdella-Kam, Lynn; Henson, Dru A; Sha, Wei
The effects of a flavonoid-rich fresh fruit and vegetable juice (JUICE) on chronic resting and postexercise inflammation, oxidative stress, immune function, and metabolic profiles (metabolomics analysis, gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry platform) in elite sprint and middle-distance swimmers were studied. In a randomized, crossover design with a 3-wk washout period, swimmers (n = 9) completed 10-d training with or without 16 fl oz of JUICE (230 mg flavonoids) ingested pre- and postworkout. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, post-10-d supplementation, and immediately postexercise, with data analyzed using a 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA. Prestudy blood samples were also acquired from nonathletic controls (n = 7, age- and weight-matched) and revealed higher levels of oxidative stress in the swimmers, no differences in inflammation or immune function, and a distinct separation in global metabolic scores (R2Y [cum] = .971). Swim workouts consisted of high-intensity intervals (1:1, 1:2 swim-to-rest ratio) and induced little inflammation, oxidative stress, or immune changes. A distinct separation in global metabolic scores was found pre- to postexercise (R2Y [cum] = .976), with shifts detected in a small number of metabolites related to substrate utilization. No effect of 10-d JUICE was found on chronic resting levels or postexercise inflammation, oxidative stress, immune function, and shifts in metabolites. In conclusion, sprint and middle-distance swimmers had a slight chronic elevation in oxidative stress compared with nonathletic controls, experienced a low magnitude of postworkout perturbations in the biomarkers included in this study, and received no apparent benefit other than added nutrient intake from ingesting JUICE pre- and postworkout for 10 days.
D'Mello, Charlotte; Ronaghan, Natalie; Zaheer, Raza; Dicay, Michael; Le, Tai; MacNaughton, Wallace K; Surrette, Michael G; Swain, Mark G
Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease) commonly develop debilitating symptoms (i.e., sickness behaviors) that arise from changes in brain function. The microbiota-gut-brain axis alters brain function and probiotic ingestion can influence behavior. However, how probiotics do this remains unclear. We have previously described a novel periphery-to-brain communication pathway in the setting of peripheral organ inflammation whereby monocytes are recruited to the brain in response to systemic TNF-α signaling, leading to microglial activation and subsequently driving sickness behavior development. Therefore, we investigated whether probiotic ingestion (i.e., probiotic mixture VSL#3) alters this periphery-to-brain communication pathway, thereby reducing subsequent sickness behavior development. Using a well characterized mouse model of liver inflammation, we now show that probiotic (VSL#3) treatment attenuates sickness behavior development in mice with liver inflammation without affecting disease severity, gut microbiota composition, or gut permeability. Attenuation of sickness behavior development was associated with reductions in microglial activation and cerebral monocyte infiltration. These events were paralleled by changes in markers of systemic immune activation, including decreased circulating TNF-α levels. Our observations highlight a novel pathway through which probiotics mediate cerebral changes and alter behavior. These findings allow for the potential development of novel therapeutic interventions targeted at the gut microbiome to treat inflammation-associated sickness behaviors in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases. This research shows that probiotics, when eaten, can improve the abnormal behaviors (including social withdrawal and immobility) that are commonly associated with inflammation. Probiotics are able to cause this effect within the body by changing how
Lovelace, Erica S.; Polyak, Stephen J.
Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA) and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB) and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function. PMID:26633463
Lovelace, Erica S; Polyak, Stephen J
Chronic viral infections like those caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cause disease that establishes an ongoing state of chronic inflammation. While there have been tremendous improvements towards curing HCV with directly acting antiviral agents (DAA) and keeping HIV viral loads below detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is still a need to control inflammation in these diseases. Recent studies indicate that many natural products like curcumin, resveratrol and silymarin alter cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways via enzymes such as adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and these pathways directly influence cellular inflammatory status (such as NF-κB) and immune function. Natural products represent a vast toolkit to dissect and define how cellular metabolism controls cellular immune and inflammatory function.
Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of “proinflammatory” cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine “inflammation”? In this review, we discuss the functions of “inflammatory” mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine tissue environments to fulfill the need of the tissue while regaining homeostasis after injury. PMID:27597803
Naylor, A J; Filer, A; Buckley, C D
Inflammation is an unstable state; it either resolves or persists. Inflammatory reactions often have a propensity for specific anatomical sites. Why inflammation persists with specific tissue tropism remains obscure. Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cells which define tissue architecture are the key cells involved, and therefore make attractive therapeutic targets. Research on stromal cells in general and fibroblasts in particular has so far been hampered by a lack of fibroblast-specific cell markers. This review highlights our increasing understanding of the role of fibroblasts in inflammation, and suggests that these cells provide the cellular basis for site specific chronic inflammation. PMID:23199320
Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; AlGhafri, Laila; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Maktabi, Azza; Gálvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Galindo-Alonso, Julio; Schellini Proff, Silvana
Two case reports are used to illustrate the signs and symptoms, complications and treatments of chronic socket inflammation due to intraorbital implants. The ophthalmic examination, surgeries and treatments are documented. Two anophthalmic cases that underwent enucleation and multiple orbital surgeries to enhance the anophthalmic socket volume developed pain, intense discharge and contracted cavities with chronic inflammation in the socket which was nonresponsive to medical therapy. Computed tomography indicated a hypodense foreign body in both cases causing an intense inflammatory reaction. The implants were removed by excisional surgery and a room temperature vulcanized silicone implant was retrieved in both cases. Socket inflammation resolved in both cases after implant removal. An intraorbital inflammatory reaction against an intraorbital implant can cause chronic socket inflammation in patients with a history of multiple surgeries. Diagnosis requires imaging and the definitive treatment is implant removal. PMID:27462246
Lin, Runhua; Xiao, Dejun; Guo, Yi; Tian, Dongping; Yun, Hailong; Chen, Donglin; Su, Min
Gastric cardia cancer (GCC) is a highly aggressive disease associated with chronic inflammation. To investigate the relationship between DNA damage response (DDR) and chronic inflammation, we collected 100 non-tumor gastric cardia specimens of Chaoshan littoral, a high-risk region for esophageal and gastric cardia cancer. A significantly higher proportion of severe chronic inflammation was found in dysplastic epithelia (80.9%) in comparison with that in non-dysplastic tissues (40.7%) (P<0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that DNA damage response was parallel with the chronic inflammation degrees from normal to severe inflammation (P<0.05). We found that DNA damage response was progressively increased with the progression of precancerous lesions (P<0.05). These findings provide pathological evidence that persistent chronic inflammation-related DNA damage response may be a driving force of gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Based on these findings, DNA damage response in non-malignant tissues may become a promising biomedical marker for predicting malignant transformation in the gastric cardia.
Wilkie, Kathleen P; Hahnfeldt, Philip
Although the immune response is often regarded as acting to suppress tumor growth, it is now clear that it can be both stimulatory and inhibitory. The interplay between these competing influences has complex implications for tumor development, cancer dormancy, and immunotherapies. In fact, early immunotherapy failures were partly due to a lack in understanding of the nonlinear growth dynamics these competing immune actions may cause. To study this biological phenomenon theoretically, we construct a minimally parameterized framework that incorporates all aspects of the immune response. We combine the effects of all immune cell types, general principles of self-limited logistic growth, and the physical process of inflammation into one quantitative setting. Simulations suggest that while there are pro-tumor or antitumor immunogenic responses characterized by larger or smaller final tumor volumes, respectively, each response involves an initial period where tumor growth is stimulated beyond that of growth without an immune response. The mathematical description is non-identifiable which allows an ensemble of parameter sets to capture inherent biological variability in tumor growth that can significantly alter tumor-immune dynamics and thus treatment success rates. The ability of this model to predict non-intuitive yet clinically observed patterns of immunomodulated tumor growth suggests that it may provide a means to help classify patient response dynamics to aid identification of appropriate treatments exploiting immune response to improve tumor suppression, including the potential attainment of an immune-induced dormant state.
Rosenkranz, Melissa A.
For decades, research has demonstrated that chronic diseases characterized by dysregulation of inflammation are particularly susceptible to exacerbation by stress and emotion. Likewise, rates of depression and anxiety are overrepresented in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory disease. In recent years, substance P has been implicated in…
Rosenkranz, Melissa A.
For decades, research has demonstrated that chronic diseases characterized by dysregulation of inflammation are particularly susceptible to exacerbation by stress and emotion. Likewise, rates of depression and anxiety are overrepresented in individuals suffering from chronic inflammatory disease. In recent years, substance P has been implicated in…
Le Dieu, Rifca; Gribben, John
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) would appear to be an ideal target of T-cell-mediated responses against the cancer cell. The cancer arises in cells that can act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), CLL cells express tumor antigens, and the cells can be a target of the allogeneic T cells in a graft-versus-leukemia effect. Despite these potential benefits, immune responses against CLL cells have been difficult to elicit. CLL induces immune defects in the host, the tumor cells are inefficient APCs, and therapies given to patients with CLL are themselves immunosuppressive. Successful vaccination approaches in this disease will require steps to overcome these difficulties, including steps to improve the immune defects in this disease, identification of the targets of the immune response to monitor immunologic responses, and improved presentation of antigen.
Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) belongs to multipotent adult somatic stem cells. A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime. Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens. Moreover, the interplay between immune memory cell and viral pathogen determines the course of a viral infection. Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. PMID:26300920
Arnold, I C; Mathisen, S; Schulthess, J; Danne, C; Hegazy, A N; Powrie, F
In inflammatory bowel diseases, a breakdown in host microbial interactions accompanies sustained activation of immune cells in the gut. Functional studies suggest a key role for interleukin-23 (IL-23) in orchestrating intestinal inflammation. IL-23 can be produced by various mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) following acute microbial stimulation, but little is known about the key cellular sources of IL-23 that drive chronic intestinal inflammation. Here we have addressed this question using a physiological model of bacteria-driven colitis. By combining conditional gene ablation and gene expression profiling, we found that IL-23 production by CD11c(+) MNPs was essential to trigger intestinal immunopathology and identified MHCII(+) monocytes and macrophages as the major source of IL-23. Expression of IL-23 by monocytes was acquired during their differentiation in the intestine and correlated with the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and CD64. In contrast, Batf3-dependent CD103(+) CD11b(-) dendritic cells were dispensable for bacteria-induced colitis in this model. These studies reinforce the pathogenic role of monocytes in dysregulated responses to intestinal bacteria and identify production of IL-23 as a key component of this response. Further understanding of the functional sources of IL-23 in diverse forms of intestinal inflammation may lead to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at interrupting IL-23-driven immune pathology.
Zhu, Ci; Fuchs, Claudia D; Halilbasic, Emina; Trauner, Michael
Apart from their pivotal role in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis, bile acids (BAs) are increasingly recognised as important signalling molecules in the regulation of systemic endocrine functions. As such BAs are natural ligands for several nuclear hormone receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors. Through activating various signalling pathways, BAs not only regulate their own synthesis, enterohepatic recirculation and metabolism, but also immune homeostasis. This makes BAs attractive therapeutic agents for managing metabolic and inflammatory liver disorders. Recent experimental and clinical evidence indicates that BAs exert beneficial effects in cholestatic and metabolically driven inflammatory diseases. This review elucidates how different BAs function as pathogenetic factors and potential therapeutic agents for inflammation-driven liver diseases, focusing on their role in regulation of inflammation and immunity.
Demeyer, Annelies; Staal, Jens; Beyaert, Rudi
MALT1 is a signaling protein that plays a key role in immunity, inflammation, and lymphoid malignancies. For a long time MALT1 was believed to function as a scaffold protein, providing an assembly platform for other signaling proteins. This view changed dramatically when MALT1 was also found to have proteolytic activity and a capacity to fine-tune immune responses. Preclinical studies have fostered the belief that MALT1 is a promising therapeutic target in autoimmunity and B cell lymphomas. However, recent studies have shown that mice expressing catalytically-inactive MALT1 develop multi-organ inflammation and autoimmunity, and thus have tempered this initial enthusiasm. We discuss recent findings, highlighting the urgent need for a better mechanistic and functional understanding of MALT1 in host defense and disease.
Selders, Gretchen S.; Fetz, Allison E.; Radic, Marko Z.; Bowlin, Gary L.
Despite considerable recent progress in defining neutrophil functions and behaviors in tissue repair, much remains to be determined with regards to its overall role in the tissue integration of biomaterials. This article provides an overview of the neutrophil’s numerous, important roles in both inflammation and resolution, and subsequently, their role in biomaterial integration. Neutrophils function in three primary capacities: generation of oxidative bursts, release of granules and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs); these combined functions enable neutrophil involvement in inflammation, macrophage recruitment, M2 macrophage differentiation, resolution of inflammation, angiogenesis, tumor formation and immune system activation. Neutrophils exhibit great flexibility to adjust to the prevalent microenvironmental conditions in the tissue; thus, the biomaterial composition and fabrication will potentially influence neutrophil behavior following confrontation. This review serves to highlight the neutrophil’s plasticity, reiterating that neutrophils are not just simple suicidal killers, but the true maestros of resolution and regeneration. PMID:28149530
Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence
Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2
Mason, William S; Gill, Upkar S; Litwin, Samuel; Zhou, Yan; Peri, Suraj; Pop, Oltin; Hong, Michelle L W; Naik, Sandhia; Quaglia, Alberto; Bertoletti, Antonio; Kennedy, Patrick T F
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) progresses through different phases. The first, called the immune-tolerant phase, has been associated with a lack of disease activity. We examined HBV-DNA integration, clonal hepatocyte expansion, HBV antigen expression, and HBV-specific immune responses in patients in the immune-tolerant phase to assess whether this designation is appropriate or if there is evidence of disease activity. We studied HBV-DNA integration, clonal hepatocyte expansion, and expression of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antigen in liver tissues from 26 patients with chronic HBV infection (ages, 14-39 y); 9 patients were positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the immune-tolerant phase and were matched for age with 10 HBeAg-positive patients with active disease and 7 HBeAg-negative patients with active disease. Peripheral blood samples were collected and HBV-specific T cells were quantified for each group. Detection of HBV antigens differed among groups. However, unexpectedly high numbers of HBV-DNA integrations, randomly distributed among chromosomes, were detected in all groups. Clonal hepatocyte expansion in patients considered immune tolerant also was greater than expected, potentially in response to hepatocyte turnover mediated by HBV-specific T cells, which were detected in peripheral blood cells from patients in all phases of infection. We measured HBV-specific T cells, HBV-DNA integration, and clonal hepatocyte expansion in different disease phases of young patients with chronic hepatitis B, with emphasis on the so-called immune-tolerant phase. A high level of HBV-DNA integration and clonal hepatocyte expansion in patients considered immune tolerant indicated that hepatocarcinogenesis could be underway-even in patients with early stage chronic HBV infection. Our findings do not support the concepts that this phase is devoid of markers of disease progression or that an immune response has not been initiated. We propose that
Toshimitsu, T; Mochizuki, J; Ikegami, S; Itou, H
In this study, we identified a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that induces high levels of IL-10 production by immune cells, and evaluated the ability of the strain to suppress chronic inflammation and ameliorate metabolic disorders in in vitro and in vivo models. Among a collection of LAB strains, Lactobacillus plantarum strain OLL2712 (OLL2712) induced the highest levels of IL-10 production in mouse-derived dendritic cells and peritoneal macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of this strain were evaluated using a co-culture system comprising RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 cells. We also administered heat-killed OLL2712 to obese and type 2 diabetic KKAy mice for 3 wk to evaluate the in vivo effects of the strain. The OLL2712 significantly decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Likewise, the administration of OLL2712 significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine levels in both the visceral adipose tissue and the serum of KKAy mice, and reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. The strain also alleviated oxidative stress and adrenaline levels in the serum of KKAy mice. On the other hand, Lactobacillus gasseri strain MEP222804 (a moderate IL-10 inducer) did not ameliorate the systemic inflammation and hyperlipidemia in KKAy mice. Our results suggest that treatment with strong IL-10-inducing LAB has the potential to ameliorate metabolic disorders by suppressing chronic inflammation in the host animal. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Capuron, Lucile; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Féart, Catherine; Aubert, Agnès; Higueret, Denise; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Layé, Sophie; Fuchs, Dietmar
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common complaints of elderly persons. Recent data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation, a fundamental characteristic of aging, plays a role. Effects might rely on the influence of inflammation on the activity of two enzymatic pathways, the indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the guanosine-triphosphate-cyclohydrolase-1 (GTP-CH1) pathways, which are involved in the biosynthesis of monoamines. The present study assessed this possibility in 284 healthy elderly subjects drawn from the Three-City cohort. Assays included the measurement of serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive-protein, as inflammatory markers; tryptophan, kynurenine, and their ratio as index of IDO activity; and neopterin, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and nitrite, as markers of GTP-CH1 activity. In addition, structured assessments of depressive symptomatology, fatigue, and general behavioral/neurovegetative symptoms were performed. As expected, age correlated significantly with concentrations of immune markers and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Increased inflammation was related to reduced tryptophan concentrations and increased kynurenine levels, suggestive of IDO-induced increased tryptophan catabolism. In addition, inflammation was associated with increases in neopterin and nitrite levels and in phenylalanine concentrations at the expense of tyrosine. Interestingly, increased tryptophan catabolism was associated with the depressive symptoms of lassitude, reduced motivation, anorexia, and pessimism. In contrast, variations in markers of GTP-CH1 activity correlated more with neurovegetative symptoms, including sleep disturbance, digestive symptoms, fatigue, sickness, and motor symptoms. These findings show that chronic low-grade inflammation in aging is associated with alterations in enzymatic pathways involved in monoamine metabolism and suggest that these alterations might participate in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly persons. Copyright © 2011
Hagura, Asami; Asai, Jun; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Takenaka, Hideya; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito
The functions of lymphatic vessels are to drain the protein-rich lymph from the extracellular space, to maintain normal tissue pressure, and to mediate the immune response, particularly in inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the function of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 signaling pathway in chronic skin inflammation. We used adenovirus-mediated VEGF-C or VEGFR3-immunoglobulin (Ig) production and investigated the effects of VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling on the resolution of inflammation using the experimental chronic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction mouse model. VEGF-C gene transfer promoted significant reduction of ear swelling and ear weight in CHS reaction-induced skin inflammation. Although, there was no significant difference in the number of lymphatic vessels, the number of infiltrating CD11b-positive inflammatory cells was significantly reduced in the VEGF-C group, which suggested that VEGF-C upregulated the drainage of interstitial fluid and inflammatory cells via lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, blockade of VEGFR3 expression resulted in a significant delay in the recovery from CHS reaction-induced skin inflammation. Lymphatic vessel size was enlarged and a significant increase of infiltrating CD11b inflammatory cells was observed in mice with VEGFR3-Ig gene transfer compared to control mice. These results suggested that blockade of VEGFR3 inhibited the drainage function of the lymphatic system. This study provides evidence that VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling plays an important role in the resolution of skin inflammation; the regulation of lymphatic function may have a great therapeutic potential in inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Barbati, Elisa; Muzio, Marta; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia
Interleukin-1R like receptors (ILRs) and Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) are key receptors of innate immunity, inflammation, and orientation of the adaptive response. They belong to a superfamily characterized by the presence of a conserved intracellular domain, the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain, which is involved in the activation of a signaling cascade leading to activation of transcription factors associated to inflammation. The activation of inflammatory responses and immunity by ILRs or TLRs signaling is potentially detrimental for the host in acute and chronic conditions and is tightly regulated at different levels by receptor antagonists, decoy receptors or signaling molecules, and miRNAs. Recent evidence suggests that the ILRs family member TIR8 (also known as SIGIRR) is a regulatory protein acting intracellularly to inhibit ILRs and TLRs signaling. In particular, current evidence suggests that TIR8/SIGIRR dampens TLRs-mediated activation and inhibits signaling receptor complexes of IL-1 family members associated with Th1 (IL-18), Th2 (IL-33), and Th17 (IL-1) differentiation. Studies with Tir8/Sigirr-deficient mice showed that the ability to dampen signaling from ILRs and TLRs family members makes TIR8/SIGIRR a key regulator of inflammation. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the structure and function of TIR8/SIGIRR, focusing on its role in different pathological conditions, ranging from infectious and sterile inflammation, to autoimmunity and cancer-related inflammation. PMID:23112799
Riva, Federica; Bonavita, Eduardo; Barbati, Elisa; Muzio, Marta; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia
Interleukin-1R like receptors (ILRs) and Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) are key receptors of innate immunity, inflammation, and orientation of the adaptive response. They belong to a superfamily characterized by the presence of a conserved intracellular domain, the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain, which is involved in the activation of a signaling cascade leading to activation of transcription factors associated to inflammation. The activation of inflammatory responses and immunity by ILRs or TLRs signaling is potentially detrimental for the host in acute and chronic conditions and is tightly regulated at different levels by receptor antagonists, decoy receptors or signaling molecules, and miRNAs. Recent evidence suggests that the ILRs family member TIR8 (also known as SIGIRR) is a regulatory protein acting intracellularly to inhibit ILRs and TLRs signaling. In particular, current evidence suggests that TIR8/SIGIRR dampens TLRs-mediated activation and inhibits signaling receptor complexes of IL-1 family members associated with Th1 (IL-18), Th2 (IL-33), and Th17 (IL-1) differentiation. Studies with Tir8/Sigirr-deficient mice showed that the ability to dampen signaling from ILRs and TLRs family members makes TIR8/SIGIRR a key regulator of inflammation. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the structure and function of TIR8/SIGIRR, focusing on its role in different pathological conditions, ranging from infectious and sterile inflammation, to autoimmunity and cancer-related inflammation.
Kooman, Jeroen; Dekker, Marijke; Usvyat, Len A; Kotanko, Peter; Van der Sande, Frank; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Shiels, Paul G; Stenvinkel, Peter
Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have direct effect on cellular and tissue function. In addition to uremia-specific causes such as abnormalities in the phosphate- Klotho axis, there are remarkable similarities between the pathophysiology of uremic inflammation and so-called "inflammaging" in the general population. Potentially relevant, but still somewhat unexplored in this respect are abnormal or misplaced protein structures as well as abnormalities in tissue homeostasis, which evoke danger signals through damage associated molecular patters (DAMPS) as well as the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Systemic inflammation, in combination with the loss of kidney function, can impair the resilience of the body to external and internal stressors by reduced functional and structural tissue reserve, and by impairing normal organ crosstalk, thus providing an explanation for the greatly increased risk of homeostatic breakdown in this population. In this review, the relation between uremic inflammation and a premature aging phenotype, as well as potential causes and consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.
Huh, Jin Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Ham, Mira; Kim, Jae Bum
Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in adipose tissues are involved in obesity-mediated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. Here, we summarize recent findings on the key roles of innate (neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils) and adaptive (regulatory T cells, type 1 helper T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells) immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. In particular, the roles of natural killer T cells, one type of innate lymphocyte, in adipose tissue inflammation will be discussed. Finally, a new role of adipocytes as antigen presenting cells to modulate T cell activity and subsequent adipose tissue inflammation will be proposed.
Dinarello, Charles A.; Nold-Petry, Claudia; Nold, Marcel; Fujita, Mayumi; Li, Suzhao; Kim, Soohyun; Bufler, Philip
IL-37 is unique in the IL-1 family in that unlike other members of the family, IL-37 broadly suppresses innate immunity. IL-37 can be elevated in humans with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases where it likely functions to limit inflammation. Transgenic mice expressing human IL-37 (IL37-tg) exhibit less severe inflammation in models of endotoxin shock, colitis, myocardial infarction, lung and spinal cord injury. IL37-tg mice have reduced antigen-specific responses and dendritic cells (DCs) from these mice exhibit characteristics of tolerogenic DCs. Compared to aging wild-type (WT) mice, aging IL37-tg mice are protected against B-cell leukemogenesis and heart failure. Treatment of WT mice with recombinant human IL-37 has been shown to be protective in several models of inflammation and injury. IL-37 binds to the IL-18 receptor but then recruits the orphan IL-1R8 (formerly TIR8 or Sin order function as an inhibitor. Here we review the discovery of IL-37, its production, release and mechanisms by which IL-37 reduces inflammation and suppresses immune responses. The data reviewed here suggest a therapeutic potential for IL-37. PMID:27060871
Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Sano Akira; Shimizu, Eiji
Objective An Asian dust storm (ADS) contains airborne particles that affect conditions such as asthma, but the mechanism of exacerbation is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation induced by airborne particles collected on ADS days and the original ADS soil (CJ-1 soil) in asthma model mice. Methods Airborne particles were collected on ADS days in western Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized by intranasal instillation with ADS airborne particles and/or Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and with CJ-1 soil and/or Df for 5 consecutive days. Df-sensitized mice were stimulated with Df challenge intranasally at 7 days after the last Df sensitization. At 24 hours after challenge, serum allergen specific antibody, differential leukocyte count and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured, and airway inflammation was examined histopathologically. Results Co-sensitization with ADS airborne particles and Df increased the neutrophil and eosinophil counts in BALF. Augmentation of airway inflammation was also observed in peribronchiolar and perivascular lung areas. Df-specific serum IgE was significantly elevated by ADS airborne particles, but not by CJ-1 soil. Levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were higher in BALF in mice treated with ADS airborne particles. Conclusion These results suggest that substances attached to ADS airborne particles that are not in the original ADS soil may play important roles in immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation. PMID:25386753
Alt, Jeremiah A.; Qin, Xuan; Pulsipher, Abigail; Orb, Quinn; Orlandi, Richard R.; Zhang, Jianxing; Schults, Austin; Jia, Wanjian; Presson, Angela P.; Prestwich, Glenn; Oottamasathien, Siam
Background Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an endogenous innate immune peptide that is elevated in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The role of LL-37 in olfactory epithelium (OE) inflammation remains unknown. We hypothesized that 1) LL-37 topically delivered would elicit profound OE inflammation, and 2) LL-37 induced inflammation is associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils and mast cells. Methods To test our hypothesis we challenged C57BL/6 mice intranasally with increasing concentrations of LL-37. At 24 hours tissues were examined histologically and scored for inflammatory cell infiltrate, edema, and secretory hyperplasia. In separate experiments, fluorescently conjugated LL-37 was instilled and tissues were examined at 0.5 and 24 hours. To test our last hypothesis, we performed tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) assays for neutrophil activity and immunohistochemistry for tryptase to determine the mean number of mast cells per mm2. Results LL-37 caused increased inflammatory cell infiltrate, edema, and secretory cell hyperplasia of the sinonasal mucosa with higher LL-37 concentrations yielding significantly more inflammatory changes (p < 0.01). Fluorescent LL-37 demonstrated global sinonasal epithelial binding and tissue distribution. Further, higher concentrations of LL-37 led to significantly greater MPO levels with dose-dependent increases in mast cell infiltration (p < 0.01). Conclusions LL-37 has dramatic inflammatory effects in the OE mucosa that is dose-dependent. The observed inflammatory changes in the olfactory mucosa were associated with the infiltration of both neutrophils and mast cells. Our biologic model represents a new model to further investigate the role of LL-37 in OE inflammation. PMID:26346056
Xiao, Cuiying; Wang, Rui-Hong; Lahusen, Tyler J.; Park, Ogyi; Bertola, Adeline; Maruyama, Takashi; Reynolds, Della; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoling; Young, Howard A.; Chen, Wan-Jun; Gao, Bin; Deng, Chu-Xia
The human body has a remarkable ability to regulate inflammation, a biophysical response triggered by virus infection and tissue damage. Sirt6 is critical for metabolism and lifespan; however, its role in inflammation is unknown. Here we show that Sirt6-null (Sirt6−/−) mice developed chronic liver inflammation starting at ∼2 months of age, and all animals were affected by 7–8 months of age. Deletion of Sirt6 in T cells or myeloid-derived cells was sufficient to induce liver inflammation and fibrosis, albeit to a lesser degree than that in the global Sirt6−/− mice, suggesting that Sirt6 deficiency in the immune cells is the cause. Consistently, macrophages derived from the bone marrow of Sirt6−/− mice showed increased MCP-1, IL-6, and TNFα expression levels and were hypersensitive to LPS stimulation. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with c-JUN and deacetylates histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) at the promoter of proinflammatory genes whose expression involves the c-JUN signaling pathway. Sirt6-deficient macrophages displayed hyperacetylation of H3K9 and increased occupancy of c-JUN in the promoter of these genes, leading to their elevated expression. These data suggest that Sirt6 plays an anti-inflammatory role in mice by inhibiting c-JUN-dependent expression of proinflammatory genes. PMID:23076146
Kazma, Rémi; Mefford, Joel A; Cheng, Iona; Plummer, Sarah J; Levin, Albert M; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Casey, Graham; Witte, John S
Prostate cancer is the most frequent and second most lethal cancer in men in the United States. Innate immunity and inflammation may increase the risk of prostate cancer. To determine the role of innate immunity and inflammation in advanced prostate cancer, we investigated the association of 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms, located in 46 genes involved in this pathway, with disease risk using 494 cases with advanced disease and 536 controls from Cleveland, Ohio. Taken together, the whole pathway was associated with advanced prostate cancer risk (P = 0.02). Two sub-pathways (intracellular antiviral molecules and extracellular pattern recognition) and four genes in these sub-pathways (TLR1, TLR6, OAS1, and OAS2) were nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk and harbor several SNPs nominally associated with advanced prostate cancer risk. Our results suggest that the innate immunity and inflammation pathway may play a modest role in the etiology of advanced prostate cancer through multiple small effects.
Shaw, Elisabeth J; Smith, Emily E; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Hodges, Matthew D; Else, Kathryn J; Rigby, Rachael J
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a tumour suppressor, limiting intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in acute inflammation, and tumour growth, but little is known regarding its role in mucosal homeostasis. Resistance to the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris relies on an "epithelial escalator" to expel the parasite. IEC turnover is restricted by parasite-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Mice with or without conditional knockout of SOCS3 were infected with T. muris. Crypt depth, worm burden, and proliferating cells and IDO were quantified. SOCS3 knockdown was also performed in human IEC cell lines. Chronic T. muris infection increased expression of SOCS3 in wild-type mice. Lack of IEC SOCS3 led to a modest increase in epithelial turnover. This translated to a lower worm burden, but not complete elimination of the parasite suggesting a compensatory mechanism, possibly IDO, as seen in SOCS3 knockdown. We report that SOCS3 impacts on IEC turnover following T. muris infection, potentially through enhancement of IDO. IDO may dampen the immune response which can drive IEC hyperproliferation in the absence of SOCS3, demonstrating the intricate interplay of immune signals regulating mucosal homeostasis, and suggesting a novel tumour suppressor role of SOCS3. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moreira, Daniel M; Nickel, J Curtis; Gerber, Leah; Muller, Roberto L; Andriole, Gerald L; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J
Both anti- and proinflammatory effects of cigarette smoking have been described. As prostate inflammation is common, we hypothesized smoking could contribute to prostate inflammation. Thus, we evaluated the association of smoking status with acute and chronic inflammation within the prostate of men undergoing prostate biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed 8,190 men ages 50 to 75 years with PSA levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL enrolled in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Smoking status was self-defined as never, former, or current. Prostate inflammation was assessed by systematic central review blinded to smoking status. The association of smoking with inflammation in the baseline, 2-year, and 4-year biopsies was evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. At study enrollment, 1,233 (15%), 3,203 (39%), and 3,754 (46%) men were current, former, and never smokers, respectively. Current smokers were significantly younger and had smaller prostates than former and never smokers (all P < 0.05). Former smokers were significantly heavier than current and never smokers (P < 0.001). Acute and chronic prostate inflammations were identified in 1,261 (15%) and 6,352 (78%) baseline biopsies, respectively. In univariable analysis, current smokers were more likely to have acute inflammation than former (OR, 1.35; P, 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 1.36; P, 0.001). The results were unchanged at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In contrast, current smoking was linked with chronic inflammation in the baseline biopsy, but not at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In conclusion, among men undergoing prostate biopsy, current smoking was independently associated with acute and possibly chronic prostate inflammations.
Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe
Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716
Meydani, Simin N.; Das, Sai K.; Pieper, Carl F.; Lewis, Michael R.; Klein, Sam; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Gupta, Alok K.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Huang, Megan; Fuss, Paul J.; Roberts, Susan B.; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi
Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype. PMID:27410480
Deaglio, Silvia; Robson, Simon C
Evolving studies in models of transplant rejection, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer, among others, have implicated purinergic signaling in clinical manifestations of vascular injury and thrombophilia, inflammation, and immune disturbance. Within the vasculature, spatial and temporal expression of CD39 nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) family members together with CD73 ecto-5'-nucleotidase control platelet activation, thrombus size, and stability. This is achieved by closely regulated phosphohydrolytic activities to scavenge extracellular nucleotides, maintain P2-receptor integrity, and coordinate adenosinergic signaling responses. The CD38/CD157 family of extracellular NADases degrades NAD(+) and generates Ca(2+)-active metabolites, including cyclic ADP ribose and ADP ribose. These mediators regulate leukocyte adhesion and chemotaxis. These mechanisms are crucial in vascular homeostasis, hemostasis, thrombogenesis, and during inflammation. There has been recent interest in ectonucleotidase expression by immune cells. CD39 expression identifies Langerhans-type dendritic cells and efficiently distinguishes T regulatory cells from other resting or activated T cells. CD39, together with CD73 in mice, serves as an integral component of the suppressive machinery of T cells. Purinergic responses also impact generation of T helper-type 17 cells. Further, CD38 and changes in NAD(+) availability modulate ADP ribosylation of the cytolytic P2X7 receptor that deletes T regulatory cells. Expression of CD39, CD73, and CD38 ectonucleotidases on either endothelial or immune cells allows for homeostatic integration and control of vascular inflammatory and immune cell reactions at sites of injury. Ongoing development of therapeutic strategies targeting these and other ectonucleotidases offers promise for the management of vascular thrombosis, disordered inflammation, and aberrant immune reactivity.
Wong, Letitia; Hutson, Paul R.; Bushman, Wade
Inflammation of the prostate is strongly correlated with development of lower urinary tract symptoms and several studies have implicated prostatic fibrosis in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction. It has been postulated that inflammation induces prostatic fibrosis but this relationship has never been tested. Here, we characterized the fibrotic response to inflammation in a mouse model of chronic bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation. Transurethral instillation of the uropathogenic E. coli into C3H/HeOuJ male mice induced persistent prostatic inflammation followed by a significant increase in collagen deposition and hydroxyproline content. This fibrotic response to inflammation was accompanied with an increase in collagen synthesis determined by the incorporation of 3H-hydroxyproline and mRNA expression of several collagen remodeling-associated genes, including Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Mmp2, Mmp9, and Lox. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation of inflammation severity with collagen deposition and immunohistochemical staining revealed that CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes were abundant in inflamed prostates at the time point coinciding with increased collagen synthesis. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of these CD45+VIM+ fibrocytes among collagen type I expressing cells. These data show–for the first time–that chronic prostatic inflammation induces collagen deposition and implicates fibrocytes in the fibrotic process. PMID:24950301
Stoyanov, Evgeniy; Ludwig, Guy; Mizrahi, Lina; Olam, Devorah; Schnitzer-Perlman, Temima; Tasika, Elena; Sass, Gabriele; Tiegs, Gisa; Jiang, Yong; Nie, Ting; Kohler, James; Schinazi, Raymond F; Vertino, Paula M; Cedar, Howard; Galun, Eithan; Goldenberg, Daniel
Chronic liver inflammation precedes the majority of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Here, we explore the connection between chronic inflammation and DNA methylation in the liver at the late precancerous stages of HCC development in Mdr2(-/-) (Mdr2/Abcb4-knockout) mice, a model of inflammation-mediated HCC. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization with "CpG islands" (CGIs) microarrays, we found specific CGIs in 76 genes which were hypermethylated in the Mdr2(-/-) liver compared to age-matched healthy controls. The observed hypermethylation resulted mainly from an age-dependent decrease of methylation of the specific CGIs in control livers with no decrease in mutant mice. Chronic inflammation did not change global levels of DNA methylation in Mdr2(-/-) liver, but caused a 2-fold decrease of the global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine level in mutants compared to controls. Liver cell fractionation revealed, that the relative hypermethylation of specific CGIs in Mdr2(-/-) livers affected either hepatocyte, or non-hepatocyte, or both fractions without a correlation between changes of gene methylation and expression. Our findings demonstrate that chronic liver inflammation causes hypermethylation of specific CGIs, which may affect both hepatocytes and non-hepatocyte liver cells. These changes may serve as useful markers of an increased regenerative activity and of a late precancerous stage in the chronically inflamed liver.
Lacoste, J Y; Bousquet, J; Chanez, P; Van Vyve, T; Simony-Lafontaine, J; Lequeu, N; Vic, P; Enander, I; Godard, P; Michel, F B
Eosinophils but not neutrophils may play a role in the airway inflammation of asthma. In chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neutrophils are present in the airways. To differentiate among the pathology of asthma, CB, and COPD eosinophils and neutrophils were studied in peripheral blood, bronchial biopsy specimens, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We studied nine nonsmoking healthy subjects, 20 nonsmoking patients with asthma, 10 nonatopic smoking patients with CB (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 98.4% +/- 11.3%) and 17 patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 51.2% +/- 14.3%). Eosinophils were characterized by their enumeration in biopsy specimens (EG2 monoclonal antibody), peripheral blood, and BALF and by measurement of eosinophil cationic protein in BALF. Neutrophils were characterized by their enumeration in biopsy specimens (anti-elastase monoclonal antibody) and BALF and by measurement of neutrophil-specific myeloperoxidase in BALF. In patients with asthma we found degranulated eosinophils in biopsy specimens and significantly increased eosinophil cationic protein levels in BALF. In patients with CB or COPD, eosinophil numbers in biopsy specimens were not significantly different from those of patients with asthma, but cells were not degranulated and eosinophil cationic protein levels in BALF were similar to those of normal subjects. In patients with CB or COPD neutrophils were not increased in the mucosa, but neutrophil numbers and myeloperoxidase levels in BALF were significantly increased. The percentages of neutrophils in BALF were greater in patients with COPD than in those with CB, suggesting a role in the chronic airflow limitation.
McDade, Thomas W; Borja, Judith B; Largado, Fe; Adair, Linda S; Kuzawa, Christopher W
Background: Rates of overweight and obesity are on the rise globally, and excess adipose tissue may contribute to elevations in inflammation during pregnancy, leading to pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate adiposity and inflammation in young women as predictors of inflammation in the third trimester of pregnancy in a community-based sample of healthy women. Methods: Female participants (24–30 y) in a prospective observational cohort study (Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey) were contacted between 2009 and 2014 to identify new pregnancies. A total of 309 women provided data from 409 pregnancies. An in-home interview was scheduled for the third trimester to collect pregnancy information, anthropometric measurements, and a blood sample. Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured with a high-sensitivity immunoassay. Data collected from assessments in 2005 and 2009 were used to assess body mass index (BMI) and CRP in young adulthood, before pregnancy. Robust regression models were implemented to evaluate BMI and CRP in young adulthood as predictors of pregnancy CRP. Results: Pre-pregnancy BMI was a stronger predictor of third-trimester circulating CRP than BMI in the third trimester. No association was found between pregnancy weight gain and CRP. Pre-pregnancy CRP was a significant predictor of CRP in pregnancy, independent of BMI. Conclusions: Levels of overweight/obesity and inflammation in young adulthood, before pregnancy, are important predictors of inflammation in the third trimester of pregnancy. These results may have implications for addressing the growing concern about the contribution of obesity to adverse birth outcomes, and they suggest that factors that influence the regulation of inflammation, before pregnancy and independent of adiposity, may be important in shaping the inflammatory response to pregnancy. PMID:26764318
Wong, Letitia; Hutson, Paul R.; Bushman, Wade
Background Prostatic inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms by inducing fibrosis. We previously used a well-characterized mouse model of bacterial-induced prostate inflammation to demonstrate that chronic prostatic inflammation induces collagen deposition. Here, we examined stability of the newly synthesized collagen in bacterial-induced prostatic inflammation and the reversibility of fibrosis after resolution of infection and inflammation. Methods Uropathogenic E. coli 1677 was instilled transurethrally into adult C3H/HeOuJ male mice to induce chronic prostatic inflammation. Collagen was labeled by 3H-proline administration for 28 days post-inoculation and 3H-hydroxyproline incorporation measured to determine stability of the newly synthesized collagen. Inflammation score was graded using a previously established system and total collagen content was measured by picrosirius red staining quantitation and hydroxyproline content. Resolution of inflammation and reversal of collagen deposition was assessed after treatment with antibiotic enrofloxacin for two weeks on day 28 post-inoculation followed by an eight-week recovery period. Results Decay analysis of incorporated 3H-hydroxyproline revealed the half-life of newly synthesized collagen to be significantly shorter in infected/inflamed prostates than in controls. Treatment with antibiotic enrofloxacin completely eradicated bacterial infection and allowed resolution of inflammation. This was followed by marked attenuation of collagen content and correlation analysis verified a positive association between the resolution of inflammation and the reversal of collagen deposition. Conclusions These data demonstrate, for the first time, that inflammation-induced prostatic fibrosis is a reversible process. PMID:25284058
Capuron, Lucile; Geisler, Simon; Kurz, Katharina; Leblhuber, Friedrich; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar
Immune activation not only accompanies inflammation in various disorders including infections, autoimmune syndromes and cancer, but it also represents a characteristic feature of ageing. Immune deviations which are most widely expressed in the elderly include increased neopterin production and tryptophan breakdown. These biochemical events result from the activation of the immune system and are preferentially triggered by pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as the Th1-type cytokine interferon-γ. They seem to play a role in the development of several age-related disorders and might be involved in the pathogenesis of common symptoms, including neurobehavioral disorders (e.g., cognitive and mood disturbances), anemia, cachexia, weight-loss but also immunodeficiency. Concentrations of the biomarkers neopterin and Kyn/Trp were found to be predictive of overall disease specific mortality in coronary artery disease, infections and various types of cancer. Immune activation and inflammation are also accompanied by high output of reactive oxygen species and thereby may lead to the development of oxidative stress and contribute to the vitamin deficiency which is often observed in the elderly. Accordingly, increases in neopterin were found to correlate with a substantial decline in key vitamins, including folate and vitamin-B6, - B12, -C, -D and -E.
Genescà, Meritxell; Ma, Zhong-Min; Wang, Yichuan; Assaf, Basel; Qureshi, Huma; Fritts, Linda; Huang, Ying; McChesney, Michael B.
Immunization with attenuated lentiviruses is the only reliable method of protecting rhesus macaques (RM) from vaginal challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). CD8+ lymphocyte depletion prior to SIVmac239 vaginal challenge demonstrated that a modest, Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response induced by immunization with simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6 (SHIV89.6) protects RM. Although CD8+ T cells are required for protection, there is no anamnestic expansion of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in any tissues except the vagina after challenge. Further, SHIV immunization increased the number of viral target cells in the vagina and cervix, suggesting that the ratio of target cells to antiviral CD8+ T cells was not a determinant of protection. We hypothesized that persistent replication of the attenuated vaccine virus modulates inflammatory responses and limits T cell activation and expansion by inducing immunoregulatory T cell populations. We found that attenuated SHIV infection decreased the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suppressed T cell activation, decreased mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased mRNA levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Three days after SIV vaginal challenge, SHIV-immunized RM had significantly more T regulatory cells in the vagina than the unimmunized RM. By day 14 postchallenge, immune activation and inflammation were characteristic of unimmunized RM but were minimal in SHIV-immunized RM. Thus, a modest vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response in the context of immunoregulatory suppression of T cell activation may protect against vaginal HIV transmission. PMID:22696662
Genescà, Meritxell; Ma, Zhong-Min; Wang, Yichuan; Assaf, Basel; Qureshi, Huma; Fritts, Linda; Huang, Ying; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J
Immunization with attenuated lentiviruses is the only reliable method of protecting rhesus macaques (RM) from vaginal challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion prior to SIVmac239 vaginal challenge demonstrated that a modest, Gag-specific CD8(+) T cell response induced by immunization with simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6 (SHIV89.6) protects RM. Although CD8(+) T cells are required for protection, there is no anamnestic expansion of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in any tissues except the vagina after challenge. Further, SHIV immunization increased the number of viral target cells in the vagina and cervix, suggesting that the ratio of target cells to antiviral CD8(+) T cells was not a determinant of protection. We hypothesized that persistent replication of the attenuated vaccine virus modulates inflammatory responses and limits T cell activation and expansion by inducing immunoregulatory T cell populations. We found that attenuated SHIV infection decreased the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suppressed T cell activation, decreased mRNA levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased mRNA levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Three days after SIV vaginal challenge, SHIV-immunized RM had significantly more T regulatory cells in the vagina than the unimmunized RM. By day 14 postchallenge, immune activation and inflammation were characteristic of unimmunized RM but were minimal in SHIV-immunized RM. Thus, a modest vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell response in the context of immunoregulatory suppression of T cell activation may protect against vaginal HIV transmission.
Demirtaş, Tuğçe; Utkan, Tijen; Karson, Ayşe; Yazır, Yusufhan; Bayramgürler, Dilek; Gacar, Nejat
Inflammation has been suggested to be associated with stress-induced depression and cardiovascular dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a major cytokine in the activation of neuroendocrine, immune, and behavioral responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of infliximab (a TNF-α inhibitor) on endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity, systemic blood pressure, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity in the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model of depression in rats. There was no significant change between all groups in the systemic blood pressure. In UCMS, endothelium-dependent relaxation of the smooth muscle in response to carbachol was significantly decreased with 50 % maximal response (E max) and pD2 values compared with the controls. Infliximab was able to reverse this UCMS effect. Relaxation in response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside and papaverine and KCl-induced contractile responses was similar between groups. In UCMS, decreased expression of eNOS was detected. Moreover, there was no significant change in UCMS + infliximab group with respect to control rats. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) could be a major mediator of vascular dysfunction associated with UCMS, leading to decreased expression of eNOS.
Honneffer, Julia B; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S
The intestinal microbiota is the collection of the living microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. Novel bacterial identification approaches have revealed that the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs and cats is, similarly to humans, a highly complex ecosystem. Studies in dogs and cats have demonstrated that acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with alterations in the small intestinal and fecal microbial communities. Of interest is that these alterations are generally similar to the dysbiosis observed in humans with IBD or animal models of intestinal inflammation, suggesting that microbial responses to inflammatory conditions of the gut are conserved across mammalian host types. Studies have also revealed possible underlying susceptibilities in the innate immune system of dogs and cats with IBD, which further demonstrate the intricate relationship between gut microbiota and host health. Commonly identified microbiome changes in IBD are decreases in bacterial groups within the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increases within Proteobacteia. Furthermore, a reduction in the diversity of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium coccoides subgroups) are associated with IBD, suggesting that these bacterial groups may play an important role in maintenance of gastrointestinal health. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the functional changes associated with intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats. PMID:25469017
Honneffer, Julia B; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S
The intestinal microbiota is the collection of the living microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. Novel bacterial identification approaches have revealed that the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs and cats is, similarly to humans, a highly complex ecosystem. Studies in dogs and cats have demonstrated that acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with alterations in the small intestinal and fecal microbial communities. Of interest is that these alterations are generally similar to the dysbiosis observed in humans with IBD or animal models of intestinal inflammation, suggesting that microbial responses to inflammatory conditions of the gut are conserved across mammalian host types. Studies have also revealed possible underlying susceptibilities in the innate immune system of dogs and cats with IBD, which further demonstrate the intricate relationship between gut microbiota and host health. Commonly identified microbiome changes in IBD are decreases in bacterial groups within the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increases within Proteobacteia. Furthermore, a reduction in the diversity of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium coccoides subgroups) are associated with IBD, suggesting that these bacterial groups may play an important role in maintenance of gastrointestinal health. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the functional changes associated with intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats.
Spyridaki, Eirini C; Simos, Panagiotis; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina D; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Venihaki, Maria; Bardos, Achilles N; Margioris, Andrew N
Published evidence suggests that obesity impairs cognition. Development of chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) represents the earliest consequence of obesity. The present study investigated the association between obesity and fluid intelligence impairment and assessed the potential mediating role of CLGI and psychological (depression/anxiety symptoms), lifestyle (exercise) and physiological (metabolic dysfunction indices) factors in this association. Clinically healthy participants (n 188), grouped as per BMI, underwent cognitive (General Ability Measure for Adults), psychological (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and activity (Godin leisure-time physical activity) measurements. Biochemical parameters included the following: (a) indices of CLGI (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen); (b) insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index); (c) adiposity (plasma adiponectin). An inverse association between elevated BMI and fluid intelligence was observed, with obese participants displaying significantly poorer performance compared with age-matched normal-weight peers. Structural equation modelling results were consistent with a negative impact of obesity on cognition that was mediated by CLGI. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that reduced general cognitive ability is associated with obesity, an adverse effect mainly mediated by obesity-associated activation of innate immunity.
Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Macal, Monica; Grishina, Irina; Nagy, Lauren; Goulart, Larissa; Coolidge, Kathryn; Li, Jay; Fenton, Anne; Williams, Theodore; Miller, Mary K; Flamm, Jason; Prindiville, Thomas; George, Michael; Dandekar, Satya
Women and men have diverse responses to many infectious diseases. These differences are amplified following menopause. However, despite extensive information regarding the effects of sex hormones on immune cells, our knowledge is limited regarding the effects of sex and gender on the function of the mucosal immune system. Sex differences also manifest in the prevalence of gut associated inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and Celiac disease. It is thus hypothesized that a baseline sex-associated difference in immune activation may predispose women to inflammation-associated disease. Peripheral blood samples and small intestinal biopsies were obtained from 34 healthy men and women. Immunophenotypic analysis of isolated lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Oligonucleotide analysis was used to study the transcriptional profile in the gut mucosal microenvironment while real-time PCR analysis was utilized to identify differential gene expression in isolated CD4+ T cells. Transcriptional analysis was confirmed by protein expression levels for genes of interest using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Data was analyzed using the GraphPad software package. Women had higher levels of immune activation and inflammation-associated gene expression in gut mucosal samples. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells had a significantly higher level of immune activation-associated phenotype in peripheral blood as well as in gut associated lymphoid tissue along with higher levels of proliferating T cells. CD4+ T cells that showed upregulation of IL1β as well as the TH17 pathway-associated genes contributed a large part of the inflammatory profile. In this study, we demonstrated an upregulation in gene expression related to immune function in the gut microenvironment of women compared to men, in the absence of disease or pathology. Upon closer investigation, CD4+ T cell activation levels were higher in the LPLs in women than in men. Sex
Reid, W Darlene; Rurak, Jennifer; Harris, R Luke
To describe how inflammation affects muscle adaptation and performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an increasingly sedentary lifestyle is a primary contributor to muscle dysfunction that results in a loss of mobility and independence and, ultimately, mortality. Given the systemic chronic inflammation and profound limb muscle atrophy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is tempting to speculate that the inflammatory process is deleterious to skeletal muscle. In healthy people, however, the inflammatory process initially is dominated by a destructive phase that is tightly regulated and modulates a reparative, regenerative phase. Although the inflammatory process and associated oxidative stress is more closely connected to muscle wasting in animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the causative role of inflammation toward muscle atrophy and weakness in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has not been definitively shown. Anti-inflammatory interventions aimed toward tempering muscle wasting and weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may not prove to be beneficial because of longer-term disruption of the regeneration of muscle tissue. Temporally and spatially targeted interventions aimed toward ameliorating oxidative stress, such as antioxidants, nutritional supplements, and chronic exercise training, may optimize outcomes toward maintaining muscle mass and performance.
Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L
The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have successfully performed all testing of the approximately 600 samples (200 CFS /ME patients vs 397 healthy...in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome ( CFS )/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME). It is likely that these findings will also result in an...unveil the pathogenesis of ME/ CFS and subsequently of GWI. It appears that we will gain a significant understanding of the immune responses and
Sawyer, Richard T.; Maier, Lisa A.
During the last decade, there have been concerted efforts to reduce beryllium (Be) exposure in the workplace and thereby reduce potential cases of this occupational lung disorder. Despite these efforts, it is estimated that there are at least one million Be-exposed individuals in the U.S. who are potentially at risk for developing chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Previously, we reviewed the current CBD literature and proposed that CBD represents a model interaction between innate and acquired immunity (Sawyer et al., Int Immunopharmacol 2:249–261, 2002). We closed this review with a section on “future directions” that identified key gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of CBD. In the intervening period, progress has been made to fill in some of these gaps, and the current review will provide an update on that progress. Based on recent findings, we provide a new hypothesis to explain how Be drives sustained chronic inflammation and granuloma formation in CBD leading to progressive compromised lung function in CBD patients. This paradigm has direct implications for our understanding of the development of an immune response to Be, but is also likely applicable to other immune-mediated lung diseases of known and unknown etiology. PMID:20981472
Dutta, Pujarini; Das, Santasabuj
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are integral components of the host innate immune system and functional throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. AMPs are short cationic molecules and lethal against a wide range of bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoa due to their membranolytic effects on the negatively-charged microbial membranes. In addition, they exert multiple immunomodulatory roles like chemotaxis, modulation of cytokine and chemokine expression, leukocyte activation etc. Since AMPs suffer loss of microbicidal properties under serum and tissue environments, their capacity to modulate the immune system may predominates under the physiological conditions. Discovery of new antibiotics is lagging far behind the rapidly spreading drug resistance among the microorganisms. Both natural and synthetic AMPs have shown promise as 'next generation antibiotics' due to their unique mode of action, which minimises the chance of development of microbial resistance. In addition, they have therapeutic potential against non-infectious diseases like chronic inflammation and cancer. Many of the synthetic AMPs are currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of debilitating diseases, such as catheter-related infections, diabetic foot ulcers, chemotherapy-associated infections etc. Some of them have already entered the market as topical preparations. In this review, we synopsise the current literature of natural and synthetic AMPs in different infectious and inflammatory diseases of human microfloral habitats, especially the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and the skin. We also discuss the classification of AMPs, their mode action and antimicrobial spectrum, including the pathogen evasion mechanisms. In short, we tried to present the locus standi of AMPs in relation to human diseases and highlight the most promising synthetic peptides emerging from the clinical trials. Finally, we focused on the limitations and hurdles in terms of cost of
Insulin resistance (IR) is a general phenomenon of many physiological states, disease states, and diseases. IR has been described in diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, chronic mental stress, and others. In arthritis, abnormalities of glucose homeostasis were described in 1920; and in 1950 combined glucose and insulin tests unmistakably demonstrated IR. The phenomenon is now described in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and others. In chronic inflammatory diseases, cytokine-neutralizing strategies normalize insulin sensitivity. This paper delineates that IR is either based on inflammatory factors (activation of the immune/ repair system) or on the brain (mental activation via stress axes). Due to the selfishness of the immune system and the selfishness of the brain, both can induce IR independent of each other. Consequently, the immune system can block the brain (for example, by sickness behavior) and the brain can block the immune system (for example, stress-induced immune system alterations). Based on considerations of evolutionary medicine, it is discussed that obesity per se is not a disease. Obesity-related IR depends on provoking factors from either the immune system or the brain. Chronic inflammation and/or stress axis activation are thus needed for obesity-related IR. Due to redundant pathways in stimulating IR, a simple one factor-neutralizing strategy might help in chronic inflammatory diseases (inflammation is the key), but not in obesity-related IR. The new considerations towards IR are interrelated to the published theories of IR (thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, and others). PMID:25608958
Gracon, Adam S A; Wilkes, David S
Despite significant medical advances since the advent of lung transplantation, improvements in long-term survival have been largely unrealized. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction, in particular obliterative bronchiolitis, is the primary limiting factor. The predominant etiology of obliterative bronchiolitis involves the recipient's innate and adaptive immune response to the transplanted allograft. Current therapeutic strategies have failed to provide a definitive treatment paradigm to improve long-term outcomes. Inducing immune tolerance is an emerging therapeutic strategy that abrogates allograft rejection, avoids immunosuppression, and improves long-term graft function. The aim of this review is to discuss the key immunologic components of obliterative bronchiolitis, describe the state of establishing immune tolerance in transplantation, and highlight those strategies being evaluated in lung transplantation.
Mendel, O I; Luchihina, L V; Mendel, W
This article presents review on the processes underlying aging and the most common age-associated diseases. Special attention is given to the role of chronic nonspecific inflammation. Based on the literature data it was demonstrated that aging and osteoarthritis have the same basic molecular and cellular mechanisms, among which general are cascades intracellular transcription chronic nonspecific inflammation and metabolic disturbances plays an important role. It is concluded that the process of normal aging is not a disease, but makes the human body, and particularly the musculoskeletal system, susceptible to age-associated changes. Number of changes in the human body that accompany the aging process, and play a role in the development and progression of OA, are potentially reversible, regardless of age (eg, chronic non-specific inflammation), and can be considered as a possible entry points for the effective prevention and complex therapy of OA in elderly people.
Honchel, R.; Rhoads, C.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.A.; McClain, C.J.; Kaplan, A.M.; Cohen, D.A. )
Chronic alcohol abuse in humans is often associated with diminished immune reactivity and enhanced susceptibility to infections. However, many alcohol-dependent individuals display signs of autoimmunity, which has been implicated in alcohol-associated liver damage. This study demonstrates that C57Bl/6 mice placed on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet for up to 9 weeks displayed augmented immune reactivity as compared to mice placed on an isocaloric control diet. Spleen cells were significantly more responsive to the mitogens, LPS and ConA, as early as 3 weeks after initiation of EtOH feeding and this hyperresponsiveness persisted throughout the 9 week feeding period. Similar enhancement of the mixed lymphocyte response was also seen in EtOH fed mice. The enhancement of immune responsiveness was not related to a change in the numbers or percentages of B cells, T cells, or in the CD4/CD8 T cell ratios as determined by flow cytometry. These studies indicate that under certain conditions of ethanol feeding in mice, enhancement rather than suppression of the immune system may occur. This system may be a model to evaluate possible induction of autoimmune responses during chronic ethanol abuse. Studies are underway to measure the presence of auto-antibodies in the sera of these ethanol fed mice.
Yoshino, S; Bacon, P A; Blake, D R; Scott, D L; Wainwright, A C; Walton, K W
Continuing antigen-induced inflammation was established in a subcutaneous air pouch in rats by recurrent local challenge. The animals were sensitized using bovine serum albumin in Freund's complete adjuvant and were challenged 14 days later by injection of the antigen in a solution containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose into the air pouch to produce allergic inflammation. A single antigenic challenge induced acute inflammation with a predominantly polymorph infiltration in the first 48 h. Later samples showed a low-grade mononuclear response which persisted for 4-5 days. Repeated challenge produced chronic inflammation with an accentuated mononuclear response. Connective tissue activation involving fibronectin and collagen was seen as the inflammation progressed, and this was associated with production of ferritin by mononuclear cells. Discontinuation of challenge injections resulted in resolution of the granuloma. We suggest this model can be used to investigate the mechanisms involved in chronic inflammatory diseases with an immunological component and to evaluate the effects of therapeutic intervention upon chronic allergic inflammation.
Varghese, Rosin; Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kattimani, Shivanand; Archana, Mony; Munisamy, Malathi; Revathy, Gunaseelan; Thappa, Devinder Mohan
Chronic urticaria (CU) is an immune-mediated disease characterized by wheals for at least 6 weeks. The role of stress and the correlation of stress, hypocortisolism, and inflammatory markers are not well understood. To estimate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-18, and cortisol levels in patients with CU and to explore their association with disease severity and stress. Forty-five patients with CU and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Disease severity was assessed by the urticaria activity score (UAS) and stress by Presumptive Stressful Life Events (PSLE) and Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scale-Revised (DHUS-R) scoring. IL-18 and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and cortisol levels by chemiluminescence. We observed significant systemic inflammation (increased hs-CRP and IL-18 levels) and stress scores, whereas there was a lowering of basal cortisol levels in patients with CU compared with controls. This finding was more pronounced with increasing disease severity and autoimmune disease, except for stress scores, which did not vary between patients with positive and negative autologous plasma skin test results. We further observed that patients with CU with hypocortisolism had higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 and higher PSLE and DHUS-R scores compared with those without hypocortisolism. The hs-CRP level, IL-18 level, PSLE score, DHUS-R score, and duration of the symptoms are significantly positively correlated with UAS, whereas the cortisol level is significantly negatively correlated with UAS. Cortisol has a significant negative correlation with PSLE score, DHUS-R score, and the duration of the disease. CU is associated with systemic inflammation and stress, along with a significant lower basal cortisol, especially with severe disease and autoimmune urticaria. Thus, chronic stress may precipitate the vicious cycle in the pathogenesis of CU
Brest, P; Corcelle, E A; Cesaro, A; Chargui, A; Belaïd, A; Klionsky, D J; Vouret-Craviari, V; Hebuterne, X; Hofman, P; Mograbi, B
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are common inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The incidences of IBD are high in North America and Europe, affecting as many as one in 500 people. These diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Colorectal cancer risk is also increased in IBD, correlating with inflammation severity and duration. IBD are now recognized as complex multigenetic disorders involving at least 32 different risk loci. In 2007, two different autophagy-related genes, ATG16L1 (autophagy-related gene 16-like 1) and IRGM (immunity-related GTPase M) were shown to be specifically involved in CD susceptibility by three independent genome-wide association studies. Soon afterwards, more than forty studies confirmed the involvement of ATG16L1 and IRGM variants in CD susceptibility and gave new information on the importance of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) in the control of infection, inflammation, immunity and cancer. In this review, we discuss how such findings have undoubtedly changed our understanding of CD pathogenesis. A unifying autophagy model then emerges that may help in understanding the development of CD from bacterial infection, to inflammation and finally cancer. The Pandora's box is now open, releasing a wave of hope for new therapeutic strategies in treating Crohn's disease.
Panickar, Kiran S; Jewell, Dennis E
Aging in humans is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation (systemic), and this condition is sometimes referred to as "inflammaging". In general, canines also age similarly to humans, and such aging is associated with a decline in mobility, joint problems, weakened muscles and bones, reduced lean body mass, cancer, increased dermatological problems, decline in cognitive ability, reduced energy, decreased immune function, decreased renal function, and urinary incontinence. Each of these conditions is also associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. An inflammatory state characterized by an increase in pro-inflammatory markers including but not restricted to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, IL-1β, and C-reactive protein (CRP) is believed to contribute to or worsen a general decline in biological mechanisms responsible for physical function with aging. Nutritional management of inflammation in aging dogs is important in maintaining health. In particular, natural botanicals have bioactive components that appear to have robust anti-inflammatory effects and, when included in the diet, may contribute to a reduction in inflammation. While there are scientific data to support the anti-inflammatory effects and the efficacy of such bioactive molecules from botanicals, the clinical data are limited and more studies are needed to validate the efficacy of these ingredients. This review will summarize the role of dietary ingredients in reducing inflammatory molecules as well as review the evidence available to support the role of diet and nutrition in reducing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in animal and human studies with a special reference to canines, where possible.
Ohyama, K; Huy, N T; Yoshimi, H; Kishikawa, N; Nishizawa, J E; Roca, Y; Revollo Guzmán, R J; Velarde, F U G; Kuroda, N; Hirayama, K
Immune complexes (ICs) are the direct and real-time products of humoral immune responses. The identification of constituent foreign or autoantigens within ICs might bring new insights into the pathology of infectious diseases. We applied immune complexome analysis of plasma to the study of Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Twenty seropositive plasma samples including cardiac and/or megacolon determinate patients (n = 11) and indeterminate (n = 9) were analysed along with 10 seronegative individuals to characterize the antigens bound to circulating ICs. We identified 39 T. cruzi antigens and 114 human autoantigens specific to patients with Chagas. Among those antigens, two T. cruzi antigens (surface protease GP63, glucose-6-isomerase) and six human autoantigens (CD180 antigen, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen beta chain, fibrinogen beta chain isoform 2 preprotein, isoform gamma-A of fibrinogen γ-chain, serum paraoxonase) were detected in more than 50% of the patients tested. Human isoform short of complement factor H-related protein 2 and trans-sialidase of T. cruzi were more frequently found in the indeterminate (5/9 for both) compared with in the determinate Chagas (0/11, P = 0·046 for human, 1/11, P = 0·0498 for T. cruzi). The immune complexome could illustrate the difference of immune status between clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhao, Fei; Pang, Wentao; Zhang, Ziyi; Zhao, Jialong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ye; Wang, Xun; Feng, Zhihui; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Wenyan; Liu, Jiankang
Obesity is reported to be associated with immune dysfunction and a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation. Either pomegranate extract (PomE) or exercise (Ex) has been shown to have antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, no study has addressed the additive benefits of PomE and Ex on the restoration of obesity-induced immune defects. The present work aims to study the effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention on immune function and the underlying mechanism involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in rats with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that the combination of PomE and Ex showed additive benefits on inhibition of HFD-induced body weight increase and improvement of HFD-induced immune dysfunction, including (a) attenuating the abnormality of histomorphology of the spleen, (b) increasing the ratio of the CD4+:CD8+ T cell subpopulations in splenocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (c) inhibition of apoptosis in splenocytes and PBMC, (d) normalizing peritoneal macrophage phenotypes and (e) restoring immunomodulating factors in serum. We also find that immune dysfunction in HFD-fed rats was associated with increased inflammatory cytokine secretion and oxidative stress biomarkers, and that the combination of PomE and Ex effectively inhibited the inflammatory response and decreased oxidative damage. The effect of PomE and Ex as a combined intervention is greater than the effect of either PomE or Ex alone, showing that PomE and Ex may be additively effective in improving immune function in HFD-fed rats by inhibiting inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nie, Catherine Q.; Bernard, Nicholas J.; Norman, M. Ursula; Amante, Fiona H.; Lundie, Rachel J.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Heath, William R.; Engwerda, Christian R.; Hickey, Michael J.; Schofield, Louis; Hansen, Diana S.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 660 million clinical cases with over 2 million deaths each year. Acquired host immunity limits the clinical impact of malaria infection and provides protection against parasite replication. Experimental evidence indicates that cell-mediated immune responses also result in detrimental inflammation and contribute to severe disease induction. In both humans and mice, the spleen is a crucial organ involved in blood stage malaria clearance, while organ-specific disease appears to be associated with sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in vascular beds and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes. Using a rodent model of cerebral malaria, we have previously found that the majority of T lymphocytes in intravascular infiltrates of cerebral malaria-affected mice express the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Here we investigated the effect of IP-10 blockade in the development of experimental cerebral malaria and the induction of splenic anti-parasite immunity. We found that specific neutralization of IP-10 over the course of infection and genetic deletion of this chemokine in knockout mice reduces cerebral intravascular inflammation and is sufficient to protect P. berghei ANKA-infected mice from fatality. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that lack of IP-10 during infection significantly reduces peripheral parasitemia. The increased resistance to infection observed in the absence of IP-10-mediated cell trafficking was associated with retention and subsequent expansion of parasite-specific T cells in spleens of infected animals, which appears to be advantageous for the control of parasite burden. Thus, our results demonstrate that modulating homing of cellular immune responses to malaria is critical for reaching a balance between protective immunity and immunopathogenesis. PMID:19343215
Schmidt, Frank M.; Kirkby, Kenneth C.; Lichtblau, Nicole
Growing evidence supports a mutual relationship between inflammation and major depression. A variety of mechanisms are outlined, indicating how inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis, course and treatment of major depression. In particular, this review addresses 1) inflammatory cytokines as markers of depression and potential predictors of treatment response, 2) findings that cytokines interact with antidepressants and non-pharmacological antidepressive therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation and physical activity, 3) the influence of cytokines on the cytochrome (CYP) p450-system and drug efflux transporters, and 4) how cascades of inflammation might serve as antidepressant drug targets. A number of clinical trials have focused on agents with immunmodulatory properties in the treatment of depression, of which this review covers nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cytokine inhibitors, ketamine, polyunsaturated fatty acids, statins and curcumin. A perspective is also provided on possible future immune targets for antidepressant therapy, such as toll-like receptor-inhibitors, glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, oleanolic acid analogs and minocycline. Concluding from the available data, markers of inflammation may become relevant factors for more personalised planning and prediction of response of antidepressant treatment strategies. Agents with anti-inflammatory properties have the potential to serve as clinically relevant antidepressants. Further studies are required to better define and identify subgroups of patients responsive to inflammatory agents as well as to define optimal time points for treatment onset and duration. PMID:26769225
Owens, Benjamin M. J.
Stromal cells of multiple tissues contribute to immune-mediated protective responses and, conversely, the pathological tissue changes associated with chronic inflammatory disease. However, unlike hematopoietic immune cells, tissue stromal cell populations remain poorly characterized with respect to specific surface marker expression, their ontogeny, self-renewal, and proliferative capacity within tissues and the extent to which they undergo phenotypic immunological changes during the course of an infectious or inflammatory insult. Extending our knowledge of the immunological features of stromal cells provides an exciting opportunity to further dissect the underlying biology of many important immune-mediated diseases, although several challenges remain in bringing the emerging field of stromal immunology to equivalence with the study of the hematopoietic immune cell compartment. This review highlights recent studies that have begun unraveling the complexity of tissue stromal cell function in immune responses, with a focus on the intestine, and proposes strategies for the development of the field to uncover the great potential for stromal immunology to contribute to our understanding of the fundamental pathophysiology of disease, and the opening of new therapeutic avenues in multiple chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26150817
Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Pino, Jesús; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Mera, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gualillo, Oreste
Leptin is one of the most relevant factors secreted by adipose tissue and the forerunner of a class of molecules collectively called adipokines. Initially discovered in 1994, its crucial role as a central regulator in energy homeostasis has been largely described during the past 20 years. Once secreted into the circulation, leptin reaches the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts by binding and activating the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR), regulating appetite and food intake, bone mass, basal metabolism, reproductive function and insulin secretion, among other processes. Research on the regulation of different adipose tissues has provided important insights into the intricate network that links nutrition, metabolism and immune homeostasis. The neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bi-directionally through common ligands and receptors during stress responses and inflammation, and control cellular immune responses in several pathological situations including immune-inflammatory rheumatic diseases. This Review discusses the latest findings regarding the role of leptin in the immune system and metabolism, with particular emphasis on its effect on autoimmune and/or inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling is critical to maintain the immune homeostasis under physiological conditions as well as for the control of inflammation in different pathological settings. Recent progress in the signalling pathways that control this balance has led to the development of novel therapeutic agents for diseases characterized by alterations in the activation/suppression of the immune response. Different molecules have a key role in the regulation of the immune system, including the receptors PD-1 (Programmed cell Death 1), CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) and galectins; or the intracellular enzyme IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase). In addition, other molecules as CD69, AhR (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor), and GADD45 (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45) family members, have emerged as potential targets for the regulation of the activation/suppression balance of immune cells. This review offers a perspective on well-characterized as well as emergent negative immune regulatory molecules in the context of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. PMID:22819828
Zelaya, Hortensia; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Villena, Julio
Influenza virus (IFV) is a major respiratory pathogen of global importance, and the cause of a high degree of morbidity and mortality, especially in high-risk populations such as infants, elderly, and immunocompromised hosts. Given its high capacity to change antigenically, acquired immunity is often not effective to limit IFV infection and therefore vaccination must be constantly redesigned to achieve effective protection. Improvement of respiratory and systemic innate immune mechanisms has been proposed to reduce the incidence and severity of IFV disease. In the last decade, several research works have demonstrated that microbes with the capacity to modulate the mucosal immune system (immunobiotics) are a potential alternative to beneficially modulate the outcome of IFV infection. This review provides an update of the current status on the modulation of respiratory immunity by orally and nasally administered immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on IFV clearance and inflammatory-mediated lung tissue damage. In particular, we describe the research of our group that investigated the influence of immunobiotics on inflammation–coagulation interactions during IFV infection. Studies have clearly demonstrated that hostile inflammation is accompanied by dysfunctional coagulation in respiratory IFV disease, and our investigations have proved that some immunobiotic strains are able to reduce viral disease severity through their capacity to modulate the immune-coagulative responses in the respiratory tract. PMID:28066442
Shajib, Md Sharif; Wang, Huaqing; Kim, Janice J; Sunjic, Ivana; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Denou, Emmanuel; Collins, Matthew; Denburg, Judah A; Khan, Waliul I
Infiltration of activated immune cells and increased cytokine production define the immunophenotype of gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. In addition, intestinal inflammation is accompanied by alteration in the numbers of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) synthesizing enterochromaffin (EC) cells and in 5-HT amount. It has been established that EC cells express interleukin (IL)-13 receptor, additionally IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-13 mediated 5-HT signaling in pathogenesis of colitis. Colitis was induced in IL-13 deficient (IL-13-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS), as well as in IL-13-/- mice given recombinant mouse IL-13 (rmIL-13) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTP), the direct precursor of 5-HT. Elevated colonic IL-13 levels were observed in WT mice receiving DSS in comparison to control. IL-13-/- mice administered DSS exhibited significantly reduced severity of colitis compared to WT mice as reflected by macroscopic and histological damage assessments. Following DSS administration, significantly lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production and fewer infiltrating macrophages were observed in IL-13-/- mice compared to WT. The reduced severity of colitis observed in IL-13-/- mice was also accompanied by down-regulation of EC cell numbers and colonic 5-HT content. In addition, increasing colonic 5-HT content by administration of rmIL-13 or 5-HTP exacerbated severity of DSS colitis in IL-13-/- mice. IL-13-/- mice also exhibited reduced severity of DNBS-induced colitis. These results demonstrate that IL-13 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and 5-HT is an important mediator of IL-13 driven intestinal inflammation. This study revealed important information on immune-endocrine axis in gut in relation to inflammation which may ultimately lead to better strategy in managing various intestinal
Boyton, R J; Reynolds, C J; Quigley, K J; Altmann, D M
Recent studies analysing immunogenetics and immune mechanisms controlling susceptibility to chronic bacterial infection in bronchiectasis implicate dysregulated immunity in conjunction with chronic bacterial infection. Bronchiectasis is a structural pathological end-point with many causes and disease associations. In about half of cases it is termed idiopathic, because it is of unknown aetiology. Bronchiectasis is proposed to result from a ‘vicious cycle’ of chronic bacterial infection and dysregulated inflammation. Paradoxically, both immune deficiency and excess immunity, either in the form of autoimmunity or excessive inflammatory activation, can predispose to disease. It appears to be a part of the spectrum of inflammatory, autoimmune and atopic conditions that have increased in prevalence through the 20th century, attributed variously to the hygiene hypothesis or the ‘missing microbiota’. Immunogenetic studies showing a strong association with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw*03 and HLA-C group 1 homozygosity and combinational analysis of HLA-C and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes suggests a shift towards activation of natural killer (NK) cells leading to lung damage. The association with HLA-DR1, DQ5 implicates a role for CD4 T cells, possibly operating through influence on susceptibility to specific pathogens. We hypothesize that disruption of the lung microbial ecosystem, by infection, inflammation and/or antibiotic therapy, creates a disturbed, simplified, microbial community (‘disrupted microbiota’) with downstream consequences for immune function. These events, acting with excessive NK cell activation, create a highly inflammatory lung environment that, in turn, permits the further establishment and maintenance of chronic infection dominated by microbial pathogens. This review discusses the implication of these concepts for the development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:23286938
Liu, Anthony P Y; Cheuk, Daniel K L; Lee, Ana H Y; Lee, Pamela P W; Chiang, Alan K S; Ha, S Y; Tsoi, W C; Chan, Godfrey C F
Twenty percent of children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) develop a chronic course where treatment strategy is less established. Cyclosporin A (CSA) has been shown to be effective in small series of children with chronic ITP and might reduce the need for chronic steroid therapy and/or splenectomy. We reviewed consecutive patients below 18 years old with persistent or chronic ITP treated with CSA in our unit between January 1998 and June 2015. Thirty patients (14 boys and 16 girls) were included. The median age at initial diagnosis of ITP was 5 years (range 0.5-16.2 years). CSA was started at a median of 13.9 months (range 3.4-124 months) after initial diagnosis and given for a median duration of 9.3 months (range 0.2-63.9 months). The median platelet count before commencement was 12 × 10(9)/L (range 4-199 × 10(9)/L). The median dose of CSA was 6 mg/kg/day (range 2.4-7.5 mg/kg/day). Complete response (CR) or response (R) was achieved in 17 patients (57 %), and 7 (23 %) had sustained response. Side effects (most commonly hirsutism) were tolerable and reversible. CSA appeared effective in about half of persistent or chronic ITP patients and safe as a second-line agent in managing these children.
Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena; Molares-Vila, Alberto
Background. Inflammation-driven immune dysfunction supports the development of several chronic human disorders including skin diseases. Nonantibiotic macrolides have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity that suggests the exploitation of these in the treatment of skin diseases characterized by inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods. We performed an extensive review of the nonantibiotic macrolide literature published between 2005 and 2012, including cross-references of any retrieved articles. We also included some data from our own experience. Results. Calcineurin antagonists such as tacrolimus and ascomycins (e.g., pimecrolimus) act by inhibiting the activation of the nuclear factor for activated T cells (NFAT). There are new applications for these macrolides that have been available for several years and have been applied to skin and hair disorders such as atopic dermatitis, oral lichen planus, vitiligo, chronic autoimmune urticaria, rosacea, alopecia areata, pyoderma gangrenosum, Behcet's disease, neutrophilic dermatosis, and lupus erythematosus. We also reviewed new macrolides, like rapamycin, everolimus, and temsirolimus. In addition to the literature review, we report a novel class of nonantibiotic 14-member macrocycle with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Conclusions. This paper summarizes the most important clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of nonantibiotic macrolides which have opened new avenues in the development of anti-inflammatory strategies in the treatment of cutaneous disorders. PMID:23258954
Faugere, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Alessandrini, M; Richieri, R; Faget-Agius, C; Auquier, P; Lançon, C; Boyer, L
Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in schizophrenia remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and chronic inflammation assessed using C -Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and fifty six patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study. After adjusting for key socio-demographic and clinical confounding factors, patients with high levels of CRP (>3.0 mg/l) had a lower QoL than patients with normal CRP levels (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94-0.99). An investigation of the dimensions of QoL revealed that psychological well-being, physical well-being and sentimental life were the most salient features of QoL associated with CRP. Significant associations were found between lower educational level (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.55-11.07), higher body mass index (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28), higher Fagerström score (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01-1.47) and high levels of CRP. After replications with longitudinal approaches, the association between QoL and chronic inflammation may offer interesting interventional prospects to act both on inflammation and QoL in patients with schizophrenia.
Hasselbalch, Hans Carl
The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are acquired stem cell neoplasms, in which a stem cell lesion induces an autonomous proliferative advantage. In addition to the JAK2V617 mutation several other mutations have been described. Recently chronic inflammation has been proposed as a trigger and driver of clonal evolution in MPNs. Herein, it is hypothesized that sustained inflammation may elicit the stem cell insult by inducing a state of chronic oxidative stress with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bone marrow, thereby creating a high-risk microenvironment for induction of mutations due to the persistent inflammation-induced oxidative damage to DNA in hematopoietic cells. Alterations in the epigenome induced by the chronic inflammatory drive may likely elicit a "epigenetic switch" promoting persistent inflammation. The perspectives of chronic inflammation as the driver of mutagenesis in MPNs are discussed, including early intervention with interferon-alpha2 and potent anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. JAK1-2 inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, DNA-hypomethylators and statins) to disrupt the self-perpetuating chronic inflammation state and accordingly eliminating a potential trigger of clonal evolution and disease progression with myelofibrotic and leukemic transformation.
Nieman, David C; Luo, Beibei; Dréau, Didier; Henson, Dru A; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat
Functional overreaching has been linked to alterations in immunity and host pathogen defense, but little is known as to whether or not running and cycling evoke different responses. This study compared inflammation, muscle damage and soreness, and innate immune function responses to a 3-day period of intensified exercise in trained long distance runners (N=13, age 34.4±2.4year) and cyclists (N=22, age 36.6±1.7year, P=0.452). Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptomatology was monitored for 12weeks using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS), and subjects from both athletic groups came to the lab during week five and exercised 2.5h/day for 3days in a row at 70% VO2max. Blood samples were collected before and after the 3-day period of exercise, with recovery samples collected 1-, 14-, and 38h-post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for muscle damage [creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO)], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP), and innate immunity [granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis (GR-PHAG and MO-PHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GR-OBA and MO-OBA)]. Runners compared to cyclists experienced significantly more muscle damage (CK 133% and MYO 404% higher post-3days exercise), inflammation (CRP 87%, IL-6 256%, IL 8 61%, IL-10 32%, MCP 29%), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS, 87%). The 3-day period of exercise caused significant downturns in GR-PHAG, MO-PHAG, GR-OBA, MO-OBA by 14- and 38h-recovery, but the pattern of change did not differ between groups. No group differences were measured for 12-week URTI severity (18.3±5.6 and 16.6±4.0, P=0.803) and symptom scores (33.4±12.6 and 24.7±5.8, P=0.477). These data indicate that a 3-day period of functional overreaching results in substantially more muscle damage and soreness, and systemic inflammation in runners compared to cyclists, but without group differences for 12-week URTI symptomatology and post-exercise decrements in innate immune function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier
Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.
The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301
Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath
One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.
Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A.; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela
Abstract One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112
Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases, and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory actio...
Introduction: Our previous study demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) benefit bone health in female rats with chronic inflammation, because of GTP’s antioxidant capacity. The current study further evaluates whether GTP can restore bone microstructure along with related mechanism in rats wit...
Studies have shown that alfacalcidol (a hydroxylated form of vitamin D) mitigates glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism and bone microarchitecture of alfacalcidol in rats with systemic chronic inflammation. Thirty female rats (3-month-old) assigned to ...
Excess body weight is associated with an accumulation of chronic, low-grade inflammation that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various diseases. The obesity epidemic is more prevalent in certain ethnic groups. Despite this health disparity, few published studies have measured biomarke...
A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.
Zabetian-Targhi, Fateme; Mahmoudi, Mohammad J; Rezaei, Nima; Mahmoudi, Maryam
Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), previously called retinol binding protein (RBP), is considered a specific carrier of retinol in the blood. It is also an adipokine that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. RBP4 seems to be correlated with cardiometabolic markers in inflammatory chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It has recently been suggested that inflammation produced by RBP4 induces insulin resistance and CVD. The clinical relevance of this hypothesis is discussed in this review. Knowledge concerning the association of RBP4 with inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and CVDs as well as concerning the role of diet and antioxidants in decreasing RBP4 concentrations are discussed. Special attention is given to methodologies used in previously published studies and covariates that should be controlled when planning new studies on this adipokine. PMID:26567199
Zabetian-Targhi, Fateme; Mahmoudi, Mohammad J; Rezaei, Nima; Mahmoudi, Maryam
Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), previously called retinol binding protein (RBP), is considered a specific carrier of retinol in the blood. It is also an adipokine that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. RBP4 seems to be correlated with cardiometabolic markers in inflammatory chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It has recently been suggested that inflammation produced by RBP4 induces insulin resistance and CVD. The clinical relevance of this hypothesis is discussed in this review. Knowledge concerning the association of RBP4 with inflammation markers, oxidative stress, and CVDs as well as concerning the role of diet and antioxidants in decreasing RBP4 concentrations are discussed. Special attention is given to methodologies used in previously published studies and covariates that should be controlled when planning new studies on this adipokine.
Winter, Susann; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Aebischer, Anton; Räbel, Katrin; Hoffmann, Kirstin; Meyer, Thomas F; Lipp, Martin; Höpken, Uta E
Ectopic lymphoid follicles are a key feature of chronic inflammatory autoimmune and infectious diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Homeostatic chemokines are considered to be involved in the formation of such tertiary lymphoid tissue. High expression of CXCL13 and its receptor, CXCR5, has been associated with the formation of ectopic lymphoid follicles in chronic infectious diseases. Here, we defined the role of CXCR5 in the development of mucosal tertiary lymphoid tissue and gastric inflammation in a mouse model of chronic H. pylori infection. CXCR5-deficient mice failed to develop organized gastric lymphoid follicles despite similar bacterial colonization density as infected wild-type mice. CXCR5 deficiency altered Th17 responses but not Th1-type cellular immune responses to H. pylori infection. Furthermore, CXCR5-deficient mice exhibited lower H. pylori-specific serum IgG and IgA levels and an overall decrease in chronic gastric immune responses. In conclusion, the development of mucosal tertiary ectopic follicles during chronic H. pylori infection is strongly dependent on the CXCL13/CXCR5 signaling axis, and lack of de novo lymphoid tissue formation attenuates chronic immune responses.
disease; ulcerative colitis) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the small bowel and/or colon that affects approximately 1.5 million people in the US...Affairs database from 1975-2006 reports that although rates of hospitalization for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) have begun to...using standard protocols and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed using the Roche 454 platform. For some studies, mice were colonized (via gastric gavage
Laine, Mikael; Ventä, Irja; Hyrkäs, Tapio; Ma, Jian; Konttinen, Yrjö T
We sought to assess the histologic host response in chronic, symptomless pericoronitis. Gingival mucosal (n = 20) and dental follicle (n = 20) samples were collected during extraction from patients with pericoronitis and clinically healthy control subjects. Antibodies-recognizing macrophages (CD68), natural killer cells (CD56), T cells (CD2), helper T cells (CD4), suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD8), and neutrophils (lactoferrin) were applied in a labelled streptavidin-biotin method by using a DAKO TechMate staining robot. Macrophage was the most numerous kind of cell in pericoronitis, but CD2+ T lymphocytes, with a normal CD4/CD8 ratio, were also increased (P < .01). Neutrophils were not increased and did not show signs of activation. Dental follicles did not contain increased numbers of inflammatory cells. This type of pericoronitis is a chronic/smoldering, rather than an acute/purulent, infection. Because of the chronic and often symptomless nature of pericoronitis, various long-term sequelae may result, which may lead to the need for extraction.
Small, Annabelle Grace; Al-Baghdadi, Marwah; Quach, Alex; Hii, Charles; Ferrante, Antonio
The B7 family-related protein, V-set and Ig domain (VSIG4) / Z39Ig / complement receptor immunoglobulin (CRIg), is a new player in the regulation of immunity to infection and inflammation. The unique features of this receptor as compared with classical complement receptors, CR3 and CR4, have heralded the emergence of new concepts in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Its selective expression in tissue macrophages and dendritic cells has been considered of importance in host defence and in maintaining tolerance against self-antigens. Although a major receptor for phagocytosis of complement opsonised bacteria, its array of emerging functions which incorporates the immune suppressive and anti-inflammatory action of the receptor have now been realised. Accumulating evidence from mouse experimental models indicates a potential role for CRIg in protection against bacterial infection and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, and also in promotion of tumour growth. CRIg expression can be considered as a control point in these diseases, through which inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, act. The ability of CRIg to suppress cytotoxic T cell proliferation and function may underlie its promotion of cancer growth. Thus, the unique properties of this receptor open up new avenues for understanding of the pathways that regulate inflammation during infection, autoimmunity and cancer with the potential for new drug targets to be identified. While some complement receptors may be differently expressed in mice and humans, as well as displaying different properties, mouse CRIg has a structure and function similar to the human receptor, suggesting that extrapolation to human diseases is appropriate. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence in human conditions that CRIg may be a valuable biomarker in infection and immunity, inflammatory conditions and cancer prognosis.
Background Astaxanthin modulates immune response, inhibits cancer cell growth, reduces bacterial load and gastric inflammation, and protects against UVA-induced oxidative stress in in vitro and rodent models. Similar clinical studies in humans are unavailable. Our objective is to study the action of dietary astaxanthin in modulating immune response, oxidative status and inflammation in young healthy adult female human subjects. Methods Participants (averaged 21.5 yr) received 0, 2, or 8 mg astaxanthin (n = 14/diet) daily for 8 wk in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Immune response was assessed on wk 0, 4 and 8, and tuberculin test performed on wk 8. Results Plasma astaxanthin increased (P < 0.01) dose-dependently after 4 or 8 wk of supplementation. Astaxanthin decreased a DNA damage biomarker after 4 wk but did not affect lipid peroxidation. Plasma C-reactive protein concentration was lower (P < 0.05) on wk 8 in subjects given 2 mg astaxanthin. Dietary astaxanthin stimulated mitogen-induced lymphoproliferation, increased natural killer cell cytotoxic activity, and increased total T and B cell subpopulations, but did not influence populations of Thelper, Tcytotoxic or natural killer cells. A higher percentage of leukocytes expressed the LFA-1 marker in subjects given 2 mg astaxanthin on wk 8. Subjects fed 2 mg astaxanthin had a higher tuberculin response than unsupplemented subjects. There was no difference in TNF and IL-2 concentrations, but plasma IFN-γ and IL-6 increased on wk 8 in subjects given 8 mg astaxanthin. Conclusion Therefore, dietary astaxanthin decreases a DNA damage biomarker and acute phase protein, and enhances immune response in young healthy females. PMID:20205737
Lau, Wei Ling; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Vaziri, Nosratola D
Chronic inflammation is a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In recent years, the gastrointestinal tract has emerged as a major instigator of systemic inflammation in CKD. Postmortem studies previously discovered gut wall inflammation throughout the digestive tract in chronic dialysis patients. In CKD animals, colon wall inflammation is associated with breakdown of the epithelial tight junction barrier ('leaky gut') and translocation of bacterial DNA and endotoxin into the bloodstream. Gut bacterial DNA and endotoxin have also been detected in the serum from CKD and dialysis patients, whereby endotoxin levels increase with the CKD stage and correlate with the severity of systemic inflammation in the dialysis population. The CKD diet that is low in plant fiber and symbiotic organisms (in adherence with low potassium, low phosphorus intake) can alter the normal gut microbiome, leading to overgrowth of bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as cresyl and indoxyl molecules. The translocation of these toxins from the 'leaky gut' into the bloodstream further promotes systemic inflammation, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and CKD progression. Data are lacking on optimal fiber and yogurt consumption in CKD that would favor growth of a more symbiotic microbiome while avoiding potassium and phosphorus overload. Prebiotic and probiotic formulations have shown promise in small clinical trials, in terms of lowering serum levels of uremic toxins and improving quality of life. The evidence points to a strong relationship between intestinal inflammation and adverse outcomes in CKD, and more trials investigating gut-targeted therapeutics are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lau, Wei Ling; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Vaziri, Nosratola D.
Chronic inflammation is a non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In recent years the gastrointestinal tract has emerged as a major instigator of systemic inflammation in CKD. Post-mortem studies previously discovered gut wall inflammation present throughout the digestive tract in chronic dialysis patients. In CKD animals, colon wall inflammation is associated with breakdown of the epithelial tight junction barrier (“leaky gut”) and translocation of bacterial DNA and endotoxin into the bloodstream. Gut bacterial DNA and endotoxin have also been detected in the serum from CKD and dialysis patients, whereby endotoxin levels increase with CKD stage and correlate with severity of systemic inflammation in the dialysis population. The CKD diet that is low in plant fiber and symbiotic organisms (in adherence with low potassium, low phosphorus intake) can alter the normal gut microbiome, leading to overgrowth of bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as cresyl and indoxyl molecules. The translocation of these toxins from the “leaky gut” into the bloodstream further promotes systemic inflammation, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and CKD progression. Data is lacking on optimal fiber and yogurt consumption in CKD that would favor growth of a more symbiotic microbiome while avoiding potassium and phosphorus overload. Prebiotic and probiotic formulations have shown promise in small clinical trials, in terms of lowering serum levels of uremic toxins and improving quality of life. The evidence points to a strong relationship between intestinal inflammation and adverse outcomes in CKD, and more trials investigating gut-targeted therapeutics are needed. PMID:25967288
Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik
Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic
London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Ramanathan, Murugappan
Allergy has been inferred to contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) although this role is controversial and the mechanism is debated. Furthermore, the role of aeroallergens in CRS is poorly defined and has been postulated to contribute to CRS through direct penetration in the sinuses or downstream systemic consequences. Common aeroallergens implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis include air pollution/second hand smoke, dust mite and pollen [
Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Mercado, Joseph R.; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pizarro, Theresa T.
The gut mucosa is constantly challenged by a bombardment of foreign antigens and environmental microorganisms. As such, the precise regulation of the intestinal barrier allows the maintenance of mucosal immune homeostasis and prevents the onset of uncontrolled inflammation. In support of this concept, emerging evidence points to defects in components of the epithelial barrier as etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In fact, the integrity of the intestinal barrier relies on different elements, including robust innate immune responses, epithelial paracellular permeability, epithelial cell integrity, as well as the production of mucus. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate how alterations in the aforementioned epithelial components can lead to the disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis, and subsequent inflammation. In this regard, the wealth of data from mouse models of intestinal inflammation and human genetics are pivotal in understanding pathogenic pathways, for example, that are initiated from the specific loss of function of a single protein leading to the onset of intestinal disease. On the other hand, several recently proposed therapeutic approaches to treat human IBD are targeted at enhancing different elements of gut barrier function, further supporting a primary role of the epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation and emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy and effective intestinal barrier. PMID:24062746
Shin, Eui-Cheol; Sung, Pil Soo; Park, Su-Hyung
Hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are responsible for most cases of viral hepatitis. Infection by each type of virus results in a different typical natural disease course and clinical outcome that are determined by virological and immunological factors. HCV tends to establish a chronic persistent infection, whereas HAV does not. HBV is effectively controlled in adults, although it persists for a lifetime after neonatal infection. In this Review, we discuss the similarities and differences in immune responses to and immunopathogenesis of HAV, HBV and HCV infections, which may explain the distinct courses and outcomes of each hepatitis virus infection.
Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Medrek, Aldona; Madej, Paulina; Michlicka, Wirginia; Dobrakowski, Pawel
Aim. Evaluation of the impact of gut microflora on the pathophysiology of MS. Results. The etiopathogenesis of MS is not fully known. Gut microbiota may be of a great importance in the pathogenesis of MS, since recent findings suggest that substitutions of certain microbial population in the gut can lead to proinflammatory state, which can lead to MS in humans. In contrast, other commensal bacteria and their antigenic products may protect against inflammation within the central nervous system. The type of intestinal flora is affected by antibiotics, stress, or diet. The effects on MS through the intestinal microflora can also be achieved by antibiotic therapy and Lactobacillus. EAE, as an animal model of MS, indicates a strong influence of the gut microbiota on the immune system and shows that disturbances in gut physiology may contribute to the development of MS. Conclusions. The relationship between the central nervous system, the immune system, and the gut microbiota relates to the influence of microorganisms in the development of MS. A possible interaction between gut microbiota and the immune system can be perceived through regulation by the endocannabinoid system. It may offer an opportunity to understand the interaction comprised in the gut-immune-brain axis.
Marrero, Idania; Ware, Randle; Kumar, Vipin
Natural killer T cells (NKT) recognize self and microbial lipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules. Two major NKT cell subsets, type I and II, express different types of antigen receptors (TCR) with distinct mode of CD1d/lipid recognition. Though type II NKT cells are less frequent in mice and difficult to study, they are predominant in human. One of the major subsets of type II NKT cells reactive to the self-glycolipid sulfatide is the best characterized and has been shown to induce a dominant immune regulatory mechanism that controls inflammation in autoimmunity and in anti-cancer immunity. Recently, type II NKT cells reactive to other self-glycolipids and phospholipids have been identified suggesting both promiscuous and specific TCR recognition in microbial immunity as well. Since the CD1d pathway is highly conserved, a detailed understanding of the biology and function of type II NKT cells as well as their interplay with type I NKT cells or other innate and adaptive T cells will have major implications for potential novel interventions in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, microbial immunity, and cancer.
Marrero, Idania; Ware, Randle; Kumar, Vipin
Natural killer T cells (NKT) recognize self and microbial lipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules. Two major NKT cell subsets, type I and II, express different types of antigen receptors (TCR) with distinct mode of CD1d/lipid recognition. Though type II NKT cells are less frequent in mice and difficult to study, they are predominant in human. One of the major subsets of type II NKT cells reactive to the self-glycolipid sulfatide is the best characterized and has been shown to induce a dominant immune regulatory mechanism that controls inflammation in autoimmunity and in anti-cancer immunity. Recently, type II NKT cells reactive to other self-glycolipids and phospholipids have been identified suggesting both promiscuous and specific TCR recognition in microbial immunity as well. Since the CD1d pathway is highly conserved, a detailed understanding of the biology and function of type II NKT cells as well as their interplay with type I NKT cells or other innate and adaptive T cells will have major implications for potential novel interventions in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, microbial immunity, and cancer. PMID:26136748