DasMahapatra, Pronabesh; Chiauzzi, Emil; Pujol, Lynette Menefee; Los, Cristina; Trudeau, Kimberlee J.
Objectives Little is known about the moderators and mediators of change in online pain interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We hypothesized that the effects of painACTION.com, an online pain self- management program, on pain-related outcomes would be mediated by changes in depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as the use of coping strategies. We also examined potential moderators of change. Methods First, the efficacy of painACTION.com and moderators of the intervention effects were evaluated using a pooled sample from previous back, neuropathic, and arthritis pain studies. Next, we explored whether the intervention effect on the primary outcomes - pain severity and patient global impression of change (PGIC) was mediated by coping strategies or emotional functioning. Results Compared to controls, experimental participants evidenced significant improvement in pain, emotional functioning, and coping strategies from baseline to follow-up. There were no clear moderators of intervention effects. Changes in emotional factors, particularly stress levels, mediated the relationship between the intervention and outcome (pain severity) over time. Discussion This study supports the effectiveness of online interventions when CBT and self-management targets pain levels, emotional factors and wellness-focused coping. The importance of stress as a mediator of pain severity is discussed. The absence of moderators may indicate that the intervention is effective for a wide variety of patients with chronic pain. PMID:24918473
... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on for ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis Pain ...
Boonstra, Anne M; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Balk, Gerlof A; Stewart, Roy E
The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A total of 456 patients were included. Pain was assessed using the VAS and verbal rating scale; functioning was assessed using the domains of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Eight cut-off point schemes were tested using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), ordinal logistic regression, and latent class analysis. The study results showed that VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 corresponded to mild interference with functioning, whereas 3.5 to 6.4 implied moderate interference, and ⩾ 6.5 implied severe interference. VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 were best described for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain as mild pain, 3.5 to 7.4 as moderate pain, and ⩾ 7.5 as severe pain. Latent class analysis found that a 3-class solution fitted best, resulting in the classes 0.1 to 3.8, 3.9 to 5.7, and 5.8 to 10 cm. Findings from our study agree with those of some other studies, although many other studies found different optimal cut-off point schemes. As there appear to be no universally accepted cut-off points, and in view of the low-to-moderate associations between VAS scores and functioning and between VAS and verbal rating scale scores, the correct classification of VAS scores as mild, moderate. or severe in clinical practice seems doubtful.
Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...
Lalonde, Lyne; Choinière, Manon; Martin, Élisabeth; Berbiche, Djamal; Perreault, Sylvie; Lussier, David
Background The economic burden of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains insufficiently documented in primary care. Purpose To evaluate the annual direct health care costs and productivity costs associated with moderate to severe CNCP in primary care patients taking into account their pain disability. Materials and methods Patients reporting noncancer pain for at least 6 months, at a pain intensity of 4 or more on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain) intensity scale, and at a frequency of at least 2 days a week, were recruited from community pharmacies. Patients’ characteristics, health care utilization, and productivity losses (absenteeism and presenteeism) were documented using administrative databases, pharmacies’ renewal charts, telephone, and self-administered questionnaires. Patients were stratified by tertile of pain disability measured by the Brief Pain Inventory questionnaire. Results Patients (number =483) were, on average, 59 years old, mainly women (67.5%), and suffered from CNCP for a mean of 12 years at an average pain intensity of 6.5±1.9. The annual direct health care costs and productivity costs averaged CAD $9,565 (±$13,993) and CAD $7,072 (±$11,716), respectively. The use of complementary health care services accounted for almost 50% of the direct health care costs. The mean adjusted total direct health care costs (considering pain-related hospitalizations only) and productivity costs increased with more pain disability: low disability, CAD $12,118; moderate, CAD $18,278; and severe, CAD $19,216; P=0.001. Conclusion The economic burden of CNCP is substantial and increases with the level of pain disability, which suggests the need for and potential benefits of improving CNCP management through specific and adapted treatment plans targeting the impact of pain on daily functioning. PMID:25045282
... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chronic Pelvic Pain Home For Patients Search FAQs Chronic Pelvic Pain ... Pain FAQ099, August 2011 PDF Format Chronic Pelvic Pain Gynecologic Problems What is chronic pelvic pain? What ...
Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org National ...
... Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Chronic Pain By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Chronic Pain How prevalent is chronic pain? Chronic pain has ...
... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... pain has done. Scientists believe that advances in neuroscience will lead to more and better treatments for ...
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Chronic Pain Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... diagnose, health care professionals and scientists know that chronic pain is very complex. Below are some of the ...
Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Köke, Albère J. A.; Oosterwijk, René F. A.; Swaan, Jeannette L.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R.
Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients’ catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6–7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4–6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low
Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R
Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients' catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6-7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4-6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low
Chronic pelvic pain in women Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Chronic pelvic pain is pain in the area below your bellybutton ... your hips that lasts six months or longer. Chronic pelvic pain can have multiple causes. It can be a ...
Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Fleischer, Charles; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Taylor, Robert
With a global prevalence of ~9%–12%, low back pain (LBP) is a serious public health issue, associated with high costs for treatment and lost productivity. Chronic LBP (cLBP) involves central sensitization, a neuropathic pain component, and may induce maladaptive coping strategies and depression. Treating cLBP is challenging, and current treatment options are not fully satisfactory. A new BioErodible MucoAdhesive (BEMA®) delivery system for buprenorphine has been developed to treat cLBP. The buccal buprenorphine (BBUP) film developed for this product (Belbuca™) allows for rapid delivery and titration over a greater range of doses than was previously available with transdermal buprenorphine systems. In clinical studies, BBUP was shown to effectively reduce pain associated with cLBP at 12 weeks with good tolerability. The most frequently reported side effects with the use of BBUP were nausea, constipation, and vomiting. There was no significant effect on the QT interval vs placebo. Chronic pain patients using other opioids can be successfully rotated to BBUP without risk of withdrawal symptoms or inadequate analgesia. The role of BBUP in managing cLBP remains to be determined, but it appears to be a promising new product in the analgesic arsenal in general. PMID:27826213
Cachemaille, Matthieu; Blanc, Catherine
Chronic postoperative pain remains a frequent pathology whose global impact approximates 20 and 30% and accounts for 20% of the consultations in a pain center. Risk factors consider firstly each patient's feature and comorbidity and also different surgical procedures with their technical approach. Neuropathic pain compared to nociceptive pain is a great component in the postoperative period and needs to be recognized by specific tests (DN4). Pain prevention involves risk factors' detection, appropriate anesthetic support and effective postoperative pain management. Treatment is based on the type of pain and includes a multimodal analgesia with interventional pain therapy.
Duque, Maria I; Yosipovitch, Gil; Chan, Yiong Huak; Smith, Ronald; Levy, Pavel
To our knowledge there are no studies evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of itch, pain, and burning sensation among patients with mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency or assessing the impact of these symptoms on quality of life. In this report 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients who suffered from itch were also assessed with the use of a validated questionnaire and a modified Skindex-16 questionnaire. We found that the prevalence of itch was 66%. Concomitant itch and burning sensation as well as itch and pain were noted in 47% and 44% of the patients, respectively. No correlation was noted between the severity of these symptoms and the degree of venous insufficiency. Itch had a negative impact on quality of life. A limitation of this study is that the participants, who were primarily hospital employees, are more likely to develop these symptoms. Therefore this study does not reflect the true prevalence of these symptoms in the general population. This study found that itch, pain, and burning sensation are common symptoms of mild to moderate chronic venous insufficiency with a significant impact on quality of life.
Landau, R; Bollag, L; Ortner, C
With over four million deliveries annually in the United States alone and a constant increase in cesarean delivery rate, childbirth is likely to have a huge impact on the occurrence of acute and possibly chronic postpartum pain. Recent awareness that chronic pain may occur after childbirth has prompted clinicians and researchers to investigate this topic. Current evidence points towards a relatively low incidence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery, with rates ranging between 1% and 18%. To provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the relatively low occurrence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery compared with that after other types of surgery, it has been proposed that endogenous secretion of oxytocin may confer specific protection. Clinical interventions to reduce the incidence and severity of chronic post-surgical pain have not been consistently effective. Likely explanations are that the drugs that have been investigated were truly ineffective or that the effect was too modest because with a low incidence of chronic pain, studies were likely to be underpowered and failed to demonstrate an effect. In addition, since not all women require preventive therapies, preoperative testing that may identify women vulnerable to pain may be highly beneficial. Further research is needed to identify valid models that predict persistent pain to allow targeted interventions to women most likely to benefit from more tailored anti-hyperalgesic therapies.
Patient Education Sheet Tips for Chronic Pain The SSF thanks Stuart S. Kassan, MD, FACP, Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, for authoring ...
Benoliel, Rafael; Sharav, Yair
Chronic orofacial pain (COFP) is an umbrella term used to describe painful regional syndromes with a chronic, unremitting pattern. This is a convenience term, similar to chronic daily headaches, but is of clinically questionable significance: syndromes that make up COFP require individually tailored diagnostic approaches and treatment. Herein we describe the three main categories of COFP: musculoskeletal, neurovascular, and neuropathic. For many years, COFP and headache have been looked upon as discrete entities. However, we propose the concept that because COFP and headaches share underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and neurovascular anatomy, they should be classified together.
Burns, John W.; Holly, Amanda; Quartana, Phillip; Wolff, Brandy; Gray, Erika; Bruehl, Stephen
Objectives We examined whether “state” anger regulation—inhibition or expression—among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients would affect lower paraspinal (LP) muscle tension following anger-induction, and whether these effects were moderated by trait anger management style. Method Eighty-four CLBP patients underwent harassment, then they regulated anger under one of two conditions: half expressed anger by telling stories about people depicted in pictures, whereas half inhibited anger by only describing objects appearing in the same pictures. They completed the anger-out and anger-in subscales (AOS; AIS) of the anger expression inventory. Results General Linear Model procedures were used to test anger regulation condition by AOS/AIS by period interactions for physiological indexes. Significant three-way interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the inhibition condition appeared to show the greatest LP reactivity during the inhibition period followed by the slowest recovery; b) high trait anger-out patients in the expression condition appeared to show the greatest systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity during the expression period followed by rapid recovery. Conclusions Results implicate LP muscle tension as a potential physiological mechanism that links the actual inhibition of anger following provocation to chronic pain severity among CLBP patients. Results also highlight the importance of mismatch situations for patients who typically regulate anger by expressing it. These CLBP patients may be at particular risk for elevated pain severity if circumstances at work or home regularly dictate that they should inhibit anger expression. PMID:18725429
Hale, Martin; Urdaneta, Veronica; Kirby, M Todd; Xiang, Qinfang; Rauck, Richard
Background This open-label, single-arm study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a novel buprenorphine formulation, buprenorphine buccal film, in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain requiring around-the-clock opioids. Methods The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of buprenorphine buccal film. Five hundred and six patients who completed previous studies with buprenorphine buccal film (n=445; rollover patients) or were recruited de novo for this study (n=61) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent a dose titration period of ≤6 weeks, during which doses of buprenorphine buccal film were adjusted to a maximum 900 µg every 12 hours, depending on tolerability and the need for rescue medication. An optimal dose was defined as the dose that the patient found satisfactory for both pain relief and tolerability, without the need for rescue medication or with ≤2 tablets of rescue medication per day. Once the optimal dose was reached, treatment was continued for ≤48 weeks. Pain intensity was measured throughout the study using a 0–10 numerical rating scale. Results Of 435 patients achieving an optimal dose of buprenorphine buccal film who commenced long-term treatment, 158 (36.3%) completed 48 weeks of treatment. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 116 patients (22.9%) during the titration phase and 61 patients (14.0%) during the long-term treatment phase, and adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment occurred in 14 (2.8%) and 14 (3.2%) patients, respectively. The most common adverse events were those typically associated with opioids, such as nausea, constipation, and headache. In both rollover and de novo patients, pain intensity scores remained constant at approximately 3–4 during long-term treatment, and the dose of buprenorphine buccal film remained unchanged in 86.2% of patients. Conclusion In appropriate patients, buprenorphine buccal
Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).
Efficacy and tolerability of a hydrocodone extended-release tablet formulated with abuse-deterrence technology for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain.
Hale, Martin E; Laudadio, Charles; Yang, Ronghua; Narayana, Arvind; Malamut, Richard
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of hydrocodone extended release (ER) developed with abuse-deterrence technology to provide sustained pain relief and limit effects of alcohol and tablet manipulation on drug release. Eligible patients with chronic moderate-to-severe low back or osteoarthritis pain were titrated to an analgesic dose of hydrocodone ER (15-90 mg) and randomized to placebo or hydrocodone ER every 12 hours. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 12 in weekly average pain intensity (API; 0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable). Secondary measures included percentage of patients with >33% and >50% increases from baseline in weekly API, change from baseline in weekly worst pain intensity, supplemental opioid usage, aberrant drug-use behaviors, and adverse events. Overall, 294 patients were randomized and received ≥1 dose of placebo (n=148) or hydrocodone ER (n=146). Weekly API did not differ significantly between hydrocodone ER and placebo at week 12 (P=0.134); although, in post hoc analyses, the change in weekly API was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER when excluding the lowest dose (15 mg; least squares mean, -0.20 vs 0.40; P=0.032). Significantly more patients had >33% and >50% increase in weekly API with placebo (P<0.05), and mean weekly worst pain intensity was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER at week 12 (P=0.026). Supplemental medication usage was higher with placebo (86%) than hydrocodone ER (79%). Incidence of aberrant drug-use behaviors was low, and adverse events were similar between groups. This study did not meet the primary endpoint, although results support the effectiveness of this hydrocodone ER formulation in managing chronic low back or osteoarthritis pain. Use of the hydrocodone ER 15-mg dose, a robust placebo response, and use of supplemental analgesics, particularly in the placebo group, may have limited detection of a statistically significant treatment
Apkarian, A. Vania; Baliki, Marwan N.; Farmer, Melissa A.
Purpose of review Most individuals who develop pain following an inciting event will return to a healthy state as the injury heals. However, a small percentage continue to suffer, that is, transition to chronic pain. Chronic pain may persist for years and is accompanied by cognitive abnormalities, as well as diminished quality of life. In animals, persistent pain is characterized by peripheral and spinal cord reorganization, and recent evidence in humans also indicates cortical reorganization. Yet, despite more than 30 years of research, there is little agreement on the neural mechanisms that mediate the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent findings In a longitudinal brain-imaging study, individuals who developed an intense back pain episode were followed over a 1-year period, during which pain and brain parameters were collected repeatedly. A smaller number of healthy individuals and chronic back pain patients were also studied concomitantly, as positive and negative controls. At the time of entry into the study, strength of synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (i.e. functional connectivity) was predictive (>80% accuracy) of individuals who subsequently transition to chronicity 1 year later. Summary Properties of the brain’s emotional learning circuitry predict the transition to chronic pain. The involvement of this circuitry in pain remains mostly unexplored. Future human and animal model studies are necessary to unravel underlying mechanisms driving pain chronicity, with the potential of advancing novel therapeutics for preventing pain chronification. PMID:23823463
Chronic pain is a major personal, family, and community disaster. The sufferer usually has difficulties in every aspect of life. The key to successful treatment lies in a comprehensive and accurate assessment that must include family, marital, legal, behavioural, mental, and organic considerations. With comprehensive assessment, a logical plan of treatment can be constructed. Non-compliance, substance abuse, doctor shopping and secondary gain, as well as complex psychodynamics, make management of such pain difficult and frustrating. The patients are frequently playing “games” in which they control the rules, and which the physician can never win. Success rates are poor even in specialized centres, and many patients are ultimately injured by inappropriate investigation or treatment. Physicians who have become over-involved with such patients may also be injured by the process, to the detriment of their general care of other patients and themselves. PMID:21248889
affecting inter-individual variability in chronic pain nociception using a state of the art population of laboratory mice (Diversity Outbred mice...approaches for the discovery of new genes related to chronic pain nociception . Genetic linkage mapping in DO mice produced a much more precise and efficient...1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0762 TITLE: Systems Genetics of Chronic Pain
Humphreys, Janice; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine
Although associations between intimate partner violence, chronic pain, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime trauma exposure are well known, previous studies are limited by their recruitment of women from shelters. These relationships were explored with a community-based sample of formerly abused women ( N = 84).…
Peng, Philip W H
In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.
Introduction Over 70% of people in resource-rich countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non-recent-onset patients still experience pain one year later. Many chronic patients who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 74 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural steroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulative therapy, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445791
Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.
Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799
Hague, Matthew; Shenker, Nicholas
Chronic pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience persisting longer than the normal process of healing, usually longer than 3 months. About a fifth of the world's population is believed to suffer from chronic pain. In Europe, chronic pain accounts for nearly 500 m lost working days, and it costs the European economy >€34 billion (£28 billion) every year. Establishing a reliable diagnosis is the primary challenge in evaluating a patient with chronic pain. Common diagnoses not to miss include seronegative spondyloarthritides, endocrine abnormalities including severe vitamin D deficiency and polymyalgia rheumatica. Once important or treatable diagnoses have been ruled out, the history can be used as a tool to establish a therapeutic plan for shared decision-making using the biopsychosocial model. Onward referral to pain clinics can be helpful for more involved patient management, but often good outcomes are achieved with the support of primary care.
Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M
Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications.
Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:21418678
Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097
Raithel, Kathryn Simmons
Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)
Speer, Linda M; Mushkbar, Saudia; Erbele, Tara
Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional somatic pain syndrome. It is typically associated with other functional somatic pain syndromes (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome, nonspecific chronic fatigue syndrome) and mental health disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Diagnosis is based on findings from the history and physical examination. Pelvic ultrasonography is indicated to rule out anatomic abnormalities. Referral for diagnostic evaluation of endometriosis by laparoscopy is usually indicated in severe cases. Curative treatment is elusive, and evidence-based therapies are limited. Patient engagement in a biopsychosocial approach is recommended, with treatment of any identifiable disease process such as endometriosis, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, and comorbid depression. Potentially beneficial medications include depot medroxyprogesterone, gabapentin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with add-back hormone therapy. Pelvic floor physical therapy may be helpful. Behavioral therapy is an integral part of treatment. In select cases, neuromodulation of sacral nerves may be appropriate. Hysterectomy may be considered as a last resort if pain seems to be of uterine origin, although significant improvement occurs in only about one-half of cases. Chronic pelvic pain should be managed with a collaborative, patient-centered approach.
Gimbel, Joseph; Spierings, Egilius L.H.; Katz, Nathaniel; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew
Abstract A buccal film of buprenorphine (BBUP) was evaluated for safety and efficacy in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, enriched-enrollment, randomized-withdrawal study in opioid-experienced patients (30 to ≤160 mg/d morphine sulfate equivalent) with moderate to severe chronic low back pain taking around-the-clock opioid analgesics. Patients' opioid doses were tapered to ≤30 mg morphine sulfate equivalent before open-label titration with BBUP (range, 150-900 μg every 12 hours). Patients who responded (received adequate analgesia that was generally well tolerated for 14 days) were randomized to receive buprenorphine (n = 254) or placebo (n = 257) buccal film. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to week 12 of double-blind treatment in mean average daily pain-intensity scores using a rating scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). In the intent-to-treat population, mean pain scores were 6.7 after opioid taper and declined to 2.8 after the BBUP titration period. After randomization, mean pain scores were lower in the BBUP group than in the placebo group; the difference between groups in the mean change from baseline to week 12 was −0.98 (95% CI, −1.32 to −0.64; P < 0.001). A significantly larger percentage of patients receiving BBUP than placebo had pain reductions ≥30% and ≥50% (P < 0.001 for both). In the double-blind portion of the study, the only adverse event reported more frequently with BBUP than placebo and in ≥5% of patients was vomiting (5.5% vs 2.3%). These findings demonstrate the efficacy and tolerability of BBUP in opioid-experienced patients taking around-the-clock opioid treatment for chronic low back pain. PMID:27434505
Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Roy, Mathieu; Woo, Choong-Wan; Kunz, Miriam; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Sullivan, Michael J; Jackson, Philip L; Wager, Tor D; Rainville, Pierre
Pain behaviors are shaped by social demands and learning processes, and chronic pain has been previously suggested to affect their meaning. In this study, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with in-scanner video recording during thermal pain stimulations and use multilevel mediation analyses to study the brain mediators of pain facial expressions and the perception of pain intensity (self-reports) in healthy individuals and patients with chronic back pain (CBP). Behavioral data showed that the relation between pain expression and pain report was disrupted in CBP. In both patients with CBP and healthy controls, brain activity varying on a trial-by-trial basis with pain facial expressions was mainly located in the primary motor cortex and completely dissociated from the pattern of brain activity varying with pain intensity ratings. Stronger activity was observed in CBP specifically during pain facial expressions in several nonmotor brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the medial temporal lobe. In sharp contrast, no moderating effect of chronic pain was observed on brain activity associated with pain intensity ratings. Our results demonstrate that pain facial expressions and pain intensity ratings reflect different aspects of pain processing and support psychosocial models of pain suggesting that distinctive mechanisms are involved in the regulation of pain behaviors in chronic pain.
Brailo, Vlaho; Zakrzewska, Joanna M
Background When assessing pain in clinical practice, clinicians often label pain as mild, moderate, and severe. However, these categories are not distinctly defined, and are often used arbitrarily. Instruments for pain assessment use more sophisticated scales, such as a 0–10 numerical rating scale, and apart from pain intensity assess pain-related interference and disability. The aim of the study was to identify cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe nondental orofacial pain using a numerical rating scale, a pain-related interference scale, and a disability measurement. Materials and methods A total of 245 patients referred to the Facial Pain Unit in London were included in the study. Intensity and pain-related interference were assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain-related disability was assessed by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Average pain intensity (0–10) was classified into nine schemes with varying cutoff points of mild, moderate, and severe pain. The scheme with the most significant intergroup difference, expressed by multivariate analysis of variance, provided the cutoffs between mild, moderate, and severe pain. Results The combination that showed the greatest intergroup differences for all patients was scheme 47 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–7, severe 8–10). The same combination provided the greatest intergroup differences in subgroups of patients with temporomandibular disorder and chronic idiopathic facial pain, respectively. Among the trigeminal neuralgia patients alone, the combination with the highest intergroup differences was scheme 48 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–8, severe 9–10). Conclusion The cutoff points established in this study can discriminate in pain intensity categories reasonably well, and showed a significant difference in most of the outcome measures used. PMID:25759597
Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit
Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.
Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D
Chronic pelvic pain remains a difficult management problem that is often refractory to traditional medical or surgical therapy. The pain management center approach used successfully for the treatment of cancer pain and headache can be adapted to the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that the multidisciplinary techniques of pain management promise to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.
Descalzi, Giannina; Ikegami, Daigo; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Nestler, Eric J; Zachariou, Venetia; Narita, Minoru
Neuropathic and inflammatory pain promote a large number of persisting adaptations at the cellular and molecular level, allowing even transient tissue or nerve damage to elicit changes in cells that contribute to the development of chronic pain and associated symptoms. There is evidence that injury-induced changes in chromatin structure drive stable changes in gene expression and neural function, which may cause several symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, anxiety, and depression. Recent findings on epigenetic changes in the spinal cord and brain during chronic pain may guide fundamental advances in new treatments. Here, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic regulation in the nervous system and then discuss the still-limited literature that directly implicates epigenetic modifications in chronic pain syndromes.
Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S; Aziz, Qasim; Drewes, Asbjørn M
Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological and psychological interventions, thereby providing a mechanism-orientated approach to treatment. Patients can frequently become disenfranchised, and subsequently disengaged, with healthcare providers leading to repeated consultations. Thus, a key aspect of management is to break this cycle by validating patients' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations in central pain processing.
Arnold, Lesley M
Chronic widespread pain is associated with several medical and psychiatric disorders including, but not limited to, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mood disorders, hepatitis, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, and rheumatologic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Careful and comprehensive differential diagnosis must be performed to ensure a correct diagnosis before an appropriate treatment can be selected. Fibromyalgia, in particular, is challenging to diagnose and treat because it shares many characteristics with other disorders and is commonly concurrent with major mood disorders. A comprehensive disease management strategy including patient education, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and aerobic and other forms of exercise can be beneficial for many patients with fibromyalgia.
Slipp, Marlene; Burnham, Robert
Background: The prevalence of chronic pain is high and increasing. Medication management is an important component of chronic pain management. There is a shortage of physicians who are available and comfortable providing this service. In Alberta, pharmacists have been granted an advanced scope of practice. Given this empowerment, their availability, training and skill set, pharmacists are well positioned to play an expanded role in the medication management of chronic pain sufferers. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and cost of a physician-only vs a pharmacist-physician team model of medication management for chronic nonmalignant pain sufferers. Method: Data was analyzed for 89 patients who had received exclusively medication management at a rural Alberta multidisciplinary clinic. 56 were managed by a sole physician. 33 were managed by a team (pharmacist + physician). In the team model, the physician did the medical assessment, diagnosis, and established a treatment plan in consultation with the patient and pharmacist. The pharmacist then provided the ongoing follow-up including education, dose titration and side effect management and consulted with the physician as needed. Change in pain (Numerical Rating Scale) and disability (Pain Interference Questionnaire) over the course of treatment were recorded. The treatment duration and number of visits were used to calculate cost of care. Results: Both models of medication management resulted in significant and comparable improvements in pain, disability and patient perception of medication effectiveness. Patients in the physician-only group were seen more frequently and at a greater cost. The pharmacist-physician team approach was markedly more cost-effective, and patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with their medication management. Conclusions: The pharmacist-physician team model of medication management results in significant reductions of pain and disability for chronic nonmalignant pain sufferers
A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.
Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot
The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids.
Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun
This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674
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Saha, Felix J.; Brüning, Alexander; Barcelona, Cyrus; Büssing, Arndt; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger
Abstract Introduction: Integrative medicine inpatient treatment has been shown to improve physical and mental health in patients with internal medicine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient treatment in patients with chronic pain syndromes and the association of treatment success with patient-related process variables. Methods: Inpatients with chronic pain syndromes participating in a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient program were included. Patients’ pain intensity, pain disability, pain perception, quality of life, depression, and perceived stress were measured on admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge. Likewise process variables including ability and will to change, emotional/rational disease acceptance, mindfulness, life and health satisfaction, and easiness of life were assessed. Results: A total of 310 inpatients (91% female, mean age 50.7 ± 12.4 year, 26.5% low back pain, and 22.9% fibromyalgia) were included. Using mixed linear models, significant improvements in pain intensity, pain disability, pain perception, quality of life, depression, and perceived stress were found (all P < 0.05). Ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, mindfulness, life and health satisfaction, and light heartedness/easiness likewise improved (all P < 0.05). Improved outcomes were associated with increases in process variables, mainly ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, life and health satisfaction, and light heartedness/easiness (R2 = 0.03–0.40). Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient treatment can benefit patients with chronic pain conditions. Functional improvements are associated with improved ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, and satisfaction. PMID:27399133
Current terminology uses the 2008 European Association of Urology guidelines, but variably used historical terms suggest inflammation or infection that is rarely found. Central sensitisation is important in causing visceral and muscle hyperalgesia throughout the pelvis. There can be considerable overlap between urogenital pain conditions. Men who have a chronic urological pain condition often have a disturbance of urinary, bowel and sexual function. Working with urologists as well as a multidisciplinary team is essential. PMID:26526127
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Herman, Debra S.; Bailey, Genie L.; Pinkston, Megan M.; Stein, Michael D.
Objective Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV has become a chronic disease for most individuals in developed countries. Chronic pain is a common occurrence for HIV –infected patients and has an impact on quality of life and antiretroviral adherence. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between chronic pain and depression, substance use, mental health treatment, and pain treatment in HIV-infected patients. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Three primary care sites where HIV+ patients receive treatment. Subjects 238 HIV-infected primary care patients. Methods We collected self-report and chart-review information on demographics, HIV clinical status, chronic pain, depression, substance use, mental health treatment, and pain treatment. We collected data between October 2012 and November 2013. Results Of the patients enrolled in this study, 107 reported no chronic pain, 24 reported mild chronic pain, and 107 reported moderate-severe chronic pain. Participants in the moderate-severe pain group were more likely to have high levels of depressive symptoms than those in the no chronic pain group. Similarly, there was a significant relationship between chronic pain status and interference with life activities due to pain. Participants with moderate-severe chronic pain were more likely to be taking an antidepressant medication than those with mild chronic pain, and more likely to be taking a prescription opioid than the other two groups. We did not find a significant relationship between problematic substance use and chronic pain status. Conclusions Despite pharmacologic treatment, moderate-severe chronic pain and elevated depression symptoms are common among HIV-infected patients and frequently co-occur. PMID:26119642
van den Hout, J H; Vlaeyen, J W; Houben, R M; Soeters, A P; Peters, M L
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of non-pain-related failure experiences and pain-related fear on pain report, pain tolerance and pain avoidance in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Moreover, the mediating and moderating role of negative affectivity (trait-NA) in the relationship between failure experiences and pain was examined. Seventy-six patients were divided into high and low pain-related fear groups and within each group they were randomly assigned to the failure or success feedback condition. In the first part of the study patients completed a 'social empathy test' and experimenter 1 subsequently delivered false failure or success feedback. A second experimenter, who was blind for the condition, subsequently administered two lifting tasks in order to obtain measures of pain report, tolerance and avoidance. Failure feedback did have an effect on pain avoidance but unexpectedly, and not as hypothesized, pain avoidance was reduced instead of enhanced. With regard to pain report and pain tolerance similar patterns were found, but these were not statistically significant. The effect of failure feedback on pain avoidance was moderated by trait-NA. Only in the subgroup of patients who scored low on trait-NA did failure feedback decrease pain avoidance. State-NA did not mediate the effects of feedback. In line with previous findings, pain-related fear resulted in lower pain tolerance. Moreover, this study was the first to show that pain-related fear predicted higher pain report in CLBP patients. Pain-related fear did not predict pain avoidance when pre-lifting pain and gender were controlled for. Finally, pre-lifting pain turned out to be the strongest predictor with regard to all pain measures. The role of pain-related fear and unexpected findings with regard to feedback are discussed as well as some clinical implications.
Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos
Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667
Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas
Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P < 0.001) indicating induction of CPM. Conditioned pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P < 0.001), but CPM in CWP and FMS did not differ. Interestingly, a higher number of painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values <0.01). Our findings suggest that CPM dysfunction is associated with CWP and not with FMS as suggested previously. FMS seems to differ from CWP without FMS by higher psychosocial burden. Moreover, patients with CBP should be stratified into CLP and CWP, and centrally acting treatments targeting endogenous pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.
Guerriero, Fabio; Roberto, Anna; Greco, Maria Teresa; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Rollone, Marco; Corli, Oscar
Background Two-thirds of older people suffer from chronic pain and finding valid treatment options is essential. In this 1-yearlong investigation, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release oxycodone–naloxone (OXN-PR) in patients aged ≥70 (mean 81.7) years. Methods In this open-label prospective study, patients with moderate-to-severe noncancer chronic pain were prescribed OXN-PR for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved ≥30% reduction in pain intensity after 52 weeks of treatment, without worsening bowel function. The scheduled visits were at baseline (T0), after 4 weeks (T4), and after 52 weeks (T52). Results Fifty patients completed the study. The primary endpoint was achieved in 78% of patients at T4 and 96% at T52 (P<0.0001). Pain intensity, measured on a 0–10 numerical rating scale, decreased from 6.0 at T0 to 2.8 at T4 and to 1.7 at T52 (P<0.0001). Mean daily dose of oxycodone increased from 10 to 14.4 mg (T4) and finally to 17.4 mg (T52). Bowel Function Index from 35.1 to 28.7 at T52. No changes were observed in cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination evaluation), while daily functioning improved (Barthel Index from 53.1 to 61.0, P<0.0001). The Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain-Revised score at 52 weeks was 2.6 (standard deviation 1.6), indicating a low risk of aberrant medication-related behavior. In general, OXN-PR was well tolerated. Conclusion This study of the long-term treatment of chronic pain in a geriatric population with OXN-PR shows satisfying analgesic effects achieved with a stable low daily dose, coupled with a good safety profile and, in particular, with a reduction of constipation, often present during opioid therapy. Our findings support the indications of the American Geriatrics Society, suggesting the use of opioids to treat pain in older people not responsive to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:27143857
Danilov, Andrei; Kurganova, Julia
Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by epiphysis and extrapineal structures. It performs several functions including chronobiotic, antioxidant, oncostatic, immune modulating, normothermal, and anxiolytic functions. Melatonin affects the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract, participates in reproduction and metabolism, and body mass regulation. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated melatonin efficacy in relation to pain syndromes. The present paper reviews the studies on melatonin use in fibromyalgia, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. The paper discusses the possible mechanisms of melatonin analgesic properties. On one hand, circadian rhythms normalization results in sleep improvement, which is inevitably disordered in chronic pain syndromes, and activation of melatonin adaptive capabilities. On the other hand, there is evidence of melatonin-independent analgesic effect involving melatonin receptors and several neurotransmitter systems.
Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie
The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic.
Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus; Licht, Peter B; Toft, Palle
Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. Nine patients developed chronic unexplained pain 12 months postoperatively. In a multivariate analysis model, cumulated visceral pain during the first week and number of preoperative biliary pain attacks were identified as independent risk factors for unexplained chronic pain 12 months postoperatively. There were no consistent signs of hypersensitivity in the referred pain area either pre- or postoperatively. There were no significant associations to any other variables examined. The risk of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is relatively low, but significantly related to the visceral pain response during the first postoperative week.
Miller, D B
Chronic Pain extracts a "penalty" on society now estimated to be well in excess of $100 million per year. The "penalty" that Chronic Pain extracts from its victims is incalculable. Chronic Pain is a major component of Temporomandibular Disorders. The current neurological theory of the mechanism of chronic TMD pain is explored along with the current modes of treatment. Pharmacological management of Chronic Pain in a clinical setting is outlined. Dentists are involved in pain management on a daily basis. Dentists treat pain both prophylacticly and in response to specific patient symptoms. Most dental treatment involves some type of pain management. We, dentists, have become very adept at managing acute pain. We have much greater difficulty managing chronic pain. The word "pain" derives from the Greek word for penalty, and appeared to them to be a "penalty" inflicted by the gods. In 1984, Bonica estimated that one-third of all Americans suffered from some kind of chronic pain at a "penalty" to society of $65 Billion annually in medical expenses and lost wages and productivity. This figure is certainly much greater now. Chronic pain can be a very complex problem that can require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Chronic pain in the dental setting is most frequetly caused by prolonged Temporomandibular Disorders.
Biasi, G; Di Sabatino, V; Ghizzani, A; Galeazzi, M
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition that has a major impact on the quality of life of both men and women. Male CPP is usually attributable to well-defined urogenital conditions (most frequently infectious/non infectious prostatic diseases) or musculoskeletal or bowel diseases, whereas the features of female CPP are much more complex and are of particular clinical and epidemiological importance. It is a multifactorial syndrome that can be due to diseases of the urogenital, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal systems, or to neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. It is not always easy to identify its predominant pathogenesis, although it often occurs as a central sensitization syndrome triggered by an initial stimulus which is no longer detectable and only manifests itself clinically through pain. In this respect, there are some very interesting relationships between vulvodynia and fibromyalgic syndrome, as identified in a preliminary study of women with chronic musculoskeletal pain in which it was demonstrated that vulvar pain plays an important role, although it is often overlooked and undiagnosed.
Merskey, H.; Hester, R. A.
The treatment is described of thirty patients with chronic nervous system lesion causing intractable pain. Moderately good relief of pain was obtained with a combination of phenothiazines (especially pericyazine), antidepressant drugs and antihistamines. The theoretical implications of this are discussed and it is suggested that the drugs in question act partly by virtue of an effect on the multisynaptic neuronal systems whose activities are related to the experience of pain. PMID:4404064
Siebenhuener, Klarissa; Eschmann, Emmanuel; Kienast, Alexander; Schneider, Dominik; Minder, Christoph E.; Saller, Reinhard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Blaser, Jürg; Battegay, Edouard
Background Chronic pain is common in multimorbid patients. However, little is known about the implications of chronic pain and analgesic treatment on multimorbid patients. This study aimed to assess chronic pain therapy with regard to the interaction potential in a sample of inpatients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective study with all multimorbid inpatients aged ≥18 years admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of University Hospital Zurich in 2011 (n = 1,039 patients). Data were extracted from the electronic health records and reviewed. We identified 433 hospitalizations of patients with chronic pain and analyzed their combinations of chronic conditions (multimorbidity). We then classified all analgesic prescriptions according to the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. Furthermore, we used a Swiss drug-drug interactions knowledge base to identify potential interactions between opioids and other drug classes, in particular coanalgesics and other concomitant drugs. Chronic pain was present in 38% of patients with multimorbidity. On average, patients with chronic pain were aged 65.7 years and had a mean number of 6.6 diagnoses. Hypertension was the most common chronic condition. Chronic back pain was the most common painful condition. Almost 90% of patients were exposed to polypharmacotherapy. Of the chronic pain patients, 71.1% received opioids for moderate to severe pain, 43.4% received coanalgesics. We identified 3,186 potential drug-drug interactions, with 17% classified between analgesics (without coanalgesics). Conclusions Analgesic drugs-related DDIs, in particular opioids, in multimorbid patients are often complex and difficult to assess by using DDI knowledge bases alone. Drug-multimorbidity interactions are not sufficiently investigated and understood. Today, the scientific literature is scarce for chronic pain in combination with multiple coexisting medical conditions and medication
Alonso Fernández, Francisco
The comorbidity integrated by chronic pain and depression is very common. The somatoform depressive symptoms appear often as diferent types of pain. Amon them premenstrual pain and fibromialgia are some of the most important clinical pictures. Chronic pain leads to depression as a consequence of these three kinds of factors: biomedical, psychosocial (passive attitude, disability) and pharmacological agents. Copping and acceptance of chronic pain is associated with lower pain intensity, less depression and less psychosocial disability. The appropriate use of analgesics in the management of chronic pain demands individualization. Several antidepressants have possitive effects on pain syndrom. Depression is underrecognized ad undertreated above all in patients with chronic pain. In order screening the depression seven ways are described here: personal and family history, type of the personality, clinic and evolutive aspects of somatoform symptom, search of other depressive symptoms and positive therapeutic effect determinated by an antidepressant.
Vickers, E R; Cousins, M J; Woodhouse, A
A multidisciplinary pain centre study of 120 consecutive chronic orofacial pain patients assessed pain description and intensity ratings, gender differences, prevalence of concurrent conditions, and interinstrument relationships of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain words chosen by patients to describe conditions were predominantly sensory words, and patients with concurrent conditions often listed words indicating a substantial affective component. Results showed pain intensity ratings of chronic orofacial pain conditions have similar or higher pain ratings when compared with other medical chronic pain conditions such as back pain, cancer pain and arthritis. There was a significantly higher female: male ratio (88:32) with gender playing an important but poorly understood causal role. The most frequent condition diagnosed was atypical facial pain (n = 40), followed by temporomandibular disorder (n = 32), atypical odontalgia (n = 29) and pathology of the orofacial region (n = 19). Temporomandibular disorder was present in 75 of the 120 subjects, as the sole pain complaint (n = 32) or as an associated secondary condition (n = 43), indicating concurrent pain conditions exist and may be related. There were significantly higher total pain scores of the McGill Pain Questionnaire in patients with multiple conditions compared with patients with a single condition. The visual analogue scale showed a significant correlation to the number of words chosen index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire for orofacial pain.
The recent American Academy of Neurology position paper by Franklin, “Opioids for chronic noncancer pain,” suggests that the benefits of opioid treatment are very likely to be substantially outweighed by the risks and recommends avoidance of doses above 80–120 mg/day morphine equivalent. However, close reading of the primary literature supports a different conclusion: opioids have been shown in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to be highly effective in the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain; long-term follow-up studies have shown that this effectiveness can be maintained; and effectiveness has been limited in many clinical trials by failure to take into account high variability in dose requirements, failure to adequately treat depression, and use of suboptimal outcome measures. Frequency of side effects in many RCTs has been inflated by overly rapid dose titration and failure to appreciate the high interindividual variability in side effect profiles. The recent marked increase in incidence of opioid overdose is of grave concern, but there is good reason to believe that it has been somewhat exaggerated. Potential causes of overdose include inadequately treated depression; inadequately treated pain, particularly when compounded by hopelessness; inadvertent overdose; concurrent use of alcohol; and insufficient practitioner expertise. Effective treatment of pain can enable large numbers of patients to lead productive lives and improve quality of life. Effective alleviation of suffering associated with pain falls squarely within the physician's professional obligation. Existing scientific studies provide the basis for many improvements in pain management that can increase effectiveness and reduce risk. Many potentially useful areas of further research can be identified. PMID:26138946
Vierck, Charles J.; Wong, Fong; King, Christopher D.; Mauderli, Andre P.; Schmidt, Siegfried; Riley, Joseph L.
Objectives To describe and understand varieties and characteristics of sensitization contributing to hyperalgesia for patients with chronic pain conditions. Methods Thermal stimulation was delivered to the face, forearm and calf of pain-free subjects and individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), temporomandibular pain disorder (TMD) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Three second contacts of a preheated thermode occurred at 30 sec. intervals in ascending and then descending series (0.7°C steps). Results Thermal pain ratings during ascending series were greater at each site for individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Strong pain at the time of testing further enhanced the ratings at all sites, but mild or moderate clinical pain did not have this effect. Thermal pain for all subjects was greater during descending series than during ascending series of arm and leg stimulation. The hypersensitivity during descending series was comparable for pain-free, FMS and TMD subjects but was increased in duration for arm or leg stimulation of FMS subjects. Discussion The widespread sensitization for IBS and TMD subjects does not rely on mechanisms of spatial and temporal summation often invoked to explain widespread hyperalgesia associated with chronic pain. Increased sensitivity during descending series during stimulation of an arm or leg but not the face indicates a propensity for sensitization of nociceptive input to the spinal cord. Abnormally prolonged sensitization for FMS patients reveals a unique influence of widespread chronic pain referred to deep somatic tissues. PMID:23629594
Szumita, Richard P; Szumita, Paul M; Just, Nancy
The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery has had at its core the foundations of anesthesia and pain and anxiety control. This article attempts to refamiliarize the reader with clinical pearls helpful in the management of patients with chronic pain conditions. The authors also hope to highlight the interplay of chronic pain and psychology as it relates to the oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. To that end, the article outlines and reviews the neurophysiology of pain, the definitions of pain, conditions encountered by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon that produce chronic pain, the psychological impact and comorbidities associated with patients experiencing chronic pain conditions, and concepts of multimodal treatment for patients experiencing chronic pain conditions.
Davis, Charles G
This article is to provide insights into the mechanisms underlying chronic pain from whiplash injury. Studies show that injury produces plasticity changes of different neuronal structures that are responsible for amplification of nociception and exaggerated pain responses. There is consistent evidence for hypersensitivity of the central nervous system to sensory stimulation in chronic pain after whiplash injury. Tissue damage, detected or not by the available diagnostic methods, is probably the main determinant of central hypersensitivity. Different mechanisms underlie and co-exist in the chronic whiplash condition. Spinal cord hyperexcitability in patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury can cause exaggerated pain following low intensity nociceptive or innocuous peripheral stimulation. Spinal hypersensitivity may explain pain in the absence of detectable tissue damage. Whiplash is a heterogeneous condition with some individuals showing features suggestive of neuropathic pain. A predominantly neuropathic pain component is related to a higher pain/disability level.
Apkarian, A. Vania; Baliki, Marwan N.; Geha, Paul Y.
In this review we integrate recent human and animal studies from the viewpoint of chronic pain. First, we briefly review the impact of chronic pain on society and address current pitfalls of its definition and clinical management. Second, we examine pain mechanisms via nociceptive information transmission cephalad and its impact and interaction with the cortex. Third, we present recent discoveries on the active role of the cortex in chronic pain, with findings indicating that the human cortex continuously reorganizes as it lives in chronic pain. We also introduce data emphasizing that distinct chronic pain conditions impact on the cortex in unique patterns. Fourth, animal studies regarding nociceptive transmission, recent evidence for supraspinal reorganization during pain, the necessity of descending modulation for maintenance of neuropathic behavior, and the impact of cortical manipulations on neuropathic pain is also reviewed. We further expound on the notion that chronic pain can be reformulated within the context of learning and memory, and demonstrate the relevance of the idea in the design of novel pharmacotherapies. Lastly, we integrate the human and animal data into a unified working model outlining the mechanism by which acute pain transitions into a chronic state. It incorporates knowledge of underlying brain structures and their reorganization, and also includes specific variations as a function of pain persistence and injury type, thereby providing mechanistic descriptions of several unique chronic pain conditions within a single model. PMID:18952143
Sisk, Allen L.
There are many conditions in which chronic orofacial pain is a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. It is generally accepted that surgical treatment for these chronic pain problems should be resorted to only when more conservative treatments have been ineffective. Literature concerning selected orofacial pain problems is reviewed and the indications for surgical management are discussed. PMID:6370045
Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Roy, Rubén; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P
The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments-neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis-when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.
Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Roy, Rubén; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P.
The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments—neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis—when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment. PMID:27929419
Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon
Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698
HELLMAN, Kevin M.; PATANWALA, Insiyyah Y.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; TU, Frank F.
Objective To evaluate candidate mechanisms underlying the pelvic floor dysfunction in women with chronic pelvic pain and/or painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Notably, prior studies have not consistently controlled for potential confounding by psychological or anatomical factors. Study Design As part of a larger study on pelvic floor pain dysfunction and bladder pain sensitivity, we compared a measure of mechanical pain sensitivity, pressure pain thresholds, between women with pelvic pain and pain-free controls. We also assessed a novel pain measure using degree and duration of post-exam pain aftersensation, and conducted structural and functional assessments of the pelvic floor to account for any potential confounding. Phenotypic specificity of pelvic floor measures was assessed with receiver-operator characteristic curves adjusted for prevalence. Results A total of 23 women with chronic pelvic pain, 23 painful bladder syndrome, and 42 pain-free controls completed the study. Women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome exhibited enhanced pain sensitivity with lower pressure pain thresholds (1.18 [interquartile range: 0.87–1.41] kg/cm2) than pain-free participants (1.48 [1.11–1.76] kg/cm2; p<0.001) and prolonged pain aftersensation (3.5 [0–9] vs 0 [0–1] minutes; p< 0.001). Although genital hiatus (p<0.01) was wider in women with chronic pelvic pain there were no consistently observed group differences in pelvic floor anatomy, muscle tone or strength. The combination of pressure pain thresholds and aftersensation duration correlated with severity of pelvic floor tenderness (R2 =41–51, p’s< 0.01). Even after adjustment for prevalence, the combined metrics discriminated pain-free controls from women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome (area under the curve=0.87). Conclusion Both experimental assessment of pelvic floor pain thresholds and measurement of sustained pain are independently associated with pelvic pain
Nikkolo, Ceith; Lepner, Urmas
Following the widespread use of mesh repairs, recurrence rates after inguinal hernia surgery have become acceptable and focus has shifted from recurrence to chronic pain. Although pain can be controlled with analgesics, chronic postsurgical pain is a major clinical problem, which can significantly influence the patient's quality of life. The rate of chronic pain after inguinal hernia mesh repair can reach 51.6%. The reasons for posthernioplasty chronic pain are often unclear. It has been linked to nerve injury and nerve entrapment, but there is also association between the rate of chronic pain and the type of mesh used for hernia repair. As there are >160 meshes available in the market, it is difficult to choose a mesh whose usage would result in the best outcome. Different mesh characteristics have been studied, among them weight of mesh has probably gained the most attention. The choice of adequate therapy for chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair is controversial. The European Hernia Society recommends that a multidisciplinary approach at a pain clinic should be considered for the treatment of chronic postoperative pain. Although surgical treatment of chronic posthernioplasty pain is limited because of the lack of relevant research data, resection of entrapped nerves, mesh removal in the case of mesh related pain or removal of fixation sutures can be beneficial for the patient with severe pain after inguinal hernia surgery. One drawback of published studies is the lack of consensus over definition of chronic pain, which makes it complicated to compare the results of different studies and to conduct meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Therefore, a uniform definition of chronic pain and its best assessment methods should be developed in order to conduct top quality multicenter randomized trials. Further research to develop meshes with optimal parameters is of vital importance and should be encouraged.
DiLorenzo, Miranda; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Holsti, Liisa
This topical review presents the current challenges in defining chronic pain in infants, summarizes evidence from animal and human infant studies regarding the biological processes necessary for chronic pain signaling, and presents observational/experiential evidence from clinical experts. A literature search of four databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE) was conducted, along with hand searches of reference lists. Evidence from animal studies suggest that important neurophysiological mechanisms, such as the availability of key neurotransmitters needed for maintenance of chronic pain, may be immature or absent in the developing neonate. In some cases, human infants may be significantly less likely to develop chronic pain. However, evidence also points to altered pain perception, such as allodynia and hyperalgesia, with significant injury. Moreover, clinicians and parents in pediatric intensive care settings describe groups of infants with altered behavioral responses to repeated or prolonged painful stimuli, yet agreement on a working definition of chronic pain in infancy remains elusive. While our understanding of infant chronic pain is still in the rudimentary stages, a promising avenue for the future assessment of chronic pain in infancy would be to develop a clinical tool that uses both neurophysiological approaches and clinical perceptions already presented in the literature. PMID:27834860
Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter
Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed.
Martikainen, Ilkka K; Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany M; Nuechterlein, Emily B; Cummiford, Chelsea M; Green, Carmen R; Harris, Richard E; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
The absence of consistent end organ abnormalities in many chronic pain syndromes has led to a search for maladaptive CNS mechanisms that may explain their clinical presentations and course. Here, we addressed the role of brain regional μ-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission, one of the best recognized mechanisms of pain regulation, in chronic back pain in human subjects. We compared μ-opioid receptor availability in vivo at baseline, during pain expectation, and with moderate levels of sustained pain in 16 patients with chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP) and in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, using the μ-opioid receptor-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography. We found that CNBP patients showed baseline increases in thalamic μ-opioid receptor availability, contrary to a previously studied sample of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. During both pain expectation and sustained pain challenges, CNBP patients showed regional reductions in the capacity to activate this neurotransmitter system compared with their control sample, further associated with clinical pain and affective state ratings. Our results demonstrate heterogeneity in endogenous opioid system functional measures across pain conditions, and alterations in both receptor availability and endogenous opioid function in CNBP that are relevant to the clinical presentation of these patients and the effects of opioid analgesics on μ-opioid receptors.
Tonial, Leandro Freitas; Stechman, José; Hummig, Wagner
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the relation between the degrees of chronic pain and drowsiness levels. Methods: The study was conducted with 115 patients, who answered the questionnaire as diagnostic criteria in the survey. After evaluation based on the protocol of chronic pain registry RDC/TMD- Axis II, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was applied to assess drowsiness levels. Results: Among the participating patients, there were more females (80%), and the type of pain more prevalent was chronic (70.4%). Concerning the grades of chronic pain, grade II predominated (38.3%), corresponding to high pain intensity and low disability. The ratio observed for levels of sleepiness was more prevalent for sleep debt average (38.3%). Conclusion: The grades of chronic pain and the levels of sleepiness did not correlate with each other or with the gender of patients. PMID:25003919
Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa
Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…
Feng, Frank L.; Schofferman, Jerome
Chronic axial neck pain and cervicogenic headache are common problems, and there have been significant advances in the understanding of the etiology and treatment of each. The severity and duration of pain drives the process. For patients who have had slight to moderate pain that has been present for less than 6 months and have no significant motor loss, strength training of anterior, posterior, and interscapular muscle groups coupled with body mechanics training is prescribed. After 8 weeks, if the patient is better, exercises are continued at home or in a gym. If the patient is not better, physical therapy is continued for up to 8 more weeks. In patients with motor loss or severe pain, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be ordered at the initial visit. In patients with slight to moderate pain who are not better by 4 to 6 months, plain radiographs of the neck and MRI should be ordered. Based on the results, a spinal injection is usually prescribed. If MRI reveals spinal stenosis of the central or lateral canal, or a disc herniation, an epidural corticosteroid injection should be ordered. If the epidural provides good relief, the patient can be referred for more aggressive physical therapy and repeat the epidural as needed up to a maximum of three times. If there is no pathology within the canal, medial branch blocks and intra-articular steroid injections can be ordered based on the joints that are most tender or where disc space narrowing is greatest, or MRI or radiographs are recommended. If there is excellent relief from the medial branch block and joint injections, repeat when the steroids wear off. If there is good relief again, but pain recurs, medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy is recommended. For patients with one or two level disc degeneration that has not responded, a psychologic evaluation and discography is recommended. If there are no significant psychologic abnormalities, and one or two (rarely three) painful discs, surgical
Schwartz, Lindsay F.; Seidman, Laura C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.
Body maps have long been used to assess pain location in adult and pediatric chronic pain patients. Assessing agreement between parent and child reports of pain location using such maps may help establish a unified picture of children’s pain experience. However, few studies have examined the extent of agreement between mothers and children on the location of the child’s pain. Using kappa coefficients and other determinants of the magnitude of kappa we assessed mother-child concordance in pain location using body maps with 21 standardized areas in 41 children with chronic pain (65.9% female, mean age = 14.60) and their mothers. The highest level of agreement was found for the abdominal region; agreement for the head region was moderate and not superior to the other body areas. Approximately half of the body map areas yielded poor to fair mother-child agreement, while the other half yielded moderate or better agreement. There was more agreement between mothers and sons than between mothers and daughters on the total number of body areas considered painful, but there were no effects of pubertal status, race, and ethnicity on agreement. Our results are consistent with previous studies indicating that parent assessments of children’s pain do not necessarily mimic their child’s report. Future research should test additional psychosocial factors that may contribute to parent-child discordance regarding the location of the child’s pain. PMID:26413192
Soriano Pastor, José F; Monsalve Dolz, Vicente; Ibáñez Guerra, Elena; Gómez Carretero, Patricia
We approach the problem about relationships between personality dimensions and the use of coping strategies in chronic pain patients. The most frequently used theoretical model in the area of stress and its relation to pain is the transactional model, taking into account that the incorporation of personality traits improves predictions via coping in the stress process. Following the Big Five model, the relationships between personality and coping strategies in patients with chronical neuropathic pain were established. The results showed slight relationships between the Big-Five dimensions and coping. A vulnerable personality profile in patients with chronic neuropathic pain was obtained, consisting of high neuroticism, low extraversion, openness to experience and responsibility, and moderate agreeableness.
Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Almonte, Wilson; Shaparin, Naum; Pappagallo, Marco; Smith, Howard
In the United States, millions of Americans are affected by chronic pain, which adds heavily to national rates of morbidity, mortality, and disability, with an ever-increasing prevalence. According to a 2011 report titled Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, pain not only exacts its toll on people's lives but also on the economy with an estimated annual economic cost of at least $560 - 635 billion in health care costs and the cost of lost productivity attributed to chronic pain. Intravenous infusions of certain pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with various chronic painful conditions. Some of these infusions are better, and although not necessarily the first therapeutic choice, have been widely used and extensively studied. The others show promise, however are in need of further investigations. This article will focus on non-opiate intravenous infusions that have been utilized for chronic painful disorders such as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, phantom limb pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), diabetic neuropathy, and central pain related to stroke or spinal cord injuries. The management of patients with chronic pain conditions is challenging and continues to evolve as new treatment modalities are explored and tested. The following intravenous infusions used to treat the aforementioned chronic pain conditions will be reviewed: lidocaine, ketamine, phentolamine, dexmedetomidine, and bisphosphonates. This overview is intended to familiarize the practitioner with the variety of infusions for patients with chronic pain. It will not, however, be able to provide guidelines for their use due to the lack of sufficient evidence.
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Crombez, Geert; Goubert, Liesbet; De Houwer, Jan; Onraedt, Thomas; Van Damme, Stefaan
Theoretical accounts of chronic pain hypothesize that attentional bias towards pain-related information is a maintaining or exacerbating factor, fuelling further pain, disability, and distress. However, empirical research testing this idea is currently lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether attentional bias towards pain-related information predicts daily pain-related outcomes in a sample of chronic pain patients (n=69; M(age)=49.64 years; 46 females). During an initial laboratory session, attentional bias to pain-related information was assessed using a modified spatial cueing task. In advance, patients completed a number of self-report measures assessing current pain intensity, current disability, and pain duration. Subsequently, daily pain outcomes (self-reported pain severity, disability, avoidance behaviour, and distractibility) were measured for 2 weeks by means of an electronic diary. Results indicated that, although an attentional bias towards pain-related information was associated with the current level of disability and pain severity, it had no additional value above control variables in predicting daily pain severity, avoidance, distractibility, and disability. Attentional bias towards pain-related information did, however, moderate the relationship between daily pain severity and both daily disability and distractibility, indicating that, particularly in those patients with a strong attentional bias, increases in pain were associated with increased disability and distractibility. The use of interventions that diminish attentional bias may therefore be helpful to reduce daily disability and the level of distraction from current tasks despite the presence of pain in chronic pain patients.
Schütze, Robert; Rees, Clare; Preece, Minette; Schütze, Mark
The relationship between persistent pain and self-directed, non-reactive awareness of present-moment experience (i.e., mindfulness) was explored in one of the dominant psychological theories of chronic pain - the fear-avoidance model. A heterogeneous sample of 104 chronic pain outpatients at a multidisciplinary pain clinic in Australia completed psychometrically sound self-report measures of major variables in this model: Pain intensity, negative affect, pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, pain hypervigilance, and functional disability. Two measures of mindfulness were also used, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale  and the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire . Results showed that mindfulness significantly negatively predicts each of these variables, accounting for 17-41% of their variance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that mindfulness uniquely predicts pain catastrophizing when other variables are controlled, and moderates the relationship between pain intensity and pain catastrophizing. This is the first clear evidence substantiating the strong link between mindfulness and pain catastrophizing, and suggests mindfulness might be added to the fear-avoidance model. Implications for the clinical use of mindfulness in screening and intervention are discussed.
Stone, Amanda L; Wilson, Anna C
Offspring of parents with chronic pain are at increased risk for pain and adverse mental and physical health outcomes (Higgins et al, 2015). Although the association between chronic pain in parents and offspring has been established, few studies have addressed why or how this relation occurs. Identifying mechanisms for the transmission of risk that leads to the development of chronic pain in offspring is important for developing preventive interventions targeted to decrease risk for chronic pain and related outcomes (eg, disability and internalizing symptoms). This review presents a conceptual model for the intergenerational transmission of chronic pain from parents to offspring with the goal of setting an agenda for future research and the development of preventive interventions. Our proposed model highlights 5 potential mechanisms for the relation between parental chronic pain and pediatric chronic pain and related adverse outcomes: (1) genetics, (2) alterations in early neurobiological development, (3) pain-specific social learning, (4), general parenting and family health, and (5) exposure to stressful environment. In addition, the model presents 3 potential moderators for the relation between parent and child chronic pain: (1) the presence of chronic pain in a second parent, (2) timing, course, and location of parental chronic pain, and (3) offspring's characteristics (ie, sex, developmental stage, race or ethnicity, and temperament). Such a framework highlights chronic pain as inherently familial and intergenerational, opening up avenues for new models of intervention and prevention that can be family centered and include at-risk children.
Burns, Stephanie T.
Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…
Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana
Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086
Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E
Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787
Scott, Lori T.
Chronic pain syndrome appears to have certain dimensions which make it unique as a disabling condition. When pain persists, the resulting anxiety and depression, others' reactions to the patient's sick role behaviors, and situational variables such as disability benefits may all contribute to the pain syndrome and complicate the rehabilitation…
Wicksell, Rikard K.; Kanstrup, Marie; Kemani, Mike K.; Holmström, Linda
Pediatric chronic pain is a major health problem commonly associated with impaired functioning. There is a great need for more knowledge regarding the complex interplay between demographic variables such as age and gender, pain, and functioning in pediatric chronic pain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate if; (1) pediatric chronic pain patients with high and low levels of functioning differ in demographic variables, pain, and pain interference; (2) explore the mediating function of pain interference in the relationship between pain and functioning (i.e., depression and functional disability). Method: The study includes a consecutive sample of children and adolescents referred to a tertiary pain clinic due to chronic pain (n = 163). Cross-sectional data was analyzed to investigate the interrelationships between variables. Analyses of indirect effects were used to assess the impact of pain interference on the relation between pain and depression. Results: Findings illustrate high levels of depression, school absence and pain interference in this sample. Furthermore, pain interference mediated the relationship between pain and depression. Conclusion: Thus, this study adds to the growing support of findings suggesting that functioning and pain interference should be routinely assessed in pediatric chronic pain and a central target in treatment. Particularly, these findings imply a need for interventions specifically aimed at improved functioning for patients with chronic debilitating pain. PMID:28082931
Kuner, Rohini; Flor, Herta
Chronic pain is not simply a temporal continuum of acute pain. Studies on functional plasticity in neural circuits of pain have provided mechanistic insights and linked various modulatory factors to a change in perception and behaviour. However, plasticity also occurs in the context of structural remodelling and reorganisation of synapses, cells and circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term nature of chronic pain. This Review discusses maladaptive structural plasticity in neural circuits of pain, spanning multiple anatomical and spatial scales in animal models and human patients, and addresses key questions on structure-function relationships.
Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa
Several empirical studies have shown that personal characteristics act as differential variables, which determine how pain is experienced and how the chronic pain patient adjusts to pain. The main aim of the present research is to review the relationships between some dispositional characteristics and pain adjustment. Taking into account the empirical literature, 6 personality traits that are relevant to the pain experience have been selected: neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and experiential avoidance as risk factors that increase the probability of patients experiencing a disability; and extraversion, optimism, and resilience as personal resources that increase their capacity to manage pain effectively. The results suggest that it would be useful to include an assessment of normal personality structure during the multi-dimensional evaluation of a person with chronic pain. Understanding these individual personality characteristics will aid in designing pain intervention programs and help predict possible treatment outcomes.
Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert
Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain.
Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.
In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in
Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G
In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the
Nickel, J. Curtis
Acceptance of the National Institutes of Health definition of Category III Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and the development and validation of the Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index has stimulated significant research into treatment of this condition. Evidence-based suggestions for treatment include the following. (i) Antimicrobials cannot be recommended for men with longstanding, previously treated CP/CPPS. (ii) Alpha-blockers can be recommended as first-line medical therapy, particularly in alpha-blocker-naïve men with moderately severe symptoms who have relatively recent onset of symptoms. (iii) Alpha-blockers cannot be recommended in men with longstanding CP/CPPS who have tried and failed alpha-blockers in the past. And (iv) anti-inflammatory therapy, finasteride and pentosan polysulfate are not recommended as primary treatment; however, they may have a useful adjunctive role in a multimodal therapeutic regimen. Early data on herbal therapies, particularly quercetin and cernilton, are intriguing, but larger multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trials are required before a high level of evidence recommendation can be made on its use. At this time, surgery (including minimally invasive) is recommended only for definitive indications and not generally for CP/CPPS. PMID:17954024
Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Amirzadeh, Kimia; Mohabbati, Vahid; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza
Background: The effects of chronic pain (CP) on physical function and emotional and mental health of individuals, families, and community are well established. No adequate research is conducted in this field in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of CP, types of treatments used for CP and patients’ satisfaction with the CP treatments in an Iranian urban population. Patients and Methods: In the current study, CP was investigated using the international CP questionnaire administered to 1,050 adults living in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions used to evaluate the effects of CP on the studied population including the prevalence of CP, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CP, and participants’ satisfaction with CP treatments. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the current study, 6.95% of the 1,050 subjects willing to participate in the study had CP for more than six months. According to the results, 54% of the subjects with CP used analgesics, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotic analgesics. Besides, 37% of the subjects used other pain relief methods such as traditional medicine and acupuncture. The results also showed an acceptable rate of satisfaction with treatments. Conclusions: The number of subjects with CP proved it as a prevalent problem in the study population. Furthermore, characteristics and associations of those experiencing CP demonstrated that it might have significant negative health and psychosocial outcomes in this group. The problem was found significant enough to consider special health programs to prevent and manage CP in urban population of Shiraz. PMID:26473099
Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M.
Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27879686
Renton, Tara; Kahwaja, Nadine
Neuropathic pain is a significant social and economic burden. Back pain, joint pain and headaches affect over 30% of the population. Chronic orofacial pain is a common condition and is difficult to diagnose and manage. This two-part paper aims to provide an overview of novel understanding of neuropathic pain, and furnish clinical teams with an update on the less common and less well-recognized chronic orofacial conditions. Headaches and temporomandibular disorders are the most common conditions and are covered in separate papers (6 and 10). Trigeminal neuralgia, burning mouth, and trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are also covered in separate papers (7, 8 and 9). The remaining conditions: post-traumatic neuropathy (nerve injury); and persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia are discussed in this and the following paper. Clinical Relevance: Neuropathic pain, though rare, is a consequence of dental treatment. Nerve injury in relation to M3M surgery, dental implants, endodontics and local anaesthesia result in 70% of affected patients experiencing chronic neuropathic pain.
Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A
Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.
Driessen, Bernd; Bauquier, Sébastien H; Zarucco, Laura
Managing pain in horses afflicted by chronic laminitis is one of the greatest challenges in equine clinical practice because it is the dreadful suffering of the animals that most often forces the veterinarian to end the battle with this disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in generating and amplifying pain in animals with laminitis and, based on this information, to propose a modified approach to pain therapy. Furthermore, a recently developed pain scoring technique is presented that may help better quantify pain and the monitoring of responses to analgesic treatment in horses with laminitis.
Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A
Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.
Medvedeva, L A; Zagorul'ko, O I; Gnezdilov, A V
The literature on methods of invasive local treatment of chronic pain was analyzed. We reviewed 14 publications including meta-analyses and systematic reviews. The use of regional anesthesia conducted by anesthesiologists in pain clinics demonstrated the evidence based efficacy of different types of peridural injections of local anesthetics with steroids in patients with root pain syndromes at cervical and lumbar levels. Therapeutic blockades of the occipital nerve is effective method of treatment of cervicogenic and cluster headache as well as occipital nerve neuralgia. There are clear indications of the efficacy of local injections in primary chronic cephalgia (migraine and headache of tension). The possibility of the abortion of the pain information flow in peripheral nociceptive pathways and, as a consequence, breaking the vicious circle is emphasized. Issues on the efficacy of local injections at trigger points in the treatment of chronic pain are highlighted.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164156.html Shingles Vaccine Cuts Chronic Pain, Hospitalizations Protection lasts years after ... age, researchers said. The new study showed the vaccine was 74 percent effective in preventing hospitalizations for ...
Souza, Israel; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Caumo, Wolnei; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes
The aim of this study was to identify resilience profiles of patients with chronic pain. Using latent class analysis in a sample of 414 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, three profiles were identified: primary resilience (40%), consisting of individuals 40 years or younger with high education, who seek medical care, are not working, and without symptoms of psychological stress; secondary resilience (30%), consisting of women over 54 years of age with low schooling, who seek medical care, are not working, and with low likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress; tertiary resilience (29%), women with medium schooling, 40 to 54 years old, working, who do not seek medical care, and with a high likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress. The three profiles display different paths of resilience in chronic pain that are relevant to clinical practice, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary care for patients with chronic pain.
Smith, Christopher P.
Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome collectively referred to as urologic CPPS (UCPPS) is defined by the absence of identifiable bacterial infection as a cause for the chronic pain and urinary symptoms. Methods: A PubMed search of all recent relevant articles using the keywords/phrases: CPPS, CPPS, and male pelvic pain, was conducted. Results: CPPS has a high worldwide prevalence and its negative impact on quality of life compares with or exceeds common chronic morbidities. Triggers include certain comestibles as well as psychosocial factors that promote catastrophizing and illness focused behavior. Several validated tools are currently available to help diagnose and direct targeted therapy. Treatment should begin with the most simple and least invasive based on the presenting clinical phenotype. Conclusions: Although no gold-standard treatment exists, a multidisciplinary approach with multimodal therapy gives the UCPPS patient the best chance of symptom relief. PMID:26941492
Keefe, Francis J.; Beckham, Jean C.
Orofacial pain is usually evaluated and treated from a biomedical perspective. There is no question that the large majority of individuals having acute orofacial pain benefit from timely and appropriate medical intervention. When orofacial pain persists, however, the likelihood that this pain can influence and be influenced by behavioral factors increases. While some individuals are able to adapt and cope with chronic orofacial pain, others develop significant behavioral problems. These problems may include an overly sedentary lifestyle, dependence on habit-forming narcotic medications, or severe depression or anxiety. The hallmark of the behavioral perspective on chronic pain is the insistence that a careful assessment and treatment of such behavioral problems is just as important as appropriate biomedical intervention.1 PMID:2085202
Lieberman, Gregory; Shpaner, Marina; Watts, Richard; Andrews, Trevor; Filippi, Christopher G.; Davis, Marcia; Naylor, Magdalena R.
There is emerging evidence that chronic musculoskeletal pain is associated with anatomical and functional abnormalities in gray matter. However, little research has investigated the relationship between chronic musculoskeletal pain and white matter (WM). In this study, we used whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics, and region-of-interest analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to demonstrate that patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain exhibit several abnormal WM integrity as compared to healthy controls. Chronic musculoskeletal pain was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium of corpus callosum, and left cingulum adjacent to the hippocampus. Patients also had higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium, right anterior and posterior limbs of internal capsule, external capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cerebral peduncle. Patterns of axial diffusivity (AD) varied: patients exhibited lower AD in the left cingulum adjacent to the hippocampus and higher AD bilaterally in the anterior limbs of internal capsule, and in the right cerebral peduncle. Several correlations between diffusion metrics and clinical variables were also significant at a p<0.01 level: FA in the left uncinate fasciculus correlated positively with Total Pain Experience and typical levels of pain severity. AD in the left anterior limb of internal capsule and left uncinate fasciculus were correlated with Total Pain Experience and typical pain level. Positive correlations were also found between AD in the right uncinate and both Total Pain Experience and Pain Catastrophizing. These results demonstrate that WM abnormalities play a role in chronic musculoskeletal pain; either as a cause, predisposing factor, consequence, or compensatory adaptation. PMID:25135468
Borsook, David; Moulton, Eric A; Schmidt, Karl F; Becerra, Lino R
An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1) Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2) Functional Imaging (fMRI) that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI); (3) Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS) has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS. PMID:17848191
Callegari, Camilla; Salvaggio, Fabio; Gerlini, Anna; Vender, Simone
Chronic pain is a widespread problem in general medicine and in psychiatry. It consists in physical and psychic elements. The pain has a specific role, a different frequency and a different intensity in each mental illness. Medical treatments can get benefit from psychiatric drugs.
Weisberg, J N; Vaillancourt, P D
It has long been recognized that there is a relationship between certain personality types and personality disorders (PD) and chronic nonmalignant pain (CP). The relationship, however, is far from understood and the physiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie it are unclear. Those who treat chronic pain face many challenges when dealing with individuals who have personality disorders and they often become frustrated when interacting with these patients. Patients with certain traits and personality disorders may continue to worry and ruminate about their symptoms long after the tissue pathology has resolved. Other individuals may overly rely on the clinician and assume a passive role in their treatment, thereby decreasing the likelihood for a positive outcome. Moreover, patients with personality disorders may be demanding (eg, borderline), self-absorbed (eg, narcissistic), or substance seeking (eg, antisocial, borderline). In an attempt to improve management of such patients, pain specialists have attempted to better understand the complex relationship between personality and chronic pain. In this article, we will review the predominant historical and current theories of pain and personality, discuss aspects of the gate-control theory of pain that may relate to personality, and discuss the diathesis-stress model of personality disorders in pain. Last, we will review studies of personality and personality disorders in chronic pain and their treatment implications. We conclude that, based on the underlying neurochemistry, there may be a direct or indirect link between PD and CP, but further prospective research, both on the biological and psychological relationship, should be conducted.
A child or adolescent can suffer from chronic pain. Whatever the causes, it can trap the child in a specific process whereby they focus on the pain, fearing that it will appear and experiencing anxiety. Hypno-analgesia and hypnotherapy enable them to escape this process and find within themselves the capacity to face up to the pain. Moreover, these techniques offer them an autonomy which they can use in all areas of their life.
Alshelh, Zeynab; Di Pietro, Flavia; Youssef, Andrew M; Reeves, Jenna M; Macey, Paul M; Vickers, E Russell; Peck, Christopher C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A
The neural mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic neuropathic pain remain unclear. Evidence from human investigations suggests that neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic burst firing and thalamocortical dysrhythmia. Additionally, experimental animal investigations show that neuropathic pain is associated with altered infra-slow (<0.1 Hz) frequency oscillations within the dorsal horn and somatosensory thalamus. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether, in humans, neuropathic pain was also associated with altered infra-slow oscillations within the ascending "pain" pathway. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that individuals with orofacial neuropathic pain have increased infra-slow oscillatory activity throughout the ascending pain pathway, including within the spinal trigeminal nucleus, somatosensory thalamus, thalamic reticular nucleus, and primary somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, these infra-slow oscillations were temporally coupled across these multiple sites and occurred at frequencies similar to calcium waves in activated astrocytes. The region encompassing the spinal trigeminal nucleus also displayed increased regional homogeneity, consistent with a local spread of neural activity by astrocyte activation. In contrast, no increase in oscillatory behavior within the ascending pain pathway occurred during acute noxious stimuli in healthy individuals. These data reveal increased oscillatory activity within the ascending pain pathway that likely underpins increased thalamocortical oscillatory activity, a self-sustaining thalamocortical dysrhythmia, and the constant perception of pain. Significance statement: Chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic firing and thalamocortical dysrhythmia. The mechanisms responsible for these changes remain unknown. In this study, we report in individuals with neuropathic pain increased oscillatory neural activity within the
Světlík, Svatopluk; Hronová, Karolína; Bakhouche, Hana; Matoušková, Olga; Slanař, Ondřej
This paper reviews the impact of genetic variability of drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and pathways involved in chronic pain perception on the efficacy and safety of analgesics and other drugs used for chronic pain treatment. Several candidate genes have been identified in the literature, while there is usually only limited clinical evidence substantiating for the penetration of the testing for these candidate biomarkers into the clinical practice. Further, the pain-perception regulation and modulation are still not fully understood, and thus more complex knowledge of genetic and epigenetic background for analgesia will be needed prior to the clinical use of the candidate genetic biomarkers. PMID:23766564
Furquim, Bruno D'Aurea; Flamengui, Lívia Maria Sales Pinto; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues
This review aims at presenting a current view on the physiopathologic mechanisms associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). While joint pain is characterized by a well-defined inflammatory process mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin, chronic muscle pain presents with enigmatic physiopathologic mechanisms, being considered a functional pain syndrome similar to fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Central sensitization is the common factor unifying these conditions, and may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system and genetic polymorphisms. Thus, TMDs symptoms should be understood as a complex response which might get worse or improve depending on an individual's adaptation. PMID:25741834
Smith, Diane; Wilkie, Ross; Uthman, Olalekan; Jordan, Joanne L.; McBeth, John
Background Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality. Methods A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia) and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies. Results Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n = 7)(I2 = 78.8%) and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95–1.37) for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n = 5,I2 = 82.3%) MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93–1.60). The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors. Conclusion This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn
Okifuji, Akiko; Hare, Bradford D
Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two conditions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit. PMID:26203274
Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Augustyn, Jason S.; Cook, Andrew J.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
Spatial perception is sensitive to the energetic costs required to perform intended actions. For example, hills look steeper to people who are fatigued or burdened by a heavy load. Similarly, perceived distance is also influenced by the energy required to walk or throw to a target. Such experiments demonstrate that perception is a function, not just of optical information, but also of the perceiver’s potential to act and the energetic costs associated with the intended action. In the current paper, we expand on the notion of “cost” by examining perceived distance in patients diagnosed with chronic pain, a multifactorial disease, which is experienced while walking. We found that chronic pain patients perceive target distances to be farther away than a control group. These results indicate the physical, and perhaps emotional, costs of chronic pain affect spatial perceptions. PMID:18949471
Courtney, Carol A; O'Hearn, Michael A; Franck, Carla C
The Mexican artist Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) is one of the most celebrated artists of the 20th century. Although famous for her colorful self-portraits and associations with celebrities Diego Rivera and Leon Trotsky, less known is the fact that she had lifelong chronic pain. Frida Kahlo developed poliomyelitis at age 6 years, was in a horrific trolley car accident in her teens, and would eventually endure numerous failed spinal surgeries and, ultimately, limb amputation. She endured several physical, emotional, and psychological traumas in her lifetime, yet through her art, she was able to transcend a life of pain and disability. Of her work, her self-portraits are conspicuous in their capacity to convey her life experience, much of which was imbued with chronic pain. Signs and symptoms of chronic neuropathic pain and central sensitization of nociceptive pathways are evident when analyzing her paintings and medical history. This article uses a narrative approach to describe how events in the life of this artist contributed to her chronic pain. The purpose of this article is to discuss Frida Kahlo's medical history and her art from a modern pain sciences perspective, and perhaps to increase our understanding of the pain experience from the patient's perspective.
Lynch, Kara L.; Shapiro, Brad J.; Coffa, Diana; Novak, Scott P.; Kral, Alex H.
Background Concomitant use of opioids and promethazine has been reported in various subpopulations, including methadone maintenance patients, injection drug users, and at-risk teenagers. Promethazine is thought to potentiate the “high” from opioids. However, to date, the prevalence of promethazine use has not been determined among patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Methods Urine samples from 921 patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain were analyzed for promethazine. Demographic data, toxicology results, and opioid prescription information were obtained through medical record abstraction. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariable and multivariable statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine-positive urine samples among chronic pain patients was 9%. Only 50% of promethazine-positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Having benzodiazepine-positive urine with no prescription for a benzodiazepine was statistically associated with promethazine use. Also, having a prescription for methadone for pain or being in methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence were both statistically associated with promethazine use. Chronic pain patients prescribed only a long-acting opioid were more likely to have promethazine-positive urines than patients prescribed a short-acting opioid. Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence of significant promethazine use in chronic pain patients. Promethazine should be considered as a potential drug of abuse that could cause increased morbidity in opioid-using populations. PMID:25754939
Ji, Ru-Rong; Berta, Temugin; Nedergaard, Maiken
Activation of glial cells and neuro-glial interactions are emerging as key mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Accumulating evidence has implicated 3 types of glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain: microglia and astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), and satellite glial cells of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Painful syndromes are associated with different glial activation states: (1) glial reaction (ie, upregulation of glial markers such as IBA1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and/or morphological changes, including hypertrophy, proliferation, and modifications of glial networks); (2) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways; (3) upregulation of adenosine triphosphate and chemokine receptors and hemichannels and downregulation of glutamate transporters; and (4) synthesis and release of glial mediators (eg, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases) to the extracellular space. Although widely detected in chronic pain resulting from nerve trauma, inflammation, cancer, and chemotherapy in rodents, and more recently, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy in human beings, glial reaction (activation state 1) is not thought to mediate pain sensitivity directly. Instead, activation states 2 to 4 have been demonstrated to enhance pain sensitivity via a number of synergistic neuro-glial interactions. Glial mediators have been shown to powerfully modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission at presynaptic, postsynaptic, and extrasynaptic sites. Glial activation also occurs in acute pain conditions, and acute opioid treatment activates peripheral glia to mask opioid analgesia. Thus, chronic pain could be a result of "gliopathy," that is, dysregulation of glial functions in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances and discuss remaining questions.
Aytekin, Ebru; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Komut, Ece Akyol; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Demiryontar, Dilay Yilmaz
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to assess the relationship between sleep disorder and pain, quality of life, and disability. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four patients were included in the study and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe obstructive sleep apnea. Chronic widespread pain, quality of life, and disability were evaluated. [Results] Forty-one patients (55.4%) had chronic widespread pain. Female patients had a higher incidence of chronic pain, and female patients with chronic pain had higher body mass indexes, pain levels, and disability scores than did male patients. Physical component scores of female patients with chronic pain were lower than those of male patients. No correlation was observed between the degree of sleep disorder and severity of pain, pain duration, disability, or quality of life in obstructive sleep apnea patients with pain. [Conclusion] This study showed a 55.4% prevalence of chronic widespread pain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a greater risk of chronic pain in female than in male patients. Female patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic pain have higher pain and disability levels and a lower quality of life. PMID:26504332
Mishra, Atul; Nar, Amandeep Singh; Bawa, Ashvind; Kaur, Gurinder; Bawa, Sayesha; Mishra, Seema
Introduction: Chronic post–thoracotomy pain (CPP) has very high incidence and therefore it needs attention. Usually, it is burning, dysaesthetic and aching in nature and it displays many features of neuropathic pain. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the incidence of chronic post thoracotomy pain. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with chronic post–thoracotomy pain. Methods: This prospective, randomized study was conducted on 50 consenting patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. 25 patients were given pregabalin for 21 days (Group A). Another 25 were given diclofenac sodium (Group B) on demand and they escaped treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 7, then follow up was done at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The data was analyzed by using t-test and Chi- square test for various variables. Results: The pain VAS scores in Group A were significantly low at all observation points except on day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operatively, when the difference in pain scores in both the groups were comparable. The overall pain scores of Group A were comparable at day 0, day 1 and at day 7 as compared to those of Group B (p>0.9). Pain was significantly low at three weeks (p<0.05). Pain scores of Group A were significantly low at 6 weeks,12 weeks and 24 weeks as compared to those of Group B (p<0.001) and the difference was statistically significant. No significant adverse reactions were observed during study period. Conclusion: Pregabalin is a safe and an effective adjuvant which is used for reducing the chronic post thoracotomy pain, which has no side effects and a high patient compliance. These results should be supported with multidisciplinary studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups. PMID:24086867
Reid, Kathy; Simmonds, Mark; Verrier, Michelle; Dick, Bruce
Chronic pain is a significant problem in children and teens, and adolescents with chronic pain often struggle to attend school on a regular basis. We present in this article a novel program we developed that integrates attendance at a group cognitive-behavioural chronic pain self-management program with earning high school credits. We collaborated with Alberta Education in the development of this course, Chronic Pain 35. Adolescents who choose to enroll are invited to demonstrate their scientific knowledge related to pain, understanding of and engagement with treatment homework, and demonstrate their creativity by completing a project, which demonstrates at least one concept. Integrating Chronic Pain 35 into an adolescent's academic achievements is a creative strategy that facilitates the engagement of adolescents in learning and adopting pain coping techniques. It also helps teens to advocate for themselves in the school environment and improve their parents' and teachers' understanding of adolescent chronic pain. This is one of the first successful collaborations between a pediatric health program and provincial education leaders, aimed at integrating learning and obtaining school credit for learning about and engaging in health self-management for teens. The authors hope this paper serves as an effective reference model for any future collaborating programs aimed at supporting teens with chronic pain to obtain high school credits.
Reid, Kathy; Simmonds, Mark; Verrier, Michelle; Dick, Bruce
Chronic pain is a significant problem in children and teens, and adolescents with chronic pain often struggle to attend school on a regular basis. We present in this article a novel program we developed that integrates attendance at a group cognitive-behavioural chronic pain self-management program with earning high school credits. We collaborated with Alberta Education in the development of this course, Chronic Pain 35. Adolescents who choose to enroll are invited to demonstrate their scientific knowledge related to pain, understanding of and engagement with treatment homework, and demonstrate their creativity by completing a project, which demonstrates at least one concept. Integrating Chronic Pain 35 into an adolescent’s academic achievements is a creative strategy that facilitates the engagement of adolescents in learning and adopting pain coping techniques. It also helps teens to advocate for themselves in the school environment and improve their parents’ and teachers’ understanding of adolescent chronic pain. This is one of the first successful collaborations between a pediatric health program and provincial education leaders, aimed at integrating learning and obtaining school credit for learning about and engaging in health self-management for teens. The authors hope this paper serves as an effective reference model for any future collaborating programs aimed at supporting teens with chronic pain to obtain high school credits. PMID:27869766
Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre
Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.
A multicenter, primary-care-based, open-label study to assess the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain to morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules using a standardized conversion guide
Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Pixton, Glenn C; Berke, Robert; Calkins, Anne; Goli, Veeraindar
Objective To evaluate the conversion of opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain to extended-release morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride (MSN) using a standardized conversion guide. Methods This open-label, single-arm study was conducted in 157 primary care centers in the United States. A total of 684 opioid-experienced adults with chronic moderate-to-severe pain were converted to oral administration of MSN from transdermal fentanyl and oral formulations of hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and other morphine products using a standardized conversion guide. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving a stable MSN dose within a 6-week titration phase. Secondary endpoints included duration of time to stable dose, number of titration steps, safety and efficacy measures, and investigator assessment of conversion guide utility. Results Of the 684 patients, 51.3% were converted to a stable dose of MSN (95% confidence interval: 47.5%, 55.1%). The mean (standard deviation) number of days to stable dose was 20 (8.94), and number of titration steps to stable dose was 2.4 (1.37). The majority of adverse events were mild/moderate and consistent with opioid therapy. Mean pain scores at stable dose decreased from baseline. Investigators were generally satisfied with the conversion guide and, in 94% of cases, reported they would use it again. Conclusion Conversion to MSN treatment using the standardized MSN conversion guide was an attainable goal in approximately half of the population of opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain. Investigators found the guide to be a useful tool to assist conversion of opioid-experienced patients to MSN. PMID:26185466
Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.
Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078
Woo, Aaron; Lechner, Breanne; Fu, Terence; Wong, C Shun; Chiu, Nicholas; Lam, Henry; Pulenzas, Natalie; Soliman, Hany; DeAngelis, Carlo; Chow, Edward
Defining cut points (CPs) for varying levels of pain intensity is important for assessing changes in patient's functional status, and guiding the development and evaluation of treatment options. We aimed to summarize CPs identified in the literature for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the numeric rating scale (NRS), and recommend optimal CPs for cancer and non-cancer patients. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (inception to May 2015) for studies that used CPs to classify pain intensity on the NRS among patients with cancer or non-cancer conditions leading to acute or chronic pain. A CP was defined as the upper bound of a mild or moderate pain category. Of 1,556 identified articles, 27 were included for review. Among patients with cancer pain, mild-moderate pain CPs ranged from 1 to 4 (mean, 3.5±1.08), with CP4 being the most recommended CP (80%). For moderate-severe pain, CPs ranged from 4 to 7 (mean, 6.2±0.92), and CP6 (50%) was the optimal CPs. Among patients with non-cancer pain, mild-moderate pain CPs ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 3.62±0.78), and CP4 was the most frequently used CP (52.9%). For moderate-severe non-cancer pain, CPs ranged from 4 to 8 (mean, 6.5±0.99), and CP6 (41.2%) was the most frequently recommended CP. A wide range of CPs for mild, moderate, and severe pain categories were identified in the literature among both cancer and non-cancer patient populations. Further studies are needed to delineate more accurate and precise CPs for pain intensity.
Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J
Background This review updates parts of two earlier Cochrane reviews investigating effects of gabapentin in chronic neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). Antiepileptic drugs are used to manage pain, predominantly for chronic neuropathic pain, especially when the pain is lancinating or burning. Objectives To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness and adverse effects of gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain management. Search methods We identified randomised trials of gabapentin in acute, chronic or cancer pain from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. We obtained clinical trial reports and synopses of published and unpublished studies from Internet sources. The date of the most recent search was January 2011. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind studies reporting the analgesic and adverse effects of gabapentin in neuropathic pain with assessment of pain intensity and/or pain relief, using validated scales. Participants were adults aged 18 and over. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTs), concentrating on IMM-PACT (Initiative on Methods, Measurement and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials) definitions of at least moderate and substantial benefit, and to harm (NNH) for adverse effects and withdrawal. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed-effect model. Main results Twenty-nine studies (3571 participants), studied gabapentin at daily doses of 1200 mg or more in 12 chronic pain conditions; 78% of participants were in studies of postherpetic neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy or mixed neuropathic pain. Using the IMMPACT definition of at least moderate benefit, gabapentin was superior to placebo in 14 studies with 2831 participants, 43% improving with gabapentin and 26% with placebo; the NNT was 5.8 (4.8 to 7.2). Using the IMMPACT definition of substantial benefit, gabapentin was superior to placebo in 13 studies with 2627 participants, 31% improving with
Epstein, Lawrence J; Palmieri, Marco
Since its introduction as a procedure of last resort in a terminally ill patient with intractable cancer-related pain, spinal cord stimulation has been used to effectively treat chronic pain of varied origins. Spinal cord stimulation is commonly used for control of pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome, as well as pain from angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and other causes. By stimulating one or more electrodes implanted in the posterior epidural space, the patient feels paresthesias in their areas of pain, which reduces the level of pain. Pain is reduced without the side effects associated with analgesic medications. Patients have improved quality of life and improved function, with many returning to work. Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be cost effective as compared with conservative management alone. There is strong evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of pain associated with intractable angina, failed back surgery syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. In this article, we review the history and pathophysiology of spinal cord stimulation, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for efficacy in common clinical practice.
Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.
Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…
Carey, Erin T; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Advancements in further understanding the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes continue to direct therapy. The mechanisms of chronic pelvic pain are often multifactorial and therefore require a multidisciplinary approach. The final treatment plan is often an accumulation of organ-specific treatment and chronic pain medications directed to the CNS and PNS. This article is a review of commonly used medications for chronic pelvic neuropathic pain disorders as well as an introduction to recent innovative developments in pain medicine.
Carey, Erin T; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Advancements in further understanding the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes continue to direct therapy. The mechanisms of chronic pelvic pain are often multifactorial and therefore require a multidisciplinary approach. The final treatment plan is often an accumulation of organ-specific treatment and chronic pain medications directed to the CNS and PNS. This article is a review of commonly used medications for chronic pelvic neuropathic pain disorders as well as an introduction to recent innovative developments in pain medicine. PMID:28116131
At least 5 million patients with chronic and severely debilitating pain exist among the adult population in Germany, i.e. 8% of this population. Various biological and psychosocial risk factors contribute to the continuing chronicity of pain, resulting in enormous direct and indirect costs totalling an estimated 38 billion euro annually. The introduction of a medical specialty for pain treatment in 1998 has not appreciably affected the quality of outpatient pain management. In contrast, more recent approaches of multimodal treatment, including medical, psychological and behavioral components, have shown a significant and lasting effect in patients with a high incidence of workplace incapacitation and sick leave. In particular, the GRIP pilot project (Göttingen Intensive Back Project) has resulted in an increased rate (to 200%) of return to the workplace and in a decrease in health system expenses to 50% of the pretreatment level.
Chronic orofacial myalgia is characterized by muscle pain, tenderness, stiffness, and restricted range of mandibular movement. It can be localized and due to temporomandibular disorders, or part of a generalized myalgia, e.g. fibromyalgia. The etiology and pathophysiology are unclear, but it is reasonable to assume that both peripheral and central mechanisms take part. Peripheral sensitization by serotonin and other mediators is a possible mechanism behind the development and modulation of chronic myalgia, while amplification of pain due to central sensitization in conjunction with disordered antinociception may represent the mechanisms for the maintenance of pain. Central sensitization seems to involve wind-up phenomena due to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors located on second-order neurons in the brainstem. Derangements in descending endogenous pain modulating systems due to central serotonin deficiency may explain the disordered antinociception.
Joong, Mo Ahn; El-Khoury, Georges Y
Chronic foot pain is a common and often disabling clinical complaint that can interfere with a patient's routine activities. Despite careful and detailed clinical history and physical examination, providing an accurate diagnosis is often difficult because chronic foot pain has a broad spectrum of potential causes. Therefore, imaging studies play a key role in diagnosis and management. Initial assessment is typically done by plain radiography; however, magnetic resonance imaging has superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, which makes it important in the early diagnosis of ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases when initial radiographic findings are inconclusive. Computed tomography displays bony detail in stress fractures, as well as in arthritides and tarsal coalition. Bone scanning and ultrasonography also are useful tools for diagnosing specific conditions that produce chronic foot pain.
The acute whiplash injury is a significant health burden for patients and the healthcare system. Traditional approaches to treatment fail to resolve this ever growing medicolegal and social problem. A new biopsychosocial model of whiplash disorder encourages new ways of treating and preventing of the chronic disability. This biopsychosocial model takes into account the mechanism by which acute pain becomes chronic pain, and how this can be prevented. Specific education and treatments encourage a behaviour after whiplash injury that is conducive to more rapid recovery, and provides the whiplash patient with insight into the mediators of chronic pain. The article describes in practical terms how to use education, reassurance, a more judicious use of therapy, and exercise to achieve this goal. Practical guidelines are provided on educating the patient about other symptoms that may cause concern. PMID:12421777
In chronic pain trials, proper handling of missing data due to dropout is an important issue because the dropout rate is high and the study conclusion may depend on the method chosen. The intent-to-treat (ITT) principle usually requires imputations for missing data to include the dropouts as well as completers in the statistical analysis. However, a statistical analysis with imputation might lead to a misinterpretation of clinical data. In chronic pain trials, treatment-related dropouts are clinical outcomes themselves. For example, an early dropout due to toxicity usually indicates a treatment failure, as does a dropout due to lack of efficacy. Problems with traditional methods such as last observation carried forward (LOCF) or baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) are identified especially in the chronic pain setting. Alternative methods, such as continuous responder analysis and two-part model analysis, treating dropouts as clinical events, are introduced with an example of osteoarthritis clinical trial data.
Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene
Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been related to pain levels in both patients experiencing acute or chronic pain and in healthy volunteers exposed to experimental pain. Still, it is unclear whether high levels of pain catastrophizing lead to high levels of pain or vice versa. We therefore tested whether levels of pain catastrophizing could be increased and decreased in the same participant through hypnotic suggestions and whether the altered level of situation-specific pain catastrophizing was related to increased and decreased pain levels, respectively. Using the spontaneous pain of 22 patients with chronic tension-type headache and experimentally induced pain in 22 healthy volunteers, participants were tested in 3 randomized sessions where they received 3 types of hypnotic suggestions: Negative (based on the 13 items in the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), Positive (coping-oriented reversion of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and Neutral (neutral sentence) hypnotic suggestions. The hypnotic suggestions significantly increased and decreased situation-specific PC in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Also, the levels of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were significantly altered in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analyses showed that changes in pain catastrophizing predicted changes in pain in patients (R = 0.204-0.304; P < 0.045) and in healthy volunteers (R = 0.328-0.252; P < 0.018). This is the first study to successfully manipulate PC in positive and negative directions in both patients with chronic pain and healthy volunteers and to show that these manipulations significantly influence pain levels. These findings may have important theoretical and clinical implications.
Lefort, Paul E.
Sooner or later, all family physicians will face patients with chronic low back pain. This disorder does not result from the same causes and does not respond to the same treatment as acute back pain. A thorough assessment is the key to efficient treatment and should include data about familial, social, and occupational environments. The treatment should be multimodal and tailored to the patient's type of personality and to the causes of the syndrome. PMID:21249069
Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N
The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612
Vadivelu, Nalini; Timchenko, Alexander; Huang, Yili; Sinatra, Raymond
Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic with a dual mechanism of action of mu receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. Tapentadol immediate-release is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate-to-severe acute pain. It was developed to decrease the intolerability issue associated with opioids. Tapentadol extended-release has a 12-hour duration of effect, and has recently been evaluated for pain in patients with chronic osteoarthritis, low back pain, and pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Tapentadol extended-release was found to provide safe and highly effective analgesia for the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including moderate-to-severe chronic osteoarthritis pain and low back pain. Initial trials demonstrating efficacy in neuropathic pain suggest that tapentadol has comparable analgesic effectiveness and better gastrointestinal tolerability than opioid comparators, and demonstrates effectiveness in settings of inflammatory, somatic, and neuropathic pain. Gastrointestinal intolerance and central nervous system effects were the major adverse events noted. Tapentadol will need to be rigorously tested in chronic neuropathic pain, cancer-related pain, and cancer-related neuropathic pain. PMID:21887118
Hess, Leonardo Emanuel; Haimovici, Ariel; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Montoya, Pedro
Risky decision-making seems to be markedly disrupted in patients with chronic pain, probably due to the high cost that impose pain and negative mood on executive control functions. Patients’ behavioral performance on decision-making tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is characterized by selecting cards more frequently from disadvantageous than from advantageous decks, and by switching often between competing responses in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). In the present study, we developed a simple heuristic model to simulate individuals’ choice behavior by varying the level of decision randomness and the importance given to gains and losses. The findings revealed that the model was able to differentiate the behavioral performance of patients with chronic pain and HCs at the group, as well as at the individual level. The best fit of the model in patients with chronic pain was yielded when decisions were not based on previous choices and when gains were considered more relevant than losses. By contrast, the best account of the available data in HCs was obtained when decisions were based on previous experiences and losses loomed larger than gains. In conclusion, our model seems to provide useful information to measure each individual participant extensively, and to deal with the data on a participant-by-participant basis. PMID:25136301
Loncarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Milošević, Milan; Žilić, Antonio; Mišković, Petar; Majerić-Kogler, Višnja; Žunić, Josip
The aim of the study was to show the role of tools in the evaluation of chronic pain (CP) in general practitioner (GP) everyday clinical practice. The study was done by analyzing electronic database of the first visits of 1090 CP patients referred to the Pain Clinic of the Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia, by their GPs. All patient records were analyzed according to the cause of CP, strongest pain a week before the examination, quality of sleep, and the Patients' Global Impression of Change scale. All statistical analyses were done using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 188.8.131.52 (www.spss.com). CP predominantly occurs in older age group. Patients with musculoskeletal pain accounted for the highest percentage (n = 316; 29%), followed by those with neuropathic pain (n = 253; 23.20%) and those with low back pain (n = 225; 20.60%). The mean pain intensity rating scale score was 8.3 ± 1.8 a week before the examination and the mean quality of sleep score was 6.8 ± 1.9. Moderate and severe sleep quality disorder was significantly present in patients over 65 years of age (p = 0.007), patients with musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain, back pain, and those having rated Patients' Global Impression of Change scale as worsening (p = 0.001). The severity of pain and poor quality of sleep are the leading causes of deterioration of the Patients' Global Impression of Change scale in patients suffering from musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. In order to treat CP comprehensively, it is important for GPs to evaluate the outcomes of clinical treatment using tools for CP assessment.
Vadivelu, Nalini; Huang, Yili; Mirante, Brian; Jacoby, Michael; Braveman, Ferne R; Hines, Roberta L; Sinatra, Raymond
Poorly controlled acute and chronic pain can increase morbidity, impair quality of life and prolong disability. Over 80 percent of post surgical patients report moderate to severe uncontrolled postoperative pain. Over-reliance on potent opioid agonists can lead to several opioid related side effects such as gastrointestinal intolerability, respiratory depression and cognitive impairment. A recently approved dual acting central analgesic tapentadol may offer improved tolerability over traditional opioid agonists while having multimodal opioid and nonopioid analgesic benefits. Tapentadol, classified by the US Food and Drug Administration as a class 2 opioid, is currently marketed in the United States as immediate release (IR) NUCYNTA® for moderate to severe acute pain in tablets of 50 mg, 75 mg, and 100 mg, and as extended release (ER) NUCYNTA ER® for the treatment of chronic moderate to severe pain in tablets of 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, and 250 mg. Tapentadol is a low affinity mu opioid receptor agonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Tapentadol has no active metabolites and this property makes it useful in patients with hepatic and renal failure. Clinical trials with tapentadol IR showed that there was improved gastrointestinal tolerability and similar pain relief as compared to oxycodone IR. Tapentadol ER allows for twice daily dosing. Clinical trials showed that tapentadol ER could effectively relieve moderate to severe chronic pain and was associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects as compared to oxycodone controlled release. Tapentadol ER is indicated and has Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy. The most common side effects of tapentadol are nausea (30%), vomiting (18%), dizziness (24%), and somnolence (15%). Tapentadol, due to its potential synergistic effects on norepinephrine levels, is contraindicated in patients who have taken monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Roch, C; Knöchlein, C; Albrecht, J
A 34-year-old woman presented with a complex pain disorder and a previous diagnosis of the rare Gitelman syndrome but with a negative genetic test. The patient was admitted to a routine ward for treatment of the pain but was transferred to the intensive care unit after suffering severe hypokalemia and a narcoleptic attack. In the period of intensive care all blood parameters were stable but on release to the normal ward severe hypokalemia immediately reoccurred. With consent the patient's belongings were inspected and many diuretics and laxatives were found. The patient admitted to uncontrolled self-medication so that the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome also appeared to be an artificial disorder.
Schmidtko, Achim; Lötsch, Jörn; Freynhagen, Rainer; Geisslinger, Gerd
Pharmacological management of severe chronic pain is difficult to achieve with currently available analgesic drugs, and remains a large unmet therapeutic need. The synthetic peptide ziconotide has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for intrathecal treatment of patients with severe chronic pain that is refractory to other treatment modalities. Ziconotide is the first member in the new drug class of selective N-type voltage-sensitive calcium-channel blockers. The ziconotide-induced blockade of N-type calcium channels in the spinal cord inhibits release of pain-relevant neurotransmitters from central terminals of primary afferent neurons. By this mechanism, ziconotide can effectively reduce pain. However, ziconotide has a narrow therapeutic window because of substantial CNS side-effects, and thus treatment with ziconotide is appropriate for only a small subset of patients with severe chronic pain. We provide an overview of the benefits and limitations of intrathecal ziconotide treatment and review potential future developments in this new drug class.
Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain. PMID:17549233
Tsao, Jennie C I
Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain.
Tsao, Jennie CI; Evans, Subhadra; Seidman, Laura C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K
BACKGROUND: Extant research comparing laboratory pain responses of children with chronic pain with healthy controls is mixed, with some studies indicating lower pain responsivity for controls and others showing no differences. Few studies have included different pain modalities or assessment protocols. OBJECTIVES: To compare pain responses among 26 children (18 girls) with chronic pain and matched controls (mean age 14.8 years), to laboratory tasks involving thermal heat, pressure and cold pain. Responses to cold pain were assessed using two different protocols: an initial trial of unspecified duration and a second trial of specified duration. METHODS: Four trials of pressure pain and of thermal heat pain stimuli, all of unspecified duration, were administered, as well as the two cold pain trials. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after completion of the pain tasks. RESULTS: Pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ between children with chronic pain and controls for the unspecified trials. For the specified cold pressor trial, 92% of children with chronic pain completed the entire trial compared with only 61.5% of controls. Children with chronic pain exhibited a trend toward higher baseline and postsession heart rate and reported more anxiety and depression symptoms compared with control children. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual factors related to the fixed trial may have exerted a greater influence on pain tolerance in children with chronic pain relative to controls. Children with chronic pain demonstrated a tendency toward increased arousal in anticipation of and following pain induction compared with controls. PMID:22518373
A multicenter, primary care-based, open-label study to identify behaviors related to prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion in opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain
Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Pixton, Glenn C; Berke, Robert; Calkins, Anne; Goli, Veeraindar
Objective To compare the investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion with patient self-reports of these activities in a population with chronic pain. Methods As a secondary objective of an open-label, multicenter, primary care-based clinical study to evaluate the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic pain to morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride, risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion was assessed using two nonvalidated questionnaires: one was completed by the investigator and another by the patient (Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion [SR-MAD]). In addition, the validated Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) test and urine drug test were used. Results Of the 684 patients assessed by the investigators, 537 returned the self-assessment, SR-MAD. Most patients were assigned by the investigator as low risk for misuse (84.2%), abuse (89.3%), and diversion (94.3%). Of the patients who returned SR-MAD, 60% indicated having taken more opioids than prescribed and 10.9% reported chewing or crushing their opioids in the past. Of the patients who completed COMM, 40.6% were deemed as having aberrant behaviors. COMM results correlated with the risk levels from the investigator assessment. One-third of patients (33.8%) had at least one abnormal urine drug test result. Conclusion More research is needed to better understand the gap between the investigator assessment of potential risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion and the actual extent of these behaviors among patients with chronic pain. PMID:26185467
Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K
Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants.
Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.
The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163650.html Chronic Pain More Likely for Poor, Less Educated: Study Researchers ... 17, 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic pain is much more common among poor, less educated ...
Sparks, Jayne A.; Clark, Donald W.
Discusses certain factors that contribute to the development of chronic pain. Psychosocial factors are explored with a summary of their implications for treatment. Medical treatment for chronic pain is reviewed and holistic treatment is surveyed. (Author)
Angheluta, Anne-Marie; Lee, Bonnie K.
Chronic pain is acknowledged as a phenomenological experience resulting from biological, psychological, and social interactions. Consequently, treatment for this complex and debilitating health phenomenon is often approached from multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial perspectives. One approach to treating chronic pain involves implementing…
Jones, Alvin C; Kwoh, C Kent; Groeneveld, P W; Mor, Maria; Geng, Ming; Ibrahim, Said A
Osteoarthritis is a prevalent disease in older patients of all racial groups, and it is known to cause significant pain and functional disability. Racial differences in how patients cope with the chronic pain of knee or hip osteoarthritis may have implications for utilization of treatment modalities such as joint replacement. Therefore, we examined the relationships between patient race and pain coping strategies (diverting attention, reinterpreting pain, catastrophizing, ignoring sensations, hoping and praying, coping self-statements, and increasing behavior activities) for hip and knee osteoarthritis. This is a cross-sectional survey of 939 veterans 50 to 79 years old with chronic hip or knee osteoarthritis pain recruited from VA primary care clinics in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Patients had to have moderate to severe hip or knee osteoarthritis symptoms as measured by the WOMAC index. Standard, validated instruments were used to obtain information on attitudes and use of prayer, pain coping strategies, and arthritis self-efficacy. Analysis included separate multivariable models adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Attitudes on prayer differed, with African Americans being more likely to perceive prayer as helpful (adjusted OR = 3.38, 95% CI 2.35 to 4.86) and to have tried prayer (adjusted OR = 2.28, 95% 1.66 to 3.13) to manage their osteoarthritis pain. Upon evaluating the coping strategies, we found that, compared to whites, African Americans had greater use of the hoping and praying method (beta = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.99). Race was not associated with arthritis pain self-efficacy, arthritis function self-efficacy, or any other coping strategies. This increased use of the hoping and praying coping strategy by African Americans may play a role in the decreased utilization of total joint arthroplasty among African Americans compared to whites. Further investigation of the role this coping strategy has on the decision making process for
Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H
Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524
Kingham, J G; Dawson, A M
We have studied 22 consecutive patients referred for investigation of severe chronic right upper quadrant pain. The majority were women whose symptoms had been present for many years. All had undergone repeated investigations of the pancreatico-biliary, gastro-intestinal, urinary, and even gynaecological systems without a satisfactory diagnosis. Most had undergone at least one abdominal operation in an unsuccessful attempt to cure their pain. In 21 of 22 patients the customary pain was completely and reproducibly mimicked by balloon distension of the small or large intestine in at least one site. The trigger sites were jejunum (15), ileum (12), right colon (nine), and duodenum (six). In 12 more than one trigger site was found. Close questioning revealed features of the irritable bowel syndrome in the majority and depression in many though the symptoms were not spontaneously volunteered. Reproduction of pain has provided a convincing demonstration to this difficult group of patients that they have a sensitive gut and allows appropriate management.
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.
Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen
The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526
Wang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Xing, Guo-Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, You
It has been reported that oscillatory gamma activity participates in brief acute pain and tonic ongoing pain. It is of great interest to determine whether the gamma activity is involved in chronic pain since chronic pain is a more severe pathological condition characterized by pain persistency. To investigate the oscillatory gamma activity in chronic pain, in the present study, we recorded spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals during chronic pain development in rats with chronic inflammatory pain induced by monoarthritis. Power spectrum analysis of ECoG data showed that gamma power increased significantly at the late stage of chronic inflammatory pain. The increased gamma activity occurred mainly at electrodes over primary somatosensory cortices. In rats with chronic pain, the gamma power was positively correlated with the hyperalgesia measured by laser energy that elicited hindpaw withdrawal response. Furthermore, an increased coupling between the amplitude of gamma power and the phase of theta oscillations was observed in chronic inflammatory pain condition. These results indicate an enhanced spontaneous gamma activity in chronic pain and suggest a potential biomarker for the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27847461
Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.
Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan
A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account.
Cheatle, Martin D
Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care.
Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.
Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…
Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara
Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.
Webster, Lynn R
Opioids prescribed for chronic cancer and noncancer pain have been embroiled in public policy debates as to effectiveness and potential for contributing to society's problem with misuse, addiction, and overdose mortality. The conundrum of opioid prescribing is to determine who will most likely benefit from opioids and how medical practitioners may safely provide chronic opioid therapy, while also identifying patients who are unlikely to benefit or could divert illicit pharmaceuticals into society. Risk assessment and monitoring are essential to meet the standard of care, as is compliance with federal controlled substances law as well as state regulations.
Molton, Ivan; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Carter, Gregory T; Kraft, George; Cardemas, Diana D
Objective. This article compares use of pain coping strategies among older, middle-aged, and younger adults living with chronic pain and seeks to determine whether the relationship between pain severity and coping is moderated by age. Method. Participants were 464 adults reporting chronic pain secondary to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or neuromuscular disease. Participants completed a survey including measures of pain severity and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. Results. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, older adults (older than 60) reported a wider range of frequently used strategies and significantly more frequent engagement in activity pacing, seeking social support, and use of coping self-statements than did younger or middle-aged adults. Moderation analyses suggest that, for younger adults, efforts at coping generally increased with greater pain severity, whereas this relationship did not exist for older adults. Discussion. These data suggest differences in the quantity and quality of pain coping among age groups.
Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J
over baseline had a similar NNT. With carbamazepine, 66% of participants experienced at least one adverse event, and 27% with placebo; relative risk 2.4 (1.9 to 3.1), NNH 2.6 (2.1 to 3.5). Adverse event withdrawals occurred in12 of 323 participants (4%) with carbamazepine and 0 of 310 with placebo. Serious adverse events were not reported consistently; rashes were associated with carbamazepine. Five deaths occurred in patients on carbamazepine, with no obvious drug association. Authors’ conclusions Carbamazepine is effective in chronic neuropathic pain, with caveats. No trial was longer than four weeks, of good reporting quality, using outcomes equivalent to at least moderate clinical benefit. In these circumstances, caution is needed in interpretation, and meaningful comparison with other interventions is not possible. PMID:21249671
Apkarian, A.V.; Hashmi, J.A.; Baliki, M.N.
We review recent advances in brain imaging in humans, concentrating on advances in our understanding of the human brain in clinical chronic pain. Understanding regarding anatomical and functional reorganization of the brain in chronic pain is emphasized. We conclude by proposing a brain model for the transition of the human from acute to chronic pain. PMID:21146929
Derry S, et al. Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;3:CD007938. 126. Dauri M, Faria S...P, Ablin JN. The genetics of fibromyalgia syndrome. Pharmacogenomics [Review]. 2007;8(1):67–74. 50 Diatchenko L, Slade GD, Nackley AG, et al. Genetic...in patients with fibromyalgia . Psychoneuroen- docrinology 2012;37(5):671–84. 103 Turner JD, Pelascini LP, Macedo JA, Muller CP. Highly individual
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Van Damme, Stefaan; De Schryver, Maarten; Crombez, Geert
Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment.
Billeci, Domenico; Coluzzi, Flaminia
Background The role of opioids in the management of chronic neck pain is still poorly investigated. No data are available on tapentadol extended release (ER). In this article, we present 54 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain treated with tapentadol ER. Patients and methods Patients received tapentadol ER 100 mg/day; dosage was then adjusted according to clinical needs. The following parameters were recorded: pain; Douleur Neuropathique 4 score; Neck Disability Index score; range of motion; pain-associated sleep interference; quality of life (Short Form  Health Survey); Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC); Clinician GIC; opioid-related adverse effects; and need for other analgesics. Results A total of 44 of 54 patients completed the 12-week observation. Tapentadol ER daily doses increased from 100 mg/day to a mean (standard deviation) dosage of 204.5 (102.8) mg/day at the final evaluation. Mean pain intensity at movement significantly decreased from baseline (8.1 [1.1]) to all time points (P<0.01). At baseline, 70% of patients presented a positive neuropathic component. This percentage dropped to 23% after 12 weeks. Tapentadol improved Neck Disability Index scores from 55.6 (18.6) at baseline to 19.7 (20.9) at the final evaluation (P<0.01). Tapentadol significantly improved neck range of motion in all three planes of motion, particularly in lateral flexion. Quality of life significantly improved in all Short Form (36) Health Survey subscales (P<0.01) and in both physical and mental status (P<0.01). Based on PGIC results, approximately 90% of patients rated their overall condition as much/very much improved. Tapentadol was well tolerated: no patients discontinued due to side effects. The use of other analgesics was reduced during the observed period. Conclusion Our results suggest that tapentadol ER, started at 100 mg/day, is effective and well tolerated in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain, including opioid-naïve subjects
Dampier, Carlton; Palermo, Tonya M; Darbari, Deepika S; Hassell, Kathryn; Smith, Wally; Zempsky, William
Pain in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs. Although episodic acute pain is the hallmark of this disorder, there is an increasing awareness that chronic pain is part of the pain experience of many older adolescents and adults. A common set of criteria for classifying chronic pain associated with SCD would enhance SCD pain research efforts in epidemiology, pain mechanisms, and clinical trials of pain management interventions, and ultimately improve clinical assessment and management. As part of the collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy initiative developed the outline of an optimal diagnostic system for chronic pain conditions. Subsequently, a working group of experts in SCD pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for chronic pain associated with SCD. The working group synthesized available literature to provide evidence for the dimensions of this disease-specific pain taxonomy. A single pain condition labeled chronic SCD pain was derived with 3 modifiers reflecting different clinical features. Future systematic research is needed to evaluate the feasibility, validity, and reliability of these criteria.
Salsitz, Edwin A
Over the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the prescribing of opioids, with associated increases in opioid addiction and overdose deaths. This article reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and risk of developing an opioid use disorder (OUD) in those patients treated with chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Rates of development of OUD range from 0-50 %, and aberrant drug related behaviors (ADRBs) are reported to be 20 %. Health care providers must properly assess, screen, and carefully monitor patients on COT utilizing evidence-based tools.
Tramadol/paracetamol 37.5 mg/325 mg (Tramacet, Zaldiar, Ixprim, Kolibri) is an orally administered fixed-dose combination of the atypical opioid tramadol and paracetamol, which is indicated in the EU for the symptomatic treatment of moderate to severe pain. This article reviews the pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and tolerability of tramadol/paracetamol in adults with moderate to severe pain. Fixed-dose tramadol/paracetamol is a rapidly-acting, longer-duration, multimodal analgesic, which is effective and generally well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe pain. In several well designed, clinical studies, single- or multiple-dose tramadol/paracetamol was effective in providing pain relief in adult patients with postoperative pain after minor surgery, musculoskeletal pain (acute, subacute or chronic), painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy or migraine pain. It was also effective as an add-on analgesic in patients who were experiencing moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain (e.g. osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis pain) despite ongoing NSAID and/or disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Moreover, in patients with postoperative pain, ankle sprain pain or subacute lower back pain, the analgesic efficacy of tramadol/paracetamol was better than that of paracetamol, generally similar to, or better than that, of tramadol, and generally similar to that of ibuprofen or the fixed-dose combinations hydrocodone/paracetamol, codeine/paracetamol and codeine/paracetamol/ibuprofen. In addition, the analgesic efficacy of tramadol/paracetamol did not differ significantly from that of gabapentin in patients with chronic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Tramadol/paracetamol had no additional tolerability issues relative to its components and, overall, the tolerability profile of tramadol/paracetamol was generally similar to that of other active comparators (fixed-dose combinations or single-agents); however, incidences of some
Triolo, Onofrio; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sturlese, Emanuele
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) could be considered nowadays a deep health problem that challenges physicians all over the world. This because its aetiology is still unclear, the course of the disease could vary a lot among different patients and through time in the same patient, and the response to treatments is not every time successful. Among women who underwent laparoscopy for CPP, endometriosis is found in about 1/3 of the cases, while only 25% of women with histological confirmed endometriosis are asymptomatic. A wide range of variables may exert their influence on the resulting pain syndrome in endometriosis; for example, score according to American society for reproductive medicine (rASRM), size of the sub-peritoneal and pelvic wall implants, Douglas obliteration, previous surgery. It is widely accepted nowadays that central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) seems to influence each other and this interconnection play a key role in pain modulation. Moreover, the phenomena induced by endometriosis in the pelvis, including the breakdown of peritoneal homeostasis and the induction of the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines, are responsible of altered innervations and modulation of pain pathways in these patients. There are many proposed medical and surgical approach to treat this painful syndrome, although there is necessity of more efforts to create new non-invasive strategies that set a more accurate diagnosis of the causes of endometriotic-related CPP, and therefore facilitate its eradication. PMID:23671540
Edwards, Robert R; Smith, Michael T; Kudel, Ian; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer
Living with chronic pain is associated with many deleterious outcomes, including a substantially increased risk of suicide. While many general risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior have been identified, few studies have examined pain-related factors that confer increased or decreased risk for suicidality. The present study assessed individual differences in the use of pain-related coping strategies and pain-related catastrophizing as correlates of suicidal ideation in patients with chronic pain. A total of 1512 patients seeking treatment for chronic pain completed a variety of questionnaires assessing pain, coping, and psychosocial functioning. On written questionnaires, approximately 32% of this clinic sample reported some form of recent suicidal ideation. The two most consistent predictors of the presence and degree of suicidal ideation were the magnitude of depressive symptoms and the degree of pain-related catastrophizing, a maladaptive cognitive/emotional pain-coping strategy. Demographic and other pain-related variables such as pain severity and duration were not generally robust predictors of suicidal ideation in this sample of patients with chronic pain. These are the first findings to suggest a unique (e.g., independent of pain severity or depressive symptomatology) association between pain-coping strategies and suicide-related cognitions in the context of chronic pain. Further research in this area, including the addition of suicide prevention materials to pain-coping skills training programs, may benefit large numbers of individuals who are at elevated suicide risk as a consequence of chronic pain.
Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810
Bushnell, M. Catherine; Čeko, Marta; Low, Lucie A.
Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind–body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states — important components of mind–body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569
Bushnell, M Catherine; Ceko, Marta; Low, Lucie A
Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic.
Fisher, Robert B; Johnson, Quinn L; Reeves-Viets, Joseph L
In the U.S., there is a growing percentage of chronic pain patients requiring surgery. Chronic pain patients require careful evaluation and planning to achieve appropriate acute pain management. Peri-surgical pain management often requires continuation of previously prescribed chronic pain modalities and careful selection of multimodal acute pain interventions. This article will provide a broad overview of chronic pain, definitions, and current recommendations for the treatment of perioperative pain in patients maintained on opioid therapy.
Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn; Pongprasobchai, Supot
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The main symptom of patients with CP is chronic and severe abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of pain in CP remains obscure. Traditionally, researchers believed that the pain was caused by anatomical changes in pancreatic structure. However, treatment outcomes based on such beliefs are considered unsatisfactory. The emerging explanations of pain in CP are trending toward neurobiological theories. This article aims to review current evidence regarding the neuropathophysiology of pain in CP and its potential implications for the development of new treatments for pain in CP. PMID:26600977
Navratilova, Edita; Morimura, Kozo; Xie, Jennifer Y; Atcherley, Christopher W; Ossipov, Michael H; Porreca, Frank
Chronic pain is an important public health problem that negatively impacts the quality of life of affected individuals and exacts enormous socioeconomic costs. Chronic pain is often accompanied by comorbid emotional disorders including anxiety, depression, and possibly anhedonia. The neural circuits underlying the intersection of pain and pleasure are not well understood. We summarize recent human and animal investigations and demonstrate that aversive aspects of pain are encoded in brain regions overlapping with areas processing reward and motivation. We highlight findings revealing anatomical and functional alterations of reward/motivation circuits in chronic pain. Finally, we review supporting evidence for the concept that pain relief is rewarding and activates brain reward/motivation circuits. Adaptations in brain reward circuits may be fundamental to the pathology of chronic pain. Knowledge of brain reward processing in the context of pain could lead to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of emotional aspects of pain and comorbid conditions.
Lutz, Brianna; Meiler, Steffen E.; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang
Sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy, causes sickling of red blood cells, resulting in vessel blockage, stroke, anemia, inflammation, and extreme pain. A vast majority of SCD patients experience pain on a chronic basis, and many turn to opioids to provide limited relief. The side effects that come with chronic opioid use push for research into understanding the specific mechanisms of SCD-associated chronic pain. Current advances in SCD-associated pain have focused on alterations in the pain pathway including nociceptor sensitization and endogenous pain inducers. This article reviews the underlying pathophysiology of SCD, potential pain mechanisms, current treatments and their mechanism of action, and future directions of SCD-associated pain management. The information provided could help propel research in SCD-associated chronic pain and uncover novel treatment options for clinicians. PMID:26301256
Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Raphael, Jon H
Pain which persists after healing is expected to have taken place, or which exists in the absence of tissue damage, is termed chronic pain. By definition chronic pain cannot be treated and cured in the conventional biomedical sense; rather, the patient who is suffering from the pain must be given the tools with which their long-term pain can be managed to an acceptable level. This article will provide an overview of treatment approaches available for the management of persistent non-malignant pain. As well as attempting to provide relief from the physical aspects of pain through the judicious use of analgesics, interventions, stimulations, and irritations, it is important to pay equal attention to the psychosocial complaints which almost always accompany long-term pain. The pain clinic offers a biopsychosocial approach to treatment with the multidisciplinary pain management programme; encouraging patients to take control of their pain problem and lead a fulfilling life in spite of the pain.
van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C
The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664
Hayaki, Chie; Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako
Previous studies have shown differences in the psychosocial factors related to chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). However, no studies have done an evaluation of differences between CLP and CWP from the viewpoint of family functioning. We did a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care setting to investigate possible differences in the relation of CWP and CLP to family functioning.Patients with CLP (N = 126) or CWP (N = 75) were assessed for family functioning by the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a comparison was done. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations of family functioning subscales with pain status (CWP vs CLP), controlling for demographic variables, pain variables; pain duration, pain ratings, pain disability, and psychological factors; depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of CWP were calculated.Compared to patients with CLP, patients with CWP showed a lower functional status for Roles and Affective Involvement. The ORs for CWP were significantly higher in lower functioning Roles (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.21-4.65) and Affective Involvement (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.56-5.24) after adjusting for demographic variables. The significant association of CWP to Roles and Affective Involvement remained after controlling for the pain variables and psychological factors.This study shows that the families of patients with CWP have poorer family functioning than those with CLP. Our findings suggest that early identification and interventions for the family dysfunction of chronic pain patients are important to the treatment and prevention of CWP.
Effects of light upon human tissue are divided into irreversible effects and reversible effects. Irreversible effects can be called as high level laser therapy (HLLT), and reversible effects can be called as low level light therapy (LLLT). Light irradiators for chronic pain act under principle of LLLT. Laser diode, halogen lamp and xenon lamp are used as light sources for light irradiator for various chronic pain. These days, light emitting diode (LED) is used as light source for light irradiator for various kinds of pain. Light irradiators are now divided into portable light weight low power machine and heavy weight, high power machine. In the dental area Nd : YAG laser is using as HLLT tool. But, now there are many reports about Nd : YAG laser used as anesthetic machine. In these reports, topical anesthetic effects of Nd : YAG laser are immediate and with fewer side effects compared with topical anesthetic agents. These effects are explained as LLLT. Halogen lamp and xenon lamp type irradiators were also introduced. MEDILASER SOFT PULSE10, an laser diode type irradiator was withdrawn from the market.
nociceptive stimuli culminates in profound debilitating pain that serves no adaptive purpose for the sufferer. It is now established that spinal...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0806 TITLE: Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain Treatment...Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Chronic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury: The Role of Immunogenetics and Time of Injury Pain
Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier
OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293
Adachi, Tomonori; Fujino, Haruo; Nakae, Aya; Mashimo, Takashi; Sasaki, Jun
Hypnosis is regarded as an effective treatment for psychological and physical ailments. However, its efficacy as a strategy for managing chronic pain has not been assessed through meta-analytical methods. The objective of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of hypnosis for managing chronic pain. When compared with standard care, hypnosis provided moderate treatment benefit. Hypnosis also showed a moderate superior effect as compared to other psychological interventions for a nonheadache group. The results suggest that hypnosis is efficacious for managing chronic pain. Given that large heterogeneity among the included studies was identified, the nature of hypnosis treatment is further discussed.
Strong, Jenny; And Others
Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and…
Becker, Karin L
Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined.
Ussai, S; Miceli, L; Pisa, F E; Bednarova, R; Giordano, A; Della Rocca, G; Petelin, R
Pain remains one of the main reasons for medical consultation worldwide: moderate- to severe-intensity pain occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are not recommended for long-term use and a careful surveillance to monitor for toxicity and efficacy is critical. This study aims to assess: 1) the pattern of use of NSAIDs and opioids in a population covered by a cloud-based pharmacovigilance surveillance system; and 2) potential inappropriate use. A retrospective 18-months systematic analysis on patients' pain treatment was performed. The primary endpoint was evaluating the prevalence of NSAIDs and opioids use and the duration of therapy regimen. The secondary endpoint was to investigate the prevalence of NSAIDs taken for >21 consecutive days concomitant with drugs for peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or antiplatelet drugs. The yearly cost for individual users of concomitant NSAIDs for more than 21 consecutive days and of GORD medications has been estimated. A total of 3,050 subjects with chronic pain were enrolled; 97% of them took NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days; about one-fourth of these users also received drugs for peptic ulcer and GORD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A02B). The yearly cost foran individual who uses NSAIDs for >21 consecutive days as well as concomitant GORD medications is 61.23 euros. In total, 238 subjects (8%) using NSAIDs for >21 days also received one antiplatelet agent. About 11% of subjects received opioids at least once and only 2% of them carried on the therapy for more than 90 consecutive days. In evaluating the escalation in dosage as a proxy of dependence risk, this study shows no dosage escalation in our cohort of chronic pain population - that is to say we show no risk of dependence.
Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare
Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.
Enamandram, Monica; Rathmell, James P; Kimball, Alexandra B
A number of chronic dermatologic conditions may necessitate long-term adjunctive pain management in addition to treatment of the primary skin disease, such as hidradenitis suppurativa, lichen planus, and other systemic diseases associated with significant pain. Adequate management of chronic pain can represent a unique challenge, but remains an integral component of clinical treatment in relevant contexts. For nociceptive pain of moderate to severe intensity, opioid analgesics can be beneficial when other pain management strategies have failed to produce adequate relief. The decision to initiate long-term opioid therapy must be carefully weighed, and individualized treatment plans are often necessary to effectively treat pain while minimizing adverse effects. Part II of this 2-part continuing medical education article will describe the appropriate settings for initiation of opioid analgesia for dermatology patients and detail therapeutic strategies and patient monitoring guidelines.
... to predict whether a subject would recover from low back pain. Red dots represent differences in white matter structure ... may predict whether a person will suffer chronic low back pain, according to researchers who used brain scans. The ...
... in drug misuse or even abuse, especially of opioid pain relievers. As noted earlier in this section, more than 76 million Americans suffer from some form of chronic pain. And yet, almost half of them receive ...
... facilities suffer from chronic pain. Yet, pain among older adults is largely undertreated, with serious health consequences, such as depression, anxiety, decreased mobility, social isolation, poor sleep, and related health risks. There are ...
Davidson, Megan A; Tripp, Dean A; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Davidson, Paul R
BACKGROUND: There are many measures assessing related dimensions of the chronic pain experience (eg, pain severity, pain coping, depression, activity level), but the relationships among them have not been systematically established. OBJECTIVE: The present study set out to determine the core dimensions requiring assessment in individuals with chronic pain. METHODS: Individuals with chronic pain (n=126) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Chronic Pain Coping Index, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form, Pain Disability Index and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. RESULTS: Before an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the nine chronic pain measures, EFAs were conducted on each of the individual measures, and the derived factors (subscales) from each measure were submitted together for a single EFA. A seven-factor model best fit the data, representing the core factors of pain and disability, pain description, affective distress, support, positive coping strategies, negative coping strategies and activity. CONCLUSIONS: Seven meaningful dimensions of the pain experience were reliably and systematically extracted. Implications and future directions for this work are discussed. PMID:18719712
Almoznino, Galit; Benoliel, Rafael; Sharav, Yair; Haviv, Yaron
Chronic craniofacial pain involves the head, face and oral cavity and is associated with significant morbidity and high levels of health care utilization. A bidirectional relationship is suggested in the literature for poor sleep and pain, and craniofacial pain and sleep are reciprocally related. We review this relationship and discuss management options. Part I reviews the relationship between pain and sleep disorders in the context of four diagnostic categories of chronic craniofacial pain: 1) primary headaches: migraines, tension-type headache (TTH), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hypnic headache, 2) secondary headaches: sleep apnea headache, 3) temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) and 4) painful cranial neuropathies: trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic trigeminal neuropathy, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Part II discusses the management of patients with chronic craniofacial pain and sleep disorders addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as sleep disorders and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Caraway, David L; Benyamin, Ramsin M
Treatment of chronic non-cancer pain with opioid therapy has escalated in recent years, resulting in exploding therapeutic use and misuse of prescription opioids and multiple adverse drug events. Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain experienced by individuals who have relatively stable and adequately controlled baseline cancer pain. Further, the definition of breakthrough pain, prevalence, characteristics, implications, and treatment modalities have been extensively described for chronic cancer pain. However, the literature for breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain including its terminology, prevalence, relevance, characteristics, and treatments, have been poorly described and continue to be debated. The philosophy of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain raises multiple issues leading almost all patients to be on high dose long-acting opioids, followed by supplementing with short-acting drugs, instead of treating the patients with only short-acting drugs as required. Consequently, the subject of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain is looked at with suspicion due to the lack of evidence and inherent bias associated with its evaluation, followed by escalating use and abuse of opioids. Multiple issues related to the concept of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain evolve around extensive use, overuse, misuse, and abuse of opioids. In the era of eliminating opioids or significantly curtailing their use to only appropriate indications, the concept of breakthrough pain raises multiple questions without any scientific evidence. This review illustrates that there is no significant evidence for any type of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain based on available literature, methodology utilized, and response to opioids in chronic non-cancer pain. The advocacy for increased usage of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain dates back to the liberalization of laws governing opioid prescription for the treatment
Smith, Heather; Youn, Youngwon; Guay, Ryan C; Laufer, Andras; Pilitsis, Julie G
Invasive analgesic therapies provide an alternative to medical management of chronic pain. With the increasing incidence of chronic pain not only in the United States but worldwide, more therapies have evolved to address the growing need for pain relief options. These therapies include spinal injections, nerve blocks, radiofrequency ablation, neurostimulation, and intrathecal drug delivery.
Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A
The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused.
Lynch, Mary E; Campbell, Fiona
Effective therapeutic options for patients living with chronic pain are limited. The pain relieving effect of cannabinoids remains unclear. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining cannabinoids in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain was conducted according to the PRISMA statement update on the QUORUM guidelines for reporting systematic reviews that evaluate health care interventions. Cannabinoids studied included smoked cannabis, oromucosal extracts of cannabis based medicine, nabilone, dronabinol and a novel THC analogue. Chronic non-cancer pain conditions included neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed chronic pain. Overall the quality of trials was excellent. Fifteen of the eighteen trials that met the inclusion criteria demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoid as compared with placebo and several reported significant improvements in sleep. There were no serious adverse effects. Adverse effects most commonly reported were generally well tolerated, mild to moderate in severity and led to withdrawal from the studies in only a few cases. Overall there is evidence that cannabinoids are safe and modestly effective in neuropathic pain with preliminary evidence of efficacy in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. The context of the need for additional treatments for chronic pain is reviewed. Further large studies of longer duration examining specific cannabinoids in homogeneous populations are required.
Lewandowski, Wendy; Morris, Rebecca; Draucker, Claire Burke; Risko, Judy
The chronic pain experience is the product of a complex interaction of many factors including biological, social, psychological, environmental, and familial. The presence of chronic pain can impact the family system with significant, negative consequences; the family may also be responsible, in part, for maintaining and perpetuating pain problems. The need to examine the family dimension of the chronic pain experience and offer family/couple therapy, should it be indicated, is vital to comprehensive pain management. Operant behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and structural family therapy approaches are advocated for such families, along with a clear need for controlled evaluations of these approaches.
Mehling, Wolf E.; Ebell, Mark H.; Avins, Andrew L.; Hecht, Frederick M.
.4 (3.0–6.3) for these groups, respectively. Conclusions A CDR was developed that may help primary care clinicians classify patients with strictly defined acute LBP into low, moderate and high-risk groups for developing chronic pain and performed acceptably in 1,000 bootstrapped replications. Validation in a separate sample is needed. PMID:25771757
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
Martel, Marc O; Finan, Patrick H; Dolman, Andrew J; Subramanian, Subu; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Jamison, Robert N
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-reports of medication side effects and pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain. The potential moderators of the association between reports of side effects and pain-related activity interference were also examined. A total of 111 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain were asked to provide, once a month for a period of 6 months, self-reports of medication use and the presence of any perceived side effects (eg, nausea, dizziness, headaches) associated with their medications. At each of these time points, patients were also asked to provide self-reports of pain intensity, negative affect, and pain-related activity interference. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that month-to-month increases in perceived medication side effects were associated with heightened pain-related activity interference (P < 0.05). Importantly, multilevel models revealed that perceived medication side effects were associated with heightened pain-related activity interference even after controlling for the influence of patient demographics, pain intensity, and negative affect. This study provides preliminary evidence that reports of medication side effects are associated with heightened pain-related activity interference in patients with chronic pain beyond the influence of other pain-relevant variables. The implications of our findings for clinical practice and the management of patients with chronic pain conditions are discussed.
Thompson, Lindsay A; Meinert, Elizabeth; Baker, Kimberly; Knapp, Caprice
Pain is common as a presenting complaint to outpatient and emergency departments for children, yet pain management represents one of the children's largest unmet needs. A child may present with acute pain for an intermittent issue or may have acute or chronic pain in the setting of chronic illness. The mainstay of treatment for pain uses a stepwise approach for pain management, such as set up by the World Health Organization. For children with life-limiting illnesses, the Institute of Medicine guidelines recommends referral upon diagnosis for palliative care, meaning that the child receives comprehensive services that include pain control in coordination with curative therapies; yet barriers remain. From the provider perspective, pain can be better addressed through a careful assessment of one's own knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The key components of pain management in children are multimodal, regardless of the cause of the pain.
Harvie, Daniel S; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hillier, Susan L; Meulders, Ann
Prominent clinical models of chronic pain propose a fundamental role of classical conditioning in the development of pain-related disability. If classical conditioning is key to this process, then people with chronic pain may show a different response to pain-related conditioned stimuli (CS) than healthy controls. We set out to determine whether this is the case by undertaking a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. To identify studies comparing classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy controls, the databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Scopus, CINAHL, were searched using key words and MESH headings consistent with 'classical conditioning' AND 'pain'. Articles were included when a) pain-free control and chronic pain groups were included, and b) a differential classical conditioning design was used. The systematic search revealed seven studies investigating differences in classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy controls. The included studies involved a total of 129 people with chronic pain (Fibromyalgia syndrome, Spinal pain, Hand pain, Irritable bowel syndrome), and 104 healthy controls. Outcomes included indices of pain-related conditioning such as unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy and contingency awareness, self-report and physiological measures of pain-related fear, evaluative judgments of conditioned stimulus (CS) pleasantness, and muscular and cortical responses. Due to variability in outcomes, meta-analyses included a maximum of four studies. People with chronic pain tended to show reduced differential learning and flatter generalisation gradients with respect to US-expectancy and fear-potentiated eyeblink startle responses. Some studies demonstrated a propensity for greater muscular responses and perceptions of unpleasantness in response to pain-associated cues, relative to control cues.
Bernfort, Lars; Gerdle, Björn; Rahmqvist, Mikael; Husberg, Magnus; Levin, Lars-Åke
Chronic pain is associated with large societal costs, but few studies have investigated the total costs of chronic pain with respect to elderly subjects. The elderly usually require informal care, care performed by municipalities, and care for chronic diseases, all factors that can result in extensive financial burdens on elderly patients, their families, and the social services provided by the state. This study aims to quantify the societal cost of chronic pain in people of age 65 years and older and to assess the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. This study collected data from 3 registers concerning health care, drugs, and municipal services and from 2 surveys. A postal questionnaire was used to collect data from a stratified sample of the population 65 years and older in southeastern Sweden. The questionnaire addressed pain intensity and quality of life variables (EQ-5D). A second postal questionnaire was used to collect data from relatives of the elderly patients suffering from chronic pain. A total of 66.5% valid responses of the 10,000 subjects was achieved; 76.9% were categorized as having no or mild chronic pain, 18.9% as having moderate chronic pain, and 4.2% as having severe chronic pain. Consumed resources increased with the severity of chronic pain. Clear differences in EQ-5D were found with respect to the severity of pain. This study found an association between resource use and severity of chronic pain in elderly subjects: the more severe the chronic pain, the more extensive (and expensive) the use of resources.
Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.
Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)
Di Lernia, Daniele; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe
Pain is a complex and multidimensional perception, embodied in our daily experiences through interoceptive appraisal processes. The article reviews the recent literature about interoception along with predictive coding theories and tries to explain a missing link between the sense of the physiological condition of the entire body and the perception of pain in chronic conditions, which are characterized by interoceptive deficits. Understanding chronic pain from an interoceptive point of view allows us to better comprehend the multidimensional nature of this specific organic information, integrating the input of several sources from Gifford's Mature Organism Model to Melzack's neuromatrix. The article proposes the concept of residual interoceptive images (ghosts), to explain the diffuse multilevel nature of chronic pain perceptions. Lastly, we introduce a treatment concept, forged upon the possibility to modify the interoceptive chronic representation of pain through external input in a process that we call interoceptive modeling, with the ultimate goal of reducing pain in chronic subjects. PMID:27445681
... injury, stroke, radiculopathy) Tension headache Migraine Facial pain Fibromyalgia Low back pain Pelvic pain The painkilling mechanism ... or excessive sweating. Milnacipran is used to relieve fibromyalgia pain and can cause side effects, such as ...
He, Chun-Hong; Yu, Feng; Jiang, Zhao-Cai; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei
Cognitive impairment plays a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Patients with painful disorders are reported to show attentional biases toward pain-related information. However, these findings are controversial, and rarely has any study examined whether chronic pain patients have attentional biases to pain-related conditioned stimuli (CS). In this study, twenty-one patients diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) were recruited from the neurosurgical department of a large urban general hospital. Sixteen family members and twenty-one pain-free volunteers were included as two separate control groups. Pain ratings, pain-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depression were measured in all subjects using questionnaires. Two dot probe tests were performed, one that used pictures of painful versus neutral faces as cues, and another that presented three types of CS as cues that predicted certain, uncertain, or no pain. Our results demonstrate that the TN patients showed attentional biases towards painful faces and the CSs that signaled uncertain pain. Moreover, the ratings of negative emotion about their pain conditions correlated significantly with the presence of attentional biases. The patients' close family members, however, displayed biases towards uncertain-pain CS. This study demonstrates that patients with chronic pain have increased attention towards pain-related information, and the fearful thinking about pain was positively correlated with this phenomenon.
Kleinke, C L; Spangler, A S
Sixty chronic back-pain patients were administered the audiovisual taxonomy of pain behavior during their first and last weeks in an inpatient multidisciplinary pain clinic. Audiovisual total score provided a useful index of pain behavior with a suitable frequency and reliability, while offering unique variance as a measure of treatment outcome. Patients' pain behaviors upon admission to the pain program were positively correlated with the following background variables: receiving worker's compensation, pounds overweight, and number of back surgeries. Patients' pain behaviors upon completion of the pain program were significantly correlated with their preferences for pain treatment modalities. High levels of pain behavior correlated with a preference for treatments of ice and heat. Low levels of pain behavior correlated with a preference for physical therapy, social work, lectures, and relaxation. It was suggested that treatment outcome in a multidisciplinary pain clinic is more immediately related to patients' coping styles and their choice of pain treatment modalities than to their demographics and personalities.
Agar-Wilson, M; Jackson, T
Although emotion regulation capacities have been linked to adjustment among people with chronic pain, researchers have yet to determine whether these capacities are related to functioning independent of established facets of pain coping. The present study was designed to address this gap. A sample 128 Australian adults with chronic pain (44 men, 84 women) completed self-report measures of adjustment (quality of life, negative affect, and pain-related disability), pain coping, and features of emotion regulation (emotion appraisal, perceived efficacy in emotion regulation, emotion utilization). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that efficacy in emotion regulation was related to quality of life and reduced negative affect even after statistically controlling for effects of other measures of adjustment, pain coping efficacy, and pain coping. Conversely, features of emotion regulation did not improve the prediction model for pain-related disability. Findings suggest emotion regulation capacities may have a unique role in the prediction of specific facets of adjustment among people with chronic pain.
Pozek, John-Paul J; Beausang, David; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a distressing disease process that can lead to long-term disability, reduced quality of life, and increased health care spending. Although the exact mechanism of development of CPSP is unknown, nerve injury and inflammation may lead to peripheral and central sensitization. Given the complexity of the disease process, no novel treatment has been identified. The preoperative use of multimodal analgesia has been shown to decrease acute postoperative pain, but it has no proven efficacy in preventing development of CPSP.
Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro
Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384
Sherman, Karen J; Coeytaux, Remy R
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a critical review of the literature on acupuncture for chronic back pain, osteoarthritis and headache. METHODS: Review of meta-analyses, systematic reviews and some well-conducted, recent studies. RESULTS: Overall, acupuncture appears superior to no treatment or usual care for persons with chronic back pain, osteoarthritis, or headache. However, these findings vary depending on the specific outcome and the follow-up period. The magnitude of the effect varies, but is consistent with a small to moderate effect size in most cases. Moreover, acupuncture is not clearly superior to sham acupuncture, although the latter is a controversial control group. Acupuncture has a favorable safety profile, with relatively few side effects and serious ones quite rare. Limited evidence suggests that acupuncture is a cost effective treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that acupuncture is a reasonable therapeutic option, but not the clear therapy of choice for any of these conditions. Acupuncture may be especially valuable for patients who prefer it to other options or are concerned about using analgesic medications.
Fanelli, Guido; Fanelli, Andrea
Chronic pain is a highly disabling condition, which can significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Prevalence of moderate and severe chronic pain is high in the general population, and it increases significantly in patients with advanced cancer and older than 65 years. Guidelines for the management of chronic pain recommend opioids for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain in patients whose pain is not responsive to initial therapies with paracetamol and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite their analgesic efficacy being well recognized, adverse events can affect daily functioning and patient quality of life. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) occurs in 40% of opioid-treated patients. Laxatives are the most common drugs used to prevent and treat OIC. Laxatives do not address the underlying mechanisms of OIC; for this reason, they are not really effective in OIC treatment. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist with low systemic bioavailability. When administered orally, naloxone antagonizes the opioid receptors in the gut wall, while its extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism ensures the lack of antagonist influence on the central-mediated analgesic effect of the opioids. A prolonged-release formulation consisting of oxycodone and naloxone in a 2:1 ratio was developed trying to reduce the incidence of OIC maintaining the analgesic effect compared with use of the sole oxycodone. This review includes evidence related to use of oxycodone and naloxone in the long-term management of chronic non-cancer pain and OIC.
Chronic pain is a significant health problem that greatly impacts the quality of life of individuals and imparts high costs to society. Despite intense research effort in understanding of the mechanism of pain, chronic pain remains a clinical problem that has few effective therapies. The advent of human brain imaging research in recent years has changed the way that chronic pain is viewed. To further extend the use of human brain imaging techniques for better therapies, the adoption of imaging technique onto the animal pain models is essential, in which underlying brain mechanisms can be systematically studied using various combination of imaging and invasive techniques. The general goal of this thesis is to addresses how brain develops and maintains chronic pain in an animal model using fMRI. We demonstrate that nucleus accumbens, the central component of mesolimbic circuitry, is essential in development of chronic pain. To advance our imaging technique, we develop an innovative methodology to carry out fMRI in awake, conscious rat. Using this cutting-edge technique, we show that allodynia is assoicated with shift brain response toward neural circuits associated nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex that regulate affective and cognitive component of pain. Taken together, this thesis provides a deeper understanding of how brain mediates pain. It builds on the existing body of knowledge through maximizing the depth of insight into brain imaging of chronic pain.
Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy
BACKGROUND: Conditions with chronic, non-life-threatening pain and fatigue remain a challenge to treat, and are associated with high health care use. Understanding psychological and psychosocial contributing and coping factors, and working with patients to modify them, is one goal of management. An individual’s spirituality and/or religion may be one such factor that can influence the experience of chronic pain or fatigue. METHODS: The Canadian Community Health Survey (2002) obtained data from 37,000 individuals 15 years of age or older. From these data, four conditions with chronic pain and fatigue were analyzed together – fibromyalgia, back pain, migraine headaches and chronic fatigue syndrome. Additional data from the survey were used to determine how religion and spirituality affect psychological well-being, as well as the use of various coping methods. RESULTS: Religious persons were less likely to have chronic pain and fatigue, while those who were spiritual but not affiliated with regular worship attendance were more likely to have those conditions. Individuals with chronic pain and fatigue were more likely to use prayer and seek spiritual support as a coping method than the general population. Furthermore, chronic pain and fatigue sufferers who were both religious and spiritual were more likely to have better psychological well-being and use positive coping strategies. INTERPRETATION: Consideration of an individual’s spirituality and/or religion, and how it may be used in coping may be an additional component to the overall management of chronic pain and fatigue. PMID:18958309
Finn, Paul E.
Presents overview of multiple factors affecting the life style of chronic pain patients, with an emphasis on assessment and rehabilitation. Focuses on chronic pain rehabilitation, including assessment, treatment, and evaluation of the rehabilitation outcome with the understanding that the goal of therapy is to restore the patient as closely as…
Women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) often present without obvious cause on imaging studies, laboratory values or physical exam. Dysfunctional sensory processing in the central nervous system (CNS) may explain pain of unclear origin. Central sensitization (CS), a mechanism of centrally mediated pain, describes this abnormal processing of sensory information. Women with CPP often present with several seemingly unrelated symptoms. This can be explained by co-existing chronic pain syndromes occurring in the same patient. Central sensitization occurs in all of these pain syndromes, also described as dysfunctional pain syndromes, and thus may explain why several often occur in the same patient. Six of the most common pain disorders that co-exist in CPP include endometriosis, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cysitis, vulvodynia, myofascial pain/ pelvic floor hypertonus, irritable bowel syndrome, and primary dysmenorrhea. Central pain generators, (pain originating from CS) and peripheral pain generators, (pain from local tissue damage), can both occur in each of these six conditions. These pain generators will be described. Chronic pain, specifically dysfunctional sensory processing, is recognized as a systemic disease process like diabetes to be managed as opposed to a local problem to be "fixed" or cured. A multi-disciplinary approach to assessment and treatment with a focus on improving emotional, physical and social functioning instead of focusing strictly on pain reduction is more effective in decreasing disability. This is best achieved by determining the patient's needs and perspective through a patient-centered approach. Algorithms for such an approach to assessment and treatment are outlined.
Huber, Alexa; Suman, Anna Lisa; Rendo, Carmela Anna; Biasi, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Roberto; Carli, Giancarlo
The use of unidimensional scales to measure pain intensity has been criticised because of the multidimensional nature of pain. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses to determine which dimensions of pain--sensory versus affective--predicted scores on unidimensional scales measuring pain intensity and emotions in 109 Italian women suffering from chronic, non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. We then compared the results with earlier findings in two groups of cancer patients suffering from acute post-operative pain and chronic cancer-related pain, respectively. Age, physical capacity and scores on the multidimensional affect and pain survey (MAPS) were used to predict patients' ratings on one visual analogue scale (VAS) and three numerical rating scales (NRS) measuring pain intensity, anxiety and depressed mood. Unidimensional pain intensity ratings were predicted better from sensory than from affective pain predictors, and the affective predictors made no unique contribution (NRS), or only a very small one (VAS). Both sensory and emotional pain aspects were unique predictors of NRS anxiety and depression. Therefore, in contrast to earlier findings in two different types of cancer patients, in subjects affected by chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain, the scores on unidimensional pain intensity scales mainly reflect sensory pain dimensions, supporting the discriminant validity of the NRS and VAS used. However, the patients had some difficulty in distinguishing between sensory and emotional information. For this reason, several unidimensional scales to rate pain intensity and emotions separately should be used to obtain a complete picture of the status and needs of any given patient.
Berryman, Carolyn; Stanton, Tasha R; Bowering, K Jane; Tabor, Abby; McFarlane, Alexander; Moseley, G Lorimer
A widely held belief within the clinical community is that chronic pain is associated with cognitive impairment, despite the absence of a definitive systematic review or meta-analysis on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to establish the current evidence concerning the difference in executive function between people with chronic pain and healthy controls. Six databases were searched for citations related to executive function and chronic pain from inception to June 24, 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility and extracted relevant data according to the Cochrane Collaboration and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Twenty five studies were included in the review and twenty two studies in the meta-analysis. A small to moderate impairment in executive function performance was found in people with chronic pain across cognitive components, although all studies had a high risk of bias. The current evidence suggests impairment of executive function in people with chronic pain, however, important caveats exist. First, executive function involves many cognitive components and there is no standard test for it. Second, moderators of executive function, such as medication and sleep, were seldom controlled for in studies of executive function performance.
Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric
Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints.
Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.
Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196
The management of chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain, still has significant unmet needs. In addition to inadequate symptomatic relief, there are concerns about adverse effects and addiction associated with treatments. The transplantation of cells that secrete neuroactive substances with analgesic properties into the central nervous system has only become of practical interest in more recent years, but provides a novel strategy to challenge current approaches in treating chronic pain. This review covers pre-clinical and clinical studies from both allogeneic and xenogeneic sources for management of chronic refractory pain.
Mun, Chung Jung; Thummala, Kirti; Davis, Mary C; Karoly, Paul; Tennen, Howard; Zautra, Alex J
Previous research suggests that for people living with chronic pain, pain expectancy can undermine access to adaptive resources and functioning. We tested and replicated the unique effect of pain expectancy on subsequent pain through 2 daily diary studies. We also extended previous findings by examining cognitive and affective antecedents of pain expectancy and the consequences of pain expectancy for daily social enjoyment and stress. In study 1, 231 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis completed 30 end-of-day diaries. Results of multilevel structural equation model showed that controlling for today's pain, pain expectancy predicted next day pain. In study 2, diary assessments of affective, cognitive, and social factors were collected during the morning, afternoon, and evening for 21 days from a sample of 220 individuals with fibromyalgia. Results showed that both positive affect and the extent to which pain interfered with daily activities in the afternoon predicted evening pain expectancy in the expected direction. However, negative affect and pain coping efficacy were not associated with pain expectancy. Consistent with study 1, more than usual evening pain expectancy was related to greater next morning pain. We also found that next morning pain predicted next afternoon social enjoyment but not social stress. The findings of these 2 studies point to the importance of promoting positive affect and reducing pain expectancy as a way of decreasing the detrimental effect of chronic pain on enjoyable social experiences.
Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James
The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0-10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Three participants (10%) reported no change between pre and post pain ratings. Ten participants (33%) reported complete pain relief while doing the virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted.
Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James
The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0–10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Three participants (10%) reported no change between pre and post pain ratings. Ten participants (33%) reported complete pain relief while doing the virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted. PMID:27997539
Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul
Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…
Heathcote, Lauren C; Vervoort, Tine; Eccleston, Christopher; Fox, Elaine; Jacobs, Konrad; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Lau, Jennifer Y F
This study considered the attentional functioning of adolescents with varying levels of pain catastrophizing. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain facial expressions. Furthermore, drawing on dual process models in the context of pain, we investigated the moderating role of attention control on this relationship. Adolescents (N = 73; age, 16-18 years) performed a dot-probe task in which facial expressions of pain and neutral expressions were presented for 100 milliseconds and 1250 milliseconds. Participants also completed self-report pain catastrophizing and attention control measures. We found that although there was no main effect of pain catastrophizing on attention bias towards pain faces, attention control did significantly moderate this relationship. Further analysis revealed that lower levels of attention control were significantly associated with increasing attentional vigilance towards pain faces only within high catastrophizing adolescents. In addition, we found that poorer attention control was related to increased attention bias for pain faces (regardless of pain catastrophizing level) when these faces were presented for relatively longer durations (ie, 1250 milliseconds) but not for short durations (ie, 100 milliseconds). This study supports a dual process model of attentional processes in pain, thus replicating previous findings within the psychopathology literature but extending them to the study of pain. Theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; La Touche, Roy; Lara-Lara, Manuel; López-López, Almudena; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Introduction. Psychosocial and somatosensory factors are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic migraine (CM) and chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Objective. To compare and assess the relationship between pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in patients with CM or chronic TMD. Method. Cross-sectional study of 20 women with CM, 19 with chronic TMD, and 20 healthy volunteers. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were assessed. The level of education, pain intensity, and magnitude of temporal summation of stimuli in the masseter (STM) and tibialis (STT) muscles were also evaluated. Results. There were significant differences between the CM and chronic TMD groups, compared with the group of asymptomatic subjects, for all variables (p < .05) except kinesiophobia when comparing patients with CM and healthy women. Moderate correlations between kinesiophobia and catastrophizing (r = 0.46; p < .01) were obtained, and the strongest association was between kinesiophobia and magnification (r = 0.52; p < .01). The strongest associations among physical variables were found between the STM on both sides (r = 0.93; p < .01) and between the left and right STT (r = 0.76; p < .01). Conclusion. No differences were observed in pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia between women with CM and with chronic TMD. Women with CM or chronic TMD showed higher levels of pain catastrophizing than asymptomatic subjects.
Grande-Alonso, Mónica; La Touche, Roy; Lara-Lara, Manuel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Introduction. Psychosocial and somatosensory factors are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic migraine (CM) and chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Objective. To compare and assess the relationship between pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in patients with CM or chronic TMD. Method. Cross-sectional study of 20 women with CM, 19 with chronic TMD, and 20 healthy volunteers. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were assessed. The level of education, pain intensity, and magnitude of temporal summation of stimuli in the masseter (STM) and tibialis (STT) muscles were also evaluated. Results. There were significant differences between the CM and chronic TMD groups, compared with the group of asymptomatic subjects, for all variables (p < .05) except kinesiophobia when comparing patients with CM and healthy women. Moderate correlations between kinesiophobia and catastrophizing (r = 0.46; p < .01) were obtained, and the strongest association was between kinesiophobia and magnification (r = 0.52; p < .01). The strongest associations among physical variables were found between the STM on both sides (r = 0.93; p < .01) and between the left and right STT (r = 0.76; p < .01). Conclusion. No differences were observed in pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia between women with CM and with chronic TMD. Women with CM or chronic TMD showed higher levels of pain catastrophizing than asymptomatic subjects. PMID:27818609
Watson, C Peter N
BACKGROUND: The use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains very controversial. There are several randomized controlled trials, mostly in neuropathic pain, reporting efficacy and safety in the short term, but more long-term data are needed. Randomized controlled trials may be limited in providing data about the patients who benefit from often high-dose opioids over the long term. The present article provides details of these patients and adds to a previous case series. METHODS: The present article contains 17 case reports of 11 CNCP conditions (followed to 2011) selected to illustrate specific issues from a survey of 84 patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids and followed every three months for a median of 11 years. The previous published survey of this group reported outcomes of pain severity, adverse effects, pain relief, satisfaction, mood, problematic opioid use, tolerance, physical dependency, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), immune status and sexual function. The outcome measures for that study included a numerical rating scale for pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory Interference Scale, the Pain Disability Index and, for HRQL, the Short-Form Health Survey 12 version 2. Most patients in the total sample reported 50% or greater relief and a moderate improvement in disability. Scores for functional status and HRQL were not severely affected. Problematic use, tolerance and serious adverse effects, including constipation, were not major issues. These selected patient reports were chosen, not to illustrate optimal results, but rather important aspects of the diagnoses, opioids and doses, the paucity of intolerable adverse effects, particular issues (concurrent addiction history, bipolar disorder and combination therapy), disease-specific and other outcomes and duration of follow-up with complex pain problems. RESULTS: Opioids were found to be safe and useful in the long term for
Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman
Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain.
Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter
The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain.
Garland, Eric L
Chronic pain is a prevalent problem that exacts a significant toll on society. The medical system has responded to this issue by implementing pain management services centered on opioid pharmacotherapy. However, for many chronic pain patients, the analgesic efficacy of long-term opioids is limited. Moreover, chronic exposure to opioids can result in opioid misuse, addiction, and risk of overdose. As such, non-opioid treatment options are needed. This article first provides a selective review of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms implicated in chronic pain to be targeted by novel non-opioid treatments. Next, it briefly details one such treatment approach, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement, and describes evidence suggesting that this intervention can disrupt the risk chain linking chronic pain to prescription opioid misuse.
Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383
Simons, Laura E; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology.
Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Yuzhu; Gao, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Lie
This study aimed to determine the relationship between the different factors of analgesic therapy and the compliance of chronic pain inpatients. We prospectively investigated 100 consecutive inpatients with noncancer chronic pain who were hospitalized to receive oral analgesic treatment in the Pain Department of West China Hospital from May 2013 to October 2013. Patients who completed the treatment plan were recorded as good compliance, whereas patients who partly completed or even refused the treatment were recorded as moderate or non-compliance, respectively. A total of 73 (73.7%), 17 (17.1%), and 9 (9.2%) patients showed good, moderate, and non-compliance, respectively. Univariate analyses showed significantly better compliance among farmers, patients educated in college or above, with family income of < 3000 CNY, and with severe or moderate pain than those employed and unemployed (P = 0.02), patients educated below college (P = 0.013), with family income of ≥ 3000 CNY (P = 0.025), and with mild pain (P < 0.001), respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the family income of ≥ 3000 CNY (OR: 2.50, 95%CI: 1.65-4.51, P = 0.021) and mild pain (OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.03-3.31, P = 0.016) were associated with moderate or non-compliance with oral analgesic treatment. In conclusion, the low compliance with oral treatment of analgesics was found in Chinese inpatients with chronic pain and compliance was negatively associated with family income and degree of pain of patients.
Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
While chronic pain is considered by some to be a CNS disease, little is understood about underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Addiction models have heuristic value in this regard, because both pain and addictive disorders are characterized by impaired hedonic capacity, compulsive drug seeking, and high stress. In drug addiction such symptomatology has been attributed to reward deficiency, impaired inhibitory control, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning, and anti-reward allostatic neuroadaptations. Here we propose that similar neuroadaptations exist in chronic pain patients.
to those in other chronic pain states such as migraine and fibromyalgia when controlled for co-morbid insomnia, depression and PTSD. The study groups...to be compared for this work include patients with chronic migraine, fibromyalgia , post-traumatic pain post mTBI, asymptomatic individuals post mTBI...migraine, fibromyalgia , post-traumatic pain post mTBI, asymptomatic individuals post mTBI, and normal controls. The understanding of the
Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n = 243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium × phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p = 0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium × phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p = 0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium × phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957
Borges, Natalia de Carvalho; Pereira, Lilian Varanda; de Moura, Louise Amália; Silva, Thuany Cavalcante; Pedroso, Charlise Fortunato
Background. Moderate to severe postoperative pain affects performance of daily activities and it contributes to persistent postoperative pain. In patients submitted to cesarean section, this pain can also interfere with women's ability to care for their babies, to effectively breastfeed, and to satisfactorily interact with their children. Factors influencing the pain perception during the immediate postoperative period have not been widely pursued. Objective. To investigate the incidence and predicting factors of postoperative pain after cesarean section. Methods. A prospective longitudinal study with 1,062 women submitted to cesarean section. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, surgical, and health behavior data. We used the 11-point Numerical Pain and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. We performed logistic analysis to identify predictors of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Results. The incidence of moderate-severe postoperative pain was 78.4% (CI: 95%: 75.9%-80.8%). The preoperative anxiety (OR = 1.60; CI 95%: 1.22-2.30) and intrathecal morphine with fentanyl (OR = 0,23; CI 95%: 0.08-0.66) were significantly associated with moderate-severe postoperative pain report. Conclusion. The preoperative anxiety increases the risk of moderate-severe postoperative pain in women submitted to cesarean section. The intrathecal morphine with fentanyl added to bupivacaine was a protective factor against this pain.
Silva, Thuany Cavalcante; Pedroso, Charlise Fortunato
Background. Moderate to severe postoperative pain affects performance of daily activities and it contributes to persistent postoperative pain. In patients submitted to cesarean section, this pain can also interfere with women's ability to care for their babies, to effectively breastfeed, and to satisfactorily interact with their children. Factors influencing the pain perception during the immediate postoperative period have not been widely pursued. Objective. To investigate the incidence and predicting factors of postoperative pain after cesarean section. Methods. A prospective longitudinal study with 1,062 women submitted to cesarean section. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, surgical, and health behavior data. We used the 11-point Numerical Pain and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. We performed logistic analysis to identify predictors of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Results. The incidence of moderate-severe postoperative pain was 78.4% (CI: 95%: 75.9%–80.8%). The preoperative anxiety (OR = 1.60; CI 95%: 1.22–2.30) and intrathecal morphine with fentanyl (OR = 0,23; CI 95%: 0.08–0.66) were significantly associated with moderate-severe postoperative pain report. Conclusion. The preoperative anxiety increases the risk of moderate-severe postoperative pain in women submitted to cesarean section. The intrathecal morphine with fentanyl added to bupivacaine was a protective factor against this pain. PMID:27956847
Chapin, Heather L; Darnall, Beth D; Seppala, Emma M; Doty, James R; Hah, Jennifer M; Mackey, Sean C
Background The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting it may be beneficial as a dual treatment for pain and anger. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study of a 9-week group compassion cultivation intervention in chronic pain to examine its effect on pain severity, anger, pain acceptance and pain-related interference. We also aimed to describe observer ratings provided by patients’ significant others and secondary effects of the intervention. Methods Pilot clinical trial with repeated measures design that included a within-subjects wait-list control period. Twelve chronic pain patients completed the intervention (F= 10). Data were collected from patients at enrollment, treatment baseline and post-treatment; participant significant others contributed data at the enrollment and post-treatment time points. Results In this predominantly female sample, patients had significantly reduced pain severity and anger and increased pain acceptance at post-treatment compared to treatment baseline. Significant other qualitative data corroborated patient reports for reductions in pain severity and anger. Conclusions Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further examine how
Ciszek, Brittney P.; Khan, Asma A.; Dang, Hong; Slade, Gary D.; Smith, Shad; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Zolnoun, Denniz; Nackley, Andrea G.
Chronic pain is a significant healthcare problem, ineffectively treated due to its unclear etiology and heterogeneous clinical presentation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that microRNAs regulate the expression of pain-relevant genes, yet little is known about their role in chronic pain. Here, we evaluate the relationship between pain, psychological characteristics, plasma cytokines and whole blood microRNAs in 22 healthy controls (HC); 33 subjects with chronic pelvic pain (vestibulodynia: VBD); and 23 subjects with VBD and irritable bowel syndrome (VBD+IBS). VBD subjects were similar to HCs in self-reported pain, psychological profiles and remote bodily pain. VBD+IBS subjects reported decreased health and function; and an increase in headaches, somatization and remote bodily pain. Furthermore, VBD subjects exhibited a balance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, while VBD+IBS subjects failed to exhibit a compensatory increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. VBD subjects differed from controls in expression of 10 microRNAs of predicted importance for pain and estrogen signaling. VBD+IBS subjects differed from controls in expression of 11 microRNAs of predicted importance for pain, cell physiology and insulin signaling. MicroRNA expression was correlated with pain-relevant phenotypes and cytokine levels. These results suggest microRNAs represent a valuable tool for differentiating VBD subtypes (localized pain with apparent peripheral neurosensory disruption versus widespread pain with a central sensory contribution) that may require different treatment approaches. PMID:26166255
Wilson, Hilary D.
Chronic pain is a pervasive health care issue affecting over 50 million Americans and costing more than $100 billion dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. As a financially and emotionally taxing condition, the families and friends of people with chronic pain, as well as society at large, are affected. Current theory supports the role of biological, psychological, and environmental factors in the etiology, exacerbation, and maintenance of chronic pain. Recently, the specific role of pain-related fear in pain experience has received increasing attention. This article summarizes current understanding of the role of pain-related fear in the onset of acute pain incidents, the transition of acute pain to chronic, and the pain severity and disability of patients with ongoing chronic pain conditions. Treatments demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear are presented, evidence demonstrating their efficacy at reducing disability and pain severity are summarized, and recent criticisms of the fear-avoidance model and future directions are considered. PMID:20425197
Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Wachholtz, Amy
We explored the relationship between meaning in life and adjustment to chronic pain in a three-wave, 2 year, longitudinal study of 273 Belgian chronic pain patients. We examined the directionality of the relationships among the meaning in life dimensions (Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning) and indicators of adjustment (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, pain intensity, and pain medication use). We found that Presence of Meaning was an important predictor of well-being. Secondly, we used a typological methodology to distinguish meaning in life profiles, and the relationship of individual meaning in life profiles with indicators of adjustment. Five meaning in life profiles emerged: High Presence High Search, High Presence Low Search, Moderate Presence Moderate Search, Low Presence Low Search, and Low Presence High Search. Each meaning in life profile was associated with a unique adjustment outcome. Profiles that scored high on Presence of Meaning showed more optimal adjustment. The profiles showed little change over time and did not moderate the development of adjustment indicators, except for life satisfaction. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25537924
Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Sherrington, Catherine; Ferreira, Manuela L; Tiedemann, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo H; Blyth, Fiona M; Close, Jacqueline CT; Taylor, Morag; Lord, Stephen R
Background/objectives The impact of pain on the physical performance of patients in aged care rehabilitation is not known. The study sought to assess 1) the prevalence of pain in older people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; 2) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; and 3) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in this population, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study of 420 older people at two inpatient aged care rehabilitation units. Physical performance was assessed using the Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. Pain was assessed with questions about the extent to which participants were troubled by pain, the duration of symptoms, and the impact of chronic pain on everyday activity. Depression and the number of comorbidities were assessed by questionnaire and medical file audit. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results Thirty percent of participants reported chronic pain (pain lasting more than 3 months), and 17% reported that this pain interfered with daily activities to a moderate or greater extent. Chronic pain (P=0.013) and chronic pain affecting daily activities (P<0.001) were associated with a poorer Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. The relationship between chronic pain affecting daily activities and Lower Limb Summary Performance Score remained significant (P=0.001) after adjusting for depression, age, comorbidities, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. This model explained 10% of the variability in physical performance. Conclusion One-third of participants reported chronic pain, and close to one-fifth reported that this pain interfered with daily activities. Chronic pain was associated with impaired physical performance, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for likely confounding factors. PMID:24523583
Sugimine, Satomi; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru
Background Neuropathic characteristics are highly involved in the development of chronic pain both physically and psychologically. However, little is known about the relationship between neuropathic characteristics and brain morphological alteration. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of chronic pain development by examining the above-mentioned relationships by voxel-based morphometry in patients with chronic pain. Methods First, we assessed neuropathic characteristics using the painDETECT Questionnaire in 12 chronic pain patients. Second, to assess the gray matter volume changes by voxel-based morphometry, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We applied multiregression analysis of these two assessment methods. Results There were significant positive correlations between painDETECT Questionnaire scores and the gray matter volume in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and right posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuropathic characteristics strongly affect the brain regions related to modulation of pain in patients with chronic pain and, therefore, contribute to the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27284013
Parsons, Bruce; Li, Chunming
Objective To compare the therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with moderate or severe painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN). Research design and methods Data were pooled from 11 placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin flexible or fixed dose (150, 300 or 600 mg/day) in pDPN patients with mean baseline pain scores of ≥4 to <7 (moderate) or ≥7 to ≤10 (severe). Last observation carried forward imputation was used. Study number/ClinicalTrials.gov identifier 1008-014/-, 1008-029/-, 1008-040/-, 1008-131/-, 1008-149/-, 1008-000-155/-, A0081030/NCT00156078, A0081060/NCT00159679, A0081071/NCT00143156, A0081081/NCT00301223, A0081163/NCT00553475. Main outcome measures Pregabalin-mediated change in pain, pain-related sleep interference (PRSI) and patient global impression of change (PGIC) were compared versus placebo and between moderate and severe pain cohorts. Adverse events (AEs) were reported. Results At baseline, 1816 patients had moderate pain (pregabalin, n = 1189) and 1119 patients had severe pain (pregabalin, n = 720). Pregabalin significantly reduced pain scores at endpoint compared with placebo when patients of all pain levels were combined (all doses; p < 0.05). In the moderate and severe pain cohorts, pregabalin treatment (300, 600 mg/day or flexible) significantly reduced mean pain scores at endpoint compared with placebo (p < 0.01). Pain reduction was greatest in patients with severe baseline pain compared with moderate baseline pain (pregabalin 300, 600 mg/day or flexible; p < 0.0001). Pregabalin improved PRSI and PGIC in the moderate and severe cohorts compared with placebo. The greatest improvement in PRSI also occurred in the severe cohort. Treatment-emergent AEs, most commonly dizziness, somnolence and peripheral edema, occurred more frequently in patients treated with pregabalin compared with placebo. Conclusions Pregabalin was effective in pDPN patients with both moderate and severe
Gasenzer, Elena R.; Klumpp, Marie-Juliana; Pieper, Dawid; Neugebauer, Edmund A. M.
Background: The study investigated the incidence of chronic pain as well as causes and mechanisms of pain chronification in orchestra musicians. Aims: Chronic pain is a serious problem in the study group due to very specific playing techniques and body positions while playing, with a high impact on professional and private life. Methods: 8,645 professional musicians from 132 German cultural orchestras were contacted and asked about chronic pain via an online questionnaire. The study group comprised orchestra musicians suffering from pain. The control group consisted of musicians playing the same type of instruments (same working conditions) who reported to be free of pain. Results: The response rate was 8.6% (740 musicians). 66.2% (n=490) out of 740 musicians who completed the questionnaire reported chronic pain. The most frequently reported localizations of pain were the body parts which are mostly involved in instrumental playing such as back (70%), shoulders (67.8%), neck (64.1%), hands and wrists (39.8%). 27.4% of the investigated musicians suffered from pain with a high degree of impairment. Conclusions: These results appear conclusive and indicate a need to continue research into chronic pain in musicians. PMID:28149258
Younger, Jarred; Barelka, Peter; Carroll, Ian; Kaplan, Kim; Chu, Larry; Prasad, Ravi; Gaeta, Ray; Mackey, Sean
Objective One potential consequence of chronic opioid analgesic administration is a paradoxical increase of pain sensitivity over time. Little scientific attention has been given to how cessation of opioid medication affects the hyperalgesic state. In this study, we examined the effects of opioid tapering on pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients. Design Twelve chronic pain patients on long-term opioid analgesic treatment were observed in a 7- to 14-day inpatient pain rehabilitation program, with cold pain tolerance assessed at admission and discharge. The majority of participants were completely withdrawn from their opioids during their stay. Outcome Measures We hypothesized that those patients with the greatest reduction in daily opioid use would show the greatest increases in pain tolerance, as assessed by a cold pressor task. Results A linear regression revealed that the amount of opioid medication withdrawn was a significant predictor of pain tolerance changes, but not in the direction hypothesized. Greater opioid reduction was associated with decreased pain tolerance. This reduction of pain tolerance was not associated with opioid withdrawal symptoms or changes in general pain. Conclusions These findings suggest that the withdrawal of opioids in a chronic pain sample leads to an acute increase in pain sensitivity. PMID:18564998
patients with chronic migraine, fibromyalgia , post-traumatic pain post mTBI, asymptomatic individuals post mTBI, and normal controls. Resting state...disorders. The specific study groups to be compared for this work include patients with chronic migraine, fibromyalgia , post-traumatic pain post...following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), those with fibromyalgia , chronic migraine without aura, asymptomatic individuals after mTBI, and in
Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia
Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP. PMID:27099529
Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.
Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302
Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J
Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state.
Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia
Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP.
Tracy, Lincoln M; Ioannou, Liane; Baker, Katharine S; Gibson, Stephen J; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Giummarra, Melita J
Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are involved in regulating pain states. The activity of these systems seems to become disturbed in states of chronic pain. This disruption in autonomic balance can be measured through the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV), that is, the variability of the interval between consecutive heart beats. However, there is yet to be a systematic evaluation of the body of literature concerning HRV across several chronic pain conditions. Moreover, modern meta-analytical techniques have never been used to validate and consolidate the extent to which HRV may be decreased in chronic pain. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines, this study systematically evaluated and critically appraised the literature concerning HRV in people living with chronic pain. After screening 17,350 sources, 51 studies evaluating HRV in a chronic pain group met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six moderate-high quality studies were included in quantitative meta-analyses. On average, the quality of studies was moderate. There were 6 frequency-domain and time-domain measures of HRV across a broad range of chronic pain conditions. High heterogeneity aside, pooled results from the meta-analyses reflected a consistent, moderate-to-large effect of decreased high-frequency HRV in chronic pain, implicating a decrease in parasympathetic activation. These effects were heavily influenced by fibromyalgia studies. Future research would benefit from wider use of standardised definitions of measurement, and also investigating the synergistic changes in pain state and HRV throughout the development and implementation of mechanism-based treatments for chronic pain.
Loggia, Marco L.; Berna, Chantal; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M.; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Gollub, Randy L.; Wasan, Ajay D.; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R.
While high levels of negative affect and cognitions have been associated in chronic pain conditions with greater pain sensitivity, the neural mechanisms mediating the hyperalgesic effect of psychological factors in patients with pain disorders are largely unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that 1) catastrophizing modulates brain responses to pain anticipation, and that 2) anticipatory brain activity mediates the hyperalgesic effect of different levels of catastrophizing, in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, we scanned the brains of 31 FM patients exposed to visual cues anticipating the onset of moderately intense deep-tissue pain stimuli. Our results indicated the existence of a negative association between catastrophizing and pain-anticipatory brain activity, including in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (IPFC). A bootstrapped mediation analysis revealed that pain-anticipatory activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (IPFC) mediates the association between catastrophizing and pain sensitivity. These findings highlight the role of IPFC in the pathophysiology of FM related hyperalgesia, and suggest that deficits in the recruitment of pain-inhibitory brain circuitry during pain-anticipatory periods may play an important contributory role in the association between various degrees of widespread hyperalgesia in FM and levels of catastrophizing, a well validated measure of negative cognitions and psychological distress. Perspective This article highlights the presence of alterations in pain-anticipatory brain activity in FM. These findings provide the rationale for the development of psychological or neurofeedback-based techniques aimed at modifying patients' negative affect and cognitions towards pain. PMID:25937162
Pinto, Patrícia R.; McIntyre, Teresa; Ferrero, Ramón; Almeida, Armando; Araújo-Soares, Vera
Persistent post-surgical pain (PPSP) is a major clinical problem with significant individual, social and health care costs. The aim of this study was to examine the joint role of demographic, clinical and psychological risk factors in the development of moderate and severe PPSP after Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty (TKA and THA, respectively). This was a prospective study wherein a consecutive sample of 92 patients were assessed 24 hours before (T1), 48 hours after (T2) and 4–6 months (T3) after surgery. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of moderate and severe levels of PPSP. Four to six months after TKA and THA, 54 patients (58.7%) reported none or mild pain (Numerical Rating Scale: NRS ≤3), whereas 38 (41.3%) reported moderate to severe pain (NRS >3). In the final multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses, illness representations concerning the condition leading to surgery (osteoarthritis), such as a chronic timeline perception of the disease, emerged as a significant predictor of PPSP. Additionally, post-surgical anxiety also showed a predictive role in the development of PPSP. Pre-surgical pain was the most significant clinical predictive factor and, as expected, undergoing TKA was associated with greater odds of PPSP development than THA. The findings on PPSP predictors after major joint arthroplasties can guide clinical practice in terms of considering cognitive and emotional factors, together with clinical factors, in planning acute pain management before and after surgery. PMID:24058502
Neziri, Alban Y; Curatolo, Michele; Limacher, Andreas; Nüesch, Eveline; Radanov, Bogdan; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Jüni, Peter
Low back pain is associated with plasticity changes and central hypersensitivity in a subset of patients. We performed a case-control study to explore the discriminative ability of different quantitative sensory tests in distinguishing between 40 cases with chronic low back pain and 300 pain-free controls, and to rank these tests according to the extent of their association with chronic pain. Gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and psychological measures were recorded as potential confounders. We used 26 quantitative sensory tests, including different modalities of pressure, heat, cold, and electrical stimulation. As measures of discrimination, we estimated receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and likelihood ratios. Six tests seemed useful (in order of their discriminative ability): (1) pressure pain detection threshold at the site of most severe pain (fitted area under the ROC, 0.87), (2) single electrical stimulation pain detection threshold (0.87), (3) single electrical stimulation reflex threshold (0.83), (4) pressure pain tolerance threshold at the site of most severe pain (0.81), (5) pressure pain detection threshold at suprascapular region (0.80), and (6) temporal summation pain threshold (0.80). Pressure and electrical pain modalities seemed most promising and may be used for diagnosis of pain hypersensitivity and potentially for identifying individuals at risk of developing chronic low back pain over time.
Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.
Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300
Bárbara Pereira Costa, Aline; Andrade Carneiro Machado, Luciana; Marcos Domingues Dias, João; Keller Coelho de Oliveira, Adriana; Ude Viana, Joana; da Silva, Sílvia Lanziotti Azevedo; Gonçalves Pereira Couto, Flávia; Lustosa Torres, Juliana; Mendes, Liliane P; Correa Dias, Rosangela
Malnutrition is a risk factor for noncommunicable diseases related to ageing, and it can also contribute to musculoskeletal health. This study investigated whether nutritional risk is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in community-dwelling older persons. Nutritional risk was assessed by the DETERMINE Checklist. Chronic musculoskeletal pain was defined as the presence of pain in the past six months that did not disappear for at least 30 consecutive days. Multivariate logistic regression including confounding variables was used for the analysis. The sample was comprised of 383 participants (age 75.6 ± SD 6.1); the majority were at moderate-to-high nutritional risk (69%) and approximately one third presented chronic musculoskeletal pain (30%). The nutritional risk score was independently associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain: adding one unit in the risk score produces an 11% increment in the odds of presenting pain (OR 1.109, 95% CI 1.022-1.204). Individuals classified into moderate- or high-risk categories also had substantially higher odds (∼90%) of presenting chronic musculoskeletal pain when compared to those in the low-risk category, although our findings were only marginally significant. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between nutritional risk and chronic musculoskeletal pain above and beyond the contributed effects from relevant confounders.
Jolliffe, Christopher D; Nicholas, Michael K
Effective treatments for chronic pain have been based on the operant model for chronic pain, which holds that pain behaviours can be operantly controlled by various reinforcers. Support for the operant model comes primarily from treatment/outcome studies which report significant reductions in pain behaviours in chronic pain patients, but fail to demonstrate the underlying operant thesis that various reinforcers play a significant role in the establishment and maintenance of pain behaviours. In an experimental test of this hypothesis, the pain reports of forty-six healthy undergraduate students were measured over two sets of fifteen trials, in which the pressure from a blood-pressure cuff applied to their arm either remained stable or decreased over time. Half of the subjects received positive verbal reinforcement from the experimenter after each trial if their report of pain intensity exceeded that of the previous trial. Overall, the mean pain reports of reinforced subjects were significantly greater than those of the non-reinforced subjects both when the intensity of the cuff was stable over trials, and when it decreased, as expected. These results provide support for the operant model of chronic pain. The clinical and theoretical implications of these results for the operant model of chronic pain are discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.
Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Wolf, Oliver T.
Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that: (1) extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal) likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favor overgeneralization; (2) acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories; (3) stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4) these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain. PMID:26733831
Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS.
Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020
Herbert, Matthew Scott; Afari, Niloofar; Liu, Lin; Heppner, Pia; Rutledge, Thomas; Williams, Kathryn; Eraly, Satish; VanBuskirk, Katie; Nguyen, Cathy; Bondi, Mark; Atkinson, J Hampton; Golshan, Shahrokh; Wetherell, Julie Loebach
The purpose of this randomized noninferiority trial was to compare video teleconferencing (VTC) versus in-person (IP) delivery of an 8-week acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) intervention among veterans with chronic pain (N = 128) at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the pain interference subscale of the Brief Pain Inventory. Secondary outcomes included measures of pain severity, mental and physical health-related quality of life, pain acceptance, activity level, depression, pain-related anxiety, and sleep quality. In intent to treat analyses using mixed linear effects modeling, both groups exhibited significant improvements on primary and secondary outcomes, with the exception of sleep quality. Further, improvements in activity level at 6-month follow-up were significantly greater in the IP group. The noninferiority hypothesis was supported for the primary outcome and several secondary outcomes. Treatment satisfaction was similar between groups; however, significantly more participants withdrew during treatment in the VTC group compared with the IP group, which was moderated by activity level at baseline. These findings generally suggest that ACT delivered via VTC can be as effective and acceptable as IP delivery for chronic pain. Future studies should examine the optimal delivery of ACT for patients with chronic pain who report low levels of activity. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01055639).
Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain activations induced by pain-related adjectives. Subjects viewed pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words; subjects were asked to generate mental images related to these words during fMRI scanning. Brain activation was compared between CBP patients and HC in response to the different word categories and examined in relation to current pain in CBP patients. Pain-related words vs. neutral words activated a network of brain regions including cingulate cortex and insula in subjects and patients. There was stronger activation in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior midcingulate cortex in CPB patients than in HC. The magnitude of activation for pain-related vs. negative words showed a negative linear relationship to CBP patients’ current pain. Our findings confirm earlier observations showing that pain-related words activate brain networks similar to noxious stimulation. Importantly, CBP patients show even stronger activation of these structures while merely processing pain-related words. Current pain directly influences on this activation. PMID:27517967
Bouwense, Stefan AW; de Vries, Marjan; Schreuder, Luuk TW; Olesen, Søren S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG
Pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) shows similarities with other visceral pain syndromes (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease and esophagitis), which should thus be managed in a similar fashion. Typical causes of CP pain include increased intrapancreatic pressure, pancreatic inflammation and pancreatic/extrapancreatic complications. Unfortunately, CP pain continues to be a major clinical challenge. It is recognized that ongoing pain may induce altered central pain processing, e.g., central sensitization or pro-nociceptive pain modulation. When this is present conventional pain treatment targeting the nociceptive focus, e.g., opioid analgesia or surgical/endoscopic intervention, often fails even if technically successful. If central nervous system pain processing is altered, specific treatment targeting these changes should be instituted (e.g., gabapentinoids, ketamine or tricyclic antidepressants). Suitable tools are now available to make altered central processing visible, including quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalograpy and (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques are potentially clinically useful diagnostic tools to analyze central pain processing and thus define optimum management approaches for pain in CP and other visceral pain syndromes. The present review proposes a systematic mechanism-orientated approach to pain management in CP based on a holistic view of the mechanisms involved. Future research should address the circumstances under which central nervous system pain processing changes in CP, and how this is influenced by ongoing nociceptive input and therapies. Thus we hope to predict which patients are at risk for developing chronic pain or not responding to therapy, leading to improved treatment of chronic pain in CP and other visceral pain disorders. PMID:25574079
Pielech, Melissa; Sieberg, Christine B.; Simons, Laura E.
Objectives To help address the unique needs of parents of children with chronic pain, a four module, parent-only, group art therapy curriculum was designed and implemented within an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation treatment program. We evaluated perceived satisfaction and helpfulness of the group intervention. Methods Fifty-three parents of children experiencing chronic pain enrolled in a day hospital interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program participated. The voluntary parent art therapy group was offered one time per week for one hour. Participants completed a measure of satisfaction, helpfulness, and perceived social support at the end of each group session. Results Parents enjoyed participating in the group, agreed that they would try art therapy again, and found it to be a helpful, supportive, and validating experience. Conclusions Initial results are promising that group art therapy is an appropriate and helpful means of supporting parents of children with chronic pain during interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation. PMID:24563827
Sakai, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hidenori
Chronic pain is a debilitating syndrome caused by a variety of disorders, and represents a major clinical problem because of the lack of adequate medication. In chronic pain, massive changes in gene expression are observed in a variety of cells, including neurons and glia, in the overall somatosensory system from the sensory ganglia to the higher central nervous system. The protein expressions of hundreds of genes are thought to be post-transcriptionally regulated by a single type of microRNA in a sequence-specific manner. Recently, critical roles of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of chronic pain have been emerging. Genome-wide screenings of microRNA expression changes have been reported in a variety of painful conditions, including peripheral nerve injury, inflammatory diseases, cancer and spinal cord injury. The data obtained suggest that a wide range of microRNAs change their expressions in individual pain conditions, although the pathological significance of individual microRNAs as causal mediators in distinct pain conditions remains to be revealed for a limited number of microRNAs. Insights into the roles of microRNAs in chronic pain will enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic pain and allow prompt therapeutic application of microRNA-related drugs against intractable persistent pain.
Robinson, Katie; Kennedy, Norelee; Harmon, Dominic
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discourses used by people with chronic pain. Using qualitative interview data from five Irish people with a variety of chronic pain conditions, Foucauldian discourse analysis was undertaken to identify the discourses in operation in participants' accounts. Three discourses were identified: a moral discourse, a discourse of pain as personal tragedy, and a biomedical discourse. A moral discourse was used to construct participants as moral individuals experiencing real pain who try to accomplish activities and fulfil social roles without burdening others. The discourse of chronic pain as personal tragedy describes the multiple negative consequences of chronic pain including activity, relationship, physical, financial, and emotional consequences, and changed expectations of the future. This discourse bolsters the moral discourse through rejecting any benefits associated with chronic pain. Participants rejected a biomedical discourse by proposing their own explanatory models of pain, resisting psychosocial understandings of pain, criticizing medical professionals and healthcare services, and challenging medical expertise, professionalism, and power. These practices allow participants to reject the patient subject-position with its attendant passivity and requirements for adherence and compliance.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D
Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain. PMID:15169547
Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.
Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, PMID:22862153
elicits a number of changes in the activity, properties and transmitter content of pain -pathway neurons2. This central sensitization to nociceptive ...AD______ Award Number: W81XHW-11-1-0806 TITLE: Chronic pain following spinal cord injury. The...role of immunogenetics and time of injury pain treatment. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Mark Hutchinson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The
Arora, Hans C; Eng, Charis; Shoskes, Daniel A
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization-all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients.
Arora, Hans C.; Eng, Charis
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization—all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients. PMID:28217695
Paice, Judith A; Mulvey, Matt; Bennett, Michael; Dougherty, Patrick M; Farrar, John T; Mantyh, Patrick W; Miaskowski, Christine; Schmidt, Brian; Smith, Thomas J
Chronic cancer pain is a serious complication of malignancy or its treatment. Currently, no comprehensive, universally accepted cancer pain classification system exists. Clarity in classification of common cancer pain syndromes would improve clinical assessment and management. Moreover, an evidence-based taxonomy would enhance cancer pain research efforts by providing consistent diagnostic criteria, ensuring comparability across clinical trials. As part of a collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy initiative worked to develop the characteristics of an optimal diagnostic system. After the establishment of these characteristics, a working group consisting of clinicians and clinical and basic scientists with expertise in cancer and cancer-related pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for an illustrative sample of 3 chronic pain syndromes associated with cancer (ie, bone pain and pancreatic cancer pain as models of pain related to a tumor) or its treatment (ie, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). A systematic review and synthesis was conducted to provide evidence for the dimensions that comprise this cancer pain taxonomy. Future efforts will subject these diagnostic categories and criteria to systematic empirical evaluation of their feasibility, reliability, and validity and extension to other cancer-related pain syndromes.
Harmon, Jennifer B.; Sanders, Anne E.; Wilder, Rebecca S.; Essick, Greg K.; Slade, Gary D.; Hartung, Jane E.; Nackley, Andrea G.
AIMS The biological basis for painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) remains unclear. An emerging literature implicates circulating inflammatory cytokines in the development of pain sensitivity and painful TMD. One newly discovered anti-inflammatory adipokine, omentin-1, has decreased expression in several inflammatory conditions including osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between omentin-1 levels and painful TMD. METHODS Using a case-control design, chronic painful TMD cases (n=90) and TMD-free controls (n=54) were selected participants in the multisite OPPERA study (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment). Painful TMD case status was determined by examiner using established Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. Levels of omentin-1 were measured in stored blood plasma samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Binary logistic regression calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits (CLs) for the association between omentin-1 and painful TMD. Models adjusted for study site, age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS The unadjusted association between omentin-1 and chronic painful TMD was statistically non-significant (P=.072) Following adjustment of the negative confounding bias of covariates, odds of painful decreased 36% per standard deviation increase in circulating omentin-1 (adjusted OR=0.64, 95% CL: 0.43, 0.96. P=.031). CONCLUSION Circulating levels of omentin-1 were significantly lower in painful TMD cases than controls, suggesting that painful TMD pain is mediated by inflammatory pathways. PMID:27472522
Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
Objective Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. Methods One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. Results The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Conclusion Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients. PMID:23133510
The treatment of pain is a complex process that requires a team approach. This article provides an overview of the pharmaceutical treatments available. It gives providers treating upper extremity disorders more tools to treat their patients with chronic pain. Another goal is to improve hand providers' understanding of the medications their pain colleagues prescribe in shared patients. Pharmaceuticals are an important component in the treatment of chronic pain and opioids are often not a good solution. Knowing what other medications are available can improve the care for these challenging patients.
Malanga, Gerard; Paster, Zorba
People aged 65 years and over make up the fastest growing demographic in the United States. By the year 2040 they will comprise approximately one fourth of the US population. The elderly patient in need of chronic pain therapy presents challenges best met with an enlightened and effective treatment strategy. Practice standards must include a thorough pain assessment and formation of a multimodal care plan, which applies knowledge of pain management in an objective and scientific manner. In this article, a patient case study illustrates how the appropriate management of chronic pain in an elderly patient can lead to better clinical outcomes.
Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Sullivan, M J L
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal stability of communicative and protective pain behaviors in patients with chronic back pain. The study also examined whether the stability of pain behaviors could be accounted for by patients' levels of pain severity, catastrophizing, or fear of movement. Patients (n=70) were filmed on two separate occasions (i.e., baseline, follow-up) while performing a standardized lifting task designed to elicit pain behaviors. Consistent with previous studies, the results provided evidence for the stability of pain behaviors in patients with chronic pain. The analyses indicated that communicative and protective pain behavior scores did not change significantly from baseline to follow-up. In addition, significant test-retest correlations were found between baseline and follow-up pain behavior scores. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses further showed that pain behaviors remained stable over time even when accounting for patients' levels of pain severity. Regression analyses also showed that pain behaviors remained stable when accounting for patients' levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement. Discussion addresses the potential contribution of central neural mechanisms and social environmental reinforcement contingencies to the stability of pain behaviors. The discussion also addresses how treatment interventions specifically aimed at targeting pain behaviors might help to augment the overall impact of pain and disability management programs.
Wilson, Anna C.; Samuelson, Bethany; Palermo, Tonya M.
Objectives Obesity is associated with functional disability in adults with chronic pain, but less is known about obesity among youth with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to 1) identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents receiving treatment for chronic pain, and 2) examine associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), pain intensity, and activity limitations in this population. Methods Data was obtained from records of 118 patients, ages 8 to 18, seen in a multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic. Information about age, gender, pain problem, duration and severity, medical diagnoses, medications, height and weight were collected from medical records and intake questionnaires. The CDC’s pediatric BMI calculator was used to obtain percentile and category (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese). Children and parents completed the Child Activity Limitations Interview-21 (CALI-21), a self-report measure of activity limitations. Results A significantly higher rate of overweight and obesity was observed among youth with chronic pain compared to a normative sample. BMI percentile was predictive of concurrent limitations in vigorous activities, according to parent report. Discussion BMI percentile and weight status may contribute to activity limitations among children and adolescents with chronic pain. Weight status is an important factor to consider in the context of treatment of chronic pain and disability in children and adolescents. PMID:20664337
Dodge, Amanda K.
Abstract Peripheral inflammation causes mechanical pain behavior and increased action potential firing. However, most studies examine inflammatory pain at acute, rather than chronic time points, despite the greater burden of chronic pain on patient populations, especially aged individuals. Furthermore, there is disagreement in the field about whether primary afferents contribute to chronic pain. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the contribution of nociceptor activity to the generation of pain behaviors during the acute and chronic phases of inflammation in both young and aged mice. We found that both young (2 months old) and aged (>18 months old) mice exhibited prominent pain behaviors during both acute (2 day) and chronic (8 week) inflammation. However, young mice exhibited greater behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli than their aged counterparts. Teased fiber recordings in young animals revealed a twofold mechanical sensitization in C fibers during acute inflammation, but an unexpected twofold reduction in firing during chronic inflammation. Responsiveness to capsaicin and mechanical responsiveness of A-mechanonociceptor (AM) fibers were also reduced chronically. Importantly, this lack of sensitization in afferent firing during chronic inflammation occurred even as these inflamed mice exhibited continued behavioral sensitization. Interestingly, C fibers from inflamed aged animals showed no change in mechanical firing compared with controls during either the acute or chronic inflammatory phases, despite strong behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli at these time points. These results reveal the following two important findings: (1) nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation depends on age and the chronicity of injury; and (2) maintenance of chronic inflammatory pain does not rely on enhanced peripheral drive. PMID:26866058
Heffner, Kathi L.; France, Christopher R.; Trost, Zina; Mei Ng, H.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.
Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common co-morbidity of chronic pain. Inflammatory processes are dysregulated in sleep disturbance and also contribute to pain sensitivity. Thus, inflammation may play an important role in bi-directional associations between pain and sleep. Little is known about concurrent relationships among chronic pain, sleep, and inflammation. The aim of our study was to examine associations among sleep disturbance and circulating levels of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), in individuals with and without chronic low back pain. Methods Gender and age-matched adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP; n = 25) or without chronic pain (controls; n = 25) completed measures of sleep quality in the past month and depressive symptoms in the past week, and provided a blood draw for IL-6. The next morning, participants reported their sleep quality the previous night and their current experience of morning pain. Results Individuals with CLBP had more sleep disturbance than controls. Circulating IL-6 levels were similar for the two groups; however, in adults with CLBP, poorer sleep quality was associated with higher IL-6 levels, and both sleep and IL-6 related to pain reports. Unlike CLBP participants, controls showed normal, age-related increases in IL-6 levels, whereas sleep quality was unrelated to IL-6 levels. Depressive symptoms could not fully explain the observed associations. Discussion Inflammatory processes may play a significant role in cycles of pain and sleep disturbance. Clinical interventions that improve sleep and reduce concomitant inflammatory dysregulation hold promise for chronic pain management. PMID:21188850
Chronic pelvic pain is a debilitating, life-altering syndrome that negatively affects a woman's quality of life and personal relationships. Many women continue to suffer with pelvic pain despite having undergone multiple medical and surgical treatments. Unfortunately, some women are incorrectly labeled as having psychological illness when organic disease may be present. I report a case of a woman who underwent multiple pelvic and abdominal surgeries before the cause of her pain was identified through microlaparoscopic conscious pain mapping. PMID:12004805
Leake, Hayley B.; Chalmers, K. Jane; Moseley, G. Lorimer
Background Despite common use of proprioceptive retraining interventions in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain, evidence that proprioceptive dysfunction exists in this population is lacking. Determining whether proprioceptive dysfunction exists in people with chronic neck pain has clear implications for treatment prescription. Purpose The aim of this study was to synthesize and critically appraise all evidence evaluating proprioceptive dysfunction in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain by completing a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched. Study Selection All published studies that compared neck proprioception (joint position sense) between a chronic, idiopathic neck pain sample and asymptomatic controls were included. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers extracted relevant population and proprioception data and assessed methodological quality using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Data Synthesis Thirteen studies were included in the present review. Meta-analysis on 10 studies demonstrated that people with chronic neck pain perform significantly worse on head-to-neutral repositioning tests, with a moderate standardized mean difference of 0.44 (95% confidence interval=0.25, 0.63). Two studies evaluated head repositioning using trunk movement (no active head movement thus hypothesized to remove vestibular input) and showed conflicting results. Three studies evaluated complex or postural repositioning tests; postural repositioning was no different between groups, and complex movement tests were impaired only in participants with chronic neck pain if error was continuously evaluated throughout the movement. Limitations A paucity of studies evaluating complex or postural repositioning
Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E
Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.
Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha
Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain.
Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha
Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215
Indredavik, Marit S.; Evensen, Kari A.I.; Romundstad, Pål R.; Rygg, Marite
Objective: To investigate self-reported pain in young adults with a low birth weight. Materials and Methods: This study was a part of a long-term follow-up study of preterm very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500 g), term small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight <10th percentile adjusted for sex and parity), and control young adults born during 1986 to 1988. Of the 300 individuals invited, 216 (62 VLBW, 67 term SGA, and 87 controls) completed a pain questionnaire. Of these, 151 (70%) had answered a pain severity question at 19 years. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting for >6 months and being moderate, severe, or very severe during the past 4 weeks. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain at 26 years was 16% in the VLBW group, 21% in the term SGA group, and 7% in the control group. The VLBW and the term SGA groups had higher odds ratios for chronic pain (crude OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.9-7.6 for the VLBW group and crude OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.9 for the term SGA group vs. controls). The main results remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Some attenuation was observed when adjusting for anxiety and depressive problems. Moderate to very severe pain increased from 16% to 41% in the term SGA group from 19 to 26 years, whereas less changes were seen in the VLBW and the control groups. Discussion: Results of our study imply that pain should be in focus when conducting long-term follow-up programs of individuals with a low birth weight. PMID:27518485
Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R; Cahalan, Christine M; Mensing, George; Greenbaum, Seth; Valovska, Assia; Li, Ang; Kim, Jieun; Maeda, Yumi; Park, Kyungmo; Wasan, Ajay D.
Objective Previous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) studies have demonstrated anti-nociceptive effects, and recent non-invasive approaches; termed transcutaneous-VNS, or t-VNS, have utilized stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve in the ear. The dorsal medullary vagal system operates in tune with respiration, and we propose that supplying vagal afferent stimulation gated to the exhalation phase of respiration can optimize t-VNS. Design counterbalanced, crossover study. Patients patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis in a specialty pain clinic. Interventions/Outcomes We evaluated evoked pain analgesia for Respiratory-gated Auricular Vagal Afferent Nerve Stimulation (RAVANS) compared with Non-Vagal Auricular Stimulation (NVAS). RAVANS and NVAS were evaluated in separate sessions spaced at least one week apart. Outcome measures included deep tissue pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and anxiety ratings, which were assessed at baseline, during active stimulation, immediately following stimulation, and 15 minutes after stimulus cessation. Results RAVANS demonstrated a trend for reduced evoked pain intensity and temporal summation of mechanical pain, and significantly reduced anxiety in N=15 CPP patients, compared to NVAS, with moderate to large effect sizes (eta2>0.2). Conclusion Chronic pain disorders such as CPP are in great need of effective, non-pharmacological options for treatment. RAVANS produced promising anti-nociceptive effects for QST outcomes reflective of the noted hyperalgesia and central sensitization in this patient population. Future studies should evaluate longer-term application of RAVANS to examine its effects on both QST outcomes and clinical pain. PMID:22568773
González-Sepúlveda, Marta; Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Valverde, Olga
Mood disorders and chronic pain are closely linked, but limited progress has been made in understanding the role of chronic and neuropathic pain in the aetiopathogenesis of depression. To explore the pathological mechanisms that mediate the association between pain and depressive-like behaviours, we studied the time-dependent effect of neuropathic pain on the development of anxiety-like and despair behaviours in CD1 mice. We analysed behavioural data, neuroinflammation reactions and changes in neurotransmitter (glutamate and serotonin) levels in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Sciatic-operated mice displayed long-lasting anxiety-like and despair behaviours, starting 5 and 20 days after partial sciatic nerve ligation, respectively. Glutamatergic neurotransmission and IL-1β cytokine expression were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex of mice with neuropathic pain. We found no change in serotonin metabolism, cytokine IL-6 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. While sciatic-operated mice exposed to intermittent ethanol intake (20% v/v) using the drinking in the dark procedure consumed higher amounts of ethanol than sham-operated mice, thermal allodynia and despair behaviour were not attenuated by ethanol consumption. Our findings reveal an association between glutamatergic neurotransmission and pain-induced mood disorders, and indicate that moderate ethanol consumption does not relieve nociceptive and depressive behaviours associated with chronic pain in mice.
Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Oh, Seog-Bae; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun
Autism spectrum disorder is a debilitating mental illness and social issue. Autism spectrum disorder patients suffer from social isolation, cognitive deficits, compulsive behavior, and sensory deficits, including hyposensitivity to pain. However, recent studies argued that autism spectrum disorder patients show physiological pain response and, in some cases, even extremely intense pain response to harmless stimulation. Recently, Shank gene family was reported as one of the genetic risk factors of autism spectrum disorder. Thus, in this study, we used Shank2(-) (/) (-) (Shank2 knock-out, KO) mice to investigate the controversial pain sensitivity issue and found that Shank2 KO mice showed reduced tactile perception and analgesia to chronic pain.
Carvalho, Cláudia; Caetano, Joaquim Machado; Cunha, Lidia; Rebouta, Paula; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Kirsch, Irving
Abstract This randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate whether placebo effects in chronic low back pain could be harnessed ethically by adding open-label placebo (OLP) treatment to treatment as usual (TAU) for 3 weeks. Pain severity was assessed on three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales, scoring maximum pain, minimum pain, and usual pain, and a composite, primary outcome, total pain score. Our other primary outcome was back-related dysfunction, assessed on the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire. In an exploratory follow-up, participants on TAU received placebo pills for 3 additional weeks. We randomized 97 adults reporting persistent low back pain for more than 3 months' duration and diagnosed by a board-certified pain specialist. Eighty-three adults completed the trial. Compared to TAU, OLP elicited greater pain reduction on each of the three 0- to 10-point Numeric Rating Scales and on the 0- to 10-point composite pain scale (P < 0.001), with moderate to large effect sizes. Pain reduction on the composite Numeric Rating Scales was 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0) in the OLP group and 0.2 (−0.3 to 0.8) in the TAU group. Open-label placebo treatment also reduced disability compared to TAU (P < 0.001), with a large effect size. Improvement in disability scores was 2.9 (1.7-4.0) in the OLP group and 0.0 (−1.1 to 1.2) in the TAU group. After being switched to OLP, the TAU group showed significant reductions in both pain (1.5, 0.8-2.3) and disability (3.4, 2.2-4.5). Our findings suggest that OLP pills presented in a positive context may be helpful in chronic low back pain. PMID:27755279
Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei
It has been widely accepted that the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) plays an essential role in the sensory-discriminative aspect of pain perception. However, it remains unclear whether the SI has a role in the descending modulation of pain. Although there are abundant fibers projecting back from sensory cortex to thalamic nuclei, and the influence of cortical modulation from SI on the thalamic nociceptive relay neurons has been addressed, little is known about how the cortical outputs modulate the nociceptive behaviors resulting from tissue injury or evoked by painful stimulation. The present study was designed to test whether the cortical outputs influenced the nociceptive behaviors using rat models of noxious thermal-induced acute pain, formalin-induced acute and CFA-evoked chronic inflammatory pain. The results showed that intracortical microinjection of GABAA agonist muscimol significantly reduced the first and second phase behaviors in formalin tests and elevated the nociceptive thresholds in the thermal stimulus-elicited acute pain, suggesting a facilitatory influence of SI on the acute pain sensation. By contrast, microinjection of GABAA antagonist bicuculline remarkably reduced the thermal hyperalgesia of the CFA-inflamed hindpaws, indicating an inhibitory effect of SI output in the chronic pain state. The opposite modulatory effects in acute and chronic pain states suggest that there exists a functional switch for the SI cortex at different stages of pain disease, which is of great significance for the biological adaptation.
Marotta, Joseph T.
Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia. PMID:21286580
Thomas, Elaine; Dunn, Kate M; Mallen, Christian; Peat, George
A prognostic approach to defining chronic pain has been proposed as an alternative to traditional definitions based on retrospective duration of pain. While this new approach performs well in low back pain (LBP), headache and orofacial pain, it is not known whether it translates to regional pain syndromes with an underlying pathological component, such as osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the performance of this approach in a population-based cohort of older adults reporting knee pain, with a spectrum of radiographic knee OA. 676 adults (50 years+) attended a research clinic and were followed up at 18 months and 3 years. Risk scores were calculated using pain intensity, pain duration, pain-related activity, number of pain sites and depressive symptoms, measured at baseline and at 18 months. These scores were used to determine the probability of future clinically significant knee pain, defined as Chronic Pain Grade II-IV, at 18 months and at 3 years using logistic regression. Cut-points on the risk score were applied to determine groups at intermediate (probability >or=0.2), possible (>or=0.5) and probable (>or=0.8) risk of clinically significant knee pain. Discriminative ability of the risk scores, determined by area under the ROC curve, was high (0.78-0.82), varied little by radiographic severity and was superior to pain duration alone. The derived cut-points suggested a lower threshold for each of the risk groups than the previous LBP work. This prognostic approach to defining chronic pain appears to translate well to knee pain. Different cut-points for defining risk groups may be needed for different pain syndromes.
Kandil, Enas; Melikman, Emily; Adinoff, Bryon
Opioid abuse is a national epidemic in the United States, where it is estimated that a prescription drug overdose death occurs every 19 minutes. While opioids are highly effective in acute and subacute pain control, their use for treatment of chronic pain is controversial. Chronic opioids use is associated with tolerance, dependency, hyperalgesia. Although there are new strategies and practice guidelines to reduce opioid dependence and opioid prescription drug overdose, there has been little focus on development of opioid-sparing therapeutic approaches. Lidocaine infusion has been shown to be successful in controlling pain where other agents have failed. The opioid sparing properties of lidocaine infusion added to its analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties make lidocaine infusion a viable option for pain control in opioid dependent patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the opioid abuse epidemic, and we outline current evidence supporting the potential use of lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant therapeutic approach for management of chronic pain. PMID:28239510
Cheng, Hsinlin Thomas
Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Due to complex pathological mechanisms involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn to release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. These events induce multiple inflammatory and neuropathic processes in the spinal cord dorsal horn and trigger modification and plasticity of local neural circuits. As a result, ongoing noxious signals to the brain are amplified and prolonged, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, the molecular events associated with central sensitization as well as their clinical implications are discussed. PMID:20461476
Okuno, Yuji; Korchi, Amine Mohamed; Shinjo, Takuma; Kato, Shojiro
PurposeOsteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability. Mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis that is resistant to nonsurgical options and not severe enough to warrant joint replacement represents a challenge in its management. On the basis of the hypothesis that neovessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain, previous work demonstrated that transcatheter arterial embolization for chronic painful conditions resulted in excellent pain relief. We hypothesized that transcatheter arterial embolization can relieve pain associated with knee osteoarthritis.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis using imipenem/cilastatin sodium or 75 μm calibrated Embozene microspheres as an embolic agent has been performed in 11 and three patients, respectively. We assessed adverse events and changes in Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores.ResultsAbnormal neovessels were identified within soft tissue surrounding knee joint in all cases by arteriography. No major adverse events were related to the procedures. Transcatheter arterial embolization rapidly improved WOMAC pain scores from 12.2 ± 1.9 to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 month after the procedure, with further improvement at 4 months (1.7 ± 2.2) and WOMAC total scores from 47.3 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 5.4 at 1 month, and to 6.3 ± 6.0 at 4 months. These improvements were maintained in most cases at the final follow-up examination at a mean of 12 ± 5 months (range 4–19 months).ConclusionTranscatheter arterial embolization for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis was feasible, rapidly relieved resistant pain, and restored knee function.
Kames, L D; Rapkin, A J; Naliboff, B D; Afifi, S; Ferrer-Brechner, T
Chronic pelvic pain has rarely been discussed in the pain management literature, although it is extremely common in general gynecological practice and often refractory to traditional medical and surgical therapy. A chronic pelvic pain program was developed to offer an alternative treatment approach for women for whom standard gynecological procedures were inappropriate or unsuccessful. Sixteen subjects completed the full 6-8 week interdisciplinary program, which included both somatic and behavioral therapies. Compared to a waiting list control the results showed a dramatic decrease in reported levels of pain following treatment. Anxiety and depression also decreased and psychosocial functioning improved, including return to work, increased social activities, and improved sexual activity. The outcome suggests that the interdisciplinary pain management approach is effective for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.
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Broderick, Joan E; Keefe, Francis J; Schneider, Stefan; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Schwartz, Joseph E; Kaell, Alan T; Caldwell, David S; McKee, Daphne; Gould, Elaine
Moderator analyses are reported for posttreatment outcomes in a large, randomized, controlled effectiveness trial for chronic pain for hip and knee osteoarthritis (N = 256). Pain Coping Skills Training, a form of cognitive behavioral therapy, was compared to usual care. Treatment was delivered by nurse practitioners in patients' community doctors' offices. Consistent with meta-analyses of pain cognitive behavioral therapy efficacy, treatment effects in this trial were significant for several primary and secondary outcomes, but tended to be small. This study was designed to examine differential response to treatment for patient subgroups to guide clinical decision-making for treatment. Based on existing literature, demographic (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education) and clinical variables (disease severity, body mass index, patient treatment expectations, depression, and patient pain coping style) were specified a priori as potential moderators. Trial outcome variables (N = 15) included pain, fatigue, self-efficacy, quality of life, catastrophizing, and use of pain medication. Results yielded 5 significant moderators for outcomes at posttreatment: pain coping style, patient expectation for treatment response, radiographically assessed disease severity, age, and education. Thus, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and depression at baseline were not associated with level of treatment response. In contrast, patients with interpersonal problems associated with pain coping did not benefit much from the treatment. Although most patients projected positive expectations for the treatment prior to randomization, only those with moderate to high expectations benefited. Patients with moderate to high osteoarthritis disease severity showed stronger treatment effects. Finally, the oldest and most educated patients showed strong treatment effects, while younger and less educated did not.
Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Strichartz, Gary R
Chronic pain after surgery limits social activity, interferes with work, and causes emotional suffering. A major component of such pain is reported as resting or spontaneous pain with no apparent external stimulus. Although experimental animal models can simulate the stimulus-evoked chronic pain that occurs after surgery, there have been no studies of spontaneous chronic pain in such models. Here the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to reveal resting pain after experimental thoracotomy. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a thoracotomy with 1-hour rib retraction, resulting in evoked tactile hypersensitivity, previously shown to last for at least 9 weeks. Intraperitoneal injections of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or gabapentin (40 mg/kg) gave equivalent 2- to 3-hour-long relief of tactile hypersensitivity when tested 12 to 14 days postoperatively. In separate experiments, single trial CPP was conducted 1 week before thoracotomy and then 12 days (gabapentin) or 14 days (morphine) after surgery, followed the next day by 1 conditioning session with morphine or gabapentin, both versus saline. The gabapentin-conditioned but not the morphine-conditioned rats showed a significant preference for the analgesia-paired chamber, despite the equivalent effect of the 2 agents in relieving tactile allodynia. These results show that experimental thoracotomy in rats causes spontaneous pain and that some analgesics, such as morphine, that reduce evoked pain do not also relieve resting pain, suggesting that pathophysiological mechanisms differ between these 2 aspects of long-term postoperative pain. Perspective: Spontaneous pain, a hallmark of chronic postoperative pain, is demonstrated here in a rat model of experimental postthoracotomy pain, further validating the use of this model for the development of analgesics to treat such symptoms. Although stimulus-evoked pain was sensitive to systemic morphine, spontaneous pain was not, suggesting different mechanistic
Argoff, Charles E
Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain.
Davies, K A; Macfarlane, G J; McBeth, J; Morriss, R; Dickens, C
Individuals with "insecure" adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2-50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.3, Preoccupied: RRR=1.8, 95%CI 0.98-3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain.
Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa
Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level
Tompkins, D Andrew; Johnson, Patrick S; Smith, Michael T; Strain, Eric C; Edwards, Robert R; Johnson, Matthew W
Opioid therapy for pain is associated with an increased risk for substance use disorders. This study's purpose was to determine the association between opioid misuse propensity (Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised) and delay discounting (DD), a behavioral process linked to substance use disorders, which quantifies the extent to which outcomes are devalued because of their delay. Participants reporting chronic pain (N = 249) answered pain and opioid use questions and then completed 4 DD tasks. Each of these tasks assessed either money or pain consequences, framed as either rewards or punishments. Each task involved hypothetical choices between immediate smaller vs delayed larger consequences. The extant Monetary Choice Questionnaire assessed DD of money rewards, and a modified version assessed discounting of money losses (immediate smaller loss vs larger delayed loss). Based on the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, the novel Pain Relief Choice Questionnaire assessed choices between an immediate short duration of pain relief vs a longer duration of pain relief. Similarly, the novel Additional Pain Choice Questionnaire assessed choices between an immediate short duration of additional pain vs a longer duration of additional pain. Discounting of both additional pain and money losses were significantly associated with high Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised scores-indicating participants at greatest risk for opioid misuse discount future punishments rather than future rewards compared with those at low risk. Measures of DD may have promise in more accurately identifying individuals at highest risk for opioid misuse during chronic opioid therapy.
Treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain syndromes has been largely suboptimal and the most debilitating conditions--such as LBP, arthritis, and neuropathic pain--continue to pose a significant burden to individuals and society. Although significant scientific advances in delineating pathophysiologic mechanisms have facilitated the development of targeted pharmacologic and interventional treatments, the integral role played by psychologic, behavioral, and social factors in generating, perpetuating, and individualizing the pain experience has been largely ignored. Consequently, adequate pain relief may still be an achievable goal, but one that is often realized only with a concomitant, cognitive, behaviorally based, functional restoration approach. A multidisciplinary integrative approach that places equal emphasis on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pain, as well as the multidimensional interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences is essential to improving outcomes. Although there are presently a paucity of data that identify specific characteristics that define which individuals will benefit from any particular modality, evidence clearly demonstrates that the MPC setting offers patients an opportunity to achieve both adequate pain relief and improved physical, behavioral, and psychologic function. A key challenge for clinicians lies in changing the approach to pain "treatment" and in bridging the gap between the current evolving understanding of pain mechanisms and clinical management. Physiatrists' focus on maximal functional restoration is a critical contribution to cost-effective pain medicine practice. Wisely combining effective pain management techniques within a functional restoration program has the best chance of improving the quality of life for patients with chronic pain disorders and diseases.
O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary
This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…
Meyer, Genevieve Rogge
This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…
Carey, Erin T; Till, Sara R; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a multifaceted condition that often has both peripheral and central generators of pain. An understanding of neurobiology and neuropsychology of CPP should guide management. Successful treatment of CPP is typically multimodal, and pharmacologic treatment strategies include analgesics, hormonal suppression, anesthetics, antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, and anxiolytics. Evidence for these and other emerging pharmacologic therapies is presented in this article.
Wu, Peter I-Kung; Meleger, Alec; Witkower, Alan; Mondale, Timothy; Borg-Stein, Joanne
This article provides a broad overview of the clinical nonpharmacologic treatment options for managing acute and chronic pain. Physical therapy and modalities, interventional techniques, emerging regenerative medicine, and cognitive behavioral paradigms of treatment are presented. Recommendations are evidence-based and are a practical resource for the musculoskeletal pain and sports medicine practitioner.
Sullivan, Arthur P.; Guglielmo, Robert
Argues that acute, chronic pain, whether arising from environmental or psychological contexts, is a necessary condition of addiction; conditioning and neurochemical changes are assigned a catalyzing role. Inadequate self-esteem is thought to be a common source of imperceptible pain, and therefore a cause of addiction. (Author/ABL)
Baile, Walter F.; Myers, Daniel
The authors discuss the relationship between atypical facial pain and psychiatric disturbance. They present contemporary viewpoints and describe four cases that illustrate underlying psychodynamic mechanisms associated with pain in patients who had undergone various dental procedures and other treatments without success. They identify factors which might lead to the early detection of underlying psychological problems and discuss the role of learning, the family system and other factors in producing a chronic pain syndrome. PMID:3465263
McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.
Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N = 93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N = 125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592
Background The extracellular matrix protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine) has been linked to degeneration of the intervertebral discs and chronic low back pain (LBP). In humans, SPARC protein expression is decreased as a function of age and disc degeneration. In mice, inactivation of the SPARC gene results in the development of accelerated age-dependent disc degeneration concurrent with age-dependent behavioral signs of chronic LBP. DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA by addition of methyl moieties to cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation plays an important role in programming of gene expression, including in the dynamic regulation of changes in gene expression in response to aging and environmental signals. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation down-regulates SPARC expression in chronic LBP in pre-clinical models and in patients with chronic LBP. Results Our data shows that aging mice develop anatomical and behavioral signs of disc degeneration and back pain, decreased SPARC expression and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. In parallel, we show that human subjects with back pain exhibit signs of disc degeneration and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. Methylation of either the human or mouse SPARC promoter silences its activity in transient transfection assays. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that DNA methylation of a single gene plays a role in chronic pain in humans and animal models. This has important implications for understanding the mechanisms involved in chronic pain and for pain therapy. PMID:21867537
Meltzer, Lisa J; Logan, Deirdre E; Mindell, Jodi A
This study examined sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-six participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed questionnaires during their clinic visit, and three 24-Hour Sleep Patterns Interviews during the following 2 weeks. Compared to normative data (Acebo & Carskadon, 2002), adolescents with chronic pain reported similar total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes. However, study participants reported significantly longer sleep onset latency, more night wakings, a later morning wake time, and more symptoms of daytime sleepiness. Pain improved after sleep for 27% of the study sample, and was associated with longer TST. Finally, depression and anxiety were related to daytime sleepiness, but not total sleep time or sleep onset latency. Female adolescents with chronic pain either may be more sensitive to the chronic sleep debt that is common in this age group, or they may experience underlying physiological sleep disrupters (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder) or sleep abnormalities (e.g., alpha-delta intrusions) not measured in this study. Additional research is needed to examine the complex relation between sleep and chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterised by widespread pain and other symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue and depression. Catastrophisation is considered to be a key clinical symptom in FM; however, few studies have investigated how contextual factors, such as catastrophisation, might contribute to the duration of the pain. The present research examined the relationship among pain, catastrophic thinking and FM impact, as a function of stage of chronicity. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the sample of 328 patients diagnosed with FM was divided into 3 groups based on level of chronicity: Group A (6 months to 2 years, N = 46); Group B (2-4 years, N = 59); and Group C (more than 4 years, N = 223). The three subscales of the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), rumination, magnification, and helplessness, were used as predictors of dysfunction. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the McGill Pain Questionnaire were also administered. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed on the entire sample and, subsequently, for each group to determine the effect of the continuous process variables (castastrophising and pain) on the stages of chronicity. Results Total score and PCS subscales were strongly associated with pain and impact in all the stages of chronicity in FM patients (r = 0.27-0.73, p < 0.05). For Group A, a regression analysis revealed that rumination predicted FM impact beyond the variance accounted for by age and pain. Both magnification and helplessness predicted impact in Group B, and helplessness was a significant predictor of impact in Group C. Conclusion These findings provide preliminary evidence that stage of chronicity is an important moderator of psychological vulnerability for FM impact and should be taken into account by tailoring psychological interventions. PMID:20979608
Martínez, M Pilar; Sánchez, Ana I; Miró, Elena; Lami, María J; Prados, Germán; Morales, Ana
Alexithymia is a personality construct that is frequently identified in fibromyalgia (FM). Previous studies have explored the relationship between alexithymia and emotional distress in this disease. Yet, the additional link with factors of pain appraisal is unknown. This study examined the moderating effect of alexithymia in the relationship between emotional distress and pain appraisal in 97 FM women. A control group of 100 healthy women also participated in the study. All participants completed several self-reports about pain experience, sleep quality, impairment, emotional distress, pain appraisal, and alexithymia. FM women showed significantly more difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, but less externally oriented thinking than healthy women. In the clinical group, difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with lower sleep quality, higher anxiety and depression, and increased pain catastrophizing and fear of pain. Difficulty in describing feelings significantly correlated with higher pain experience and vigilance to pain. Externally oriented thinking was not correlated with any of the clinical variables. Difficulty in identifying feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and pain catastrophizing, and difficulty in describing feelings moderated the relationship between anxiety and fear of pain. Implications of the findings for the optimization of care of FM patients are discussed.
Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Liu, Cathy; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; dos Santos, Ivani R; Alaverdyan, Mher; Woodworth, Davis; Gupta, Arpana; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A
The Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN) repository (painrepository.org) is a newly created NIH (NIDA/NCCAM) funded neuroimaging data repository that aims to accelerate scientific discovery regarding brain mechanisms in pain and to provide more rapid benefits to pain patients through the harmonization of efforts and data sharing. The PAIN Repository consists of two components, an Archived Repository and a Standardized Repository. Similar to other 'open' imaging repositories, neuroimaging researchers can deposit any dataset of chronic pain patients and healthy controls into the Archived Repository. Scans in the Archived Repository can be very diverse in terms of scanning procedures and clinical metadata, complicating the merging of datasets for analyses. The Standardized Repository overcomes these limitations through the use of standardized scanning protocols along with a standardized set of clinical metadata, allowing an unprecedented ability to perform pooled analyses. The Archived Repository currently includes 741 scans and is rapidly growing. The Standardized Repository currently includes 433 scans. Pain conditions currently represented in the PAIN repository include: irritable bowel syndrome, vulvodynia, migraine, chronic back pain, and inflammatory bowel disease. Both the PAIN Archived and Standardized Repositories promise to be important resources in the field of chronic pain research. The enhanced ability of the Standardized Repository to combine imaging, clinical and other biological datasets from multiple sites in particular make it a unique resource for significant scientific discoveries.
Mansour, Ali R; Baliki, Marwan N; Huang, Lejian; Torbey, Souraya; Herrmann, Kristi M; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Apkarian, A Vania
Neural mechanisms mediating the transition from acute to chronic pain remain largely unknown. In a longitudinal brain imaging study, we followed up patients with a single sub-acute back pain (SBP) episode for more than 1 year as their pain recovered (SBPr), or persisted (SBPp) representing a transition to chronic pain. We discovered brain white matter structural abnormalities (n=24 SBP patients; SBPp=12 and SBPr=12), as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), at entry into the study in SBPp in comparison to SBPr. These white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) differences accurately predicted pain persistence over the next year, which was validated in a second cohort (n=22 SBP patients; SBPp=11 and SBPr=11), and showed no further alterations over a 1-year period. Tractography analysis indicated that abnormal regional FA was linked to differential structural connectivity to medial vs lateral prefrontal cortex. Local FA was correlated with functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in SBPr. As we have earlier shown that the latter functional connectivity accurately predicts transition to chronic pain, we can conclude that brain structural differences, most likely existing before the back pain-inciting event and independent of the back pain, predispose subjects to pain chronification.
Duarte, Cassandra; Baird, Janette; Patry, Emily J.; Green, Traci C.
Background Digital health is an increasingly popular tool for patient engagement, having shown great success in arenas such as medication adherence, management of chronic conditions, and patient safety. Given the growth of chronic pain diagnoses, it is imperative to find new technologies to improve care for this particular population. Little research has catalogued the use of digital health in the chronic pain patient population. This manuscript’s objective was to describe current patterns of digital health usage among chronic pain patients and how digital health use correlates with health care utilization and health outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to patients with a self-identified chronic pain diagnosis participating in ‘Patients Like Me’® (PLM), an organization that directly collects data from patients experiencing chronic health conditions, with emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and experiences interacting with the health care system. Validated measures of healthcare utilization, chronic pain management, and digital health use were adapted for the survey. Digital health was defined as the use of online sites, social media, and mobile phone applications before, during, or after healthcare utilization. Descriptive statistics, chi square tests, logistic regression, and linear regression were used as appropriate for analysis. Results Among 565 respondents (mean age 51.3, 87.2% female, 45.7% publicly insured), most participants (89.5%) reported some digital health use. Females and users below the age of 50 were more likely to use multiple forms of digital health. Healthcare utilization, education level, and race/ethnicity did not correlate with digital health use. Patients using more types of digital health reported significantly higher levels of pain coping skills in the realms of social support, relaxation, and exercise. Conclusions Digital health use is common among a wide range of patients with chronic pain diagnoses. The
Williams, Kimberly Anne; Petronis, John; Smith, David; Goodrich, David; Wu, Juan; Ravi, Neelima; Doyle, Edward J; Gregory Juckett, R; Munoz Kolar, Maria; Gross, Richard; Steinberg, Lois
Low back pain is a significant public health problem and one of the most commonly reported reasons for the use of Complementary Alternative Medicine. A randomized control trial was conducted in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain comparing Iyengar yoga therapy to an educational control group. Both programs were 16 weeks long. Subjects were primarily self-referred and screened by primary care physicians for study of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The primary outcome for the study was functional disability. Secondary outcomes including present pain intensity, pain medication usage, pain-related attitudes and behaviors, and spinal range of motion were measured before and after the interventions. Subjects had low back pain for 11.2+/-1.54 years and 48% used pain medication. Overall, subjects presented with less pain and lower functional disability than subjects in other published intervention studies for chronic low back pain. Of the 60 subjects enrolled, 42 (70%) completed the study. Multivariate analyses of outcomes in the categories of medical, functional, psychological and behavioral factors indicated that significant differences between groups existed in functional and medical outcomes but not for the psychological or behavioral outcomes. Univariate analyses of medical and functional outcomes revealed significant reductions in pain intensity (64%), functional disability (77%) and pain medication usage (88%) in the yoga group at the post and 3-month follow-up assessments. These preliminary data indicate that the majority of self-referred persons with mild chronic low back pain will comply to and report improvement on medical and functional pain-related outcomes from Iyengar yoga therapy.
Kleinböhl, Dieter; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Hölzl, Rupert
We investigated if established psychophysical measures of enhanced experimental sensitization in chronic musculoskeletal pain can be reduced by adjuvant treatment with a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, amantadine sulfate, and whether a reduction in sensitization might be accompanied by a concurrent improvement in clinical pain. Sensitization was evaluated by an experimental tonic heat model of short-term sensitization with concurrent subjective and behavioral psychophysical scaling. Twenty-six patients with chronic back pain were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received daily dosages of either placebo or 100 mg of amantadine sulfate during a 1-wk treatment. Participants completed quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds and experimental sensitization before and after treatment and clinical pain ratings before, during, and after treatment. Experimental sensitization and clinical pain were reduced in patients receiving verum. Initially, experimental sensitization was enhanced in patients, with early sensitization at nonpainful intensities of contact heat and enhanced sensitization at painful intensities, as shown previously. After 1 wk of treatment, experimental sensitization was reduced with amantadine sulfate but not with placebo. We conclude that adjuvant chronic pain treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists might be beneficial for chronic pain if enhanced sensitization is involved and that the quantitative sensory test of temporal summation may be used to verify this.
Nijs, Jo; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn
During the past decade, scientific research has provided new insight into the development from an acute, localised musculoskeletal disorder towards chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia (FM). Chronic widespread pain/FM is characterised by sensitisation of central pain pathways. An in-depth review of basic and clinical research was performed to design a theoretical framework for manual therapy in these patients. It is explained that manual therapy might be able to influence the process of chronicity in three different ways. (I) In order to prevent chronicity in (sub)acute musculoskeletal disorders, it seems crucial to limit the time course of afferent stimulation of peripheral nociceptors. (II) In the case of chronic widespread pain and established sensitisation of central pain pathways, relatively minor injuries/trauma at any locations are likely to sustain the process of central sensitisation and should be treated appropriately with manual therapy accounting for the decreased sensory threshold. Inappropriate pain beliefs should be addressed and exercise interventions should account for the process of central sensitisation. (III) However, manual therapists ignoring the processes involved in the development and maintenance of chronic widespread pain/FM may cause more harm then benefit to the patient by triggering or sustaining central sensitisation.
Gallinati, Jessica L.; Clark, Michael E.
The purpose of this paper is to review the rationale for concurrent, evidence-based treatment of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To meet this end, we review pertinent definitions and extant theories related to the two conditions and their correlations with each other. We then synthesize theoretical components into a proposal of a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding the relationship and clinical complexity of overlapping chronic pain and PTSD. We conclude with an example of an integrated treatment model designed specifically to address a fundamental factor associated with pain and PTSD: avoidance. PMID:23819047
Kalu, Emmanuel; Richardson, Robert
Intrauterine retention of foetal bones is an uncommon but recognised complication of late termination of pregnancy. Secondary subfertility, abnormal uterine bleeding and vaginal discharge are the usual presenting complaints. We report a case of prolonged retention of foetal bones for 14 years in a woman who presented with chronic pelvic pain. Hysteroscopic examination was diagnostic and therapeutic. Retained foetal bones are an uncommon intrauterine cause of chronic pelvic pain that should be considered particularly when a woman with a history of late termination presents with pelvic pain. Hysteroscopic evacuation is curative.
To assess and manage pain in children and adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability, healthcare providers need access to updated tools and current knowledge. Recent studies show that these children can verbally express pain and use self-assessment tools accurately. Moreover, they know pain coping strategies. Finally, they show mental imaging skills and are able to recall autobiographical memories. These new data suggest that such children and adolescents could be candidates to for hypno-analgesia protocols and behavioral relaxation.
Objective This study investigates associations between cortical thickness and pain duration, and central sensitization as markers of pain progression in painful knee osteoarthritis. Methods Whole brain cortical thickness and pressure pain thresholds were assessed in 70 participants; 40 patients with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis (age = 66.1± 8.5 years, 21 females, mean duration of pain = 8.5 years), and 30 healthy controls (age = 62.7± 7.4, 17 females). Results Cortical thickness negatively correlated with pain duration mainly in fronto-temporal areas outside of classical pain processing areas (p<0.05, age-controlled, FDR corrected). Pain sensitivity was unrelated to cortical thickness. Patients showed lower cortical thickness in the right anterior insula (p<0.001, uncorrected) with no changes surviving multiple test correction. Conclusion With increasing number of years of suffering from chronic arthritis pain we found increasing cortical thinning in extended cerebral cortical regions beyond recognised pain-processing areas. While the mechanisms of cortical thinning remain to be elucidated, we show that pain progression indexed by central sensitization does not play a major role. PMID:27658292
Burri, Andrea; Blank Gebre, Michèle; Bodenmann, Guy
The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. PMID:28331356
Sturgeon, John A
Pain is a complex stressor that presents a significant challenge to most aspects of functioning and contributes to substantial physical, psychological, occupational, and financial cost, particularly in its chronic form. As medical intervention frequently cannot resolve pain completely, there is a need for management approaches to chronic pain, including psychological intervention. Psychotherapy for chronic pain primarily targets improvements in physical, emotional, social, and occupational functioning rather than focusing on resolution of pain itself. However, psychological therapies for chronic pain differ in their scope, duration, and goals, and thus show distinct patterns of treatment efficacy. These therapies fall into four categories: operant-behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The current article explores the theoretical distinctiveness, therapeutic targets, and effectiveness of these approaches as well as mechanisms and individual differences that factor into treatment response and pain-related dysfunction and distress. Implications for future research, dissemination of treatment, and the integration of psychological principles with other treatment modalities are also discussed.
Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María
BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately. PMID:23936894
Sturgeon, John A
Pain is a complex stressor that presents a significant challenge to most aspects of functioning and contributes to substantial physical, psychological, occupational, and financial cost, particularly in its chronic form. As medical intervention frequently cannot resolve pain completely, there is a need for management approaches to chronic pain, including psychological intervention. Psychotherapy for chronic pain primarily targets improvements in physical, emotional, social, and occupational functioning rather than focusing on resolution of pain itself. However, psychological therapies for chronic pain differ in their scope, duration, and goals, and thus show distinct patterns of treatment efficacy. These therapies fall into four categories: operant-behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The current article explores the theoretical distinctiveness, therapeutic targets, and effectiveness of these approaches as well as mechanisms and individual differences that factor into treatment response and pain-related dysfunction and distress. Implications for future research, dissemination of treatment, and the integration of psychological principles with other treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:24748826
Pain is a major symptom of many medical conditions and the worldwide number one reason for people to seek medical assistance. It affects the quality of life of patients and poses a heavy financial burden on society with high costs of treatment and lost productivity. Furthermore, the treatment of chronic pain presents a big challenge as pain therapeutics often lack efficacy and exhibit minimal safety profiles. The latter can be largely attributed to the fact that current therapies target molecules with key physiological functions throughout the body. In light of these difficulties, the identification of proteins specifically involved in chronic pain states is of paramount importance for designing selective interventions. Several profiling efforts have been employed with the aim to dissect the molecular underpinnings of chronic pain, both on the level of the transcriptome and proteome. However, generated results are often inconsistent and non-overlapping, which is largely due to inherent technical constraints. A potential solution may be offered by emerging strategies capable of performing standardized and reproducible proteome analysis, such as data-independent acquisition-mass spectrometry (DIA-MS). We have recently demonstrated the applicability of DIA-MS to interrogate chronic pain-related proteome alterations in mice. Based on our results, we aim to provide an overview on DIA-MS and its potential to contribute to the comprehensive characterization of molecular signatures underlying pain pathologies. PMID:27920228
Moore, David M; McCrory, Connail
Chronic pain remains a challenging clinical problem with a growing socio-economic burden for the state. Its prevalence is high and many of the patients are of work age. Our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of chronic pain is poor. The consensus view is that the central nervous system plays a key role in the persistence of pain after an initiating event has long ceased. However the specifics of this biological response to an initiating event remains unclear. There is a growing body of evidence to support the concept that a central neuroimmune response is initiated and a number of small peptides have been implicated in this process following cerebrospinal fluid analysis in patients with chronic pain. This central biosynthetic peptide response leads to a process called central sensitization. Therapy is aimed at modulating and even inhibiting this response. However current pharmacological therapeutic options are limited in efficacy with significant deleterious side effect profiles. Proteomic studies extend single molecule analysis by identifying the components of biological networks and pathways and defining their interactions. This tool offers the potential to provide a molecular overview of the biological processes involved in chronic pain. It will also facilitate examination of gene-drug interactions. This technique offers a mechanism of defining the central biological responses that result in chronic pain and this information may facilitate the development of better therapies.
Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a major role in both nociception and mood regulation. Alterations in the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HT) system have been reported in chronic pain patients. In recent years, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been suggested as an alternative treatment for chronic pain due to the fact that they are better tolerated presenting less secondary effects than other antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants. Although several clinical trials have been published, the effectiveness of SSRI as treatment for pain conditions is inconclusive. This review aims to summarise what is known, regarding the effectiveness of SSRI as a treatment for chronic pain conditions in adults. A total of 36 studies involving a total of 1898 participants were included in this review. Of the 36 trials included in the review, 2 used zimelidine as treatment, 3 used escitalopram, 4 used fluvoxamine, 4 used sertraline, 6 used citalopram, 8 used paroxetine, 9 used fluoxetine, and one used both citalopram and paroxetine. Because the trials included in this review are quite heterogeneous, only qualitative analyses were performed. SSRI seems to have an effect on most of chronic pain conditions; however, further clinical trials with good methodology leading to low risk of bias are needed in order to conclude once and for all the effect of this drug class as treatment for chronic pain conditions. PMID:27445601
Achilefu, Allison; Joshi, Kunal; Meier, Megan; McCarthy, Laine H.
Clinical Question In adults with chronic pain, do yoga and other meditative movement therapies to improvement in chronic pain symptoms? Answer Yes. However, in each of the studies reviewed, yoga classes were included as part of the pain management regime, sometimes alone and sometimes in tandem with DVDs or audiotapes. We feel that no exercise therapy program should be undertaken without professional coaching from certified, registered and qualified instructors. Date Answer was Determined August 2014, June, 2015, August 2015. Level of Evidence for the Answer A Search Terms chronic pain, yoga, exercise therapy, meditative movement therapy Inclusion criteria Adults; meta-analyses; systematic reviews; cohort studies; randomized controlled trials; practice guidelines; articles from 2010 to present. Exclusion criteria Children younger than 18 years of age, Pilates. PMID:28190896
Hassett, Afton L; Williams, David A
Individuals with chronic widespread pain, including those with fibromyalgia, pose a particular challenge to treatment, given the modest effectiveness of pharmacological agents for this condition. The growing consensus indicates that the best approach to treatment involves the combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Several non-pharmacological interventions, particularly exercise and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), have garnered good evidence of effectiveness as stand-alone, adjunctive treatments for patients with chronic pain. In this article, evidenced-based, non-pharmacological management techniques for chronic widespread pain are described by using two broad categories, exercise and CBT. The evidence for decreasing pain, improving functioning and changing secondary symptoms is highlighted. Lastly, the methods by which exercise and CBT can be combined for a multi-component approach, which is consistent with the current evidence-based guidelines of several American and European medical societies, are addressed.
Hsu, Eric S
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a mysterious pain syndrome with progressive and widespread pain, explicit areas of tender points, stiffness, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and psychological distress without any obvious disease. FM is commonly perceived as a condition of central pain and sensory augmentation. There are documented functional abnormalities in pain and sensory processing in FM. Central sensitization and lack of descending analgesic activity are the 2 leading mechanisms that have been demonstrated by advance in both basic and clinical research. The pathogenesis of FM may also be attributed to the genetic polymorphisms involving serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic systems. Any psychiatric disorders and psychosocial influences in FM may also affect the severity of pain. The various external stimuli or trigger such as infection, trauma, and stress may all contribute to proceed to presentation of FM. The recent launches of 3 US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for FM namely pregabalin, duloxetine, and milnacipran have certainly raised the profile of optimal chronic pain management. However, appropriate evaluation and efficacious management of acute pain has not been as well publicized as chronic pain in FM. Acute pain or flare up caused by any trauma or surgery certainly may present a real challenge for patients with FM and their health care providers. Pre-emptive analgesia and pro-active treatment may offer the momentum for acute pain control based on model of central sensitization and pain in FM. This review article on FM appraises the modern practice of multimodal therapy focus on both acute and chronic pain management. Meanwhile, the evolving nonpharmacological approach is summarized and stressed as an essential component of integrated care in FM.
Voelker, M; Schachtel, B P; Cooper, S A; Gatoulis, S C
A recently developed fast-release aspirin tablet formulation has been evaluated in two different pain models. The dental impaction pain model and the sore throat pain model are widely used for assessing analgesia, including acute mild-to-moderate pain. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, parallel group and compared a single dose of 1000 mg aspirin with 1000 mg paracetamol and with placebo and investigated the onset and overall time course of pain relief. Speed of onset was measured by the double-stopwatch method for time to meaningful pain relief and time to first perceptible pain relief. Pain intensity and pain relief were rated subjectively over a 6-h (dental pain) and 2-h (sore throat pain) time period. In both models fast-release aspirin and commercial paracetamol were statistically significantly different from placebo for onset of action, summed pain intensity differences and total pain relief. Meaningful pain relief was achieved within a median of 42.3 and 42.9 min for aspirin and paracetamol, respectively, in the dental pain model. The corresponding numbers in sore throat pain were 48.0 and 40.4 min. All treatments in both studies were safe and well tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported and no subject was discontinued due to an adverse event. Overall the two studies clearly demonstrated efficacy over placebo in the two pain models and a comparable efficacy and safety profile between aspirin and an equivalent dose of paracetamol under the conditions of acute dental pain and acute sore throat pain. Trial registration These trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01420094, registration date: July 27, 2011 and registration number: NCT01453400, registration date: October 13, 2011.
Ong, Anthony D; Zautra, Alex J; Reid, M Carrington
The February-March 2014 special issue of the American Psychologist featured articles summarizing select contributions from the field of psychology to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain. The articles examined a range of psychosocial and family factors that influence individual adjustment and contribute to disparities in pain care. The reviews also considered the psychological correlates and neurophysiological mechanisms of specific pain treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, acceptance and commitment therapy, mindfulness, and meditation. Although a number of articles emphasized the role that negative states of mind play in pain outcomes, positive emotions were given only brief mention. Here, we provide a rationale for the inclusion of positive emotions in chronic pain research.
Cunningham, Julie L; Craner, Julia R; Evans, Michele M; Hooten, W Michael
Objectives In the context of widespread opioid use, increased emphasis has been placed on the potentially deleterious effects of concurrent benzodiazepine (BZD) and opioid use. Although use of opioids in chronic pain has been a major focus, BZD use is equally concerning. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between BZD and opioid use in adults with chronic pain upon admission to an outpatient interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation (IPR) program. Methods The study cohort involved 847 consecutive patients admitted to a 3-week outpatient IPR program from January 2013 through December 2014. Study variables included baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Results Upon admission, 248 (29%) patients were taking BZDs. Patients using BZDs were significantly more likely to use opioids and to be female. Additionally, patients using BZDs had significantly greater depression, pain catastrophizing, and pain severity scores. In univariable logistic regression analysis, opioid use, female sex, and greater scores of depression, pain catastrophizing, and pain severity were significantly associated with BZD use. In multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, pain duration, opioid use, depression, pain catastrophizing, and pain severity, only female sex and greater depression scores were significantly associated with BZD use. Discussion Among patients participating in an outpatient IPR program, female sex and greater depression scores were associated with BZD use. Results identify a high prevalence of BZD use in patients with chronic pain and reinforce the need to weigh the risks versus benefits when prescribing in this patient population. PMID:28223841
Curatolo, Michele; Müller, Monika; Ashraf, Aroosiah; Neziri, Alban Y; Streitberger, Konrad; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
Hypersensitivity of pain pathways is considered a relevant determinant of symptoms in chronic pain patients, but data on its prevalence are very limited. To our knowledge, no data on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity are available. We studied the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in 961 consecutive patients with various chronic pain conditions. Pain threshold and nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold to electrical stimulation were used to assess pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity, respectively. Using 10th percentile cutoff of previously determined reference values, the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity (95% confidence interval) was 71.2 (68.3-74.0) and 80.0 (77.0-82.6), respectively. As a secondary aim, we analyzed demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics as factors potentially associated with pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity using logistic regression models. Both hypersensitivity parameters were unaffected by most factors analyzed. Depression, catastrophizing, pain-related sleep interference, and average pain intensity were significantly associated with hypersensitivity. However, none of them was significant for both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Furthermore, the odds ratios were very low, indicating modest quantitative impact. To our knowledge, this is the largest prevalence study on central hypersensitivity and the first one on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients. The results revealed an impressively high prevalence, supporting a high clinical relevance of this phenomenon. Electrical pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex explore aspects of pain processing that are mostly independent of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical pain-related characteristics.
DeConde, Adam S.; Mace, Jess C.; Ashby, Shaelene; Smith, Timothy L.; Orlandi, Richard R.; Alt, Jeremiah A.
Background Prior investigations into facial pain associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have yielded important results, but have yet to utilize pain-specific outcome measures. This study seeks to characterize facial pain associated with CRS using validated pain-specific instruments. Methods Adults with CRS were enrolled into a prospective, cross-sectional study along with control participants presenting with non-CRS diagnoses. Facial pain was characterized in both groups using the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF) and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). CRS-specific measures of disease were measured including the Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22), nasal endoscopy, and computed tomography scoring. Results Patients were comprised of CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP; n=25), CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP; n=30), and control participants (n=8). Subjects with CRSwNP and CRSsNP were less likely to be pain free than controls (16.0%, 6.7% and 62.5% respectively, p=0.001) and carried greater burden of pain as measured by the BPI-SF and SF-MPQ than controls (p=0.002 and p=0.017, respectively). Pain in CRS was most commonly located around the eyes and characterized as ‘throbbing’ and ‘aching’. Nasal polyp status was not associated with differences in character, severity, or location of pain. Conclusions Subjects with CRS have a greater burden of facial pain relative to control subjects across several standardized pain measures. Further, facial pain in CRS significantly correlated to QOL and CRS-specific disease severity measures. Study across larger cohorts using standardized pain measures is warranted to clarify the association of facial pain with chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:26074476
Sharma, Saurab; Pathak, Anupa; Jensen, Mark P
Background People from different cultures who speak different languages may experience pain differently. This possible variability has important implications for evaluating the validity of pain quality measures that are directly translated into different languages without cultural adaptations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of language and culture on the validity of pain quality measures by comparing the words that individuals with chronic pain from Nepal use to describe their pain with those used by patients from the USA. Methods A total of 101 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain in Nepal were asked to describe their pain. The rates of the different pain descriptor domains and phrases used by the Nepali sample were then compared to the published rates of descriptors used by patients from the USA. The content validity of commonly used measures for assessing pain quality was then evaluated. Results While there was some similarity between patients from Nepal and the USA in how they describe pain, there were also important differences, especially in how pain quality was described. For example, many patients from Nepal used metaphors to describe their pain. Also, the patients from Nepal often used a category of pain descriptor – which describes a physical state – not used by patients from the USA. Only the original McGill Pain Questionnaire was found to have content validity for assessing pain quality in patients from Nepal, although other existing pain quality measures could be adapted to be content valid by adding one or two additional descriptors, depending on the measure in question. Conclusion The findings indicate that direct translations of measures that are developed using samples of patients from one country or culture are not necessarily content valid for use in other countries or cultures; some adaptations may be required in order for such measures to be most useful in new language and culture. PMID:27895511
Zale, Emily L.; Ditre, Joseph W.
Chronic pain is a significant public health concern that imposes substantial burdens on individuals and healthcare systems, and factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of pain-related disability are of increasing empirical and clinical interest. Consistent with the fear-avoidance model of chronic pain, greater pain-related fear has consistently been associated with more severe disability and may predict the progression of disability over time. Recent evidence indicates that treatments designed to reduce pain-related fear are efficacious for improving disability outcomes, and several clinical trials are currently underway to test tailored intervention content and methods of dissemination. Future research in this area is needed to identify factors (e.g., substance use, comorbid psychopathology) that may influence interrelations between pain-related fear, response to treatment, and disability. PMID:25844393
McGreevy, Kai; Bottros, Michael M.; Raja, Srinivasa N.
Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in the United States. The transition from acute to persistent pain is thought to arise from maladaptive neuroplastic mechanisms involving three intertwined processes, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and descending modulation. Strategies aimed at preventing persistent pain may target such processes. Models for studying preventive strategies include persistent post-surgical pain (PPP), persistent post-trauma pain (PTP) and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Such entities allow a more defined acute onset of tissue injury after which study of the long-term effects is more easily examined. In this review, we examine the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment strategies for the prevention of chronic pain using these models. Both pharmacological and interventional approaches are described, as well as a discussion of preventive strategies on the horizon. PMID:22102847
Wang, Chun; Oberleitner, Lindsay; Schwartz, Steven; Williams, Amy M
(P<.001). The magnitude of the 6-month effects were large. Trends for decreases in pain interference (36.8% reported moderate or enormous interference) reached significance at 6 months (28.9%, P<.001). The percentage of the sample reporting fair or poor quality of life decreased significantly from 20.6% at baseline to 16.5% at 6 months (P=.006). Conclusions Results suggest that the tailored online chronic pain management program showed promising effects on pain at 1 and 6 months posttreatment and quality of life at 6 months posttreatment in this naturalistic study. Further research is warranted to determine the significance and magnitude of the intervention’s effects in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24067267
Reidenberg, M M; Goodman, H; Erle, H; Gray, G; Lorenzo, B; Leipzig, R M; Meyer, B R; Drayer, D E
To better understand the use of narcotic analgesics, the hydromorphone concentration was measured in serum samples from 43 patients with chronic severe pain who were receiving this drug. At the time of blood sampling, pain intensity, mood, and cognitive performance were assessed. There was large individual variation in the dose-drug level relationship. Seven patients with bone or soft tissue pain and drug levels of greater than or equal to 4 ng/ml had good pain control, whereas 10 did not. None of 15 patients with levels less than 4 ng/ml had pain control, despite drug doses similar to those given patients with higher levels. Thus 60% of the patients without control of their pain had hydromorphone levels below the lowest level that produced pain control. No patient with pain from nerve infiltration or compression had good pain control, irrespective of the drug level or dose. Poor mood correlated with high pain intensity and low drug level. Impaired cognitive performance was not related to drug level. Knowing that there is a low concentration of narcotic in the blood of a patient with chronic severe pain who is receiving high drug doses and who shows lack of both efficacy and side effects may reassure health care professionals that further narcotic dosage escalation is appropriate.
Andrews, Nicole Emma; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela Joy
Overactivity is a frequently used term in chronic pain literature. It refers to the phenomenon whereby individuals engage in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain, resulting in periods of incapacity. Overactivity, as a construct, has been derived solely from patients' self-reports, raising concerns about the legitimacy of the construct. Self-reported overactivity reflects an individual's "belief," collected retrospectively, that their earlier activity levels have resulted in increased levels of pain. This may be different to an individual actually engaging in activity in a way that significantly exacerbates pain. In this study, a 5-day observational study design was used to investigate the validity of overactivity as a construct by examining the relationship between a self-report measure of overactivity, patterns of pain, and objectively measured physical activity over time. A sample of 68 adults with chronic pain completed a questionnaire investigating self-reported habitual engagement in overactivity and activity avoidance behaviour, before commencing 5 days of data collection. Over the 5-day period, participants wore an activity monitor and recorded their pain intensity 6 times a day using a handheld computer. Associations were found between (1) high levels of pain and both high overactivity and high avoidance, (2) high levels of overactivity and more variation in pain and objective activity across days, and (3) high levels of overactivity and the reoccurrence of prolonged activity engagement followed by significant pain increases observed in data sets. These results offer some preliminary support for the validity of overactivity as a legitimate construct in chronic pain.
Wijma, Amarins J; van Wilgen, C Paul; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo
Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients.
Callejo, Gerard; Castellanos, Aida; Castany, Marta; Gual, Arcadi; Luna, Carolina; Acosta, M Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Giblin, Jonathan P; Gasull, Xavier
Sensory nerve fibers innervating the ocular anterior surface detect external stimuli producing innocuous and painful sensations. Protons are among the first mediators released by damaged cells during inflammation, tissue injury, or other chronic ophthalmic conditions. We studied whether acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in corneal sensory neurons and their roles in the response to moderate acidifications of the ocular surface and in pathologies producing ocular surface inflammation. Moderate acidic pH (6.6) activated ASIC-like currents in corneal sensory neurons, which were blocked by ASIC1- or ASIC3-specific toxins. Acidic pH depolarizes corneal sensory neurons to fire action potentials, an effect blocked by the ASIC3 inhibitor APETx2. 2-Guanidino-4-methylquinazoline, an ASIC3 agonist, activated a population of corneal polymodal sensory nerve fibers and significantly increased the blinking and tearing rate. The nocifensive behaviors produced by application of either a moderate acidic stimulus or ophthalmic drugs formulated in acidic solution were abolished by ASIC blockers. In a model of allergic keratoconjunctivitis, nocifensive behavior was greatly reduced by ASIC3 blockade, presumably by reducing nociceptor sensitization during the inflammatory process. Our results show that, in addition to the established role of TRPV1, ASICs play a significant role in the detection of acidic insults at the ocular surface. The identification of ASICs in corneal neurons and their alterations during different diseases is critical for the understanding of sensory ocular pathophysiology. They are likely to mediate some of the discomfort sensations accompanying several ophthalmic formulations and may represent novel targets for the development of new therapeutics for ocular pathologies.
Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity.
Altman, R D
Analgesic therapy that combines individual agents with different mechanisms of action has potential advantages for the management of mild-to-moderate pain in the outpatient setting. Theoretically, this approach can lead to greater efficacy and fewer adverse events. While the precise mechanism of action for the analgesic effect of acetaminophen remains uncertain, accumulating evidence suggests that its activity resides primarily in the central nervous system. In contrast, the site of action for the analgesic effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is predominantly peripheral, within injured or inflamed tissue. Several controlled clinical studies among patients with musculoskeletal conditions, dental pain, or postoperative pain have shown that combinations of acetaminophen and NSAIDs provide additive pain-relieving activity, thereby leading to dose-sparing effects and improved safety. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical utility and safety of acetaminophen/NSAID combinations as analgesic therapy for common conditions associated with mild-to-moderate pain.
Verstraelen, Hans; De Zutter, Eline; De Muynck, Martine
The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. PMID:26664155
Pinals, Robert S; Hassett, Afton L
When the medical records for John Fitzgerald Kennedy were made public, it became clear that the 35th President of the United States suffered greatly from a series of medical illnesses from the time he was a toddler until his assassination in November of 1963. Aside from having Addison disease, no condition seemed to cause him more distress than did his chronic low back pain. A number of surgical procedures to address the presumed structural cause of the pain resulted in little relief and increased disability. Later, a conservative program, including trigger point injections and exercises, provided modest benefit. Herein, the mechanisms underlying his pain are evaluated based on more contemporary pain research. This reconceptualizing of John Fitzgerald Kennedy's pain could serve as a model for other cases where the main cause of the pain is presumed to be located in the periphery.
Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
Chronic pain is very common in all European countries, with musculoskeletal problems predominating. About 1% of the adult population develops a syndrome of chronic muscle pain, fibromyalgia (FMS), characterized by multiple tender points, back or neck pain, and a number of associated problems from other organs, including a high frequency of fatigue. Evidence points to central sensitization as an important neurophysiological aberration in the development of FMS. Importantly, these neurological changes may result from inadequately treated chronic focal pain problems such as osteoarthritis or myofascial pain. It is important for health professionals to be aware of this syndrome and to diagnose the patients to avoid a steady increase in diagnostic tests. On the other hand, patients with chronic widespread pain have an increased risk of developing malignancies, and new or changed symptoms should be diagnosed even in FMS. In rheumatology practice it is especially important to be aware of the existence of FMS in association with immune inflammatory diseases, most commonly lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Differential diagnoses are other causes of chronic pain, e.g. thyroid disease. The costs of this syndrome are substantial due to loss of working capability and direct expenses of medication and health-system usage. Fibromyalgia patients need recognition of their pain syndrome if they are to comply with treatment. Lack of empathy and understanding by healthcare professionals often leads to patient frustration and inappropriate illness behavior, often associated with some exaggeration of symptoms in an effort to gain some legitimacy for their problem. FMS is multifaceted, and treatment consists of both medical interventions, with emphasis on agents acting on the central nervous system, and physical exercises.
... chemicals to interrupt relay of pain messages between the brain and other parts of the body; and enzymes injected into lumbar disks. Physical methods Common treatments include physical therapy, biofeedback, acupuncture, electrical stimulation, R.I.C.E. ( ...
Harris, Cheryl A; D'Eon, Joyce L
Given the high prevalence of depression in individuals with chronic pain and the negative outcomes associated with such comorbidity, the importance of assessing depressive symptoms is widely acknowledged by chronic pain specialists. The BDI-II is a commonly employed measure of depressive symptomatology at pain centres; however, little is known about its psychometric properties in this population. This study evaluated factorial validity, internal consistency, and gender invariance of the BDI-II in 481 patients with chronic pain. Four competing models of the BDI-II factor structure were examined and confirmatory factor analysis supported the conceptualization of depression as a singular latent construct, within a hierarchical factor structure consisting of three first-order factors--Negative Attitude, Performance Difficulty, and Somatic Elements. Factor structure, item-total correlations, and correlations between subscale means and subjective pain experience support the inclusion of somatic items despite concerns regarding their overlap with pain symptoms. Internal consistency was good. Mean total scores were in the moderately severe range. Given the evidence of partial measurement invariance, an examination of mean gender differences was warranted. In contrast to the general population, the average scores of women and men were similar. Overall, results support the construct validity and internal consistency of the BDI-II for assessing depressive symptoms in both women and men with chronic pain. Results support the appropriateness of computing a total score and/or subscale scores. These results impact chronic pain researchers and clinicians, particularly given current trends toward empirically supported assessment.
Wiener, R Constance
Purpose Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be the leading preventable risk factor for many diseases and has the potential to be a risk factor for chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of chronic pain with smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and non-smoking using serum cotinine (and self-report of living with someone who smokes in the home) to identify the tobacco exposure groups. Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 was used for this study. Participants were queried about pain duration and had serum cotinine levels determined during the course of the NHANES examination/survey. Participants, ages 20 years and above, with complete data on chronic pain, cotinine level, sex, race/ethnicity, and responses concerning living with someone who smoked in the home were included in the study (n=4429). Results The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco smoke exposure on chronic pain was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.59; p=0.0220) for participants with a serum cotinine level >10 ng/mg (smokers) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. For individuals with a serum cotinine level >0.011 ng/mg to 10 ng/mg who identified as living with someone who smoked in the home, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.65; p=0.6785) as compared with individuals who had a non-detectable serum cotinine level. Conclusion Chronic pain is a complex situation with many factors affecting it. Similarly, smoking is a complex addiction. The interplay of chronic pain and cotinine levels in this study were significant. PMID:26835515
Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung
[Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.
Donnelly, Theresa J.; Jaaniste, Tiina
Although attachment theory is not new, its theoretical implications for the pediatric chronic pain context have not been thoroughly considered, and the empirical implications and potential clinical applications are worth exploring. The attachment framework broadly focuses on interactions between a child’s developing self-regulatory systems and their caregiver’s responses. These interactions are believed to create a template for how individuals will relate to others in the future, and may help account for normative and pathological patterns of emotions and behavior throughout life. This review outlines relevant aspects of the attachment framework to the pediatric chronic pain context. The theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed regarding the potential role of attachment-based constructs such as vulnerability and maintaining factors of pediatric chronic pain. The nature and targets of attachment-based pediatric interventions are considered, with particular focus on relevance for the pediatric chronic pain context. The potential role of attachment style in the transition from acute to chronic pain is considered, with further research directions outlined. PMID:27792141
Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung
[Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain. PMID:25931693
Lentz, Trevor A.; Bishop, Mark D.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; George, Steven Z.
Background Because of its high global burden, determining biopsychosocial influences of chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a research priority. Psychological factors such as pain catastrophizing are well established. However, cognitive factors such as working memory warrant further investigation to be clinically useful. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine how working memory and pain catastrophizing are associated with CLBP measures of daily pain intensity and movement-evoked pain intensity. Design This study was a cross-sectional analysis of individuals with ≥3 months of CLBP (n=60) compared with pain-free controls (n=30). Method Participants completed measures of working memory, pain catastrophizing, and daily pain intensity. Movement-evoked pain intensity was assessed using the Back Performance Scale. Outcome measures were compared between individuals with CLBP and those who were pain-free using nonparametric testing. Associations were determined using multivariate regression analyses. Results Participants with CLBP (mean age=47.7 years, 68% female) had lower working memory performance (P=.008) and higher pain catastrophizing (P<.001) compared with pain-free controls (mean age=47.6 years, 63% female). For individuals with CLBP, only working memory remained associated with daily pain intensity (R2=.07, standardized beta=−.308, P=.041) and movement-evoked pain intensity (R2=.14, standardized beta=−.502, P=.001) after accounting for age, sex, education, and interactions between pain catastrophizing and working memory. Limitations The cross-sectional design prevented prospective analysis. Findings also are not indicative of overall working memory (eg, spatial) or cognitive performance. Conclusion Working memory demonstrated the strongest association with daily pain and movement-evoked pain intensity compared with (and after accounting for) established CLBP factors. Future research will elucidate the prognostic value of working memory on prevention
Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J.; Giordano, James; Desai Dakoji, Kavita; Warmuth, Andrew; Daughtry, Cyndee; Schulz, Craig A.
Primary pain disorders (formerly “functional pain syndromes”) are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition “chronic-on-acute pain.” We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1) rehabilitation; (2) integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3) psychology; and (4) normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy. PMID:27973405
Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Giordano, James; Desai Dakoji, Kavita; Warmuth, Andrew; Daughtry, Cyndee; Schulz, Craig A
Primary pain disorders (formerly "functional pain syndromes") are common, under-diagnosed and under-treated in children and teenagers. This manuscript reviews key aspects which support understanding the development of pediatric chronic pain, points to the current pediatric chronic pain terminology, addresses effective treatment strategies, and discusses the evidence-based use of pharmacology. Common symptoms of an underlying pain vulnerability present in the three most common chronic pain disorders in pediatrics: primary headaches, centrally mediated abdominal pain syndromes, and/or chronic/recurrent musculoskeletal and joint pain. A significant number of children with repeated acute nociceptive pain episodes develop chronic pain in addition to or as a result of their underlying medical condition "chronic-on-acute pain." We provide description of the structure and process of our interdisciplinary, rehabilitative pain clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA with accompanying data in the treatment of chronic pain symptoms that persist beyond the expected time of healing. An interdisciplinary approach combining (1) rehabilitation; (2) integrative medicine/active mind-body techniques; (3) psychology; and (4) normalizing daily school attendance, sports, social life and sleep will be presented. As a result of restored function, pain improves and commonly resolves. Opioids are not indicated for primary pain disorders, and other medications, with few exceptions, are usually not first-line therapy.
Schülin, C; Seemann, H; Zimmermann, M
For the present investigation 31 out-patients suffering from chronic pain received a pain diary, that is a booklet in which they recorded their pain level on visual analogue scales and daily activities several times during a day. We used weekly interviews and the patient's records in the diary to evaluate the patient's compliance and the influence of a pain diary on the pain perception and on the physician-patient-interaction. We found that most of the patients were willing and able to use the pain diary. 30 out of 31 patients kept the diary voluntarily for an average period of 4 weeks. 70% of the patients regarded the pain diary as helpful irrespective of whether or not they considered it at the same time as burden. Only 10% reported difficulties in using the pain diary. The majority of patients (70%) noticed no change by the use of the diary in their general pain perception, about 17% reported to feel an increasing fixation on their pain, while 13% felt more distance from their pain by using a pain diary. The use of a pain diary produces a survey over the pain for a longer period than a usual consultation could present. In particular the relationship between the pain level and other recorded events and activities becomes visible. The apin data become especially clear when displayed graphically in a "pain curve". In this way therapeutic interventions can be checked whether or not they are efficient. Each patient was asked at every meeting to indicate on a separate visual analogue scale the pain level he would consider bearable. This mark was accepted by all patients as their aim for the therapy, a more realistic aim than the expectation of a complete freedom from pain. When observed over a period of at least two weeks we found this mark staying constant with half of the patients. In 23.8% the patients decreased this subjectively bearable pain level more than 1 cm, in 14.3% the level was increased. In 9.5% it varied without any clear tendency. For many patients the
Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.
Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…
Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K
CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.
O'Neill, Jessica; McMahon, Stephen B; Undem, Bradley J
Both chronic cough and chronic pain are critical clinical issues in which a large number of patients remain unsatisfied with available treatments. These conditions have considerable effects on sufferers' quality of life, who often show co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression. There is therefore a pressing need to find new effective therapies. The basic neurobiological mechanisms and pathologies of these two conditions show substantial homologies. However, whilst chronic pain has received a great deal of attention over the last few decades, the same cannot be said for the neurological underpinnings of chronic cough. There is a substantial literature around mechanisms of chronic pain which is likely to be useful in advancing knowledge about the pathologies of chronic cough. Here we compare the basic pain and cough pathways, in addition to the clinical features and possible pathophysiologies of each; including mechanisms of peripheral and central sensitisation which may underlie symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia, and hypertussitvity and allotussivity. Due to the substantial overlap that emerges, it is likely that therapies may be effective over both areas.
Nickel, J Curtis; Alexander, Richard B; Anderson, Rodney; Berger, Richard; Comiter, Craig V; Datta, Nand S; Fowler, Jackson E; Krieger, John N; Landis, J Richard; Litwin, Mark S; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; O'Leary, Michael P; Pontari, Michel A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Shoskes, Daniel A; White, Paige; Kusek, John; Nyberg, Leroy
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains an enigmatic medical condition. Creation of the National Institutes of Health-funded Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) has stimulated a renewed interest in research on and clinical aspects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Landmark publications of the CPCRN document a decade of progress. Insights from these CPCRN studies have improved our management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and offer hope for continued progress.
Bishop, Mark D.
Pain is a primary symptom driving patients to seek physical therapy, and its attenuation commonly defines a successful outcome. A large body of evidence is dedicated to elucidating the relationship between chronic stress and pain; however, stress is rarely addressed in pain rehabilitation. A physiologic stress response may be evoked by fear or perceived threat to safety, status, or well-being and elicits the secretion of sympathetic catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinepherine) and neuroendocrine hormones (cortisol) to promote survival and motivate success. Cortisol is a potent anti-inflammatory that functions to mobilize glucose reserves for energy and modulate inflammation. Cortisol also may facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories for future survival and avoidance of danger. Although short-term stress may be adaptive, maladaptive responses (eg, magnification, rumination, helplessness) to pain or non–pain-related stressors may intensify cortisol secretion and condition a sensitized physiologic stress response that is readily recruited. Ultimately, a prolonged or exaggerated stress response may perpetuate cortisol dysfunction, widespread inflammation, and pain. Stress may be unavoidable in life, and challenges are inherent to success; however, humans have the capability to modify what they perceive as stressful and how they respond to it. Exaggerated psychological responses (eg, catastrophizing) following maladaptive cognitive appraisals of potential stressors as threatening may exacerbate cortisol secretion and facilitate the consolidation of fear-based memories of pain or non–pain-related stressors; however, coping, cognitive reappraisal, or confrontation of stressors may minimize cortisol secretion and prevent chronic, recurrent pain. Given the parallel mechanisms underlying the physiologic effects of a maladaptive response to pain and non–pain-related stressors, physical therapists should consider screening for non–pain-related stress to
Molas Ferrer, Glòria; Castellà Kastner, Montse; Lombraña Mencia, María
Non-oncologic chronic pain is a very common symptom. It causes great impact on daily activities of people who suffer it. The incidence of this type of pain is rising due to the increase in life expectancy. The most affected population is geriatric population. Back pain, osteoarthritic pain and neuropathic pain are the most prevalent types of non-oncologic chronic pain. Opiates, among other analgesic drugs, are used to alleviate this type of pain. Opiates are divided into minor opiates (tramadol, codeine) and major opiates (morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, methadone). Opiates are very effective to treat pain, but they also have important adverse effects that we must know and try to prevent. One of these adverse effects is the opiates ability to cause dependence, tolerance, addiction and other aberrant behaviors. Terminology of these concepts is sometimes confusing. It is necessary to be careful and control the patient periodically in order to avoid these aberrant behaviors. However, if health professionals take precautions to prevent these behaviors, the risk is considerably reduced. Controlling patients on opiate treatment is essential to achieve a correct use if these drugs.
Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar
Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients.
Pain is the most common reason patients with inflammatory arthritis see a rheumatologist. Patients consistently rate pain as one of their highest priorities, and pain is the single most important determinant of patient global assessment of disease activity. Although pain is commonly interpreted as a marker of inflammation, the correlation between pain intensity and measures of peripheral inflammation is imperfect. The prevalence of chronic, non-inflammatory pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia is higher among patients with inflammatory arthritis than in the general population. Inflammatory arthritis patients with fibromyalgia have higher measures of disease activity and lower quality of life than inflammatory patients who do not have fibromyalgia. This review article focuses on current literature involving the effects of pain on disease assessment and quality of life for patients with inflammatory arthritis. It also reviews non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic options for treatment of pain for patients with inflammatory arthritis, focusing on the implications of comorbidities and concurrent disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy. Although several studies have examined the effects of reducing inflammation for patients with inflammatory arthritis, very few clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of treatment directed specifically towards pain pathways. Most studies have been small, have focused on rheumatoid arthritis or mixed populations (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis plus osteoarthritis), and have been at high risk of bias. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to examine the mechanisms of pain in inflammatory arthritis and to determine the safety and efficacy of analgesic medications in this specific patient population. PMID:23292816
Vowles, Kevin E; Sowden, Gail; Ashworth, Julie
The therapeutic model underlying Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is reasonably well-established as it applies to chronic pain. Several studies have examined measures of single ACT processes, or subsets of processes, and have almost uniformly indicated reliable relations with patient functioning. To date, however, no study has performed a comprehensive examination of the entire ACT model, including all of its component processes, as it relates to functioning. The present study performed this examination in 274 individuals with chronic pain presenting for an assessment appointment. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, assessing multiple aspects of the ACT model, as well as pain intensity, disability, and emotional distress. Initial exploratory factor analyses examined measures of the ACT model and measures of patient functioning separately with each analysis identifying three factors. Next, the fit of a model including ACT processes on the one hand and patient functioning on the other was examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Overall model fit was acceptable and indicated moderate correlations among the ACT processes themselves, as well as significant relations with pain intensity, emotional distress, and disability. These analyses build on the existing literature by providing, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive evaluation of the ACT theoretical model in chronic pain to date.
Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry
Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ≤$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with
Chapman, C Richard; Vierck, Charles J
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this article is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain. The second purpose of this article is to integrate theory, information, and causal reasoning in these areas. Conceptual mapping reveals 5 classes of hypotheses pertaining to pain. These propose that chronic pain results from: 1) persistent noxious signaling in the periphery; 2) enduring maladaptive neuroplastic changes at the spinal dorsal horn and/or higher central nervous system structures reflecting a multiplicity of factors, including peripherally released neurotrophic factors and interactions between neurons and microglia; 3) compromised inhibitory modulation of noxious signaling in medullary-spinal pathways; 4) descending facilitatory modulation; and 5) maladaptive brain remodeling in function, structure, and connectivity. The third purpose of this article is to identify barriers to progress and review opportunities for advancing the field. This review reveals a need for a concerted, strategic effort toward integrating clinical epidemiology, basic science research, and current theory about pain mechanisms to hasten progress toward understanding, managing, and preventing persistent postsurgical pain.
Shutty, M S; Cundiff, G; DeGood, D E
Chronic pain patients frequently report that weather conditions affect their pain; however, no standardized measures of weather sensitivity have been developed. We describe the development and use of the Weather and Pain Questionnaire (WPQ) which assess patient sensitivity to meteorologic variables defined by the National Weather Service (e.g., temperature, precipitation). Seventy chronic pain patients (59% females) with an average age of 43 years completed the WPQ. The instrument was revised using factor analysis to produce a Weather Sensitivity Index (WSI) (48% of variance) with high internal consistency (0.93) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.89). Reporting patterns suggested that patients could reliably identify which meteorologic variables influenced their pain but could not reliably determine which physical symptoms were consistently affected. The most frequently reported meteorologic variables which affect pain complaint were temperature (87%) and humidity (77%). The most frequently reported physical complaints associated with the weather were joint and muscle aches (82% and 79%, respectively). Patients labeled as being 'weather sensitive', defined by greater than median scores on the WPQ, reported significantly greater pain intensity, greater chronicity of pain problems, and more difficulties sleeping than patients with low scores on the WPQ. No differences in gender, education level, disability status, or global psychological distress were found. Results are discussed with respect to physiological and psychological mediating variables.
Boccard, Sandra G J; Pereira, Erlick A C; Aziz, Tipu Z
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical intervention popularised in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, and also reported to improve symptoms of epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorders and cluster headache. Since the 1950s, DBS has been used as a treatment to relieve intractable pain of several aetiologies including post stroke pain, phantom limb pain, facial pain and brachial plexus avulsion. Several patient series have shown benefits in stimulating various brain areas, including the sensory thalamus (ventral posterior lateral and medial), the periaqueductal and periventricular grey, or, more recently, the anterior cingulate cortex. However, this technique remains "off label" in the USA as it does not have Federal Drug Administration approval. Consequently, only a small number of surgeons report DBS for pain using current technology and techniques and few regions approve it. Randomised, blinded and controlled clinical trials that may use novel trial methodologies are desirable to evaluate the efficacy of DBS in patients who are refractory to other therapies. New imaging techniques, including tractography, may help optimise electrode placement and clinical outcome.
Momi, Sukhleen K; Fabiane, Stella Maris; Lachance, Genevieve; Livshits, Gregory; Williams, Frances M K
Chronic widespread pain (CWP) has complex aetiology and forms part of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Recent evidence suggests a higher frequency of neuropathic pain features in those with CWP than previously thought. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neuropathic pain features in individuals with CWP and to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on neuropathic pain in CWP. Validated questionnaires (the London Fibromyalgia Screening Study questionnaire and PainDETECT questionnaire) were used to classify twins as having CWP and neuropathic pain, respectively. The prevalence of CWP was 14.7% (n = 4324), and of the 1357 twins invited to complete neuropathic pain screening, 15.9% of those having CWP demonstrated features of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was found to be heritable (A = 37%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 23%-50%) with unique environmental factors accounting for 63% (95% CI: 49%-79%) of the variance. Heritability of neuropathic pain and CWP were found to be correlated, 0.54 (95% CI: 0.42-0.65). Increasing age, raised body mass index, female gender, and smoking were all risk factors for neuropathic pain (P < 0.05), and CWP (P < 0.05). High socioeconomic status showed negative correlation with neuropathic pain (P = 0.003) and CWP (P = 0.001). Bivariate analysis of the 2 pain traits revealed that genetic predisposition to neuropathic pain is shared with that for CWP. This is the first study to provide formal heritability estimates for neuropathic pain in CWP. The findings suggest that at least some of the genetic factors underlying the development of neuropathic pain and CWP are the same.
Momi, Sukhleen K.; Fabiane, Stella Maris; Lachance, Genevieve; Livshits, Gregory; Williams, Frances M. K.
Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) has complex aetiology and forms part of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Recent evidence suggests a higher frequency of neuropathic pain features in those with CWP than previously thought. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neuropathic pain features in individuals with CWP and to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on neuropathic pain in CWP. Validated questionnaires (the London Fibromyalgia Screening Study questionnaire and PainDETECT questionnaire) were used to classify twins as having CWP and neuropathic pain, respectively. The prevalence of CWP was 14.7% (n = 4324), and of the 1357 twins invited to complete neuropathic pain screening, 15.9% of those having CWP demonstrated features of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was found to be heritable (A = 37%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 23%-50%) with unique environmental factors accounting for 63% (95% CI: 49%-79%) of the variance. Heritability of neuropathic pain and CWP were found to be correlated, 0.54 (95% CI: 0.42-0.65). Increasing age, raised body mass index, female gender, and smoking were all risk factors for neuropathic pain (P < 0.05), and CWP (P < 0.05). High socioeconomic status showed negative correlation with neuropathic pain (P = 0.003) and CWP (P = 0.001). Bivariate analysis of the 2 pain traits revealed that genetic predisposition to neuropathic pain is shared with that for CWP. This is the first study to provide formal heritability estimates for neuropathic pain in CWP. The findings suggest that at least some of the genetic factors underlying the development of neuropathic pain and CWP are the same. PMID:26121255
Background This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional Pain Modulation (CPM)]? We included females with chronic MPS (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 11), aged 19 to 65 years. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by TMS, and anxiety was assessed based on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The disability related to pain (DRP) was assessed by the Profile of Chronic Pain scale for the Brazilian population (B:PCP:S), and the psychophysical pain measurements were measured by the QST and CPM. Results In patients, trait-anxiety was positively correlated to intracortical facilitation (ICF) at baseline and after QST evoked pain (β = 0.05 and β = 0.04, respectively) and negatively correlated to the cortical silent period (CSP) (β = -1.17 and β = -1.23, respectively) (P <0.05 for all comparisons). After QST evoked pain, the DRP was positively correlated to ICF (β = 0.02) (P < 0.05). Pain scores during CPM were positively correlated with trait-anxiety when it was concurrently with high DRP (β = 0.39; P = 0.02). Controls’ cortical excitability remained unchanged after QST. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in chronic MPS, the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory descending systems of the corticospinal tract is associated with higher trait-anxiety concurrent with higher DRP. PMID:24645677
Ghaly, A.; Chien, P.
Chronic pelvic pain is a common problem presenting a major challenge to healthcare professionals. This is partly due to the lack of understanding of the aetiology and natural history of the disease. This condition is best managed using a multidisciplinary approach. In recent years, the emphasis in the clinical management has tended towards psychosocial or psychosexual involvement after organic disease has been excluded. Key Words: pelvic pain PMID:11229349
Perruchoud, Christophe; Mariotti, Nicolas
Neuromodulation techniques modify the activity of the central or peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord stimulation is a reversible and minimally invasive treatment whose efficacy and cost effectiveness are recognized for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain or ischemic pain. Spinal cord stimulation is not the option of last resort and should be considered among other options before prescribing long-term opioids or considering reoperation. The selection and regular follow-up of patients are crucial to the success of the therapy.
Moryl, Natalie; Tamasdan, Cristina; Tarcatu, Dana; Thaler, Howard T; Correa, Denise; Steingart, Richard; Payne, Richard; Obbens, Eugenie
D-Methadone is the d optical isomer of racemic mixture (DL-methadone) used clinically to treat pain and addiction in the United States. D-Methadone is practically devoid of opioid activity but maintains N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. Evidence from extensive preclinical studies suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate neuronal plasticity, reverse opioid analgesic tolerance, and alleviate chronic pain states. The authors conducted a phase I open label study of D-methadone administered for the first time to patients with chronic pain to determine the safety and tolerability of D-methadone. In addition to their long-term regimen of opioids, the patients received 40 mg of D-methadone twice daily for 12 days. Analgesia and toxicity were recorded by the patients in a daily diary and assessed in clinic on days 1, 8, and 12. Eight patients of the 10 enrolled completed the study. Pain scores on Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) did not change between days 1 and 12, but five of eight patients (62.5 percent) characterized D-methadone as moderately or very effective in relieving pain on the Global Assessment for pain. Five of the eight patients (62.5 percent) who completed the study requested to start treatment with commercially available methadone (DL-racemic methadone) after completing the study. D-Methadone at the dose of 40 mg PO Q 12 hours was well tolerated. Perspective: This is the first clinical study of D-methadone in patients suffering from chronic pain. Additional phase I and phase II studies are needed to confirm its safety and analgesic effects. If D-methadone is well tolerated, it is likely to become a useful adjuvant to the treatment of a wide spectrum of pain syndromes.
Pielech, Melissa; Ryan, Maggie; Logan, Deirdre; Kaczynski, Karen; White, Matthew T; Simons, Laura E
The current study aimed to validate the child and parent pain catastrophizing scale in a large chronic pain sample and to identify child pain catastrophizing clinical reference points. Patients and parents (n=697) evaluated at a pediatric pain program completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, child (PCS-C) and parent (PCS-P) reports, along with additional measures of psychological functioning. The measure's psychometric properties were examined, as were relations across demographic, pain, and psychological characteristics and pain catastrophizing. Clinical reference points were identified for the PCS-C from differences in pain catastrophizing across levels of disability, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Overall, we did not find support for the hypothesized 3-dimension structure, and we recommend potentially removing items 7 and 8 for both the PCS-P and PCS-C as a result of floor/ceiling effects. The 11-item PCS-C is most parsimonious as a unitary construct, while the 11-item PCS-P comprises 2 factors. Although parent catastrophizing was significantly associated with child outcomes after controlling for pain level, it was no longer significant when accounting for child catastrophizing. When comparing PCS-C scores based on child outcomes, significant differences emerged for low, moderate, and high catastrophizing levels. It appears that the influence of parent catastrophizing on outcomes can be explained through its impact on child catastrophizing levels. PCS-C reference points derived from this large sample can aid clinicians in assessment and treatment planning, in turn increasing the utility of the PCS-C for both clinical and research purposes.
Tracy, Lincoln M; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Gibson, Stephen J; Giummarra, Melita J
In an acute environment pain has potential protective benefits. However when pain becomes chronic this protective effect is lost and the pain becomes an encumbrance. Previously unheralded substances are being investigated in an attempt to alleviate the burden of living with chronic pain. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide hormone, is one prospective pharmacotherapeutic agent gaining popularity. Oxytocin has the potential to modulate the pain experience due to its ubiquitous involvement in central and peripheral psychological and physiological processes, and thus offers promise as a therapeutic agent. In this review, we discuss previous effective applications of oxytocin in pain-free clinical populations and its potential use in the modulation of pain experience. We also address the slowly growing body of literature investigating the administration of oxytocin in clinical and experimentally induced pain in order to investigate the potential mechanisms of its reported analgesic actions. We conclude that oxytocin offers a potential novel avenue for modulating the experience of pain, and that further research into this area is required to map its therapeutic benefit.
Hechler, Tanja; Endres, Dominik; Thorwart, Anna
In individuals with chronic pain harmless bodily sensations can elicit anticipatory fear of pain resulting in maladaptive responses such as taking pain medication. Here, we aim to broaden the perspective taking into account recent evidence that suggests that interoceptive perception is largely a construction of beliefs, which are based on past experience and that are kept in check by the actual state of the body. Taking a Bayesian perspective, we propose that individuals with chronic pain display a heightened prediction of pain [prior probability p(pain)], which results in heightened pain perception [posterior probability p(pain|sensation)] due to an assumed link between pain and a harmless bodily sensation [p(sensation|pain)]. This pain perception emerges because their mind infers pain as the most likely cause for the sensation. When confronted with a mismatch between predicted pain and a (harmless bodily) sensation, individuals with chronic pain try to minimize the mismatch most likely by active inference of pain or alternatively by an attentional shift away from the sensation. The active inference results in activities that produce a stronger sensation that will match with the prediction, allowing subsequent perceptual inference of pain. Here, we depict heightened pain perception in individuals with chronic pain by reformulating and extending the assumptions of the interoceptive predictive coding model from a Bayesian perspective. The review concludes with a research agenda and clinical considerations. PMID:27826271
Mansfield, Kathryn E.; Sim, Julius; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P.
Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common in the general population. It is unclear how people reporting this problem present in primary care; they may regularly consult for regional pains without being recognized as having a generalized condition. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of people consulting in primary care for musculoskeletal conditions in different body regions on different occasions (recurrent regional pain consultation), the proportion with diagnosed generalized pain and survey-reported widespread pain, and if they have features characteristic of CWP. Phase 1 used electronic records from 12 general practices in North Staffordshire (Consultations in Primary Care Archive) from 2005 to 2009. Phase 2 used linked self-reported health and primary health care data from 8286 people aged >50 years in 8 general practices (North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project) between 2002 and 2005. In Phase 1, 11% of registered patients fulfilled criteria for recurrent regional pain consultation. Three-quarters had no recorded CWP-related generalized pain condition (eg, fibromyalgia). In Phase 2, 53% of recurrent regional pain consulters had survey-reported widespread pain and 88% had consulted for somatic symptoms. Self-reported general health was worse in recurrent regional pain consulters than in single-region consulters and poorest in those who also reported persistent widespread pain. Recurrent regional pain consulters are a heterogeneous group of frequent consulters sharing features with CWP (eg, somatic symptoms) but including those less severely affected. They lie on the spectrum of polysymptomatic distress characteristic of CWP and represent a group whose needs may be better met by earlier diagnosis of multisite pain. PMID:27749607
Motrich, Ruben D; Breser, María L; Sánchez, Leonardo R; Godoy, Gloria J; Prinz, Immo; Rivero, Virginia E
Pain and inflammation in the absence of infection are hallmarks in chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) patients. The etiology of CP/CPPS is unclear, and autoimmunity has been proposed as a cause. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) models have long been used for studying CP/CPPS. Herein, we studied prostate inflammation induction and chronic pelvic pain development in EAP using IL-12p40-KO, IL-4-KO, IL-17-KO, and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice. Prostate antigen (PAg) immunization in C57BL/6 mice induced specific Th1 and Th17 immune responses and severe prostate inflammation and cell infiltration, mainly composed of CD4 T cells and macrophages. Moreover, chronic pelvic pain was evidenced by increased allodynia responses. In immunized IL-17-KO mice, the presence of a prominent PAg-specific Th1 immune response caused similar prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. Furthermore, markedly high PAg-specific Th1 immune responses, exacerbated prostate inflammation, and chronic pelvic pain were detected in immunized IL-4-KO mice. Conversely, immunized IL-12p40-KO mice developed PAg-specific Th2 immune responses, characterized by high IL-4 secretion and neither infiltration nor damage in the prostate. As observed in wild-type control animals, IL12p40-KO mice did not evidence tactile allodynia responses. Our results suggest that, as in patients, chronic pelvic pain is a consequence of prostate inflammation. After PAg immunization, a Th1-associated immune response develops and induces prostate inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. The absence of Th1 or Th2 cytokines, respectively, diminishes or enhances EAP susceptibility. In addition, IL-17 showed not to be essential for pathology induction and chronic pelvic pain development.
Roditi, Daniela; Robinson, Michael E; Litwins, Nola
The present study measured the effects of catastrophizing self-statements and positive coping self-statements on cold pressor-induced pain. Participants were 58 adult chronic pain patients with current facial pain. It was hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to a decrease in pain endurance whereas positive coping would lead to an increase in pain endurance. It was also hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to an increase in peak pain intensity whereas positive coping would lead to a decrease in peak pain intensity. At pretest, participants submerged their nondominant hand in the cold pressor. Pain sensitivity ranges (PSR) were subsequently determined by calculating the difference between tolerance and threshold times. Ratings of peak pain intensity were measured using a pressure sensitive bladder/transducer. Participants underwent random assignment to either a catastrophizing group or a positive coping self-statement group. ANCOVA results revealed that on average, participants employing catastrophizing statements as a coping strategy experienced significantly lower PSR (M = 35.53, SD = 39.71) compared to participants employing positive coping self-statements (M = 73.70, SD = 86.14) when controlling for pretest PSR. Group assignment had no significant influence on peak pain intensity ratings. Thus, our results reveal that manipulation of coping causes changes in pain endurance.
Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Schweinhardt, Petra
Pain and reward are opponent, interacting processes. Such interactions are enabled by neuroanatomical and neurochemical overlaps of brain systems that process pain and reward. Cerebral processing of hedonic ('liking') and motivational ('wanting') aspects of reward can be separated: the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids play an important role for the hedonic experience, and the ventral striatum and dopamine predominantly process motivation for reward. Supported by neuroimaging studies, we present here the hypothesis that the orbitofrontal cortex and opioids are responsible for pain modulation by hedonic experience, while the ventral striatum and dopamine mediate motivational effects on pain. A rewarding stimulus that appears to be particularly important in the context of pain is pain relief. Further, reward, including pain relief, leads to operant learning, which can affect pain sensitivity. Indirect evidence points at brain mechanisms that might underlie pain relief as a reward and related operant learning but studies are scarce. Investigating the cerebral systems underlying pain-reward interactions as well as related operant learning holds the potential of better understanding mechanisms that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain, as detailed in the last section of this review.
Huber, Evelyn; Spirig, Rebecca
Chronic musculoskeletal pain in the elderly is very common. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain insight in elderly people's pain medication beliefs. Problem-focused interviews with eight women were conducted. The results show them to be experts in managing pain, which task turns out to be too complex to be described in terms of pain medication beliefs. Using the method of qualitative content analyses five main categories including subcategories were inductively generated and presented in a structured way. The category "to be carried by one's life and illness trajectory" evolved as a basic category in the pain management. It includes the subcategories "to gain experiences from one's life and illness", "to have knowledge of the causes of pain and of their treatment", "to learn how to manage pain in everyday life" as well as "to rely on spiritual well-being". Most important for the women is their every day reality "to live with pain and its physical, psychological, practical and social effects". This leads to "weigh, to combine and to evaluate treatments for pain relief" which includes the subcategories "to be disciplined in carrying out non-pharmacological measures for pain relief", "to use pain medication sparingly but purposefully" and "to cooperate as a partner with health professionals". Some of the participants are challenged by "reaching their limits", which means "to reach the limits of endurable pain", "to experience the limits of failed treatment effects" as well as "to reach the limits of endurable treatment side effects". "To sustain one's quality of life in spite of pain" seems to be the aim of the elderly women's endeavour. The results of this study demand collaborative care in a partnership with elderly people with pain acknowledging their expertise. The results also ask for transdisciplinary efforts to support elderly persons with pain and for the development as well as the evaluation of self-management education programs.
Ramprakash, Stalin; Fishman, Daniel
Juvenile fibromyalgia in children with sickle cell disease has not been reported in the literature. We report an adolescent patient with sickle cell whose pain symptoms progressed from having recurrent acute sickle cell pain crisis episodes to a chronic pain syndrome over several years. He was eventually diagnosed with juvenile fibromyalgia based on the clinical history and myofascial tender points and his pain symptoms responded better to multidisciplinary strategies for chronic fibromyalgia pain. Chronic pain in sickle cell disease is an area of poor research, and in addition there is inconsistency in the definition of chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Central sensitisation to pain is shown to occur after recurrent painful stimuli in a genetically vulnerable individual. In a chronic pain condition such as fibromyalgia central sensitisation is thought to play a key role. Fibromyalgia should be considered as one of the main differential diagnosis in any sickle cell patient with chronic pain.
Anttinen, Mikael; Paajanen, Hannu
One or more causes may be revealed underlying chronic pain in the groin. Knowledge of the complex anatomy of the groin may provide hints about the cause of the pain. In addition to clinical studies, imaging studies are often needed, with X-ray, ultrasonography and in particular MR imaging of the pelvis being the most important ones. The latter provides the best information on the structures of the groin region and the surrounding soft tissues. We present two rare causes of pain in the groin, the diagnosis of which was delayed due to insufficient imaging.
McCreary, Charles P.; And Others
Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)
Lee, Michelle; Manders, Toby R.; Eberle, Sarah E.; Su, Chen; D'amour, James; Yang, Runtao; Lin, Hau Yueh; Deisseroth, Karl; Froemke, Robert C.
Neural circuits that determine the perception and modulation of pain remain poorly understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of sensory and affective processes. While animal and human imaging studies have shown that the PFC is involved in pain regulation, its exact role in pain states remains incompletely understood. A key output target for the PFC is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important component of the reward circuitry. Interestingly, recent human imaging studies suggest that the projection from the PFC to the NAc is altered in chronic pain. The function of this corticostriatal projection in pain states, however, is not known. Here we show that optogenetic activation of the PFC produces strong antinociceptive effects in a rat model (spared nerve injury model) of persistent neuropathic pain. PFC activation also reduces the affective symptoms of pain. Furthermore, we show that this pain-relieving function of the PFC is likely mediated by projections to the NAc. Thus, our results support a novel role for corticostriatal circuitry in pain regulation. PMID:25834050
Hall, Sara M; Lee, Yeon Sun; Hruby, Victor J
Chronic pain is one of the most ubiquitous diseases in the world, but treatment is difficult with conventional methods, due to undesirable side effects of treatments and unknown mechanisms of pathological pain states. The endogenous peptide, dynorphin A has long been established as a target for the treatment of pain. Interestingly, this unique peptide has both inhibitory (opioid in nature) and excitatory activities (nonopioid) in the CNS. Both of these effects have been found to play a role in pain and much work has been done to develop therapeutics to enhance the inhibitory effects. Here we will review the dynorphin A compounds that have been designed for the modulation of pain and will discuss where the field stands today. PMID:26824470
Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345
Baron, Ralf; Eberhart, Leopold; Kern, Kai-Uwe; Regner, Stefan; Rolke, Roman; Simanski, Christian; Tölle, Thomas
Tapentadol prolonged release (PR) for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain combines 2 modes of action. These are μ-opioid receptor agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in a single molecule that allow higher analgesic potency through modulation of different pharmacological targets within the pain transmitting systems. At the same time, this can also serve as a clue for modulation of different pain-generating mechanisms according to nociceptive, neuropathic, or mixed pain conditions. Tapentadol PR has now been on the market for 5 years, with over 4.6 million people treated worldwide. A panel of pain specialists convened in Germany to review the clinical program and to discuss the role of tapentadol PR in the management of chronic pain. The clinical study program demonstrated effective and generally well-tolerated treatment for up to 2 years in a broad range of chronic pain conditions, including those with neuropathic pain components. This was confirmed in routine clinical practice observations. Head-to-head studies with World Health Organization (WHO) III opioids such as oxycodone controlled release and oxycodone/naloxone PR showed at least comparable pain relief in the treatment of moderate-to-severe musculoskeletal pain. Rotation from poorly tolerated WHO III opioids to tapentadol PR provided effective pain relief and better symptom control for musculoskeletal pain compared to previous medication. Functionality, health status and quality of life also improved under tapentadol PR treatment. The gastrointestinal tolerability profile was more favorable compared to other tested WHO III opioids. Tapentadol PR has a good safety profile and no evidence of acquired tolerance from the long-term data so far collected. Overall, tapentadol PR represents an effective and generally well-tolerated alternative to "classical" opioidergic drugs.
Tjakkes, G-H E; De Bont, L G M; Van Wijhe, M; Stegenga, B
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a preliminary intravenous diagnostic test to classify chronic orofacial pain patients into different subgroups. Patients with chronic orofacial pain conditions that could not be unambiguously diagnosed. A retrospective evaluation of series of conducted pharmacodiagnostic tests, consisting of the consecutive intravenous administration of drugs. Visual analogue scale scores were retrieved from all patients, based on which they were classified into different responder groups. In total, 46 pain profiles were analysed. Of these, 16 patients (35%) could be classified into one or more pain categories, while 30 patients (65%) could not be classified into any pain category. The pain duration or medication use did not influence the classification. Based on the results of this retrospective study, it seems that classification into subgroups is possible after intravenous testing in a minority of clinically unclassifiable patients. In patients where there is a substantial need for additional diagnostic information, these results may be of value. Recommendations are made for further research, which should include validation in patients with known pain mechanisms.
Piccinocchi, Gaetano; Piccinocchi, Roberto
Treatment of chronic pain is challenging. The Arkys project was initiated in Italy to assist general practitioners (GPs) in the management of chronic pain. The main objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Arkys for selecting new therapeutic strategies. An online interactive questionnaire for assessing pain and guiding therapeutic decisions was made available to GPs participating to Arkys. The GPs were invited to complete the questionnaire for each patient who presented moderate-severe chronic pain, and to decide on a new analgesic treatment based on the information provided by the questionnaire. Two hundred and forty four GPs participated with a total of 3035 patients. Patients (mean age 68.9 years) had mostly chronic non-cancer pain (87.7%). In 42.3%, pain had neuropathic components. Only 53.6% of patients were in treatment with analgesics (strong opioids, 38.9%; NSAIDs, 32.6%; weak opioids, 25.6%; anti-epileptics, 17.3%; paracetamol, 14.9%). Use of the questionnaire resulted in the prescription of analgesics to all patients and in increased prescription of strong opioids (69.7%). NSAID prescription decreased (12.8%), while anti-epileptics use remained stable. These findings show that current management of chronic pain in primary care is far from optimal and that efforts are needed to educate GPs and improve guideline implementation. PMID:27478585
Price, Theodore J; Inyang, Kufreobong E
Pain sensing neurons in the periphery (called nociceptors) and the central neurons that receive their projections show remarkable plasticity following injury. This plasticity results in amplification of pain signaling that is now understood to be crucial for the recovery and survival of organisms following injury. These same plasticity mechanisms may drive a transition to a nonadaptive chronic pain state if they fail to resolve following the termination of the healing process. Remarkable advances have been achieved in the past two decades in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie pain plasticity following injury. The mechanisms bear a striking resemblance to molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory processes in other brain regions, including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Here those mechanisms, their commonalities and subtle differences, will be highlighted and their role in causing chronic pain will be discussed. Arising from these data is the striking argument that chronic pain is a disease of the nervous system, which distinguishes this phenomena from acute pain that is frequently a symptom alerting the organism to injury. This argument has important implications for the development of disease modifying therapeutics.
Artner, Juraj; Kurz, Stephan; Cakir, Balkan; Reichel, Heiko; Lattig, Friederike
Background Chronic back pain is relatively resistant to unimodal therapy regimes. The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate the short-term outcome of a three-week intensive multidisciplinary outpatient program for patients with back pain and sciatica, measured according to decrease of functional impairment and pain. Methods The program was designed for patients suffering from chronic back pain to provide intensive interdisciplinary therapy in an outpatient setting, consisting of interventional injection techniques, medication, exercise therapy, back education, ergotherapy, traction, massage therapy, medical training, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, aquatraining, and relaxation. Results Based on Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores, a significant improvement in pain intensity and functionality of 66.83% NRS and an ODI of 33.33% were achieved by our pain program within 3 weeks. Conclusion This paper describes the organization and short-term outcome of an intensive multidisciplinary program for chronic back pain on an outpatient basis provided by our orthopedic department, with clinically significant results. PMID:22826641
Day, Melissa A.; Thorn, Beverly E.
Rural residency and low socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased likelihood of chronic pain. Other demographics are also differentially associated with the experience of pain. This study examines the relations between demographic and pain-related variables in a virtually unstudied population of rural Alabama chronic pain patients. One-hundred-and-fifteen patients completed validated measures of pain catastrophizing, depression, pain intensity, pain interference, perceived disability, and life satisfaction. Average age of study participants was 52-years, 79% were female, 74% were African-American, 72% reported annual income between 00,000-12,999, and 61% were unemployed. Although average years of reported education was 12.26, reading level percentile (primary literacy indicant) was 17.33. Cross-sectional multivariate and univariate analyses were conducted to examine associations among demographic and psychosocial variables in relation to various pre-treatment pain-related variables. The mediating role of pain catastrophizing and depression was investigated. Results indicate that race was significantly associated with pain intensity and pain interference, such that African-Americans reported higher scores than White-Americans. Pain catastrophizing was uniquely associated with pain intensity, pain interference, and perceived disability; depression was uniquely associated with pain interference, and life satisfaction. Pain catastrophizing mediated the relation between primary literacy and pain intensity; age effects were differentially mediated by either pain catastrophizing or depression. These analyses provide insight into the specific demographic and psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in a low-literacy, low-SES rural population. PMID:20817401
Sturgeon, John A.; Johnson, Kevin A.
Pain catastrophizing, a pattern of negative cognitive-emotional responses to actual or anticipated pain, maintains chronic pain and undermines response to treatments. Currently, precisely how pain catastrophizing influences pain processing is not well understood. In experimental settings, pain catastrophizing has been associated with amplified pain processing. This study sought to clarify pain processing mechanisms via experimental induction of pain catastrophizing. Forty women with chronic low back pain were assigned in blocks to an experimental condition, either a psychologist-led 10-minute pain catastrophizing induction or a control (10-minute rest period). All participants underwent a baseline round of several quantitative sensory testing (QST) tasks, followed by the pain catastrophizing induction or the rest period, and then a second round of the same QST tasks. The catastrophizing induction appeared to increase state pain catastrophizing levels. Changes in QST pain were detected for two of the QST tasks administered, weighted pin pain and mechanical allodynia. Although there is a need to replicate our preliminary results with a larger sample, study findings suggest a potential relationship between induced pain catastrophizing and central sensitization of pain. Clarification of the mechanisms through which catastrophizing affects pain modulatory systems may yield useful clinical insights into the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:28348505
Wermeling, Daniel P; Berger, Joseph R
Ziconotide intrathecal infusion was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of intractable severe chronic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain make up a significant population among those who experience chronic pain for which there are less than optimal pharmacotherapeutic options. Published clinical trials provide a global view of ziconotide efficacy and safety. A subset of patients in clinical trials obtained complete pain relief, a remarkable finding given the history of drug treatment for neuropathic pain. To provide more information regarding those who respond to ziconotide therapy, we discuss three patients with neuropathic pain who received ziconotide infusion. Two patients with longstanding neuropathic pain, one with complex regional pain syndrome (formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy) of the leg and one with lumbar radiculitis, achieved temporary but complete pain relief from single 5- and 10-microg epidural test doses. In the third case, a patient with longstanding bilateral leg and foot neuropathic pain from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and antiretroviral drug therapy achieved considerable pain relief from a long-term continuous intrathecal infusion. The patients who received a single dose had mild central nervous system adverse effects such as sedation, somnolence, nausea, headache, and lightheadedness. The patient who received the intrathecal infusion experienced mild-to-severe adverse effects depending on the rate of infusion; these effects included sedation, confusion, memory impairment, slurred speech, and double vision. This patient could sense impending adverse effects and made rate adjustments or suspended infusion to avert untoward symptoms. In all three cases, patients achieved considerable pain relief that was long-lasting and persisted well after dose administration or suspension of infusion.
Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Sil, Soumitri; Peugh, James; Cunningham, Natoshia; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R
Patients presenting for treatment of chronic pain often believe that pain reduction must be achieved before returning to normal functioning. However, treatment programs for chronic pain typically take a rehabilitative approach, emphasizing decreasing pain-related disability first with the expectation that pain reduction will follow. This information is routinely provided to patients, yet no studies have systematically examined the actual trajectories of pain and disability in a clinical care setting. In this study of youth with chronic pain (N=94, 8 to 18 years), it was hypothesized that 1) functional disability and pain would decrease over the course of psychological treatment for chronic pain and 2) functional disability would decrease more quickly than pain intensity. Participants received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain management (M=5.6 sessions) plus standard medical care. The Functional Disability Inventory and a Numeric Rating Scale of average pain intensity were completed by the child at every CBT session. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to examine the longitudinal trajectories of disability and pain. Standardized estimates of the slopes of change were obtained to test differences in rates of change between pain and disability. Results showed an overall significant decline in functional disability over time. Although pain scores reduced slightly from pretreatment to posttreatment, the longitudinal decline over treatment was not statistically significant. As expected, the rate of change of disability was significantly more rapid than pain. Evidence for variability in treatment response was noted, suggesting the need for additional research into individual trajectories of change in pediatric pain treatment.
Tham, See Wan; Palermo, Tonya M; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Zhou, Chuan; Stubhaug, Audun; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert
Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to characterize pain sensitivity in individuals with and without pain conditions. Research remains limited in pediatric populations, hindering the ability to expand the utility of QST toward its potential application in clinical settings and clinical predictive value. The aims of this study were to examine pain sensitivity using QST in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain and identify predictors of pain sensitivity. A population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2011 provided data on 941 adolescents, 197 were classified as having chronic pain and 744 were classified without chronic pain. Self-reported data on pain characteristics, psychological functioning, and QST responses were examined. The findings revealed lower pressure pain threshold and tolerance on the trapezius (P's = 0.03) in adolescents with chronic pain compared to adolescents without chronic pain, but no differences on heat or cold-pressor pain tasks. Female sex (P's = 0.02) and poorer psychological functioning (P's = 0.02) emerged as significant predictors of greater pain sensitivity across all pain modalities. Exploratory analyses revealed several associations between clinical pain characteristics and QST responses within the chronic pain cohort. Findings from this large pediatric sample provide comprehensive data that could serve as normative data on QST responses in adolescents with and without chronic pain. These findings lay the groundwork toward developing future QST research and study protocols in pediatric populations, taking into consideration sex and psychological distress.
Hoffman, Martin D; Shepanski, Melissa A; Mackenzie, Sean P; Clifford, Philip S
This study examined whether subjects with chronic low back pain demonstrate exercise-induced analgesia to experimentally induced pressure pain. We employed a repeated measures design to study eight subjects with chronic low back pain (mean +/- standard deviation age = 40 +/- 10, duration of pain = 7 +/- 4 years). Pain ratings were measured immediately before and 2 minutes and 32 minutes after 25 minutes of cycle ergometry (5 minutes at 50% peak oxygen uptake, then 20 minutes at 70% peak oxygen uptake). We based the pain ratings on subject input on a visual analog scale at 10-second intervals during the 2-minute pressure pain stimulus to the nondominant index finger. Compared with preexercise values, pain ratings were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after exercise at both 2 and 32 minutes postexercise. We conclude that pressure pain perception can be reduced for more than 30 minutes following aerobic exercise from leg cycling among people with chronic low back pain.
Kelleher, C.; Hickey, A.; Conroy, R.; Doyle, F.
Background. Depression is an increasing problem in older adults, which is exacerbated by under diagnosis and ineffective treatment options. Broadly speaking, as people age, their levels of regular physical activity (PA) decrease, while their experience of chronic pain increases. PA has been shown to be an effective, yet under-utilised, treatment for depression in this age-cohort although the influence of pain on the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms has not been considered. Methods. Secondary analysis of national data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA, 2011) (n = 8163 participants aged 50 years and older) examined the mediating or moderating role of pain in the relationship between depressive symptoms and PA, and the impact of PA, pain and depressive symptoms on health-care utilisation. Results. Approximately 8.5% TILDA older adults were depressed. No mediating or moderating effects of pain were found in the association between PA and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of PA were found to be independently associated with lower depressive symptoms, while higher levels of pain significantly increased the likelihood of depressive symptoms supporting previous findings. Depressive symptoms and higher levels of pain were also found to significantly increase health-care utilisation. Conclusions. Consistent with previous findings in this field, both PA and pain were found to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in Irish older adults. Furthermore, pain does not play a mediating or moderating role in the relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. Continued support for ongoing initiatives in this area aimed at increasing PA in older adults as a means to improve both physical and mental well-being is advised. The absence of any synergistic effect between PA and pain suggests that clinicians and health service providers should continue to promote PA as a treatment for depression, irrespective of the pain levels of their
Galor, Anat; Covington, Derek; Levitt, Alexandra E.; McManus, Katherine T.; Seiden, Benjamin; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Kalangara, Jerry; Feuer, William; Patin, Dennis J.; Martin, Eden R.; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D.; Levitt, Roy C.
Recent data demonstrate that dry eye (DE) susceptibility and other chronic pain syndromes (CPS) such as chronic widespread pain, irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic pain, may share common heritable factors. Previously, we showed that DE patients describing more severe symptoms tended to report features of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP). We hypothesize that patients with a greater number of CPS would have a different DE phenotype compared to those with fewer CPS. We recruited a cohort of 154 DE patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital and defined high and low CPS groups by cluster analysis. In addition to worse non-ocular pain complaints and higher PTSD and depression scores (P<0.01), we found that the high CPS group reported more severe neuropathic-type DE symptoms compared to the low CPS group, including worse ocular pain assessed via 3 different pain scales (P<0.05), with similar objective corneal DE signs. This is the first study to demonstrate DE patients who manifest a greater number of comorbid CPS report more severe DE symptoms and features of NOP. These findings provide further evidence that NOP may represent a central pain disorder, and that shared mechanistic factors may underlie vulnerability to some forms of DE and other comorbid CPS. PMID:26606863
Antunes, Rogério Sarmento; de Macedo, Bárbara Gazolla; Amaral, Tammy da Silva; Gomes, Henrique de Alencar; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Rocha, Fábio Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which 193 individuals with chronic low back pain were included. The presence of depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, using a cutoff validated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The intensity and quality of pain in the groups with and without depression were assessed by the McGill Questionnaire. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia was applied to assess fear of movement. With respect to quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study 36 was used. The statistical significance level was set at p <0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 32.1%. The group with depression had worse scores in relation to pain, kinesiophobia and quality of life (physical functioning, rolephysical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health. CONCLUSION: Patients with low back pain and depression had higher pain intensity, greater fear of movement and poorer quality of life. Level of Evidence III, Cross-sectional PMID:24453639
Panagopoulos, John; Hancock, Mark J; Kongsted, Alice; Hush, Julia; Kent, Peter
Patient characteristics associated with the course and severity of low back pain (LBP) and disability have been the focus of extensive research, however, known characteristics do not explain much of the variance in outcomes. The relationship between anterior trunk pain (ATP) and LBP has not been explored, though mechanisms for visceral referred pain have been described. Study objectives were: (1) determine prevalence of ATP in chronic LBP patients, (2) determine whether ATP is associated with increased pain and disability in these patients, and (3) evaluate whether ATP predicts the course of pain and disability in these patients. In this study, spinal outpatient department patients mapped the distribution of their pain and patients describing pain in their chest, abdomen or groin were classified with ATP. Generalized estimating equations were performed to investigate the relationship between ATP and LBP outcomes. A total of 2974 patients were included and 19.6% of patients reported ATP. At all time points, there were significant differences in absolute pain intensity and disability in those with ATP compared with those without. The presence of ATP did not affect the clinical course of LBP outcomes. The results of this study suggest that patients who present with LBP and ATP have higher pain and disability levels than patients with localised LBP. Visceral referred pain mechanisms may help to explain some of this difference.
Groenewald, Cornelius B.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Wright, Davene; Fesinmeyer, Megan D.; Palermo, Tonya M.
The aim of this study was to assess the economic cost of chronic pain among adolescents receiving interdisciplinary pain treatment. Information was gathered from 149 adolescents (ages 10-17) presenting for evaluation and treatment at interdisciplinary pain clinics in the United States. Parents completed a validated measure of family economic attributes, the Client Service Receipt Inventory, to report on health service use and productivity losses due to their child's chronic pain retrospectively over 12 months. Health care costs were calculated by multiplying reported utilization estimates by unit visit costs from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The estimated mean and median costs per participant were $11,787 and $6,770 respectively. Costs were concentrated in a small group of participants, the top 5 % of those patients incurring the highest costs accounted for 30 % of total costs while the lower 75 % of participants accounted for only 34 % of costs. Total costs to society for adolescents with moderate to severe chronic pain were extrapolated to $19.5 billion annually in the U.S. The cost of childhood chronic pain presents a substantial economic burden to families and society. Future research should focus on predictors of increased health services use and costs in adolescents with chronic pain. Perspective This cost of illness study comprehensively estimates the economic costs of chronic pain in a cohort of treatment-seeking adolescents. The primary driver of costs was direct medical costs followed by productivity losses. Because of its economic impact, policy makers should invest resources in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic pediatric pain. PMID:24953887
Sharma, Kunal; Sahoo, Jagannath; Sahu, Dipsundar; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Sudhanshu Sekhar
Background: Chronic pain of musculoskeletal origin is a very common symptom and has major effect on the physical, mental, and economic aspects of the patients. There is always a crave among physicians and patients for effective analgesic, curable preparation that can be locally applied. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil in chronic pain management of musculoskeletal origin. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of chronic musculoskeletal pain of unknown origin of mild to moderate condition were advised to apply “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil locally twice daily for 6 weeks and examined weekly. After completion of the treatment, the efficacy of the therapy was assessed on the basis of the subjective criteria such as perception of pain, tenderness, swelling, and joint mobility. Results: In this study, mean baseline score versus last visit score of pain (2.84 ± 0.68 vs. 1.33 ± 0.76), tenderness (1.64 ± 0.74 vs. 0.36 ± 0.56), and swelling (0.64 ± 0.85 vs. 0.38 ± 0.66) was significantly decreased, and also clinical improvement was seen in the study participants along with no evidence of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: The analysis of the overall effect of this “Ayush Tulsi Jiwan Plus” oil preparation was found efficacious and topically safe in chronic pain conditions. However, further study will be required with larger sample size and in heterogeneous population to elicit long-term effect of this polyherbal preparation. PMID:27833366
Rosen, Natalie O; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Bergeron, Sophie
Models of pain communication propose that the social environment contributes to partners' pain estimation. This study examined partners' pain estimation in vulvodynia, an idiopathic vulvovaginal pain condition that disrupts the sexuality and relationships of affected couples. Specifically, we investigated (1) the overall bias and tracking accuracy of male partners' perceptions of women's pain during intercourse and (2) the influence of men's within-person variability in relationship satisfaction on bias and accuracy. Sixty-nine women (mean age = 28.1, SD = 6.7) diagnosed with vulvodynia and their cohabiting male partners (mean age = 29.7, SD = 8.1) participated in an 8-week daily diary study. On sexual intercourse days (mean = 6.1, SD = 5.4), men reported their perception of women's pain during intercourse and women self-reported their pain. Men reported their daily relationship satisfaction on all diary days. Men's within-person variability in relationship satisfaction was represented by the SD of relationship satisfaction scores across all daily diaries. Results indicated that men's perceptions were both accurate in that they tracked changes in women's pain and biased in that they generally underestimated this pain. Men's variability in relationship satisfaction moderated tracking accuracy such that men with higher variability manifested lower tracking accuracy for women's pain. Men's higher variability in relationship satisfaction may interfere with their motivation to accurately infer their female partner's pain. Poorer pain estimation may impair men's ability to adjust their emotional and behavioral responses to women's pain, which may have negative consequences for the couples' coping with vulvodynia.
To assess and manage pain in children and adolescents with mild to moderate intellectual disability, healthcare providers need access to updated tools and current knowledge. Recent studies show that these children can verbally express pain and use self-assessment tools accurately. Moreover, they know pain coping strategies. Finally, they show mental imaging skills and are able to recall autobiographical memories. These new data suggest that such children and adolescents could be candidates to for hypno-analgesia protocols and behavioral relaxation. PMID:24350192
Park, Juyoung; Hirz, Christina E; Manotas, Karen; Hooyman, Nancy
As key players in multidisciplinary health care systems, geriatric social workers must understand the dynamics of pain management among older adults with chronic pain. This study identified perceived barriers to, and facilitators for, utilizing nonpharmacological pain management through face-to-face interviews with 44 ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults. Constant comparative analysis identified barriers not recognized in prior studies: (a) embarrassment/self-consciousness, (b) unavailability of certain treatments, and (c) lack of faith in effectiveness of nonpharmacological treatments. Most frequently reported facilitators were (a) social support, (b) positive attitude, and (c) available resources. Social workers can provide counseling to motivate older adults to exercise to manage chronic pain and refer them to exercise programs tailored for older adults. To resolve the most frequently reported barrier-transportation-social workers can link older adults with transportation services offered by senior centers or other nonprofit agencies.
Yu, Dou; Thakor, Devang K.; Han, Inbo; Ropper, Alexander E.; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Sidman, Richard L.; Zafonte, Ross; Schachter, Steven C.; Teng, Yang D.
Diverse mechanisms including activation of NMDA receptors, microglial activation, reactive astrogliosis, loss of descending inhibition, and spasticity are responsible for ∼40% of cases of intractable neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). Because conventional treatments blocking individual mechanisms elicit only short-term effectiveness, a multimodal approach with simultaneous actions against major pain-related pathways may have value for clinical management of chronic pain. We hypothesize that [-]-huperzine A (HUP-A), an alkaloid isolated from the club moss Huperzia serrata, that is a potent reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and NMDA receptors, could mitigate pain without invoking drug tolerance or dependence by stimulating cholinergic interneurons to impede pain signaling, inhibiting inflammation via microglial cholinergic activation, and blocking NMDA-mediated central hypersensitization. We tested our hypothesis by administering HUP-A i.p. or intrathecally to female Sprague–Dawley rats (200–235 g body weight) after moderate static compression (35 g for 5 min) of T10 spinal cord. Compared with controls, HUP-A treatment demonstrates significant analgesic effects in both regimens. SCI rats manifested no drug tolerance following repeated bolus i.p. or chronic intrathecal HUP-A dosing. The pain-ameliorating effect of HUP-A is cholinergic dependent. Relative to vehicle treatment, HUP-A administration also reduced neural inflammation, retained higher numbers of calcium-impermeable GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, and prevented Homer1a up-regulation in dorsal horn sensory neurons. Therefore, HUP-A may provide safe and effective management for chronic postneurotrauma pain by reestablishing homeostasis of sensory circuits. PMID:23386718
Fashler, Samantha R.; Cooper, Lynn K.; Oosenbrug, Eric D.; Burns, Lindsay C.; Razavi, Shima; Goldberg, Lauren; Katz, Joel
This study reviewed the published literature evaluating multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment facilities to provide an overview of their availability, caseload, wait times, and facility characteristics. A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines following a search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that studies be original research, survey more than one pain treatment facility directly, and describe a range of available treatments. Fourteen articles satisfied inclusion criteria. Results showed little consistency in the research design used to describe pain treatment facilities. Availability of pain treatment facilities was scarce and the reported caseloads and wait times were generally high. A wide range of medical, physical, and psychological pain treatments were available. Most studies reported findings on the percentage of practitioners in different health care professions employed. Future studies should consider using more comprehensive search strategies to survey facilities, improving clarity on what is considered to be a pain treatment facility, and reporting on a consistent set of variables to provide a clear summary of the status of pain treatment facilities. This review highlights important information for policymakers on the scope, demand, and accessibility of pain treatment facilities. PMID:27445618
Buchman, Daniel Z; Ho, Anita; Goldberg, Daniel S
Trust is central to the therapeutic relationship, but the epistemic asymmetries between the expert healthcare provider and the patient make the patient, the trustor, vulnerable to the provider, the trustee. The narratives of pain sufferers provide helpful insights into the experience of pain at the juncture of trust, expert knowledge, and the therapeutic relationship. While stories of pain sufferers having their testimonies dismissed are well documented, pain sufferers continue to experience their testimonies as being epistemically downgraded. This kind of epistemic injustice has received limited treatment in bioethics. In this paper, we examine how a climate of distrust in pain management may facilitate what Fricker calls epistemic injustice. We critically interrogate the processes through which pain sufferers are vulnerable to specific kinds of epistemic injustice, such as testimonial injustice. We also examine how healthcare institutions and practices privilege some kinds of evidence and ways of knowing while excluding certain patient testimonies from epistemic consideration. We argue that providers ought to avoid epistemic injustice in pain management by striving toward epistemic humility. Epistemic humility, as a form of epistemic justice, may be the kind disposition required to correct the harmful prejudices that may arise through testimonial exchange in chronic pain management.
Ren, Zhenyu; Yang, Bing; Yang, Bin; Shi, Le; Sun, Qing-Li; Sun, A-Ping; Lu, Lin; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Rongsheng; Zhai, Suodi
Combined pharmacological treatments are the most used approach for neuropathic pain. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic agent, is generally used as a third-line treatment for neuropathic pain and can be considered an option only when patients have not responded to the first- and second-line medications. In the case presented herein, a patient with neuropathic pain was treated using a combined pharmacological regimen. The patient's pain deteriorated, despite increasing the doses of opioids, when carbamazepine was discontinued, potentially because carbamazepine withdrawal disrupted the balance that was achieved by the multifaceted pharmacological regimen, thus inducing hyperalgesia. Interestingly, when carbamazepine was prescribed again, the patient's pain was successfully managed. Animal research has reported that carbamazepine can potentiate the analgesic effectiveness of morphine in rodent models of neuropathic pain and postoperative pain. This clinical case demonstrates that carbamazepine may have a synergistic effect on the analgesic effectiveness of morphine and may inhibit or postpone opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We postulate that a probable mechanism of action of carbamazepine may involve -aminobutyric acid-ergic potentiation and the interruption of glutamatergic function via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Further research is warranted to clarify the analgesic action of carbamazepine and its potential use for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia in chronic neuropathic pain patients.
Coluzzi, F; Mattia, C
Opioids are widely used as effective analgesic therapy for cancer pain. Despite years of controversy, their use has been also accepted in chronic non-cancer pain. Oxycodone alone and in combination has been used for over 80 years in the treatment of a variety of pain syndromes. As single agent, the controlled release (CR) oxycodone's market in the USA grew from 10% in 1996 to 53% in 2000 and it has become a leading opioid in the United States. Recent data showed that the fixed-combination oxycodone/acetaminophen (5 mg/325 mg) is the most often prescribed opioid across all the different chronic pain diagnoses. Compared with morphine, oxycodone has a higher oral bioavailability and is about twice as potent. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data support oxycodone as a pharmacologically active opiod that does not require conversion to oxymoprhone for pharmacological activity. Seven studies addressed the safety and efficacy of oxycodone for the treatment of non-cancer pain (low back pain, osteoarthritis pain, and painful diabetic neuropathy). Both immediate release (IR) and CR oxycodone are equally effective and safe. Along these trials, mean daily dosage of oxycodone was approximately 40 mg, with a low incidence of intolerable typical opiate side effects. In cancer pain, oxycodone can be considered a valid alternative to oral morphine to be used for opioid rotation. No difference in analgesic efficacy between CR oxycodone and CR morphine was found. Controlled-release preparations, with a long duration of action, are attractive because they offer the advantage of longer dosing intervals and sustained analgesic effect.