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Sample records for chronic metal pollution

  1. Linking pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) and microbial community structure in chronically metal polluted estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Lesley A; Grant, Alistair

    2008-03-01

    We tested the ability of pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) to detect the effects of chronic metal pollution on estuarine sediment microbial communities, along a gradient spanning two orders of magnitude in metal concentrations. In tandem, we investigated the associated microbial community structure using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Tolerance of microbes to Cu, measured as IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%), was strongly correlated with pore water Cu concentration (r(2)=0.842). No strong correlation existed for other metals tested, highlighting the ability of PICT to identify the pollutant causing a toxic effect. There was no correlation between microbial community structure and community tolerance to metals tested, but analysis of community structure did provide some information on reasons for observed PICT response. PICT methodology used here provided a greater strength and consistency of association with pollutant concentration compared to microbial community structure and can be recommended as a sensitive indicator of metal pollution on estuarine sediment microbial communities.

  2. Relative importance of multiple environmental variables in structuring benthic macroinfaunal assemblages in chronically metal-polluted salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daisuke; Wallace, William G

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we assessed importance of sediment-associated trace metals in structuring benthic macroinfaunal assemblages along multiple environmental gradients in chronically polluted salt marshes of the Arthur Kill - AK (New York, USA). More than 90% of benthic macroinfaunal communities at the northern AK sites consisted of a considerably large number of only a few polychaete and oligochaete species. Approximately 70% of among-site variances in abundance and biomass of benthic macroinfaunal communities was strongly associated with a few environmental variables; only sediment-associated mercury consistently contributed to a significant proportion of the explained variances in species composition along natural environmental gradients (e.g., salinity). Although sediment-associated copper, lead, and zinc were substantially elevated at some of the AK sites, their ecological impacts on benthic macroinfaunal communities appeared to be negligible. These findings suggest that cumulative metal-specific impacts may have played an important role in structuring benthic macroinfaunal communities in chronically polluted AK ecosystems.

  3. Do high levels of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in sediments of Rhine and Meuse floodplains affect structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Rozema, Jelte; Notten, Martje J M; Aerts, Rien; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Hobbelen, Peter H F; Hamers, Timo H M

    2008-12-01

    This paper (re)considers the question if chronic and diffuse heavy metal pollution (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) affects the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park, the floodplain area of rivers Meuse and Rhine. To reach this aim, we integrated the results of three projects on: 1. the origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain; 2. the impact of bioavailability on effects of heavy metals on the structure and functioning of detritivorous communities; 3. the risk assessment of heavy metals for an herbivorous and a carnivorous small mammal food chain. Metal pollution levels of the Biesbosch floodplain soils are high. The bioavailability of metals in the soils is low, causing low metal levels in plant leaves. Despite this, metal concentrations in soil dwelling detritivores and in land snails at polluted locations are elevated in comparison to animals from 'non-polluted' reference sites. However, no adverse effects on ecosystem structure (species richness, density, biomass) and functioning (litter decomposition, leaf consumption, reproduction) have been found. Sediment metal pollution may pose a risk to the carnivorous small mammal food chain, in which earthworms with elevated metal concentrations are eaten by the common shrew. Additional measurements near an active metal smelter, however, show reduced leaf consumption rates and reduced reproduction by terrestrial snails, reflecting elevated metal bioavailability at this site. Since future management may also comprise reintroduction of tidal action in the Biesbosch area, changes in metal bioavailability, and as a consequence future ecosystem effects, cannot be excluded.

  4. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C

    2011-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area.

  5. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  6. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  7. Metal pollution of river Msimbazi, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Ak'habuhaya, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1988-01-01

    The Misimbazi River in Dar es Salaam is polluted with industrial, urban and agricultural waste waters. A preliminary investigation on the extent of metal pollution (Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Mn, Al) was made from samples of sediments and biological indicators. The metal concentrations were in general low, but some of our results indicated industrial pollution.

  8. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    PubMed

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  9. Exploring the status of motility, lipid bodies, deformities and size reduction in periphytic diatom community from chronically metal (Cu, Zn) polluted waterbodies as a biomonitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Lalit K; Bergey, Elizabeth A

    2016-04-15

    Taxonomic metrics of diatoms are regularly used for aquatic biomonitoring, including testing for heavy metal stress. In contrast, non-taxonomical parameters in diatoms are rarely assessed. In the present study, taxonomical features of diatoms, such as cell density, chlorophyll a, species richness, and the Shannon index, were reduced at severely polluted (Cu, Zn) sites compared with less polluted sites. Some non-taxonomic parameters, such as, lipid bodies (LBs) number and size, carotenoid/chlorophyll a ratios, and frustule deformities were elevated at the severely polluted sites in comparison to the less polluted sites in both the areas. Cell size diminished and motility changed from smooth to erratic with increasing Cu and Zn pollution. Some of these behavioral and physiological changes were easily assessed (e.g., motility and formation of LBs), while morphological alterations (cell wall deformities and changes in cell size) requires more time and human expertise in diatom taxonomy. These parameters were consistent across metal concentrations of sediments, in the water, and in cells. The results illustrate the usefulness of these non-taxonomic parameters in biomonitoring, especially as early warning tools for ecotoxicity assessment and testing for sublethal effects. Some of these parameters, such as cell size and cell wall deformities, can be easily incorporated into traditional protocols, although LBs and motility metrics will require more effort.

  10. Air pollution and reversible chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Donno, M; Verduri, A; Olivieri, D

    2002-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the world's most serious environmental problems. It has been common knowledge for many years now that the lung is one of the main target organs of environmental agents. Over the last ten years, in particular, lung diseases have increased dramatically and the literature on the subject reports high death rates from lung cancer and an increased incidence of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These respiratory diseases are also caused by exposure to environmental agents, especially air pollution. Outdoor pollution is related to many compounds and, in assessing the air-borne pollutants and their association with respiratory damage, the role of particulate matter (PM) is of major importance. In addition to outdoor pollution, indoor pollution also exists and consists of environmental substances usually found outside which enter the internal environment, and/or of locally produced substances. Air pollution exposure involves the contact of pollutants with the respiratory tract, such exposure being measured according to two parameters: intensity and duration. Generally speaking, the pathogenic effects of environmental pollution on the organism fall into two categories: acute, or short-term effects, and long-term effects, depending on the time required from exposure to the manifestation of its effect. Short-term effects consist of irritant symptoms affecting the airways with different degrees of severity, while long-term effects, related to chronic exposure, are associated with chronic respiratory diseases, and unremitting symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, etc. Moreover, air irritants can give rise to inflammatory damage of the mucous membrane of the airways, thereby making it more susceptible to various types of allergens. In conclusion, air pollution is an important etiological factor for many chronic respiratory disorders, such as bronchial asthma and COPD. Prevention programs and early treatments are essential in

  11. Metal intracellular partitioning as a detoxification mechanism for mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) living in metal-polluted salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daisuke; Wallace, William G

    2010-04-01

    Intracellular partitioning of trace metals is critical to metal detoxification in aquatic organisms. In the present study, we assessed metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) handling capacities of mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) in metal-polluted salt marshes in New York, USA by examining metal intracellular partitioning. Despite the lack of differences in the whole body burdens, partitioning patterns of metals in intracellular components (heat-stable proteins, heat-denaturable proteins, organelles, and metal-rich granules) revealed clear differential metal handling capacities among the populations of mummichogs. In general, mummichogs living in metal-polluted sites stored a large amount of metals in detoxifying cellular components, particularly metal-rich granules (MRG). Moreover, only metals associated with MRG were consistently correlated with variations in the whole body burdens. These findings suggest that metal detoxification through intracellular partitioning, particularly the sequestration to MRG, may have important implications for metal tolerance of mummichogs living in chronically metal-polluted habitats.

  12. Pollution by metals: Is there a relationship in glycemic control?

    PubMed

    González-Villalva, Adriana; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; García-Pelaez, Isabel; Ustarroz-Cano, Martha; López-Valdez, Nelly; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-09-01

    There are evidences of environmental pollution and health effects. Metals are pollutants implicated in systemic toxicity. One of the least studied effects, but which is currently becoming more important, is the effect of metals on glycemic control. Metals have been implicated as causes of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and are associated to obesity, hyperglycemia and even diabetes. Arsenic, iron, mercury, lead, cadmium and nickel have been studied as a risk factor for hyperglycemia and diabetes. There is another group of metals that causes hypoglycemia such as vanadium, chromium, zinc and magnesium by different mechanisms. Zinc, magnesium and chromium deficiency is associated with increased risk of diabetes. This review summarizes some metals involved in glycemic control and pretends to alert health professionals about considering environmental metals as an important factor that could explain the poor glycemic control in patients. Further studies are needed to understand this poorly assessed problem.

  13. A history of global metal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nriagu, J.O.

    1996-04-12

    With the discovery of mining and metal-working techniques in ancient times, the close link between metals, metals pollution, and human history was formed. This discusses recent papers documenting the spread of atmospheric metal pollution. Many ancient mines in Central Europe were reopened beginning about the 11th century A.D., but the development of large furnaces with tall stacks during the 16th century drastically extended the influence of smelters and industrial installations. Using ice core, bog, and aquatic sediment analysis, the paleopollution has been traced globally. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Coal combustion and heavy metals pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Danihelka, P.; Ochodek, T.; Borovec, K.

    1996-12-31

    Combustion of coal may be an important source of heavy metals pollution. The major environmental risks of heavy metals are connected to their toxicity and mobility in the environment. In the flame, heavy metals are re-distributed with respect to their volatility. Enrichment of fine particles by volatile metals is the most important mechanism for most of the metals. Nevertheless, Hg is emitted mainly in gaseous form and some metals like Mn are concentrated rather in coarse particles. Heavy metals pollution caused by emissions from combustion of coal may be decreased by fine particles removal; other possibilities (metals extraction from the coal, changes of condition in the flame) are limited. Fly ashes from the most important Czech power plants were examined with respect to the heavy metals content. The easily leachable elements with high volatility in the flame (arsenic, zinc, lead) were recognized as the most important fly ash pollutants. The average concentrations of these metals in fly ash were: bituminous coal 46{+-}18 ppm As, 196{+-}93 ppm Zn, 126{+-}46 ppm Pb; brown coal 283{+-}260 ppm As, 60{+-}28 ppm Pb and 212{+-}116 ppm Zn. When ESP and cyclones are used in series, fly ashes from ESP have higher concentration of volatile heavy metals, mainly Pb, Zn and As. Presence of chlorine in fuel increases the volatility of metals.

  15. Towards an integrative soil health assessment strategy: a three tier (integrative biomarker response) approach with Eisenia fetida applied to soils subjected to chronic metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Vega; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Amaia; Garmendia, Larraitz; Andre, Jane; Kille, Peter; Morgan, Andrew John; Soto, Manu; Marigómez, Ionan

    2013-01-01

    This is a pilot study for assessing soil ecosystem health in chronically polluted sites on the basis of a 3-tier approach (screening+scoring+understanding) designed to be cost-effective and scientifically based, and to provide straightforward advice and support to managers and stakeholders involved in environmental protection. For the initial screening (Tier 1), the use of a highly sensitive, low-cost biomarker such as neutral red uptake (NRU) in earthworm coelomocytes is proposed. In sites where an alteration in NRU has been established, the stress level may be further assessed by utilising a suite of low-cost and rapid biomarkers of effect integrated in an integrative biological response (IBR) index to obtain an objective (scored) assessment of the induced stress syndrome (Tier 2). The IBR/n index is based on the integration of biomarkers at different levels of biological organisation. Acyl-CoA oxidase activity (AOX), catalase activity (CAT), lipofuscin optical density (LOD%), NRU and the mean epithelial thickness (MET) have been used to calculate the IBR/n index. Biomarkers are determined in earthworms, Eisenia fetida, exposed ex situ to real soils (three mining sites and a reference) for 3, 10 and 17d. The 3d NRU (Tier 1) provided signal of stress. After 3d, PCA, based on the suite of biomarkers (Tier 2), discriminated reference and polluted sites according to toxicity profiles and at 17d, the most polluted site is segregated from less polluted and reference sites. Soils were classified as harmful, unhealthy (not apparently toxic) or healthy. Soils were investigated by microarray transcriptomics (Tier 3), to understand the causes (aetiology) and consequences (prognosis) of health impairment. Tier 3 discriminates, according to stress syndrome traits, soils that did not fall into the category of highly stressed and revealed the main agent causing toxicity at each site by identifying the toxicity mechanisms and biological responses.

  16. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.F.

    1986-03-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass.

  17. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, H F

    1986-01-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass. PMID:3709437

  18. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A broad overview of the metal finishing processes in pollution prevention. The volume of hazardous/toxic waste streams produced from metal finishing operations is significant. It is common for product surfaces to undergo more than 10 finishing steps. The elimination of any of ...

  19. Metal pollution in coastal areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, S F; Botello, A V

    1998-01-01

    Metals are natural constituents of the earth core and can be widespread in all environments, forming part of sediments, rocks, animal and plant tissues, crude oil, hemoglobin, pigments, proteins, and enzymes. However, some of these metals, such as lead, chromium, and mercury, have been widely used in industrial and human activities, thus provoking an alteration in their geochemical balance and causing high concentrations, frequently three to four orders of magnitude higher than their natural concentrations. The aggressive industrialization and urbanization of coastal areas in Mexico have given rise to singular pollution problems in which such metals play an important role. Thus, this review identifies the main sources and quantifies the concentration levels of metals in the water, sediments, and organisms of coastal ecosystems (rivers, estuaries, coastal lagoons, Continental Shelf) in the Gulf of Mexico as well as the Mexican Pacific. The results show high concentrations of lead, chromium, and nickel in sediments and animal tissues from coastal states (Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche) in the Gulf of Mexico, especially in areas close to industrialized towns such as Tampico, Veracruz City, and Villahermosa. On the other hand, studies conducted on Mexican Pacific coasts indicate low levels of metals in sediments and organisms, an indication that the metal pollution here is closely tied to human, industrial, and oil activities.

  20. Pollution prevention assessments for metal fabricating and metal finishing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Erten-Unal, M.; Timbo, D.I.; Hamedani, Z.N.; Marchello, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper represents the results of three pollution prevention/waste minimization assessments performed on metal fabricating and metal finishing industry. The pollution prevention project is the result of a working partnership (the Partnership) formed between a higher education institution and a municipality. Local businesses were provided with direct on-site technical consultation on waste reduction, and possible alternatives for the reduction or elimination of solid and hazardous waste, wastewater discharges, and air emissions, were evaluated. Proposed waste minimization recommendations for the electroplating industry include loss prevention, good housekeeping, bath replenishment, filtration, and the installation of evaporators and drainboard for a drag-out recovery system, and use of a solvent distillation system.

  1. Industrial pollution with copper and other heavy metals in a beef cattle ranch

    SciTech Connect

    Parada, R.; Gonzalez, S.; Bergqvist, E.

    1987-04-01

    Experimental evidence of air borne heavy metal pollution as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology in beef cattle was obtained. Analysis of metals in natural grasses and leaves of tree defined Cu, Zn and Pb as the major pollutants, with Cd being a minor one. Emissions from a Cu smelter were traced as the main source of metallic pollution. No evidence of metal accumulation in the soil was found, mainly because of the short duration and intermittent pattern of pollution. A progressive intake of the several heavy metals contained in dusts deposited on the grasses was considered the cause of the sickness; this was associated with the grazing of cattle on contaminated grasses. The most severe cases were found in the most polluted pastures. With the exception of Cd, the concentrations of the metals in the livers and kidneys of affected cattle were high. No overlapping of the respective ranges between test and control samples from both organs was found. Mean hepatic levels of Cu (925.7 mg/kg DM), Zn (491.2 mg/kg) and Pb (26.7 mg/kg) reflected the decreasing order of the concentrations of these elements in the polluted grasses. The main clinical and pathological features of this disease were discussed in light of the organic levels of the investigated metals. Disease could not be ascribed to a pure chronic toxicosis with any one of these.

  2. Industrial pollution with copper and other heavy metals in a beef cattle ranch.

    PubMed

    Parada, R; Gonzalez, S; Bergqvist, E

    1987-04-01

    Experimental evidence of air borne heavy metal pollution as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology in beef cattle was obtained. Analysis of metals in natural grasses and leaves of tree defined Cu, Zn and Pb as the major pollutants, with Cd being a minor one. Emissions from a Cu smelter were traced as the main source of metallic pollution. No evidence of metal accumulation in the soil was found, mainly because of the short duration and intermittent pattern of pollution. A progressive intake of the several heavy metals contained in dusts deposited on the grasses was considered the cause of the sickness; this was associated with the grazing of cattle on contaminated grasses. The most severe cases were found in the most polluted pastures. Excepting Cd, the concentrations of the metals in the livers and kidneys of affected cattle were high. No overlapping of the respective ranges between test and control samples from both organs was found. Mean hepatic levels of Cu (925.7 mg/kg DM), Zn (491.2 mg/kg) and Pb (26.7 mg/kg) reflected the decreasing order of the concentrations of these elements in the polluted grasses. The main clinical and pathological features of this disease were discussed in light of the organic levels of the investigated metals. Disease could not be ascribed to a pure chronic toxicosis with any one of these.

  3. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL - 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  4. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL - 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  5. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines.

  6. Energy reserves and accumulation of metals in the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus from two metal-polluted gradients.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Stachowicz, Izabela; Kuriańska, Ligia

    2013-01-01

    Living in an area chronically polluted with metals is usually associated with changes in the energy distribution in organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These expenses may be reflected in the available energy resources, such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. In this context, the energy status of Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied in two metal pollution gradients near Olkusz and Miateczko Śląskie in southern Poland. Both regions are rich in metal ores, and the two largest Polish zinc smelters have been operating there since the 1970s. Beetles were collected from five sites at each gradient. Zinc and cadmium concentrations were measured in both the soil and the beetles. The possible reduction in energy reserves as a cost of detoxifying assimilated metals was evaluated biochemically by determining the total lipid, carbohydrates, and protein contents. At the most polluted sites, the Zn concentration in the soil organic layer reached 2,906 mg/kg, and the Cd concentration reached 55 mg/kg. Body Zn and Cd concentrations increased with increasing soil Zn and Cd concentrations (p = 0.003 and p = 0.0001, respectively). However, no relationship between pollution level and energetic reserves was found. The results suggest that populations of P. oblongopunctatus inhabiting highly metal-polluted sites are able to survive without any serious impact on their energy reserves, though they obviously have to cope with elevated body metal concentrations.

  7. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  8. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    PubMed

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Heavy metal pollutants and chemical ecology: exploring new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. The latter are receiving increased attention, as these may have harmful ecological outcomes. For example, recent explorations of heavy metals in freshwater habitats reveal that they can modify chemical communication between individuals, resulting in "info-disruption" that can impact ecological relationships within and between species. Info-disruption can affect animal behavior and social structure, which in turn can modify both intraspecies and interspecies interactions. In terrestrial habitats, info-disruption by metals is not well studied, but recent demonstrations of chemical signaling between plants via both roots and volatile organic molecules provide potential opportunities for info-disruption. Metals in terrestrial habitats also can form elemental plant defenses, in which they can defend a plant against natural enemies. For example, hyperaccumulation of metals by terrestrial plants has been shown to provide defensive benefits, although in almost all known cases the metals are not anthropogenic pollutants but are naturally present in soils inhabited by these plants. Info-disruption among microbes is another arena in which metal pollutants may have ecological effects, as recent discoveries regarding quorum sensing in bacteria provide an avenue for metals to affect interactions among bacteria or between bacteria and other organisms. Metal pollutants also may influence immune responses of organisms, and thus affect pathogen/host relationships. Immunomodulation (modification of immune system function) has been tied to some metal pollutants, although specific metals may boost or reduce immune system function depending on dose. Finally, the study of metal pollutants is complicated by their frequent occurrence as mixtures, either with other metals or with organic pollutants. Most studies of metal pollutants focus on single metals and therefore oversimplify complex

  10. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    PubMed

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality.

  11. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  12. Metal Pollutant Exposure and Behavior Disorders: Implications for School Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes research on relationships between low (below metal poisoning) metal exposure and childhood behavior disorders. Symptoms, assessment techniques (hair analysis), and environmental and dietary factors that may increase the risk of metal pollutant exposure are described. School programs emphasizing education and the role of…

  13. [Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution by edible fungi: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Fei; Hu, Liu-Jie; Liao, Dun-Xiu; Su, Shi-Ming; Zhou, Zheng-Ke; Zhang, Sheng

    2011-02-01

    Bioremediation is the method of using organisms and their derivatives to absorb heavy metals from polluted environment, with the characteristics of low cost, broad sources, and no secondary pollution. Heavy metals enrichment by edible fungi is an important research focus of bioremediation, because it can decrease the eco-toxicity of heavy metals via the uptake by edible fungi, and thereby, take a definite role in heavy metal remediation. This paper reviewed the research progress on the enrichment of heavy metal copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, and chromium by edible fungi and the possible enrichment mechanisms, and prospected the development and applications of heavy metal enrichment by edible fungi in the management of polluted environment.

  14. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease secondary to household air pollution.

    PubMed

    Assad, Nour A; Balmes, John; Mehta, Sumi; Cheema, Umar; Sood, Akshay

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 3 billion people around the world cook and heat their homes using solid fuels in open fires and rudimentary stoves, resulting in household air pollution. Household air pollution secondary to indoor combustion of solid fuel is associated with multiple chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes. The exposure is associated with both chronic bronchitis and emphysema phenotypes of COPD as well as a distinct form of obstructive airway disease called bronchial anthracofibrosis. COPD from household air pollution differs from COPD from tobacco smoke with respect to its disproportionately greater bronchial involvement, lesser emphysematous change, greater impact on quality of life, and possibly greater oxygen desaturation and pulmonary hypertensive changes. Interventions that decrease exposure to biomass smoke may decrease the risk for incident COPD and attenuate the longitudinal decline in lung function, but more data on exposure-response relationships from well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Waste disposal and pollution control in metal manufacturing. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial metal manufacturers' monitoring and control of waste disposal and pollution generators for processes other than finishing. Atmospheric emissions such as dust pollutants, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and other gases are discussed relative to effects on surrounding environment and control. Heavy metal removal, as well as wastewater treatment processes, are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Impact of metals on the biodegradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrin, Todd R; Maier, Raina M

    2003-01-01

    Forty percent of hazardous waste sites in the United States are co-contaminated with organic and metal pollutants. Data from both aerobic and anaerobic systems demonstrate that biodegradation of the organic component can be reduced by metal toxicity. Metal bioavailability, determined primarily by medium composition/soil type and pH, governs the extent to which metals affect biodegradation. Failure to consider bioavailability rather than total metal likely accounts for much of the enormous variability among reports of inhibitory concentrations of metals. Metals appear to affect organic biodegradation through impacting both the physiology and ecology of organic degrading microorganisms. Recent approaches to increasing organic biodegradation in the presence of metals involve reduction of metal bioavailability and include the use of metal-resistant bacteria, treatment additives, and clay minerals. The addition of divalent cations and adjustment of pH are additional strategies currently under investigation. PMID:12826480

  18. The influence of heavy metals and predation on benthic macroinvertebrate communities from polluted and unpolluted streams

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author tested the hypothesis that benthic macroinvertebrate communities from a stream polluted by historic mining operations were tolerant of heavy metals but more susceptible to predation compared to communities from an unpolluted stream. Benthic communities obtained from reference (Cache la Poudre River) and chronically-polluted (Arkansas River) streams in Colorado were transferred to the CSU Stream Research Laboratory and placed into one of 16 stream microcosms. In the first experiment, communities in treatment streams were exposed to 220 {micro}g Zn/L, 24 {micro}g Cu/L and 2.2 {micro}g Cd/L for 10 d. In a second experiment, communities in treatment streams were exposed to predatory stoneflies (Hesperperla pacifica). Effects of metals were significantly greater on mayflies (Rhithrogena hageni, Baetis sp., Ephemerella infrequens) from the unpolluted Cache la Poudre River than from the Arkansas River. In addition, exposure to metals increased drift rate of invertebrates collected from the unpolluted stream but had no effect on invertebrates from the Arkansas River. In contrast to these results, effects of predation on survival and drift were greater for communities from the polluted stream. The results demonstrate that while macroinvertebrate populations in chronically-polluted habitats may acclimate to heavy metals, these populations are more susceptible to biotic interactions.

  19. Implications of soil pollution with heavy metals for public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juozulynas, Algirdas; Jurgelėnas, Antanas; Butkienė, Birutė; Greičiūtė, Kristina; Savičiūtė, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Soil of military grounds is often polluted with heavy metals. Their concentrations may be dosens of times higher in polluted regions. The affected soils are permeable, so the pollutions can get into water and spread to the environment. Into human and animal organisms they can get with food and water. Heavy metals are very dangerous for people's health, and we must know their accumulation places, intensity of scatter and integral risk for health. The purpose of this work was to establish links between zones polluted with heavy metals and morbidity caused by pollution with heavy metals. The morbidity caused by heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ca and other) in the polluted regions is 1.4-1.5 times higher for adults and teenagers and 1.5-3.9 times higher for children aged under 14 years than the mean morbidity of the same diseases in Lithuania. Hypothetically, it is possible to prognosticate that this problem will grow in future because the ratio of the newly registered and the existing cases of morbidity for children aged under 14 years is 1.3-1.5 times higher than for adults.

  20. Does metal pollution matter with C retention by rice soil?

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongzhuo; Li, Zhipeng; Li, Lianqing; Smith, Pete; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Liangyun; Hussain, Qaiser

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration, resulting in decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC), emits CO2 to the atmosphere and increases under climate warming. However, the impact of heavy metal pollution on soil respiration in croplands is not well understood. Here we show significantly increased soil respiration and efflux of both CO2 and CH4 with a concomitant reduction in SOC storage from a metal polluted rice soil in China. This change is linked to a decline in soil aggregation, in microbial abundance and in fungal dominance. The carbon release is presumably driven by changes in carbon cycling occurring in the stressed soil microbial community with heavy metal pollution in the soil. The pollution-induced increase in soil respiration and loss of SOC storage will likely counteract efforts to increase SOC sequestration in rice paddies for climate change mitigation. PMID:26272277

  1. Does metal pollution matter with C retention by rice soil?

    PubMed

    Bian, Rongjun; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongzhuo; Li, Zhipeng; Li, Lianqing; Smith, Pete; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhang, Liangyun; Hussain, Qaiser

    2015-08-14

    Soil respiration, resulting in decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC), emits CO2 to the atmosphere and increases under climate warming. However, the impact of heavy metal pollution on soil respiration in croplands is not well understood. Here we show significantly increased soil respiration and efflux of both CO2 and CH4 with a concomitant reduction in SOC storage from a metal polluted rice soil in China. This change is linked to a decline in soil aggregation, in microbial abundance and in fungal dominance. The carbon release is presumably driven by changes in carbon cycling occurring in the stressed soil microbial community with heavy metal pollution in the soil. The pollution-induced increase in soil respiration and loss of SOC storage will likely counteract efforts to increase SOC sequestration in rice paddies for climate change mitigation.

  2. LLNL metal finishing and pollution prevention activities with small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

    1996-07-01

    The Metal Finishing Facility at LLNL has emphasized using environmentally conscious manufacturing principles. Key focus items included minimizing hazardous wastes, minimization of water usage, material and process substitutions, and recycling. Joint efforts with NCAMF (Northern California Association of Metal Finishers), Technic, Inc., EPA, and UC Davis, all directed at pollution prevention, are reviewed.

  3. Correlation of different pollution criteria in the assessment of metal sediment pollution.

    PubMed

    Krčmar, Dejan; Prica, Miljana; Dalmacija, Božo; Watson, Malcolm; Tričković, Jelena; Rajić, Ljiljana; Tamaš, Zagorka

    2013-01-01

    In this article an assessment of the sediment metal pollution (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, zinc) in the Veliki Backi canal (Serbia) was carried out using pseudo-total metal content, contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). The study also encompassed pore-water metal concentrations and an assessment of sediment pollution based on the analysis of simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), acid volatile sulphides (AVS) and the sequential extraction procedure. The concentrations of metals are likely to result in harmful effects based on the comparison with sediment quality guidelines (Dutch, Canadian, US EPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency). The ratio of simultaneously extracted metals and volatile acid sulphides was found to be greater than 1 in only one location, which is already recognized as a place of high risk based on the criteria applied. Other samples had Σ[SEM]/[AVS] < 1, despite their high risk classification based on the applied criteria. According to the sequential extraction procedure, zinc and nickel exhibit high risk in most samples, whereas other metals show low and medium risk. The CF values for Cr, Cu and Zn were > 6 in most samples, which denotes very high contamination by these metals. The PLI values indicated moderate and high pollution. The EF values for all metals studied except for Cd in some cases were >1.5, suggesting anthropogenic impact. The obtained results will be invaluable for future activities regarding sediment monitoring and will facilitate the selection of appropriate criteria when evaluating sediment quality.

  4. Common buzzards (Buteo buteo) bio-indicators of heavy metals pollution in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, C; Cristani, M; Cimino, F; Arcoraci, T; Trombetta, D

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of toxic (As, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu, Mn and Zn) metals in samples (feathers, liver, kidney, lung, intestine and muscle) of common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily, used as bio-indicators for monitoring environmental metals pollution. All samples of buzzards were collected at the "Recovery Center of Wild Fauna" of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. The quantitative determinations of metals were carried out using an atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained showed the presence of metals in all samples analyzed. For toxic metals the highest levels of Pb and As were found in liver and those of Cd in kidney; for essential metals Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. Significant differences are observed in metal levels between female and male and juvenile and adult bird samples. Highest metal levels found in liver, kidney and muscle can be considered indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in feathers can be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The results obtained suggest that common buzzards (Buteo buteo) may be very useful as bio-indicators for monitoring environmental pollution.

  5. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. ); Lodenius, M. )

    1989-12-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Heavy metals pollution in the environment of Kathmandu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, H. D.

    2003-05-01

    Nepal situated on the lap of mighty Himalayas is now threatened by heavy metals pollution in her atmosphere, land and river system. The indigenious technology of Nepal heavily depends on the use of mercury in gold plating technique. The mercury vapours are released to the atmosphere, when gold-amalgam smeared untesils and idols are strongly heated. Absence of control mechanism to collect mercury vapours has not only polluted atmosphere but it has also caused health hazard to the workers working in the poorly ventilated workshop. The craftsmen and articians have been victim of mercury poisoining. Another heavy metal that has caused atmospheric pollution in Nepal is lead. The lead containing gasoline used in greater amount in vehicles has released more and more lead in the from of exhaust gas into the atmosphere. The atmospheric pollution has been more acute in Nepal due to the use of lead gasoline in used vehicles. Likewise the river system of the urban areas of Nepal is polluted by heavy metals like cadmium, lead salt, ferrous salt, etc. The effulents of battery industries, leather factories, dye factories are directly dumped into the river system of urban areas. This has killed many aquatic animals of rivers. Thus Nepal is facing the problem of heavy metals pollution in her environnent.

  7. Metals in liver and kidneys and the effects of chronic exposure to pyrite mine pollution in the shrew Crocidura russula inhabiting the protected wetland of Doñana.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira; Nadal, Jacint

    2009-07-01

    Historically impacted by anthropogenic activities, the nature reserve of Doñana (SW Spain) was affected by an unprecedented spillage of mud and acidic water from the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine in April 1998. Although several studies have addressed the influence of this spill on soils, water, and biota, there is little information on mammals, especially carnivorous species. We measured the concentrations of Fe, Mg, Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Co, and Cr in specimens of the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, inhabiting the protected area affected by the mine spillage. We also examined other parameters to approach at the physiological effects of pollution. We found an increase in non-essential metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg), and morphometric, histological and genotoxic alterations. Age and gender were two significant factors explaining metal bioaccumulation: adults had higher Hg and Cd levels than juveniles, whereas males bioaccumulated more Pb and Co and less Mo than females. The micronucleus frequencies in blood erythrocytes were significantly higher in specimens from the polluted site than animals from the control site. Shrews from the impacted area also had hepatic alterations, namely increased liver-body ratio, focal necrosis, and signs of apoptosis in hepatocytes. Due to the relevance of small mammals in the diet of endangered species such as carnivorous birds and mammals, the findings of our study are of practical use for the management of the Doñana wildlife reserve and other protected Mediterranean wetlands.

  8. Heavy metals in human teeth dentine: A bio-indicator of metals exposure and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Binti Baharudin, Nurul Atiqah; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Bradley, D A; Mahmoud, Okba

    2017-06-01

    With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc. Analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), most samples indicating the presence of the following trace elements, placed in order of concentration, from least to greatest: As, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Sb, Al, Sr, Sn. The concentrations have been observed to increase with age. Among the ethnic groups, the teeth of ethnic Chinese showed marginally greater metal concentrations than those of the Indians and Malays, the teeth dentine of females generally showing greater concentrations than that of males. Greater concentrations of Hg, Cu and Sn were found in molars while Pb, Sr, Sb and Zn were present in greater concentrations in incisors. With the elevated concentration levels of heavy metals in tooth dentine reflecting pollution from industrial emissions and urbanization, it is evident that human tooth dentine can provide chronological information on exposure, representing a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution.

  9. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Abollino, Ornella; Conca, Raffaele; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using mosses as environmental indicators of metal pollution has been investigated. Mosses of the species Bryum argenteum were collected from different parts of Piedmont (Italy), ranging from highly polluted areas to nearly uncontaminated mountain areas. Periodical samplings were planned in every site on a monthly base, in order to check variations of metal uptake throughout one year; correlations with pluviometric and thermal patterns were investigated for all sampling stations. On every moss sample 20 elements, ranging from major (K, P, Al, Ca, Fe and Mg) to minor (Mn, Na, Ti and Zn) and trace (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb and Sr), were quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the needed sensitivity. Statistical analyses, carried out with principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods, revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and pollution degree in the areas sampled.

  10. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  11. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  12. Soil macroinvertebrates as indicators of pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Nahmani, Johanne; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2003-03-01

    A broad range of soil pollutants were found to decrease with distance from a zinc smelter from 35,000 to 77, 8270 to 40 and from 190 to less than 1 ppm for zinc, lead and cadmium, respectively. Along this gradient, observed species richness of soil macro-organisms seemed to be more affected by the land-use type than by soil pollution--minimum in crops (21), maximum in woody sites (126). IndVal index allowed isolation of 21 indicator species from the 339 morphospecies identified. Most of these indicator species were characteristic of the unpolluted sites: only two diplopods and one gastropod from polluted poplar plantations, and none from the most polluted site. Since soil invertebrates respond to different environmental factors, including direct effect of heavy metals, we suggest there may be some confounding factors generating spurious relationships between the values of species as bioindicators and the pollution status they are supposed to indicate.

  13. Bivalve mollusks in metal pollution studies: from bioaccumulation to biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Harper, David A T

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary environmental challenges have emphasized the need to critically assess the use of bivalve mollusks in chemical monitoring (identification and quantification of pollutants) and biomonitoring (estimation of environmental quality). Many authors, however, have considered these approaches within a single context, i.e., as a means of chemical (e.g. metal) monitoring. Bivalves are able to accumulate substantial amounts of metals from ambient water, but evidence for the drastic effects of accumulated metals (e.g. as a TBT-induced shell deformation and imposex) on the health of bivalves has not been documented. Metal bioaccumulation is a key tool in biomonitoring; bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of various metals in relation to bivalves are described in some detail including the development of biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Measuring metal in the whole-body or the tissue of bivalves themselves does not accurately represent true contamination levels in the environment; these data are critical for our understanding of contaminant trends at sampling sites. Only rarely has metal bioaccumulation been considered in combination with data on metal concentrations in parts of the ecosystem, observation of biomarkers and environmental parameters. Sclerochemistry is in its infancy and cannot be reliably used to provide insights into the pollution history recorded in shells. Alteration processes and mineral crystallization on the inner shell surface are presented here as a perspective tool for environmental studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heavy metal pollution in sediments and mussels: assessment by using pollution indices and metallothionein levels.

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal pollution was evaluated by determining the levels of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal pollution and effect, the pollution load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal pollution caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation.

  15. In-Situ Decontamination of Metal-Polluted Soils by Metal-Accumulator Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    heavy metals . This contaminated soil was used to compare the extraction efficiencies of several plant species known as " hyperaccumulators ". A range of...5. Glasshouse Experiment Not all the hyperaccumulator genotypes are capable of accumulating heavy metals to the same great extent. 4 In order to...OF METAL -POLLUTED SOILS BY METAL -ACCUMULATOR PLANTS By F. Lodico and S.P. McGrath Rothamsted Experimental Station Harpenden, Herts., AL5 2JQ, U.K. 4

  16. Heavy metal pollution of ambient air in Nagpur City.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Pramod R; Gupta, Rakhi; Gajghate, Daulat Ghilagi; Wate, Satish R

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals released from different sources in urban environment get adsorbed on respirable particulate matter less than 10 μm in size (PM(10)) and are important from public health point of view causing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the ambient air quality monitoring was carried out to study the temporal and special pattern in the distribution of PM(10) and associated heavy metal content in the atmosphere of Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India during 2001 as well as in 2006. PM(10) fraction was observed to exceed the stipulated standards in both years. It was also observed that minimum range of PM(10) was observed to be increased in 2006 indicating increase in human activity during nighttime also. Six heavy metals were analyzed and were observed to occur in the order Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in 2006, similar to the trend in other metro cities in India. Lead and Nickel were observed to be within the stipulated standards. Poor correlation coefficient (R(2)) between lead and PM(10) indicated that automobile exhaust is not the source of metals to air pollution. Commercial and industrial activity as well as geological composition may be the potential sources of heavy metal pollution. Total load of heavy metals was found to be increased in 2006 with prominent increase in zinc, lead, and nickel in the environment. Public health impacts of heavy metals as well as certain preventive measures to mitigate the impact of heavy metals on public health are also summarized.

  17. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. I. Lead.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Rastogi, S

    1977-01-01

    Lead pollution was evaluated in 216 individuals working in 10 garages on the Island of Funen, Denmark and related to data from biochemical and medical examinations. Clinical symptoms were recorded by means of a questionnaire. Increased blood test lead levels were foun in 59% with 9% having above 80 microgram lead/100 ml (3-86mumol/1) whole blood. Mechanics in eight out of ten garages had significantly increased blood lead levels. A decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was associated with increased blood lead levels but the latter were not related to haematological changes, tobacco consumption or to length of service in the trade. Particulate lead air pollution was not the sole cause of increased blood lead levels. Raised lead values were maximal among diesel engine workers who are exposed to high pressure-resistant lubricants containing lead naphthenate. As these workers complained of skin damage, lead absorption may have occurred through the skin. Assay of lead content showed 9290 ppm in gear oil and 1500-3500 ppm in used motor oils. The data are discussed in relation to the occupational risks in auto repair shops. PMID:911691

  18. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  19. Monitoring of metal pollution in waterways across Bangladesh and ecological and public health implications of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    Using innovative artificial mussels technology for the first time, this study detected eight heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) on a regular basis in waterways across Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka and Khulna). Three heavy metals, viz. Co, Cr and Hg were always below the instrumental detection levels in all the sites during the study period. Through this study, seven metal pollution "hot spots" have been identified, of which, five "hot spots" (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) were located in the Buriganga River, close to the capital Dhaka. Based on this study, the Buriganga River can be classified as the most polluted waterway in Bangladesh compared to waterways monitored in Khulna and Chittagong. Direct effluents discharged from tanneries, textiles are, most likely, reasons for elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the Buriganga River. In other areas (Khulna), agriculture and fish farming effluents may have caused higher Cu, U and Zn in the Bhairab and Rupsa Rivers, whereas untreated industrial discharge and ship breaking activities can be linked to elevated Cd in the coastal sites (Chittagong). Metal pollution may cause significant impacts on water quality (irrigation, drinking), aquatic biodiversity (lethal and sub-lethal effects), food contamination/food security (bioaccumulation of metals in crops and seafood), human health (diseases) and livelihoods of people associated with wetlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2015-04-01

    The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140 m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000 mg Pb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30 m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50 m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50 m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30 m to 135 individuals·m(-2) at 140 m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050 mg·kg(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal Trends in Metal Pollution: Using Bird Excrement as Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Åsa M. M.; Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    Past mining and smelting activities have resulted in metal polluted environments all over the world, but long-term monitoring data is often scarce, especially in higher trophic levels. In this study we used bird (Parus major and Ficedula hypoleuca) excrement to monitor metal pollution in the terrestrial environment following 16 years of continuously reduced emissions from a copper/nickel smelter in Finland. In the early 1990s, lead and cadmium concentrations dropped significantly in excrement, but the reduction did not directly reflect the changes in atmospheric emission from the smelter. This is likely due to a continuous contribution of metals also from the soil pool. We conclude that bird excrement can be used to assess changes in the environment as a whole but not specifically changes in atmospheric emission. Inter-annual variation in excrement concentration of especially copper and nickel demonstrates the importance of long-term monitoring to discern significant trends. PMID:25680108

  2. Environmental health implications of heavy metal pollution from car tires.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for environmental pollution by heavy metals from the disposal of used car tires and describes laboratory work and field research exploring the magnitude of the problem. The metals considered here are cadmium, lead, and zinc; their respective mean concentrations for ten makes of tires used in the United Kingdom ranged from 0-3.0, 8.1-22.3, and 2524-6012 ppm. The metals were extracted from tires by simulated acid-rain solutions (pH 2.5); zinc concentrations of the leachate ranged from 169-463 ppm, but cadmium and lead concentrations were negligible. A significant increase in surface soil concentrations of all three metals was measured with increasing proximity to a tire dump in West London. The respective mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil at the base of the dump were 22, 1160, and 1235 ppm, indicating contamination by each metal.

  3. Diffuse urban pollution increases metal tolerance of natural heterotrophic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Lise C; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Bourgeault, Adeline; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2012-03-01

    This study is a first attempt to investigate the impact of urban contamination on metal tolerance of heterotrophic river biofilms using a short-term test based on β-glucosidase activity. Tolerance levels to Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb were evaluated for biofilms collected at three sites along an urban gradient in the Seine river (France). Metallic pollution increased along the river, but concentrations remained low compared to environmental quality standards. Biofilm metal tolerance increased downstream from the urban area. Multivariate analysis confirmed the correlation between tolerance and contamination and between multi-metallic and physico-chemical gradients. Therefore, tolerance levels have to be interpreted in relation to the whole chemical and physical characteristics and not solely metal exposure. We conclude that community tolerance is a sensitive biological response to urban pressure and that mixtures of contaminants at levels lower than quality standards might have a significant impact on periphytic communities.

  4. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence. PMID:26388184

  5. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-21

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called "Anthropocene". According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of "contaminated soil". Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  6. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  7. Pollution performance of 110 kV metal oxide arresters

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzan, K.; Pohl, Z.; Grzybowski, S.; Koehler, W.

    1997-04-01

    Pollution test results of single unit 110 kV metal oxide surge arresters with porcelain housing according to the solid layer and salt fog methods are presented. During 6 hours of testing, the internal and external charge and maximum temperature along the varistor column were measured. The formation of single stable dry bands on the housing was often observed, especially during salt fog tests. In such cases, the varistor temperature can reach about 70 C. The simple electrical model of the arrester enabling calculations of voltages and currents as a function of arrester and pollution parameters is shown.

  8. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial removal of toxic metals from a heavily polluted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolova, Marina; Spasova, Irena; Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan

    2015-04-01

    Samples of a leached cinnamonic forest soil heavily polluted with uranium and some toxic heavy metals (mainly copper, zinc and cadmium) were subjected to cleaning by means of bioleaching with acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria. The treatment was carried out in a green house in which several plots containing 150 kg of soil each were constructed. The effect of some essential environmental factors such as pH, humidity, temperature and contents of nutrients on the cleaning process was studied. It was found that under optimal conditions the content of pollutants were decreased below the relevant permissible levels within a period of 170 days. The soil cleaned in this way was characterized by a much higher production of biomass of different plants (alfalfa, clover, red fescue, vetch) than the untreated polluted soil.

  10. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  11. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology. Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however, little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, we found that hypotaurine, malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills, while alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate, 4-aminobutyrate, taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills. Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn, as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles, but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn. Therefore, we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution, whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  12. Pilot project adds polish to metal finisher's pollution prevention efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Dahab, M.F. ); Lund, J.

    1994-11-01

    An aging Midwestern manufacturing facility that produces fabricated metal products for farm and industrial uses was chosen as the site for an industrial pollution prevention and waste minimization pilot project. The project goal was to demonstrate that using appropriate management and operating procedures can reduce the total pollution produced by an industrial operation. The facility is a licensed hazardous waste generator. The plant engages in a variety of pollution-generating activities, including electroplating, conversion coating, cleaning, machining, grinding, impact deformation, shearing, welding, sand blasting, hot-dip coating, painting, assembly and testing. The hot-dip galvanizing process results in production of rinsewater containing such heavy metals as zinc and iron. Painting processes generate used industrial cleaners, acids, solvents, and chemical used in cleaning and degreasing metal components. Process wastewaters are treated by adding lime and polymer, and adjusting pH before discharge. Past disposal practices at the facility had threatened area surface and groundwater. Waste disposal is a major operating expense.

  13. Metal Pollutants and Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms and Consequences of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Solenkova, Natalia V.; Newman, Jonathan D.; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Thurston, George; Hochman, Judith S.; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is epidemiological evidence that metal contaminants may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. Moreover, a recent clinical trial of a metal chelator had a surprisingly positive result in reducing cardiovascular events in a secondary prevention population, strengthening the link between metal exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is, therefore, an opportune moment to review evidence that exposure to metal pollutants, such as arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury, are significant risk factors for CVD. Methods We reviewed the English-speaking medical literature to assess and present the epidemiological evidence that 4 metals having no role in the human body (xenobiotic), mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, have epidemiologic and mechanistic links to atherosclerosis and CVD. Moreover, we briefly review how the results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy strengthen the link between atherosclerosis and xenobiotic metal contamination in humans. Conclusions There is strong evidence that xenobiotic metal contamination is linked to atherosclerotic disease and is a modifiable risk factor. PMID:25458643

  14. A metabolomic study on the biological effects of metal pollutions in oysters Crassostrea sikamea.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    Metal pollution has become a great threat to organisms in the estuaries in South China. In the present study, the oysters Crassostrea sikamea were collected from one clean (Jiuzhen) and five metal polluted sites (Baijiao, Fugong, Gongqian, Jinshan and Songyu). The tissue metal concentrations in oysters indicated that the five metal sites were polluted by several metals, including Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd and Pb with different patterns. Especially, Cu and Zn were the major contaminants in Baijiao, Fugong and Jinshan sites. The metabolic responses in oysters C. sikamea indicated that the metal pollutions in BJ, FG, JS and SY sites induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism via different metabolic pathways. However, the metal pollution in GQ site mainly influenced the osmotic regulation in the oysters C. sikamea. This study demonstrates that NMR-based metabolomics is useful to characterize metabolic responses induced by metal pollution.

  15. Representing soil pollution by heavy metals using continuous limitation scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romić, Marija; Hengl, Tomislav; Romić, Davor; Husnjak, Stjepan

    2007-10-01

    The paper suggests a methodology to represent overall soil pollution in a sampled area using continuous limitation scores. The interpolated heavy metal concentrations are first transformed to limitation scores using the exponential transfer function determined by using two threshold values: permissible concentration (0 limitation points) and seriously polluted soil (4 limitation points). The limitation scores can then be summed to produce the map of cumulative limitation scores and visualize the most critically polluted areas. The methodology was illustrated using the 784 soil samples analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the central region of Croatia. The samples were taken at 1×1 and 2×2 km grids and at fixed depths of 20 cm. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were determined by ICP-OES after microwave assisted aqua regia digestion. The sampled concentrations were interpolated using block regression-kriging with geology and land cover maps, terrain parameters and industrialization parameters as auxiliary predictors. The results showed that the best auxiliary predictors are geological map, ground water depth, NDVI and slope map and distance to urban areas. The spatial prediction was satisfactory for Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn, and somewhat less satisfactory for Cu and Cr. The final map of cumulative limitation scores showed that 33.5% of the total area is suitable for organic agriculture and 7.2% of the total area is seriously polluted by one or more heavy metals. This procedure can be used to assess suitability of soils for agricultural production and as a basis for possible legal commitments to maintain the soil quality.

  16. Genetic structure and diversity of animal populations exposed to metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Tovar-Sánchez, Efraín; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Studying the genetic diversity of wild populations that are affected by pollution provides a basis for estimating the risks of environmental contamination to both wildlife, and indirectly to humans. Such research strives to produce both a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which genetic diversity is affected,and the long-term effects of the pollutants involved.In this review, we summarize key aspects of the field of genetic ecotoxicology that encompasses using genetic patterns to examine metal pollutants as environmental stressors of natural animal populations. We address genetic changes that result from xenobiotic exposure versus genetic alterations that result from natural ecological processes. We also describe the relationship between metal exposure and changes in the genetic diversity of chronically exposed populations, and how the affected populations respond to environmental stress. Further, we assess the genetic diversity of animal populations that were exposed to metals, focusing on the literature that has been published since the year 2000.Our review disclosed that the most common metals found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb; however, differences in the occurrence between aquatic (Cd=Zn>Cu>Pb>Hg) and terrestrial (Cu>Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni)environments were observed. Several molecular markers were used to assess genetic diversity in impacted populations, the order of the most common ones of which were SSR's > allozyme > RAPD's > mtDNA sequencing> other molecular markers.Genetic diversity was reduced for nearly all animal populations that were exposed to a single metal, or a mixture of metals in aquatic ecosystems (except in Hyalella azteca, Littorina littorea, Salmo trutta, and Gobio gobio); however, the pattern was less clear when terrestrial ecosystems were analyzed.We propose that future research in the topic area of this paper emphasizes seven key areas of activity that pertain to the methodological design of genetic

  17. Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Reyes, Laura; Rebstock, Ginger A; Griot, Karen; Rodrigues Heredia, Sergio; Adornes, Andrea Corrado; da Silva, Rodolfo Pinho

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum pollution is a problem for seabirds along the Southwest Atlantic coast. Twenty-five groups from Salvador, Brazil (12 degrees 58'S) to San Antonio Oeste, Argentina (40 degrees 43'S) survey or rehabilitate sick or oiled seabirds. Four groups, one each in Brazil and Uruguay, and two in Argentina, kept counts of birds found alive and in need of rehabilitation. An average of 63.7% of the seabirds found were Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), with 3869 reported since 1987. Mainly adult penguins were found in Argentina (1605 of 2102 penguins of known age class) and Uruguay (158 of 197). Juveniles were most common in Brazil (234 of 325). Oil fouling was the most frequent cause of injury or sickness. The number of oiled penguins reported in their wintering range has greatly increased since the early 1990s and is strongly correlated with petroleum exports from Argentina. Our results show that chronic petroleum pollution is a problem for wildlife from Southern Brazil through Northern Argentina, and regulations and enforcement are failing to protect living resources.

  18. Assessment of Metal Pollution in Lower Torag River in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakir, H. M.; Shikazono, N.

    2008-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess the metal pollution levels in water and sediments of lower Torag River in Bangladesh. Industrial wastewaters and urban sewage from the Tongi municipal and industrial area directly discharge to this part of the rivers without any sorts of treatment. Fourteen samples each of water and sediment were collected and the distance, in between the samples was about 300 m. The results showed that the metal concentrations in the water samples greatly exceeded the standard values for the surface water quality. Organic carbon and clay content in the sediment samples were, in general, high (3.6 and 40.76%, respectively). The mean concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb in the sediment samples were higher than the standard shale values. Although the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) for most of the heavy metals lie below grade zero but according to Igeo class some points were moderately contaminated for Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb. About 40-50% heavy metals studied showed good to excellent positive correlation with pH, EC and organic carbon of the sediments. High metal contents were found close to industrial and municipal areas and so enhanced metal concentrations are related to direct discharge of industrial sewage and municipal wastes into the river.

  19. Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.

  20. A comparative proteomic study on the effects of metal pollution in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-15

    The metal pollution has posed great risk on the coastal organisms along the Jiulongjiang Estuary in South China. In this work, two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics was applied to the oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis from metal pollution sites to characterize the proteomic responses to metal pollution. Metal accumulation and proteomic responses indicated that the oysters from BJ site were more severely contaminated than those from FG site. Compared with those oyster samples from the clean site (JZ), metal pollution induced cellular injuries, oxidative and immune stresses in oyster heapatopancreas from both BJ and FG sites via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, metal pollution in BJ site induced disturbance in energy and lipid metabolisms in oysters. Results indicated that cathepsin L and ferritin GF1 might be the biomarkers of As and Fe in oyster C. hongkongensis, respectively. This study demonstrates that proteomics is a useful tool for investigating biological effects induced by metal pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A metabolomic investigation of the effects of metal pollution in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-01-15

    Metal pollution has been of great concern in the estuaries in Southern China. In this study, metabolic differences between oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis from clean and metal-polluted sites were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. We collected oyster samples from one clean (Jiuzhen) and two metal polluted sites (Baijiao and Fugong). The metal concentrations in oyster gills indicated that both the Baijiao and Fugong sites were severely polluted by several metals, including Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd and Pb. In particular, Cu and Zn were the major contaminants from the Baijiao and Fugong sites. Compared with those oysters from the clean site (JZ), metal pollution in BJ and FG induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism via different metabolic pathways, as indicated by different metabolic biomarkers. This study demonstrates that NMR-based metabolomics is a useful tool for characterizing metabolic responses induced by metal pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wastewater filtering from a metal polishing station for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Wastewater effluent from grinding and polishing stations is a pollution concern at Sandia National Laboratories. Efforts to ensure that the effluent does not exceed City of Albuquerque grab sample limits have relied on traps and settling tanks which are ineffective, As an alternative measure, a pumped filtration system was tested to determine if metal concentrations in wastewater could be reduced to a level below the City of Albuquerque grab sample limits. A one micron cellulose filter was used in a commercial filtration pump to filter wastewater. Wastewater samples were taken from upstream and downstream of the filter during typical polishing operations, and the samples analyzed for seven different metal concentrations. The concentrations of metal in the wastewater after filtration were always below the City of Albuquerque discharge limits, sometimes by 2 orders of magnitude. This method of pollution prevention (ie. wastewater filtering) is both inexpensive and very efficient. Sandia National Laboratories facilities designers in combination with facilities maintenance personnel are currently retrofitting existing stations in the Metallography laboratory in Department 1822 and should consider installing this type of system with all new polishing facilities.

  3. A Miniaturized Therapeutic Chromophore for Multiple Metal Pollutant Sensing, Pathological Metal Diagnosis and Logical Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Bhimsen

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of a miniaturized unimolecular analytic system is illustrated. The easily accessible therapeutic chromophore “temoporfin”, which responds differentially to bound metals at multiple wavelengths of Q-band absorption using chemometric analysis, expeditiously detects and discriminates a wide range of metals regarded as priority pollutants in water and hence may also be used for diagnosis of medically relevant metals in human urine. The molecule was further investigated as an electronic logic device, e.g. keypad lock device, to authorize multiple highly secure chemical passwords for information protection.

  4. A Miniaturized Therapeutic Chromophore for Multiple Metal Pollutant Sensing, Pathological Metal Diagnosis and Logical Computing.

    PubMed

    Rout, Bhimsen

    2016-06-07

    The efficacy of a miniaturized unimolecular analytic system is illustrated. The easily accessible therapeutic chromophore "temoporfin", which responds differentially to bound metals at multiple wavelengths of Q-band absorption using chemometric analysis, expeditiously detects and discriminates a wide range of metals regarded as priority pollutants in water and hence may also be used for diagnosis of medically relevant metals in human urine. The molecule was further investigated as an electronic logic device, e.g. keypad lock device, to authorize multiple highly secure chemical passwords for information protection.

  5. A Miniaturized Therapeutic Chromophore for Multiple Metal Pollutant Sensing, Pathological Metal Diagnosis and Logical Computing

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Bhimsen

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a miniaturized unimolecular analytic system is illustrated. The easily accessible therapeutic chromophore “temoporfin”, which responds differentially to bound metals at multiple wavelengths of Q-band absorption using chemometric analysis, expeditiously detects and discriminates a wide range of metals regarded as priority pollutants in water and hence may also be used for diagnosis of medically relevant metals in human urine. The molecule was further investigated as an electronic logic device, e.g. keypad lock device, to authorize multiple highly secure chemical passwords for information protection. PMID:27271817

  6. Time to death response in carabid beetles exposed to multiple stressors along a gradient of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Stone, D; Jepson, P; Kramarz, P; Laskowski, R

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the responses of invertebrates inhabiting polluted environments to multiple stressors. Carabid beetles (Pterostichus oblongopunctatus F.) were subjected to food deprivation and insecticide treatment (dimethoate) to resolve trends associated with a gradient of heavy metal pollution. Metal concentrations along the gradient of five sites ranged from approximately 150 to 10,500 mg/kg Zn, 136 to 2600 mg/kg Pb, and 0.84 to 81.9 mg/kg Cd. There was no difference in body mass along the pollution gradient. However, the beetles originating from the most contaminated sites were significantly less tolerant to food deprivation than beetles from the reference site. Median survival time was 120 h for the two most polluted sites, compared with 168 h at the reference site. Beetles from the two most polluted sites were also significantly more susceptible to dimethoate at 0.1 microgram active ingredient/beetle. Median survival times were 12 and 123 h for beetles from the two most polluted sites and 359 h for the reference site. Carabid beetles exposed to chronic pollution, therefore, exhibit elevated susceptibility to additional stressors.

  7. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  8. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger T.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO.sub.x and optionally SO.sub.2 from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe.sup.2+) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC' is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  9. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    PubMed

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  10. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil

    PubMed Central

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  11. Heavy metal pollution recorded in Porites corals from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian-Ran; Yu, Ke-Fu; Li, Shu; Price, Gilbert J; Shi, Qi; Wei, Gang-Jian

    2010-01-01

    We examined metal-to-calcium ratios (Fe/Ca, Mn/Ca and Zn/Ca) in the growth bands of two Porites corals from Daya Bay, South China Sea, in order to trace long-term trends in local ambient pollution levels. Although Fe and Mn did not show any obvious increasing trends over 32 years in the period 1976-2007, peak values of Fe/Ca and Mn/Ca occurred in the mid-late 1980s, temporally-coeval with the local construction of a nuclear power station. Furthermore, both corals showed rapid increases in Zn concentrations over the past 14 years (1994-2007), most likely due to increases in domestic and industrial sewage discharge. The Daya Bay corals had higher concentrations of metals than other reported corals from both pristine and seriously polluted locations, suggesting that acute (Fe and Mn) and chronic (Zn) heavy metal contamination has occurred locally over the past approximately 32 years. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial diffraction gratings as optical detectors for heavy metal pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noever, David; Matsos, Helen; Brittain, Andrew; Obenhuber, Don; Cronise, Raymond; Armstrong, Shannon

    1996-03-01

    As a significant industrial pollutant, cadmium is implicated as the cause of itai-itai disease. For biological detection of cadmium toxicity, an assay device has been developed using the motile response of the protozoa species, Tetrahymena pyriformis. This mobile protozoa measures 50 μm in diameter, swims at 10 body lengths per second, and aggregates into macroscopically visible patterns at high organism concentrations. The assay demonstrates a Cd+2 sensitivity better than 1 μM and a toxicity threshold to 5 μM, thus encouraging the study of these microbial cultures as viable pollution detectors. Using two-dimensional diffraction patterns within a Tetrahymena culture, the scattered light intensity varies with different organism densities (population counts). The resulting density profile correlates strongly with the toxic effects at very low dosages for cadmium (<5 ppm) and then for poison protection directly (with nickel and copper antagonists competing with cadmium absorption). In particular, copper dosages as low as 0.1-0.5 mM Cu have shown protective antagonism against cadmium, have enhanced density variability for cultures containing 1 mM Cd+2, and therefore have demonstrated the sensitivity of the optical detection system. In this way, such microbial diffraction patterns give a responsive optical measure of biological culture changes and toxicity determination in aqueous samples of heavy metals and industrial pollutants.

  13. Microbial Diffraction Gratings as Optical Detectors for Heavy Metal Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Matsos, Helen; Brittain, Andrew; Obenhuber, Don; Cronise, Raymond; Armstrong, Shannon

    1996-01-01

    As a significant industrial pollutant, cadmium is implicated as the cause of itai-itai disease. For biological detection of cadmium toxicity, an assay device has been developed using the motile response of the protozoa species, Tetrahymena pyriformis. This mobile protozoa measures 50 microns in diameter, swims at 10 body lengths per second, and aggregates into macroscopically visible patterns at high organism concentrations. The assay demonstrates a Cd(+2) sensitivity better than 1 micro-M and a toxicity threshold to 5 micro-M, thus encouraging the study of these microbial cultures as viable pollution detectors. Using two-dimensional diffraction patterns within a Tetrahymena culture, the scattered light intensity varies with different organism densities (population counts). The resulting density profile correlates strongly with the toxic effects at very low dosages for cadmium (less than 5 ppm) and then for poison protection directly (with nickel and copper antagonists competing with cadmium absorption). In particular, copper dosages as low as 0.1-0.5 mM Cu have shown protective antagonism against cadmium, have enhanced density variability for cultures containing 1 mM Cd(+2) and therefore have demonstrated the sensitivity of the optical detection system. In this way, such microbial diffraction patterns give a responsive optical measure of biological culture changes and toxicity determination in aqueous samples of heavy metals and industrial pollutants.

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals.

  15. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Soils of Sopron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: anthropogenic effects, land use types, heavy metal content, polluted urban soils, GIS methods Our aim was to identify the main feedback effects between the town and its environment. In the course of our investigation we have analysed the heavy metal contents of urban soil in Sopron town in Hungary. We collected 208 samples on 104 points from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth in a standard network and also at industrial territories. We have been represented our results in a GIS system. We analysed the soils with Lakanen-Erviö method and we measured 24 elements but we have been focused on Co, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Using the data we observed the relationship between these elements in both layers. In the downtown the acidity of soils were alkaline by the greatest number of point, therefore the pollution of these soils is not leach in deeper layers yet. The lead was very high (> 100 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas by us. Cadmium contents were the highest (6.14 mg Cd/kg) in traffic zones, where these values could be more than 3 mg Cd/kg according to the literature. The cobalt and zinc results were under the limits. According to our measurements we founded the highest average values in the soils of parks. This could be contamination of the lead from traffic, which bind in the soil of urban green spaces. Now we could continue our examinations with the investigations of these polluted green areas, which can effect to human health.

  17. Metallothionein as bioindicator of freshwater metal pollution: European eel and brown trout.

    PubMed

    Linde, A R; Sánchez-Galán, S; Vallés-Mota, P; García-Vázquez, E

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of metallothionein (MT) as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout and European eel in the field situation. River Ferrerias (North Spain) provided a good gradient of metal contamination: concentrations of heavy metals were elevated both in water and in sediments at the downstream (polluted) site and were low at the upstream (unpolluted) site. MT levels of brown trout exhibited statistically significant differences between sites. Although European eel at the polluted site had a higher MT content, differences were not significant. It is concluded that MT is a good bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in brown trout.

  18. Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Eklund, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature. Our results revealed that the biofouling waste contained very high concentrations of metals, up to 28,000 mg copper/kg dw and 171,000 mg zinc/kg dw, which exceeds the guidance values for least sensitive land use in Sweden by factors of 140 and 340, respectively. This observation is important because the contaminated biofouling waste is commonly disposed of in boatyard soils at the end of each season, thus increasing the levels of metal pollution. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the amount of biofouling if the boats were coated with copper or zinc containing paints or no paint at all, indicating that biocide paints might not be necessary in low-salinity areas such as the Stockholm archipelago. For boats that were not painted at all during the season, those washed on boat washers (mechanically) had on average half of the amount of biofouling compared to boats that were not cleaned mechanically. The results of the study indicate the importance of proper management of biofouling waste as well as the use of more environmentally friendly removal methods for biofouling such as boat washers.

  19. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  20. Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network).

    PubMed

    Perez, Laura; Declercq, Christophe; Iñiguez, Carmen; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Bouland, Catherine; Chanel, Olivier; Cirarda, Francisco B; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Haluza, Daniela; Hedlund, Britta; Cambra, Koldo; Lacasaña, Marina; Moshammer, Hanns; Otorepec, Peter; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Medina, Sylvia; Künzli, Nino

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological research suggests that near road traffic-related pollution may cause chronic disease, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies, implying that the entire "chronic disease progression" should be attributed to air pollution, no matter what the proximate cause was. We estimated the burden of childhood asthma attributable to air pollution in 10 European cities by calculating the number of cases of 1) asthma caused by near road traffic-related pollution, and 2) acute asthma events related to urban air pollution levels. We then expanded our approach to include coronary heart diseases in adults. Derivation of attributable cases required combining concentration-response function between exposures and the respective health outcome of interest (obtained from published literature), an estimate of the distribution of selected exposures in the target population, and information about the frequency of the assessed morbidities. Exposure to roads with high vehicle traffic, a proxy for near road traffic-related pollution, accounted for 14% of all asthma cases. When a causal relationship between near road traffic-related pollution and asthma is assumed, 15% of all episodes of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Without this assumption, only 2% of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Similar patterns were found for coronary heart diseases in older adults. Pollutants along busy roads are responsible for a large and preventable share of chronic disease and related acute exacerbations in European urban areas.

  1. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

  2. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air p...

  3. Ambient air pollution particles and the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation has repeatedly demonstrated an association between exposure to ambient air pollution particles and numerous indices of human morbidity and mortality. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among those with an increased sensitivity to air p...

  4. Assessment of the impact of heavy metal pollution from a ferro-nickel smelting plant using biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Papathanasiou, Evangelos; Cotou, Efthimia

    2007-02-01

    A set of biomarkers was used to assess the impact of heavy metal pollution by a ferro-nickel smelting plant in Larymna bay (North Evoikos Gulf, Greece). These included a biomarker reflecting health status of an organism (scope for growth, SFG), a cellular biomarker of heavy metal exposure (composition of metal-containing granules), and two biochemical biomarkers reflecting oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase, GPX) and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) measured in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) both native and transplanted for 1 and 6 months at the coastal area of Larymna. All biomarkers in mussels at Larymna revealed differences from mussels at a reference site, signaling effects of the increased heavy metal levels on the biota. While effects on SFG and GPX in Larymna mussels were obvious on short-term exposure and persistent during chronic exposure, only chronic exposure induced a possibly cumulative effect on AChE. To validate the causal relationship between heavy metal exposure and effects observed in Larymna, SFG, GPX, and ACHE were examined in mussels exposed to a mixture of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, and Fe) under controlled laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiment verified the causal relationship between SFG and GPX responses and heavy metals but this was not demonstrated for AChE. Results from field-collected and laboratory-exposed mussels indicated a potential of GPX as predictive biomarker of population-level effects of heavy metal exposure.

  5. Environmental geochemistry and pollution studies of Aliaga metal industry district.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delya; Karaoglu, Nevin

    2002-02-01

    The Aliaga metal industry district located 50 km northwest of Izmir City, in Turkey, includes many metal factories. The geology of the area is represented by Mesozoic flysch deposits and Cenozoic volcano sedimentary rocks. Tectonic elements are NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults and a W-NW trending fault direction that is important for water supply. Rock, soil, stream sediment, and water samples taken at various distances from the industrial area were analyzed for Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo. According to the results, the elements in rocks are reasonable for the range of "Clarke" values, but in the soils and stream sediment, they comprise higher values than are acceptable for agricultural activities. Toxicity analyses were carried out in the drinking artesian water of Cakmakli village and wastewater samples of the factories and river water both of which are used for irrigation of the agricultural areas in and around the investigated area. The people should, however be made aware that this waste and river water is unacceptable for agriculture. Additionally, the contamination of seawater in Nemrut Bay is probably caused by contaminated river and underground water running to the sea. The chemical and toxicity analysis of drinking water samples show that they are above accepted standards and harmful. Previous air pollution studies (funnel gas emission analyses) also show that gas emission contains high amount of dust particles with high Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu concentrations. As a result, all elements analyzed are of great importance relative to problems concerning contamination of the soil, stream sediment, ground surface water, and air by individual metals from uncontrolled processing of some metal factories.

  6. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Marisa; Merchant, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment.

  7. Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Pollution Using an Aquatic Apex Predator, the American Alligator, and Its Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Marisa; Merchant, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the bioaccumulation of chemical elements within various organismal tissues has become a useful tool to survey current or chronic levels of heavy metal exposure within an environment. In this study, we compared the bioaccumulations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Se, and Zn between the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, and its parasites in order to establish their use as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Concomitant with these results, we were interested to determine if parasites were more sensitive bioindicators of heavy metals relative to alligators. We found parasites collectively accumulated higher levels of As, Cu, Se, and Zn in comparison to their alligator hosts, whereas Fe, Cd, and Pb concentrations were higher in alligators. Interestingly, Fe levels were significantly greater in intestinal trematodes than their alligator hosts when analyzed independently from other parasitic taxa. Further analyses showed alligator intestinal trematodes concentrated As, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn at significantly higher levels than intestinal nematodes and parasites from other organs. However, pentastomids also employed the role as a good biomagnifier of As. Interestingly, parasitic abundance decreased as levels of As increased. Stomach and intestinal nematodes were the poorest bioaccumulators of metals, yet stomach nematodes showed their ability to concentrate Pb at orders of magnitude higher in comparison to other parasites. Conclusively, we suggest that parasites, particularly intestinal trematodes, are superior biomagnifiers of As, Cu, Se, and Zn, whereas alligators are likely good biological indicators of Fe, Cd, and Pb levels within the environment. PMID:26555363

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T) - 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T) - 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE U.S. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal finishing processes are a type of chemical processes and can be modeled using Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE). Currently, the U.S. EPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a pollution prevention software tool for the meta...

  12. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution.

  13. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  14. Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qunfang; Zhang, Jianbin; Fu, Jianjie; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-01-14

    Wide occurrence of aquatic metal pollution has caused much attention. Biomonitoring offers an appealing tool for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystem. The bioindicators including algae, macrophyte, zooplankton, insect, bivalve mollusks, gastropod, fish, amphibian and others are enumerated and compared for their advantages and disadvantages in practical biomonitoring of aquatic metal pollution. The common biomonitoring techniques classified as bioaccumulation, biochemical alterations, morphological and behavior observation, population- and community-level approaches and modeling are discussed. The potential applications of biomonitoring are proposed to mainly include evaluation of actual aquatic metal pollution, bioremediation, toxicology prediction and researches on toxicological mechanism. Further perspectives are made for the biomonitoring of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystem.

  15. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of

  16. Air pollution and chronic airway diseases: what should people know and do?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-Qin; Feng, Di

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution remain a public health concern worldwide. Exposure to air pollution has many substantial adverse effects on human health. Globally, seven million deaths were attributable to the joint effects of household and ambient air pollution. Subjects with chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of air pollutants. Air pollution can induce the acute exacerbation of COPD and onset of asthma, increase the respiratory morbidity and mortality. The health effects of air pollution depend on the components and sources of pollutants, which varied with countries, seasons, and times. Combustion of solid fuels is a major source of air pollutants in developing countries. To reduce the detrimental effects of air pollution, people especially those with COPD or asthma should be aware of the air quality and take extra measures such as reducing the time outdoor and wearing masks when necessary. For reducing the air pollutants indoor, people should use clean fuels and improve the stoves so as to burn fuel more efficiently and vent emissions to the outside. Air cleaners that can improve the air quality efficiently are recommended. PMID:26904251

  17. Air pollution and chronic airway diseases: what should people know and do?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu-Qin; Mei, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Di

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution remain a public health concern worldwide. Exposure to air pollution has many substantial adverse effects on human health. Globally, seven million deaths were attributable to the joint effects of household and ambient air pollution. Subjects with chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of air pollutants. Air pollution can induce the acute exacerbation of COPD and onset of asthma, increase the respiratory morbidity and mortality. The health effects of air pollution depend on the components and sources of pollutants, which varied with countries, seasons, and times. Combustion of solid fuels is a major source of air pollutants in developing countries. To reduce the detrimental effects of air pollution, people especially those with COPD or asthma should be aware of the air quality and take extra measures such as reducing the time outdoor and wearing masks when necessary. For reducing the air pollutants indoor, people should use clean fuels and improve the stoves so as to burn fuel more efficiently and vent emissions to the outside. Air cleaners that can improve the air quality efficiently are recommended.

  18. Microbial community composition and functions are resilient to metal pollution along two forest soil gradients.

    PubMed

    Azarbad, Hamed; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili; Wen, Chongqing; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long-term metal pollution. Studying 12 sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that functional potential and diversity (assessed using GeoChip 4.2) were highly similar across the gradients despite drastically diverging metal contamination levels. Metal pollution level did, however, significantly impact bacterial community structure (as shown by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes), but not bacterial taxon richness and community composition. Metal pollution caused changes in the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Also, a group of metal-resistance genes showed significant correlations with metal concentrations in soil. Our study showed that microbial communities are resilient to metal pollution; despite differences in community structure, no clear impact of metal pollution levels on overall functional diversity was observed. While screens of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA genes, provide only limited insight into resilience mechanisms, analysis of specific functional genes, e.g. involved in metal resistance, appears to be a more promising strategy.

  19. Susceptibility of a carabid beetle, Pterostichus oblongopunctatus fab., from a gradient of heavy metal pollution to additional stressors.

    PubMed

    Lagisz, Malgorzata; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2007-11-01

    Insects inhabiting contaminated areas show increased susceptibility to other stressors, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether this phenomenon had a genetic basis. We investigated changes in susceptibility to food deprivation and insecticide (dimethoate) treatment of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus originating from four populations situated along a metal pollution gradient. To determine whether the increased susceptibility to additional stressors found in field-exposed animals from chronically metal-polluted sites had a genetic basis, our research was conducted on the second generation of laboratory-reared animals. There was no difference in susceptibility to the additional stressors indicating that the differences between populations observed in earlier studies do not have a genetic basis.

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CARDEROCK DIVISION, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER in...National Shipbuilding Research Program, Heavy Metal Adsorbents for Storm Water Pollution Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Navy. ANY POSSIBLE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE ARE SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMED. FINAL REPORT HEAVY METAL ADSORBENTS

  1. Signatures of selection in natural populations adapted to chronic pollution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Larissa M; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2008-10-10

    Populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus appear to flourish in heavily polluted and geographically separated Superfund sites. Populations from three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA, Newark Bay, NJ, and Elizabeth River, VA) have independently evolved adaptive resistance to chemical pollutants. In these polluted populations, natural selection likely has altered allele frequencies of loci that affect fitness or that are linked to these loci. The aim of this study was to identify loci that exhibit non-neutral behavior in the F. heteroclitus genome in polluted populations versus clean reference populations. To detect signatures of natural selection and thus identify genetic bases for adaptation to anthropogenic stressors, we examined allele frequencies for many hundreds of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers among populations of F. heteroclitus. Specifically, we contrasted populations from three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA, Newark Bay, NJ, and Elizabeth River, VA) to clean reference populations flanking the polluted sites. When empirical FST values were compared to a simulated distribution of FST values, 24 distinct outlier loci were identified among pairwise comparisons of pollutant impacted F. heteroclitus populations and both surrounding reference populations. Upon removal of all outlier loci, there was a strong correlation (R2=0.79, p<0.0001) between genetic and geographical distance. This apparently neutral evolutionary pattern was not evident when outlier loci were included (R2=0.092, p=0.0721). Two outlier loci were shared between New Bedford Harbor and Elizabeth River populations, and two different loci were shared between Newark Bay and Elizabeth River populations. In total, 1% to 6% of loci are implicated as being under selection or linked to areas of the genome under selection in three F. heteroclitus populations that reside in polluted estuaries. Shared loci among polluted sites indicate that selection may be

  2. Seasonal changes in antioxidant enzyme activities of freshwater biofilms in a metal polluted Mediterranean stream.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Acuňa, Vicenç; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata; Guasch, Helena

    2013-02-01

    While seasonal variations in fluvial communities have been extensively investigated, effects of seasonality on community responses to environmental and/or chemical stress are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe antioxidant enzyme activity (AEA) variability in fluvial biofilms over an annual cycle, under multi-stress scenarios due to environmental variability (e.g., light intensity, water flow, and temperature) and metal pollution (Zn, Mn and Fe). The annual monitoring study was performed at three sites according to their water and biofilm metal concentrations. Metal concentration was affected by water flow due to dilution. Low flow led to higher dissolved Zn concentrations, and thus to higher Zn accumulation in the biofilm. Water temperature, light intensity and phosphate concentration were the environmental factors which determined the seasonality of biofilm responses, whereas dissolved Zn and Zn accumulation in biofilms were the parameters linked to sites and periods of highest metal pollution. Community algal succession, from diatoms in cold conditions to green algae in warm conditions, was clearer in the non metal-polluted site than in those metal-polluted, presumably due to the selection pressure exerted by metals. Most AEA were related with seasonal environmental variability at the sites with low or no-metal pollution, except glutathione-S-transferase (GST) which was related with Zn (dissolved and accumulated in biofilm) pollution occurring at the most polluted site. We can conclude that seasonal variations of community composition and function are masked by metal pollution. From this study we suggest the use of a multi-biomarker approach, including AEA and a set of biological and physicochemical parameters as an effect-based field tool to assess metal pollution.

  3. Magnetic evidence for heavy metal pollution of topsoil in Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guan; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Jiao; Ren, Feifan; Chen, Yuying; Ye, Fangzhou; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the results obtained from magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr) concentration measurements of soil profiles collected from arable land and urban parks in Baoshan District, an industrial district of Shanghai, China. The study focuses on the investigation of vertical variations in magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations and on correlations between magnetic susceptibilities and heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles. The results demonstrate that magnetic enhancement in the surface layer of the soil profile is associated with increased heavy metal pollution. The enrichment factors (EF) and the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI-EF) are calculated for estimating the level of heavy metal pollution of soil profiles in the study. The significant positive correlations between heavy metal contents, enrichment factors (EF), Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-CF), modified Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI-EF), and magnetic susceptibility (c) indicate that much of the heavy metal contamination in the study area is linked to combustion derived particulate emissions. The results confirm that the combined magnetic measurement and heavy metal concentration analysis could provide useful information for soil monitoring in urban environments. However, the use of magnetic technique to locate the heavy metal pollution boundary in the soil profile of this studied area should be confirmed by further geochemical analysis.

  4. Effects of environmental regulations on heavy metal pollution decline in core sediments from Manila Bay.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Su, Chih-Chieh; Siringan, Fernando; Amano, Atsuko; Onodera, Shin-ichi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the high-resolution heavy metal pollution history of Manila Bay using heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios together with (210)Pb dating to find out the effects of environmental regulations after the 1990 s. Our results suggested that the rate of decline in heavy metal pollution increased dramatically from the end of the 1990 s due to stricter environmental regulations, Administrative Order No. 42, being enforced by the Philippines government. The presented data and methodology should form the basis for future monitoring, leading to pollution control, and to the generation of preventive measures at the pollution source for the maintenance of environmental quality in the coastal metropolitan city of Manila. Although this is the first report of a reduction in pollution in Asian developing country, our results suggest that we can expect to find similar signs of pollution decline in other parts of the world as well.

  5. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-07

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils.

  6. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils. PMID:26739424

  7. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils.

  8. Evaluation of bivalves as bioindicators of metal pollution in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Waykar, Bhalchandra; Deshmukh, Gajanan

    2012-01-01

    The fresh water bivalves, Lamellidens corrianus, Lamellidens marginalis, and Indonaia caeruleus were exposed to chronic concentration of arsenic (0.1719 ppm), cadmium (0.1284 ppm), copper (0.033 ppm), lead (1.50 ppm), mercury (0.0443 ppm) and zinc (1.858 ppm) separately up to 30 days in laboratory. Dry weight of each animal was used to calculate metal concentrations (μg/g) and the metal body burden (μg/individual). It was observed that lead (1235.4 μg/g) and arsenic (37.9 μg/g) concentration were highest in Lamellidens corrianus, zinc (3,032.3 μg/g) was highest in Lamellidens marginalis, while mercury (5.87 μg/g), cadmium (142 μg/g) and copper (826.7 μg/g) was highest in Indonaia caeruleus.

  9. Heavy Metal Pollution Enhances Soil Respiration and Reduces Carbon Storage in a Chinese Paddy Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Genxing; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Yongzhuo; Smith, Pete; Crowley, David; Zheng, Jufeng

    2010-05-01

    China's paddy soils are crucial both for food security through high cereal productivity, and for climate mitigation through high soil carbon storage. These functions are increasingly threatened by widespread heavy metal pollution, resulting from rapid industrial development. Heavy metal-polluted soils generally have a reduced microbial biomass and reduced soil respiration, as well as reduced functional diversity through changes in microbial community structure. Here we show that heavy metal pollution enhances soil respiration and CO2 efflux from a Chinese rice paddy soil, and leads to a soil organic carbon (SOC) loss, which is correlated with a decline in the fungal-to-bacterial ratio of the reduced soil microbial community. The pollution-induced SOC loss could offset 70% of the yearly SOC increase from China's paddy soils. Thus, heavy metal pollution impacts long term productivity and the potential for C sequestration in China's paddy soils.

  10. An overview of trace metal pollution in the coastal waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, G

    1998-06-18

    The state of metal pollution in Hong Kong's coastal waters has been assessed by measuring metal levels in: (i) the water column; (ii) sediments and (iii) in organisms, i.e. biomonitors. Current literature is reviewed. Data from sediment analysis have shown that metal pollution is most severe in the urban areas of Victoria Harbour, Tolo Harbour, Deep Bay and Northwestern waters. Bottom sediments in typhoon shelters are particularly heavily polluted with, for example, Cu levels from Kowloon Bay reaching 5300 mg.kg-1 in 1995. Since 1987, levels of pollution have generally either stabilized or fallen in Deep Bay and Victoria Harbour but have increased in Inner Tolo Harbour and Northwestern waters. Many biomonitors have been used to study metal pollution in Hong Kong, the most popular of which are barnacles, mussels (in particular Perna viridis) and algae (in particular Ulva lactuca). Biomonitoring studies generally recorded high levels of metal pollution in Victoria Harbour in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties, with increasing pollution of the semi-enclosed Tolo Harbour through the eighties and early nineties. In a recent study using barnacles, the levels of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were shown to be greatly reduced as compared to those recorded in 1986 and 1989, respectively. Levels of metal pollution in Hong Kong coastal waters may have lowered in the last 10 years.

  11. Efficiently Evaluating Heavy Metal Urban Soil Pollution Using an Improved Entropy-Method-Based Topsis Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Han, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Urban soil pollution is evaluated utilizing an efficient and simple algorithmic model referred to as the entropy method-based Topsis (EMBT) model. The model focuses on pollution source position to enhance the ability to analyze sources of pollution accurately. Initial application of EMBT to urban soil pollution analysis is actually implied. The pollution degree of sampling point can be efficiently calculated by the model with the pollution degree coefficient, which is efficiently attained by first utilizing the Topsis method to determine evaluation value and then by dividing the evaluation value of the sample point by background value. The Kriging interpolation method combines coordinates of sampling points with the corresponding coefficients and facilitates the formation of heavy metal distribution profile. A case study is completed with modeling results in accordance with actual heavy metal pollution, proving accuracy and practicality of the EMBT model.

  12. The use of acute and chronic bioassays to determine the ecological risk and bioremediation efficiency of oil-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, C A; van der Waarde, J J; Derksen, J G; van der Hoek, E E; Veul, M F; Bouwens, S; Rusch, B; Kronenburg, R; Stokman, G N

    2001-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of acute and chronic bioassays for the ecological risk assessment of polluted soils, soil samples from a site with an historical mineral oil contamination (< 50-3,300 mg oil/kg dry soil) at the Petroleum Harbour in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, were screened for ecological effects using acute and chronic bioassays. A two-step 0.001 M Ca(NO3)2 extraction at a final solution-to-soil ratio of 1:1 was used to prepare extracts for the acute bioassays. Acute bioassays (< or = 5 d) applied to the 0.001 M Ca(NO3)2 extracts from the polluted and reference soils included growth tests with bacteria (Bacillus sp.), algae (Raphidocelis subcapitata), and plants (Lactuca sativa), immobility tests with nematodes (Plectus acuminatus), springtails (Folsomia candida), and cladocerans (Daphnia magna), and the Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri). Chronic bioassays (four weeks) performed on the same soil samples included tests with L. sativa, F. candida, and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and the bait-lamina test (substrate consumption). The acute bioassays on Microtox showed a response that corresponded with the level of oil pollution. All other acute bioassays did not show such a consistent response, probably because pollutant levels were too low to cause acute effects. All chronic bioassays showed sublethal responses according to the contaminant levels (oil and in some soils also metals). This shows that chronic bioassays on soil samples are more sensitive in assessing the toxicity of mineral oil contamination in soil than acute bioassays on soil extracts. A pilot scale bioremediation study on soils taken from the two most polluted sites and a control site showed a rapid decline of oil concentrations to reach a stable level within eight weeks. Acute bioassays applied to the soils, using Microtox, algae, and D. magna, and chronic bioassays, using plants, Collembola, earthworms, and bait-lamina consumption, in all cases showed a rapid reduction of toxicity, which

  13. Assessing the trace metal pollution in the sediments of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, via a novel pollution index.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, A R; Karbassi, A R; Fakhraee, M

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mC d), geo-accumulation index (I geo), and enrichment factor (EF). All these indices compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to the remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mC d, and I geo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (I POLL), and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples.

  14. Sources of variation in innate immunity in great tit nestlings living along a metal pollution gradient: an individual-based approach.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Anke; Müller, Wendt; Matson, Kevin D; Tieleman, B Irene; Bervoets, Lieven; Eens, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    Excessive deposition of metals in the environment is a well-known example of pollution worldwide. Chronic exposure of organisms to metals can have a detrimental effect on reproduction, behavior, health and survival, due to the negative effects on components of the immune system. However, little is known about the effects of chronic sublethal metal exposure on immunity, especially for wildlife. In our study, we examined the constitutive innate immunity of great tit (Parus major) nestlings (N=234) living in four populations along a metal pollution gradient. For each nestling, we determined the individual metal concentrations (lead, cadmium, arsenic) present in the red blood cells and measured four different innate immune parameters (agglutination, lysis, haptoglobin concentrations and nitric oxide concentrations) to investigate the relationship between metal exposure and immunological condition. While we found significant differences in endogenous metal concentrations among populations with the highest concentrations closest to the pollution source, we did not observe corresponding patterns in our immune measures. However, when evaluating relationships between metal concentrations and immune parameters at the individual level, we found negative effects of lead and, to a lesser extent, arsenic and cadmium on lysis. In addition, high arsenic concentrations appear to elicit inflammation, as reflected by elevated haptoglobin concentrations. Thus despite the lack of a geographic association between pollution and immunity, this type of association was present at the individual level at a very early life stage. The high variation in metal concentrations and immune measures observed within populations indicates a high level of heterogeneity along an existing pollution gradient. Interestingly, we also found substantial within nest variation, for which the sources remain unclear, and which highlights the need of an individual-based approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Progress in the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils by natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-yu; Shao, Hong-bo; Li, Hua; Shao, Ming-an; Du, Sheng

    2009-10-15

    Hazardous heavy metal pollution of soils is an increasingly urgent problem all over the world. The zeolite as a natural amendment has been studied extensively for the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils with recycling. But its theory and application dose are not fully clear. This paper reviews the related aspects of theory and application progress for the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils by natural zeolite, with special emphasis on single/co-remediation. Based on the comments on hazardous heavy metal behavior characteristics in leaching and rhizosphere and remediation with zeolite for heavy metal-polluted soils, it indicated that the research of rhizosphere should be strengthened. Theory of remediation with natural zeolite could make breakthroughs due to the investigation on synthetic zeolite. Co-remediation with natural zeolite may be applied and studied with more prospect and sustainable recycling.

  16. Interaction of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution with Industrialisation and the Landscape Pattern in Taiyuan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning. PMID:25251460

  17. Interaction of soil heavy metal pollution with industrialisation and the landscape pattern in Taiyuan city, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning.

  18. Assessment of metals pollution and health risk in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Loretta Y; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations, pollution and health risks of metals in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China were determined. In comparison with local soil, dust samples have elevated metals concentrations except for Mn. The results indicate no distinct pollution of Mn, Ni, As and Ba in the dust, while Cu, Co and Zn are moderate pollution, Pb is significant pollution, and Cr with large pollution range. Most samples presented moderately polluted by metals. The non-cancer risks of the studied metals are within the safe range, and the cancer risks of As, Co, Cr and Ni are also within the currently acceptable range.

  19. Genome-wide genetic diversity of rove beetle populations along a metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Giska, Iwona; Babik, Wiesław; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Straalen, Nico M; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    To what extent chemical contamination affects genetic diversity of wild populations remains an open question in ecotoxicology. Here we used a genome-wide approach (615 nuclear RADseq loci containing 3017 SNPs) and a mtDNA fragment (ATP6) to analyze the effect of long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) on genetic diversity in rove beetle (Staphylinus erythropterus) populations living along a pollution gradient in Poland. In total, 96 individuals collected from six sites at increasing distance from the source of pollution were analyzed. We found weak differentiation between populations suggesting extensive gene flow. The highest genetic diversity was observed in a population inhabiting the polluted site with the highest metal availability. This may suggest increased mutation rates, possibly in relation to elevated oxidative stress levels. The polluted site could also act as an ecological sink receiving numerous migrants from neighboring populations. Despite higher genetic diversity at the most polluted site, there was no correlation between the genetic diversity and metal pollution or other soil properties. We did not find a clear genomic signature of local adaptation to metal pollution. Like in some other cases of metal tolerance in soil invertebrates, high mobility may counteract possible effects of local selective forces associated with soil pollution.

  20. Pollution evaluation of heavy metals in soil near smelting area by index of geoaccumulation (Igeo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. H.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, C. Y.; Li, Q.; Ouyang, K.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the heavy metal pollution conditions of soil of smelting area in Zijiang of Chenzhou, Hunan province, 42 samples were studied. The concentrations of heavy metals As, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the soil were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry(AFS). Then the potential pollution risks of heavy metal in the soil were evaluated by method of geological acumination index (Igeo). The results indicated that the average concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were 187.79, 2074.52, 15.72, 2178.89, 39.69 mg/kg respectively. The geological evaluation of the cumulative index results showed that the contamination degree of 5 heavy metals follow the sequence of Cd> Zn >Pb > As >Cu. The results show that Cd reached extremely pollution degree, Zn reached strong pollution-extremely pollution levels, the pollution of Pb in the soil is classified as strong pollution degree, Cu and As of no pollution according to the results of Igeo based on the background value of heavy metals in the soil of Hunan Province.

  1. Translocation of microbenthic algal assemblages used for In situ analysis of metal pollution in rivers

    PubMed

    Ivorra; Hettelaar; Tubbing; Kraak; Sabater; Admiraal

    1999-07-01

    Effects of metal pollution from a zinc factory on microbenthic algal communities were assessed in three neighboring streams on the Dutch-Belgian border. Diatom species composition was experimentally related to water quality by transferring racks with colonized glass discs from a polluted stream to a reference stream and vice versa. The succession of species and the changes in biomass and metal accumulation were measured during experiments in spring, autumn, and winter. Metal concentrations and dry weight in translocated biofilms tended to conform with those in local biofilms within an incubation time of 14 to 18 days. Bray-Curtis similarity values from the different communities indicated that diatom communities responded more completely to the metal-polluted conditions than to the reference water quality. Cymbella minuta, Diatoma vulgare var. ehrenbergii, Navicula sp., and Melosira varians had a lower percentage in assemblages placed in the metal-polluted streams. In contrast, Pinnularia sp. and Neidium ampliatum decreased in assemblages from the polluted streams that were transferred to the reference stream. Achnanthes minutissima and Navicula seminulum (N. atomus) proliferated on any translocation, possibly reflecting an opportunistic strategy and a high tolerance for Zn and Cd. The behavior of the species in relation to metal pollution generally accorded with observations in the literature. However, it seems that metal tolerance is not the only selective factor, and other ecological variables may also influence the composition of microphytobenthic communities.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n1p19.html

  2. Assessment of the anthropogenic influx of metallic pollutants in the Sefidrud delta, Gilan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Behrouz; Ahmadi-Ghomi, Fatemeh; Karimkhani, Afshin

    2017-08-15

    Understanding the anthropogenic effects on the Sefidrud delta, the concentration of six metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) was measured in two sites included the old Sefidrud delta (Amirabad, 23 samples) and the new Sefidrud delta (Kiashahr, 24 samples). Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Contamination Factor (CF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were used to determine the metal pollution in all sediment samples. Although the EF, Igeo, CF and PLI results in the old delta indicate no significant pollution, sediment samples in the new delta show a considerable pollution. Since the sediment source and the lithology of the Sefidrud River drainage basin did not change in the past 500years, the metal pollution in the new delta must be from anthropogenic sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca.

    PubMed

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-09-15

    The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4 and NO3) and metals concentrations ((27)Al, (75)As, (138)Ba, (9)Be, (111)Cd, (59)Co, (63)Cu, (52)Cr, (57)Fe, (55)Mn, (60)Ni, (208)Pb, (80)Se, (66)Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing benthic foraminiferal distributions as a contemporary quantitative approach to biomonitoring estuarine heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Foster, William J; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric; Rogerson, Mike

    2012-05-01

    Biomonitoring of estuarine pollution is the subject of active research, and benthic foraminifera are an attractive group to use for these purposes due to their ubiquitous presence in saline water and wide diversity. Here, we describe a case study of biomonitoring using benthic foraminifera in the French Mediterranean lagoon, Bages-Sigean lagoon. In this case, the major pollutants of interest are heavy metals in the sediment, particularly contaminated by Cu and Cd derived from industrial and agricultural sources. The foraminiferal assemblages of the Bages-Sigean lagoon are typical of normal paralic environments, but unusually almost completely lack agglutinated forms. The density of benthic foraminifera was shown to be more influenced by the sediment characteristics rather than heavy metal pollution. However, the relative abundance of Quinqueloculina bicostata was shown to increase in the most polluted areas and we propose that this taxon may be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution.

  5. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  6. Fact Sheets: Final Rules to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Metal Cans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the August 2003 final rule fact sheet and the December 2005 final rule fact sheet that contain information on the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Surface Coating of Metal Cans.

  7. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  8. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Metals and several physicochemical parameters, from four sampling sites in a tropical lake receiving the discharges from a thermal power plant, a coal mine and a chlor-alkali industry, were studied from 2004-2005. Pertaining to metal pollution, the site most polluted with heavy metals was Belwadah, i.e., waters and sediments had the highest concentration of all the metals examined. The reference site was characterized by the presence of low concentrations of metals in waters and in sediments. Further, several wetland plants were harvested from different sites, and simultaneously, these were assessed for their metal concentration efficiency. Following the water quality monitoring and metal concentration efficiency, two-month field phytoremediation experiments were conducted using large enclosures at the discharge point of different polluted sites of the lake. Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata were frontier metal accumulators hence selected for previously mentioned field phytoremediation experiments. During field phytoremediation experiments using aquatic macrophytes, marked percentage reduction in metals concentrations were recorded. The percentage decrease for different metals was in the range of 25-67.90% at Belwadah (with Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), 25-77.14% at Dongia nala (with Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, and Azolla pinnata) and 25-71.42% at Ash pond site of G.B. Pant Sagar (with Lemna minor and Azolla pinnata). Preliminary studies of polluted sites are therefore useful for improved microcosm design and for the systematic extrapolation of information from experimental ecosystems to natural ecosystems.

  9. Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different levels of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal pollution. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different levels of metal pollution in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal levels in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely polluted oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less polluted oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different levels of metal pollution. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status.

  10. Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.

  12. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. Copyright © 2015

  13. Haematological status of wintering great tits (Parus major) along a metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Geens, Ann; Dauwe, Tom; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel

    2010-02-01

    In the long-term biomonitoring of wild populations inhabiting polluted areas, the use of non-destructive biomarkers as markers of condition is very important. We examined the possible effects of metal pollution on the haematological status of adult great tits (Parus major) along a well-established pollution gradient near a non-ferrous smelter in Belgium. We measured blood and feather metal concentrations and assessed the haematological status (amount of red blood cells, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin) of adult great tits during winter at four study sites. Metal concentrations in blood and feathers indicated that cadmium and lead were the most important metals in the pollution gradient under study. Measurements of haematological parameters revealed that haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were lower in great tits from the more polluted sites. These parameters were significantly negatively correlated with blood lead concentration. The amount of red blood cells, however, did not significantly differ among study sites. Our results indicate that the haematological status of great tits is negatively affected by metal pollution and may therefore be used as a successful biomarker for monitoring the negative impact of metal exposure in the wild.

  14. Biomonitoring potential of five sympatric Tillandsia species for evaluating urban metal pollution (Cd, Hg and Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    The present study quantifies non essential heavy metals highly toxic for biological systems (Pb, Hg and Cd) in five autochthonous epiphytic plants from Tillandsia genus (T. recurvata, T. meridionalis, T. duratii, T. tricholepis, T. loliacea) according to different traffic levels (reference, low, medium and high polluted sites) in Asunción (Paraguay). The three metals increased in polluted sites following Pb (till 62.99 ppm in T. tricholepis) > Cd (till 1.35 ppm in T. recurvata) > Hg (till 0.36 ppm in T. recurvata) and Pb and Cd levels were directly related to traffic flow. Although the species showed similar bioaccumulation pattern (namely, higher levels of metals in polluted sites), enrichment factors (maximum EF values 37.00, 18.16, and 11.90 for Pb, Hg, and Cd, respectively) reported T. tricholepis as the most relevant bioindicator due to its wide distribution and abundance in study sites, low metal content in control site and high metal contents in polluted sites, and significant correlations with traffic density of Pb and Cd. This study emphasizes the necessity of biomonitoring air pollution in areas out of air monitoring control such as Asunción, where the high levels of metal pollution especially Pb, may represent an increment of risk for the human population inhabiting this urban area.

  15. Rapid evolution of metal resistance in a benthic oligochaete inhabiting a metal-polluted site

    SciTech Connect

    Klerks, P.L.; Levinton, J.S. )

    1989-04-01

    A case of very rapid evolution of resistance in a common freshwater benthic invertebrate to sediment with extremely high levels of cadmium and nickel was identified. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from metal-polluted sites in Foundry cove, New York was significantly more resistant than conspecifics from a nearby control site, to both metal-rich natural sediment and metal-spiked water. Resistance differences were also found among sites within Foundry Cove. Elevated resistance in Foundry Cove worms was genetically determined, as it was still present after two generations in clean sediment. Resistance evolved rapidly, within 30 years. A laboratory selection experiment and estimates of the heritability of this resistance in L hoffmeisteri from the control site indicated that the resistance could have evolved in 1 to 4 generations. Laboratory selection resulted in a large increase in resistance after two generations of selection, while they demonstrated that most of the phenotypic variation was additive genetic; heritability estimates range from 0.59 to 1.08. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  16. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment.

  17. Comparison of phytoremediation potential capacity of Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis for metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Idaszkin, Yanina L; Lancelotti, Julio L; Pollicelli, María P; Marcovecchio, Jorge E; Bouza, Pablo J

    2017-05-15

    Phytoremediation is considered the most appropriate technique to restore metal polluted soil, given its low cost, high efficiency and low environmental impact. Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis are perennial halophytes growing under similar environmental conditions in San Antonio marsh (Patagonia Argentina), therefore it is interesting to compare their phytoremediation potential capacity. To this end, we compared concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe in soils and in below- and above-ground structures of S. perennis and S. densiflora. It was concluded that both species are able to inhabit Pb, Zn, and Cu polluted soils. Although Sarcocornia translocated more metals to the aerial structures than Spartina, both species translocated only when they were growing in soils with low metal concentrations. It seems that the plants translocate only a certain proportion of the metal contained in the soil. These results suggest that both species could be considered candidates to phytostabilize these metals in polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  19. Bioindication capacity of metal pollution of native and transplanted Pleurozium schreberi under various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kosior, G; Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2010-09-01

    During a period of 90d assays were carried out with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to 27 sites selected in one of the most polluted regions of Upper Silesia (Poland). The native mosses of this species were collected from the polluted sites. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in P. schreberi and in the soil of all of the sites. The sites were divided into more and less polluted ones. The obtained results indicate that the native P. schreberi from the more polluted sites accumulated significantly more Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn than the transplanted moss from the same sites. The transplanted P. schreberi from the less polluted sites accumulated significantly more Cr, Pb, Zn, significantly less Cu and comparable amounts of Cd, as compared to the native moss. The selection of native versus transplant P. schreberi as a bioindicator depends on the level of pollution.

  20. Bioavailability of heavy metals monitoring water, sediments and fish species from a polluted estuary.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Martorell, Juan J; Galindo-Riaño, María D; García-Vargas, Manuel; Granado-Castro, María D

    2009-03-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and As) were measured in water, sediment and two fish species, Sparus aurata and Solea senegalensis, from the estuary of Tinto and Odiel rivers in Huelva (Spain), one of the most metallic polluted estuaries in Europe. As a forward step to understand metal bioavailability and assess the potential impact on aquatic biota, a study of heavy metal speciation of sediments and water were achieved. High levels of total and dissolved Zn and Cu were found in water and high pollution of Zn, Pb, As and Cu were found in sediments. Availability of metals was established as following ranking: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb in both water and sediment. In addition, the effect of this pollution was studied by evaluation of metal bioaccumulations and correlations obtained between metal levels in fractions of water and sediment and metal levels in fish tissues. High Cu and Zn levels were observed in liver tissue of both species, in according with higher total content and more available metals in water and sediment. Correlations among metal content in tissues and different fractions of metal in water for S. aurata and sediment for S. senegalensis were found.

  1. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  2. Effects of heavy metal pollution on red wood ant (Formica s. str.) populations.

    PubMed

    Eeva, T; Sorvari, J; Koivunen, V

    2004-12-01

    We studied the species composition, mound population densities, relative abundance and colony sizes of red wood ants along a well known air pollution gradient of a copper smelter in Southwest Finland. The dominant species, Formica aquilonia, was further studied for heavy metal (Al, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Hg) levels and morphological characters (body mass, head width, labial gland disease) of workers. We found five species belonging to Formica s. str., and two of them showed changes in their relative abundance, which could not be explained by natural habitat differences. Nest mound volumes were 34% smaller in the polluted area, suggesting that smaller colonies can be maintained there. The heavy metal levels in F. aquilonia workers were higher in the polluted area for all metals, except Hg. The largest relative differences between the study areas (polluted/unpolluted) were found for As (4.1), Ni (2.4), Cu (2.1) and Pb (1.8). Morphological characters of workers were not related to the heavy metal levels. Our data showed that red wood ants can tolerate relatively high amounts of heavy metals and maintain reproducing colonies even in a heavily polluted area, but on the basis of smaller colony sizes, pollution stress may also cause trade-offs in reproduction.

  3. Melanin- and carotenoid-dependent signals of great tits (Parus major) relate differently to metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Tom; Eens, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, the expression of secondary sexual characteristics is particularly sensitive to stress. Here, we investigated the expression of two conspicuous visual signals in great tits (Parus major) in a metal pollution gradient. In three study sites with marked differences in metal contamination (mainly lead, cadmium, copper and zinc), we compared melanin and carotenoid colouration of great tits. While carotenoid colouration (yellow breast) was negatively related to metal pollution, the size of a melanin trait (breast stripe) was larger in the most polluted sites. Environmental pollutants not only affect the expression of conspicuous signals but may even enhance, directly or indirectly, a signal of male quality such as breast stripe. Our results also support the multiple messages hypothesis predicting that different signals highlight different aspects of geno- and phenotypic condition of the bearer.

  4. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, T; Breuste, J; Mitrovic, M; Pavlovic, P; Tsigaridas, K

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution.

  5. Melanin- and carotenoid-dependent signals of great tits ( Parus major) relate differently to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauwe, Tom; Eens, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, the expression of secondary sexual characteristics is particularly sensitive to stress. Here, we investigated the expression of two conspicuous visual signals in great tits ( Parus major) in a metal pollution gradient. In three study sites with marked differences in metal contamination (mainly lead, cadmium, copper and zinc), we compared melanin and carotenoid colouration of great tits. While carotenoid colouration (yellow breast) was negatively related to metal pollution, the size of a melanin trait (breast stripe) was larger in the most polluted sites. Environmental pollutants not only affect the expression of conspicuous signals but may even enhance, directly or indirectly, a signal of male quality such as breast stripe. Our results also support the multiple messages hypothesis predicting that different signals highlight different aspects of geno- and phenotypic condition of the bearer.

  6. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current version of this tool. The presentation will...

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  8. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current version of this tool. The presentation wi...

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  10. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current version of this tool. The presentation will...

  11. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current version of this tool. The presentation wi...

  12. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  13. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs.

  14. Particle size effect for metal pollution analysis of atmospherically deposited dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rajhi, M. A.; Al-Shayeb, S. M.; Seaward, M. R. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    The metallic compositions of 231 atmospherically deposited dust samples obtained from widely-differing environments in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, have been investigated in relation to the particle size distributions. Sample data are presented which show that particle size classification is very important when analysing dust samples for atmospheric metal pollution studies. By cross-correlation and comparison, it was found that the best way to express the results of the metal concentration trend was as an average of particle ratios. Correlations between the six metals studied, namely Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Li, were found for every particle size (eight categories) and reveal that the metal concentrations increased as the particle size decreased. On the basis of this work, it is strongly recommended that future international standards for metal pollutants in atmospherically deposited dusts should be based on particle size fractions.

  15. Heavy metal pollution and assessment in the tidal flat sediments of Haizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Yingjun; Gao, Jinrong; Chen, Jing; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei

    2013-09-15

    The heavy metal inventory and the ecological risk of the tidal flat sediments in Haizhou Bay were investigated. Results show that the average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments exceeded the environment background values of Jiangsu Province coastal soil, suggesting that the surface sediments were mainly polluted by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn). In addition, the profiles of heavy metals fluxes can reflect the socio-economic development of Lianyungang City, and heavy metals inputs were attributed to anthropogenic activities. Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were mainly present in the non-bioavailable residual form in surface sediments, whereas Cd and Mn were predominantly in the highly mobile acid soluble and reducible fractions. The ecological risk of the polluted sediments stemmed mainly from Cd and Pb. According to the Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), however, the adverse biological effects caused by the heavy metals occasionally occurred in tidal flat.

  16. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents

    PubMed Central

    Ayangbenro, Ayansina Segun; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2017-01-01

    Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal. PMID:28106848

  17. A New Strategy for Heavy Metal Polluted Environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Ayangbenro, Ayansina Segun; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2017-01-19

    Persistent heavy metal pollution poses a major threat to all life forms in the environment due to its toxic effects. These metals are very reactive at low concentrations and can accumulate in the food web, causing severe public health concerns. Remediation using conventional physical and chemical methods is uneconomical and generates large volumes of chemical waste. Bioremediation of hazardous metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. The use of microbial biosorbents is eco-friendly and cost effective; hence, it is an efficient alternative for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments. Microbes have various mechanisms of metal sequestration that hold greater metal biosorption capacities. The goal of microbial biosorption is to remove and/or recover metals and metalloids from solutions, using living or dead biomass and their components. This review discusses the sources of toxic heavy metals and describes the groups of microorganisms with biosorbent potential for heavy metal removal.

  18. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-11-15

    Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit.

  19. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution by aboveground plant parts.

    PubMed

    Rossini Oliva, S; Mingorance, M D

    2006-10-01

    Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and oleander (Nerium oleander L.) leaves, bark and wood samples were collected at different sites around an industrial area (Huelva, SW Spain) and compared with samples of the same species from a background site. Samples were analysed with respect to the following pollutants: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb by ICP-AES. The suitability of different plant parts as biomonitors of pollution was investigated. In pine samples from the polluted sites the ratio of concentrations between bark and wood was high for Al, Ba, Cu and Fe, whereas no differences were found in samples from the unpolluted area. No differences were detected in oleander for the same ratio. In the oleander species, the ratio between leaves and wood concentration allowed to distinguish between control and polluted sites. The ratio of the concentration between leaves and wood was elevated for Al, Ba and Fe in pine samples from the polluted sites. The ratio of the concentration in bark or leaves to their concentration in wood might be useful to detect inorganic atmospheric pollutants.

  20. Differential Hepatic Metal and Metallothionein Levels in Three Feral Fish Species along a Metal Pollution Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MTtheoretical/ MTmeasured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak. PMID:23556004

  1. Development of a hybrid pollution index for heavy metals in marine and estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal pollution of sediments is a growing concern in most parts of the world, and numerous studies focussed on identifying contaminated sediments by using a range of digestion methods and pollution indices to estimate sediment contamination have been described in the literature. The current work provides a critical review of the more commonly used sediment digestion methods and identifies that weak acid digestion is more likely to provide guidance on elements that are likely to be bioavailable than other traditional methods of digestion. This work also reviews common pollution indices and identifies the Nemerow Pollution Index as the most appropriate method for establishing overall sediment quality. Consequently, a modified Pollution Index that can lead to a more reliable understanding of whole sediment quality is proposed. This modified pollution index is then tested against a number of existing studies and demonstrated to give a reliable and rapid estimate of sediment contamination and quality.

  2. Pollution in the urban soils of Lianyungang, China, evaluated using a pollution index, mobility of heavy metals, and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Li, Hong-Guan; Liu, Fu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Soil samples from 16 urban sites in Lianyungang, China were collected and analyzed. A pollution index was used to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and a sequential extraction procedure was used to evaluate the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide, organic/sulfide, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals and urease (URE) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and invertase (INV) activity of soils was determined. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in Lianyungang soils were much higher than those in the coastal city soil background values of Jiangsu and China. Among the five studied regions (utilities, commercial, industrial, tourism, and roadside), the industrial region had the highest metal concentrations demonstrating that land use had a significant impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils. Compared to the other metals, Cd showed the highest ecological risk. According to chemical partitioning, Cu was associated with the organic/sulfides and Pb and Zn were mainly in the carbonate and the Fe/Mn oxide phase. The greatest amounts of Cd were found in exchangeable and carbonate fractions, while Cr and As were mainly in the residual fraction. Cd had the highest mobility of all metals, and the order of mobility (highest to lowest) of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils was Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr. Soil urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity varied considerably in different pollution degree sites. Soil enzyme activities had the lowest levels in roadside and industrial regions. Across all the soil data in the five regions, the total Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As level was negatively correlated with urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity, but the relationship was not significant. In the industrial region, alkaline phosphatase activity had

  3. Heavy metal pollution in various canals originating from river Yamuna in Haryana.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, A; Jain, S; Dawra, J; Sharma, P

    2003-07-01

    Heavy metal pollution due to Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co and Zn in the water of major canals originating from the river Yamuna in Haryana was studied. All these metals except Zn were found to be present in the Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) exceeding the maximum permissible limits. In the Sunder branch (SB), the heavy metal concentration was relatively more. Concentrations of the metals were, however, relatively less in the highly eutrophicated waters of Agra canal and Gurgaon canal as compared to that in WYC but Fe concentration were much higher. Except Zn and Ni the metal concentrations exceeded the standard permissible limits in these canals also.

  4. Effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted harbor mud on microbial diversity and metal resistance in sandy marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Toes, Ann-Charlotte M; Finke, Niko; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2008-10-01

    Deposition of dredged harbor sediments in relatively undisturbed ecosystems is often considered a viable option for confinement of pollutants and possible natural attenuation. This study investigated the effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted sludge on the microbial diversity of sandy sediments during 12 months of mesocosm incubation. Geochemical analyses showed an initial increase in pore-water metal concentrations, which subsided after 3 months of incubation. No influence of the deposited sediment was observed in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, whereas a minor, transient impact on the archaeal community was revealed. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries showed an abundance of members of the Flavobacteriaceae, the alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria, in both the muddy and the sandy sediments. Despite the finding that some groups of clones were shared between the metal-impacted sandy sediment and the harbor control, comparative analyses showed that the two sediments were significantly different in community composition. Consequences of redeposition of metal-polluted sediment were primarily underlined with cultivation-dependent techniques. Toxicity tests showed that the percentage of Cd- and Cu-tolerant aerobic heterotrophs was highest among isolates from the sandy sediment with metal-polluted mud on top.

  5. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective. PMID:27803929

  6. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  7. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  8. Local adaptation of microbial communities to heavy metal stress in polluted sediments of Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Hoostal, Matthew J; Bidart-Bouzat, M Gabriela; Bouzat, Juan L

    2008-07-01

    Microbial communities must balance the assimilation of biologically necessary metals with resistance to toxic metal concentrations. To investigate the impact of heavy metal contaminants on microbial communities, we performed two experiments measuring extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) in polluted and unpolluted sediments of Lake Erie. In the first experiment, inoculations with moderate concentrations of copper and zinc appreciably diminished EEA from uncontaminated sites, whereas EEA from contaminated sediments increased or were only negligibly affected. In the second experiment, we compared the effects of three separate metals (i.e. copper, arsenic, and cadmium) on microbial community metabolism in polluted and unpolluted locations. Although copper and arsenic elicited differential effects by inhibiting EEA only in unpolluted sediments, cadmium inhibited EEA in both polluted and unpolluted sediments. Multivariate analyses of EEA from polluted sediments revealed direct associations among hydrolytic enzymes and inverse or absent associations between hydrolases and oxidases; these associations demonstrated resilience to heavy metal stress. In contrast, addition of heavy metals to unpolluted sediments appeared to have a higher impact on the multivariate pattern of EEA associations as revealed by an increase in the number of associations, more inverse relationships, and potential enzymatic trade-offs. The results of this study suggest community-level adaptations through the development of resistance mechanisms to the types and local levels of heavy metals in the environment.

  9. Current status of trace metal pollution in soils affected by industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J C

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  10. The relationship between metal composition, phenolic acid and flavonoid content in Imleria badia from non-polluted and polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Gąsecka, Monika; Rzymski, Piotr; Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2017-03-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition, phenolic content and composition and antioxidant properties of Imleria badia (Fr.) Vizzini (former names Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr., and Xerocomus badius (Fr.) E.-J. Gilbert) fruiting bodies collected from sites with different levels of pollution. Imleria badia was relatively tolerant to soil contamination with toxic elements and was able to grow in As, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations exceeding 15, 2.9, 0.4 and 77 mg kg(-1), respectively. The concentration of elements in soil was reflected in the element content in I. badia. The fruiting bodies from polluted sites exhibited significantly higher content of all the analyzed elements. Among 21 individual phenolic compounds only protocatechiuc and caffeic acids, and quercetin were determined in fruiting bodies of I. badia. The differences between the concentration of the quantified phenolic compounds and the total flavonoid content in fruiting bodies of I. badia from unpolluted and polluted sites were not significant. However, the greatest total phenolic content was found in fruiting bodies from the polluted areas. The antioxidative capacity of mushrooms collected from heavily polluted sites was lower than those growing in unpolluted areas. The concentrations of some metals in soil and fruiting soil were positively correlated with phenolic content and IC50.

  11. Heavy metals pollution status in surface sediments (rivers and artifical lakes, Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Potentially hazardous trace elements, often in literature referred as "heavy metals", are deemed serious pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence and non-degradability in the environment. These elements play an important role in extent of water pollution and threaten the health of populations and ecosystems. As the sink of heavy metals, sediment beds adsorb metals in quantities that are many times higher than those found in the water column in the long-term polluted water environment. It is believed that most of the metal content, as much as 90% in aquatic sediments is bound to sediments. Metal contamination in these sediments could be directly affect the river water quality, resulting in potential consequences to the sensitive lowest levels of the food chain and ultimately to human health. The objective of this research was the evaluation of heavy metal contamination level in sediments of the most important rivers and artificial lakes in Serbia. The heavy metal enrichment in studied sediments was conducted by using: determination of total metal content, sequential extraction procedure for the fractionation of studied elements, quantification of the metal enrichment degree in the sediments by calculating geo-accumulation indices, determination of actual and potential element availability and application of BRAI index for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly with Cd, Cu, and Zn. The significant variation in heavy metal distribution among samples collected in this large region, encompassing all Serbian watersheds, suggests the selective contamination of sediments by heavy metals. Elevated concentrations of elements in most cases were detected in samples of river sediments, since artificial lake reservoirs are usually built in rural areas, where the less anthropogenic pollution. Rivers often flow through the towns and these water basins less or more loaded

  12. Guides to pollution prevention: The metal finishing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The guide provides an overview of the major metal finishing processes and operations that generate waste and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. A wide variety of processes are used in the metal finishing industry, including physical, chemical, and electrochemical processes. Metal finishing processes generate various waste streams, including contaminated plating baths, spent process baths, cleaners, rinse water, miscellaneous solid waste, solvents, and air emissions. Reducing the generation of this waste at the source or recycling the wastes on or off site will benefit the metal finishing industry by reducing raw material use, reducing disposal costs, and lowering the liabilities associated with waste disposal.

  13. Understanding the mobilisation of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Avellan, Magaly; Slack, Rebecca; Stockdale, Anthony; Mortimer, Robert John George

    2017-08-16

    Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment. In the uplands of the UK, river water, sediments and spoil wastes were collected over a period of fourteen months, samples were chemically analysed to identify the main metal sources and their relationships with geological and hydrological factors. Correlation tests and principal component analysis suggest that the underlying limestone bedrock controls pH and weathering reactions. Significant metal concentrations from mining activities were measured for zinc (4.3 mg l(-1)), and lead (0.3 mg l(-1)), attributed to processes such as oxidation of mined ores (e.g. sphalerite, galena) or dissolution of precipitated secondary metal-minerals (e.g. cerussite, smithsonite). Zinc and lead mobility indicated strong dependence on biogeochemistry and hydrological conditions (e.g. pH and flow) at specific locations in the catchment. Annual loads of zinc and lead (2.9 and 0.2 tonnes per year) demonstrate a significant source of both metals to downstream river reaches. Metal pollution results in a large area of catchment having a depleted chemical status with likely effects on the aquatic ecology. This study provides an improved understanding of geological and hydrological processes controlling water chemistry, which is critical to assessing metal sources and mobilization, especially in neutral mine drainage areas.

  14. Magnetic Properties and Heavy Metals in topsoils from Mexico City: Implications for Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Acosta, T.; Martinez, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2006-12-01

    Initial results of a long-term geochemical and magnetic mineralogy study of the heavy metal pollution as recorded in topsoils in Mexico City are reported. We concentrate on investigating the contents and distribution of heavy metals and magnetic minerals in sediments associated to atmospheric particulate pollutants. The geological setting, environmental characteristics and development history of Mexico City make this extensive urban and industrial area a natural laboratory to investigate air-, land- and water-pollution. Thirty-eight samples from surface soils were collected from localities within the metropolitan area, which represent different traffic conditions and heavy metal pollution levels. Elemental determinations are made with induced-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Magnetic mineralogy is investigated by low-field susceptibility, remanence intensity, magnetic hysteresis and coercivity spectra analyses on natural and laboratory-induced magnetizations. Soils show high pollution levels indicated by increase concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd, and by high contents of iron minerals (iron-titanium oxides). Urban soils close to dense slow traffic condition zones show the higher heavy metal concentrations, like it was to be expected, some of them exceeding the allowed limits.

  15. A method for screening for the risk of chronic effects of surface water pollution.

    PubMed

    Soldán, Přemysl; Badurová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a method for screening for the risk of chronic surface water pollution which was developed at the T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute. The approach, which is based on exotoxicological analyses, can be classed as a rapid method of assessment. The degree of risk of chronic effects surface water pollution is determined from an evaluation of two major parameters-toxicity and genotoxicity. As the method utilizes relative simple procedures for sample collection, pretreatment of the sample, chemical analyses, bioassays and results assessment, this approach is suitable for widespread practical use. Extensive utilization of this approach for assessing river basins in the Czech Republic has proved its suitability for a more sophisticated detection of the biological impact of surface water pollution. This is documented in the article where the method is used in a study of the Bílina River, and in the overview of the results of the risk assessment of chronic effects of surface water pollution in selected sections of three international river basins in the Czech Republic.

  16. Chronic Kidney Disease and Exposure to Nephrotoxic Metals

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Sarah E.; Bridges, Christy C.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common progressive disease that is typically characterized by the permanent loss of functional nephrons. As injured nephrons become sclerotic and die, the remaining healthy nephrons undergo numerous structural, molecular, and functional changes in an attempt to compensate for the loss of diseased nephrons. These compensatory changes enable the kidney to maintain fluid and solute homeostasis until approximately 75% of nephrons are lost. As CKD continues to progress, glomerular filtration rate decreases, and remaining nephrons are unable to effectively eliminate metabolic wastes and environmental toxicants from the body. This inability may enhance mortality and/or morbidity of an individual. Environmental toxicants of particular concern are arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Since these metals are present throughout the environment and exposure to one or more of these metals is unavoidable, it is important that the way in which these metals are handled by target organs in normal and disease states is understood completely. PMID:28498320

  17. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A.; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes. PMID:26733985

  18. Endophytic Cultivable Bacteria of the Metal Bioaccumulator Spartina maritima Improve Plant Growth but Not Metal Uptake in Polluted Marshes Soils.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jennifer; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Caviedes, Miguel A; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel, and Piedras River (south west Spain), one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analyzed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant toward one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu, and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilization, and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18, and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30) were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favored intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes.

  19. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, J; Rastogi, S C

    1977-01-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chroimium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P less than 0-01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P less than 0-1). Nineteen per cent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally blood level of carboxyhaemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed. PMID:71915

  20. Response of magnetic properties to heavy metal pollution in dust from three industrial cities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Han, Zhixuan; Yu, Genhua

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic method is a reliable and powerful technique for identification of the relative contribution of industrial pollutants. However, it has not been fully applied in urban area impacted by non-ferrous metal (NFM) smelting/processing activities. The aim of this study is to explore the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting heavy metal contamination in dust from three NFM smelting/processing industrial cities (Ezhou, Zhuzhou, and Hezhang) in China. The enhancements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) together with heavy metals were significant in the studied areas in comparison with the background values. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that magnetic particles in dust from Ezhou were dominated by spherules, while those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were mainly consisted of irregular-shaped particles. κ-T curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the magnetic particles from Ezhou were dominated by magnetite and metallic iron, whereas those from Zhuzhou and Hezhang were consisted of magnetite and hematite. Our study indicates that magnetic properties of the dust are sensitive to the NFM smelting/processing related heavy metal pollutants. However, the relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metals was influenced by the presence of metallic iron particles and multi-sources of metal pollutants.

  1. Exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in adults: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Salameh, P; Salame, J; Khayat, G; Akhdar, A; Ziadeh, C; Azizi, S; Khoury, F; Akiki, Z; Nasser, Z; Abou Abbass, L; Saadeh, D; Waked, M

    2012-10-01

    Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country. To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. A pilot case-control study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic bronchitis by a pulmonologist and those epidemiologically confirmed. Controls included individuals free of any respiratory signs or symptoms. After obtaining informed consent, a standardized questionnaire was administered. Bivariate, stratified (over smoking status and gender) and multivariate analyses revealed that passive smoking at home (ORa: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.73-3.80) and at work (ORa: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.13-3.17); older age (ORa: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.55-2.39); lower education (ORa: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.21-1.72); living close to a busy road (ORa: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.89) and to a local power plant (ORa: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.07-2.45); and heating home by hot air conditioning (ORa: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.00-3.43) were moderately associated with chronic bronchitis; an inverse association was found with heating home electrically (ORa: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39-0.85). A positive dose-effect relationship was observed in those living close to a busy road and to a local diesel exhaust source. Chronic bronchitis is associated with outdoor air pollution.

  2. Global Associations between Air Pollutants and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Hospitalizations. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chatzidiakou, Lia; Kuku, Moyosore-Oluwa; Jones, Roderic L.; Smeeth, Liam; Beevers, Sean; Kelly, Frank J.; Barratt, Benjamin; Quint, Jennifer K.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affecting lung function decline and quality of life. The effect of exposure to different air pollutants on COPD exacerbations is not clear. Objectives: To carry out a systematic review, examining associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for COPD exacerbations. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index, and the Air Pollution Epidemiology Database were searched for publications published between 1980 and September 2015. Inclusion criteria were focused on studies presenting solely a COPD outcome defined by hospital admissions and a measure of gaseous air pollutants and particle fractions. The association between each pollutant and COPD admissions was investigated in metaanalyses using random effects models. Analyses were stratified by geographical clusters for investigation of the consistency of the evidence worldwide. Measurements and Main Results: Forty-six studies were included, and results for all the pollutants under investigation showed marginal positive associations; however, the number of included studies was small, the studies had high heterogeneity, and there was evidence of small-study bias. Geographical clustering of the effects of pollution on COPD hospital admissions was evident and reduced heterogeneity significantly. Conclusions: The most consistent association was between a 1-mg/m3 increase in carbon monoxide level and COPD-related admissions (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.03). The heterogeneity was moderate, and there was a consistent positive association in both Europe and North America, although levels were clearly below World Health Organization guideline values. There is mixed evidence on the effects of environmental pollution on COPD exacerbations. Limitations of previous studies included the low spatiotemporal resolution of pollutants, inadequate control for confounding factors, and the use of

  3. Conference on advanced pollution control for the metal finishing industry, 3rd, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The conference proceedings consist of 28 papers, of which 24 are indexed. The purpose of the conference was to inform industry on the range and scope of research efforts underway by EPA and others to solve the pressing pollution problems of the metal finishing industry. These papers will stimulate action to reduce pollution by illustrating approaches and techniques highlighted by this conference. The conference was broken into six segments: wastewater, regulation and research; solid waste, regulation and research; exchange of viewpoints between members of government and industry; air pollution and energy recovery, regulation and research; centralized treatment as alternative to on-site treatment of wastewater and solid waste residuals; and concurrent papers addressing detailed inquiries on pollution problems and financial alternatives available to the metal finishing industry.

  4. Conference on Advanced Pollution Control for the Metal Finishing Industry, 3rd, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The conference proceedings consist of 28 papers, of which 3 are indexed. The purpose of the conference was to inform industry on the range and scope of research efforts underway by EPA and others to solve the pressing pollution problems of the metal finishing industry. These papers will stimulate action to reduce pollution by illustrating approaches and techniques highlighted by this conference. The conference was broken into six segments: wastewater, regulation and research; solid waste, regulation and research; exchange of viewpoints between members of government and industry; air pollution and energy recovery, regulation and research; centralized treatment as alternative to on-site treatment of wastewater and solid waste residuals; and concurrent papers addressing detailed inquiries on pollution problems and financial alternatives available to the metal finishing industry.

  5. Environmental pollution and chronic arsenicosis in south Calcutta.

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, D. N.; Das Gupta, J.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Chatterjee, A.; Das, D.; Chakraborti, D.

    1992-01-01

    Careless handling of industrial wastes often creates problems for human health and the environment. Chronic arsenic toxicity, resulting from household use of arsenic-contaminated water occurred in 53 out of 79 members (67%) of 17 families residing in South Calcutta close to a factory that manufactured Paris-green (copper acetoarsenite). Clinical investigation of 20 of these affected persons showed typical skin pigmentation as well as palmar and plantar keratosis in all of them, while gastrointestinal symptoms, anaemia and signs of liver disease and peripheral neuropathy were seen in many. The water used by the affected families for drinking and cooking had been taken from shallow tubewells and had arsenic levels from 5.0 to 58 mg/l (WHO permissible limit, 0.05 mg/l). Other residents in the same area whose drinking-water came from deep tubewells or from tap water supplied by the Calcutta Municipal Corporation (arsenic levels, less than 0.05 mg/l) were not affected. The study confirms that arsenic in the shallow tubewells was due to the waste discharged by the factory producing Paris-green. PMID:1394782

  6. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Groundwater of the Northern Develi Closed Basin, Kayseri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Şebnem; Yücel, Çiğdem; Çallı, Süleyman Selim; Çelik, Mehmet

    2017-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution in the northern Develi Closed Basin by using the heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Samples from 10 wells and 5 springs were collected in dry and wet seasons and concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, As and B were determined. In both seasons, for more than half of the samples, As, B and Fe concentrations exceeded the Turkish drinking water guideline values. Due to the occurrence of these metals in high concentrations in some samples HPI values are up to 1740. The source of these metals is geogenic and attributed to the interaction of these waters with highly altered volcanic and pyroclastic rocks. The overall HPI for wet and dry periods are reported as 360 and 440, respectively. Accordingly, the pollution level in the groundwater of this area is unacceptable.

  7. Turritella attenuata (Kasinathan): as biological indicator of marine pollution--a trace metal analytical study.

    PubMed

    Paul, V I; Radhakrishnan, M V; Hemalatha, S

    1999-11-01

    A study to monitor marine pollution with reference to trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) on T. attenuata, commonly called as screw shell over a period of one year on the whole body and various organs, viz. digestive diverticula, foot, mantle and ovary was conducted from the sandy beach of Porto Novo Coast (Lat 11 degrees 29' N Long: 79 degrees 46' E) of Peninsular India using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Higher concentration of all the four trace metals analysed were recorded in the digestive diverticula, whereas lower concentration of zinc and manganese were recorded in the ovary during the monsoon period. The higher level of trace metal concentration in the monsoon period may be due to the presence of these pollutants in large amounts in water. The accumulation of selected trace metals varies in different seasons according to the extent of pollution load in the marine environment.

  8. Integrating classification and regression tree (CART) with GIS for assessment of heavy metals pollution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Ke; Dai, Xuelong

    2009-11-01

    The classification and regression tree (CART) model integrated with geographical information systems and the assessment of heavy-metals pollution system was developed to assess the heavy metals pollution in Fuyang, Zhejiang, China. The integration of the decision tree model with ArcGIS Engine 9 using a COM implementation in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 provided an approach for assessing the spatial distribution of soil Zn content with high predictive accuracy. The Zn concentration classes estimated by CART assigned the right classes with an accuracy of near 90%. This is a great improvement compared to the ordinary Kriging method for the spatial autocorrelation of the study area severely destroyed by human activities. Also, it can be used to investigate the inter-relationships between the heavy metals pollution and environmental and anthropogenic variables. Moreover, the research presents model predictions over space for further applications and investigations.

  9. [Impact of heavy metals pollution on the community structure and spatial distribution of soil animals].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Bin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2007-09-01

    By sampling at 8 plots surrounding the coal-mining and coal-ash areas in Huannan City of Anhui Province, a total of 3859 individuals of soil macro-, meso-, and micro-fauna belonging to 22 groups, 9 classes and 4 phyla were collected. The dominant groups were Collembola, Acarina and Nematoda, accounting for 74% of the total, and the others were frequent and rare groups. Heavy metals pollution had powerful impact on soil animals. The individual numbers and groups of soil animals declined with the aggravation of heavy metals pollution from out of the dam site to the nearing site of coal-ash area in Luohe Power Plant, and showed an abnormal distribution or little change in vertical and disappeared in surface layer. The heavy metals pollution resulted in a decline in the diversity index, evenness and density-group index, but a rise in the dominance index of soil animals.

  10. Heavy metal pollution in Nanchang City and its health implication on traffic policemen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Liang, Yue; Guo, Jiangmei

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the health effect of heavy metal pollution in air pollutants on traffic policemen. This study will facilitate the scientific evaluation of health status of traffic policemen. PM10 samples were collected from industrial area, congested traffic area and residential area respectively in Nanchang City, and the concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed. The traffic policemen were examined through chest X-rays. The total of 637 urine samples and 142 blood samples have been collected, and the concentrations of Pb in samples were detected. Vehicle flux data of Nanchang City were collected from the Department of Transport's Traffic Management. Statistic analyses were carried out by statistics software of Excel 2003 and SPSS20.0, and the health effect of heavy metal pollution of PM10 on the traffic policemen was evaluated. The discharge of pollutants from enterprises is an important reason for the high content of heavy metals in urban air pollution. With the rapid growth of urban traffic flow, Bayi Bridge becomes an important transportation hinge in Nanchang City, and the bidirectional traffic flow rate through the bridge at peak hours reached 99 vehicles per minute. The latent hazard of occupational harm on the traffic policemen caused by automobile exhaust is increasing. The concentration of Pb in the urine and blood samples from traffic policemen working in Nanchang City was 268.310 ± 177.031 and 22.873 ± 21.137 μg/L, respectively. Both results (2.04% of Pb in urine and 18.31% of Pb in blood) exceeded the highest limit of observed occupationally outdoor workers. This study provides an initial contribution for the assessment of city air pollution, esp. the health effect of heavy metal (Pb) pollution on traffic policemen.

  11. Remediation of metal polluted hotspot areas through enhanced soil washing--evaluation of leaching methods.

    PubMed

    Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Yillin, Li; Strömvall, Ann-Margret

    2013-10-15

    Soil washing offers a permanent remediation alternative for metal polluted sites. In addition, the washed out metals can be recovered from the leachate and re-introduced into the social material cycle instead of landfilled. In this paper, soil, bark and bark-ash washing was tested on four different metal polluted soil and bark samples from hotspots at former industrial sites. Six different leaching agents; HCl, NH4Cl, lactic acid, EDDS and two acidic process waters from solid waste incineration, were tested, discussed and evaluated. For the soil washing processes, the final pH in the leachate strongly influences the metal leachability. The results show that a pH < 2 is needed to achieve a high leaching yield, while <50 w% of most metals were leached when the pH was higher than 2 or below 10. The acidic process waste waters were generally the most efficient at leaching metals from all the samples studied, and as much as 90-100 w% of the Cu was released from some samples. Initial experiments show that from one of these un-purified leachates, Cu metal (>99% purity) could be recovered. After a single leaching step, the metal contents of the soil residues still exceed the maximum limits according to the Swedish guidelines. An additional washing step is needed to reduce the contents of easy soluble metal compounds in the soil residues. The overall results from this study show that soil and bark-ash washing followed by metal recovery is a promising on-site permanent alternative to remediate metal polluted soils and to utilize non-used metal resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metal pollution abatement using rock phosphate mineral.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sona; D'Souza, S F

    2006-02-01

    The low-grade rock phosphate of Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh (India), was investigated for its possible application in the removal of lead, copper, zinc and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. Effects of contact time, amount of adsorbent and initial concentration of metal ions were studied. Adsorption of heavy metal ions was found to follow the order: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Co2+. The probable mechanism of metal ions removal by rock phosphate was found to be by its dissolutions followed by subsequent precipitation.

  13. Changes in Gene Expression due to Chronic Exposure to Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabit and have adapted to highly polluted Superfund sites that are contaminated with persistent toxic chemicals. Populations inhabiting different Superfund sites provide independent contrasts for studying mechanisms of toxicity and resistance due to exposure to environmental pollutants. To identify both shared and unique responses to chronic pollutant exposure, liver, metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus populations from each of three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA, Newark Bay, NJ, and Elizabeth River, VA) were compared to two flanking reference site populations (9 populations in total). In comparisons to their two clean reference sites, the three Superfund sites had 8 to 32% of genes with altered expression patterns. Between any two Superfund populations, up to 9 genes (4%) show a conserved response, yet among all three populations, there was no gene which had a conserved, altered pattern of expression. Across all three Superfund sites in comparison to all six reference populations, the most significant gene was fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid synthase is involved in the storage of excess energy as fat, and its lesser expression in the polluted populations suggests that the polluted populations may have limited energy stores. In contrast to previous studies of metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus, body weight was a significant covariate for many of the genes which could reflect accumulation and different body burdens of pollutants. Overall, the altered gene expression in these populations likely represents both induced and adaptive changes in gene expression. PMID:18929415

  14. Changes in gene expression due to chronic exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2008-11-21

    Populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabit and have adapted to highly polluted Superfund sites that are contaminated with persistent toxic chemicals. Populations inhabiting different Superfund sites provide independent contrasts for studying mechanisms of toxicity and resistance due to exposure to environmental pollutants. To identify both shared and unique responses to chronic pollutant exposure, liver, metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus populations from each of three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA; Newark Bay, NJ; and Elizabeth River, VA) were compared to two flanking reference site populations (nine populations in total). In comparisons to their two clean reference sites, the three Superfund sites had 8-32% of genes with altered expression patterns. Between any two Superfund populations, up to nine genes (4%) show a conserved response, yet among all three populations, there was no gene which had a conserved, altered pattern of expression. Across all three Superfund sites in comparison to all six-reference populations, the most significant gene was fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid synthase is involved in the storage of excess energy as fat, and its lesser expression in the polluted populations suggests that the polluted populations may have limited energy stores. In contrast to previous studies of metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus, body weight was a significant covariate for many of the genes which could reflect accumulation and different body burdens of pollutants. Overall, the altered gene expression in these populations likely represents both induced and adaptive changes in gene expression.

  15. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  16. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China. PMID:26252956

  17. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    PubMed

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.

  18. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  19. Comparative studies of metal air pollution by atomic spectrometry techniques and biomonitoring with moss and lichens.

    PubMed

    State, Gabriel; Popescu, Ion V; Radulescu, Cristiana; Macris, Cristina; Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Dulama, Ioana; Niţescu, Ovidiu

    2012-09-01

    Our study was dedicated to the analysis of air pollution level with metals in Dambovita County, Romania; maps of the concentration distributions for air pollutants were drawn; statistical analysis includes calculation of the background concentrations and the contamination factors. The highest values of the contamination factor CF is 63.1 ± 6.63 for mosses samples and 33.12 ± 3.96 for lichens and it indicates extreme contaminations in the surroundings of steel works and an electric plant. The comparison of the distribution maps for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations enables the identification of the pollution sources, the limits of areas with very high levels of pollution, the comparison of the concentration gradients in some areas and the influence of woodlands on the spread of pollutants through the air.

  20. Periphyton as monitors for heavy metal pollution in the Calcasieu River estuary.

    PubMed

    Ramelow, G J; Maples, R S; Thompson, R L; Mueller, C S; Webre, C; Beck, J N

    1987-01-01

    The levels of copper, lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and silver were determined in periphyton specimens obtained with a diatometer collector. Stations selected were along three important bayous of the Calcasieu River system. Distributions of some metals in the organisms were similar to those found in sediment from the same locations, while other metals appeared to be similar to water concentrations. Concentration ratios of periphyton over sediment greatly exceeded one for the metals chromium, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and silver. The concentrations of heavy metals in the periphyton appeared to yield more information about pollutants than either water or sediment samples collected at the periphyton stations.

  1. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-03-01

    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and predict the trend of soil heavy metal pollution around a~coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in an order of E(Cd) > E(Pb) > E(Cu) > E(Cr) > E(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor led to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, and the fixed number of years exceeding standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metal, and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provide some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent and decrease heavy metal pollution around coal gangue dump in Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  2. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  3. Monitoring heavy metal pollution by aquatic plants: a systematic study of copper uptake.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, S; Canepari, S; Aquili, S

    2012-09-01

    The copper bioaccumulation by the floating Lemna minor and by the completely submerged Ranunculus tricophyllus as a function of exposure time and copper concentration was studied, with the aim of proposing these species as environmental biosensors of the water pollution. The results show that both these aquatic angiosperms are good indicators of copper pollution because the copper uptake is the only function of metal concentration (water pollution). Uptake behavior is reported as a function of the time and concentration, based on the results of a 3-year study. Kinetic evaluations are proposed.

  4. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepicier, Veronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  5. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  6. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  7. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  8. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah Ahmed; Marikar, Fouzul Ameer

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  9. The environmental impact of gold mines: pollution by heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Marikar, Fouzul

    2012-06-01

    The gold mining plant of Oman was studied to assess the contribution of gold mining on the degree of heavy metals into different environmental media. Samples were collected from the gold mining plant area in tailings, stream waters, soils and crop plants. The collected samples were analyzed for 13 heavy metals including vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe) and barium (Ba). The water in the acid evaporation pond showed a high concentration of Fe as well as residual quantities of Zn, V, and Al, whereas water from the citizens well showed concentrations of Al above those of Omani and WHO standards. The desert plant species growing closed to the gold pit indicated high concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cr, and V), while the similar plant species used as a control indicated lesser concentrations of all heavy metals. The surface water (blue) indicated very high concentrations of copper and significant concentrations of Mn, Ni, Al, Fe, Zn, lead, Co and Cd. The results revealed that some of the toxic metals absorbed by plants indicated significant metal immobilization.

  10. Emergent effects of heavy metal pollution at a population level: Littorina brevicula a study case.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Jung; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Song, Jun-Im

    2003-01-01

    Changes in genetic variability and allele frequency can be responses from natural populations when encountering a novel contaminated environment. The genetic diversity and population structuring of natural populations of the gastropod Littorina brevicula from heavy-metal polluted and unpolluted environments along the southeast coast of Korea were examined using two mtDNA markers, cyt b and ND6. This study applied a nested clade analysis to test the existence of structuring association of haplotype distribution with environments (polluted and unpolluted). No genetic differences within cyt b mtDNA were detected between environments. On the other hand, differences in population haplotype diversity and structuring were found within ND6 mtDNA between polluted and unpolluted environments. The ND6-mtDNA haplotype (=genetic) diversity was significant lower in polluted environments. This decreased genetic diversity along with differences in the haplotype distribution within heavy-metal polluted environments compared to those unpolluted ones stand out as emergent effects from pollution at a population level. In this study, we propose the use of different approaches, such as the NCA, that takes into account the rare haplotypes, when assessing the effects of pollution on population genetic structuring.

  11. Monomorphic ants undergo within-colony morphological changes along the metal-pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Grześ, Irena M; Okrutniak, Mateusz; Woch, Marcin W

    2015-04-01

    In ants, intra and inter-colony variation in body size can be considerable, even in monomorphic species. It has been previously shown that size-related parameters can be environmentally sensitive. The shape of the body size distribution curve is, however, rarely investigated. In this study, we measured head widthes of the black garden ant Lasius niger workers using digital methods. The ants were sampled from 51 colonies originating from 19 sites located along a metal pollution gradient, established in a former mining area in Poland. Total zinc concentrations in random samples of small invertebrates were used as a measure of site pollution levels. We found that the skewness of head size distribution grows significantly in line with the pollution level of the site, ranging from values slightly below zero (about -0.5) in the least polluted site up to a positive value (about 1.5) in the most polluted site. This result indicates that the frequency of small ants grows as pollution levels increase. The coefficient of variation, as well as the measures of central tendency, was not related to the pollution level. Four hypotheses explaining the obtained results are proposed. The bias towards the higher frequency of small workers may result from energy limitation and/or metal toxicity, but may also have an adaptive function.

  12. Oyster-based national mapping of trace metals pollution in the Chinese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Yuan; Ke, Cai-Huan; Zhu, Aijia; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-03-02

    To investigate the distribution and variability of trace metal pollution in the Chinese coastal waters, over 1000 adult oyster individuals were collected from 31 sites along the entire coastline, spanning from temperate to tropical regions (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea), between August and September 2015. Concentrations of macroelements [sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] and trace elements [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), silver (Ag), and titanium (Ti)] in these oysters were concurrently measured and analyzed. The results showed high Ti, Zn and Cu bioaccumulation in oysters from Guangdong (South China Sea) and Zhejiang (East China Sea). Oysters at Nanji Island (Wenzhou) and Daya Bay (Huizhou) accumulated significantly high concentrations of Ni and Cr. The elements in these oysters were several times higher than the national food safety limits of China. On the other hand, the present study found that normalization of metals by salinity (Na) and nutrient (P) could reflect more details of metal pollution in the oysters. Biomonitoring of metal pollution could benefit from incorporating the macroelement calibration instead of focusing only on the total metal concentrations. Overall, simultaneous measurement of macroelements and trace metals coupled with non-linear analysis provide a new perspective for revealing the underlying mechanism of trace metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation in marine organisms.

  13. Interrelationships of metal transfer factor under wastewater reuse and soil pollution.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Papadopoulos, F; Psoma, P

    2017-04-20

    The transfer of heavy metals under soil pollution wastewater reuse was studied in a Greenhouse experiment using a randomized block design, including 6 treatments of heavy metals mixtures composed of Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, where each metal was taking part in the mixture with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/kg respectively, in four replications. The Beta vulgaris L (beet) was used as a test plant. It was found that the metal transfer factors were statistically significantly related to the: (i) DTPA extractable soil metals, (ii) the soil pollution level as assessed by the pollution indices, (iii) the soil pH, (iv) the beet dry matter yield and (v) the interactions between the heavy metals in the soil. It was concluded that the Transfer Factor is subjected to multifactor effects and its real nature is complex, and there is a strong need for further study for the understanding of its role in metal-plant relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 <0.75 and RPD <1.40). The pH values were well predicted by PVNIR. Classification of heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  15. The effect of heavy metal pollution on foraminifera in the Western Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yümün, Zeki Ünal

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heavy metals on foraminiferal assemblages in Holocene sediments in the western Marmara Sea. Accordingly, four drilling samples, one in Bandırma (Balıkesir/Turkey), two in Erdek Bay (Erdek-Bandırma/Turkey) and one in Tekirdağ (Turkey). Samples of cores taken from 43 different locations in the western Marmara Sea also have been examined. Changes in heavy metal concentrations were determined (spatially) in the vertical direction by means of drilling samples in the vertical direction for geochronology and in the horizontal direction by the areal distribution of the core samples, and foraminiferal assemblages were identified. In order to summarize the results of geochemical analyses, an average value defined as Pollution Index (PI) was used for the first time in this study. In this method, the pollution index value is obtained by dividing the sum of average value ratios of heavy metal measurement values by the number of measurements. The obtained index value was correlated separately with the numbers of foraminifer individuals and species. It was observed that the number of individuals and species decreased where the heavy metal measured values (MV) were higher than the pollution index and increased where the heavy metal values were lower than the pollution index. It was also observed that foraminifera were completely absent in some locations where PI was less than MV. Morphological changes were observed in Elphidium crispum, Massilina secans, and Ammonia compacta foraminifer species in the core samples taken in areas where industrial wastes are discharged into the southern parts of the Marmara Sea. No foraminifer species were observed at some locations where the heavy metal density was high (between Misakça-Denizkent, and Erdek-Balikesir). The pollution index (PI) value measured in this area was higher than the critical value, indicating that heavy metal concentrations affect the habitats of foraminifera.

  16. The current status of heavy metal in lake sediments from China: Pollution and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongfeng; Wu, Yi; Han, Jiangang; Li, Pingping

    2017-07-01

    Heavy metal contamination in lake sediments is a serious problem, particularly in developing countries such as China. To evaluate heavy metal pollution and risk of contamination in lake sediments on a national scale in China, we collated available data in the literature of the last 10 years on lake sediments polluted with heavy metals from 24 provinces in China. Based on these data, we used sediment quality guidelines, geoaccumulation index, and potential ecological risk index to assess potential ecological risk levels. The results showed that approximately 20.6% of the lakes studied exceeded grade II level in Chinese soil quality standards for As, 31.3% for Cd, 4.6% for Cu, 20.8% for Ni, 2.8% for Zn, and 11.1% for Hg, respectively. Besides, the mean concentrations for As in 10.3% of lakes, Hg in 11.9% of lakes, and Ni in 31.3% of lakes surpassed the probable effect level. The potential ecological risk for toxic metals decreased in the order of Cd > Hg > As > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn, and there were 21.8% of the lakes studied in the state of moderate risk, 10.9% in high risk, and 12.7% in very high risk. It can be concluded that Chinese lake sediments are polluted by heavy metals to varying degrees. In order to provide key management targets for relevant administrative agencies, based on the results of the pollution and ecological risk assessments, Cd, Hg, As, Cu, and Ni were selected as the priority control heavy metals, and the eastern coastal provinces and Hunan province were selected as the priority control provinces. This article, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of heavy metal pollution in lake sediments in China, while providing a reference for the development of lake sediment quality standards.

  17. Evaluating the efficiency of sediment metal pollution indices in interpreting the pollution of Haraz River sediments, southern Caspian Sea basin.

    PubMed

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Mehrdadi, Nasser

    2010-12-01

    The Haraz River is one of the most significant rivers in the southern Caspian Sea basin. Towards the estuary, the river receives discharges of industrial, agricultural, and urban wastes. In the present investigation, bulk concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, and Sr in Haraz River (Iran) bed sediments were measured from several sample locations. In addition, association of studied metals with various sedimentary phases was assessed to determine the proportions of metals in different forms. The intensity of sediment contamination was evaluated using an enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and a newly developed pollution index (I(poll)). Both EF and I(geo) formulae compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale, respectively. In a specific area with its own geological background like Haraz River water basin where naturally high concentrations of metals may be found, such a comparison may lead to biased conclusions regarding levels of anthropogenic contamination. Accordingly, chemical partitioning results are substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new index (I(poll)). The Pearson correlation coefficient between the anthropogenic portion of metallic pollution in Haraz river-bed sediments with I(poll) showed much more value in comparison with those of geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor. The order of metals introduced by anthropogenic activities are as follows: Sr > Pb > Co > Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > As > Cr > Fe. The results showed relatively higher concentrations of Cd, As, Sr, and Pb in comparison with those of shale. However, based on the chemical partitioning of metals, it is found that Sr, Pb, Co, and Cd are the most mobile metals. In spite of the high As concentrations in sediments, it is not likely that this element is a major hazard for the aquatic environment since it is found mainly in the residual fraction. Also, Fe, Cr, and Ni are present in the greatest

  18. Environmental impact propagated by cross-system subsidy: chronic stream pollution controls riparian spider populations.

    PubMed

    Paetzold, Achim; Smith, Marian; Warren, Philip H; Maltby, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    Resource subsidies between habitats are common and create the potential for the propagation of environmental impacts across system boundaries. However, recent understanding of the potential for subsidy-mediated cross-system impact propagations is limited and primarily based on passive flows of nutrients and detritus or short-term effects. Here, we assess the effects of sustained alterations in aquatic insect emergence (active subsidy pathway), due to chronic stream pollution, for riparian spiders. The sustained reduction in aquatic insect densities at the polluted reaches resulted in a marked decline in web spider population density and a shift in spider community composition. Our results provide the first evidence that stream pollution can control populations and community structure of terrestrial predators via sustained alterations in aquatic subsidies, emphasizing the role of subtle trophic linkages in the transmission of environmental impacts across ecosystem boundaries.

  19. Leaf biochemical responses and fruit oil quality parameters in olive plants subjected to airborne metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metals in air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Soukup, Joleen M; Ghio, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    The mechanism underlying procoagulative effects of air pollution particle exposure is not known. The authors tested the postulate that (1) the water-soluble components of an air pollution particle could affect whole-blood coagulation time and (2) metals included in this fraction were responsible for this effect. Exposure to the water-soluble fraction of particulate matter (PM), at doses as low as 50 ng/ml original particle, significantly diminished the whole-blood coagulation time. Inclusion of deferoxamine prolonged coagulation time following the exposures to the water-soluble fraction, whereas equivalent doses of ferroxamine had no effect. Except for nickel, all metal sulfates shortened the whole-blood coagulation time. Iron and zinc were two metals with the greatest capacity to reduce the coagulation time, with an effect observed at 10 ng/ml. Finally, in contrast to the anticoagulants citrate and EDTA, their iron complexes were found to be procoagulative. The authors conclude that metals in the water-soluble fraction of air pollution particles decrease whole-blood coagulation time. These metals can potentially contribute to procoagulative effects observed following human exposures to air pollution particles.

  1. Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2012-04-15

    Bohai Bay, the second largest bay of Bohai Sea, largely due to the huge amount of pollutants discharged into it annually and its geohydrologic condition, is considered to be one of the most polluted marine areas in China. To slow down, halt and finally reverse the environmental deterioration of Bohai Sea, some researchers have proposed to connect it with Jiaozhou Bay in the western coast of Southern Yellow Sea by digging an interbasin canal through Shandong Peninsula. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide background information for such a large geoengineering scheme, surface sediments from 42 stations covering both riverine and marine regions of the northwestern coast of Bohai Bay were analyzed for heavy metal content and fractionation (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Three empirically derived sediment quality guidelines were used to assess the pollution extent of these metals. The studied metals had low mobility except for Cd at all stations and Zn at some riverine stations. Although a high mobility of Cd was observed, it could hardly cause a bad effect on the environment owing to its low total concentrations. Anthropogenic influence on the accumulation of studied heavy metals in sediments of Bohai Bay was obvious, but their contents were relatively lower to date comparing with some other marine coastal areas that receive important anthropogenic inputs. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of northwestern Bohai Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient.

  2. Metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Kerala, south India.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J; Jaya, D S

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate metal pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of Valiathura Sewage Farm in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala using the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI). Forty two groundwater samples were collected during the summer season (April 2010) and the concentration of metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analyzed. Results showed that groundwater was contaminated mainly with Fe, Cu and Pb. Correlation analysis revealed that the sources of metals in groundwater in the study area are the same, and it may be due to the leachates from the nearby Sewage Farm, Parvathy Puthanar canal and solid wastes dumped in the residential area. Of the groundwater samples studied, 47.62 % were medium and 2.68 % were classified in HPI high category. HPI was highest (41.79) in DW29, which was adjacent to the polluted Parvathy Puthanar canal and Sewage Farm. The present study points out that the metal pollution causes the degradation of groundwater quality around the Sewage Farm during the study period.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    PubMed

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  4. Community response patterns: evaluating benthic invertebrate composition in metal-polluted streams.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A I; Yuan, L

    2006-04-01

    Human activities are modifying the condition and character of ecosystems at a rapid rate. Because of these rapid changes, questions concerning how ecosystems and their assemblages respond to anthropogenic stressors have been of general interest. Accurate prediction of assemblage composition in ecosystems with anthropogenic degradation requires that we assess both how assemblages respond to stressors and the generality of the responses. We ask whether assemblage composition among stream sites becomes more similar after exposure to a common stressor. Using data from biological monitoring programs in the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion of Colorado and in West Virginia, we compare benthic invertebrate similarity and assemblage composition among sites having different levels (background, low, medium, and high) of heavy-metal pollution. Invertebrate assemblages were most similar within the background metal category, and similarity was progressively lower in low, medium, and high metal categories. An analysis of the frequency of occurrence of genera within metal categories reveals taxonomic shifts that conform to expectations based on metal tolerance of benthic invertebrates. However, different metal-tolerant genera were found at different metal-impacted sites, suggesting that local abiotic and biotic processes may influence the identity of the metal-tolerant genera that become established in polluted sites. Low community similarity in the medium and high-metal categories suggests that accurate prediction of assemblage composition at impacted sites may be challenging.

  5. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals.

  6. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Stone, Daniel; Barrington, Dani J.; Sinang, Som C.; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a ‘high’ risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a ‘low’ or ‘medium’ risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants. PMID:27589798

  7. Development of Toxicological Risk Assessment Models for Acute and Chronic Exposure to Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Reichwaldt, Elke S; Stone, Daniel; Barrington, Dani J; Sinang, Som C; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-08-31

    Alert level frameworks advise agencies on a sequence of monitoring and management actions, and are implemented so as to reduce the risk of the public coming into contact with hazardous substances. Their effectiveness relies on the detection of the hazard, but with many systems not receiving any regular monitoring, pollution events often go undetected. We developed toxicological risk assessment models for acute and chronic exposure to pollutants that incorporate the probabilities that the public will come into contact with undetected pollution events, to identify the level of risk a system poses in regards to the pollutant. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated that the models could be applied to determine probabilities of acute and chronic illness types related to recreational activities in waterbodies containing cyanotoxins. Using the acute model, we identified lakes that present a 'high' risk to develop Day Away From Work illness, and lakes that present a 'low' or 'medium' risk to develop First Aid Cases when used for swimming. The developed risk models succeeded in categorising lakes according to their risk level to the public in an objective way. Modelling by how much the probability of public exposure has to decrease to lower the risks to acceptable levels will enable authorities to identify suitable control measures and monitoring strategies. We suggest broadening the application of these models to other contaminants.

  8. Modern approaches to remediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-07-01

    The main principles and approaches to remediation of in situ polluted soils aimed at the removal or control of heavy metals (washing, stabilization, phytoremediation, and natural restoration) are analyzed. The prospects of gentle methods of stabilization oriented at the reduction of the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals due to the processes of adsorption, ionic exchange, and precipitation are emphasized. The use of sorbents and the traditional application of liming and phosphates to fix metal pollutants in soils is considered. The necessary conditions for successful soil remediation are the assessment of its economic efficiency, the analysis of the ecological risks, and confirming the achievement of the planned purposes related to the content of available metals in the soils.

  9. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Lu, H.; Fu, S.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are resulting in an increase of the use and extraction of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulate in the environment, having the potential to contaminate the food chain. This pollution threatens soil quality, plant survival and human health. The remediation of heavy metals deserves attention, but it is impaired by the cost of these processes. Phytoremediation and biochar are two sound environmental technologies which could be at the forefront to mitigate soil pollution. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the scientific research on phytoremediation and biochar application to remediate heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Research to date has attempted only in a limited number of occasions to combine both techniques, however we discuss the potential advantages of combining both, and the potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between phytoremediators and biochar. We identified specific research needs to ensure a sustainable use of phytoremediation and biochar as remediation tools.

  10. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  11. Biodiversity and structure of spider communities along a metal pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Zmudzki, Sebatian; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether long-term metal pollution affects communities of epigeal spiders (Aranea), studied at three taxonomic levels: species, genera, and families. Biodiversity was defined by three indices: the Hierarchical Richness Index (HRI), Margalef index (D(M)) and Pielou evenness index (J). In different ways the indices describe taxa richness and the distribution of individuals among taxa. The dominance pattern of the communities was described with four measures: number of dominant species at a site, percentage of dominant species at a site, average dominant species abundance at a site, and the share of the most numerous species (Alopecosa cuneata) at a site. Spiders were collected along a metal pollution gradient in southern Poland, extending ca. 33 km from zinc and lead smelter to an uncontaminated area. The zinc concentration in soil was used as the pollution index.The study revealed a significant effect of metal pollution on spider biodiversity as described by HRI for species (p = 0.039), genera (p = 0.0041) and families (p = 0.0147), and by D(M) for genera (p = 0.0259) and families (p = 0.0028). HRI correlated negatively with pollution level, while D(M) correlated positively. This means that although broadly described HRI diversity decreased with increasing pollution level, species richness increased with increasing contamination. Mesophilic meadows were generally richer. Pielou (J) did not show any significant correlations. There were a few evidences for the intermediate disturbance hypothesis: certain indices reached their highest values at moderate pollution levels rather than at the cleanest or most polluted sites.

  12. Magnetic response of soils and vegetation to heavy metal pollution--a case study.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Neli V; Jordanova, Diana V; Veneva, Ludmila; Yorova, Kitka; Petrovsky, Eduard

    2003-10-01

    Fast and cost-effective detection of industrial pollution can significantly promote its ecological, economic, and social assessment. A magnetometric method, used for qualitative determination of anthropogenic contamination, meets these requirements but needs further development in more quantitative terms. It could be used successfully in numerous cases when the heavy metals coexist with strongly magnetic iron oxide particles in the source dust. We present an integrated magnetic and geochemical study that examines the utility of magnetometric techniques for rapid, qualitative detection of metallic pollutants in soils and vegetation. The new aspect of our approach, in comparison with previously published articles on this subject, is the combined investigation (magnetic and geochemical) of both soils and vegetation, thus using an additional medium for employing the magnetometry as a pollution proxy at a site. The study area is a small (approximately 3 km2) region in the suburbs of Sofia (Bulgaria), with the main pollution source being a metallurgical factory. Soil samples have been taken from the topmost 20 cm from private gardens, located at different distances from the factory. Vegetation samples were taken from ryegrass (both leaves and roots) and leaves from two kinds of deciduous trees (maple and acacia). The results show that both vegetation and soils are characterized by enhanced magnetic properties, compared to background material, which is due to the presence of magnetite particles of anthropogenic origin accompanying heavy metal emissions. SEM images and microprobe analyses reveal the presence of a significant amount of particles, containing heavy metals (including iron) in vegetation samples taken close to the main pollution source. Correlation analyses show a statistically significant link (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.6 to 0.7) between magnetic susceptibility and the main heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb) in soil samples, indicating that the magnetic

  13. Snails from heavy-metal polluted environments have reduced sensitivity to carbon dioxide-induced acidity.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, Hugh; Cleary, David A; Marble, Aaron M; Phillips, Morgan V; Stoddard, Timothy J; Tuthill, Lara M; Winslow, James R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which increases water acidity. While marine acidification has received recent consideration, less attention has been paid to the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on freshwater systems-systems that often have low buffering potential. Since many aquatic systems are already impacted by pollutants such as heavy metals, we wondered about the added effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on freshwater organisms. We studied aquatic pulmonate snails (Physella columbiana) from both a heavy-metal polluted watershed and snails from a reference watershed that has not experienced mining pollution. We used gaseous CO2 to increase water acidity and we then measured changes in antipredatory behavior and also survival. We predicted a simple negative additive effect of low pH. We hypothesized that snails from metal-polluted environments would be physiologically stressed and impaired due to defense responses against heavy metals. Instead, snails from populations that acclimated or evolved in the presence of heavy metal mining pollution were more robust to acidic conditions than were snails from reference habitats. Snails from mining polluted sites seemed to be preadapted to a low pH environment. Their short-term survival in acidic conditions was better than snails from reference sites that lacked metal pollution. In fact, the 48 h survival of snails from polluted sites was so high that it did not significantly differ from the 24 h survival of snails from control sites. This suggests that the response of organisms to a world with rising anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels may be complex and difficult to predict. Snails had a weaker behavioral response to stressful stimuli if kept for 1 month at a pH that differed from their lake of origin. We found that snails raised at a pH of 5.5 had a weaker response (less of a decrease in activity) to concentrated heavy metals than did snails raised at their natal pH of

  14. Removal of heavy metals from effluent. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of lead, cadmium, mercury, and other heavy metals from waste waters. Precipitation, reverse osmosis, complexation, ultrafiltration, and adsorption are among the techniques described. The citations examine the efficiency, operational difficulties, cost effectiveness, and optimization of these methods. Prevention and remediation of metal pollution from electroplating, mining, smelting, and other industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant responses in Pinus sylvestris L. needles in polluted and non-polluted sites.

    PubMed

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Ciepał, Ryszard; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc) in current-year, 1-year old and 2-year old needles of Pinus sylvestris L. Trees were from three heavily polluted (immediate vicinity of zinc smelter, iron smelter and power plant) and three relatively clean sites (nature reserve, ecologically clean site and unprotected natural forest community) in southern Poland. Analysis also concerned the antioxidant response and contents of protein, proline, total glutathione, non-protein thiols and activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in the needles. Generally, in pine needles from the polluted sites, the concentrations of the metals were higher and increased with the age of needles, and in most cases, antioxidant responses also were elevated. The highest levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were found in 2-year old pine needles collected near the polluted zinc smelter (respectively: 6.15, 256.49, 393.5 mg kg(-1)), Fe in 2-year old pine needles in the vicinity of the iron smelter (206.82 mg kg(-1)) and Mn in 2-year old needles at the ecologically clean site (180.32 mg kg(-1)). Positive correlations were found between Fe, Mn and Pb and the content of proteins and NPTs, between Cd and non-protein -SH groups, and between Zn and proline levels. The activity of GPX increased under the influence of Mn, while glutathione levels tended to decrease as Mn levels rose. The data obtained show that the levels of protein and non-protein -SH groups may be useful in biological monitoring, and that these ecophysiological parameters seem to be good evidence of elevated oxidative stress caused by heavy metals.

  16. Geochemical speciation and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyuan; Wang, Longfeng; Wang, Yunqian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected from Nansi Lake to analyze geochemical speciation of heavy metals including Cd, As, Pb, Cr, and Zn, assess their pollution level, and determine the spatial distribution of the non-residual fraction. Results showed that Cd had higher concentrations in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. As and Pb were mainly observed as humic acid and reducible fractions among the non-residual fractions, while Cr and Zn were mostly locked up in a residual fraction. The mean pollution index (P i) values revealed that the lower lake generally had a higher enrichment degree than the upper lake. Cd (2.73) and As (2.05) were in moderate level of pollution, while the pollution of Pb (1.80), Cr (1.27), and Zn (1.02) appeared at low-level pollution. The calculated pollution load index (PLI) suggested the upper lake suffered from borderline moderate pollution, while the lower lake showed moderate to heavy pollution. Spatial principle component analysis showed that the first principal component (PC1) including Cd, As, and Pb could explain 56.18 % of the non-residual fraction. High values of PC1 were observed mostly in the southern part of Weishan Lake, which indicated greater bioavailability and toxicity of Cd, As, and Pb in this area.

  17. Heavy metal pollution in soils from abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone in Zhejiang province.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binbin; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Tao; Mou, Yijun; Wu, Zucheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution in soils from an abandoned Taizhou Chemical Industry Zone (TCIZ) was investigated. By analysing soils, including sediments, collected from the study zone, the main pollutants were quantitatively identified and their spatial distribution patterns were clearly displayed. Eleven types of HM pollutants were obtained and the results indicated a significant correlation in most of the elements of the soil and sediment. A pollution index Pi was employed to classify the degree of contamination and characterize the main pollutant, which was controlled with the evaluation standard value instead of background one. As was characterized to be one of the main pollutants with the mean concentrations at the pollution source, in the surrounding area, and in the sediment of 603, 20.4, and 22.5 mg/kg, respectively. Our study suggested that the contaminated area of TCIZ may necessitate remediation before it can be considered for reuse. Pollution index method could be a useful tool for assessing soils quality to provide comparable criteria.

  18. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Aldo; Lippolis, Catia; Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb.

  19. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vacca, Margherita; Nardelli, Claudia; Castegna, Alessandra; Arnesano, Fabio; Carella, Nicola; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy), an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs) retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group), who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs) of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr), Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins) or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb. PMID:27008165

  20. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  1. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  2. Heavy Metals Pollution and Pb Isotopic Signatures in Surface Sediments Collected from Bohai Bay, North China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as “the unpolluted” level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as “unpolluted to moderately polluted” level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for 206Pb/207Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for 208Pb/207Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources. PMID:24982926

  3. Heavy metal contents in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) along a pollution gradient in a subarctic watercourse.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nikolay A; Terentjev, Petr; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Koroleva, Irina M; Dauvalter, Vladimir A; Sandimirov, Sergey; Kashulin, Alexander; Knudsen, Rune

    2011-11-01

    Metallurgic industry is a source of serious environmental pollution related to the emission of heavy metals. Freshwater systems are focal points for pollution, acting as sinks for contaminants that may end up in fish and humans. The Pasvik watercourse in the border area between Finland, Norway and Russia is located in the vicinity of the Pechenganickel metallurgic enterprises, and the lower part of the watershed drains the Nikel smelters directly through Lake Kuetsjarvi. Heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Hg) concentrations in environment (water and sediments) and whitefish Coregonus lavaretus tissue (gills, liver, kidney and muscle) were contrasted between five lake localities situated along a spatial gradient of increasing distance (5-100 km) to the smelters. The heavy metal concentrations, in particular Ni, Cu and Cd, were highly elevated in Kuetsjarvi, but steeply declined with increasing distance to the smelters and were moderate or low in the other four localities. The study demonstrates that the majority of metal emissions and runoffs are deposited near the pollution source, and only moderate amounts of the heavy metal contaminants seem to be transported at further distances. Bioaccumulation of Hg occurred in all investigated tissues, and higher Hg concentrations in planktivorous versus benthivorous whitefish furthermore indicated that pelagic foraging is associated with higher levels of Hg biomagnification. Potential population ecology impacts of high heavy metal contaminations where mainly observed in whitefish in Kuetsjarvi, which showed depletions in growth rate, condition factor and size and age at maturation.

  4. Investigation of cadmium pollution in the spruce saplings near the metal production factory.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Farajpour, Ghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots, and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stems, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (p < 0.05). The quantity of cadmium in the soil of the peripheries of the metal production factory was estimated at 6.8 mg/kg in the depth of 0-10 cm beneath the level of the soil. The length of roots in the saplings planted around the factory of metal production stood at 11 and 14.5 cm in the observer region which had a significant difference with the observer region (p < 0.05). The quantity of soil resources and spruce species' pollution with cadmium in the region has been influenced by the production processes in the factory.

  5. Enrichment of marsh soils with heavy metals by effect of anthropic pollution.

    PubMed

    Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F; Cerqueira, Beatriz; Andrade, María Luisa

    2009-10-30

    The impact of waste disposal on marsh soils was assessed in topsoil samples collected at eight randomly selected points in the salt marsh in Ramallosa (Pontevedra, Spain) at 4-month intervals for 2 years. Polluted soil samples were characterized in physico-chemical terms and their heavy metal contents determined by comparison with control, unpolluted samples. The results revealed a marked effect of waste discharges on the soils in the area, which have low contents in heavy metals under normal environmental conditions. In fact, the studied soils were found to contain substantial amounts of total and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Based on the relationship of the redox potential with the DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of the soils, strongly reductive conditions raised the total contents in these elements by effect of their remaining in the soils as precipitated sulphides. Such contents, however, decreased as oxidative conditions gradually prevailed. The contents in DTPA-extractable metals increased with increasing Eh through the release of the metals in ionic form to the soil solution under oxidative conditions. The contents in heavy metals concentrating in the polluted soils were several times higher than those in the control soils (viz. 2 vs. 6 for Cd, 4 vs. 6 for Cu, 4 vs. 20 for Pb, and 2 vs. 15 for Zn, all in mgkg(-1)). This can be expected to influence the amounts of available heavy metals present in the soils, and hence the environmental quality of the area, in the near future. Based on its geoaccumulation index (Class >/=3 for Cd and Cu, and 1-4 for Pb and Zn), the Ramallosa marsh is highly polluted with Cd and moderately to highly polluted with Cu, Pb and Zn. The enrichment factors obtained confirm that the salt marsh is highly polluted (especially with Cd) as the primary result of anthropic activity.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in surface soils of Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Jinmei, Bai; Xueping, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is an increasing environmental problem in Chinese regions undergoing rapid economic and industrial development, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. We determined heavy metal concentrations in surface soils from the PRD. The soils were polluted with heavy metals, as defined by the Chinese soil quality standard grade II criteria. The degree of pollution decreased in the order Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn > As > Cr > Hg > Pb. The degree of heavy metal pollution by land use decreased in the order waste treatment plants (WP) > urban land (UL) > manufacturing industries (MI) > agricultural land (AL) > woodland (WL) > water sources (WS). Pollution with some of the metals, including Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, was attributed to the recent rapid development of the electronics and electroplating industries. Cd, Hg, and Pb (especially Cd) pose high potential ecological risks in all of the zones studied. The soils posing significantly high and high potential ecological risks from Cd covered 73.3 % of UL, 50 % of MI and WP land, and 48.5 % of AL. The potential ecological risks from heavy metals by land use decreased in the order UL > MI > AL > WP > WL > WS. The control of Cd, Hg, and Pb should be prioritized in the PRD, and emissions in wastewater, residue, and gas discharges from the electronics and electroplating industry should be decreased urgently. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should also be decreased.

  7. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-02

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil.

  8. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Areas and Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Joshi, G. C.; Bisht, D.

    2017-05-01

    The soil of two agricultural sites near an industrial area was investigated for heavy metal pollution using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The concentration values for 17 elements were determined in the soil samples including eight heavy metal elements, i.e., Fe, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn. The soil near a pulp and paper mill was found to be highly polluted by the heavy metals. The concentration data obtained by EDXRF were further examined by calculating the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index.

  9. Toxicity and DNA damage in tobacco and potato plants growing on soil polluted with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gichner, Tomás; Patková, Zdenka; Száková, Jirina; Demnerová, Katerina

    2006-11-01

    Heterezygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. xanthi) and potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Korela) plants were cultivated on soil from the site Strimice which is highly polluted with heavy metals and on nonpolluted soil from the recreational site Jezerí, both in North Bohemia, Czech Republic. The total content, the content of bioavailable, easily mobile, and potentially mobile components of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the tested soils, and the accumulation of these metals in the above-ground biomass and roots of tested plants were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry or flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. The average tobacco leaf area and potato plant height were significantly reduced in plants growing on the polluted soil. We have measured the DNA damage in nuclei of leaves of both plant species using the Comet assay. A small but significant increase in DNA damage was noted in plants growing on the polluted soil versus controls. As the tobacco and potato plants with increased DNA damage were severely injured (inhibited growth, distorted leaves), this increase may be associated with necrotic or apoptotic DNA fragmentation. No increase in the frequency of somatic mutation was detected in tobacco plants growing on the polluted soil. Thus, the polluted soil probably induced toxic but not genotoxic effects on tobacco and potato plants.

  10. Sediment evidence of early eutrophication and heavy metal pollution of Lake Mälaren, central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Renberg, I; Bindler, R; Bradshaw, E; Emteryd, O; McGowan, S

    2001-12-01

    Lake Mälaren is the water supply and recreation area for more than 1 million people in central Sweden and subject to considerable environmental concern. To establish background data for assessments of contemporary levels of trophy and heavy metal pollution, sediment cores from the lake were analyzed. Diatom-inferred lake-water phosphorus concentrations suggest that pre-20th century nutrient levels in Södra Björkfjärden, a basin in the eastern part of Mälaren, were higher (c. 10-20 micrograms TP L-1) than previously assumed (c. 6 micrograms TP L-1). Stable lead isotope and lead concentration analyses from 3 basins (S. Björkfjärden, Gisselfjärden and Asköfjärden) show that the lake was polluted in the 19th century and earlier from extensive metal production and processing in the catchment, particularly in the Bergslagen region. The lake has experienced a substantial improvement of the lead pollution situation in the 20th century following closure of the mining and metal industry. The lead pollution from the old mining industry was large compared to late-20th century pollution from car emissions, burning of fossil fuels and modern industries.

  11. Soil quality changes in response to their pollution by heavy metals, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Matchavariani, Lia; Kalandadze, Besik; Lagidze, Lamzira; Gokhelashvili, Nino; Sulkhanishvili, Nino; Paichadze, Nino; Dvalashvili, Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the composition, migration and accumulation of heavy metals in irrigated soils, plants and partially natural waters; and also, establishing the possible sources of pollution and their impact on environmental situation. The content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining and processing enterprise were studied. Content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining, showed that more than half of territory was seriously polluted by copper and zinc. Some part of the area were considered catastrophically polluted. Expressed technogenesis taking place influenced irrigation. Heavy metals like copper, zinc and manganese negative by effected the properties of soil, thus composition and soil-forming processes taking place in the soil. It was especially well represented in the deterioration of hydro-physical potential of the soil. Irrigation of agricultural land plots by water, polluted with heavy metals changed the pH. Balanced correlation among solid, liquid and gas phases was disrupted. In highly polluted soil, the cementing processes took place that sharply increased the bulk density of the soil, deteriorated the porosity of soil and reduced water permeability critically.

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution from Gold Mines: Environmental Effects and Bacterial Strategies for Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fashola, Muibat Omotola; Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Mining activities can lead to the generation of large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes which are released in an uncontrolled manner, causing widespread contamination of the ecosystem. Though some heavy metals classified as essential are important for normal life physiological processes, higher concentrations above stipulated levels have deleterious effects on human health and biota. Bacteria able to withstand high concentrations of these heavy metals are found in the environment as a result of various inherent biochemical, physiological, and/or genetic mechanisms. These mechanisms can serve as potential tools for bioremediation of heavy metal polluted sites. This review focuses on the effects of heavy metal wastes generated from gold mining activities on the environment and the various mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the effect of these heavy metals in their immediate environment. PMID:27792205

  13. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health. PMID:25276818

  14. Heavy Metal Pollution from Gold Mines: Environmental Effects and Bacterial Strategies for Resistance.

    PubMed

    Fashola, Muibat Omotola; Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-10-26

    Mining activities can lead to the generation of large quantities of heavy metal laden wastes which are released in an uncontrolled manner, causing widespread contamination of the ecosystem. Though some heavy metals classified as essential are important for normal life physiological processes, higher concentrations above stipulated levels have deleterious effects on human health and biota. Bacteria able to withstand high concentrations of these heavy metals are found in the environment as a result of various inherent biochemical, physiological, and/or genetic mechanisms. These mechanisms can serve as potential tools for bioremediation of heavy metal polluted sites. This review focuses on the effects of heavy metal wastes generated from gold mining activities on the environment and the various mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the effect of these heavy metals in their immediate environment.

  15. Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  16. Waste disposal and pollution control in the metal manufacturing. January 1978-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning industrial metal manufacturers' monitoring and control of waste disposal and pollution generators for processes other than finishing. Atmospheric emissions such as sulfur oxide, dust pollutants, nitrogen oxides, and ether gases are discussed relative to effects on surrounding vegetation and control. Heavy metal removal as well as waste water treatment processes are also included. (This updated bibliography contains 176 citations, 30 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Air pollution in early life and adult mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David I W; Osmond, Clive; Williams, Martin L; Jones, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD. They raised the possibility that early air pollution, which is known to be strongly linked with chest infection during infancy, may predispose to RHD. We related estimates of air pollution and social conditions developed by Daly in 1951-52 for 78 urban areas in England and Wales to their subsequent RHD mortality rates at ages 35-74 in men and women during 1993-2012. There were strong relationships between domestic air pollution and RHD [relative risk per standard deviation (SD) increase in pollution 1.168, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.128 to 1.210, P < 0.001). Inclusion of published data on social class, education, crowding and population density in multiple regression analyses showed that the air pollution association was independent of these; only overcrowding was separately linked with RHD. We present the first evidence of an association between air pollution in early life and RHD. Although there are several limitations to this study, the strength and consistency of the results, together with their biological plausibility, suggest a causal link. This deserves attention because it may have important consequences for the control of RHD in resource-poor countries where widespread use of biomass fuels and domestic pollution remain a problem.

  18. Silica nanoparticles capture atmospheric lead: implications in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xifei; Shen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Jianping; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the air is a severe global problem, most notably in China. Removal of Pb from polluted air remains a significant challenge. It is unclear what potential effects silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) exposure can have on atmospheric Pb. Here we first characterized the features of SiNPs by measuring the particle size, zeta potential and the specific surface area of SiO(2) particles using a Nicomp 380/ZLS submicron particle sizer, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). We measured the content of the metal Pb adsorbed by SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is found that SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants absorb more atmospheric Pb compared to either blank control or micro-sized SiO(2) particles in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating that SiNPs exposure can absorb atmospheric Pb in the polluted environment. These novel findings indicate that SiNPs have potential to serve as a significant adsorbent of Pb from industrial pollution, implicating a potentially novel application of SiNPs in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Size in Males of the Ant Lasius niger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Along a Metal Pollution Gradient.

    PubMed

    Grześ, Irena M; Okrutniak, Mateusz; Sternalski, Jakub; Banasiak, Marek; Piszczek, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Environmental stress can lead to a decrease in the body size of insects. As social insects, ants have a complex caste system; each caste has its own morphological traits and functions in the colony, hence the effects of stress may manifest differentially among different ant castes. Here we investigated the body size of males of the common garden ant, Lasius niger L., 1758, living in a postmining area polluted mainly by Zn, Cd, and Pb. We examined if individual body size decreases with the pollution gradient. The ants were sampled from 39 wild colonies originating from 17 sites located along the metal pollution gradient; head width was used as the estimator of body size. We failed to show a significant correlation between pollution and male body size, indicating no direct effect of pollution on the body size of males of the investigated ant. However, we found a significant dependence with the colony of origin, which is in line with a previous study performed on this species in unpolluted sites. These results further strengthen a general conclusion that morphological traits in ants, such as body size or fluctuating asymmetry, are relatively invariable and stable across gradients of metal pollution. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  1. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 hours in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed no effect in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 hours before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 hours. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

  2. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  3. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST) AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the USEPA's Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool, including a discussion of the models used and outputs. The tool is currently being expanded to include pollution prevention considerations as part of the model. The current st...

  4. Exposure to Metal Pollutants and Behavioral Disorders in Children: A Review of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike

    The paper reviews research on effects of metal pollutants on behavioral disorders in children. Methodological programs of studies conducted in the 1970's are described. Research since 1980 is then addressed in terms of general population studies and studies of behaviorally disordered populations. Findings of research on the latter subject group…

  5. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  6. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T) BETA VERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MFFP2T is a computer-based simulation of metal finishing facilities that is intended to allow the facility to evaluate the effect of process modifications on pollution generation within the facility. MFFP2T has been developed consists of two basic parts, a process simulation ...

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Red River surface sediments, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thu Hien; Zhang, Weiguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Jie; Ge, Can; Liu, Jinyan; Bai, Xuexin; Feng, Huan; Yu, Lizhong

    2016-12-15

    Surface sediment samples were collected from upstream down to the subaqueous delta of the Red River in Vietnam to assess heavy metal pollution. Sediment Cr and V concentrations are strongly correlated with Al, Fe, Mn and total organic carbon concentrations, as well as particle size, suggesting that these two metals are derived primarily from natural sources and enriched in the fine fraction of sediments. In contrast, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn concentrations show weaker correlations with particle size, with very high concentrations observed at several sites in the upper reach of the river, pointing to anthropogenic input as a possible source of these heavy metals. Enrichment factors (EF) of Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn suggest that heavy metal pollution is present in sediments with significantly high values in the upstream. The data analysis indicates that Cd, Cu and Pb are the dominant pollutants in the Red River, with their concentrations reaching moderate to serious pollution levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  9. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  10. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T) BETA VERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The MFFP2T is a computer-based simulation of metal finishing facilities that is intended to allow the facility to evaluate the effect of process modifications on pollution generation within the facility. MFFP2T has been developed consists of two basic parts, a process simulation ...

  11. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter.

  12. Elemental mapping inventory of the fish Liza aurata brain: a biomarker of metal pollution vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Rita M; Pereira, Patricia; Raimundo, Joana; Pacheco, Mário; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    The elemental distributions in optic tectum of brains of wild Liza aurata a teleost fish captured in polluted and reference coastal areas were assessed quantitatively by nuclear microscopy providing insights into brain vulnerability to metal pollution. Elemental maps enabled us to visualize optic tectum layers and identify cellular arrangements. Whereas Cl, K and Ca contents identify meninges, the Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations distinguish the underneath grey matter, white matter and inner cellular layers. Exposed animals showed significantly decreased P concentrations and increased contents of Cu, Zn and Ni in all brain structures. These changes highlight homeostasis modification, altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier and suggest risk for neurological toxicity. Our study initiated for the first time an inventory of physiological measures containing images and elemental compositions of brain regions of fish exposed to different environmental conditions. This will help defining total and local brain vulnerability to metals and pollution levels.

  13. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  14. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  15. A paleolimnological perspective on industrial-era metal pollution in the central Andes, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B

    2008-04-15

    To date, few studies have investigated the environmental legacy associated with industrialization in the South American Andes. Here, we present an environmental archive of industrial pollution from (210)Pb-dated lake cores recovered from Laguna Chipian, located near the Cerro de Pasco metallurgical region and Laguna Pirhuacocha, located near the Morococha mining region and the La Oroya smelting complex. At Laguna Chipian, trace metal concentrations increase beginning ~1900 AD, coincident with the construction of the central Peruvian railway, and the rapid industrial development of the Cerro de Pasco region. Trace metal concentrations and fluxes peak during the 1950s before subsequently declining up-core (though remaining well above background levels). While Colonial mining and smelting operations are known to have occurred at Cerro de Pasco since at least 1630 AD, our sediment record preserves no associated metal deposition. Based on our (14)C and (210)Pb data, we suggest that this is due to a depositional hiatus, rather than a lack of regional Colonial pollution. At Laguna Pirhuacocha, industrial trace metal deposition first begins ~1925 AD, rapidly increasing after ~1950 AD and peaking during either the 1970s or 1990s. Trace metal concentrations from these lakes are comparable to some of the most polluted lakes in North America and Europe. There appears to be little diagenetic alteration of the trace metal record at either lake, the exception being arsenic (As) accumulation at Laguna Pirhuacocha. There, a correlation between As and the redox-sensitive element manganese (Mn) suggests that the sedimentary As burden is undergoing diagenetic migration towards the sediment-water interface. This mobility has contributed to surface sediment As concentrations in excess of 1100 microg g(-1). The results presented here chronicle a rapidly changing Andean environment, and highlight a need for future research in the rate and magnitude of atmospheric metal pollution.

  16. Geochemical modelling and speciation studies of metal pollutants present in selected water systems in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magu, M. M.; Govender, P. P.; Ngila, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollutants in water poses great threats to living beings and hence requires to be monitored regularly to avoid loss of lives. Various analytical methods are available to monitor these pollutants in water and can be improved with time. Modelling of metal pollutants in any water system helps chemists, engineers and environmentalists to greatly understand the various chemical processes in such systems. Water samples were collected from waste water treatment plant and river from highlands close to its source all the way to the ocean as it passing through areas with high anthropogenic activities. Pre-concentration of pollutants in the samples was done through acid digestion and metal pollutants were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectra (ICP-OES) to determine the concentration levels. Metal concentrations ranged between 0.1356-0.4658 mg/L for Al; 0.0031-0.0050 mg/L for Co, 0.0019-0.0956 mg/L for Cr; 0.0028-0.3484 mg/L for Cu; 0.0489-0.3474 mg/L for Fe; 0.0033-0.0285 mg/L for Mn; 0.0056-0.0222 mg/L for Ni; 0.0265-0.4753 mg/L for Pb and 0.0052-0.5594 mg/L for Zn. Modelling work was performed using PHREEQC couple with Geochemist's workbench (GWB) to determine speciation dynamics and bioavailability of these pollutants. Modelling thus adds value to analytical methods and hence a better complementary tool to laboratory-based experimental studies.

  17. Impact of Metal Pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens Growth on Soil Microbial Communities▿

    PubMed Central

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M.; Kowalchuk, George A.; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Garbisu, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts of Zn and/or Cd pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on key soil microbial properties: basal respiration; substrate-induced respiration (SIR); bacterial community structure as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); community sizes of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and chitin-degrading bacteria as assessed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR); and functional gene distributions as determined by functional gene arrays (GeoChip). T. caerulescens proved to be suitable for Zn and Cd phytoextraction: shoots accumulated up to 8,211 and 1,763 mg kg−1 (dry weight [DW]) of Zn and Cd, respectively. In general, Zn pollution led to decreased levels of basal respiration and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, while T. caerulescens growth increased the values of substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and total bacteria. In soils polluted with 1,000 mg Zn kg−1 and 250 mg Cd kg−1 (DW), soil bacterial community profiles and the distribution of microbial functional genes were most affected by the presence of metals. Metal-polluted and planted soils had the highest percentage of unique genes detected via the GeoChip (35%). It was possible to track microbial responses to planting with T. caerulescens and to gain insight into the effects of metal pollution on soilborne microbial communities. PMID:20935131

  18. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, José M; Kowalchuk, George A; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Garbisu, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts of Zn and/or Cd pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on key soil microbial properties: basal respiration; substrate-induced respiration (SIR); bacterial community structure as assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); community sizes of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and chitin-degrading bacteria as assessed by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR); and functional gene distributions as determined by functional gene arrays (GeoChip). T. caerulescens proved to be suitable for Zn and Cd phytoextraction: shoots accumulated up to 8,211 and 1,763 mg kg(-1) (dry weight [DW]) of Zn and Cd, respectively. In general, Zn pollution led to decreased levels of basal respiration and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, while T. caerulescens growth increased the values of substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and total bacteria. In soils polluted with 1,000 mg Zn kg(-1) and 250 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW), soil bacterial community profiles and the distribution of microbial functional genes were most affected by the presence of metals. Metal-polluted and planted soils had the highest percentage of unique genes detected via the GeoChip (35%). It was possible to track microbial responses to planting with T. caerulescens and to gain insight into the effects of metal pollution on soilborne microbial communities.

  19. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    PubMed

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Indoor metallic pollution and children exposure in a mining city.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Enio; Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2014-07-15

    Mining industries are known for causing strong environmental contamination. In most developing countries, the management of mining wastes is not adequate, usually contaminating soil, water and air. This situation is a source of concern for human settlements located near mining centers, especially for vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations of the metallic concentrations between household dust and children hair, comparing these associations in two different contamination contexts: a mining district and a suburban non-mining area. We collected 113 hair samples from children between 7 and 12 years of age in elementary schools in the mining city of Oruro, Bolivia. We collected 97 indoor dust samples from their households, as well as information about the children's behavior. Analyses of hair and dust samples were conducted to measure As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Cu and Zn contents. In the mining district, there were significant correlations between non-essential metallic elements (As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Sn) in dust and hair, but not for essential elements (Cu and Zn), which remained after adjusting for children habits. Children who played with dirt had higher dust-hair correlations for Pb, Sb, and Cu (P=0.006; 0.022 and 0.001 respectively) and children who put hands or toys in their mouths had higher dust-hair correlations of Cd (P=0.011). On the contrary, in the suburban area, no significant correlations were found between metallic elements in dust and children hair and neither children behavior nor gender modified this lack of associations. Our results suggest that, in a context of high metallic contamination, indoor dust becomes an important exposure pathway for children, modulated by their playing behavior.

  1. Ecological risk assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    The structure and function of soil ecosystems in an area with a wide range of concentrations of heavy metals were studied in portions of the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach which integrated biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to establish community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input in the decision making process. Soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and trophic groups in contaminated areas. The numbers of soil microorganisms were lower in areas of soil contamination. Ten-to-fifty fold reductions in enzyme activities were observed as heavy metal concentrations increased. These results suggest that soil contamination with heavy metals may have detrimental effects on soil biota and the rates of organic matter degradation and subsequent release of nutrients to aboveground communities in the area. The proposed methodology appears to offer an efficient and potentially cost saving tool for remedial investigations at contaminated sites.

  2. Heavy metal pollution in Ancient Nara, Japan, during the eighth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Yamashita, Shusuke; Yamaoka, Kyoko; Okai, Takashi; Shimoda, Gen; Imai, Noboru

    2014-12-01

    We quantitatively investigated the eighth century heavy metal pollution in Heijo-kyo (Ancient Nara), the first large, international city of Japan. In this metropolis, mercury, copper, and lead levels in soil were increased by urban activity and by the construction of the Great Buddha statue, Nara Daibutsu. Mercury and copper pollution associated with the construction of the statue was particularly high in the immediate vicinity of the statue, but markedly lower in the wider city environment. We therefore reject the hypothesis that extensive mercury pollution associated with the construction of the Nara Daibutsu made it necessary to abandon Ancient Nara, even though severe lead pollution was detected at several sites. The isotopic composition of the lead indicated that it originated mainly from the Naganobori mine in Yamaguchi, which was a major source of the copper for the Nara Daibutsu.

  3. [Pollution of agricultural soils by a wastewater outflow from a metal smelter in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in the farmland soil nearby a metal smelter were studied. Soil samples were collected and the contents of elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, U and As in the bulk samples of soil profiles were measured, with the objectives to identify the pollution status and pollution characteristics of the farmland soil that were suffered from smelter effluents flooding, an acute pollution accident. The results indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Cd,Sb in the soil were 113.28-212.22, 251.67-2 429.29, 34.44-130.28, 50.63-544.74, 63.44-317.33, 39.41-551.17 mg/kg, respectively, higher than the background level. These polluted soils not only have high concentrations of As, but also of the Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd and Sb. According to correlation analysis, pollution level is closely with local nonferrous metal exploitation, and principal pollutants have the same source. Some trace metals, such as Zn, Cr, Cd, show increasing concentration first and then decreasing trend in the soil profile. Soil acidification appears in the topsoil. This study has characterized the metal pollution in soils flooded by sudden smelting effluents spilling, and provided a theory base for pollution treatment.

  4. Genetic basis and importance of metal resistant genes in bacteria for bioremediation of contaminated environments with toxic metal pollutants.

    PubMed

    Das, Surajit; Dash, Hirak R; Chakraborty, Jaya

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollution is one of the most persistent and complex environmental issues, causing threat to the ecosystem and human health. On exposure to several toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury, several bacteria has evolved with many metal-resistant genes as a means of their adaptation. These genes can be further exploited for bioremediation of the metal-contaminated environments. Many operon-clustered metal-resistant genes such as cadB, chrA, copAB, pbrA, merA, and NiCoT have been reported in bacterial systems for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, and nickel resistance and detoxification, respectively. The field of environmental bioremediation has been ameliorated by exploiting diverse bacterial detoxification genes. Genetic engineering integrated with bioremediation assists in manipulation of bacterial genome which can enhance toxic metal detoxification that is not usually performed by normal bacteria. These techniques include genetic engineering with single genes or operons, pathway construction, and alternations of the sequences of existing genes. However, numerous facets of bacterial novel metal-resistant genes are yet to be explored for application in microbial bioremediation practices. This review describes the role of bacteria and their adaptive mechanisms for toxic metal detoxification and restoration of contaminated sites.

  5. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern

  6. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their <63 μm fractions using an ICP-OES. The results suggest that Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and V in the dust are not or slightly enriched and their concentrations vary slightly between different sites, implying their natural origins; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb are often notably enriched and their concentrations vary significantly between different functional areas, indicating their anthropogenic sources. Integrated pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi

    2016-11-10

    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their <63 μm fractions using an ICP-OES. The results suggest that Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and V in the dust are not or slightly enriched and their concentrations vary slightly between different sites, implying their natural origins; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb are often notably enriched and their concentrations vary significantly between different functional areas, indicating their anthropogenic sources. Integrated pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  8. Plant growth promotion, metabolite production and metal tolerance of dark septate endophytes isolated from metal-polluted poplar phytomanagement sites.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Charlotte; Leyval, Corinne; Foulon, Julie; Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies address the distribution and the diversity of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) in the literature, but little is known about their ecological role and their effect on host plants, especially in metal-polluted soils. Seven DSE strains belonging to Cadophora, Leptodontidium, Phialophora and Phialocephala were isolated from roots of poplar trees from metal-polluted sites. All strains developed on a wide range of carbohydrates, including cell-wall-related compounds. The strains evenly colonized birch, eucalyptus and ryegrass roots in re-synthesis experiments. Root and shoot growth promotion was observed and was both plant and strain dependent. Two Phialophora and Leptodontidium strains particularly improved plant growth. However, there was no correlation between the level of root colonization by DSEs and the intensity of growth promotion. All strains produced auxin and six also stimulated plant growth through the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SPME-GC/MS analyses revealed four major VOCs emitted by Cadophora and Leptodontidium The strains exhibited growth at high concentrations of several metals. The ability of metal-resistant DSE strains to produce both soluble and volatile compounds for plant growth promotion indicates interesting microbial resources with high potential to support sustainable production of bioenergy crops within the context of the phytomanagement of metal-contaminated sites.

  9. Toxic Metal Pollution in Pakistan and Its Possible Risks to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Daud, Muhammad K; Nabeela, Farhat; Rahman, Hazir; Ur Rehman, Shafiq; Häder, Donat-Peter

    Environmental pollution has increased many folds in recent years and in some places has reached levels that are toxic to living things. Among pollutant types, toxic heavy metals and metalloids are among the chemicals that pose the highest threat to biological systems (Jjemba 2004). Unlike organic pollutants, which are biodegradable, heavy metals are not degraded into less hazardous end products (Gupta et al. 2001). Low concentrations of some heavy metals are essential for life, but some of them like Hg, As, Pb and Cd are biologically non-essential and very toxic to living organisms. Even the essential metals may become toxic if they are present at a concentration above the permissible level (Puttaiah and Kiran 2008). For example, exposure to Zn and Fe oxides produce gastric disorder and vomiting, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Intake of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and Cu causes heart problems, leukemia and cancer, while Co and Mg can cause anemia and hypertension (Drasch et al. 2006). Similarly, various studies indicated that overexposure to heavy metals in air can cause cardiovascular disorders (Miller et al. 2007; Schwartz 2001), asthma (Wiwatanadate and Liwsrisakun 2011), bronchitis/emphysema (Pope 2000), and other respiratory diseases (Dominici et al. 2006).

  10. Metals pollution tracing in the sewerage network using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2009-01-01

    Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) is a quantitative, passive monitoring technique that can be used to measure concentrations of trace species in situ in solutions. Its potential for tracing metals pollution in the sewer system has been investigated by placing the DGT devices into sewage pumping stations and into manholes, to measure the concentration of certain metals in the catchment of a sewage treatment works with a known metals problem. In addition the methodology and procedure of using the DGT technique in sewers was investigated. Parameters such as temperature and pH were measured to ensure they were within the limits required by the DGT devices, and the optimum deployment time was examined. It was found that although the results given by the DGT technique could not be considered to be fully quantitative, they could be used to identify locations that were showing an excess concentration of metals, and hence trace pollution back to its source. The DGT technique is 'user friendly' and requires no complicated equipment for deployment or collection, and minimal training for use. It is thought that this is the first time that the DGT technique has been used in situ in sewers for metals pollution tracing.

  11. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P < 0.05), which suggested that magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  12. A magnetic record of heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze River subaqueous delta.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chenyin; Zhang, Weiguo; Ma, Honglei; Feng, Huan; Lu, Honghua; Dong, Yan; Yu, Lizhong

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development in the Yangtze River watershed over the last several decades has drawn great attention with respect to heavy metal pollution to the Yangtze River estuary and nearby coastal areas. In this study, a 236 cm long sediment core was retrieved from the Yangtze River subaqueous delta (122°36' E, 31°00' N) in 2008 and analyzed for magnetic properties and geochemical compositions to investigate heavy metal pollution history. The activity of (137)Cs peaked at depth 140 cm, with a broad plateau between 120 cm and 140 cm, suggesting an average sedimentation rate of 3.11 cm yr(-1) for the upper 140 cm layer. Magnetic susceptibility (χ), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (χARM) and heavy metal enrichment factors (EF) all showed an upward increase trend above depth 140 cm, suggesting that increased ferrimagnetic mineral concentration was accompanied by heavy metal enrichment in the sediment. Geochemical and granolumetric analyses showed that sediment sources and particle sizes played minor roles in the variations of magnetic properties. The effect of diagenesis, which can lead to the selective removal of magnetic minerals, was noticeable in the lower part of the core (140-236 cm). Co-variation between magnetic properties (χ, SIRM and χARM) and EF of Cu and Pb suggests that the elevated ferrimagnetic mineral concentration can be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution in the reconstruction of environmental changes in estuarine and coastal settings.

  13. Nutrient and metal pollution of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline: Sediments, macroalgae, microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gubelit, Yulia; Polyak, Yulia; Dembska, Grazyna; Pazikowska-Sapota, Grazyna; Zegarowski, Lukasz; Kochura, Dmitry; Krivorotov, Denis; Podgornaya, Elena; Burova, Olga; Maazouzi, Chafik

    2016-04-15

    The anthropogenic pollution along the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland was studied through a range of methods, including analyses of metal contamination in water, surface sediments, accumulated algal biomass and its correlation with resistant microbiota. According to concentrations, the main pollutants in water were copper and manganese. Influence of Nuclear Power Plant was remarkable in adjacent areas and was expressed in high concentrations of molybdenum, nickel, copper and other elements in the water. Relatively high concentrations of copper, lead and zinc were found in sediments. Microbial tolerance appeared to be correlated with the concentration of the metals in sediments. Higher tolerance levels were found in sediment samples from more polluted stations. Macroalgae, which were massively developed in the coastal zone, had shown high level of metal bioaccumulation. Analyses of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of algal tissues allowed the estimation of additional nutrient loading from accumulated decaying algal biomass on the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Mass development of algae in coastal area may contribute to accumulation of organic matter and associated metals. In our study the highest metal concentrations in sediments were found at the sites with dense and continuous layer of fresh and decaying macroalgal biomass, accompanied by hypoxic conditions. Also our study has shown that accumulated biomass may be a significant source of nutrients in the coastal ecosystem.

  14. Trace metal pollution from traffic in Denizli-Turkey during dry season.

    PubMed

    Divrikli, Umit; Mendil, Durali; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif

    2006-08-01

    To determine the metal contents of date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) samples in dry season from Denizli-Turkey for investigation of heavy metal-polluted traffic. The levels of iron, copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and manganese ions in the leaves of thirty five date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) samples collected from various levels of traffic in the streets of Denizli-Turkey were determined by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The wet, dry, and microwave digestion procedures for the date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) leaves were compared. The accuracy of the digestion procedures was checked using a standard reference material (IAEA-336 Lichen, SRM). Microwave digestion procedure for the leaves was preferred because it was more proper with respect to both time and recovery than dry and wet digestion. The levels of the heavy metal ions investigated were the highest on the samples from high traffic level. Also correlations between metal levels and traffic volume for all the metals were investigated. In the light of our findings, the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaves are suitable as a biomonitor for atmospheric heavy metal-polluted traffic. Significant correlations can be obtained between traffic levels and heavy metal concentrations.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of heavy metals' pollution hazards in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huajun; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Zhu, Huina; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Jiang, Hongwei; Leng, Lijian; Bi, Wenkai

    2011-11-01

    Liquefaction residues (LR) are the main by-products of sewage sludge (SS) liquefaction. This study quantitatively evaluates the potential ecological risk and pollution degrees of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in LR versus SS. The leaching rates (R1) of heavy metals in LR were much lower than those in SS, revealing that the mobility/leachability of heavy metals was well suppressed after liquefaction. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated that the liquefaction process significantly weakened the contamination degrees of heavy metals. Potential ecological risk index (RI) demonstrated that overall risks caused by heavy metals were obviously lowered from 1093.56 (very high risk) in SS to 4.72 and 1.51 (low risk) in LR1 and LR2, respectively. According to the risk assessment code (RAC), each tested heavy metal had no or low risk to the environments after liquefaction. In a word, the pollution hazards of heavy metals in LR were markedly mitigated.

  16. Comparison of heavy metal contamination during the last decade along the coastal sediment of Pakistan: Multiple pollution indices approach.

    PubMed

    Saher, Noor Us; Siddiqui, Asmat Saleem

    2016-04-15

    Heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and Cd) were scrutinized during two monitoring years (2001 and 2011) in the coastal sediment of Pakistan. The status of metal contamination in coastal sediment was interpreted using sediment quality guidelines, and single and combined metal pollution indices. Ni, Cr, and Cd were recognized for their significant (p<0.05) intensification in the sediment during the last decade. Sediment quality guidelines recognized the frequent adverse biological effect of Ni and the occasional adverse biological effect of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Single metal pollution indices (Igeo, EF, CF, and ER) revealed that sediment pollution is predominantly caused by Pb and Cd. Low to moderate contamination was appraised along the coast by multi-metal pollution indices (CD and PERI). Correlation study specifies that heavy metals were presented diverse affiliations and carriers for distribution in the sediment during the last decade.

  17. Trace/heavy metal pollution monitoring in estuary and coastal area of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and implicated impacts.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Using artificial mussels (AMs), this study reports and compares time-integrated level of eleven trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) in Karnafuli River estuary and coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Through this study, "hot spots" of metal pollution were identified. The results may demonstrate that the Karnafuli Estuary, and adjacent coastal area of Chittagong, Bangladesh are highly polluted by high risk metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, uranium). Agricultural, domestic and industrial wastes directly discharged into the waterways have been identified as the main causes of metal pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The high level of metal pollution identified may impact on local water quality, and seafood catch, livelihoods of people and public health resulting from seafood consumption. There is a need for regular monitoring to ascertain that local water quality with respect to metal levels are within acceptable levels to safeguards both environmental health and public health.

  18. Problems and prospects concerning the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-09-01

    The current state, problems, and prospects of phymoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most widespread and alternative methods of soil phytoremediation. The efficiency of phymoremediation is related to the natural capability of plants for the accumulation and translocation of metals, their tolerance to a high content of metals, the plant biomass, and the amendments applied. The advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation as compared to other methods of remediation of polluted soils in situ are considered. Examples of successful phytoextraction and phytomining for cleaning up of contaminated soils in Rasteburg (South Africa) and the phytostabilization of technogenic barrens nearby the copper-nickel plants in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and in the Kola Subarctic (Russia) are presented.

  19. The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as an indicator of coastal trace metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D; Robertson, Bruce; Scarpaci, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring trace metal and metalloid concentrations in marine animals is important for their conservation and could also reliably reflect pollution levels in their marine ecosystems. Concentrations vary across tissue types, with implications for reliable monitoring. We sampled blood and moulted feathers of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) from three distinct colonies, which are subject to varying levels of anthropogenic impact. Non-essential trace metal and metalloid concentrations in Little Penguins were clearly linked to the level of industrialisation adjacent to the respective foraging zones. This trend was more distinct in blood than in moulted feathers, although we found a clear correlation between blood and feathers for mercury, lead and iron. This study represents the first reported examination of trace metals and metalloids in the blood of any penguin species and demonstrates that this high trophic feeder is an effective bioindicator of coastal pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and Pollution Characteristics Analysis of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediment in Bi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qianrui; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dong, Tao; Qi, Wufu; Zou, Liling; Zhao, Xueqiong; Zhao, Xinliang; Xiang, Yungang

    2016-10-01

    The author analyzes distribution characteristics of heavy metals’ content in surface sediments of Bi River (Cu, Zn, As and Cd) and evaluates the potential ecological harm of heavy metal pollution in surface sediment by index method of potential ecological harm. Results show that heavy metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd in surface sediments of Bi River are badly out of limitation. Especially, the heavy metals’ content in Jinding mining area is far higher than the national first class standard. The content of heavy metal is still high in the intersection of Bi River and Lancang River, which have certain influence on the Lancang River sediment and its water system. And, Pb and Cd, as the main pollutants, should be regarded as a key research subject.

  1. The environmental significance of heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of Maryout lagoon, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M. A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Sediment quality of Lake Maryout (one of the four Nile Delta shallow brackish water lakes) was concerned since this lake were used for land reclamation, aquaculture in addition to its importance as a fishing source. Meanwhile, sediments served as one of the main ultimate sinks for large amount of pollutants especially heavy metals discharged through two wastewater treatment plants, also from several agricultural drains. Total concentrations of heavy metal, such as Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn were investigated, as well as the ecological relevance of metal pollution was investigated by applying different sediment quality assessment approaches: (1) comparisons of concentrations with regional reference data, and (2) comparisons with consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs).

  2. Differential response of marine organisms to certain metal and agrichemical pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.H.; Xu, C.H.

    1984-10-01

    Oocyte maturation of the starfish, fertilization and embryogenesis of sea urchins, and the development of amphioxus and brine shrimps were used to assay the effects of several common metals and agrichemicals frequently found in marine environments. While brine shrimp embryos were tolerant to metals and agrichemicals used here, sea urchins and amphioxus showed a differential response to the common metal pollutants. Starfish oocyte maturation process was affected by agrichemicals. The results show that no one single organism, or its embryonic form, or a particular stage of development, can be used as the indicator for a particular pollutant. However, the use of lower forms of marine organisms can be useful collectively for environmental investigations and the management of waste disposal.

  3. Aquatic environments polluted with antibiotics and heavy metals: a human health hazard.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Zanetti, Maria Olívia Barboza; Pitondo-Silva, André; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2014-05-01

    Aquatic environments often receive wastewater containing pollutants such as antibiotics and heavy metals from hospital sewage, as well as contaminants from soil. The presence of these pollutants can increase the rate of exchange of resistant genes between environmental and pathogenic bacteria, which can make the treatment of various types of bacterial infections in humans and animals difficult, in addition to causing environmental problems such as ecological risk. In this study, two tetracycline-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (EW32 and EW33), isolated from aquatic environments close to industries and a hospital in southeastern Brazil, were investigated regarding the possible association between tetracycline and heavy metal resistance. The isolate EW32 presented a conjugative plasmid with coresistance to tetracycline and copper, reinforcing the concern that antibiotic resistance by acquisition of plasmids can be induced by the selective pressure of heavy metals in the environment.

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Senegal sole, Solea senegalensis, to assess the impact of heavy metal pollution in a Huelva estuary (SW Spain): seasonal and spatial variation.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Milagrosa; José Vicente, Juan; Gravato, Carlos; Guilhermino, Lucia; Dolores Galindo-Riaño, María

    2012-01-01

    The response of wild fish to heavy metals was studied in sole (Solea senegalensis) collected in 2004, 2005 and 2006 at three sampling sites from Huelva estuary (SW Spain), in the vicinity of a petrochemical and mining industry. Heavy metals As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were analyzed in samples collected from sediment, water and tissue (liver) to examine their bioconcentration and effects in fish such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1.8.1.7), glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.11.1.6) were also analyzed in the fish liver. The results showed different effects in sole from diverse locations with varying degrees of pollution. Significant differences in LPO, CAT and GR activities between control fish and fish from sampling sites were observed as well as seasonal differences for biomarkers. Significant correlations were established between some biomarkers and heavy metals concentrations in liver, sediment and water. This study indicates the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to assess the effects of pollutants in aquatic environments under complex mix of pollutants and chronic pollution situation.

  5. Impact of air pollution on the burden of chronic respiratory diseases in China: time for urgent action.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Zheng, Xue-Yan; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-10-15

    In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases. We highlight targets for interventions and recommendations for pollution reduction through industrial upgrading, vehicle and fuel renovation, improvements in public transportation, lowering of personal exposure, mitigation of the direct effects of air pollution through healthy city development, intervention at population-based level (systematic health education, intensive and individualised intervention, pre-emptive measures, and rehabilitation), and improvement in air quality. The implementation of a national environmental protection policy has become urgent.

  6. Application of aragonite shells for the removal of aqueous metals in polluted soils and wastewaters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucca, M.; Köhler, S. J.; Dietzel, M.

    2009-04-01

    In the present study the use of coupled precipitation/dissolution processes for metal (Me) removal from polluted soils and waters by biogenic carbonate (CaCO3) shell surfaces is proposed, according to the following overall reaction: CaCO3 + Me2+ = MeCO3 + Ca2+ This reaction has been investigated at fixed experimental conditions using synthetic model systems consisting in columns, batch, and reactors (e.g. lead, zinc, and cadmium artificial solutions mixed with aragonite shells) that allowed quantifying the kinetics of the process of metal carbonate formation. The above mentioned process has the potential of being used in three different areas of water treatment: a) use of shells as a cheap and effective geologic barrier for contaminated ground or surface waters, b) use as a material in filter beds or fluidized bed for selective cleaning of waste water with the potential of partial metal recovery and c) use as seed crystals during the elimination of metals through precipitation with soda (Na2CO3). Acidic wastewaters containing several pollutants, including heavy and trace metals, are created during production of pesticides, paper, lubricating oil, batteries, acid/alkali, or in ship repair manufacturing, mines drainage systems, metalworking and metal plating industries. Biogenic shells are a waste product in many coastal countries and may thus be more favorable than other solid phases such as clays or zeolithes from an economic viewpoint. Our metal elimination study aims at setting up a low-cost effective elimination system for various types of metal rich waste waters. A number of experimental techniques such as batch, column and flow through reactors were used to optimize the metal removal efficiency in both synthetic and waste waters from the metal finishing industry. Solid liquid ratio, initial and final pH, metal concentration and combination of metals have been varied. Measurements of pH, metal concentration, conductivity and alkalinity were recorded over the

  7. Fungal biosorption--an alternative to meet the challenges of heavy metal pollution in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Rajesh; Hooda, Anju

    2011-04-01

    The removal of heavy metal from the environment, especially wastewater, is now shifting from the use of conventional methods to the use of biosorption, which may be defined as the binding and concentration of selected heavy metal ions or other molecules on to certain biological material. Although most biosorption research concerns metal and related pollutants, including radionuclides, the term is now applied for particulates and all manner of organic pollutants as well. Such pollutants can be in gaseous, soluble and insoluble forms. Biosorption is a physical process carried out through mechanisms such as ion exchange, surface complexation and precipitation. It is a property of both living and dead organisms (and their components) and has been heralded as a promising biotechnology for pollutant removal from solution. Various biomasses such as plant products (tree bark, peanut skin, sawdust, plant weeds etc.) have been tested for metal biosorption with very encouraging results. In this comprehensive review, biosorptive ability of fungal biomass toward heavy metals is emphasized. A detailed description of adsorption properties and mode of action of fungal biosorbents is offered in order to explain the heavy metal selectivity displayed by these biosorbents. The cell structure and cell wall of the fungal cell is evaluated in terms of metal sequestration. The parameters influencing the passive uptake of pollutants are analysed. The binding mechanism is discussed, including the key functional groups involved in the process. Quantification of metal-biomass interactions is fundamental to evaluation of potential implementation strategies; hence sorption isotherms and sorption kinetics, as well as models used to characterize fungal biosorbent sorption, are reviewed. Despite the continuing dramatic increase in published research on biosorption, there has been little or no exploitation in an industrial context. Thus, the current status and future directions regarding

  8. Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Badr, Nadia B E; El-Fiky, Anwar A; Mostafa, Alaa R; Al-Mur, Bandr A

    2009-08-01

    In the last three decades, the industrial and human activities in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia have increased dramatically and resulted in the continuous invasion of different types of pollutants including heavy metals. Seven sediment cores were collected from three major industrialized areas; Jeddah, Rabigh and Yanbu, along the coast of Saudi Arabia to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of metals and to assess the magnitude of pollution and their potential biological effects. Sediments were analyzed for texture, calcium carbonate contents, organic matter and metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Some metals like, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn, were enriched in the upper 15 cm of core samples (recent deposition of sediments). Cadmium concentrations showed high fluctuations with depth and reverse pattern to that for Al, Fe and Mn which indicated land based sources of this element to the studied areas. Elevated concentrations of lead were recorded in the bottom layers of cores in Jeddah that indicated the most dramatic increase in usage of gasoline in early 1970s. The calculated contamination factors (CF's) were found in the following sequences: Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn for all studied areas. Results of Pollution Load Index (PLI) revealed that Jeddah is the most polluted area, followed by Rabigh while Yanbu is the least contaminated area. Except for Ni, the concentrations of most metals in the majority of sediment samples were believed to be safe for living organisms. As no data were available on the concentration of metals in core sediments in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia, the results of this study would serve as a baseline against which future anthropogenic effects can be assessed.

  9. Canines as sentinel species for assessing chronic exposures to air pollutants: part 2. Cardiac pathology.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Gambling, T M; Acuña, H; García, R; Osnaya, N; Monroy, S; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Carson, J; Koren, H S; Devlin, R B

    2001-06-01

    The principal objective of this study is to evaluate by light and electron microscopy (LM, EM) the heart tissues in stray southwest and northeast metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC, NEMMC) dogs and compare their findings to those from 3 less polluted cities (Cuernavaca, Tlaxcala, and Tuxpam). Clinically healthy mongrel dogs, including 109 from highly polluted SWMMC and NEMMC, and 43 dogs from less polluted cities were studied. Dogs residing in cities with lower levels of pollutants showed little or no cardiac abnormalities. Mexico City and Cuernavaca dogs exhibited LM myocardial alterations including apoptotic myocytes, endothelial and immune effector cells, degranulated mast cells associated with scattered foci of mononuclear cells in left and right ventricles and interventricular septum, and clusters of adipocytes interspersed with mononuclear cells. Vascular changes included scattered polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) margination and microthrombi in capillaries, and small venous and arteriolar blood vessels. Small veins exhibited smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, and arteriolar blood vessels showed deposition of particulate matter (PM) in the media and adventitia. Unmyelinated nerve fibers showed endoneural and epineural degranulated mast cells. EM examination of myocardial mast cells showed distended and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum with few secretory granules. Myocardial capillaries exhibited fibrin deposition and their endothelial cells displayed increased luminal and abluminal pinocytic activity and the formation of anemone-like protrusions of the endothelium into the lumen. A close association between myocardial findings, lung epithelial and endothelial pathology, and chronic inflammatory lung changes was noted. The myocardial changes described in dogs exposed to ambient air pollutants may form the basis for developing hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies that might explain the epidemiological data of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in

  10. Atmospheric metal pollution monitored by spherical moss bags: a case study of Armadale.

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, F A; Lloyd, O L

    1986-01-01

    To supplement epidemiological investigations into the mortality from respiratory cancer in the small industrial town of Armadale, central Scotland, spherical moss bags were used to study the deposition of atmospheric metal pollution there during a period of 17 months. High concentrations of most metals were found in areas close to the local steel foundry. High concentrations of some metals were also found in the north/northeast of the town. Temporal variations in the metal deposition patterns during the survey-period were observed. By means of statistical analyses, those metals were indicated which were probably emitted from the steel foundry. The scientific and financial advantages of using this method of low technology sampling in epidemiological studies are discussed. PMID:3780627

  11. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution in soil.

    PubMed

    Nota, Benjamin; Vooijs, Riet; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2011-05-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing protein (MTC) was assessed, using quantitative PCR, in response to six different metals, each at two concentrations in soil. The expression of mtc was induced after exposure to all metals, except for one chromium concentration. Exposure to soil originating from metal-contaminated field sites also induced mtc, while the expression did not change in response to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Since this transcript is induced by most of the tested metals, it may potentially be a good indicator of metal contamination. The presented gene expression assay might become a useful tool to screen potentially polluted sites, in order to identify the ones that need further ecotoxicological investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pollution prevention assessment for a metal parts coater

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Spika, T.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that applies corrosion resistant coatings to metal parts. Aluminum parts received from customers may be anodized or may receive a chromate conversion coating. Brass, copper, steel, and aluminum parts from customers are nickel plated--either by electrolytic or electroless plating. The assessment team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that large quantities of wastewater and metal sludge are generated by the plant and that significant cost savings could be achieved through replacement of Freon used for degreasing. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  13. Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 5-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyer, J.; Saez, M.; Murillo, C.; Castellsague, J.; Martinez, F.; Anto, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    An association between sulfur dioxide levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was previously reported in Barcelona, Spain, for the period 1985-1986. The present study assesses this association over a longer period of time, 1985-1989. This made it possible to carry out separate analyses for the winter and summer seasons and thus to control more adequately for weather and influenza epidemics. An increase of 25 micrograms/m3 in sulfur dioxide (24-hour average) produced adjusted changes of 6% and 9% in emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during winter and summer, respectively. For black smoke, a similar change was found during winter, although the change was smaller in summer. The association of each pollutant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions remained significant after control for the other pollutant. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of sulfur dioxide and black smoke may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons.

  14. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  15. Residual impact of aged nZVI on heavy metal-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, C; Gil-Díaz, M; Costa, G; Alonso, J; Guerrero, A M; Nande, M; Lobo, M C; Martín, M

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the residual toxicity and impact of aged nZVI after a leaching experiment on heavy metal (Pb, Zn) polluted soils was evaluated. No negative effects on physico-chemical soil properties were observed after aged nZVI exposure. The application of nZVI to soil produced a significant increase in Fe availability. The impact on soil biodiversity was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A significant effect of nZVI application on microbial structure has been recorded in the Pb-polluted soil nZVI-treated. Soil bacteria molecular response, evaluated by RT-qPCR using exposure biomarkers (pykA, katB) showed a decrease in the cellular activity (pykA) due to enhanced intracellular oxidative stress (katB). Moreover, ecotoxicological standardised test on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) showed a decrease in the growth endpoint in the Pb-polluted soil, and particularly in the nZVI-treated. A different pattern has been observed in Zn-polluted soils: no changes in soil biodiversity, an increase in biological activity and a significant decrease of Zn toxicity on C. elegans growth were observed after aged nZVI exposure. The results reported indicated that the pollutant and its nZVI interaction should be considered to design soil nanoremediation strategies to immobilise heavy metals.

  16. Mountain lakes of Russian subarctic as markers of air pollution: Acidification, metals and paleoecology

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, T.I.; Dauvalter, V.A.; Kagan, L.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Kola Peninsula mountain lakes reflect a real situation not only of the local air pollution but also polluted transborder emissions from Europe to Arctic and they are of interest for early detection and monitoring for acidification and pollution by heavy metals. Two monitoring mountain lakes had a discrepancy by their resistance to acidification: the Chuna lake is vulnerable and the Chibiny one is not, respectively. Despite the Chuna and Chibiny lakes are close tone of the main heavy metal pollution sources of the Kola Peninsula - smelters of the Severonickel Company, local emissions very slightly affect the mountain lakes, because heavily polluted air masses do not rise in altitude. Sulfur deposition on the Chuna lake catchment is 0.4 gSm{sup -2}, Chibiny lake is 0.6 gSm{sup -2}. In comparison with area at the foot of the mountain (less than 200 m above the sea level) sulfur deposition is 1.0-1.5 gSm{sup -2}. Water quality, sediment chemistry, and diatoms in sediment cores were studied.

  17. Migration of radionuclides and heavy metals during the bioremediation of a polluted cinnamonic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A fresh sample of cinnamonic soil polluted with radionuclides (U, Ra) and toxic heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) was subjected to bioremediation in large-scale lysimeters by means of moulching. The aim of soil treatment was solubilization of pollutants located in horizon A, the migration of their dissolved complexes through the soil profile, and the pollutants` precipitation in the rich-in-clays below-lying horizons. The solubilization was due to the joint action of natural soil microflora and leach waters containing ammonium and phosphate ions, and in some variants-hydrocarbonate ions. The precipitation of pollutants was due to the enhanced activity of the indigenous microflora in which iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria were the prevalent groups. After 24 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the relevant soil layers (horizon A and the sub-horizons B1, B2, B3, and B4). The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the obtained data were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of soil bioremediation. It was found that considerable portions of the pollutants were removed from the horizon A and were migrated to the sub-horizons B3 and B4, mainly. In these sub-horizons the non-ferrous metals were precipitated mainly as the relevant sulphides, uranium was precipitated as uraninite (UO2), and radium-mainly as adsorbed ions and complexes.

  18. Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea is being rapidly degraded and the Sea has basically lost its function as a fishing ground. Billions of funds have been spent in slowing down, halting and finally reversing the environmental deterioration of the Bohai Sea. Although trace metals are routinely monitored, the data with high temporal resolution for a clear understanding of biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea are insufficient, especially in the western literature. In this review, status of trace metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is assessed based on a comprehensive review of their concentrations recorded in the waters, sediments and organisms over the past decades. Studies show that metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is closely associated with the fast economic growth in the past decades. Concentrations of trace metals are high in coastal areas especially in the estuaries. Alarmingly high metal concentrations are observed in the waters, sediments and organisms from the western Bohai Bay and the northern Liaodong Bay, especially the coasts near Huludao in the northernmost area of the Bohai Sea, which is being polluted by industrial sewage from the surrounding areas. The knowledge of the speciation and fractionation of trace metals and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Bohai Sea is far from enough and related work needs to be done urgently to get a better understanding of the influence of trace metals on the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. A clear understanding of the trace metal pollution status of the Bohai Sea could not be achieved presently for lack of systematic cooperation in different research fields. It is quite necessary to apply the environmental and ecological modeling to the investigation of trace metals in the Bohai Sea and then provide foundations for the protection of the environment and ecosystem of the Bohai Sea.

  19. Diet-mediated effects of heavy metal pollution on growth and immune response in the geometrid moth Epirrita autumnata.

    PubMed

    van Ooik, Tapio; Rantala, Markus J; Saloniemi, Irma

    2007-01-01

    The potential capacity of larval growth and immune response traits of the autumnal moth to adapt to heavy metal polluted environment was tested experimentally. Both the relative growth rate (RGR) and pupal weight were significantly higher in control trees than on polluted trees, indicating that metal pollution prevented the insect from achieving maximal growth on birch leaves. Larval growth rates of different broods differed significantly between metal contaminated and control birches. However, pupal weight of broods, which is considered more important for fitness than growth rate, in response to pollution did not differ. Immune response was significantly higher in moths exposed to pollution than in moths that were exposed to control environment suggesting that pollution enhances the immune defense of defoliators. Encapsulation rate tended to differ between broods indicating that the immune function has potential to respond to selection.

  20. Brain Metal Distribution and Neuro-Inflammatory Profiles after Chronic Vanadium Administration and Withdrawal in Mice.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Oluwabusayo R; Snyder, Amanda M; Peters, Douglas G; Olopade, Funmilayo; Connor, James R; Olopade, James O

    2017-01-01

    Vanadium is a potentially toxic environmental pollutant and induces oxidative damage in biological systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Its deposition in brain tissue may be involved in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders which after prolonged exposure can culminate into more severe pathology. Most studies on vanadium neurotoxicity have been done after acute exposure but in reality some populations are exposed for a lifetime. This work was designed to ascertain neurodegenerative consequences of chronic vanadium administration and to investigate the progressive changes in the brain after withdrawal from vanadium treatment. A total of 85 male BALB/c mice were used for the experiment and divided into three major groups of vanadium treated (intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 3 mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate and sacrificed every 3 months till 18 months); matched controls; and animals that were exposed to vanadium for 3 months and thereafter the metal was withdrawn. Brain tissues were obtained after animal sacrifice. Sagittal cut sections of paraffin embedded tissue (5 μm) were analyzed by the Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to show the absorption and distribution of vanadium metal. Also, Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining of brain sections, and immunohistochemistry for Microglia (Iba-1), Astrocytes (GFAP), Neurons (Neu-N) and Neu-N + 4',6-diamidine-2'-pheynylindole dihydrochloride (Dapi) Immunofluorescent labeling were observed for morphological and morphometric parameters. The LA-ICP-MS results showed progressive increase in vanadium uptake with time in different brain regions with prediction for regions like the olfactory bulb, brain stem and cerebellum. The withdrawal brains still show presence of vanadium metal in the brain slightly more than the controls. There were morphological alterations (of the layering profile, nuclear shrinkage) in the prefrontal cortex, cellular

  1. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells.

  2. Biogeochemical indication of pollution with metals and radionuclides in oil-producing regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, T. I.; Gashev, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    The results of investigation of the biogeochemical indication of pollution with metals and radio-nuclides in the oil-producing regions of Western Siberia are presented. It was ascertained that eight years after the oil spill, biota components (lichens, mosses, small mammals, etc.) on technogenic territories contain higher elemental concentrations as compared to the background sites, which allows us to use them to assess the anthropogenic load. Original data pertaining to radionuclide content in mosses and woody plants in Western Siberia are presented; they prove the fact that both oil production and trans-regional transportation contribute to the total pollution of Western Siberia with radionuclides.

  3. Epigenetic Modifications Due to Heavy Metals Exposure in Children Living in Polluted Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to provide a summary of the epigenetic modifications that might occur in children exposed to heavy metals pollutants. It is known that children are more susceptible to environmental pollutants, because their detoxification enzymes are less competent, and this may lead to alterations in chromatin structure or of DNA causing, in turn, epigenetic modifications. Little is currently known about the long-term effects of these changes when occur early in childhood, none-theless there are ethics and practical concerns that make the assessment of DNA modifications difficult to perform in large-scale. PMID:25646074

  4. Metal Nanoparticle Pollutants Interfere with Pulmonary Surfactant Function In Vitro☆

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Zhao, Lin; Smith, Ronald; Possmayer, Fred; Petersen, Nils O.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Reported associations between air pollution and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases prompted studies on the effects of gold nanoparticles (Au NP) on pulmonary surfactant function. Low levels (3.7 mol % Au/lipid, 0.98% wt/wt) markedly inhibited adsorption of a semisynthetic pulmonary surfactant (dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol/surfactant protein B (SP-B); 70:30:1 wt %). Au NP also impeded the surfactant's ability to reduce surface tension (γ) to low levels during film compression and to respread during film expansion. Transmission electron microscopy showed that Au NP generated by a seed-growth method were spherical with diameters of ∼15 nm. Including palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol appeared to coat the NP with at least one lipid bilayer but did not affect NP shape or size. Similar overall observations occurred with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol. Dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol was less effective in NP capping, although similar sized NP were formed. Including SP-B (1% wt/wt) appears to induce the formation of elongated strands of interacting threads with the fluid phosphatidylglycerols (PG). Including DPPC resulted in formation of aggregated, less spherical NP with a larger size distribution. With DPPC, strand formation due to SP-B was not observed. Agarose gel electrophoresis studies demonstrated that the aggregation induced by SP-B blocked migration of PG-coated NP. Migration was also influenced by the fluidity of the PGs. It is concluded that Au NP can interact with and sequester pulmonary surfactant phospholipids and, if inhaled from the atmosphere, could impede pulmonary surfactant function in the lung. PMID:17890383

  5. Biomonitoring of trace metal pollution using the bivalve molluscs, Villorita cyprinoides, from the Cochin backwaters.

    PubMed

    George, Rejomon; Martin, G D; Nair, S M; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2013-12-01

    Trace metal concentrations in the muscle of the bivalve Villorita cyprinoides from the Cochin backwaters (southwest coast of India) were investigated during the monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. The seasonal average ranges of metals (μg g(-1), dry weight) in the bivalve were as follows: Fe (18,532.44-28,267.05), Co (23.25-37.58), Ni (10.56-19.28), Cu (3.58-11.35), Zn (48.45-139.15), Cd (1.06-1.50) and Pb (3.05-4.35). The marginally elevated metal concentrations in bivalve muscles are probably related to high influx of metals as a result of pollution from the industries and agricultural fields with consequent increased bioavailability of metals to the bivalve. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the bivalves suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. A regular and continuous biomonitoring program is recommended to establish V. cyprinoides as a bioindicator for assessing the effects of trace metal pollution and to identify future changes to conserve the "health" of this fragile ecosystem.

  6. Heavy metal pollution in water and sediments in the Kabini River, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Taghinia Hejabi, Azadeh; Basavarajappa, H T; Karbassi, A R; Monavari, S M

    2011-11-01

    The River Kabini in Karnataka, India carries natural and anthropogenic pollutants, mainly heavy metal concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn which are released from industrial effluents, agricultural return flows and domestic sewage. Kabini, which is a tributary of the Cauvery, drains through the industrial area at Nanjangud, Karnataka, India. Heavy metals were determined in waters and sediment (2 μm) of Kabini River. In the present investigation, chemical partitioning studies was carried out to know the association of base metals with various sedimentary phases. The concentrations of heavy metals are higher in loosely bonded fraction than the other studied fractions. Furthermore, the degree of sediment contamination was assessed by geochemical index. It should be pointed out that Cu and Cr show the highest pollution intensity. Cluster analysis was used to know about the inter correlation amongst the studied metals. It is evident that higher concentrations of metals are found in the vicinity of industrial effluents. The concentrations of Cr followed by Zn and Ni are rather higher than the maximum background values in the Kabini River sediment. This is especially true at the influx of paper mill effluents into the River.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    PubMed

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  8. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  9. Identification of Heavy Metal Pollution Derived From Traffic in Roadside Soil Using Magnetic Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pingguo; Ge, Jing; Yang, Miao

    2017-06-01

    The study integrates surface and vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents (Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe) to characterize the signature of vehicle pollutants in roadside soils at Linfen city, China. Sites with reforestation and without vegetation cover were investigated. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents were higher at the roadside without trees than in the reforest belt. The variations of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents decreased both with distance and with depth. The maximum value was observed at 5-10 m away from the roadside edge. The vertical distribution in soil revealed accumulation of pollutants in 0-5 cm topsoils. The average contents were higher than the background values and in the order Fe (107.21 g kg(-1)), Zn (99.72 mg kg(-1)), Pb (90.99 mg kg(-1)), Cu (36.14 mg kg(-1)). Coarse multi domain grains were identified as the dominating magnetic particles. Multivariate statistical and SEM/EDX analyses suggested that the heavy metals derived from traffic sources. Trees act as efficient receptors and green barrier, which can reduce vehicle derived pollution.

  10. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Risk Assessment in Shenyang Industrial District, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  11. Design and Testing of a New Diatom-Based Index for Heavy Metal Pollution.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M R; Martín, G; Corzo, J; de la Linde, A; García, E; López, M; Sousa, M

    2017-05-16

    The Tinto and Odiel river basins (SW Spain) are known worldwide for their unique water characteristics. Such uniqueness is a consequence of their flow through the Iberian Pyrite Belt (an area rich in metal sulphides) and the mining activities in the basins. A process of sulphide oxidation occurs in this region, which acidifies the water and increases the amount of heavy metals in it. As a result, the rivers suffer the so-called "acid mine drainage" (AMD). Traditional biotic diatom-based indexes (IPS, IBD, EPI-D, etc.) do not take into account the pollution caused by AMD. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new diatom-based index which can serve as a useful and quick monitoring tool. Such tool must reflect the level of AMD while being user friendly. We present the development and validation of the ICM (Índice de Contaminación por Metales or Metal Pollution Index). ICM demonstrated to meet successfully the above criteria and, therefore, can assess water quality in the Tinto and Odiel Rivers. In addition, ICM was applied with satisfactory results in the Guadiamar River (SW Spain), which was subjected to AMD too. Thus, we propose to make use of it in any other basin with the same type of pollution.

  12. Evaluation of the anthropogenic influx of metallic pollutants into the Oualidia lagoon, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maanan, Me.; Fattal, P.; Maanan, M.; Ruiz-Fernández, A.-C.; Sahabi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Numerous studies on the impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal water quality have been carried out in the last three decades, focusing mainly on urban expansion and agricultural development in coastal areas. In this study, we assess heavy metal pollution in the superficial and cored sediment of the Oualidia lagoon (Morocco). Superficial and cored sediment samples from the Oualidia lagoon were analyzed for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cr, Hg and Cd using ICP-MS. Sediments near urban and agricultural areas are commonly contaminated with heavy metals and the concentrations found in surface sediments are significantly higher than those from 50-100 years ago. The concentrations of these elements decrease sharply with depth in the sediment column and the elements are preferentially enriched in the <2 µm-size fraction of the sediment. The enrichment factors (EF) and statistical analyses, demonstrated that heavy metals that might pose a risk (Pb, Cu and Hg) have become largely enriched in the lagoon sediments during the recent period of agricultural intensification. Ni and Cr are the main pollutants originating from urban sewage. Keywords: Coastal land use, heavy metals, sediment pollution, lagoon.

  13. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  14. Effect of Heavy Metals Pollution on Soil Microbial Diversity and Bermudagrass Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Fan, Jibiao; Zhu, Weixi; Amombo, Erick; Lou, Yanhong; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious global environmental problem as it adversely affects plant growth and genetic variation. It also alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil microbial diversity, bermudagrass genetic variation in Cd contaminated or uncontaminated soils from Hunan province of China, and to evaluate Cd-tolerance of bermudagrass at different soils. The Biolog method, hydroponic experiments and simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the functional diversity of microorganisms, Cd-tolerance and the genetic diversity of bermudagrass, respectively. Four of the sampling sites were heavily contaminated with heavy metals. The total bioactivity, richness, and microbial diversity decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metal. The hydroponic experiment revealed that bermudagrass populations collected from polluted sites have evolved, encompassing the feature of a higher resistance to Cd toxicity. Higher genetic diversity was observed to be more in contaminated populations than in uncontaminated populations. Heavy metal pollution can result in adverse effects on plant growth, soil microbial diversity and activity, and apparently has a stronger impact on the genetic structure. The results of this study provide new insights and a background to produce a genetic description of populations in a species that is suitable for use in phytoremediation practices. PMID:27303431

  15. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  16. Effect of Heavy Metals Pollution on Soil Microbial Diversity and Bermudagrass Genetic Variation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Fan, Jibiao; Zhu, Weixi; Amombo, Erick; Lou, Yanhong; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a serious global environmental problem as it adversely affects plant growth and genetic variation. It also alters the composition and activity of soil microbial communities. The objectives of this study were to determine the soil microbial diversity, bermudagrass genetic variation in Cd contaminated or uncontaminated soils from Hunan province of China, and to evaluate Cd-tolerance of bermudagrass at different soils. The Biolog method, hydroponic experiments and simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the functional diversity of microorganisms, Cd-tolerance and the genetic diversity of bermudagrass, respectively. Four of the sampling sites were heavily contaminated with heavy metals. The total bioactivity, richness, and microbial diversity decreased with increasing concentration of heavy metal. The hydroponic experiment revealed that bermudagrass populations collected from polluted sites have evolved, encompassing the feature of a higher resistance to Cd toxicity. Higher genetic diversity was observed to be more in contaminated populations than in uncontaminated populations. Heavy metal pollution can result in adverse effects on plant growth, soil microbial diversity and activity, and apparently has a stronger impact on the genetic structure. The results of this study provide new insights and a background to produce a genetic description of populations in a species that is suitable for use in phytoremediation practices.

  17. Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners

    PubMed Central

    Dhatrak, Sarang V.; Nandi, Subroto S.

    2009-01-01

    The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants. PMID:20386621

  18. [Calculation of environmental dredging depth of heavy sediments in Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake metal polluted].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Wang, Wen-Wen; Wang, Shu-Hang; Jin, Xiang-Can

    2012-04-01

    Horizontal distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments of Zhushan Bay was investigated, and core sediment samples were collected in the representative area. Core sediments were divided into oxide layer (A), polluted layer (B), upper polluted transition layer(C1), lower polluted transition layer(C2) and normal mud layer(D) from top to bottom. The change of total contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb and contents of biological available Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb with depths were analyzed. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments was done by potential ecological risk index method. At last, environmental dredging depth was calculated. The results shows that the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb are 30.56-216.58, 24.07-59.95, 16.71-140.30, 84.31-193.43, 3.39-22.30, 0.37-1.59, 0.00-0.80 and 9.67-99.35 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb are 79.74, 37.74, 44.83, 122.39, 10.39, 0.77, 0.14 and 40.08 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Heavy metals in the surface sediments of Zhushan Bay mainly distribute in the west bank and the estuaries of Taige canal, Yincun Port, and Huanshan River,and Cd pollution is relatively serious. There is an accumulative effect of heavy metals in Zhushan Bay, and the contents of biological available metals decrease with depths. Ecological risk grades of Cd in layer A and B are high, and the comprehensive potential ecological risk grades of each layer are in middle or low. The environmental dredging layers are A and B, and the average dredging depth is 0.39 m.

  19. Effects of heavy metals pollution on benthic foraminifera assemblage: the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Najla; Zghal, Ihsen; Bouzid, Jalel; Abdennaceur Ouali, Jamel

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera are amongst the most abundant protists found in huge marine and brackish water habitat. During the last few decades, many researches had been focused on using benthic foraminifera as bioindicators of marine pollution caused by industrial, domestic and agricultural waste, oil or heavy metal contamination. The aim of this research is to investigate heavy metals pollution in superficial sediments in two industrial locations at the Gulf of Gabes and to examine the reaction of benthic foraminifera towards metallic concentration. The Gulf of Gabes, located on the eastern coast of Tunisia, is regarded as an extremely vital zone and considered as one of the most important area for fishing in the country. During last years, the coastal area of this region had known an important demographic and industrial development, leading to the presence of uncontrolled discharge. Fifteen superficial sediment samples were collected along the coastline of Skhira and Ghannouch- Gabes. They have been analyzed for Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations as well as for the species composition of benthic foraminifera. Results show three levels of metallic contamination with high concentration of cadmium and zinc. Thirty five benthic foraminifera species were identified. Ammonia parkinsoniana, Ammonia beccarii, Peneroplis planatus, Triloculina trigonula and Adelosina longirostraare are the most abundant and common species. Increasing pollution results in a lower species diversity as well as population density, with the presence of a barren zone, and more frequent abnormal specimens. A complementary statistical analysis (PCA/FA and matrix correlation) shows that heavy metals are resulting from the same anthropogenic source and negative correlation between faunal parameters (density and diversity) and pollutants concentrations.

  20. Toxicity testing of heavy-metal-polluted soils with algae Selenastrum capricornutum: a soil suspension assay.

    PubMed

    Aruoja, Villem; Kurvet, Imbi; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kahru, Anne

    2004-08-01

    A small-scale Selenastrum capricornutum (Rhapidocelis subcapitata) growth inhibition assay was applied to the toxicity testing of suspensions of heavy-metal-polluted soils. The OECD 201 standard test procedure was followed, and algal biomass was measured by the fluorescence of extracted chlorophyll. The soils, which contained up to (per kilogram) 1390 mg of Zn, 20 mg of Cd, and 1050 mg of Pb were sampled around lead and zinc smelters in northern France. The water extractability of the metals in suspensions (1 part soil/99 parts water w/v) was not proportional to the pollution level, as extractability was lower for soil samples that were more polluted. Thus, the same amount of metals could be leached out of soils of different levels of pollution, showing that total concentrations of heavy metals in soil (currently used for risk assessment purposes) are poor predictors of the real environmental risk via the soil-water path. Despite high concentrations of water-extracted zinc (0.6-1.4 mg/L of Zn in the test), exceeding by approximately 10-fold the EC(50) value for S. capricornutum (0.1 mg Zn/L), 72-h algal growth in the soil extracts was comparable or better than growth in the standard control OECD mineral medium. The soil suspension stimulated the growth of algae up to eightfold greater than growth using the OECD control medium. Growth stimulation of algae was observed even when soil suspensions contained up to 12.5 mg Zn/L and could not be explained by supplementary nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbonate leached from the soil. However, if the growth of algae in suspensions of clean and polluted soils was compared, a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of metals on algal growth was demonstrated. Thus, as soil contains nutrients/supplements that mask the adverse effect of heavy metals, a clean soil that has properties similar to the polluted soils should be used instead of mineral salt solution as a control for analysis of the ecotoxicity of soils. Copyright 2004 Wiley

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  3. [Analysis of distribution and contents of heavy metal pollution in fish body with laser-induced breaddown spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Jian-Yu; Ye, Jian-Hua; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Min

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution can cause poisoning, disease and death of organisms, and the absorption and the accumulation of different biological tissues on pollutants are different. The absorption of heavy metal elements of various biological tissues on pollutants is an important biomedical research problem. In the present paper, a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method was used to quantitatively analyze heavy metal elements in various tissues of some contaminated fish samples. Optimal experimental parameters were obtained in the LIBS experiments for these fish samples, calibration curves for plumbum and barium elements were fitted and the contents of heavy metal elements were determined with the external calibration approach. Experimental results showed that there was the heavy metal accumulation in fish liver mouth, and gills etc, however the heavy metal content in fish meat is very low. The proposed method can be used for the assessment studies of the influence of pollution on the organisms, and can be promoted in the biomedical fields.

  4. Geochemical assessment of heavy metals pollution in surface sediments of Vellar and Coleroon estuaries, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Nethaji, S; Kalaivanan, R; Arya Viswam; Jayaprakash, M

    2017-02-15

    Surface sediments were collected from Vellar and Coleroon estuaries for determine sediment texture, calcium carbonate, organic matter and heavy metals. Pollution indices such as pollution load index (PLI), contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were done for this study to know the level of heavy metals pollution in the estuarine ecosystem. Pearson correlation matrix and factor were used to assess the relationship and source of heavy metals in the estuarine sediments. The results of PLI values reveal that the study area was polluted by all the heavy metals. The calculated values of CF and Igeo followed the decreasing order Cu>Ni>Pb>Co>Cr>Zn>Mn>Fe and illustrate that Cu, Ni and Pb are contaminated due to anthropogenic sources in both estuaries. Correlation and factor analysis suggest that FeMn oxyhydroxides, organic matter and fine particles are responsible for high concentration of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n=99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2-23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca>Cu>Pb≈Zn>Cr≈Fe>Ni≈Ba>Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children.

  6. DEVELOPING A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (CO-MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is developing a Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishing industry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes that are less polluting to the environment. Metal finishing process lines can be simulated and evaluated...

  7. DEVELOPING A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (CO-MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA is developing a Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishing industry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes that are less polluting to the environment. Metal finishing process lines can be simulated and evaluated...

  8. [Atmospheric pollution and chronic respiratory diseases in the blast-furnace areas of iron-works].

    PubMed

    Zannini, D; Valente, T; Rotunno, R; Giusto, R

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiologic research together with a study on the environmental pollution were carried out in order to evaluate the risk of chronic respiratory diseases of blast furnace workers. The environment study was performed mainly using personal samplers given to workers with different jobs. Observations on 222 work shifts have shown that the total dust concentration to which cast workmen, maintenance men and blast furnace service men were exposed, marginally exceed the TLV values. Furthermore the level of respirable dusts for blast furnace service men was found slightly excessive. The average SO2 concentration was largely below the TLV values. However this gas could be found in excess for very short periods during the work. The epidemiologic study, conducted on a cohort of blast furnace area workers against a control group cohort, indicated a moderate prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis amongst blast furnaces workers. The clinic and radiological pictures do not seem to go beyond the initial stages.

  9. Metal pollution in the environment of Minas Gerais State - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Veado, M A R V; Arantes, I A; Oliveira, A H; Almeida, M R M G; Miguel, R A; Severo, M I; Cabaleiro, H L

    2006-06-01

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil brings out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, which suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn in environmental samples. The obtained results show that the water and sediment contaminated with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km.

  10. Progression from Asthma to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Is Air Pollution a Risk Factor?

    PubMed

    To, Teresa; Zhu, Jingqin; Larsen, Kristian; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Feldman, Laura; Ryckman, Kandace; Gershon, Andrea; Lougheed, M Diane; Licskai, Christopher; Chen, Hong; Villeneuve, Paul J; Crighton, Eric; Su, Yushan; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Williams, Devon; Carlsten, Christopher

    2016-08-15

    Individuals with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS), have more rapid decline in lung function, more frequent exacerbations, and poorer quality of life than those with asthma or COPD alone. Air pollution exposure is a known risk factor for asthma and COPD; however, its role in ACOS is not as well understood. To determine if individuals with asthma exposed to higher levels of air pollution have an increased risk of ACOS. Individuals who resided in Ontario, Canada, aged 18 years or older in 1996 with incident asthma between 1996 and 2009 who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey were identified and followed until 2014 to determine the development of ACOS. Data on exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) were obtained from fixed monitoring sites. Associations between air pollutants and ACOS were evaluated using Cox regression models. Of the 6,040 adults with incident asthma who completed the Canadian Community Health Survey, 630 were identified as ACOS cases. Compared with those without ACOS, the ACOS population had later onset of asthma, higher proportion of mortality, and more frequent emergency department visits before COPD diagnosis. The adjusted hazard ratios of ACOS and cumulative exposures to PM2.5 (per 10 μg/m(3)) and O3 (per 10 ppb) were 2.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.62-4.78) and 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-2.39), respectively. Individuals exposed to higher levels of air pollution had nearly threefold greater odds of developing ACOS. Minimizing exposure to high levels of air pollution may decrease the risk of ACOS.

  11. Phytoextraction of heavy metal polluted soils using Sedum plumbizincicola inoculated with metal mobilizing Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum RC6b.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Luo, Yongming; Freitas, Helena

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metal mobilizing plant-growth beneficial bacterium Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum RC6b on plant growth and Cd, Zn and Pb uptake by Sedum plumbizincicola under laboratory conditions. Among a collection of metal-resistant bacteria, P. myrsinacearum RC6b was specifically chosen as a most favorable metal mobilizer based on its capability of mobilizing high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Pb in soils. P. myrsinacearum RC6b exhibited a high degree of resistance to Cd (350 mg L(-1)), Zn (1000 mg L(-1)) and Pb (1200 mg L(-1)). Furthermore, P. myrsinacearum RC6b showed multiple plant growth beneficial features including the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Inoculation of P. myrsinacearum RC6b significantly increased S. plumbizincicola growth and organ metal concentrations except Pb, which concentration was lower in root and stem of inoculated plants. The results suggest that the metal mobilizing P. myrsinacearum RC6b could be used as an effective inoculant for the improvement of phytoremediation in multi-metal polluted soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd.

  13. Metal content of neutrophil granules is altered in chronic inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.F.; Feltelius, N.; Garcia, R.; Venge, P.; Lindh, U. )

    1989-08-01

    The mass fraction of certain elements was measured in isolated granulocytes and isolated granulocyte granule fractions from patients with active inflammatory arthritides (N = 6) and healthy controls (N = 6). The patients had significantly increased amounts of Ca in the granulocytes, in the specific and light azurophil granules, but normal Ca amounts in the dense azurophil granules. Sr was below the detection limit in the granulocytes and granule fraction from controls, but it appeared in high concentrations in the granulocytes and all granule fractions from the patients. The patients had considerably increased granulocyte amounts of Mn but only slightly increased Mn concentrations in the specific granules. Mn was not detectable in azurophil granules from patients and controls. A prominent accumulation of Fe was seen in the granulocytes from the patients, together with an Fe accumulation in the specific granules. Fe was below the detection limit in azurophil granules from patients and controls. The patients had reduced granulocyte Zn and reduced amounts of Zn in the dense and light azurophil granules but normal Zn amounts in the specific granules. The results obtained indicate that the granulocyte accumulation of Ca, Sr, and Fe observed during chronic inflammation is associated with corresponding granule accumulation of these metals; the considerable Mn accumulation in granulocytes during inflammation is not localized in their granules; and the granule subpopulations differ in their capacity to store certain metals.

  14. Benefits of the Use of Sewage Sludge over EDTA to Remediate Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ana J; Gutiérrez-Ginés, María J; Pastor, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Sewage sludges from urban wastewater treatment plants are often used to remediate degraded soils. However, the benefits of their use in metal-polluted soils remain unclear and need to be assessed in terms of factors besides soil fertility. This study examines the use of thermal-dried sewage sludge (TDS) as an amendment for heavy metal-polluted soil in terms of its effects on soil chemical properties, leachate composition, and the growth of native plant communities. To assess the response of the soil and its plant community to an increase in metal mobilization, the effects of TDS amendment were compared with those of the addition of a chelating agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]). The experimental design was based on a real-case scenario in which soils from of an abandoned mine site were used in a greenhouse bioassay. Two doses of TDS and EDTA were applied to a soil containing high Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd levels (4925, 5675, 404, and 25 mg kg, respectively). Soil pH was 6.4, and its organic matter content was 5.53%. The factors examined after soil amendment were soil fertility and heavy metal contents, leachate element losses, the plant community arising from the seed bank (plant cover, species richness and biodiversity, above/below ground biomass), and phytotoxic effects (chemical contents of abundant species). Thermal-dried sewage sludge emerged as a good phytostabilizer of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd given its capacity to reduce the plant uptake of metals and achieve rapid plant cover. This amendment also enhanced the retention of other elements in the plant root system and overall showed a better capacity to remediate soils polluted with several heavy metals. The addition of EDTA led to plant productivity losses and nutritional imbalances because it increased the mobility of several elements in the soil and its leachates.

  15. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  16. The Extent and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Shahrood and Damghan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad; Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2015-12-01

    The levels of 12 heavy metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) were considered in 229 soil samples in Semnan Province, Iran. To discriminate between natural and anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals, factor analysis was used. Seven factors accounting for 90.5 % of the total variance were extracted. The mining and agricultural activities along with geogenic sources have been attributed as the main causes of the levels of heavy metals in the study area. The partial least squares regression was utilized to predict the level of soil pollution index (SPI) considering the concentrations of 12 heavy metals. The eigenvectors from the first three PLS represented more than 98 % of the overall variance. The correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted SPI was 0.99 indicating the high efficiency of this method. The resultant coefficient of determination for three PLS components was 0.984 confirming the predictive ability of this method.

  17. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: progresses and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-03-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

  18. Studies on antioxidant status in Mugil cephalus in response to heavy metal pollution at Ennore estuary.

    PubMed

    Padmini, E; Usha Rani, M; Vijaya Geetha, B

    2009-08-01

    Estuaries, the important component of natural environment are under pressure nowadays due to pollution from different sources like industries, agricultural fields etc. Ennore estuary one of the highly polluted estuary situated in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, due to heavy industrialization surrounding this site poses serious threat to its inhabitants. The present paper focuses on studying the response of the fish Mugil cephalus with reference to its antioxidants during their exposure to metals like iron and chromium present in the industrial effluents that are discharged into the Ennore estuary. The results on comparison with unpolluted Kovalam estuary showed that fish from Ennore experiences severe oxidative stress with significant alteration being observed with antioxidant enzyme activities. Since these results were also found to vary with seasons, the determination of oxidative stress biomarkers in M. cephalus along with seasonal variations may serve as a convenient approach during pollution biomonitoring programme.

  19. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources. PMID:18357623

  20. Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, F. R.; Slaboda, M. L.; Stanley, D. J.

    1994-03-01

    High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13×), Pb (22.1×), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High Dam, the availability of abundant cheap electricity, and the development of major power-based industries. Industrial wastes containing potentially toxic metals are dumped into the Nile delta drain system. The load carried by Bahr El-Baqar drain discharges into the Ginka subbasin, which acts as a sink and results in metal loading of the sediment deposited there. Further development of aquaculture in this subbasin, of food-stuff agriculture on recently reclaimed lagoon bottom, or where irrigation waters come from Bahr El-Baqar drain or its discharge should be halted or strictly limited until potentially toxic metals in the drain waters and sediment are removed and polluted input drastically reduced. This environmental assessment of heavy metals in aquaculture or agriculture development should extend to other waterbodies in the northern Nile delta, particularly Idku lagoon and lake Mariut, where industrial metal-bearing wastes discharge into the waterbodies.

  1. Metal pollution loading, Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt: Implications for aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, F.R.; Slaboda, M.L.; Stanley, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    High cultural enrichment factors are found for Hg (13 x), Pb (22.1 x), and other potentially toxic metals (e.g., Sn, Zn, Cu, Ag) in the upper 20 cm of sediment cores from the southeastern Ginka subbasin of Manzalah lagoon, Nile delta, Egypt. Cores from other areas of the lagoon show little metal loading. Metal loading followed the closure of the Aswan High Dam, the availability of abundant cheap electricity, and the development of major power-based industries. Industrial wastes containing potentially toxic metals are dumped into the Nile delta drain system. The load carried by Bahr El-Baqar drain discharges into the Ginka subbasin, which acts as a sink and results in metal loading of the sediment deposited there. Further development of aquaculture in this subbasin, of food-stuff agriculture on recently reclaimed lagoon bottom, or where irrigation waters come from Bahr El-Baqar drain or its discharge should be halted or strictly limited until potentially toxic metals in the drain waters and sediment are removed and polluted input drastically reduced. This environmental assessment of heavy metals in aquaculture or agriculture development should extend to other waterbodies in the northern Nile delta, particularly Idku lagoon and Lake Mariut, where industrial metal-bearing wastes discharge into the waterbodies. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Distribution characteristic and assessment of soil heavy metal pollution in the iron mining of Baotou in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ren-Xin; Zhang, Jun; Bao, Yu-Ying; Wang, Hong; Yang, Ming; Sun, Xiao-Li; Jin, Fan

    2011-10-01

    The pollution status and total concentration of soil heavy metals were analyzed around tailing reservoir of Baotou and iron mining of Bayan Obo located in Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem. Aim of the study is to control soil heavy metal pollution of grassland mining area and provide the basic information. The results indicated that the soils from different directions of the tailing reservoir were contaminated by Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn. According to the single factor pollution index, the pollution degree was Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu. According to Nemerow integrated pollution index, the indexes of the northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest of the tailing reservoir, were 2.43, 10.2, 1.88, 1.64. Soils from the southeast had the most serious heavy metal contamination because of the dominant wind of northwest. Within 50 m from the edge of tailing reservoir, heavy metal contamination was most serious except Cu. With regard to Bayan Obo iron mining, the single factor pollution index indicated that the soils from the six surveyed regions were contaminated by Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn. The integrated pollution index indicated that the indexes of the six regions, such as the mining area, the dump, outside the dump, outside the urban area, east region of the railway, and west region of the railway, were 14.3, 4.30, 2.69, 3.41, 2.88, and 2.20, respectively. The soil pollution degree of the mining area was the highest. Additionally, the transport of ore resulted in soil heavy metal pollution along railway. In general, soils of the two studied areas had the similar pollution characteristic, and the elements of heavy metal contamination were corresponding with the concentrations of tailings. The health and stabilization of grassland ecosystem are being threatened by soil heavy metals.

  3. Fish physiology and metal pollution: results and experiences from laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, A.; Haux, C.; Sjoebeck, M.L.

    1985-06-01

    Physiological methods, previously used as health indicators in laboratory investigations on fish exposed to toxicants, have been applied to feral fish living in metal-polluted waters. A background to the use of a physiological approach for detecting early-arising effects of toxic chemicals on fish is given, together with a description of the clinical parameters used and their physiological relevance. The results and experiences from the field application show that certain clinical methods may be very useful in detecting and diagnosing sublethal disturbances in natural fish populations in polluted areas. Furthermore, the results indicate a good agreement between metal-induced physiological effects detected in fish exposed under natural field conditions and those found in laboratory experiments.

  4. The use of feathers of birds of prey as indicators of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Lodenius, Martin; Solonen, Tapio

    2013-11-01

    Published results concerning metal levels in feathers of birds of prey were listed and evaluated. Mercury concentrations have been studied most and the background values normally vary between 0.1 and 5 mg/kg dry weight the highest concentrations being in birds from aquatic food chains. Pollution causes elevated levels of mercury in feathers. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc show reasonable variation between species, areas and time periods. Feathers of birds of prey have proved to be good indicators of the status of environmental heavy metal pollution. Special attention should be paid to clean sampling and preparation of samples. Interpretation of the results requires knowledge on food habit, molting and migration patterns of the species. Several species representing different food chains should be included in comprehensive monitoring surveys. Chick feathers reflect most reliably local conditions.

  5. Are persistent organic pollutants and metals in eel muscle predictive for the ecological water quality?

    PubMed

    Van Ael, Evy; Belpaire, Claude; Breine, Jan; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Thuyne, Gerlinde; Eulaers, Igor; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-03-01

    Relationships between the presence of PCBs, OCPs and metals in aquatic ecosystems and the ecological water quality were investigated by combining datasets of long-term monitoring of chemicals in European eel (Anguilla anguilla, N = 1156) in Flanders (Belgium) and the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR), based on the assessment of fish assemblages at 185 locations. For most pollutants, EQR scores were lower when pollutant levels were higher. Threshold concentrations for a good quality could be formulated for PCB's, most metals and OCPs. Mixed models suggested that the ecological water quality was significantly correlated with the presence of PCBs. However, the low R(2) indicates that other environmental pressures may significantly influence the biotic integrity of fish communities. Empirical data and their analyses are essential to enable defining threshold values of bioaccumulated levels to allow better protection of the aquatic environment and its biota through associated food webs as demanded by the Water Framework Directive.

  6. [Analysis of heavy metals distribution characteristics and pollution assessment in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Ming-Jun; Fang, Li; Wang, Yin; Meng, De-Shuo; Yu, Yang; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk.

  7. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Tao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai, Jun; Quantin, Cécile; Benedetti, Marc F

    2009-04-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils.

  8. A study of marine pollution caused by the release of metals into seawater following acid spills.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Jean-Yves; Giamarchi, Philippe; Le Floch, Stephane

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the potential metal pollution induced by the accidental spill of different acids into seawater. The acids sink to the bottom according to their densities and subsequently react with marine sediments. The acids selected for this study were acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids; the metallic elements selected were Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. The sediment was collected in Brest Harbour. The percentages of metals released from this sediment in the presence of various concentrations of acids in seawater were important; concentrations of approximately 7 mg L(-1) for Mn and 60 mg L(-1) for Zn were observed under our experimental conditions. We also examined the rate of release of these metals from the sediment into the seawater in the presence of the different acids and under different experimental conditions. We found that most of the metallic elements were released from the sediments into the seawater during the first fifteen minutes of exposure. After this time, a high degree of pollution was induced if acids leached into seawater were not rapidly diluted.

  9. Impact of particulate pollutant metals on larval and adult bivalve molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.R.; Robinson, W.E. ); Morse, M.P. . Marine Science Lab.)

    1982-10-25

    Our investigations of the effects of pollutants on bivalve molluscs have continued with studies with in the following areas: bioaccumulation of trace metals in adult sea scallops exposed to dissolved and particulate forms of the metals, SEM/EDXA studies of phosphoritic concretions in the kidneys of adult sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus), documentation of the normal embryonic and larval development, including shell formation, in surf clams (Spisula solidissima), evaluation of the toxicity of dissolved silver to the gametes and larvae of surf clams at several stages of development, and examination of the effects of turbid suspensions on the feeding efficiency of larval Mercenaria mercenaria. The overall goal of our work is twofold. First, we are striving to gain an understanding of the pathways by which metals are transported within bivalve molluscs. The production of metallothioneins and metal-rich inorganic concretions have been documented for a number of bivalves. The ways in which of metal-rich matrices in membrane-limited vesicles as an intermediate step, is one area of investigation. Second, we are examining the relative sensitivities of the gamete and of early life stages of these organisms to stresses induced by exposure to energy-related pollutants. 46 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An ecosustainable approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    This review addresses the global problem of heavy metal pollution originating from increased industrialization and urbanization and its amelioration by using wetland plants both in a microcosm as well as natural/field condition. This review mentions salient features of wetland ecosystems, their vegetation component, and the pros and cons involved in heavy metal removal. Wetland plants are preferred over other bio-agents due to their low cost, frequent abundance in aquatic ecosystems, and easy handling. Constructed wetlands proved to be effective for the abatement of heavy metal pollution from acid mine drainage; landfill leachate; thermal power; and municipal, agricultural, refinery, and chlor-alkali effluent. the physicochemical properties of wetlands provide many positive attributes for remediating heavy metals. Typha, Phragmites, Eichhornia, Azolla, Lemna, and other aquatic macrophytes are some of the potent wetland plants for heavy metal removal. Biomass disposal problem and seasonal growth of aquatic macrophytes are some limitations in the transfer of phytoremediation technology from the laboratory to the field. However, the disposed biomass of macrophytes may be used for various fruitful applications. An ecosustainable model has been developed through the author's various works, which may ameliorate some of the limitations. The creation of more areas for phytoremediation may also aid in wetlands conservation. Genetic engineering and biodiversity prospecting of endangered wetland plants are important future prospects in this regard.

  11. The Posidonia oceanica marine sedimentary record: A Holocene archive of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Serrano, O; Mateo, M A; Dueñas-Bohórquez, A; Renom, P; López-Sáez, J A; Martínez Cortizas, A

    2011-10-15

    The study of a Posidonia oceanica mat (a peat-like marine sediment) core has provided a record of changes in heavy metal abundances (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Al) since the Mid-Holocene (last 4470yr) in Portlligat Bay (NW Mediterranean). Metal contents were determined in P. oceanica. Both, the concentration records and the results of principal components analysis showed that metal pollution in the studied bay started ca. 2800yr BP and steadily increased until present. The increase in Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and As concentrations since ca. 2800yr BP and in particular during Greek (ca. 2680-2465cal BP) and Roman (ca. 2150-1740cal BP) times shows an early anthropogenic pollution rise in the bay, which might be associated with large- and short-scale cultural and technological development. In the last ca. 1000yr the concentrations of heavy metals, mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, have significantly increased (e.g. from ~15 to 47μg g(-1) for Pb, ~23 to 95μg g(-1) for Zn and ~8 to 228μg g(-1) for As). Our study demonstrates for the first time the uniqueness of P. oceanica meadows as long-term archives of abundances, patterns, and trends of heavy metals during the Late Holocene in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems.

  12. Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals in ballast tank sediment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Chen, Xiaofei; Tian, Wen; Qian, Qun; Shen, Hao; Liao, Dexiang; Lv, Baoyi

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to illustrate the contents and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in ballast tank sediment. Ballast sediment samples were collected from six ships during their stay in shipyard, and the heavy metals were determined by inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Results showed that high concentrations of heavy metals were detected in all six sediment samples following the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > As > Cd > Hg. The geoaccumulation index explained the average pollution degree of heavy metals decreased as the following: Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr > Hg, and the environmental risk indices suggested that concentration found of Zn, Pb, and Cu might be highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Principal component and correlation analysis indicated the metal pollution in ballast tank sediment was affected by complex and different contamination mechanisms, and the corrosion of ballast tank played an important role in this process. In conclusion, this study is very useful for comprehensive consideration and efficient management of ballast tank sediment in order to protect the marine environment.

  13. Deformities of chironomid larvae and heavy metal pollution: from laboratory to field studies.

    PubMed

    Di Veroli, A; Santoro, F; Pallottini, M; Selvaggi, R; Scardazza, F; Cappelletti, D; Goretti, E

    2014-10-01

    Mouthpart deformities of Chironomus riparius larvae (Diptera) have been investigated to evaluate the toxic effects of contamination by heavy metals in the Genna Stream (Central Italy), situated in an area subjected to intensive swine farms (40000 heads). The livestock farming (fertirrigation) contributes to metal pollution of the Genna Stream with an increase of copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel in the sediments of the downstream stations. The incidence of mentum deformities was very high at all sampling stations, about 56%. The highest values of deformities were found in the intermediate river reach (St. 3: 65%) and in March (66%), mainly due to an increase in severe deformities. The high incidence of severe deformities (30%) is attributed to the high pollution level by heavy metals in the sediments, in particular to copper and zinc, which showed the highest average value at St. 3 and in March. This field study reflected the relationships between sediment metal concentrations and chironomid mouthpart deformities, previously observed in laboratory tests, and highlighted these deformities as toxicity endpoints. This feature paves the way for their use as an effective tool in freshwater bioassessment monitoring programs to evaluate the toxic effects of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  15. Evaluating the metallic pollution of riverine water and sediments: a case study of Aras River.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, F; Hassani, A H; Monavvari, M; Karbassi, A R; Khorasani, N

    2013-01-01

    Metallic pollution caused by elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd, and Hg in water and sediments of Aras River within a specific area in Ardabil province of Iran is considered. Water and sediment samples were collected seasonally and once respectively from the five selected stations. Regarding WHO published permissible values, only Ni concentration in spring and summer water samples has exceeded the acceptable limit up to four times greater than the limit. The concentration of metals Ni, Pb, and Fe in river water shows a direct relationship with river water discharge and the amount of precipitation. Enhanced soil erosion, bed load dissolution, and runoffs may play a key role in remarkable augmentation of metallic ions concentration. Furthermore, excessive use of pesticides which contain a variety of metallic ions (mainly Cu) in spring and summer may also result in an increase in the metals' concentration. The potential risk of Ni exposure to the water environment of the study area is assigned to juice, dairy products, edible oil, and sugar cane factories as well as soybean crop lands which are located within the sub-basin of Aras River in the study area. Regarding the sediment samples, the bioavailable metal concentrations indicate an ascending order from the first station towards the last one. In comparison with earth crust, sedimental and igneous rocks the reported metallic concentration values, except for Cd, lie within the low-risk status. Regarding Cd, the reported values in some stations (S2, S4, and S5) are up to ten times greater than that of shale which may be considered as a remarkable risk potential. The industrial and municipal wastewater generated by Parsabad moqan industrial complex and residential areas, in addition to the discharges of animal husbandry centers, may be addressed as the key factors in the sharp increase of metallic pollution potential in stations 4 and 5.

  16. Novel approach for assessing heavy metal pollution and ecotoxicological status of rivers by means of passive sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Roig, Neus; Nadal, Martí; Sierra, Jordi; Ginebreda, Antoni; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-05-01

    In order to study the pollution of fluvial ecosystems, it is necessary to analyze not only the levels of chemical contaminants in water, but also those accumulated in the sediment matrix, as well as to assess its ecotoxicological status. Eleven Catalan (Spain) river sections (one sampling point per river) located near urban and industrial areas were sampled during winter of 2009. Water pollutants were collected by using passive samplers as Diffusive Gradient in Thin-Films (DGTs) and Semi-Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs). Point water samples were also collected. The concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in water, filtered water, DGTs and sediment samples were analyzed. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of sediments samples and organic extracts of SPMDs were performed to assess acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri by Microtox(®), and chronic toxicity to the green alga Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata. Microtox(®) test was also performed with DGT extracts. The results show that metals content of Catalan river waters are below the freshwater screening US EPA benchmarks, excepting some industrial areas (for Hg, Pb, and Zn). In contrast, sediments levels of some rivers were far above freshwater sediment screening US EPA benchmarks (for Zn, As, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Mn), particularly in the most industrialized areas. A good correlation was found between toxicity values of extracts (from sediments and DGTs) and PTE levels in sediments. The current results support the suitability of using combined point and passive sampling methods for assessing the chemical and ecotoxicological status of aqueous environments.

  17. Hydrogenic heavy metal pollution of alluvial soils in the city of Perm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Vasil'Ev, A. A.; Vlasov, M. N.

    2008-11-01

    The differences in the sources and compositions of the pollutants among the alluvial soils within the city of Perm were revealed. Heavy metal pollution of hydrogenic origin is caused by unpurified sewage water. The main source of pollution of the urbanozems and replantozems of the city is the aerial input of heavy metals. The lead content in the alluvial soils of the city was twice lower and the mean Zn and Ni contents were 1.5 and 4.0 times higher than in the urbanozems and replantozems, respectively. The concentrations of Sr, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cr did not correlate positively with the content of clay particles in the fine earth of the alluvial soils. The higher pollution of the light-textured soils showed that, nowadays, its main source was sewage water but not sludge. In the alluvial soils, small Fe-rohrensteins are formed. They serve as microgeochemical barriers for some part of the microelements. The Pb and Zn contents in the rohrensteins of the soils of the Las’va river basin reached 440 and 890 mg/kg, respectively. In the upper horizon of this soil, the contents of Pb and Zn in the rohrensteins were 42 and 17% of their concentration in the fine earth, respectively.

  18. [Heavy metals content and pollution risk assessment of cropland soils around a pesticide industrial park].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ning-ning; Ding, Yan-feng; Zhao, Xiu-feng; Wang, Qiang-sheng

    2010-07-01

    By the method of concentric circle distribution method, a total of 183 topsoil samples were collected from 30-km2 area around a pesticide industrial park in south Jiangsu Province, with the content and pollution index of soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg and As analyzed. The average contents of Hg, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the top soils were higher than those of the natural background values, and the contents of Hg and Cu were the highest. Taking the national standard II as the assessment criterion, the average pollution index values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and As in the top soils were all below 1, while those of the Hg and Cu were 1.59 and 1.05, respectively. In the southeast and northwest to the pesticide industrial park, soil heavy metals contamination was more serious, and, with the increasing distance to the park, the contents of soil Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, Zn, and Cu increased first and then decreased to a stable level. The comprehensive pollution index of test metals indicated that the areas 200-1000 meter around the industrial park were of high risk in soil heavy metals contamination, while the areas 1000 meter beyond were safety. By using geostatistics and GIS, it was found that the pollution index of the eight heavy metals had significant spatial variability. Based on the principal component analysis and correlation analysis, it was speculated that the Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As were mainly from soil parent materials, while the Hg, Cu, and Cd were mainly related to human activities.

  19. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Marine Sediments of East Coast of Tamil Nadu Affected by Different Pollution Sources.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, N; Ravisankar, R; Chandrasekaran, A; Suresh Gandhi, M; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satapathy, K K

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the sediments of Periyakalapet to Parangipettai coast, east coast of Tamil Nadu, by using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The average heavy metal concentrations in the sediment samples were found in the order Al>Fe>Ca>Ti>K>Mg>Mn>Ba>V>Cr>Zn>La>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Cu. The average heavy metal concentrations were below the world crustal average. The degree of contamination by heavy metals was evaluated using pollution indices. The results of pollution indices revealed that titanium (Ti) and cadmium (Cd) were significantly enriched in sediments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed among heavy metal concentrations to know the existing relationship between them. Multivariate statistical technique was employed to identify the heavy metal pollution sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments. A case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris; Goedhart, Paul W; Vandecasteele, Bart

    2007-05-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects at even lower levels of pollution. Flooding induces extra variation in invertebrate biomass and abundance which may reduce the probability to detect heavy metal effects. In this paper we combine reported data from studies on river floodplains in The Netherlands and Belgium and statistically analyze the effect of heavy metals on species composition, biomass, density and individual weight of earthworms. Interaction effects of heavy metal stress and flooding are also considered. The results suggest clear effects of zinc and copper on all variables and interaction of heavy metals and flooding for individual weight.

  2. Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution.

  3. Bacterial inoculants for enhanced seed germination of Spartina densiflora: Implications for restoration of metal polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Páliz, Karina I; Pajuelo, Eloísa; Doukkali, Bouchra; Caviedes, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2016-09-15

    The design of effective phytoremediation programs is severely hindered by poor seed germination on metal polluted soils. The possibility that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could help overcoming this problem is hypothesized. Our aim was investigating the role of PGPR in Spartina densiflora seed germination on sediments with different physicochemical characteristics and metal pollution degrees. Gram negative Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7, and gram positive Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25, together with the consortium of the three strains, were used for independent inoculation experiments. The presence of metals (As, Cu, Pb and Zn) in sediments reduced seed germination by 80%. Inoculation with Bacillus aryabhattai RSO25 or Pantoea agglomerans RSO6 and RSO7 enhanced up to 2.5 fold the germination rate of S. densiflora in polluted sediments regarding non-inoculated controls. Moreover, the germination process was accelerated and the germination period was extended. The consortium did not achieve further improvements in seed germination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of heavy metal pollution in sediments from an acid leaching site of e-waste.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Lei, Chang; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2014-11-15

    The spatial distribution, bioavailability, potential risks and emission sources of 12 heavy metals in sediments from an acid leaching site of e-waste were investigated. The results showed that the sediments from the acid leaching site were significantly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb, especially in the middle sediments (30-50 cm), with average concentrations of 4820, 1260, 10.7, 2660, 5690 and 2570 mg/kg, respectively. Cu, Cd and Pb were mainly present in the non-residual fractions, suggesting that the sediments from the acid leaching site may exert considerable risks. Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn and Sb were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Despite their low reactivity and bioavailability, uncommon pollutants, such as Sn and Sb, may exert environmental risks due to their extremely elevated total concentrations. All of these results indicate that there is an urgent need to control the sources of heavy metal emission and to remediate contaminated sediments. In addition to Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb, the sediments from an acid leaching site in Guiyu were heavily polluted with uncommon heavy metal pollutants, such as Sn and Sb. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal pollution in sediments of a typical mariculture zone in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Liu, Xueping; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y; Hu, Yuanan

    2012-04-01

    The heavy metal inventory and the ecological risk of the estuarine sediments in Hailing Bay, an important maricultural zone along the southern coast of China, were investigated. Results show that the surface sediments were mainly polluted by As (2.17-20.34 mg/kg), Ni (1.37-42.50mg/kg), Cu (1.21-58.84 mg/kg) and Zn (11.69-219.22 mg/kg). Furthermore, the aquafarming zone was significantly more polluted than the non-aquafarming zone, and cluster analysis suggested additional sources of heavy metal input in the aquafarming zone. As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were mainly present in the non-bioavailable residual form in the surface sediments, whereas Cd was predominantly in the highly mobile acid soluble and reducible fractions. The ecological risk of the polluted sediments stemmed mainly from Cd, and from As, Cu and Pb to less degrees. The highest potential risks occurred near the aquaculture base, indicating the need to control heavy metal inputs from aquafarming activities.

  6. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-12-01

    Estuarine environment is complex and receives different contaminants from numerous sources that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. The distribution, source, contamination and ecological risk status of heavy metals in sediment of Brisbane River, Australia were investigated. Sediment samples were analysed for major and minor elements using LA-ICP-MS. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis identified three main sources of metals in the samples: marine sand intrusion, mixed lithogenic and sand intrusion as well as transport related. To overcome inherent deficiencies in using a single index, a range of sediment quality indices, including contamination factor, enrichment factor, index of geo-accumulation, modified degree of contamination, pollution index and modified pollution index were utilised to ascertain the sediment quality. Generally, the sediment is deemed to be "slightly" to "heavily" polluted. A further comparison with the Australian Sediment Quality Guidelines indicated that Ag, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn had the potential to rarely cause biological effects while Hg could frequently cause biological effects. Application of potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that the sediment poses moderate to considerable ecological risk. However, RI could not account for the complex sediment behaviour because it uses a simple contamination factor. Consequently, a modified ecological risk index (MRI) employing enrichment factor is proposed. This provides a more reliable understanding of whole sediment behaviour and classified the ecological risk of the sediment as moderate to very high. The results demonstrate the need for further investigation into heavy metal speciation and bioavailability in the sediment to ascertain the degree of toxicity.

  7. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. III. Trace metals and organic pollutants in animal tissue and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldstein, Tamar; Kashman, Yoel; Abelson, Avigdor; Fishelson, Lev; Mokady, Ofer; Bresler, Vladimir; Erel, Yigal

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements and organic pollutants were determined in marine sediments and molluscs from the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts of Israel. Two bivalve species (Donax trunculus, Pteria aegyptia), two gastropod species (Patella caerulea, Cellana rota) and sediments were sampled at polluted and relatively clean, reference, sites. Along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, sediments and molluscs from Haifa Bay stations were enriched with both organic and trace element contaminants. In the Red Sea, differences between the polluted and reference sites were less pronounced. Bio-concentration factors indicate a significant concentration of Zn, As, Cd, Sn and Pb in animal tissue relative to the concentrations of these elements in the sediments. In contrast, Ce, La and U were not concentrated in molluscs. The trace element results indicate a saturation of the detoxification mechanisms in molluscs from polluted sites. The concentrations of organic pollutants at the same sites are at the lower range of values recorded in other studies. However, synergistic effects between these compounds and between them and metals can lead to acute toxicity.

  8. Trace metals pollution in seawater and groundwater in the ship breaking area of Sitakund Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Asma Binta; Kabir, Sohail; Selim Reza, A H M; Zaman, Mohammad Nazim; Ahsan, Mohammad Aminul; Akbor, Mohammad Ahedul; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunur

    2013-06-15

    This study reveals potential accumulation of trace metals in the sea and groundwater due to ship breaking activities which take place along the Bay of Bengal in Sitakund Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. When compared with WHO and Bangladesh domestic standards for water quality, it is revealed that seawater was strongly polluted by Fe and Hg, moderately by Mn and Al, and slightly by Pb and Cd. Groundwater was strongly polluted by Fe, Pb and Hg, moderately by Mn and Al, and slightly by As. Trace element concentrations of all seawater samples exceeded the average concentration of elements in the Earth's seawater. The application of Principal Components Analysis identified two sources of pollution-marine and ship breaking. The mechanism of groundwater pollution inferred that if seawater is polluted, nearby groundwater is also polluted with trace metals due to the influence of seawater intrusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal uptake of Nerium oleander from aerial and underground organs and its use as a biomonitoring tool for airborne metallic pollution in cities.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, S; Martín, A; García, M; Español, C; Navarro, E

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of the airborne particulate matter-PM-incorporated to plant leaves may be informative of the air pollution in the surroundings, allowing their use as biomonitoring tools. Regarding metals, their accumulation in leaves can be the result of both atmospheric incorporation of metallic PM on aboveground plant organs and root uptake of soluble metals. In this study, the use of Nerium oleander leaves as a biomonitoring tool for metallic airborne pollution has been assessed. The metal uptake in N. oleander was assessed as follows: (a) for radicular uptake by irrigation with airborne metals as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Ce and Zn (alone and in mixture) and (b) for direct leave exposure to urban PM. Plants showed a high resistance against the toxicity of metals under both single and multiple metal exposures. Except for Zn, the low values of translocation and bioaccumulation factors confirmed the excluder behaviour of N. oleander with respect to the metals provided by the irrigation. For metal uptake from airborne pollution, young plants grown under controlled conditions were deployed during 42 days in locations of the city of Zaragoza (700,000 h, NE Spain), differing in their level of traffic density. Samples of PM2.5 particles and the leaves of N. oleander were simultaneously collected weekly. High correlations in Pb concentrations were found between leaves and PM2.5; in a lesser extent, correlations were also found for Fe, Zn and Ti. Scanning electron microscopy showed the capture of airborne pollution particles in the large and abundant substomatal chambers of N. oleander leaves. Altogether, results indicate that N. Oleander, as a metal resistant plant by metal exclusion, is a suitable candidate as a biomonitoring tool for airborne metal pollution in urban areas.

  10. Heavy metal contamination, sources, and pollution assessment of surface water in the Tianshan Mountains of China.

    PubMed

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to gain insight into heavy metal contamination occurring in the surface water of the Tianshan Mountains in northwest China, we collected surface water samples from there, tested heavy metals Pb, Ni, Cd, Co, Hg, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Cr, and then we analyzed the data using typical analysis, multivariate statistical, and pollution index methods. Results showed that (1) the order of the average values of the ten kinds of heavy metals in all the water samples was as follows: Zn > Mn > Cu > Co > Ni > Pb > Cr > As > Hg > Cd. The maximum variation coefficients of Zn and Pb were 138.96 and 145.86 %, respectively, indicating that these heavy metal concentrations varied largely between different sampling locations. (2) Research showed the average concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Cu, Zn, and Cr were all within the national surface water standard of class IV and those of As, Cu, Mn, and Cr were all within the range of the Drinking Water Guidelines from the WHO, indicating the surface water of the Tianshan Mountains is clean. (3) Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Cu, Cd, Mn, Hg, Zn, and Pb have close correlations, and they mainly came from artificial sources; while Ni, As, Co, Cu, and Cr mainly came from natural sources. The results of correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis are consistent. (4) Pollution evaluation showed the values of comprehensive pollution index (WQI) of ten kinds of heavy metals in three sections were all lower than 2, suggesting the low levels of pollution, while the over-limit ratios of Pb and Zn in water samples of the middle Urumqi-Akesu section, As in the western Zhaosu-Tekesi section, and Pb, Hg, and Zn in the eastern Balikun-Yiwu section were all above 10 %. This research shows that recent economic development of the Tianshan Mountains has negatively influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the surface water, although the concentrations of the ten kinds of tested

  11. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas Ali; Yaftian, Mohammad Reza; Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein

    2012-12-17

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area.

  12. Multivariate statistical assessment of heavy metal pollution sources of groundwater around a lead and zinc plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by heavy metal ions around a lead and zinc plant has been studied. As a case study groundwater contamination in Bonab Industrial Estate (Zanjan-Iran) for iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead content was investigated using differential pulse polarography (DPP). Although, cobalt, copper and zinc were found correspondingly in 47.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% of the samples, they did not contain these metals above their maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Cadmium was detected in 65.2% of the samples and 17.4% of them were polluted by this metal. All samples contained detectable levels of lead and iron with 8.7% and 13.0% of the samples higher than their MCLs. Nickel was also found in 78.3% of the samples, out of which 8.7% were polluted. In general, the results revealed the contamination of groundwater sources in the studied zone. The higher health risks are related to lead, nickel, and cadmium ions. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied for interpreting the experimental data and giving a description for the sources. The data analysis showed correlations and similarities between investigated heavy metals and helps to classify these ion groups. Cluster analysis identified five clusters among the studied heavy metals. Cluster 1 consisted of Pb, Cu, and cluster 3 included Cd, Fe; also each of the elements Zn, Co and Ni was located in groups with single member. The same results were obtained by factor analysis. Statistical investigations revealed that anthropogenic factors and notably lead and zinc plant and pedo-geochemical pollution sources are influencing water quality in the studied area. PMID:23369182

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia using a plant assay.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2011-02-01

    Different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, or roots) from four plant species-Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae), Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), and Matricaria recutita (Asteraceae)-were evaluated as possible bioindicators of heavy-metal pollution in Republic of Macedonia. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined in unwashed plant parts collected from areas with different degrees of metal pollution by ICP-AES. All these elements were found to be at high levels in samples collected from an industrial area. Maximum Pb concentration was 174.52 ± 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled from the Veles area, where lead and zinc metallurgical activities were present. In all control samples, the Cd concentrations were found to be under the limit of detection (LOD <0.1 mg kg⁻¹) except for R. pseudoacacia flowers and T. officinale roots. The maximum Cd concentration was 7.97 ± 0.15 mg kg⁻¹ in R. pseudoacacia flowers from the Veles area. Nickel concentrations were in the range from 1.90 ± 0.04 to 5.74 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹. For U. dioica leaves and R. pseudoacacia flowers sampled near a lead-smelting plant, concentrations of 465.0 ± 0.55 and 403.56 ± 0.34 mg kg⁻¹ Zn were detected, respectively. In all control samples, results for Zn were low, ranging from 10.2 ± 0.05 to 38.70 ± 0.18 mg kg⁻¹. In this study, it was found that the flower of R. pseudoacacia was a better bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution than other plant parts. Summarizing the results, it can be concluded that T. officinale, U. dioica, and R. pseudoacacia were better metal accumulators and M. recutita was a metal avoider.

  14. Abundance, composition and activity of ammonia oxidizer and denitrifier communities in metal polluted rice paddies from South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Ding, Yuanjun; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhou, Tong; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Yu, Xinyan; Wang, Jiafang

    2014-01-01

    While microbial nitrogen transformations in soils had been known to be affected by heavy metal pollution, changes in abundance and community structure of the mediating microbial populations had been not yet well characterized in polluted rice soils. Here, by using the prevailing molecular fingerprinting and enzyme activity assays and comparisons to adjacent non-polluted soils, we examined changes in the abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying communities of rice paddies in two sites with different metal accumulation situation under long-term pollution from metal mining and smelter activities. Potential nitrifying activity was significantly reduced in polluted paddies in both sites while potential denitrifying activity reduced only in the soils with high Cu accumulation up to 1300 mg kg-1. Copy numbers of amoA (AOA and AOB genes) were lower in both polluted paddies, following the trend with the enzyme assays, whereas that of nirK was not significantly affected. Analysis of the DGGE profiles revealed a shift in the community structure of AOA, and to a lesser extent, differences in the community structure of AOB and denitrifier between soils from the two sites with different pollution intensity and metal composition. All of the retrieved AOB sequences belonged to the genus Nitrosospira, among which species Cluster 4 appeared more sensitive to metal pollution. In contrast, nirK genes were widely distributed among different bacterial genera that were represented differentially between the polluted and unpolluted paddies. This could suggest either a possible non-specific target of the primers conventionally used in soil study or complex interactions between soil properties and metal contents on the observed community and activity changes, and thus on the N transformation in the polluted rice soils.

  15. Abundance, Composition and Activity of Ammonia Oxidizer and Denitrifier Communities in Metal Polluted Rice Paddies from South China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Ding, Yuanjun; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhou, Tong; Pan, Genxing; Crowley, David; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Yu, Xinyan; Wang, Jiafang

    2014-01-01

    While microbial nitrogen transformations in soils had been known to be affected by heavy metal pollution, changes in abundance and community structure of the mediating microbial populations had been not yet well characterized in polluted rice soils. Here, by using the prevailing molecular fingerprinting and enzyme activity assays and comparisons to adjacent non-polluted soils, we examined changes in the abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying communities of rice paddies in two sites with different metal accumulation situation under long-term pollution from metal mining and smelter activities. Potential nitrifying activity was significantly reduced in polluted paddies in both sites while potential denitrifying activity reduced only in the soils with high Cu accumulation up to 1300 mg kg−1. Copy numbers of amoA (AOA and AOB genes) were lower in both polluted paddies, following the trend with the enzyme assays, whereas that of nirK was not significantly affected. Analysis of the DGGE profiles revealed a shift in the community structure of AOA, and to a lesser extent, differences in the community structure of AOB and denitrifier between soils from the two sites with different pollution intensity and metal composition. All of the retrieved AOB sequences belonged to the genus Nitrosospira, among which species Cluster 4 appeared more sensitive to metal pollution. In contrast, nirK genes were widely distributed among different bacterial genera that were represented differentially between the polluted and unpolluted paddies. This could suggest either a possible non-specific target of the primers conventionally used in soil study or complex interactions between soil properties and metal contents on the observed community and activity changes, and thus on the N transformation in the polluted rice soils. PMID:25058658

  16. From highly polluted Zn-rich acid mine drainage to non-metallic waters: implementation of a multi-step alkaline passive treatment system to remediate metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Caraballo, Manuel A; Rötting, Tobias S; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Complete metal removal from highly-polluted acid mine drainage was attained by the use of a pilot multi-step passive remediation system. The remediation strategy employed can conceptually be subdivided into a first section where the complete trivalent metal removal was achieved by the employment of a previously tested limestone-based passive remediation technology followed by the use of a novel reactive substrate (caustic magnesia powder dispersed in a wood shavings matrix) obtaining a total divalent metal precipitation. This MgO-step was capable to abate high concentrations of Zn together with Mn, Cd, Co and Ni below the recommended limits for drinking waters. A reactive transport model anticipates that 1 m(3) of MgO-DAS (1 m thick × 1 m(2) section) would be able to treat a flow of 0.5 L/min of a highly acidic water (total acidity of 788 mg/L CaCO(3)) for more than 3 years.

  17. [Characteristics of heavy metal pollution in soil and dust of urban parks in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Shi, Gui-Tao; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Xu, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Ju; Li, Hai-Wen; Li, Li-Na

    2007-02-01

    The contents of heavy metals in soils and dust of urban parks in Shanghai were studied, and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also analyzed. The results showed that the average contents of Pb (55.06 mg x kg(-1)), Zn(198.54 mg x kg(-1)), Cu(44.57 mg x kg(-1)), Cr (77.01 mg x kg(-1)), Cd (0.40 mg x kg(-1)) and Ni (31.17 mg x kg(-1)) in soils were lower than them in the dust, which were 416.63 mg x kg(-1), 906.29 mg x kg(-1), 235.89 mg x kg(-1), 162.59 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 92.19 mg x kg(-1) respectively. The heavy metals in soils except Ni and all the six heavy metals in dust were higher than the background values in Shanghai more or less. The heavy metals average contents in dust in the parks of city central area were lower than them in the parks of city surrounding area, and the heavy metals in soils have similar spatial distribution patterns except for Zn. However, in different districts, the distribution of heavy metals in the soils and dust were not regular. Pearson correlative analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the heavy meals accumulation of the soils and dust were induced by anthropogenic input, furthermore traffic and industry were the main pollution sources.

  18. Modeling the plant-soil interaction in presence of heavy metal pollution and acidity variations.

    PubMed

    Guala, Sebastián; Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F

    2013-01-01

    On a mathematical interaction model, developed to model metal uptake by plants and the effects on their growth, we introduce a modification which considers also effects on variations of acidity in soil. The model relates the dynamics of the uptake of metals from soil to plants and also variations of uptake according to the acidity level. Two types of relationships are considered: total and available metal content. We suppose simple mathematical assumptions in order to get as simple as possible expressions with the aim of being easily tested in experimental problems. This work introduces modifications to two versions of the model: on the one hand, the expression of the relationship between the metal in soil and the concentration of the metal in plants and, on the other hand, the relationship between the metal in the soil and total amount of the metal in plants. The fine difference of both versions is fundamental at the moment to consider the tolerance and capacity of accumulation of pollutants in the biomass from the soil.

  19. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Styela plicata: a new promising bioindicator of heavy metal pollution for eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Aydın-Önen, S

    2016-11-01

    As part of a research project, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn in the tissues of Styela plicata were investigated for the first time to determine if S. plicata is a suitable biological indicator for biomonitoring of heavy metals in eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters. To examine the relationships, heavy metal levels in suspended particulate matters (SPMs) and sediments were also determined. According to the results, the mean metal levels in SPM, sediments, and S. plicata samples could be arranged in the following order of abundance: Zn > Cu > Pb > V > Cd. As for heavy metal levels, significant positive correlations were noted between Cd-Pb, Cd-V, Cd-Zn, Cu-V, and Pb-V in SPM; Cd-Zn, Cu-Zn, Pb-Cd, Pb-Cu, and Pb-Zn in sediment; and Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, and Pb-Zn in S. plicata samples. Positive relationships between these metals showed that they were originated from same sources and that they were associated with each other. Based on the findings, Zn, Cu, and Pb concentrations in suspended particulate matters, sediments, and S. plicata samples were generally represented with higher levels at stations that were used for boating, shipping, and related activities. As S. plicata is a strongest accumulator of V, the relatively low V levels observed in this study may indicate the lack of anthropogenic sources of this metal in the sampling stations. In conclusion, suspended particulate matter and sediment can be useful tool to detect the pollution status of the marine environment. Furthermore, the findings of this study highlighted that S. plicata is a promising alternative for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution for eastern Aegean Sea coasts.

  1. An ecological study of the association of metal air pollutants with lung cancer incidence in Texas.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Yvonne M; Minahjuddin, Abu T; Hynan, Linda S; Minna, John D

    2006-09-01

    Air pollution particulate matter and tobacco smoke, which contain metals that are human lung carcinogens, are associated with lung cancer risk. We conducted an ecological study to examine the association of metal air pollutants with lung cancer incidence in Texas. During the period 1995 to 2000, 81,132 lung cancer cases were reported in Texas. We identified eight metals that (1) are in airborne particulate matter or tobacco smoke or are human lung carcinogens and (2) had consistent Environmental Protection Agency air release reporting for multiple counties from 1988 through 2000. We examined the association of metal air releases with the average annual age-adjusted primary and non-small cell lung cancer rates in the 254 Texas counties. Univariate analysis indicated the following positive associations: (1) zinc with the primary (p = 0.02) and non-small cell (p < 0.01) lung cancer rates and (2) chromium and copper with the non-small cell lung cancer rate, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, risk adjusted for sex, race and ethnicity, and urbanization, zinc was positively associated with the primary (beta = 0.13, p = 0.01) and non-small cell (beta = 0.14, p = 0.02) lung cancer rates, and when interaction terms among the eight metals were included, zinc was significantly and positively associated with these rates. Smoking prevalence was similar for counties with and without releases for the eight metals. The study suggests that inhalation exposure to metals, including those that are essential human nutrients, play a role in lung carcinogenesis.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Light Pollution on Seasonal Functions of European Blackbirds (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide M.; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems. PMID:24376865

  3. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems.

  4. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the land snail, Theba pisana for assessing ecotoxicological effects of urban metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Radwan, M A; El-Gendy, K S; Gad, A F

    2010-03-01

    This study investigates the biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal accumulation for assessing ecotoxicological effects of urban metal pollution in Alexandria city, Egypt. This investigation was performed in the digestive gland of roadside Theba pisana snails obtained from six different sites in the city. Relationships between heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) concentrations and oxidative stress indicators were also examined. The results showed that mean concentrations of the measured elements (mugg(-1) dry weight) were higher in polluted sites when compared to the background levels of the reference site. The pattern of metals accumulation at all sites was Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. In the metal polluted sites, snails displayed higher mean of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, lower reduced glutathione (GSH) content and higher levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) compared to snails from the reference site. All oxidative stress parameters were positively correlated to heavy metal concentrations except GSH content which exhibits negative correlation with the concentrations of these metals. Our results suggest that the tested antioxidant defenses are sensitive parameters that could be useful as oxidative stress biomarkers in snails exposed to the actual metals in the environment. These biomarkers when complemented with metal accumulation in the digestive gland of snails may provide a powerful biomonitor for the assessment of environmental metal pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-related emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Arbex, M A; de Souza Conceição, G M; Cendon, S P; Arbex, F F; Lopes, A C; Moysés, E P; Santiago, S L; Saldiva, P H N; Pereira, L A A; Braga, A L F

    2009-10-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can have recurrent disease exacerbations triggered by several factors, including air pollution. Visits to the emergency respiratory department can be a direct result of short-term exposure to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the daily number of COPD emergency department visits and the daily environmental air concentrations of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2), CO and O(3) in the City of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample data were collected between 2001 and 2003 and are categorised by gender and age. Generalised linear Poisson regression models were adopted to control for both short- and long-term seasonal changes as well as for temperature and relative humidity. The non-linear dependencies were controlled using a natural cubic spline function. Third-degree polynomial distributed lag models were adopted to estimate both lag structures and the cumulative effects of air pollutants. PM(10) and SO(2) readings showed both acute and lagged effects on COPD emergency department visits. Interquartile range increases in their concentration (28.3 microg/m(3) and 7.8 microg/m(3), respectively) were associated with a cumulative 6-day increase of 19% and 16% in COPD admissions, respectively. An effect on women was observed at lag 0, and among the elderly the lag period was noted to be longer. Increases in CO concentration showed impacts in the female and elderly groups. NO(2) and O(3) presented mild effects on the elderly and in women, respectively. These results indicate that air pollution affects health in a gender- and age-specific manner and should be considered a relevant risk factor that exacerbates COPD in urban environments.

  6. EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

  7. EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

  8. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S.; Freitas, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria–plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils. PMID:25601876

  9. Remediation of heavy metal polluted sediment by suspension and solid-bed leaching: estimate of metal removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Hoffmann, Petra; Seidel, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Remediation of heavy metal polluted sediment by extracting the metals with sulfuric acid can be performed as follows: abiotic suspension leaching, microbial suspension leaching, abiotic solid-bed leaching, and microbial solid-bed leaching. Abiotic leaching means that the acid is directly added, while microbial leaching means that the acid is generated from sulfur by microbes (bioleaching). These four principles were compared to each other with special emphasis on the effectiveness of metal solubilization and metal removal by subsequent washing. Abiotic suspension leaching was fastest, but suspending the solids exhibits some disadvantages (low solid content, costly reactors, permanent input of energy, high water consumption, special equipment required for solid separation, large amounts of waste water, sediment properties hinder reuse), which prevent suspension leaching in practice. Abiotic solid-bed leaching implies the supply of acid by percolating water which proceeds slowly due to a limited bed permeability. Microbial solid-bed leaching means the generation of acid within the bed and has been proven to be the only principle applicable to practice. Metal removal from leached sediment requires washing with water. Washing of solid beds was much more effective than washing of suspended sediment. The kinetics of metal removal from solid beds 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2m in height were similar; when using a percolation flow of 20lm(-2)h(-1), the removal of 98% of the mobile metals lasted 57-61h and required 8.5, 4.2 or 2.3lkg(-1) water. This means, the higher the solid bed, the lower the sediment-mass-specific demand for time and water.

  10. Serpentine bacteria influence metal translocation and bioconcentration of Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis grown in multi-metal polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Rocha, Inês; Oliveira, Rui S; Freitas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of inoculation of rhizosphere or endophytic bacteria (Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 and Pseudomonas sp. A3R3, respectively) isolated from a serpentine environment on the plant growth and the translocation and accumulation of Ni, Zn, and Fe by Brassica juncea and Ricinus communis on a multi-metal polluted serpentine soil (SS). Field collected SS was diluted to 0, 25, 50, and 75% with pristine soil in order to obtain a range of heavy metal concentrations and used in microcosm experiments. Regardless of inoculation with bacteria, the biomass of both plant species decreased with increase of the proportion of SS. Inoculation of plants with bacteria significantly increased the plant biomass and the heavy metal accumulation compared with non-inoculated control in the presence of different proportion of SS, which was attributed to the production of plant growth promoting and/or metal mobilizing metabolites by bacteria. However, SRS8 showed a maximum increase in the biomass of the test plants grown even in the treatment of 75% SS. In turn, A3R3 showed maximum effects on the accumulation of heavy metals in both plants. Regardless of inoculation of bacteria and proportion of SS, both plant species exhibited low values of bioconcentration factor (<1) for Ni and Fe. The inoculation of both bacterial strains significantly increased the translocation factor (TF) of Ni while decreasing the TF of Zn in both plant species. Besides this contrasting effect, the TFs of all metals were <1, indicating that all studied bacteria-plant combinations are suitable for phytostabilization. This study demonstrates that the bacterial isolates A3R3 and SRS8 improved the growth of B. juncea and R. communis in SS soils and have a great potential to be used as inoculants in phytostabilization scenarios of multi-metal contaminated soils.

  11. Heavy metal contamination in bore water due to industrial pollution and polluted and non polluted sea water intrusion in Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli of South Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Puthiyasekar, C; Neelakantan, M A; Poongothai, S

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the pollution vulnerability of bore water in the coastal region of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi in the state of Tamilnadu, India. There are no industries in the Tirunelveli Coastal area whereas there are many industries in SIPCOT (State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamilnadu) Thoothukudi, and coastal area of Thoothukudi. Bore water from the SIPCOT, coastal area of Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli were collected periodically from July 2006 to May 2008 for this study. These samples were tested and analyzed to find the concentrations of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, calcium, copper, cadmium, mercury and lead. The toxic cadmium concentration was found in the range of 0.00-0.22 mg Kg⁻¹ at SIPCOT 2 in November 2007, mercury 0.00-0.024 mg Kg⁻¹ and lead 0.00-0.02 mg Kg⁻¹ in SIPCOT 2 in January 2008. The level of contamination is higher than the WHO limits of drinking water standards; but copper and aluminium content are within the limit. On the other hand, the samples taken from bores in Tirunelveli coastal area are non-polluted, and the analysis shows that all the metals are within the limits of WHO standard.

  12. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors.

    PubMed

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allowed to determine quantitatively the impact of the soil sealing degree on the content of heavy metals and to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of origin of heavy metals. In general, 42 soils from different parts of the city of Toruń (NW Poland) were sampled and divided into three groups according to the degree of soil sealing: completely sealed with asphalt or concrete (A), semi-permeable (partially sealed with cobblestones and concrete paving slabs (B)), and reference (non-sealed) (C). The results indicate that the artificial sealing in urban areas slightly affects the content of heavy metals in soils. However, based on PLI, I geo, and EF, it was found that the sealing has influence on soil properties and unsealed soil is the most exposed to the accumulation of pollutants.

  13. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Lu, H.; Fu, S.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2013-11-01

    Anthropogenic activities are resulting in an increase on the use and extraction of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulate in the environment having the potential to contaminate the food chain. This pollution threatens soil quality, plant survival and human health. The remediation of heavy metals deserves attention, but it is impaired by the cost of these processes. Phytoremediation and biochar are two sound environmental technologies which could be at the forefront to mitigate soil pollution. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge phytoremediation and biochar application to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of both individual approaches. Research to date has attempted only in a limited number of occasions to combine both techniques, however we discuss the potential advantages of combining both remediation techniques and the potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between phytoremediators and biochar. We identified specific research needs to ensure a sustainable use of phytoremediation and biochar as remediation tools.

  14. Cd isotopes as a potential source tracer of metal pollution in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Zhou, Haidong; Liang, Xirong; Tu, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Tracing the sources of heavy metals in water environment is key important for our understanding of their pollution behavior. In this present study, Cd concentrations and Cd isotopic compositions in sediments were determined to effectively identify possible Cd sources. Results showed that elevated concentrations and high enrichment factor for Cd were found in all sediments, suggesting anthropogenic Cd origin. Cd isotopic compositions in sediments yielded relative variations ranged from -0.35‰ to 0.07‰ in term of δ(114/110)Cd (the mean: -0.08‰). Large fractionated Cd was found in sediments collected from a smelter and an E-waste town. Cd isotopic compositions and Cd concentrations measured in sediments allowed the identification of three main origins (dust from metal refining (δ(114/110)Cd < 0), slag of metal refining (δ(114/110)Cd > 0), and those δ(114/110)Cd = 0, such as background and mining activity). According to the actual precision obtained, Cd isotopes could be a potential tool for tracing metal pollution sources in water environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heavy metal pollution of soils affected by the Guadiamar toxic flood.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, F; Clemente, L; Díaz Barrientos, E; López, R; Murillo, J M

    1999-12-06

    Total heavy metal concentrations were determined in soil samples of seven selected areas along the Guadiamar river valley affected by the toxic flood, after removal of the deposited sludge. Mean total concentrations of nine elements (As, Au, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) out of the 23 (As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, In, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) analysed were higher in sludge-covered soils than in unaffected soils. Mean values of total As, Au, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in sludge-affected soils were higher than the upper limits for normal soils world-wide. Mean concentrations of Bi, Cd and Cu were within these ranges, although some individual values exceeded the upper limits. In all sampling areas, severe heavy metal pollution was observed in the superficial layers (0-20 cm) of most of the affected soils, which decreased downward in the soil profile. Generally, in soils with more than 25% of clay, concentration of heavy metals below the 20-cm depth decreased to values close to those of the background level of the Guadiamar valley soils, while in coarser soils, heavy metal pollution penetrated below this depth, being noticeable down to a depth of at least 50-80 cm.

  16. Heavy metal and bacterial pollution of the Sava River in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Zivorad; Marković, Ljiljana; Radenković, Mirjana; Vuković, Dubravka; Stanković, Srboljub

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish microbial and heavy metal pollution of the Sava River at three locations close to industry and urban areas (Šabac, Obrenovac, Beograd) in Serbia. Heavy metal analysis included Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the river water and sediment samples. Using the microbiological analysis we tried to establish the effectiveness of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in detecting pollution of surface waters. We found that E. coli levels steadily increased downstream from Šabac (location 1; 2100 MPN per 100 mL) to Belgrade (location 3; 10000 MPN per 100 mL). To prevent bacterial contamination, it is necessary to reduce the discharge of wastewater with faecal matters near highly populated towns. Heavy metal levels in sediments correlated with those in the river water. Fluctuations attributed mainly to anthropogenic sources were not high. These results point to acceptable anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal content in the Sava River and to low environmental risk.

  17. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Catherine; Allshire, Ashley; Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van; Heffron, James J.A. . E-mail: j.heffron@ucc.ie

    2007-02-15

    Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

  18. Using magnetic and chemical measurements to detect atmospherically-derived metal pollution in artificial soils and metal uptake in plants.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, B; Cioppa, M T

    2012-11-01

    Quantification of potential effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plants requires precise experimental studies. A controlled growth experiment assessing magnetic and chemical parameters was conducted within (controls) and outside (exposed) a greenhouse setting. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements showed that while initial MS values were similar for the sample sets, the overall MS value of exposed soil was significantly greater than in controls, suggesting an additional input of Fe-containing particles. Scanning electron microscope images of the exposed soils revealed numerous angular magnetic particles and magnetic spherules typical of vehicular exhaust and combustion processes, respectively. Similarly, chemical analysis of plant roots showed that plants grown in the exposed soil had higher concentrations of Fe and heavy (toxic) metals than controls. This evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition contributed to the MS increase in exposed soils and increased metal uptake by plants grown in this soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metal contents in Centaurium erythraea and its biometry at various levels of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Kosior, Grzegorz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2012-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the influence of pollution on concentration of elements in the medicinal Centaurium erythraea. This herb is collected from wild populations and also provides important information as monitor of environmental quality. Concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn in Centaurium erythraea and in the soil in which this plant grew were measured together with biometrical features of the species from sites affected by various levels of pollution. C. erythraea from sites polluted by lignite mining and industrial combustion had the highest concentrations of Cd, Co and Zn (principal component and classification analysis, PCCA). C. erythraea from sites influenced by ferrous-chromium and thermal power plants had the highest concentrations of Cr and Fe as well as Cu, Mn and Ni and the highest length of shoots and number of leaves, shoots, nodes, flowers and flowers on the main shoot. These luxurious growth forms were probably related to the highest concentrations of N, P and Fe in the soil and concentrations of N and K accumulated by C. erythraea on these sites as revealed by the established models. Controlling the collection of C. erythraea for medicinal purposes is recommended as this species is able to accumulate increased levels of metals from polluted sites. The medical quality of C. erythraea may be negatively related to the degree and type of pollution of the environment and should not be based on the luxurious growth of individuals which may contain hazardous levels of metals.

  20. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients.

  1. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowen; Cui, Zhaojie; Zang, Guolong

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals are among the major pollutants in the worldwide soil environment. In oilfields, the crude oil extraction process results in the simultaneous contamination of the soil with petroleum and heavy metals. In this work, we investigated the influence of oil extraction on the migration, speciation, and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Mn) in soils of an oil region of Shengli Oilfield, China. The results showed that oil-polluted soils were contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, with mean concentrations of 27.63, 67.12, 0.185 and 33.80 mg kg(-1), respectively (greater than the background values of local surface soils). Compared with the control profile, the vertical distributions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V were affected in oil-polluted soils, particularly those of Cd and Ni. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, V, and Mn in oil-polluted soils increased with the duration of oil well development, which indicated the levels of these metals in the oil field were enhanced by human activities. Fractionation analysis revealed that the mobility potential of heavy metals in oil polluted soil decreased in the sequence Cd > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > V. The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil.

  2. Diagnosis of Chemical Reactivity and Pollution Sources from Particulate Trace Metal Distributions in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, A.

    1999-02-01

    A simple approach is outlined for the diagnosis of chemical reactivity and pollution sources from distributions of suspended particulate constituents in estuaries of low turbidity and limited bed-water column particle exchange. The approach is demonstrated using acetic acid-extractable particulate trace metal data for the Clyde Estuary, where water and particle mixing in the vertical is restricted by a strong pycnocline, resuspension is limited by slow subsurface currents and internal sediment cycling is inhibited by the topography of the outer estuary. The salinity distributions of particulate Fe and Mn result from end-member particle mixing, modified by the geochemical mechanisms controlling their particle-water exchange (salt-induced flocculation of riverine, Fe-bearing colloidal material and autocatalytic oxidation-sorption of dissolved Mn). The axial distributions of particulate Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn are, additionally, affected by external inputs to the tidal estuary. The magnitudes of internal (e.g. particle-water exchange) or external (e.g. pollution) sources are calculated from the deviation of metal concentrations from a theoretical dilution line adjoining estuarine end-members, via chemical mass balances and empirical equations defining particle-water partitioning as a function of salinity. Calculated particle-water exchanges of Fe and Mn are compatible with independent dissolved metal measurements in the Clyde Estuary. Calculated external sources of Cu and Pb are in reasonable agreement with monitored trace metal input data to the estuary, but discrepancies exist between calculated and monitored external sources of Cr and Zn because of the significance of unmonitored inputs and chemical reactivity for these metals. Although suspended particulate trace metal concentrations in the Clyde are among the highest of industrialized estuaries in the U.K., it is argued that this, in part, reflects the inability of the Clyde to buffer pollution inputs because of the

  3. Using blood samples to estimate persistent organic pollutants and metals in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Hodge, Mary; Olszowy, Henry A; Whittier, Joan M; Lee, Shing Y

    2010-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals have been reported in a number of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) populations worldwide. However, due to ethical considerations, these studies have generally been on tissues from deceased and stranded animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of blood samples to estimate the tissue contamination of live C. mydas populations. This study analysed 125 POP compounds and eight heavy metals in the blood, liver, kidney and muscle of 16 C. mydas from the Sea World Sea Turtle Rehabilitation Program, Gold Coast, Australia. Strong correlations were observed between blood and tissue concentrations for a number of POPs and metals. Furthermore, these correlations were observed over large ranges of turtle size, sex and condition. These results indicate that blood samples are a reliable non-lethal method for predicting chemical contamination in C. mydas.

  4. Carbonized waste for the cut-down of environmental pollution with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmucová, K.; Morvová, M.; Havránek, E.; Kliman, J.; Košinár, I.; Kunecová, D.; Malakhov, A. I.; Anisimov, Yu. S.; Morva, I.; Siváček, I.; Sýkorová, M.; Šatka, A.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, an increasing concern about the treatment and disposal of waters contaminated by toxic heavy metals is noticed. The toxic pollutants must be removed from the sewage water which then is fed back into the materials cycle. Any candidate technology should result in reusable by-products. With this in mind, the aim of the present study is to test a low cost procedure for utilization of the carbonized waste, a product of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles pyrolysis on sand bedding, for this purpose. Both the water present in PET bottles waste and combustion exhaust probably contribute to the conversion of carbon char to activated carbon directly within the pyrolysis oven. Preliminary results, obtained for several heavy metal ions under laboratory conditions are presented and discussed. Adsorption of heavy metals on the carbonized PET waste is tested by both the electrochemical methods and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A simple desorption procedure for the regeneration of prepared active carbon is proposed.

  5. Metal body burdens and detoxifying enzymes in spiders from industrially polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, G; Migula, P

    1996-03-01

    Detoxifying enzymes have been assayed and metal concentrations have been monitored in four species of spiders from differently contaminated localities in Southern Poland. A behavioural feeding activity and the life style decide on sensitivity and vulnerability of spiders. Wolf-spiders, more active than the web-spinners, cumulate higher amounts of metals, reflecting quantitatively and qualitatively the pollution level in their environment. Detoxifying systems in spiders appeared inducible and efficient to maintain normal physiological responses. Within web-spinning spiders the linyphiids seem to be the most effective regulators of metal burdens. Their detoxifying capabilities correlate well with increased industrial contaminants. The analysis of biochemical biomarkers of exposure confirmed earlier ecological findings that species of the family Linyphiidae are more favoured than the Araneidae. Differences in their feeding activity, behaviour of web-spinning and the size of animals would explain alterations in detoxifying abilities between Meta segmentata and Araneus diadematus.

  6. Assessment of sediment pollution by metals. A case study from Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Peña-Icart, Mirella; Mendiguchía, Carolina; Villanueva-Tagle, Margarita; Bolaños-Alvarez, Yoelvis; Alonso-Hernandez, Carlos; Moreno, Carlos; Pomares-Alfonso, Mario Simeón

    2017-02-15

    Sediments were grouped in three zones of the bay: two in the northern basin with higher metal contamination; and another in the southern basin, where lithogenic metals were predominant. Sediment pollution classification made using Index of geoaccumulation and Enrichment factor was consistent, indicating higher accumulation of Cd and Pb in the northern basin. The negative influence of activities linked to petrol was predicted by V/Ni and V/(Ni+V) ratios. Cd and Pb did not represent a potential risk; while Cu and Ni could be risky for biota in most sediment, according to Screening Quick Reference Tables (SQuiRTs). Comparison of bioavailable fraction of metals with references in SQuiRTs corroborated the low potential damage on the biota due to As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn; and a higher potential damage due to Cu; while an attenuation of the risk due to Ni predicted by SQuiRTs could be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution patterns of the metal pollutants Cd and Ni in soybean seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malan, H. L.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Farrant, J. M.; Linder, P. W.

    2012-02-01

    Soybean ( Glycine max) plants were grown to maturity in nutrient solution, amended with either Cd or Ni. The distribution of these metals in mature seeds was examined with micro-PIXE. The levels of Cd were too low for mapping and only average concentrations from selected regions could be obtained. Cd was localised mainly in the seed coat and cotyledons, with very little in the embryo axis. Levels of Ni were high enough to obtain the distribution maps. This metal was mainly concentrated in the axis, particularly in the apical meristem and cortex, and least in the cotyledons. Localisation of Ni within different tissues of the embryo was facilitated by mapping of Ca which is present in the cell walls of plants. This enabled the different plant tissues of the seed embryo to be identified. Micro-PIXE is a valuable tool for localising the distribution of metal pollutants in plant tissue.

  8. Analysis of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Pattern in Central Transylvania

    PubMed Central

    Suciu, Ioan; Cosma, Constantin; Todică, Mihai; Bolboacă, Sorana D.; Jäntschi, Lorentz

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of five soil heavy metals (Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg) was measured in forty sampling sites in central Transylvania, Romania, regions known as centres of pollution due to the chemical and metallurgical activities. The soil samples were collected from locations where the ground is not sliding and the probability of alluvial deposits is small. The concentration of heavy metals was measured by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry method. Data were verified by using the Neutron Activation Analysis method. In some locations, the concentration for the investigated heavy metals exceeds the concentration admitted by the Romanian guideline. The highest concentration of lead (1521.8 ppm) and copper (1197.6 ppm) was found in Zlatna. The highest concentration of chromium was found in Târnăveni (1080 ppm). The maximum admitted concentrations in the sensitive areas revealed to be exceed from five to forty times. PMID:19325760

  9. Procambarus clarkii as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution sources in the lower Ebro River and Delta.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Serrano, Andrea; Alcaraz, Carles; Ibáñez, Carles; Trobajo, Rosa; Barata, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    In the Ebro River basin, point and diffuse pollution of heavy metals stems mainly from industry and agriculture. Bioaccumulation patterns were examined under different pollution sources (point and diffuse) using levels of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) in abdominal muscle tissue of Procambarus clarkii. P. clarkii captured under point source effects presented the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb and As; and were related with distance to the source of industrial waste sediments. Mean Hg levels in crayfish exposed to point sources of metals significantly exceeded legal allowed values established by the European Union legislation. In the Ebro Delta, high levels of As, Cr, Cu and Zn were associated with traditional agriculture activity (diffuse pollution) as well. These results demonstrate the potential of P. clarkii to bioaccumulate heavy metals from both point and diffuse sources and hence potentially transfer these metals to higher trophic levels.

  10. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  11. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    PubMed

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  12. [Characteristics of sediment heavy metal pollution in three water supply reservoirs in Huizhou, Guangdong Province of South China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kang; Zhang, Hua-Jun; Gu, Ji-Guang; Hu, Ren; Yang, Hao-Wen; Chen, Jing-An

    2012-05-01

    To understand the present status of the heavy metal (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) pollution of the sediments in water supply reservoirs in Huizhou, sediment cores were sampled from three representative reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations were analyzed by ICP-MS, and the pollution status was assessed by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI). In the meantime, the possible sources of the heavy metals were analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). In the sediments of the three reservoirs, the test heavy metals had different vertical distribution, some had less change, the others decreased or increased with depth, and the distribution patterns differed with the reservoirs. According to the Igeo, the sediments in the reservoirs were seriously polluted by Zn and Pb (Zn: 49.98-640.29 mg x kg(-1); Pb: 21.94-300.66 mg x kg(-1)), reaching slight to high pollution, and the middle or bottom part of the sediments was slightly polluted by Cu (16.85-45.46 mg x kg(-1)). On the whole, the sediments were not polluted by Cr, Cd and Hg. According to the RI and the potential ecological risk coefficient [Er(i)], the sediments in the three reservoirs were under low potential ecological risk. Based on the PCA and relevant information, the human activities such as mining and smelting, urbanization, and agriculture and forestry had great contribution to the heavy metal pollution. The Zn and Pb pollution mainly originated from mining and smelting, Pb pollution also came from motor vehicle exhaust emission and domestic wastes, and Cu pollution mainly derived from agriculture and forestry.

  13. Bioremediation mechanisms of combined pollution of PAHs and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Heng; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Lu-Hua; Tan, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, knowledge in regard to bioremediation of combined pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals by bacteria and fungi has been widely developed. This paper reviews the species of bacteria and fungi which can tackle with various types of PAHs and heavy metals entering into environment simultaneously or successively. Microbial activity, pollutants bioavailability and environmental factors (e.g. pH, temperature, low molecular weight organic acids and humic acids) can all affect the bioremediation of PAHs and heavy metals. Moreover, this paper summarizes the remediation mechanisms of PAHs and heavy metals by microbes via elucidating the interaction mechanisms of heavy metals with heavy metals, PAHs/PAHs metabolites with PAHs and PAHs with heavy metals. Based on the above reviews, this paper also discusses the potential research needs for this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic responses to metal pollution in shrimp Crangon affinis from the sites along the Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-12-15

    Marine environment in the Laizhou Bay is potentially contaminated by metals from industrial discharges. In this study, metal concentrations in shrimps Crangon affinis indicated that two typical sites (S6283 and S5283) close to Longkou and Zhaoyuan cities along the Laizhou Bay have been contaminated by metals, including Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Co, and Mn. In particular, Cd and As were the main metal contaminants in S6283. In S5283, however, Cu was the most important metal contaminant. The metabolic responses in the shrimps indicated that the metal pollution in S6283 and S5283 induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism and reduced anaerobiosis, lipid metabolism, and muscle movement. However, alteration in the levels of dimethylglycine, dimethylamine, arginine, betaine, and glutamine indicated that the metal pollution in S5283 induced osmotic stress through different pathways compared to that in S6283. In addition, dimethylamine might be the biomarker of Cu in shrimp C. affinis.

  15. Quantitative immunodetection of metallothioneins in relation to metals concentration in spiders from variously polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Szulińska, Elżbieta; Franiel, Izabella

    2011-09-01

    Spiders inhabiting post industrial environments, such as waste heaps or ore-bearing areas, are exposed to high concentrations of metals, accumulated in the body of their prey and transferred along food chains. Therefore spiders are pressed to develop metal-neutralization strategies. Low-molecular, multifunction proteins: metallothioneins (MTs), often postulated as biomarkers of metal exposure, are known to bind metals and thus protect organisms against their toxic effects. Yet the proteins are still not well recognized in spiders. The aim of this study was to assess, by immunodetection method, ELISA, the concentration of metallothioneins in adult females of three web building spider species: Araneus diadematus (Araneidae), Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and Linyphia triangularis (Linyphiidae) from three variously polluted areas in southern Poland: Olkusz, ore-bearing post industrial site; Katowice-WeŁnowiec: post metallurgic waste heap, Pilica: the reference, rural, area. The concentration of metallothioneins has been analyzed in relation to the metal concentration in spiders body. The study gives the evidence that metallothioneins are reliably detectable by means of ELISA technique. The analysis of results obtained shows a strong species-dependence of the MTs level. Positive correlations between MTs concentration and metal body burden (mainly Zn and Pb) were found. This suggests that the proteins play an important role in the neutralization and regulation of metal ions in spiders. The same correlation indicate the possibility to consider MTs in spiders as biomarkers of metal exposure and effects. However, the species specificity as well as metal characteristics should be taken under account. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Historical trend in heavy metal pollution in core sediments from the Masan Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jinhyung; Hyun, Sangmin; Han, J-H; Kim, Suhyun; Shin, Dong-Hyeok

    2015-06-15

    The spatiotemporal distribution and their mass accumulation rate (MAR) of heavy metals were investigated to evaluate the time-dependent historical trends of heavy metal concentration. The three short cores used for this study were collected from the catchment area (MS-PC5, 60cm length), the central part (MS-PC4, 40cm length) and the offshore (MS-PC2, 60cm length) of the Masan Bay, Korea. The concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) in catchment area is as much as 1.5-2 times higher than central part of the Bay, and about 2 times higher than offshore area approximately. In particular, MAR of metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) show clear spatiotemporal variation, so that MAR's of heavy metal may provide more accurate information in evaluating the degree of pollution. Temporally, the heavy metal concentration had been increased since the late 1970s, but it seems to decrease again since the 2004yr in catchment area. This may came from concentrated efforts for the government to reduce industrial waste release.

  17. Fatty acid profile of the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis as a biomarker for coastal metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla O; Simões, Tiago; Novais, Sara C; Pimparel, Inês; Granada, Luana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; Lemos, Marco F L

    2017-05-15

    Metals are among the most common environmental pollutants with natural or anthropogenic origin that can be easily transferred through the food chain. Marine gastropods are known to accumulate high concentrations of these metals in their tissues. Gibbula umbilicalis ecological importance and abundant soft tissues, which enables extent biochemical assessments, makes this particular organism a potentially suitable species for marine ecotoxicological studies. Fatty acids are carbon-rich compounds that are ubiquitous in all organisms and easy to metabolize. Their biological specificity, relatively well-studied functions and importance, and the fact that they may alter when stress is induced, make fatty acids prospect biomarkers. This work aimed to assess fatty acid profile changes in the gastropod G. umbilicalis exposed to three metal contaminants. After a 168h exposure to cadmium, mercury, and nickel, the following lipid related endpoints were measured: total lipid content; lipid peroxidation; and fatty acid profile (FAP). The analysis of the FAP suggested an alteration in the fatty acid metabolism and indicated a link between metals exposure and homeoviscous adaptation and immune response. In particular, five fatty acids (palmitic, eicosatrienoic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids), demonstrated to be especially good indicators of G. umbilicalis responses to the array of metals used, having thus the potential to be used as biomarkers for metal contamination in this species. This work represents a first approach for the use of FAP signature as a sensitive and informative parameter and novel tool in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of coastal environments, using G. umbilicalis as model species.

  18. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Qin; Liu, Chang; Fang, Yanming

    2017-04-17

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01) correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  19. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  20. Air pollution tolerance index and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected plant species from urban biotopes.

    PubMed

    Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Trzęsicki, Michał; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-09-01

    This research was carried out on plants Taraxacum officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Betula pendula and Robinia pseudoacacia growing in urban biotopes with different levels of heavy metal contamination in the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza (southern Poland). Based on the pollution index, the highest heavy metal contamination was determined in the site 4 (connected with industry emitters) and 6 (high traffic). The metal accumulation index (MAI) values ranged within the biotopes in Dąbrowa Górnicza between 7.3 and 20.6 for R. pseudoacacia, 4.71-23.1 for P. lanceolata, 4.68-28.1 for T. officinale and 10.5-27.2 for B. pendula. Increasing tendency in proline content in biotopes connected with high traffic was found in the leaves of investigated plants (except R. pseudoacacia). Similar tendency was observed for ascorbic acid content in the foliage of the plants as well as in T. officinalle in stands connected industrial emission. Non-protein thiols content increased especially in the leaves of R. pseudoacacia in biotopes with high traffic emissions as well as in T. officinale in stands connected with industry. The mean values of APTI (Air Pollution Tolerance Index) within the city of Dąbrowa Górnicza for investigated plants were found in the following ascending order P. lanceolata < R. pseudoacacia < B. pendula < T. officinale. Among the investigated plants B. pendula and T. officinale may be postulated as appropriate plants in urban areas with considerable soil and air contamination, especially with heavy metals. The results indicate that species deemed tolerant according to APTI are suitable plants in barriers areas to combat atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The development dynamics of the maize root transcriptome responsive to heavy metal Pb pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Zhang, Yongzhong; Lu, Chaolong; Peng, Hua; Luo, Mao; Li, Gaoke; Shen, Yaou; Ding, Haiping; Zhang, Zhiming; Pan, Guangtang; Lin, Haijian

    2015-03-06

    Lead (Pb), as a heavy metal element, has become the most important metal pollutant of the environment. With allocating a relatively higher proportion of its biomass in roots, maize could be a potential important model to study the phytoremedi