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Sample records for chronic mountain sickness

  1. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field.

  2. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis.

  3. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis. PMID:11844517

  4. Chronic Mountain Sickness: Clinical Aspects, Etiology, Management, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí

    2016-06-01

    Villafuerte, Francisco C., and Noemí Corante. Chronic mountain sickness: clinical aspects, etiology, management, and treatment. High Alt Med Biol. 17:61-69, 2016.-Millions of people worldwide live at a high altitude, and a significant number are at risk of developing Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a progressive incapacitating syndrome caused by lifelong exposure to hypoxia. CMS is characterized by severe symptomatic excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥19 g/dL for women and Hb ≥21 g/dL for men) and accentuated hypoxemia, which are frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension. In advanced cases, the condition may evolve to cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Current knowledge indicates a genetic predisposition to develop CMS. However, there are important risk factors and comorbidities that may trigger and aggravate the condition. Thus, appropriate medical information on CMS is necessary to provide adequate diagnosis and healthcare to high-altitude inhabitants. After reviewing basic clinical aspects of CMS, including its definition, diagnosis, and common clinical findings, we discuss aspects of its etiology, and address its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment.

  5. Chronic Mountain Sickness: Clinical Aspects, Etiology, Management, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Villafuerte, Francisco C., and Noemí Corante. Chronic mountain sickness: clinical aspects, etiology, management, and treatment. High Alt Med Biol. 17:61–69, 2016.—Millions of people worldwide live at a high altitude, and a significant number are at risk of developing Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a progressive incapacitating syndrome caused by lifelong exposure to hypoxia. CMS is characterized by severe symptomatic excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥19 g/dL for women and Hb ≥21 g/dL for men) and accentuated hypoxemia, which are frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension. In advanced cases, the condition may evolve to cor pulmonale and congestive heart failure. Current knowledge indicates a genetic predisposition to develop CMS. However, there are important risk factors and comorbidities that may trigger and aggravate the condition. Thus, appropriate medical information on CMS is necessary to provide adequate diagnosis and healthcare to high-altitude inhabitants. After reviewing basic clinical aspects of CMS, including its definition, diagnosis, and common clinical findings, we discuss aspects of its etiology, and address its epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. PMID:27218284

  6. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  7. Current concept of chronic mountain sickness: pulmonary hypertension-related high-altitude heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ge, R L; Helun, G

    2001-01-01

    High-altitude heart disease, a form of chronic mountain sickness, has been well established in both Tibet and Qinghai provinces of China, although little is known regarding this syndrome in other countries, particularly in the West. This review presents a general overview of high-altitude heart disease in China and briefly summarizes the existing data with regard to the prevalence, clinical features, and pathophysiology of the illness. The definition of high-altitude heart disease is right ventricular enlargement that develops primarily (by high-altitude exposure) to pulmonary hypertension without excessive polycythemia. The prevalence is higher in children than adults and in men than women, but is lower in both sexes of Tibetan high-altitude residents compared with acclimatized newcomers, such as Han Chinese. Clinical symptoms consist of headache, dyspnea, cough, irritability, and sleeplessness. Physical findings include a marked cyanosis, rapid heart and respiratory rates, edema of the face, liver enlargement, and rales. Most patients have complete recovery on descent to a lower altitude, but symptoms recur with a return to high altitude. Right ventricular enlargement, pulmonary hypertension, and remodeling of pulmonary arterioles are hallmarks of high-altitude heart disease. It is hoped that this information will assist in understanding this type of chronic mountain sickness, facilitate international exchange of data, and stimulate further research into this poorly understood condition.

  8. Genetic Variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as Predictors of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Petousi, Nayia; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cole, Amy M., Nayia Petousi, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri, and Peter A. Robbins Genetic variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as predictors of chronic mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol 15:497–499, 2014.—Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a serious illness that affects life-long high-altitude residents. A recent study analyzed whole genome sequence data from residents of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) in an effort to identify the genetic basis of CMS and reported SENP1 (rs7963934) and ANP32D (rs72644851) to show signatures consistent with natural selection and protective against CMS (Zhou et al. 2013). We set out to replicate these observations in two Andean cohorts from Cerro de Pasco, consisting of 84 CMS cases and 91 healthy controls in total. We report evidence of association for rs7963934 (SENP1) in the combined cohorts (meta-analysis p=8.8 x 10−4 OR 2.91, CI 1.56–5.5, I=0). The direction of effect was the same as in the original publication. We did not observe any significant correlation between rs72644851 (ANP32D) and the CMS phenotype, within or across cohorts (meta-analysis p=0.204, OR 1.37, CI 0.84–2.241, I=0). Our results provide independent evidence in support of a role for SENP1 in CMS in individuals of Quechua ancestry and suggest the SENP1 and ANP32D signatures of selection are in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD). PMID:25225945

  9. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n=131; 49.1±12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n=84; 47.2±13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p<0.05), individuals with AG genotype have 2.5 more risk of CMS compared to those with GG genotype (p<0.02; OR, 2.54; 95% CI: 1.10–5.88). Pairwise Fst and Nei's distance indicate genetic differentiation between Cerro de Pasco population and HapMap3 population (Fst>0.36, p<0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes. PMID:24971768

  10. The treatment of Uygur medicine Dracocephalum moldavica L on chronic mountain sickness rat model

    PubMed Central

    Maimaitiyiming, Dilinuer; Hu, Guangmei; Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Hui, Shi Wen; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Dracocephalum moldavica L, a traditional Uygur medicine, possesses some key cardiac activities. However, till date, no reports are available on the use of D. moldavica against chronic mountain sickness (CMS), which is a medical condition that affects the residents of high altitude. The present study was designed to explore the treatment efficacy of D. moldavica on CMS. Materials and Methods: 80 of the 100 Sprague Dawley rats enrolled were bred in simulated high altitude environment and the remaining 20 rats were kept in the plains. Water and alcohol extracts of D. moldavica were prepared. CMS rat model was prepared, and the rat hearts were removed for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were taken for hematological and biochemical analyses. Rat pulmonary artery pressure was determined to study the treatment efficacy. Results: In the CMS model group, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were found to be significantly higher than the control group; while the concentrations of SOD and GSH-Px decreased. D. moldavica could improve these levels, decrease pulmonary artery pressure, and improve the cardiac pathological state. Conclusions: The study results show that IL-6, CRP, MDA, SOD and GSH-Px participate and mediate the formation of CMS and D. moldavica is found to possess noticeable effects on CMS. The present study explored the basics of high altitude sickness and laid the foundation for further progress of Uygur medicines on the treatment of altitude sickness. Further preclinical and clinical studies with more sample size are recommended. PMID:25422549

  11. Noninvasive Assessment of Excessive Erythrocytosis as a Screening Method for Chronic Mountain Sickness at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Kaetan J; Danz, David; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-06-01

    Vyas, Kaetan J., David Danz, Robert H. Gilman, Robert A. Wise, Fabiola León-Velarde, J. Jaime Miranda, and William Checkley. Noninvasive assessment of excessive erythrocytosis as a screening method for chronic mountain sickness at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:162-168, 2015.--Globally, over 140 million people are at risk of developing chronic mountain sickness, a common maladaptation to life at high altitude (>2500 meters above sea level). The diagnosis is contingent upon the identification of excessive erythrocytosis (EE). Current best practices to identify EE require a venous blood draw, which is cumbersome for large-scale surveillance. We evaluated two point-of-care biomarkers to screen for EE: noninvasive spot-check tests of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pronto-7, Masimo Corporation). We conducted paired evaluations of total serum hemoglobin from a venous blood draw and noninvasive, spot-check testing of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation with the Pronto-7 in 382 adults aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru (3825 meters above sea level). We used the Bland-Altman method to measure agreement between the noninvasive hemoglobin assessment and the gold standard lab hemoglobin analyzer. Mean age was 58.8 years and 47% were male. The Pronto-7 test was unsuccessful in 21 (5%) participants. Limits of agreement between total hemoglobin measured via venous blood draw and the noninvasive, spot-check test ranged from -2.8 g/dL (95% CI -3.0 to -2.5) to 2.5 g/dL (95% CI 2.2 to 2.7), with a bias of -0.2 g/dL (95% CI -0.3 to -0.02) for the difference between total hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin concentrations. Overall, the noninvasive spot-check test of total hemoglobin had a better area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to oxyhemoglobin saturation for the identification of EE as measured by a gold standard laboratory hemoglobin analyzer (0.96 vs. 0.82; p<0.001). Best cut-off values to screen for EE with

  12. Genetic variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as predictors of chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Cole, Amy M; Petousi, Nayia; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Robbins, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a serious illness that affects life-long high-altitude residents. A recent study analyzed whole genome sequence data from residents of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) in an effort to identify the genetic basis of CMS and reported SENP1 (rs7963934) and ANP32D (rs72644851) to show signatures consistent with natural selection and protective against CMS (Zhou et al. 2013 ). We set out to replicate these observations in two Andean cohorts from Cerro de Pasco, consisting of 84 CMS cases and 91 healthy controls in total. We report evidence of association for rs7963934 (SENP1) in the combined cohorts (meta-analysis p=8.8x10(-4) OR 2.91, CI 1.56-5.5, I=0). The direction of effect was the same as in the original publication. We did not observe any significant correlation between rs72644851 (ANP32D) and the CMS phenotype, within or across cohorts (meta-analysis p=0.204, OR 1.37, CI 0.84-2.241, I=0). Our results provide independent evidence in support of a role for SENP1 in CMS in individuals of Quechua ancestry and suggest the SENP1 and ANP32D signatures of selection are in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD).

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness in Andean Highlanders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Udpa, Nitin; Ronen, Roy; Stobdan, Tsering; Liang, Junbin; Appenzeller, Otto; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Yin, Yi; Du, Yuanping; Guo, Lixia; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Huang, Chen; Jia, Wenlong; Cao, Dandan; Guo, Guangwu; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Villafuerte, Francisco; Callacondo, David; Xue, Jin; Liu, Siqi; Frazer, Kelly A.; Li, Yingrui; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions at high altitudes present a challenge for survival, causing pressure for adaptation. Interestingly, many high-altitude denizens (particularly in the Andes) are maladapted, with a condition known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge disease. To decode the genetic basis of this disease, we sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 20 Andean subjects (10 with CMS and 10 without). We discovered 11 regions genome-wide with significant differences in haplotype frequencies consistent with selective sweeps. In these regions, two genes (an erythropoiesis regulator, SENP1, and an oncogene, ANP32D) had a higher transcriptional response to hypoxia in individuals with CMS relative to those without. We further found that downregulating the orthologs of these genes in flies dramatically enhanced survival rates under hypoxia, demonstrating that suppression of SENP1 and ANP32D plays an essential role in hypoxia tolerance. Our study provides an unbiased framework to identify and validate the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitudes and identifies potentially targetable mechanisms for CMS treatment. PMID:23954164

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in the Andean population.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Jose R; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Preciado, Hugo F Ju; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene--vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)--was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n = 131; 49.1 ± 12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n = 84; 47.2 ± 13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p < 0.05), individuals with AG genotype have 2.5 more risk of CMS compared to those with GG genotype (p < 0.02; OR, 2.54; 95% CI: 1.10-5.88). Pairwise Fst and Nei's distance indicate genetic differentiation between Cerro de Pasco population and HapMap3 population (Fst > 0.36, p < 0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes.

  15. The role of menopause in the development of chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Ramos, M A; Hernández, J A; De Idiáquez, D; Muñoz, L S; Gaffo, A; Córdova, S; Durand, D; Monge, C

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of menopause in the appearance of the physiopathological sequence that leads to chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in a high-altitude female population. The females studied are 30-54 yr old (n = 152) and have permanent residence in Cerro de Pasco (Pasco, Peru; 4,300 m). The sample was divided into postmenopausal and premenopausal groups for comparison. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), excessive erythrocytosis [EE, measured by the level of hematocrit (Het)], peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), and a score that represents the main signs and symptoms of CMS (CMSscore) were measured. Postmenopausal women had higher Het (50.2 +/- 4.04 vs. 47.4 +/- 4.13%, P < 0.001), lower SaO2 (81.9 +/- 4.12 vs. 84.7 +/- 3.14%, P < 0.001) and PEFR values (489 +/- 101 vs. 534 +/- 90 l/min, P < 0.02), and slightly higher CMSscore (19.1 +/- 3.37 vs. 17.9 +/- 3.48, P < 0.06) than premenopausal women. The prevalence of women with EE (EE = Hct > 56%) was found to be 8.8%. Forty-five percent of the postmenopausal subjects presented a high CMSscore (> 21), whereas only 22% of the premenopausal subjects presented this high value (P < 0.02). We can therefore conclude that menopause may represent a contributing factor for the development of CMS.

  16. Effects of chronic normobaric hypoxic and hypercapnic exposure in rats: Prevention of experimental chronic mountain sickness by hypercapnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, B.; Bonkovsky, H. L.; Ou, Lo-Chang

    1987-09-01

    A syndrome of experimental chronic mountain sickness can be produced in the Hilltop strain of Sprague-Dawley rats by chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure. This syndrome is characterized by polycythemia, plasma hemoglobinemia, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy with eventual failure and death. It has generally been assumed that these changes are caused by chronic hypoxemia, not by hypobaric exposure per se. We have now confirmed this directly by showing that chronic normobaric hypoxic exposure (10.5% O2) produces similar hematologic and hemodynamic changes. Further, the addition of hypercapnic exposure to the hypoxic exposure blunted or prevented the effects of the hypoxic exposure probably by stimulating respiration, thus increasing the rate of oxygen delivery to the cells. Changes in the rate-controlling enzymes of hepatic heme metabolism, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and in cytochrome(s) P-450, the major hepatic hemoprotein(s), were also measured in hypoxic and hypercapnic rats. Hypoxia decreased 5-aminolevulinate synthase and increased cytochrome(s) P-450, probably by increasing the size of a “regulatory” heme pool within hepatocytes. These changes were also prevented by the addition of hypercapnic to hypoxic exposure.

  17. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia. PMID:25324511

  18. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-12-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia.

  19. Noninvasive Assessment of Excessive Erythrocytosis as a Screening Method for Chronic Mountain Sickness at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Kaetan J.; Danz, David; Gilman, Robert H.; Wise, Robert A.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Jaime Miranda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vyas, Kaetan J., David Danz, Robert H. Gilman, Robert A. Wise, Fabiola León-Velarde, J. Jaime Miranda, and William Checkley. Noninvasive assessment of excessive erythrocytosis as a screening method for chronic mountain sickness at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:162–168, 2015.—Globally, over 140 million people are at risk of developing chronic mountain sickness, a common maladaptation to life at high altitude (>2500 meters above sea level). The diagnosis is contingent upon the identification of excessive erythrocytosis (EE). Current best practices to identify EE require a venous blood draw, which is cumbersome for large-scale surveillance. We evaluated two point-of-care biomarkers to screen for EE: noninvasive spot-check tests of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation (Pronto-7, Masimo Corporation). We conducted paired evaluations of total serum hemoglobin from a venous blood draw and noninvasive, spot-check testing of total hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin saturation with the Pronto-7 in 382 adults aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru (3825 meters above sea level). We used the Bland-Altman method to measure agreement between the noninvasive hemoglobin assessment and the gold standard lab hemoglobin analyzer. Mean age was 58.8 years and 47% were male. The Pronto-7 test was unsuccessful in 21 (5%) participants. Limits of agreement between total hemoglobin measured via venous blood draw and the noninvasive, spot-check test ranged from −2.8 g/dL (95% CI −3.0 to −2.5) to 2.5 g/dL (95% CI 2.2 to 2.7), with a bias of −0.2 g/dL (95% CI −0.3 to −0.02) for the difference between total hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin concentrations. Overall, the noninvasive spot-check test of total hemoglobin had a better area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to oxyhemoglobin saturation for the identification of EE as measured by a gold standard laboratory hemoglobin analyzer (0.96 vs. 0.82; p<0.001). Best cut-off values

  20. Burden of disease resulting from chronic mountain sickness among young Chinese male immigrants in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In young Chinese men of the highland immigrant population, chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to measure the disease burden of CMS in this population. Methods We used disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate the disease burden of CMS. Disability weights were derived using the person trade-off methodology. CMS diagnoses, symptom severity, and individual characteristics were obtained from surveys collected in Tibet in 2009 and 2010. The DALYs of individual patients and the DALYs/1,000 were calculated. Results Disability weights were obtained for 21 CMS health stages. The results of the analyses of the two surveys were consistent with each other. At different altitudes, the CMS rates ranged from 2.1-37.4%; the individual DALYs of patients ranged from 0.13-0.33, and the DALYs/1,000 ranged from 3.60-52.78. The age, highland service years, blood pressure, heart rate, smoking rate, and proportion of the sample working in engineering or construction were significantly higher in the CMS group than in the non-CMS group (p < 0.05). These variables were also positively associated with the individual DALYs (p < 0.05). Among the symptoms, headaches caused the largest proportion of DALYs. Conclusion The results show that CMS imposes a considerable burden on Chinese immigrants to Tibet. Immigrants with characteristics such as a higher residential altitude, more advanced age, longer highland service years, being a smoker, and working in engineering or construction were more likely to develop CMS and to increase the disease burden. Higher blood pressure and heart rate as a result of CMS were also positively associated with the disease burden. The authorities should pay attention to the highland disease burden and support the development and application of DALYs studies of CMS and other highland diseases. PMID:22672510

  1. Ventilation, autonomic function, sleep and erythropoietin. Chronic mountain sickness of Andean natives.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Luciano; Roach, Robert C; Keyl, Cornelius; Spicuzza, Lucia; Passino, Claudio; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge; Malcovati, Luca; Schneider, Annette; Casiraghi, Nadia; Mori, Antonio; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-01-01

    Polycythemia is one of the key factors involved in the chronic mountain sickness syndrome, a condition frequent in Andean natives but whose causes still remain unclear. In theory, polycythemia may be secondary to abnormalities in ventilation, occurring during day or night (e.g. due to sleep abnormalities) stimulating excessive erythropoietin (Epo) production, or else it may result from either autogenous production, or from co-factors like cobalt. To assess the importance of these points, we studied subjects with or without polycythemia, born and living in Cerro de Pasco (Peru, 4330m asl, CP) and evaluated the relationship between Epo and respiratory variables both in CP and sea level. We also assessed the relationship between sleep abnormalities and the circadian rhythm of Epo. Polycythemic subjects showed higher Epo in all conditions, lower SaO2 and hypoxic ventilatory response, higher physiological dead space and higher CO2, suggesting ventilatory inefficiency. Epo levels could be highly modified by the level of oxygenation, and were related to similar directional changes in SaO2. Cobalt levels were normal in all subjects and correlated poorly with hematologic variables. The diurnal variations in Epo were grossly abnormal in polycythemic subjects, with complete loss of the circadian rhythm. These abnormalities correlated with the levels of hypoxemia during the night, but not with sleep abnormalities, which were only minor even in polycythemic subjects. The increased Epo production is mainly related to a greater ventilatory inefficiency, and not to altered sensitivity to hypoxia, cobalt or sleep abnormalities. Improving oxygenation can represent a possible therapeutic option for this syndrome.

  2. Abnormal energy regulation in early life: childhood gene expression may predict subsequent chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Xing, Guoqiang; Qualls, Clifford; Rivera-Ch, María; Gamboa, Jorge L; Verma, Ajay; Appenzeller, Otto

    2008-01-01

    Background Life at altitude depends on adaptation to ambient hypoxia. In the Andes, susceptibility to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a clinical condition that occurs to native highlanders or to sea level natives with prolonged residence at high altitude, remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia-associated gene expression in children of men with CMS might identify markers that predict the development of CMS in adults. We assessed distinct patterns of gene expression of hypoxia-responsive genes in children of highland Andean men, with and without CMS. Methods We compared molecular signatures in children of highland (HA) men with CMS (n = 10), without CMS (n = 10) and in sea level (SL) children (n = 20). Haemoglobin, haematocrit, and oxygen saturation were measured. Gene expression in white cells was assessed at HA and then, in the same subjects, within one hour of arrival at sea level. Results HA children showed higher expression levels of genes regulated by HIF (hypoxia inducible factor) and lower levels of those involved in glycolysis and in the tricarboxilic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1) and HIF prolyl hydroxylase 3 (HPH3) mRNA expressions were lowest in children of CMS fathers at altitude. At sea level the pattern of gene expression in the 3 children's groups was indistinguishable. Conclusion The molecular signatures of children of CMS patients show impaired adaptation to hypoxia. At altitude children of CMS fathers had defective coupling between glycolysis and mitochondria TCA cycle, which may be a key mechanism/biomarker for adult CMS. Early biologic markers of disease susceptibility in Andeans might impact health services and social planning. PMID:18954447

  3. Neurological manifestations in chronic mountain sickness: the burning feet-burning hands syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P; King, R; Feng, S; Muddle, J; Workman, J; Gamboa, J; Tapia, R; Vargas, M; Appenzeller, O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise the clinical features and nerve biopsy findings in patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) living in the Peruvian Andes, with particular attention to the occurrence of the "burning feet-burning hands" syndrome.
METHODS—Symptoms and signs were documented clinically in 10 patients with CMS and compared with those in five healthy subjects all living at 4338 metres altitude. Sural nerve biopsies were obtained from three patients with CMS.The nerve fibre population and endoneurial microvessels were analyzed morphometrically.
RESULTS—All patients with CMS experienced burning and tingling paraesthesiae in the distal parts of their limbs. Similar but milder symptoms confined to the feet occurred in four of five controls. Three patients with CMS had a mild sensory neuropathy on examination, controls were clinically normal. Nerve biopsies showed a mild demyelinating neuropathy in all three with a reduction in the unmyelinated axon population in one. The endoneurial blood vessels showed a reduced thickness in the basal laminal zone compared with control values but were otherwise normal.
CONCLUSIONS—Apart from well recognised symptoms and signs of CMS, the study has shown that such patients may also exhibit a mild sensory neuropathy. Its relation to the burning feet-burning hands syndrome, which was not confined to the patients but was also found in controls at altitude, is uncertain. The time course and pattern of the centrifugal resolution of the burning paraesthesiae complex on low altitude sojourn of high altitude natives raises the possibility that a mechanism involving altered axonal transport may be involved. The reduced thickness of the basal laminal zone of microvessels implies that adaptive structural changes to hypobaric hypoxia may also occur in peripheral nerve and are similar to those reported in other tissues of high altitude natives.

 PMID:10990502

  4. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16-21 g/dl and the second with Hb >or=21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 +/- 55.91 microg/dl vs. 328.14 +/- 53.23 ng/dl, means +/- SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.65 +/- 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 +/- 14.60 microg/dl vs. 148.95 +/- 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  5. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia. PMID:27125843

  6. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  7. Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Inderjeet Singh; Panwar, Nidhi Singh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA). It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males) in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213). Mean SpO2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = −0.929, P < 0.001). In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors associated with CMS. PMID

  8. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16–21 g/dl and the second with Hb ≥21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 ± 55.91 μg/dl vs. 328.14 ± 53.23 ng/dl, means ± SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 ± 1.1 vs. 3.65 ± 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 ± 14.60 μg/dl vs. 148.95 ± 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19318512

  9. Chronic mountain sickness score was related with health status score but not with hemoglobin levels at high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or lack of adaptation to live in high altitudes is related to environmental hypoxia and excessive erythrocytosis (EE) (Hemoglobin>21 and >19g/dl for men and women, respectively). Diagnosis of CMS (“Qinghai CMS Score”) is based on seven signs/symptoms (breathlessness and/or palpitations, sleep disturbance, cyanosis, dilatation of veins, paresthesia, headache, tinnitus) and the score for EE. The present study was designed to determine the association between hemoglobin, Qinghai CMS score, CMS clinical score (7 signs/symptoms) and Health Status using a health survey composed of 20 items. The rate of CMS (32.6%) was higher than the rate of EE (9.7%; P<0.002). A significant inverse relationship was observed between CMS clinical score and health status score (r=−0.56 for men, and r=−0.55 for women, P<0.01). However, CMS clinical score was not different in groups with different Hb levels. Health status score was significantly higher in subjects without CMS. In conclusion, elevated hemoglobin levels were not associated with elevated CMS clinical score. PMID:23770310

  10. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders.

  11. Left ventricular adaptation to high altitude: speckle tracking echocardiography in lowlanders, healthy highlanders and highlanders with chronic mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Dedobbeleer, Chantal; Hadefi, Alia; Pichon, Aurelien; Villafuerte, Francisco; Naeije, Robert; Unger, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic exposure depresses myocardial contractility in vitro, but has been associated with indices of increased cardiac performance in intact animals and in humans, possibly related to sympathetic nervous system activation. We explored left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography and sympathetic tone by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in recently acclimatized lowlanders versus adapted or maladapted highlanders at high altitude. Twenty-six recently acclimatized lowlanders, 14 healthy highlanders and 12 highlanders with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were studied. Control measurements at sea level were also obtained in the lowlanders. Altitude exposure in the lowlanders was associated with slightly increased blood pressure, decreased LV volumes and decreased longitudinal strain with a trend to increased prevalence of post-systolic shortening (p = 0.06), whereas the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio increased (1.62 ± 0.81 vs. 5.08 ± 4.13, p < 0.05) indicating sympathetic activation. Highlanders had a similarly raised LF/HF ratio, but no alteration in LV deformation. Highlanders with CMS had no change in LV deformation, no significant increase in LF/HF, but decreased global HRV still suggestive of increased sympathetic tone, and lower mitral E/A ratio compared to healthy highlanders. Short-term altitude exposure in lowlanders alters indices of LV systolic function and increases sympathetic nervous system tone. Life-long altitude exposure in highlanders is associated with similar sympathetic hyperactivity, but preserved parameters of LV function, whereas diastolic function may be altered in those with CMS. Altered LV systolic function in recently acclimatized lowlanders may be explained by combined effects of hypoxia and changes in loading conditions.

  12. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  13. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  14. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  15. Migraine headache confounding the diagnosis of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Karle, Francis J; Auerbach, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    A 36-year-old man with a history of migraine headache attempted to hike from Lukla, Nepal, to Mount Everest Base Camp. On the sixth day of hiking, he had a migraine headache. After achieving resolution with typical therapies and rest, he ascended higher. Another headache developed that was interpreted to be a migraine. The headache was treated, and he ascended higher, after which severe symptoms of acute mountain sickness developed, necessitating his evacuation by helicopter. Persons with headaches in daily life may present challenges to diagnosis when traveling to high altitude. Careful evaluation and decision making are needed to achieve proper diagnosis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. PMID:24462763

  16. Current prevention and management of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed Central

    Bia, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness was known to the Chinese in ancient times, as they traversed mountain passes between the Great Headache and Little Headache mountains into present-day Afghanistan. The Jesuit priest, Father Joseph Acosta, lived in Peru during the sixteenth century; he described both this syndrome and deaths which occurred in the high Andes. The incidence of high-altitude illness will rise as previously remote sites become more accessible to trekkers and skiers. Prevention and treatment are important concerns for those physicians who wish to advise their more adventuresome patients properly. This article incorporates a selected review of pertinent investigations, in the English-language literature over the past five years, into material previously presented at travel symposia for clinicians managing the prophylaxis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. PMID:1290275

  17. [Acute mountain sickness : How can it be treated and how can it be avoided?].

    PubMed

    Fischer, R

    2014-03-01

    Due to the decreasing partial pressure of oxygen, high altitude sickness can occur at heights over 2,500 m. This can be best avoided by slow adaptation to the altitude (acclimatization). In this way the organism adapts to the chronic hyperventilation and in the further process the oxygen content is normalized by an increase in erythrocytes. The commonest form of high altitude sickness is acute mountain sickness which is characterized by the leading symptom of headache. When additional signs of ataxia occur there is an acute danger of edema which is associated with a high mortality. Stress dyspnea, coughing and rasping breathing noises also occur by the potentially fatal high altitude pulmonary edema. All forms of high altitude sickness can be countered by a rapid descent to a height of at least 500 m. In acute mountain sickness acetazolamide can be administered (2 × 250 mg), for high altitude cerebral edema dexamethasone (3 × 4-8 mg) and for high altitude pulmonary edema nifedipine (initially 10 mg then 20 mg retard).

  18. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness in the Eastern Alps.

    PubMed

    Mairer, Klemens; Wille, Maria; Bucher, Thomas; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in the Eastern Alps compared with the Western Alps. Because of differences regarding the populations of mountaineers, we hypothesized that the prevalence differs between the Eastern and Western Alps. Thus, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of AMS at four different altitudes in the Eastern Alps of Austria. Four hundred and thirty-one recreational hikers were studied using questionnaires on the morning of their first night at high altitude. A diagnosis of AMS was based on a Lake Louise Score > or =4, the presence of headache, and at least one additional symptom. Overall 16.2% of the subjects met the criteria for AMS, and the prevalence of AMS increased significantly with altitude (2200 m: 6.9%; 2500 m: 9.1%; 2800 m: 17.4%; 3500 m: 38.0%). Heavy perceived exertion, a history of migraine, the absolute altitude reached, little mountaineering experience, and inadequate water intake (< or =2 L) were independent AMS risk factors. The reported altitude-related AMS prevalence in the Western Alps is 4% to 8% lower compared with that found in this study for the Eastern Alps. In conclusion, the prevalence of AMS is higher in the tourist population of the Eastern Alps compared to the more experienced mountaineers of the Western Alps. Consideration of easily modifiable risk factors such as individual exertion and water intake could markedly reduce AMS and contribute to the enjoyment of mountaineering. PMID:19775213

  19. Intermittent altitude exposures reduce acute mountain sickness at 4300 m.

    PubMed

    Beidleman, Beth A; Muza, Stephen R; Fulco, Charles S; Cymerman, Allen; Ditzler, Dan; Stulz, Dean; Staab, Janet E; Skrinar, Gary S; Lewis, Steven F; Sawka, Michael N

    2004-03-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) commonly occurs at altitudes exceeding 2000-2500 m and usually resolves after acclimatization induced by a few days of chronic residence at the same altitude. Increased ventilation and diuresis may contribute to the reduction in AMS with altitude acclimatization. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of intermittent altitude exposures (IAE), in combination with rest and exercise training, on the incidence and severity of AMS, resting ventilation and 24-h urine volume at 4300 m. Six lowlanders (age, 23 +/- 2 years; body weight, 77 +/- 6 kg; values are means +/- S.E.M.) completed an Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) and Lake Louise AMS Scoring System (LLS), a resting end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ( PETCO2) test and a 24-h urine volume collection at sea level (SL) and during a 30 h exposure to 4300 m altitude-equivalent (barometric pressure=446 mmHg) once before (PreIAE) and once after (PostIAE) a 3-week period of IAE (4 h.day(-1), 5 days.week(-1), 4300 m). The previously validated factor score, AMS cerebral score, was calculated from the ESQ and the self-report score was calculated from the LLS at 24 h of altitude exposure to assess the incidence and severity of AMS. During each IAE, three subjects cycled for 45-60 min.day(-1) at 60-70% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and three subjects rested. Cycle training during each IAE did not affect any of the measured variables, so data from all six subjects were combined. The results showed that the incidence of AMS (%), determined from both the ESQ and LLS, increased (P<0.05) from SL (0 +/- 0) to PreIAE (50 +/- 22) at 24 h of altitude exposure and decreased (P<0.05) from PreIAE to PostIAE (0 +/- 0). The severity of AMS (i.e. AMS cerebral symptom and LLS self-report scores) increased (P<0.05) from SL (0.02 +/- 0.02 and 0.17 +/- 0.17 respectively) to PreIAE (0.49 +/- 0.18 and 4.17 +/- 0.94 respectively) at 24 h of altitude exposure, and decreased (P<0.05) from Pre

  20. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Bärtsch, P; Saltin, B

    2008-08-01

    The key elements in acclimatization aim at securing the oxygen supply to tissues and organs of the body with an optimal oxygen tension of the arterial blood. In acute exposure, ventilation and heart rate are elevated with a minimum reduction in stroke volume. In addition, plasma volume is reduced over 24-48 h to improve the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, and is further improved during a prolonged sojourn at altitude through an enhanced erythropoiesis and larger Hb mass, allowing for a partial or full restoration of the blood volume and arterial oxygen content. Most of these adaptations are observed from quite low altitudes [approximately 1000 m above sea level (m a.s.l.)] and become prominent from 2000 m a.s.l. At these higher altitudes additional adaptations occur, one being a reduction in the maximal heart rate response and consequently a lower peak cardiac output. Thus, in spite of a normalization of the arterial oxygen content after 4 or more weeks at altitude, the peak oxygen uptake reached after a long acclimatization period is essentially unaltered compared with acute exposure. What is gained is a more complete oxygenation of the blood in the lungs, i.e. SaO(2) is increased. The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects at altitudes between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l. Pulmonary edema is rarely seen below 3000 m a.s.l. and brain edema is not seen below 4000 m a.s.l. It is possible to travel to altitudes of 2500-3000 m a.s.l., wait for 2 days, and then gradually start to train. At higher altitudes, one should consider a staged ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of

  1. Survey of acute mountain sickness on Mauna Kea.

    PubMed

    Onopa, Janet; Haley, Amanda; Yeow, Mei Ean

    2007-01-01

    Although thousands of people ascend 4205 m to visit the summit of Mauna Kea each year, there has been no information on the rate of altitude illness triggered by such visits. Two surveys were used: one for tourists driving up to the summit and the other for summit astronomy workers staying at lodging facilities at intermediate altitude. The surveys included the standardized Lake Louise Self-report Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Questionnaire that, when scored, gave the Lake Louise Symptoms Score (LLSS). Thirty percent of surveyed day visitors and 69% of surveyed professional astronomy staff had AMS, defined as a LLSS score of 3 or greater, with headache. Nine participants reported "disorientation/confusion" or greater consciousness changes. A majority of astronomy professionals reported fatigue, disturbed sleep, reduced activity, and mental status changes. Few took any AMS medications. The incidence of AMS in visitors to Mauna Kea's summit warrants increased education and increased availability of supplemental oxygen at the summit. The absence of reported serious altitude illness in the community is probably due to the rapid descent available on Mauna Kea, with prompt reversibility of adverse effects.

  2. Survey of acute mountain sickness on Mauna Kea.

    PubMed

    Onopa, Janet; Haley, Amanda; Yeow, Mei Ean

    2007-01-01

    Although thousands of people ascend 4205 m to visit the summit of Mauna Kea each year, there has been no information on the rate of altitude illness triggered by such visits. Two surveys were used: one for tourists driving up to the summit and the other for summit astronomy workers staying at lodging facilities at intermediate altitude. The surveys included the standardized Lake Louise Self-report Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Questionnaire that, when scored, gave the Lake Louise Symptoms Score (LLSS). Thirty percent of surveyed day visitors and 69% of surveyed professional astronomy staff had AMS, defined as a LLSS score of 3 or greater, with headache. Nine participants reported "disorientation/confusion" or greater consciousness changes. A majority of astronomy professionals reported fatigue, disturbed sleep, reduced activity, and mental status changes. Few took any AMS medications. The incidence of AMS in visitors to Mauna Kea's summit warrants increased education and increased availability of supplemental oxygen at the summit. The absence of reported serious altitude illness in the community is probably due to the rapid descent available on Mauna Kea, with prompt reversibility of adverse effects. PMID:17824820

  3. Pharmacology of acute mountain sickness: old drugs and newer thinking.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Erik R

    2016-01-15

    Pharmacotherapy in acute mountain sickness (AMS) for the past half century has largely rested on the use of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, and corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone. The benefits of CA inhibitors are thought to arise from their known ventilatory stimulation and resultant greater arterial oxygenation from inhibition of renal CA and generation of a mild metabolic acidosis. The benefits of corticosteroids include their broad-based anti-inflammatory and anti-edemagenic effects. What has emerged from more recent work is the strong likelihood that drugs in both classes act on other pathways and signaling beyond their classical actions to prevent and treat AMS. For the CA inhibitors, these include reduction in aquaporin-mediated transmembrane water transport, anti-oxidant actions, vasodilation, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the case of corticosteroids, these include protection against increases in vascular endothelial and blood-brain barrier permeability, suppression of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species production, and sympatholysis. The loci of action of both classes of drug include the brain, but may also involve the lung as revealed by benefits that arise with selective administration to the lungs by inhalation. Greater understanding of their pluripotent actions and sites of action in AMS may help guide development of better drugs with more selective action and fewer side effects. PMID:26294748

  4. Epidemiology of acute mountain sickness on Jade Mountain, Taiwan: an annual prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Kao, Wei-Fong; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Hsu, Tai-Yi; Chen, Hang-Cheng; Liu, Shih-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a pathophysiological symptom complex that occurs in high altitude areas. The AMS prevalence is reportedly 28% on Jade Mountain, the highest mountain (3952 m) in Taiwan. We conducted this study owing to the lack of annual epidemiological data on AMS in Taiwan. Between April 2007 and March 2008, 1066 questionnaires were completed by trekkers visiting Paiyun Lodge on Jade Mountain. Information in the questionnaire included demographic data, mountaineering experience, AMS history, and trekking schedule. Weather data were obtained from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. The Lake Louise AMS score was used to record symptoms and diagnose AMS. The chi-square test or the Student t test was used to evaluate associations between variables and AMS. In our study, the AMS prevalence was 36%. It increased significantly at different rates at different locations on the Jade Mountain trail and varied significantly in different months. Rainy weather tended to slightly increase the incidence of AMS. A lower incidence of AMS was correlated with hig-altitude trekking experience or preexposure (p < 0.05), whereas a higher incidence of AMS was correlated with a prior history of AMS (p < 0.05). The trekkers with AMS were significantly younger, ascended faster from their residence to the entrance or to Paiyun Lodge, and ascended slower from the entrance to the Paiyun Lodge (p < 0.05), but the differences lacked clinical significance. No differences in the incidence of AMS based on blood type, gender, or obesity were observed. The most common symptom among all trekkers was headache, followed by difficulty sleeping, fatigue or weakness, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and dizziness or lightheadedness. In conclusion, the AMS prevalence on Jade Mountain was 36%, varied by month, and correlated with trekking experience, preexposure, and a prior history of AMS. The overall presentation of AMS was similar to that on other major world mountains.

  5. Acute mountain sickness: medical problems associated with acute and subacute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, C

    2006-01-01

    This article summarises the medical problems of travel to altitudes above 3000 m. These are caused by chronic hypoxia. Acute mountain sickness (AMS), a self limiting common illness is almost part of normal acclimatisation—a transient condition lasting for several days. However, in <2% of people staying above 4000 m, serious illnesses related to hypoxia develop – high altitude pulmonary oedema and cerebral oedema. These are potentially fatal but can be largely avoided by gradual ascent. Short vacations, pressure from travel companies and peer groups often encourage ascent to 4000 m more rapidly than is prudent. Sensible guidelines for ascent are outlined, clinical features, management and treatment of these conditions. PMID:17099095

  6. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  7. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  8. The first documented report of mountain sickness: the China or Headache Mountain story.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D L

    1983-06-01

    This article gives the probable location within 65 km of the Big Headache Mountain where mountain sickness was first reported by Too Kin, a Chinese official, in 37-32 B.C. We believe that traveling over the western edge of the Himalayan Karakoram Range or in the Pamirs caused the major difficulties, probably when travelers crossed the Kilik Pass at an altitude of 4827 m or 15837 ft or within 60 km of this pass and at an altitude of at least 4500 m or 14750 ft. We theorize that the route Too Kin described is from Kashi, an important center in Sinkiang or Chinese Turkestan, to Kabul in Afghanistan. This particular route has two other altitude maxima; one at the Ulagh Rabat Pass in Sinkiang about 15 km west of the Muztagata peak where the elevation is 4250 m or 14000 ft, and the other at the Shandur Pass over the Hindu Kush in Pakistan where the elevation is 3734 m or 12250 ft. PMID:6351209

  9. Strategies for the prevention of acute mountain sickness and treatment for large groups making a rapid ascent in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-10-30

    Approximately 26.8% of China's land area has an elevation of 3000 m above sea level or higher. Because of recent demands for economic development and new construction in highland areas, many people have relocated from the plains to high plateau regions and have to face the possibility of contracting acute mountain sickness. Therefore, prevention and treatment strategies are necessary to reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness in people who rapidly ascend to plateau areas. This paper describes the Chinese experience when large numbers of people moved to the plateau and the steps that were taken to deal with this illness. These steps included implementing basic prevention measures, increasing medical awareness among populations ascending to high altitudes, and installing standardized medical management systems to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness before, during, and after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness can be reduced by improving prevention and treatment and by implementing the recommendations described in this manuscript.

  10. Rhodiola crenulata extract for prevention of acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is widely used to prevent acute mountain sickness in the Himalayan areas and in Tibet, but no scientific studies have previously examined its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate its efficacy in acute mountain sickness prevention. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to 2 treatment sequences, receiving either 800 mg R. crenulata extract or placebo daily for 7 days before ascent and 2 days during mountaineering, before crossing over to the alternate treatment after a 3-month wash-out period. Participants ascended rapidly from 250 m to 3421 m on two separate occasions: December 2010 and April 2011. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of acute mountain sickness, as defined by a Lake Louise score ≥ 3, with headache and at least one of the symptoms of nausea or vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, or difficulty sleeping. Results One hundred and two participants completed the trial. There were no demographic differences between individuals taking Rhodiola-placebo and those taking placebo-Rhodiola. No significant differences in the incidence of acute mountain sickness were found between R. crenulata extract and placebo groups (all 60.8%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–1.52). The incidence of severe acute mountain sickness in Rhodiola extract vs. placebo groups was 35.3% vs. 29.4% (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.90–2.25). Conclusions R. crenulata extract was not effective in reducing the incidence or severity of acute mountain sickness as compared to placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01536288. PMID:24176010

  11. The prevalence of and risk factors for acute mountain sickness in the Eastern and Western Alps.

    PubMed

    Mairer, Klemens; Wille, Maria; Burtscher, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is the most common condition of high altitude illnesses. Its prevalence varies between 15% and 80% depending on the speed of ascent, absolute altitude reached, and individual susceptibility. Additionally, we assumed that the more experienced mountaineers of the Western Alps are less susceptible to developing AMS than recreational mountaineers of the Eastern Alps or tourist populations. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were the collection of data regarding the AMS prevalence and triggers in both the Eastern and Western Alps using identical methods. A total of 162 mountaineers, 79 in the Eastern Alps (3454 m) and 83 in the Western Alps (3817 m) were studied on the morning after their first night at high altitude. A diagnosis of AMS was based on a Lake Louise Score (LLS) ≥4, the presence of headache, and at least one additional symptom. Thirty of 79 subjects (38.0%) suffered from AMS at 3454 m in the Eastern Alps as did 29 of 83 (34.9%) at 3817 m in the Western Alps. After adjustment for altitude, the prevalence in the Western Alps constituted 24.5%, which differed significantly (p = 0.04) from that found in the Eastern Alps. The lower mountaineering experience of mountaineers in the Eastern Alps turned out to be the only factor for explaining their higher AMS prevalence. Thus, expert advice by mountain guides or experienced colleagues could help to reduce the AMS risk in these subjects.

  12. Inflammatory fatigue and sickness behaviour - lessons for the diagnosis and management of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arnett, S V; Clark, I A

    2012-12-10

    Persistent and severe fatigue is a common part of the presentation of a diverse range of disease processes. There is a growing body of evidence indicating a common inflammatory pathophysiology underlying many conditions where fatigue is a primary patient concern, including chronic fatigue syndrome. This review explores current models of how inflammatory mediators act on the central nervous system to produce fatigue and sickness behaviour, and the commonality of these processes in conditions as diverse as surgical trauma, infection, various cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, connective tissue diseases and autoimmune diseases. We also discuss evidence indicating chronic fatigue syndrome may have important pathophysiological similarities with cytokine mediated sickness behaviour, and what lessons can be applied from sickness behaviour to chronic fatigue syndrome with regards to the diagnosis and management.

  13. [Sperm count and seminal biochemistry of high altitude inhabitants and patients with chronic altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    García-Hjarles, M A

    1989-04-01

    Semen analysis has been studied in 9 healthy adult males from sea level (150 m), age 19-32 years old and 15 healthy males from high altitude (NA), 9 from Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m) and 6 from Morococha (4,540 m), ages 19-45 years old. Five patients with chronic mountain sickness (MMC), whose ages ranged from 23 to 52 years old were also studied. The volume and motility were similar in NA and MMC, however both were below than in sea level subjects, but still in the normal range; the number of spermatozoa per 1 ml was lower at sea level than in NA and MMC, although the total number was higher at sea level due to the higher semen volume. Fructose at sea level was 356 +/- 53 mg/100 ml (mean +/- S.E.) which is similar to NA 237 +/- 45 whereas a MMC was significantly lower, 142 +/- 60. Citric acid was lower at sea level than in NA and MMC. Na, K and Cl, were similar among the three groups. The lower concentration of fructose in MMC parallels the decreased testicular function already found in these groups. However it is worthy to point out that the fertility is preserved in all the groups. The normal reproductive function in MMC is against the concept that this process occurs as a consequence of environmental disadaptation.

  14. Conscientiousness and work performance while suffering from acute mountain sickness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gloria R

    2002-04-01

    A 52-yr-old male scientist who participated in a geophysical survey in Antarctica from a field camp located at 3538 m (11,600 ft) experienced specific symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by Mission Day 9, and full syndrome AMS by Mission Day 12. He was treated at the field camp and evacuated to sea level on the next available flight (Mission Day 15). The concerns of this highly conscientious individual that initial signs of illness, such as fatigue with exertion, could be misinterpreted by others as poor work performance are described. The report focuses on individual personality and group processes that could lead to nondisclosure of symptoms, and the need, particularly in long-duration missions in which evacuation is difficult or impossible, to sensitize personnel to the importance of recognizing and reporting potential health problems.

  15. Mountain sickness, retinal haemorrhages, and acclimatisation on Mount Everest in 1975.

    PubMed

    Clarke, C; Duff, J

    1976-08-28

    During the 1975 British Everest Expedition, which made the first ascent of the south-west face, observations were made in relation to mountain sickness and the appearance of retinal changes. Two Sherpas with cerebral oedema and one Briton with pulmonary oedema were treated. Retinal haemorrhages occurred in four out of six Britons who were newcomers to altitudes over 6000 m (19 685 ft) but in only two out of 14 Britons who had previously visited these altitudes. Intraocular pressures during ascent to 6000 m were within normal limits. The relevance of the ocular findings to acclimatisation in previous years was examined, the results supporting the hypothesis of a "carry-over" effect from previous visits to high altitude.

  16. [Health belief model and sick role behavior of Korean chronically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Gu, M O; Lee, E O

    1990-08-30

    This article reviewed & analyzed 33 studies of the Health Belief Model applied to korean chronic ill patients which were published from 1975 to 1990. The findings of analysis are as follows. The subjects of researchs are patients with various chronic illness including Pulmonary Tb., DM., Hemodialysis & Kidney Transplantation, Hypertension, etc. The type of research is retrospective survey in all studies. The measurement of health belief in all studies & sick role behavior in most studies have relied on self report. The analysis of the relationship between health belief and sick role behavior was done using correlation coefficient in most studies. To analyze empirical support for the relationship between health belief and sick role behavior, Significance ratio was computed. This ratio is value wherein the number of statistically significant findings with relationship in the expected direction for an HBM dimension are divided by total number of studies which reported significance levels for that dimension. Examination of this ratio across the 33 studies reveals susceptibility (30.3%), severity (34.4%), benefit (65.6%), barrier (50%). The following suggestions are based on the above findings and literature review. 1. It is necessary to develop the reliable, valid and standardized instrument for measurement of health beliefs. 2. In the further measurement of perceived susceptibility of the chronic ill patients. It is considering that the perceived susceptibility and perceived severity are measured together or the measurement of perceived susceptibility is eliminated. 3. Relationship between perceived severity and sick role behavior is suggested to be analized using ANOVA, chi 2 square instead of correlation coefficient. 4. Sick role behaviors should be measured by both self report and objective measurement. 5. Prospective, longitudinal survey should be needed. 6. Other factors influencing sick role behaviors of chronic ill patients should be investigated further.

  17. Diabetic ketoacidosis and acute mountain sickness: case report and review of treatment options in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven C M

    2015-06-01

    A 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus and no microvascular complications traveled from near sea level to an altitude of 3000 m within 6 hours. At altitude, his blood glucose levels began to rise, necessitating increased insulin delivery. Typical symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) developed, and he became increasingly hyperglycemic and unwell. Upon presentation to an emergency clinic, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was diagnosed and was managed with insulin, intravenous fluids with potassium, and acetazolamide orally. No other potential causes for diabetic ketoacidosis were identified. Hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis resolved with treatment as expected, but an increased insulin requirement was noted for the next 48 hours, until returning to expected levels when acetazolamide was discontinued. This case describes an episode of mild diabetic ketoacidosis potentially precipitated by moderate to severe acute mountain sickness, and an apparent hyperglycemic effect of acetazolamide. Individuals with type 1 diabetes traveling to altitude and their physicians should be vigilant for this complication and should be aware of the effects of conventional first-line therapies for acute mountain sickness on insulin requirement, glycemic control, and preexisting microvascular diabetes complications.

  18. Reversible Brain Abnormalities in People Without Signs of Mountain Sickness During High-Altitude Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cunxiu; Zhao, Yuhua; Yu, Qian; Yin, Wu; Liu, Haipeng; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming; Gesang, Luobu; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested. After 30-day HA exposure, the gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface areas significantly increased, with cortical thicknesses and curvatures changed in a wide spread regions; Anisotropy decreased with diffusivities increased in multiple sites of white matter tracts. Two months after HA exposure, cortical measurements returned to basal level. However, increased anisotropy with decreased diffusivities was observed. Behaviors and serum inflammatory factor did not significant changed during three time-point tests. NSE significantly decreased during HA but increased after HA exposure. Results suggest brain swelling occurred in people without neurological signs at HA, but no negative sequelae in cortical structures and neuropsychiatric functions were left after the return to lowlands. Reoxygenation changed white matter microstructure. PMID:27633944

  19. Are the laboratory and field conditions observations of acute mountain sickness related?

    PubMed

    Savourey, G; Guinet, A; Besnard, Y; Garcia, N; Hanniquet, A; Bittel, J

    1997-10-01

    In order to study relationships between acute mountain sickness (AMS) observations done both during a short-term hypoxic exposure in a hypobaric chamber, and in field conditions during a high altitude expedition, nine subjects were submitted to a 9-h hypoxic exposure in a hypobaric chamber. Then, they experienced a high altitude expedition in the Himalayas. The Lake Louise AMS scoring system was used to assess AMS in both conditions, especially the self report questionnaire. During the expedition, the mean self report score of each subject, defined as the ratio between the sum of daily self report scores and the duration of the expedition, appears to be correlated not only to the maximal self report score observed in altitude (r = +0.77, p < 0.05) but also to the self report and self report+clinical assessment scores observed at the end of the hypobaric chamber sojourn (r = +0.81, p < 0.01 and r = +0.75, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the Lake Louise AMS scoring system, especially the self report questionnaire, is relevant to assess AMS with simplicity and rapidity both in laboratory and in field conditions. Our study also suggests that AMS induced by a short term sojourn in a hypobaric chamber is related to AMS observed in field conditions.

  20. Reversible Brain Abnormalities in People Without Signs of Mountain Sickness During High-Altitude Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cunxiu; Zhao, Yuhua; Yu, Qian; Yin, Wu; Liu, Haipeng; Lin, Jianzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Fan, Ming; Gesang, Luobu; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested. After 30-day HA exposure, the gray and white matter volumes and cortical surface areas significantly increased, with cortical thicknesses and curvatures changed in a wide spread regions; Anisotropy decreased with diffusivities increased in multiple sites of white matter tracts. Two months after HA exposure, cortical measurements returned to basal level. However, increased anisotropy with decreased diffusivities was observed. Behaviors and serum inflammatory factor did not significant changed during three time-point tests. NSE significantly decreased during HA but increased after HA exposure. Results suggest brain swelling occurred in people without neurological signs at HA, but no negative sequelae in cortical structures and neuropsychiatric functions were left after the return to lowlands. Reoxygenation changed white matter microstructure. PMID:27633944

  1. Anuric Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Acute Mountain Sickness Prophylaxis With Acetazolamide

    PubMed Central

    Castle Alvarez-Maza, James; Novak, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Acetazolamide (ACZ) is a sulfonamide derivative that inhibits carbonic anhydrase and is the mainstay for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Acute kidney injury (AKI) is not well recognized as a complication of ACZ ingestion, especially when low doses are used for short periods of time. We report a case of a healthy, middle-aged man who developed severe AKI after the ingestion of ACZ for AMS prophylaxis. The patient presented with bilateral flank pain and anuric AKI without radiographic signs of obstructive uropathy. All blood and urine testing to determine the cause of AKI were negative or normal. The patient required 2 sessions of hemodialysis due to worsening metabolic derangements, which included severe anion gap metabolic acidosis and hyperphosphatemia. Renal function returned to baseline after 96 hours of supportive care. The pathogenesis of AKI in our patient was attributed to ACZ-induced sulfonamide crystalluria causing intratubular obstruction and retrograde urine flow, but not intraureteric precipitation or obstructive uropathy. This classic presentation of anuric AKI and renal colic has been previously described with higher doses of ACZ for prolonged periods of time but never with low doses for AMS prophylaxis such as in our patient (total dose of 1250 mg within 48 hours). Our case highlights the risk of adverse renal outcomes following ACZ ingestion, even in previously healthy individuals, and suggests that increased fluid intake may be advisable for travelers taking ACZ prophylaxis. PMID:25264540

  2. Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma From Patients With Acute Mountain Sickness Using Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guoyan; Yin, Changlin; Tian, Zhu; Wang, Tinggang; Sun, Wei; Xiang, Qiang; Guo, Guoning

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although acute mountain sickness (AMS) has long been recognized, little is known about this condition to date. The current study was conducted to explore changes in the metabolomic profiles of AMS patients and to further assess the potential of using these changes for the diagnosis of AMS. Plasma samples from 12 patients with AMS and 12 individuals without AMS were collected and used for further bioinformatics analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The following analytical methods were used: gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data preprocessing, principal components analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, model validation, orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and the screening and identification of differences in metabolites. The results revealed a significant difference between the subjects with AMS and those in the control group. Compared with plasma from the controls, plasma from the AMS patients contained significantly increased hypoxanthine, cysteinylglycine, D-arabitol, L-allothreonine, 2-ketobutyric acid, and succinate semialdehyde. The identification of metabolomic changes may be useful for the diagnosis of AMS in the future and may lay the foundation for further study of AMS pathogenesis. PMID:26559284

  3. In search for better pharmacological prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness: looking in other directions.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Wang, R; Xiong, J; Xie, H; Kayser, B; Jia, Z P

    2015-05-01

    Despite decades of research, the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying acute mountain sickness (AMS) are still poorly understood. This fact frustrates the search for novel pharmacological prophylaxis for AMS. The prevailing view is that AMS results from an insufficient physiological response to hypoxia and that prophylaxis should aim at stimulating the response. Starting off from the opposite hypothesis that AMS may be caused by an initial excessive response to hypoxia, we suggest that directly or indirectly blunting-specific parts of the response might provide promising research alternatives. This reasoning is based on the observations that (i) humans, once acclimatized, can climb Mt Everest experiencing arterial partial oxygen pressures (PaO2) as low as 25 mmHg without AMS symptoms; (ii) paradoxically, AMS usually develops at much higher PaO2 levels; and (iii) several biomarkers, suggesting initial activation of specific pathways at such PaO2, are correlated with AMS. Apart from looking for substances that stimulate certain hypoxia triggered effects, such as the ventilatory response to hypoxia, we suggest to also investigate pharmacological means aiming at blunting certain other specific hypoxia-activated pathways, or stimulating their agonists, in the quest for better pharmacological prophylaxis for AMS. PMID:25778288

  4. The lung at high altitude: bronchoalveolar lavage in acute mountain sickness and pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Schoene, R B; Swenson, E R; Pizzo, C J; Hackett, P H; Roach, R C; Mills, W J; Henderson, W R; Martin, T R

    1988-06-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a severe form of altitude illness that can occur in young healthy individuals, is a noncardiogenic form of edema that is associated with high concentrations of proteins and cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (Schoene et al., J. Am. Med. Assoc. 256: 63-69, 1986). We hypothesized that acute mountain sickness (AMS) in which gas exchange is impaired to a milder degree is a precursor to HAPE. We therefore performed BAL with 0.89% NaCl by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in eight subjects at 4,400 m (barometric pressure = 440 Torr) on Mt. McKinley to evaluate the cellular and biochemical responses of the lung at high altitude. The subjects included one healthy control (arterial O2 saturation = 83%), three climbers with HAPE (mean arterial O2 saturation = 55.0 +/- 5.0%), and four with AMS (arterial O2 saturation = 70.0 +/- 2.4%). Cell counts and differentials were done immediately on the BAL fluid, and the remainder was frozen for protein and biochemical analysis to be performed later. The results of this and of the earlier study mentioned above showed that the total leukocyte count (X10(5)/ml) in BAL fluid was 3.5 +/- 2.0 for HAPE, 0.9 +/- 4.0 for AMS, and 0.7 +/- 0.6 for controls, with predominantly alveolar macrophages in HAPE. The total protein concentration (mg/dl) was 616.0 +/- 3.3 for HAPE, 10.4 +/- 8.3 for AMS, and 12.0 +/- 3.4 for controls, with both large- (immunoglobulin M) and small- (albumin) molecular-weight proteins present in HAPE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3403445

  5. Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation during Sleep at 3800m: relationship to Acute Mountain Sickness and sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, PL; Popa, DA; Prisk, GK; Sullivan, CE; Edwards, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop Acute Mountain Sickness, which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake, results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhemoglobin saturation. We aimed to test whether pressure ventilation during sleep would prevent AMS by keeping oxyhaemoglobin higher during sleep. Methods We compared sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness was assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. Results We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation. PMID:20051046

  6. Chronic Physical Stress Does Not Interact with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-Encoded Dutpase to Alter the Sickness Response

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Zachary M.; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Ariza, Maria Eugenia; Williams, Marshall; Reader, Brenda; Glaser, Ronald; Sheridan, John; Nelson, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    Most adult humans have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is thought to contribute to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome. Stress is known to influence the immune system and can exacerbate the sickness response. Although a role for psychological stress in the sickness response, particularly in combination with EBV-encoded deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) has been established, and the role of physical stressors in these interactions remains unspecified. In this study, we seek to determine the interaction of chronic physical (swim) stress and EBV-encoded dUTPase injection. We hypothesize that a chronic physical stressor will exacerbate the sickness response following EBV-encoded dUTPase injection. To test this hypothesis mice receive daily injections of EBV-encoded dUTPase or vehicle and are subjected to 15 min of swim stress each day for 14 days or left unmanipulated. On the final evening of injections mice undergo behavioral testing. EBV-encoded dUTPase injection alone produces some sickness behaviors. The physical swimming stress does not alter the sickness response. PMID:27175311

  7. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection. Methods Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure co-morbid anxiety and depression. Inability to work or study because of fatigue was determined by sickness absence certified by a doctor. Results A total of 58 (60%) out of 96 patients with long-lasting post-infectious fatigue after laboratory confirmed giardiasis were diagnosed with CFS. In all, 1262 patients had laboratory confirmed giardiasis. At the time of referral (mean illness duration 2.7 years) 16% reported improvement, 28% reported no change, and 57% reported progressive course with gradual worsening. Mean FSS score was 6.6. A distinctive pattern of impairment was documented with the SF-36. The physical functioning, vitality (energy/fatigue) and social functioning were especially reduced. Long-term sickness absence from studies and work was noted in all patients. Conclusion After giardiasis enteritis at least 5% developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome. PMID:22316329

  8. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario. PMID:26676323

  9. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-12-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario. PMID:26676323

  10. What to do with chronically sick animals? Pastoralists’ management strategies in the far north region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca B

    2014-01-01

    While the goal of African pastoralists is health and longevity of herd and household, some of their management strategies appear to counter this long-term goal. Pastoralists in the far north region of Cameroon, for example, do not always remove chronically sick animals from their herds, even though chronic diseases, such as brucellosis, are contagious and have the potential to cause fertility problems in the herd. We used ethnographic and epidemiologic methods to understand why pastoralists do not remove chronically sick animals and whether their management strategies have an impact on herd fertility. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data on pastoralists’ understandings of disease and its impacts on fertility as well as data on herd management. We compared these data with disease prevalence and herd fertility data to measure the effect of management strategies on herd fertility. We found that the percentage of chronically sick animals in a herd negatively correlated with herd fertility, but this was not true for the prevalence of brucellosis. Thus, preliminary examination of disease costs and benefits suggests that herders’ decisions to keep sick animals in their herds may lower herd fertility, but this is not due to brucellosis alone. The results of this study underline the complexity of infectious disease ecology in pastoral systems and the need for holistic and comprehensive studies of the ecology of infectious diseases in pastoral systems. PMID:25309717

  11. Metacognitions Are Associated with Subjective Memory Problems in Individuals on Sick Leave due to Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik B.; Aasvik, Julie K.; Borchgrevink, Petter C.; Landrø, Nils I.; Stiles, Tore C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Methods: In this non-controlled study, patients (n = 137) on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4%) was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t-tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions. Results: Results showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post-scores on symptom measures. Conclusion: This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs could prove an

  12. Chronic work stress, sickness absence, and hypertension in middle managers: general or specific sociological explanations?

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Siegrist, J

    1997-10-01

    The issue of differential prediction of health outcomes by sociological models of work stress has received little attention so far. This paper argues, both on theoretical and empirical grounds, that active coping with the experience of chronic work stress is more likely to be associated with physical health consequences of sustained autonomic arousal such as hypertension, whereas passive coping may predispose individuals to withdrawal behavior such as sickness absence from work. Based on data from a cross-sectional study on 189 male middle-aged (40-55, 48.3 +/- 4.6 years) middle managers in a car-producing company in Germany, this hypothesis is tested in the framework of the theoretical model of effort-reward imbalance at work. More specifically, the simultaneous manifestation of high effort and low reward at work, indicative of active coping, is expected to statistically predict the risk of being hypertensive. Conversely, suffering from low occupational rewards in the absence of signs of sustained effort, indicative of passive coping, is expected to predict sickness absence (SA) behavior. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) derived from logistic regression analysis and adjusted for important confounders indicate that three measures of low reward are associated with short-term SA (OR ranging from 3.30 to 9.15), that one measure of low reward is associated with long-term SA (OR: 2.67) and that two measures of low reward are associated with number of SA episodes (OR 4.05 and 6.33), whereas no indicator of high effort at work is significantly associated with SA. On the other hand, the OR of being hypertensive is 5.77 in middle managers who suffer from high effort and low reward simultaneously. In conclusion, a sociological model of work stress which allows for differential prediction of health outcomes according to the important notions of active versus passive coping with work demands finds preliminary empirical support. PMID:9257402

  13. High altitude headache and acute mountain sickness at moderate elevations in a military population during battalion-level training exercises.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacob N; Viirre, Erik; Aralis, Hilary; Sracic, Michael K; Thomas, Darren; Gertsch, Jeffery H

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have evaluated high altitude headache (HAH) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) in military populations training at moderate (1,500-2,500 m) to high altitudes (>2,500 m). In the current study, researchers interviewed active duty personnel training at Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center. Participants were asked about HAH and AMS symptoms, potential risk factors, and medications used. In a sample of 192 U.S. Navy and Marine Corps personnel, 14.6% reported AMS (Lake Louise Criteria > or = 3) and 28.6% reported HAH. Dehydration and recent arrival at altitude (defined as data collected on days 2-3) were significantly associated with AMS; decreased sleep allowance was significantly associated with HAH. Although ibuprofen/Motrin users were more likely to screen positive for AMS, among AMS-positive participants, ibuprofen/Motrin users had decreased likelihood of reporting robust AMS relative to non-ibuprofen/Motrin users (p < 0.01). These results suggest that maintenance of hydration and adequate sleep allowance may be critical performance requirements at altitude. Further, ibuprofen/Motrin may be a reasonable treatment for the symptoms of AMS and HAH, although further study is warranted.

  14. Incidence and predictors of acute mountain sickness among trekkers on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stewart J; Varley, James; Sellers, Claudia; Josephs, Katherine; Codrington, Lucy; Duke, Georgina; Njelekela, Marina A; Drummond, Gordon; Sutherland, Andrew I; Thompson, A A Roger; Baillie, J Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of AMS amongst a general population of trekkers on Mount Kilimanjaro, using the Lake Louise consensus scoring system (LLS). Additionally we examined the effect of prophylactic acetazolamide and different ascent profiles. Climbers on 3 different ascent itineraries were recruited. At 2743 m we recruited 177 participants (mean age 31, range [18-71]) who completed LLS together with an epidemiological questionnaire. At 4730 m participants (n=189, male=108, female=68, mean age 33, range [1871]) completed LLS, 136 of whom had been followed up from 2730 m. At 2743 m, 3% (5/177) of climbers were AMS positive, and 47% (89/189) of climbers from all itineraries were AMS positive at 4730 m. Of climbers attempting the Marangu itineraries, 33% (45/136) were taking acetazolamide. This group had a similar rate of AMS and no statistical difference in severity of LLS when compared with those not taking prophylactic drugs. We also did not demonstrate a difference between the incidence of AMS in climbers who did or did not take a rest day at 3700  m. However, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of AMS amongst pre-acclimatized subjects. Consistent with previous work, we found that the rate of AMS on Mount Kilimanjaro is high. Furthermore, at these fast ascent rates, there was no evidence of a protective effect of acetazolamide or a single rest day. There is a need to increase public awareness of the risks of altitude sickness and we advocate a pragmatic "golden rules" approach (http://www.altitude.org/altitude_sickness.php). PMID:20919888

  15. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Berk, Michael; Maes, Michael

    2013-03-08

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions.

  16. A narrative review on the similarities and dissimilarities between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and sickness behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is of importance whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a variant of sickness behavior. The latter is induced by acute infections/injury being principally mediated through proinflammatory cytokines. Sickness is a beneficial behavioral response that serves to enhance recovery, conserves energy and plays a role in the resolution of inflammation. There are behavioral/symptomatic similarities (for example, fatigue, malaise, hyperalgesia) and dissimilarities (gastrointestinal symptoms, anorexia and weight loss) between sickness and ME/CFS. While sickness is an adaptive response induced by proinflammatory cytokines, ME/CFS is a chronic, disabling disorder, where the pathophysiology is related to activation of immunoinflammatory and oxidative pathways and autoimmune responses. While sickness behavior is a state of energy conservation, which plays a role in combating pathogens, ME/CFS is a chronic disease underpinned by a state of energy depletion. While sickness is an acute response to infection/injury, the trigger factors in ME/CFS are less well defined and encompass acute and chronic infections, as well as inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. It is concluded that sickness behavior and ME/CFS are two different conditions. PMID:23497361

  17. Intravenous iron supplementation may protect against acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Nick P; Smith, Thomas G; Privat, Catherine; Nickol, Annabel H; Rivera-Ch, Maria; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common and disabling condition that occurs in healthy individuals ascending to high altitude. Based on the ability of iron to influence cellular oxygen sensing pathways, we hypothesized that iron supplementation would protect against AMS. To examine this hypothesis, 24 healthy sea-level residents were randomized to receive either intravenous iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or saline placebo, before ascending rapidly to Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4340 m). The Lake Louise scoring system was used to assess incidence and severity of AMS at sea level and on the first full day at altitude. No significant difference in absolute AMS score was detected between the two groups either at baseline or at high altitude. However, the mean increase in AMS score was 65% smaller in the iron group than in the saline group (p<0.05), and the change in AMS score correlated negatively with the change in ferritin (R=-0.43; p<0.05). Hematocrit and arterial oxygen saturation were unaffected by iron. In conclusion, this preliminary randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial suggests that intravenous iron supplementation may protect against the symptoms of AMS in healthy volunteers.

  18. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Drug allergy - serum sickness; Allergic reaction - serum sickness; Allergy - serum sickness ... penicillin, cefaclor, and sulfa) can cause a similar reaction. Injected proteins such as antithymocyte globulin (used to ...

  19. Fatigue, burnout, and chronic fatigue syndrome among employees on sick leave: do attributions make the difference?

    PubMed Central

    Huibers, M; Beurskens, A; Prins, J; Kant, I.; Bazelmans, E; van Schayck, C P; Knottnerus, J; Bleijenberg, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: Persistent fatigue among employees, burnout, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are three fatigue conditions that share some characteristics in theory. However, these conditions have not been compared in empirical research, despite conceptual similarities. Methods: This cross sectional study aimed to investigate relations between persistent fatigue, burnout, and CFS by describing the clinical features of a sample of 151 fatigued employees on sick leave. Using validated instruments, subgroups based on research criteria for CFS and burnout within the sample of fatigued employees and a reference group of 97 diagnosed CFS patients were compared. Analyses of covariance were performed. Results: A total of 66 (43.7%) fatigued employees met research criteria for CFS (except symptom criteria) and 76 (50.3%) met research criteria for burnout. "CFS-like employees" (fatigued employees who met CFS criteria) reported stronger somatic attributions than "non-CFS-like employees". Burnt out CFS-like employees were more depressed and distressed than CFS-like employees who were not burnt out. Burnout cases among the non-CFS-like employees had stronger psychological attributions than fatigued employees who were not burnt out. Compared to diagnosed CFS patients, CFS-like employees merely had a shorter duration of fatigue complaints. Burnt out CFS-like employees had stronger psychological attributions and were more distressed than CFS patients. Conclusions: Fatigued employees shared many important characteristics with CFS patients, regardless of burnout status, and many fatigued employees met CFS criteria and/or burnout criteria. Differences however concerned the causal attributions that were made. This raises questions about the role of causal attributions: are they modified by fatigue complaints or do they determine illness outcome? PMID:12782744

  20. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jeffrey H; Seto, Todd B; Mor, Joanne; Onopa, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that 5 days of prophylactic ginkgo decreases the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during gradual ascent. This trial was designed to determine if ginkgo is an effective prophylactic agent if begun 1 day prior to rapid ascent. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 participants residing at sea level received ginkgo (60 mg TID) or placebo starting 24 h before ascending Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Subjects were transported from sea level to the summit (4205 m) over 3 hours, including 1 hour at 2835 m. The Lake Louise Self-report Questionnaire constituted the primary outcome measure at baseline, 2835 m, and after 4 h at 4205 m. AMS was defined as a Lake Louise Self-report Score (LLSR) >/= 3 with headache. Subjects who developed severe AMS were promptly transported to lower altitude for the remainder of the study. The ginkgo (n = 12) and placebo (n = 14) groups were well matched (58% vs. 50% female; median age 28 yr, range 22-53 vs. 33 yr, range 21-53; 58% vs. 57% Caucasian). Two (17%) subjects on ginkgo and nine (64%) on placebo developed severe AMS and required descent for their safety (p = 0.021); all recovered without sequelae. Median LLSR at 4205 m was significantly lower for ginkgo versus placebo (4, range 1-8 vs. 5, range 2-9, p = 0.03). Ginkgo use did not reach statistical significance for lowering incidence of AMS compared with placebo (ginkgo 7/12, 58.3% vs. placebo 13/14, 92.9%, p = 0.07). Twenty-one of 26 (81%) subjects developed AMS overall. This is the first study to demonstrate that 1 day of pretreatment with ginkgo 60 mg TID may significantly reduce the severity of AMS prior to rapid ascent from sea level to 4205 m.

  1. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jeffrey H; Seto, Todd B; Mor, Joanne; Onopa, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that 5 days of prophylactic ginkgo decreases the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during gradual ascent. This trial was designed to determine if ginkgo is an effective prophylactic agent if begun 1 day prior to rapid ascent. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 participants residing at sea level received ginkgo (60 mg TID) or placebo starting 24 h before ascending Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Subjects were transported from sea level to the summit (4205 m) over 3 hours, including 1 hour at 2835 m. The Lake Louise Self-report Questionnaire constituted the primary outcome measure at baseline, 2835 m, and after 4 h at 4205 m. AMS was defined as a Lake Louise Self-report Score (LLSR) >/= 3 with headache. Subjects who developed severe AMS were promptly transported to lower altitude for the remainder of the study. The ginkgo (n = 12) and placebo (n = 14) groups were well matched (58% vs. 50% female; median age 28 yr, range 22-53 vs. 33 yr, range 21-53; 58% vs. 57% Caucasian). Two (17%) subjects on ginkgo and nine (64%) on placebo developed severe AMS and required descent for their safety (p = 0.021); all recovered without sequelae. Median LLSR at 4205 m was significantly lower for ginkgo versus placebo (4, range 1-8 vs. 5, range 2-9, p = 0.03). Ginkgo use did not reach statistical significance for lowering incidence of AMS compared with placebo (ginkgo 7/12, 58.3% vs. placebo 13/14, 92.9%, p = 0.07). Twenty-one of 26 (81%) subjects developed AMS overall. This is the first study to demonstrate that 1 day of pretreatment with ginkgo 60 mg TID may significantly reduce the severity of AMS prior to rapid ascent from sea level to 4205 m. PMID:12006162

  2. Differences Between the “Chinese AMS Score” and the Lake Louise Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jialin; Gu, Haoran; Luo, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese AMS score (CAS) is used in clinical medicine and research to diagnosis acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, the Lake Louise Score (LLS) is the well-accepted standard for diagnosing AMS. The difference between the CAS and LLS questionnaires is that the CAS considers more nonspecific symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in AMS prevalence according to the LLS and CAS criteria. We surveyed 58 males who traveled from Chongqing (300 m) to Lhasa (3658 m) via the Qinghai-Tibet train. Cases of AMS were diagnosed using LLS and CAS questionnaires in a few railway stations at different evaluation areas along the road. We subsequently evaluated discrepancies in values related to the prevalence of AMS determined using the 2 types of questionnaires (CAS and LLS). The prevalence of CAS-diagnosed AMS indicated that the percentage of AMS cases among the 58 young men was 29.3% in Golmud, 60.3% in Tanggula, 63.8% in Lhasa, 22.4% on the first day after arrival in Lhasa, 27.6% on the second day, 24.1% on the third day, and 12.1% on the fourth day. The prevalence of LLS-diagnosed AMS in Golmud was 10.3%, 38% in Lhasa, and 6.9% on day 1, the prevalence in each station was lower than that as assessed by the CAS. Our experimental data indicate that AMS diagnoses ascertained using the CAS indicate a higher AMS prevalence than those ascertained using the LLS. Through statistical analysis, the CAS seems capable of effectively diagnosing AMS as validated by LLS (sensitivity 61.8%, specificity 92.7%). PMID:27227918

  3. Acute Mountain Sickness Symptom Severity at the South Pole: The Influence of Self-Selected Prophylaxis with Acetazolamide

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jacob B.; Richert, Maile; Miller, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, remains the only FDA approved pharmaceutical prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness (AMS) though its effectiveness after rapid transport in real world conditions is less clear. Methods Over 2 years, 248 healthy adults traveled by airplane from sea level (SL) to the South Pole (ALT, ~3200m) and 226 participants provided Lake Louise Symptom Scores (LLSS) on a daily basis for 1 week; vital signs, blood samples, and urine samples were collected at SL and at ALT. Acetazolamide was available to any participant desiring prophylaxis. Comparisons were made between the acetazolamide with AMS (ACZ/AMS) (n = 42), acetazolamide without AMS (ACZ/No AMS)(n = 49), no acetazolamide with AMS (No ACZ/AMS) (n = 56), and the no acetazolamide without AMS (No ACZ/No AMS) (n = 79) groups. Statistical analysis included Chi-squared and one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests. Significance was p≤0.05. Results No significant differences were found for between-group characteristics or incidence of AMS between ACZ and No ACZ groups. ACZ/AMS reported greater LLSS, BMI, and red cell distribution width. ACZ/No AMS had the highest oxygen saturation (O2Sat) at ALT. No significant differences were found in serum electrolyte concentrations or PFT results. Discussion Acetazolamide during rapid ascent provided no apparent protection from AMS based on LLSS. However, it is unclear if this lack of effect was directly associated with the drug or if perhaps there was some selection bias with individuals taking ACZ more likely to have symptoms or if there may have been more of perceptual phenomenon related to a constellation of side effects. PMID:26848757

  4. An analysis of sickness absence in chronically ill patients receiving Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A longterm prospective intermittent study

    PubMed Central

    Moebus, Susanne; Lehmann, Nils; Bödeker, Wolfgang; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Background The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has led to a growing amount of research in this area. All the same little is known about the effects of these special treatments in every-day practice of primary care, delivered by general practitioners within the health insurance system. From 1994 to 2000 more than 20 German Company health insurances initiated the first model project on CAM according to the German social law. Aim of this contribution is to investigate the effectiveness of multi-modal CAM on chronic diseases within primary health care. Methods A long-term prospective intermittent study was conducted including 44 CAM practitioners and 1221 self-selected chronically ill patients (64% women) of whom 441 were employed. Main outcome measure is sick-leave, controlled for secular trends and regression-to-the mean and self-perceived health status. Results Sick-leave per year of 441 patients at work increased from 22 (SD ± 45.2) to 31 (± 61.0) days within three years prior to intervention, and decreased to 24 (± 55.6) in the second year of treatment, sustaining at this level in the following two years. Detailed statistical analysis show that this development exceeds secular trends and the regression-toward-the-mean effect. Sick-leave reduction was corroborated by data on self-reported improvement of patients' health status. Conclusion Results of this longterm observational study show a reduction of sick leave in chronically ill patients after a complex multimodal CAM intervention. However, as this is an uncontrolled observational study efficacy of any specific CAM treatment can not be proven. The results might indicate an general effectiveness of CAM in primary care, worthwhile further investigations. Future studies should identify the most suitable patients for CAM practices, the most appropriate and safe treatments, provide information on the magnitude of the effects to facilitate subsequent definitive randomised controlled

  5. Phlebotomy improves pulmonary gas exchange in chronic mountain polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J C; Diaz, C; Marticorena, E; Hilario, V

    1979-01-01

    There is not unanimous agreement in the literature regarding the effects of bleeding on pulmonary gas exchange in polycythemic patients. Spirometry, alveolar arterial O2 and CO2 tension differences, PaO2 breathing 100% oxygen and carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity were measured before and after 1 week of chronic phlebotomy in 4 chronic mountain polycythemic patients. Studies were carried out at 3,700 m above sea level (PB = 491 mm Hg). Before phlebotomy, 2 patients showed abnormal spirometry and gas exchange. Only 1 patient had high PaCO2 and all of them showed low values of PaO2 breathing oxygen. Phlebotomy improved both spirometry and gas exchange. Improvement in arterial oxygen saturation and PaO2 could not be attributed to changes in alveolar ventilation, but rather to better distribution of VA/Qc ratios since physiological dead space decreased. Our results are similar to those reported in polycythemia vera patients. A significant correlation between the changes in PaO2 with phlebotomy and the control PaO2 have been found from 45 polycythemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease collected from the literature. It is concluded that excessive polycythemia worsened hypoxemia and that phlebotomy improved gas exchange.

  6. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people traveling by car, train, airplanes and especially boats. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy ... motion sickness. For example, down below on a boat, your inner ear senses motion, but your eyes ...

  7. Detection of Anti-Conductive Tissue Autoantibodies in a Patient with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction and Sick Sinus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caio, Giacomo; Volta, Umberto; Cerrato, Enrico; Clavenzani, Paolo; Montali, Nicolò; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Golzio, Pier Giorgio; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Farrugia, Gianrico; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old patient was diagnosed as suffering from chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction with manometric and histopathologic features suggestive of a intestinal myopathy. Histology was characterized by smooth muscle degeneration without inflammatory or immune cells. The severe gut dysfunction required full parenteral nutritional support. Few months later, the patient developed symptomatic tachy-brady arrhythmia episodes with syncopes. A thorough diagnostic work-up led to a diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome which was managed by pacemaker implantation and β-blockers administration. This led to a partial improvement of tachy-brady arrhythmia episodes. Nonetheless, the patient continued to experience sustained supraventricular tachyarrhythmia runs, poorly responsive to increasing β-blocker doses. To investigate the origin of the cardiologic impairment, the patient was tested for anti-conductive tissue autoantibodies, which were positive, thus supporting a possible autoimmune origin of the dysrhythmia. Other autoantibodies tested for were negative. Based on these findings, the patient was treated with high dose steroids which were then tapered. The patient responded to the steroid treatment and did not experience further episodes of syncope and tachyarrhythmias. The severe gut dysfunction remained unchanged. This case highlights an association between severe gut dysfunction and cardiac conductive tissue abnormalities with autoantibodies to conductive tissue possibly causing the dysrhythmia. The severe gut and heart (likely autoimmune-mediated) dysfunction presented in this case provide a basis to assess further a link between intestinal and cardiac abnormal rhythmicity. PMID:24081107

  8. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded dUTPase and chronic restraint induce impaired learning and memory and sickness responses.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Weil, Zachary M; Ariza, Maria Eugenia; Williams, Marshall; Reader, Brenda F; Glaser, Ronald; Sheridan, John F; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-10-01

    Most adult humans have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and carry the latent virus. The EBV genome codes for several proteins that form an early antigen complex important for viral replication; one of these proteins is deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase). The EBV-encoded dUTPase can induce sickness responses in mice. Because stress can increase latent virus reactivation, we hypothesized that chronic restraint would exacerbate sickness behaviors elicited by EBV-encoded dUTPase. Male Swiss-Webster mice were injected daily for 15 days with either saline or EBV-encoded dUTPase. Additionally, half of the mice from each condition were either restrained for 3h daily or left undisturbed. Restraint stress impaired learning and memory in the passive avoidance chamber; impaired learning and memory was due to EBV-encoded dUTPase injected into restrained mice. EBV-encoded dUTPase induced sickness responses and restraint stress interacts with EBV-encoded dUTPase to exacerbate the sickness response. These data support a role for EBV-encoded dUTPase and restraint stress in altering the pathophysiology of EBV independent of viral replication.

  9. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  10. [Motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Taillemite, J P; Devaulx, P; Bousquet, F

    1997-01-01

    Motion sickness is a general term covering sea-sickness, car-sickness, air-sickness, and space-sickness. Symptoms can occur when a person is exposed to unfamiliar movement whether real or simulated. Despite progress in the technology and comfort of modern transportation (planes, boats, and overland vehicles), a great number of travelers still experience motion sickness. Bouts are characterized by an initial phase of mild discomfort followed by neurologic and gastro-intestinal manifestations. The delay in onset depends on specific circumstances and individual susceptibility. Attacks are precipitated by conflicting sensory, visual, and vestibular signals but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Most medications used for prevention and treatment (e.g. anticholinergics and antihistamines) induce unwanted sedation. Furthermore no one drug is completely effective or preventive under all conditions.

  11. AltitudeOmics: cerebral autoregulation during ascent, acclimatization, and re-exposure to high altitude and its relation with acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Andrew W; Fan, Jui-Lin; Evero, Oghenero; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Panerai, Ronney B; Roach, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) acts to maintain brain blood flow despite fluctuations in perfusion pressure. Acute hypoxia is thought to impair CA, but it is unclear if CA is affected by acclimatization or related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). We assessed changes in CA using transfer function analysis of spontaneous fluctuations in radial artery blood pressure (indwelling catheter) and resulting changes in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler) in 21 active individuals at sea level upon arrival at 5,260 m (ALT1), after 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16), and upon re-exposure to 5,260 m after 7 days at 1,525 m (POST7). The Lake Louise Questionnaire was used to evaluate AMS symptom severity. CA was impaired upon arrival at ALT1 (P < 0.001) and did not change with acclimatization at ALT16 or upon re-exposure at POST7. CA was not associated with AMS symptoms (all R < 0.50, P > 0.05). These findings suggest that alterations in CA are an intrinsic consequence of hypoxia and are not directly related to the occurrence or severity of AMS.

  12. A pilot study on the prevalence of Acute Mountain Sickness at the Sikh pilgrimage of Hemkund Sahib in the Indian Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Inderjeet S.; Panwar, Nidhi S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemkund Sahib is a popular pilgrimage located at 4,330 m in the Garhwal range of the Indian Himalayas. Many travelers to the region have observed pilgrims exhibiting Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS)-like symptoms. However, no systematic study on its prevalence at Hemkund has been conducted. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 25 adults. AMS rates were determined using a standard Lake Louise Score (LLS). Responses to questions related to awareness of AMS, the perceived difficulty of the trek, and physiological data including arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate, amongst others, were collected. Results: Overall prevalence of AMS was 28% (mild AMS 20%, severe AMS 8%). Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) was 3.9/10. Water consumption for the 4-5 hour trek to Hemkund was only 0.9 L and 20% of pilgrims consumed no water at all. Nine pilgrims claimed to be aware of AMS although only one had taken prophylactic medication. SpO2 was 82.2 ± 1.2% and pulse rate was 106.5 ± 2.9 bpm (mean ± SEM). There were no differences in non-LLS-related parameters when pilgrims were subdivided by presence or absence of AMS. Conclusion: This pilot study has, for the first time, documented the prevalence of AMS amongst pilgrims to Hemkund Sahib in the Indian Himalayas. PMID:24082642

  13. Reduced incidence and severity of acute mountain sickness in Qinghai-Tibet railroad construction workers after repeated 7-month exposures despite 5-month low altitude periods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tian Yi; Ding, Shou Quan; Liu, Jin Liang; Yu, Man Tang; Jia, Jian Hou; Duan, Jun Qing; Chai, Zuo Chuan; Dai, Rui Chen; Zhang, Sheng Lin; Liang, Bao Zhu; Zhao, Ji Zhui; Qi, De Tang; Sun, Yong Fu; Kayser, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad provided a unique opportunity to study the relation between intermittent altitude exposure and acute mountain sickness (AMS). For 5 yr, workers spent 7-month periods at altitude interspaced with 5-month periods at sea level; the incidence, severity, and risk factors of AMS were prospectively investigated. Six hundred lowlanders commuted for 5 yr between near sea level and approximately 4500 m and were compared to 600 other lowland workers, recruited each year upon their first ascent to high altitude as newcomers, and to 200 Tibetan workers native to approximately 4500 m. AMS was assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring System. The incidence and severity of AMS in commuters were lower upon each subsequent exposure, whereas they remained similar in newcomers each year. AMS susceptibility was thus lowered by repeated exposure to altitude. Repeated exposure increased resting Sao(2) and decreased resting heart rate. Tibetans had no AMS, higher Sao(2), and lower heart rates. In conclusion, repetitive 7-month exposures increasingly protect lowlanders against AMS, even when interspaced with 5-month periods spent at low altitude, but do not allow attaining the level of adaptation of altitude natives.

  14. Genotype at the missense G894T polymorphism (Glu298Asp) in the NOS3 gene is associated with susceptibility to acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Koehle, Michael S; Rupert, Jim L

    2009-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a potentially serious affliction that frequently occurs in travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The probability of developing AMS depends on environmental factors such as rate of ascent and altitude attained; however, familial clustering and recurrence rates suggest that there may be a genetic contribution to the etiology of the condition. The underlying pathophysiology of AMS is unknown, but it may involve vasogenic edema secondary to hypoxia-induced sympathetic response and endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide is a potent vasomodulator, and variants in the gene that encodes endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) have been shown to affect blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that haplotypes, as determined by tagSNPs, in NOS3 would be differentially represented in individuals with and without AMS sampled at the Janai Purnima Festival at Lake Gosain Kunda, Nepal, at 4380 m. Seven SNPs were tested, and a highly significant association (p = 0.004) was found for genotypes of the commonly studied missense polymorphism Glu298Asp (rs 1799983; G/T transversion at base 894). The T allele, which previously has been associated with hypertension, was overrepresented in individuals with AMS (0.30 vs. 0.10), but not significantly when the data were corrected for multiple testing (p = 0.024). These data suggest that a variant in a gene involved in nitric oxide synthesis is a risk factor for developing AMS. PMID:19775216

  15. Motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Golding, J F

    2016-01-01

    Over 2000 years ago the Greek physician Hippocrates wrote, "sailing on the sea proves that motion disorders the body." Indeed, the word "nausea" derives from the Greek root word naus, hence "nautical," meaning a ship. The primary signs and symptoms of motion sickness are nausea and vomiting. Motion sickness can be provoked by a wide variety of transport environments, including land, sea, air, and space. The recent introduction of new visual technologies may expose more of the population to visually induced motion sickness. This chapter describes the signs and symptoms of motion sickness and different types of provocative stimuli. The "how" of motion sickness (i.e., the mechanism) is generally accepted to involve sensory conflict, for which the evidence is reviewed. New observations concern the identification of putative "sensory conflict" neurons and the underlying brain mechanisms. But what reason or purpose does motion sickness serve, if any? This is the "why" of motion sickness, which is analyzed from both evolutionary and nonfunctional maladaptive theoretic perspectives. Individual differences in susceptibility are great in the normal population and predictors are reviewed. Motion sickness susceptibility also varies dramatically between special groups of patients, including those with different types of vestibular disease and in migraineurs. Finally, the efficacy and relative advantages and disadvantages of various behavioral and pharmacologic countermeasures are evaluated. PMID:27638085

  16. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in...

  17. What's Motion Sickness?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Motion Sickness? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Motion Sickness? Print ... motion sickness might get even worse. continue Avoiding Motion Sickness To avoid motion sickness: Put your best ...

  18. Benzolamide improves oxygenation and reduces acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek and has fewer side effects than acetazolamide at sea level.

    PubMed

    Collier, David J; Wolff, Chris B; Hedges, Anne-Marie; Nathan, John; Flower, Rod J; Milledge, James S; Swenson, Erik R

    2016-06-01

    Acetazolamide is the standard carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used for acute mountain sickness (AMS), however some of its undesirable effects are related to intracellular penetrance into many tissues, including across the blood-brain barrier. Benzolamide is a much more hydrophilic inhibitor, which nonetheless retains a strong renal action to engender a metabolic acidosis and ventilatory stimulus that improves oxygenation at high altitude and reduces AMS. We tested the effectiveness of benzolamide versus placebo in a first field study of the drug as prophylaxis for AMS during an ascent to the Everest Base Camp (5340 m). In two other studies performed at sea level to test side effect differences between acetazolamide and benzolamide, we assessed physiological actions and psychomotor side effects of two doses of acetazolamide (250 and 1000 mg) in one group of healthy subjects and in another group compared acetazolamide (500 mg), benzolamide (200 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) as an active comparator for central nervous system (CNS) effects. At high altitude, benzolamide-treated subjects maintained better arterial oxygenation at all altitudes (3-6% higher at all altitudes above 4200 m) than placebo-treated subjects and reduced AMS severity by roughly 50%. We found benzolamide had fewer side effects, some of which are symptoms of AMS, than any of the acetazolamide doses in Studies 1 and 2, but equal physiological effects on renal function. The psychomotor side effects of acetazolamide were dose dependent. We conclude that benzolamide is very effective for AMS prophylaxis. With its lesser CNS effects, benzolamide may be superior to acetazolamide, in part, because some of the side effects of acetazolamide may contribute to and be mistaken for AMS. PMID:27433337

  19. Benzolamide improves oxygenation and reduces acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek and has fewer side effects than acetazolamide at sea level.

    PubMed

    Collier, David J; Wolff, Chris B; Hedges, Anne-Marie; Nathan, John; Flower, Rod J; Milledge, James S; Swenson, Erik R

    2016-06-01

    Acetazolamide is the standard carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used for acute mountain sickness (AMS), however some of its undesirable effects are related to intracellular penetrance into many tissues, including across the blood-brain barrier. Benzolamide is a much more hydrophilic inhibitor, which nonetheless retains a strong renal action to engender a metabolic acidosis and ventilatory stimulus that improves oxygenation at high altitude and reduces AMS. We tested the effectiveness of benzolamide versus placebo in a first field study of the drug as prophylaxis for AMS during an ascent to the Everest Base Camp (5340 m). In two other studies performed at sea level to test side effect differences between acetazolamide and benzolamide, we assessed physiological actions and psychomotor side effects of two doses of acetazolamide (250 and 1000 mg) in one group of healthy subjects and in another group compared acetazolamide (500 mg), benzolamide (200 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) as an active comparator for central nervous system (CNS) effects. At high altitude, benzolamide-treated subjects maintained better arterial oxygenation at all altitudes (3-6% higher at all altitudes above 4200 m) than placebo-treated subjects and reduced AMS severity by roughly 50%. We found benzolamide had fewer side effects, some of which are symptoms of AMS, than any of the acetazolamide doses in Studies 1 and 2, but equal physiological effects on renal function. The psychomotor side effects of acetazolamide were dose dependent. We conclude that benzolamide is very effective for AMS prophylaxis. With its lesser CNS effects, benzolamide may be superior to acetazolamide, in part, because some of the side effects of acetazolamide may contribute to and be mistaken for AMS.

  20. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  1. Morning Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day What's happening in your area Find out about ... it's called morning sickness, it can last all day and happen any time of day. At least ...

  2. “You Get Reminded You’re a Sick Person”: Personal Data Tracking and Patients With Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background Consumer health information technologies (HIT) that encourage self-tracking, such as diet and fitness tracking apps and disease journals, are attracting widespread interest among technology-oriented consumers (such as “quantified self” advocates), entrepreneurs, and the health care industry. Such electronic technologies could potentially benefit the growing population of patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). However, MCC is predominantly a condition of the elderly and disproportionately affects the less affluent, so it also seems possible that the barriers to use of consumer HIT would be particularly severe for this patient population. Objective Our aim was to explore the perspectives of individuals with MCC using a semistructured interview study. Our research questions were (1) How do individuals with MCC track their own health and medical data? and (2) How do patients and providers perceive and use patient-tracked data? Methods We used semistructured interviews with patients with multiple chronic diseases and providers with experience caring for such patients, as well as participation in a diabetes education group to triangulate emerging themes. Data were analyzed using grounded theory and thematic analysis. Recruitment and analysis took place iteratively until thematic saturation was reached. Results Interviews were conducted with 22 patients and 7 health care providers. The patients had an average of 3.5 chronic conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, chronic pain, and depression, and had regular relationships with an average of 5 providers. Four major themes arose from the interviews: (1) tracking this data feels like work for many patients, (2) personal medical data for individuals with chronic conditions are not simply objective facts, but instead provoke strong positive and negative emotions, value judgments, and diverse interpretations, (3) patients track for different purposes, ranging from sense-making to self

  3. Car Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  4. Acclimatization to chronic intermittent hypoxia in mine workers: a challenge to mountain medicine in Chile.

    PubMed

    Farias, Jorge G; Jimenez, Daniel; Osorio, Jorge; Zepeda, Andrȩa B; Figueroa, Carolina A; Pulgar, Victor M

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, Chile has developed intense mining activity in the Andes mountain range, whose altitude is over 4,000 meters above sea level. It is estimated that a workforce population of over 55,000 is exposed to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia. The miners work under shift systems which vary from 4 to 20 days at the worksite followed by rest days at sea level, in a cycle repeated for several years. This Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) constitutes an unusual condition for workers involving a series of changes at the physiological, cellular and molecular levels attempting to compensate for the decrease in the environmental partial pressure of oxygen (PO₂). The mine worker must become acclimatized to CIH, and consequently undergoes an acute acclimatization process when he reaches the worksite and an acute reverse process when he reaches sea level. We have observed that after a period of 3 to 8 years of CIH exposure workers acclimatize well, and evidence from our studies and those of others indicates that CIH induces acute and chronic multisystem adjustments which are effective in offsetting the reduced availability of oxygen at high altitudes. The aims of this review are to summarize findings of the physiological responses to CIH exposure, highlighting outstanding issues in the field.

  5. Endocrine correlates of susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness releases ACTH, epinerphrine, and norepinephrine. The endocrine responses to motion sickness, adaptive responses leading to the resolution of the syndrome, and the way in which antimotion-sickness drugs influence the endocrine responses were studied. Susceptible or insusceptible subjects were administered antimotion-sickness drugs prior to stressful stimulation. Insusceptible subjects displayed more pronounced elevations of ACTH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after stressful motion. Predrug levels of ACTH were higher in insusceptible subjects (p less than 0.01). Acute blockade of hormone responses to stressful motion or alteration of levels of ACTH by drugs were not correlated with individual susceptibility. No correlation was apparent between epinephrine and ACTH release. These endocrine differences may represent neurochemical markers for susceptibility to motion, stress, or general adaptability, and it may be that the chronic modulation of their levels might be more effective in preventing motion sickness than the acute blockage or stimulation of specific receptors.

  6. Sickness at high altitude: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, G

    2002-03-01

    When some individuals spend just a few hours at low atmospheric pressure above 1,500 m (5,000 ft)--such as when climbing a mountain or flying in a plane at high altitude--they become ill. Altitude sickness studies originally concentrated on life-threatening illnesses which beset determined and athletic climbers at extreme altitudes. In recent years, however, research attention is moving towards milder forms of sickness reported by a significant proportion of the growing number of visitors to mountain and ski resorts at more moderate altitude. Some of this research is also relevant in understanding the problems experienced by passengers in newer planes that fly at a significantly higher equivalent cabin altitude, i.e. 2,440 m (8,000 ft), than earlier designs. Engineering solutions--such as enriched oxygen in enclosed spaces at altitude, or in the case of aircraft, lower cabin altitudes--are possible, but for an economic assessment to be realistic an engineer needs to identify the scale of the problem and to understand the factors determining susceptibility. This review concentrates on the problems of mountain sickness in the ordinary population at altitudes of around 3,000 m (10,000 ft); this is a problem of growing concern as ski resorts develop, mountain trekking increases in popularity, and as higher altitude cabin pressures are achieved in aircraft.

  7. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Patra, P.; Khan, S. A.; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  8. Munchausen syndrome: Playing sick or sick player.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jyoti; Das, R C; Srivastava, K; Patra, P; Khan, S A; Shashikumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Munchausen syndrome is rare factitious disorder which entails frequent hospitalization, pathological lying and intentional production of symptoms for sick role. Management requires collateral history taking, sound clinical approach, exclusion of organicity and addressing psychological issues. A case which presented with unusual symptoms of similar dimension is discussed here. The case brings out finer nuances in evaluation and management of this entity. PMID:25535450

  9. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY About Migraine Patient Registry Corporate Roundtable Info for Residents & Fellows Living With Migraines Types of Headache/Migraine Life with Headache/Migraine ...

  10. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D

    2005-12-01

    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  11. Thrombosis at mountain altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cucinell, S A; Pitts, C M

    1987-11-01

    Victims of high-altitude pulmonary edema often have clots obstructing the pulmonary vessels. This, together with an apparent high incidence of thrombophlebitis and cerebral emboli at altitude suggests that mountain travel may predispose to hypercoagulability. A critical analysis of the available data suggests that, although thrombosis may be a late event complicating various forms of mountain sickness, the laboratory techniques of characterizing hypercoagulability are not sufficient to define and characterize the mechanism.

  12. Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... sinus node or SA node. This keeps the heart beat steady and regular. Sick sinus syndrome is a ... Fatigue Dizziness or lightheadedness Sensation of feeling the heart beat ( palpitations ) Shortness of breath , possibly only with physical ...

  13. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  14. Space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the etiology, prediction, treatment and prevention of space motion sickness, designed to minimize the impact of this syndrome which was experienced frequently and with severity by individuals on the Skylab missions, on Space Shuttle crews is reviewed. Theories of the cause of space motion sickness currently under investigation by NASA include sensory conflict, which argues that motion sickness symptoms result from a mismatch between the total pattern of information from the spatial senses and that stored from previous experiences, and fluid shift, based upon the redistribution of bodily fluids that occurs upon continued exposure to weightlessness. Attempts are underway to correlate space motion sickness susceptibility to different provocative environments, vestibular and nonvestibular responses, and the rate of acquisition and length of retention of sensory adaptation. Space motion sickness countermeasures under investigation include various drug combinations, of which the equal combination of promethazine and ephedrine has been found to be as effective as the scopolomine and dexedrine combination, and vestibular adaptation and biofeedback training and autogenic therapy.

  15. [Scuba diving: barotrauma, decompression sickness, pulmonary contra-indications].

    PubMed

    Héritier, F; Russi, E

    1993-02-01

    The practice of scuba diving is associated with two specific medical problems: barotrauma directly related to changes in ambient pressure, and decompression sickness related to the uptake and the release of inert gases by the body. Neurological symptoms are frequent in severe diving accidents. They may arise following either barotrauma or decompression sickness, and often require urgent treatment in a hyperbaric chamber. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and spontaneous pneumothorax increase the risk of lung barotrauma and represent contraindications to diving.

  16. New Clues to Sleeping Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161284.html New Clues to Sleeping Sickness Disease-causing parasites found ... people with no symptoms of the disease, a new study finds. Sleeping sickness affects 4,000 to ...

  17. Prescriptions for Sick Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing insulation in schools as an energy-saving measure has given rise to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), which afflicts roughly one-third of the nation's schools. This article examines asbestos, radon, electromagnetic radiation, and chemical pollutants and describes steps to make schools environmentally safe for students. School officials…

  18. Diclectin for morning sickness

    PubMed Central

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Question A pregnant patient recently asked me whether using Diclectin for morning sickness might affect the development of her child. Answer Our recent large study does show such a trend, although the differences are not necessarily clinically significant. PMID:21642716

  19. The sick child's predicament.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D C

    1985-06-01

    There is widespread criticism of medicine which contrasts with its manifest success in biotechnology. Medicine's failure to convince stems partly from the fact that its successful biotechnology distracts it from the mundane task of responding appropriately to components of commonplace sicknesses which do not stem from disease (things) or illness (symptoms) but from predicaments. Predicaments are painful social situations or circumstances, complex, unstable, morally charged and varying in their import in time and place, which are readily discernible from a good history. Predicaments are distinguished from environmental agents by being an aspect of social organisation rather than structures. Dangerous and excruciating predicaments are described as well as the predicaments of being sick, and being in hospital. Child psychiatrists are often presented with problems where diagnosis of disease or illness in the child is inappropriate and resolution of its predicament alleviates the distress that had been presented in the language of sickness. The model is capable of broader application in psychiatry and medicine. Doctors should be more concerned to know about the context and background of their patients' sickness, as patients give this information very freely if asked. If patients' complaints are misunderstood then medical responses, made in good faith, may be seen as dangerous intrusions leading to a loss of trust, anger, and litigiousness. PMID:3863603

  20. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  1. Sick sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wahls, S A

    1985-03-01

    Disease in the sinus node may cause bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias. Bradyarrhythmias occur because of impaired automaticity (with or without sinus arrest) or because of sinus node exit block. Reentrant or automatic rhythms may produce tachyarrhythmias. Symptoms and signs of sick sinus syndrome include lightheadedness, palpitation, syncope and peripheral or cerebral emboli. After diagnosis by Holter monitoring, symptomatic patients usually improve with placement of a permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:3976454

  2. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations. PMID:26358706

  3. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk

    PubMed Central

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G.; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A.; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam–calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations. PMID:26358706

  4. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations.

  5. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME: POSSIBLE ASSOCIATIONS WITH EXPOSURE TO MYCOTOXINS FROM INDOOR AIR FUNGI.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. Chronic human illness associated with residential or occupational buildings, commonly referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS), may be a multifactorial condition, involving in some cases volatile organic compounds, CO or CO2, pesticides, biologic agents, temperat...

  6. When You're Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can be life-threatening. Making a Sick-Day Plan Prepare a plan for sick days in advance. Work with your doctor, or a ... have had a fever for a couple of days and aren't getting better you've been ...

  7. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  8. Managing space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R T

    1998-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a well-recognized problem for space flight and affects 73% of crewmembers on the first 2 or 3 days of their initial flight. Illness severity is variable, but over half of cases are categorized as moderate to severe. Management has included elimination of provocative activities and delay of critical performance-related procedures such as extra-vehicular activity (EVA) or Shuttle landing during the first three days of missions. Pharmacological treatment strategies have had variable results, but intramuscular promethazine has been the most effective to date with a 90% initial response rate and important reduction in residual symptoms the next flight day. Oral prophylactic treatment of crewmembers with difficulty on prior flights has had mixed results. In order to accommodate more aggressive pharmacologic management, crew medical officers receive additional training in parenteral administration of medications. Preflight medication testing is accomplished to reduce the risk of unexpected performance decrements or idiosyncratic reactions. When possible, treatment is offered in the presleep period to mask potential treatment-related drowsiness. Another phenomenon noted by crewmembers and physicians as flights have lengthened is readaptation difficulty or motion sickness on return to Earth. These problems have included nausea, vomiting, and difficulty with locomotion or coordination upon early exposure to gravity. Since landing and egress are principal concerns during this portion of the flight, these deficits are of operational concern. Postflight therapy has been directed at nausea and vomiting, and meclizine and promethazine are the principal agents used. There has been no official attempt at prophylactic treatment prior to entry. Since there is considerable individual variation in postflight deficit and since adaptation from prior flights seems to persist, it has been recommended that commanders with prior shuttle landing experience be named to

  9. Neural mechanisms of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, G. H.; Daunton, N. G.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that there might be a neuro-homoral cerebrospinal fluid link in motion sickness was directly tested by blocking the flow of CSF from the third into the fourth ventricle in cats. Evidence obtained thus far is consistent with the hypothesis. Cats with demonstrably sound plugs did not vomit in response to an accelerative motion sickness stimulus, whereas cats with imperfect 'leaky' plugs vomited with little or no delay in latency. Althoough there are several putative candidates, the identification of a humoral motion sickness substance is a matter of conjecture.

  10. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  11. Treatment of severe motion sickness with antimotion sickness drug injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, Ashton; Lackner, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This report concerns the use of intramuscular injections of scopolamine, promethazine, and dramamine to treat severely motion sick individuals participating in parabolic flight experiments. The findings indicate that a majority of individuals received benefit from 50-mg injections of promethazine or 0.5 mg-injections of scopolamine. By contrast, 50-mg injections of dramamine and 25-mg injections of promethazine were nonbeneficial. The use of antimotion drug injections for treating space motion sickness is discussed.

  12. Looking into sick buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Scarry, R.L. )

    1994-07-01

    This article examines the effect of geographic location (humid vs dry climate) and indoor relative humidity on the potential for IAQ problems. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a problem for centuries. The more current interest surrounds the Legionella pneumophila epidemic of 1976. The Legionnaire's disease outbreak was the first recognized instance of a building related illness (BRI). Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a less well defined condition than BRI. In SBS, occupants of a building suffer ill health due to some obscure condition or conditions in the building. Additionally, the health condition appears to be self-resolving when the person leaves the premises. A complete listing of SBS variables has not been determined, but the general conditions have been identified. The primary groupings include irritants, allergens, and toxins. It should be noted that infectious agents were intentionally omitted as their involvement more specifically indicated a BRI. Additionally, some contaminants may be classified as more than a single type; e.g., Aspergillus sp. may be labeled both allergenic and toxigenic.

  13. Inner ear decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J C; Thomas, W G; Youngblood, D G; Bennett, P B

    1976-09-01

    With recent increases in commercial, military, and sport diving to deeper depths, inner ear injuries during such exposures have been encountered more frequently and noted during several phases of diving: during compression, at stable deep depths, with excessive noise exposure in diving, and during decompression. The pathophysiology of these injuries differs, depending upon the phase of diving in which the injuries occur. In this report, 23 cases of hearing loss, tinnitus, and/or vertigo occurring during or shortly after decompression are presented. Thirteen of these cases occurred in helium-oxygen dives involving a change to air during the latter stages of decompression. A significant correlation is present between prompt recompression treatment, relief of symptoms, and lack of residual deficits. Current knowledge indicates that the management of otologic decompression sickness should include: 1. prompt recompression to at least 99 feet deeper than the symptom onset depth; 2. recompression using the previous helium-oxygen mixture when the injuries occur during or shortly after a switch from helium-oxygen to air during the latter stages of decompression; 3. the use of parenteral diazepam for symptom relief and cyclic inhalations of oxygen enriched treatment gases; and 4. the avoidance of further diving by divers who exhibit permanent inner ear injuries after the acute symptoms have subsided.

  14. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging cervids. An abnormal isoform of a prion protein (PrP-CWD) has been associated with CWD in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and this prion protein can be detected with i...

  15. [Sick building syndrome].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2008-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, a new man-made ecosystem has developed--the controlled indoor environment within the sealed exterior shells of modern non-industrial buildings. Emitted toxic volatile compounds from building materials, furnishings, and equipment, and inappropriate ventilation (resulting from the need to reduce expenses) contribute to reduce indoor air quality (IAQ), which has considerable potential to affect public health. Consequently, health problems related to this ecosystem have emerged. "Building-related illnesses" (BRI) refers to a group of illnesses with a fairly homogeneous clinical picture, objective abnormalities on clinical or laboratory evaluation, and one or more identifiable sources or agents known to cause infectious, immunologic, or allergic diseases. The term "sick building syndrome" (SBS) is used to refer to a heterogeneous group of work-related symptoms--including irritation of the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and throat, headache, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. These are considered illnesses because of the occurrence of symptoms, even though affected workers do not have objective clinical or laboratory abnormalities and causative agents cannot be found. The clinical symptoms of SBS, although not life-threatening are disruptive: they reduce productivity and increase absenteeism from work. Noteworthy, the association of symptoms with psychosocial factors does not mean that "the problem is all in the workers' heads". The results of psychological testing of symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers are similar. To improve IAQ and reduce symptoms of SBS adequate ventilation and fresh air, which will reduce volatile compounds, maintaining thermal comfort (with humidity not exceeding 60%), and adequate lighting should be ensured.

  16. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  17. Sickness Presence among Disabled Workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana

    PubMed Central

    ŠKERJANC, Alenka; DODIČ FIKFAK, Metoda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the article is to investigate the differences in sickness present and non-sickness present in the group of disabled health care professionals. Methods Data were gathered from all disabled health care professionals suffering from invalidity of category II or III who were identified in the research among all health care professionals at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana and who were employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of three standardized international questionnaires. Results There were 248 disabled workers of the II. and III. category of invalidity among the participants. Disabled sickness present reported to have more chronic diseases than disabled non-sickness present (OR = 57.0; 95% CI = 24.4–133.2), lower salary when on sick leave (OR = 13.1; 95% CI = 5.7–30.2) and poor self-rated health (OR = 5.8; 95% CI = 2.7–12.3). Conclusions The prerequisite for sickness presence among disabled workers is their chronic bad health. It is also formally recognized with the degree of disability. Economic factors are among the most important to direct disabled workers towards sickness presence. The results indicate that workplaces are not adapted to disabled workers in regard to their limitations. PMID:27669513

  18. Simulator sickness during driving simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Johnell O; Goodenough, Richard R; Crisler, Matthew C; Klein, Nathan D; Alley, Rebecca L; Koon, Beatrice L; Logan, William C; Ogle, Jennifer H; Tyrrell, Richard A; Wills, Rebekkah F

    2010-05-01

    While driving simulators are a valuable tool for assessing multiple dimensions of driving performance under relatively safe conditions, researchers and practitioners must be prepared for participants that suffer from simulator sickness. This paper describes multiple theories of motion sickness and presents a method for assessing and reacting to simulator sickness symptoms. Results showed that this method identified individuals who were unable to complete a driving simulator study due to simulator sickness with greater than 90% accuracy and that older participants had a greater likelihood of simulator sickness than younger participants. Possible explanations for increased symptoms experienced by older participants are discussed as well as implications for research ethics and simulator sickness prevention.

  19. Sick sinus syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Semelka, Michael; Gera, Jerome; Usman, Saif

    2013-05-15

    Sick sinus syndrome refers to a collection of disorders marked by the heart's inability to perform its pacemaking function. Predominantly affecting older adults, sick sinus syndrome comprises various arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias with or without accompanying tachyarrhythmias. At least 50 percent of patients with sick sinus syndrome develop alternating bradycardia and tachycardia, also known as tachy-brady syndrome. Sick sinus syndrome results from intrinsic causes, or may be exacerbated or mimicked by extrinsic factors. Intrinsic causes include degenerative fibrosis, ion channel dysfunction, and remodeling of the sinoatrial node. Extrinsic factors can be pharmacologic, metabolic, or autonomic. Signs and symptoms are often subtle early on and become more obvious as the disease progresses. They are commonly related to end-organ hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion is most common, with syncope or near-fainting occurring in about one-half of patients. Diagnosis may be challenging, and is ultimately made by electrocardiographic identification of the arrhythmia in conjunction with the presence of symptoms. If electrocardiography does not yield a diagnosis, inpatient telemetry monitoring, outpatient Holter monitoring, event monitoring, or loop monitoring may be used. Electrophysiologic studies also may be used but are not routinely needed. Treatment of sick sinus syndrome includes removing extrinsic factors, when possible, and pacemaker placement. Pacemakers do not reduce mortality, but they can decrease symptoms and improve quality of life.

  20. [Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ)].

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Kennedy, Robert S; Dziuda, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) (Kennedy et al., 1993). Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4):545-555. PMID:27623835

  1. Shiftwork and Sickness Absence Among Police Officers: The BCOPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Charles, Luenda E.; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Shiftwork, regarded as a significant occupational stressor, has become increasingly prevalent across a wide range of occupations. The adverse health outcomes associated with shiftwork are well documented. Shiftwork is an integral part of law enforcement, a high-stress occupation with elevated risks of chronic disease and mortality. Sickness absence is an important source of productivity loss and may also serve as an indirect measure of workers’ morbidity. Prior studies of shiftwork and sickness absenteeism have yielded varying results and the association has not been examined specifically among police officers. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of sick leave (any, ≥3 consecutive days) among day-, afternoon-, and night-shift workers in a cohort of police officers and also examine the role of lifestyle factors as potential moderators of the association. Participants (N = 464) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009 were used. Daily work history records that included the shift schedule, number of hours worked, and occurrence of sick leave were available for up to 15 yrs starting in 1994 to the date of the BCOPS study examination for each officer. Poisson regression analysis for ungrouped data was used to estimate incidence rates (IRs) of sick leave by shift, and comparison of IRs across shifts were made by computing incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sick leave occurred at a higher rate on the night shift (4.37 per 10 000 person-hours) compared with either day (1.55 per 10000 person-hours) or afternoon (1.96 per 10000 person-hours) shifts. The association between shiftwork and sickness absence depended on body mass index (BMI). For overweight individuals (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), the covariate-adjusted incidence rate of sick leave (≥1 day) was twice as large for night-shift officers compared with those working on the day (IRR = 2.29, 95% CI

  2. Should MA plans try to attract the sick?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M Orry

    2015-11-01

    Although attracting a mixture of well and sick patients provides a good risk mix for managed care plans, bringing in more high-risk enrollees may mean a higher reward for both patients and providers. Data systems and analytics have improved, allowing hospitals and health systems to better mitigate the risks associated with sicker patients. These new technologies and capabilities can enable these provider organizations to better manage care for patients who require treatment for multiple chronic conditions.

  3. The Glomerulus and Serum Sickness in Experimental Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Spear, G. S.; Kihara, I.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of prolonged continuous hypoxia with polycythaemia on the rabbit glomerulus was studied by light microscopy and their effect on experimental serum sickness in rabbits was studied by light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Engorgement and enlargement were the principal effects on the glomerulus of hypoxia and polycythaemia, but prominence of the mesangium and focal segmental sclerosis and hypercellularity sometimes occurred. The results of the studies on serum sickness suggested that prolonged hypoxia with polycythaemia did not diminish antibody formation, reactivity of antibody with antigen, or rapid antigen clearance; in fact antigen was cleared more rapidly in hypoxic animals. Chronic hypoxia and polycythaemia did not prevent acute serum sickness including acute glomerulonephritis. The incidence and severity of acute glomerulonephritis, however, may have been diminished whereas the incidence and severity of other visceral involvement by acute serum sickness was not. Although the experimental groups were not large, the possible implications of the data are important. Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis and hypercellularity, and mesangial prominence, to our knowledge have not previously been reported in association with chronic experimental hypoxia and polycythaemia. These lesions resembled some glomerular lesions of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Decrease in glomerulonephritis under conditions in which hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus is presumably elevated and the glomerulus is subject to injury in some respects would be contrary to expectation. Finally, selective decrease in the glomerulonephritic but not the other lesions of acute serum sickness by altering non-immunological general experimental conditions would be highly unusual. More extensive studies are indicated. ImagesFigs. 1-5Figs. 6-12 PMID:5055712

  4. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  5. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy FAQ126, ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  6. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits. 335.4 Section 335.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim...

  7. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  8. Sick of sitting.

    PubMed

    Levine, James A

    2015-08-01

    Sitting too much kills. Epidemiological, physiological and molecular data suggest that sedentary lifestyle can explain, in part, how modernity is associated with obesity, more than 30 chronic diseases and conditions and high healthcare costs. Excessive sitting--sitting disease--is not innate to the human condition. People were designed to be bipedal and, before the industrial revolution, people moved substantially more throughout the day than they do presently. It is encouraging that solutions exist to reverse sitting disease. Work environments, schools, communities and cities can be re-imagined and re-invented as walking spaces, and people thereby offered more active, happier, healthier and more productive lives.

  9. Sick of sitting

    PubMed Central

    Levine, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Sitting too much kills. Epidemiological, physiological and molecular data suggest that sedentary lifestyle can explain, in part, how modernity is associated with obesity, more than 30 chronic diseases and conditions and high healthcare costs. Excessive sitting—sitting disease—is not innate to the human condition. People were designed to be bipedal and, before the industrial revolution, people moved substantially more throughout the day than they do presently. It is encouraging that solutions exist to reverse sitting disease. Work environments, schools, communities and cities can be re-imagined and reinvented as walking spaces, and people thereby offered more active, happier, healthier and more productive lives. PMID:26003325

  10. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  11. Psychophysiological aspects of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1997-12-01

    Motion sickness may occur during travel by sea, automobile, airplane, and space. Susceptibility changes with age and may be influenced by psychological factors. Susceptibility can be reduced in most people by medications that involve histamine or neurotransmitters acetylcholine and noradrenaline, and influence the vestibular system. PMID:9450266

  12. Psychophysiological aspects of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1997-12-01

    Motion sickness may occur during travel by sea, automobile, airplane, and space. Susceptibility changes with age and may be influenced by psychological factors. Susceptibility can be reduced in most people by medications that involve histamine or neurotransmitters acetylcholine and noradrenaline, and influence the vestibular system.

  13. Simulator sickness and HMD configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Jennifer A.

    1997-12-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD), often used in non-vehicle- based virtual environments (VEs), can be configured as either a stereoscopic or bi-ocular display. As a stereoscopic display the computer modeling the VE calculates two different views for each eye, based upon the views each eye normally receives due to their separation in the head. On the other hand, the same view can be presented to each eye, resulting in a bi- ocular display. The normally linked processes of accommodation and vergence must be decoupled when viewing through an HMD. This way of perceiving may lead to physiological problems. For example, a common problem with virtual environments (VE) is simulator sickness. Its symptoms are similar to those experienced in motion sickness, and include problems with eyestrain, disorientation, and nausea. A study was conducted in which both relative differences in simulator sickness and performance were examined for walking, tracking, distance estimation, and micromanipulation tasks. Using the self-report simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), data revealed that the stereoscopic condition was more nauseogenic. In addition, post-experimental disorientation, oculomotor discomfort and total severity measures correlated significantly with completion time on a task that required more near-far focal transitions within a short period of time than any other task.

  14. Mechanisms of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Eight subjects, male and female, were rotated using the step method to progressively increase the speed of rotation (+2 rpm) after every 40 head movements to a maximum of 35 rpm. The end point for motion sickness was the Graybiel Malaise III total of symptoms short of frank nausea. The drug treatments were placebo, scopolamine 0.6 mg and 1 mg, scopolamine 0.6 mg/d-amphetamine 10 mg, scopolamine 1 mg/d-amphetamine 10 mg, and amphetamine 10 mg. Scopolamine increased tolerated head movements over placebo level by + 81; scopolamine 1 mg + 183; d-amphetamine by + 118; scopolamine 0.6/d-amphetamine by + 165; and scopolamine 1 mg/d-amphetamine 10 mg by + 201. The drugs effective in preventing motion sickness are considered to be divided into those with central acetylcholine blocking activity and those which enhance norepinephrine activity. A combination of both of these actions produces the most effective antimotion sickness medications. It is concluded that the balance between the acetylcholine and norepinephrine activity in the CNS appears to be responsible for motion sickness.

  15. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  16. Theory of antimotion sickness drug mechanisms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, D. C.; Graybiel, A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a series of antimotion sickness drug evaluations indicates that drugs with central anticholinergic actions and drugs that increase central sympathetic activity are effective against motion sickness. The combination of these actions produces a synergistic effect against motion sickness. The effect of these medications on central acetylcholine or on norepinephrine could alter a balance between the neurons in the vestibular and reticular areas which influence motion sickness and also sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions. It is suggested that this could be their mechanism of action in preventing motion sickness.

  17. Simulator sickness provoked by a human centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M

    1991-10-01

    Simulator sickness is now a well-recognized entity. It is recognized as a form of motion sickness, having a higher incidence in the more sophisticated simulators. Human centrifuges (dynamic simulators) are the newest innovation in aircrew training devices. Simulator sickness has never been reported in human centrifuges. We are reporting on a case of delayed simulator sickness in a pilot-subject after a centrifuge experience. A review of the "psycho-physiological" problems routinely experienced by subjects on human centrifuges indicates such problems are due to simulator sickness, although they are not reported as such. In this paper, we give a brief overview of simulator sickness and briefly discuss simulator sickness, as related to the human centrifuge experience.

  18. Length of sick leave – Why not ask the sick-listed? Sick-listed individuals predict their length of sick leave more accurately than professionals

    PubMed Central

    Fleten, Nils; Johnsen, Roar; Førde, Olav Helge

    2004-01-01

    Background The knowledge of factors accurately predicting the long lasting sick leaves is sparse, but information on medical condition is believed to be necessary to identify persons at risk. Based on the current practice, with identifying sick-listed individuals at risk of long-lasting sick leaves, the objectives of this study were to inquire the diagnostic accuracy of length of sick leaves predicted in the Norwegian National Insurance Offices, and to compare their predictions with the self-predictions of the sick-listed. Methods Based on medical certificates, two National Insurance medical consultants and two National Insurance officers predicted, at day 14, the length of sick leave in 993 consecutive cases of sick leave, resulting from musculoskeletal or mental disorders, in this 1-year follow-up study. Two months later they reassessed 322 cases based on extended medical certificates. Self-predictions were obtained in 152 sick-listed subjects when their sick leave passed 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of the predictions was analysed by ROC area, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and positive predictive value was included in the analyses of predictive validity. Results The sick-listed identified sick leave lasting 12 weeks or longer with an ROC area of 80.9% (95% CI 73.7–86.8), while the corresponding estimates for medical consultants and officers had ROC areas of 55.6% (95% CI 45.6–65.6%) and 56.0% (95% CI 46.6–65.4%), respectively. The predictions of sick-listed males were significantly better than those of female subjects, and older subjects predicted somewhat better than younger subjects. Neither formal medical competence, nor additional medical information, noticeably improved the diagnostic accuracy based on medical certificates. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the accuracy of a prognosis based on medical documentation in sickness absence forms, is lower than that of one based on direct communication with the sick-listed themselves

  19. Prediction of future labour market outcome in a cohort of long-term sick- listed Danes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeted interventions for the long-term sick-listed may prevent permanent exclusion from the labour force. We aimed to develop a prediction method for identifying high risk groups for continued or recurrent long-term sickness absence, unemployment, or disability among persons on long-term sick leave. Methods We obtained individual characteristics and follow-up data from the Danish Register of Sickness Absence Compensation Benefits and Social Transfer Payments (RSS) during 2004 to 2010 for 189,279 Danes who experienced a period of long-term sickness absence (4+ weeks). In a learning data set, statistical prediction methods were built using logistic regression and a discrete event simulation approach for a one year prediction horizon. Personalized risk profiles were obtained for five outcomes: employment, unemployment, recurrent sickness absence, continuous long-term sickness absence, and early retirement from the labour market. Predictor variables included gender, age, socio-economic position, job type, chronic disease status, history of sickness absence, and prior history of unemployment. Separate models were built for times of economic growth (2005–2007) and times of recession (2008–2010). The accuracy of the prediction models was assessed with analyses of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and the Brier score in an independent validation data set. Results In comparison with a null model which ignored the predictor variables, logistic regression achieved only moderate prediction accuracy for the five outcome states. Results obtained with discrete event simulation were comparable with logistic regression. Conclusions Only moderate prediction accuracy could be achieved using the selected information from the Danish register RSS. Other variables need to be included in order to establish a prediction method which provides more accurate risk profiles for long-term sick-listed persons. PMID:24885866

  20. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  1. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Oman, C M

    1987-01-01

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurements of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  2. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which 4 observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  3. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Charles M.

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurement of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  4. Spacelab experiments on space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research results from ground and flight experiments on motion sickness and space sickness conducted by the Man Vehicle Laboratory are reviewed. New tools developed include a mathematical model for motion sickness, a method for quantitative measurements of skin pallor and blush in ambulatory subjects, and a magnitude estimation technique for ratio scaling of nausea or discomfort. These have been used to experimentally study the time course of skin pallor and subjective symptoms in laboratory motion sickness. In prolonged sickness, subjects become hypersensitive to nauseogenic stimuli. Results of a Spacelab-1 flight experiment are described in which four observers documented the stimulus factors for and the symptoms/signs of space sickness. The clinical character of space sickness differs somewhat from acute laboratory motion sickness. However SL-1 findings support the view that space sickness is fundamentally a motion sickness. Symptoms were subjectively alleviated by head movement restriction, maintenance of a familiar orientation with respect to the visual environment, and wedging between or strapping onto surfaces which provided broad contact cues confirming the absence of body motion.

  5. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M; Locatelli, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model.

  6. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M; Locatelli, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  7. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  8. Motion sickness: Can it be controlled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, David

    1988-01-01

    NASA is one of the few research centers concerned with motion sickness. Since the physiology of man has been developed in the one-gravity field Earth, the changes experienced by man in space are unique, and often result in symptoms that resemble motion sickness on Earth. NASA is concerned with motion sickness because it is very uncomfortable for the astronauts. Another concern of NASA is the possibility of a motion sickness astronaut regurgitating while he or she is sealed in an airtight space suit. This could be fatal. Motivated by these reasons, NASA spent thousands of dollars in research and development for a drug or technique for combating motion sickness. Several different treatments were developed for this disorder. Three of the most effective ways of combatting motion sickness are discussed.

  9. Animal models in motion sickness research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  10. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim for... employee mistakenly registered for unemployment benefits when he or she should have applied for sickness... office of the Board within a reasonable time after unemployment benefits were denied; or...

  11. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim for... employee mistakenly registered for unemployment benefits when he or she should have applied for sickness... office of the Board within a reasonable time after unemployment benefits were denied; or...

  12. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim for... employee mistakenly registered for unemployment benefits when he or she should have applied for sickness... office of the Board within a reasonable time after unemployment benefits were denied; or...

  13. Acute pulmonary oedema on the Ruwenzori mountain range.

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Mélot, C

    1990-01-01

    A 40 year old man had an episode of severe pulmonary oedema at 4000-5000 m during the ascent of the Margherita peak (5109 m) of Mount Stanley on the Ruwenzori. He had taken acetazolamide and high dose dexamethasone to treat symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Six years before he had been studied by right heart catheterisation as a healthy volunteer during hypoxic breathing at sea level. His pulmonary vascular reactivity had been within the normal range for 32 healthy subjects. This man had high altitude pulmonary oedema despite currently recommended treatments for acute mountain sickness and normal pulmonary vascular reactivity to hypoxia at sea level. PMID:2271350

  14. Giving information to sick children.

    PubMed

    Rozsos, E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes a study carried out among 14-18-year-old nursing students in Hungary. The students were asked to consider an ethical problem. The parents of a sick child ask that she should not be told of a forthcoming operation. Are the nurses to agree to this demand or not? The author concluded from this study that nurses need more training in ethical decision-making, that they need to know about the rights of children in hospital, and that nursing training should start when students are older.

  15. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  16. Sick sinus syndrome: strategies for reducing mortality.

    PubMed

    Cosín, J; Hernandiz, A; Solaz, J; Andres, F; Olagüe, J

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of sick sinus syndrome is slow, and its clinical and electrocardiographic manifestations are intermittent. A-V and I-V conduction disturbances often arise, but incidence of defects with clinical consequences is too low. Death rate, when large groups are considered, is slightly higher than that of the general population of the same age and with similar pathologies. Mortality depends on concomitant pathologies, on the development of congestive heart failure, on the arterial thromboembolism and on the type of sinus disease. The use of ventricular pacemakers (VVI) did not reduce mortality. Atrial pacing (AAI) gives the auricles electrical stability preventing fibrillation and systemic embolism. The hemodynamic role of the auricles is also preserved. As a consequence, death rate is reduced when AAI is used. In cases with a-v conduction disturbances or with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, dual chamber pacing (DDD) is preferable because it permits ventricular pacing to be continued even if a-v block or paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation appears. When using ventricular pacing and in cases in which pacing is not considered, warfarin or aspirin can prevent strokes and systemic embolism. In bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome requiring treatment of arrhythmias dual chamber pacemaker must be implanted. PMID:1304454

  17. [Acute altitude sickness and ventilatory function in subjects intermittently exposed to hypobaric hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Saldías, F; Beroíza, T; Lisboa, C

    1995-01-01

    Aiming to assess the magnitude of acute mountain sickness symptoms and ventilatory function in subjects intermittently exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, we studied 48 healthy men aged 32.6 +/- 8.2 years old who worked in a gold mine at a altitude of 4600 m, using a schedule of 8-12 days of work at the mine followed by 4 days of rest at the sea level. Studies were performed at the sea level (A), during the first two days of ascension (B) and after three or four days of stay at 4600 m (C). Mountain sickness symptoms were evaluated with a questionnaire devised in the 1991 International Hypoxia Symposium and respiratory function was assessed with a Collins Eagle II respirometer, following American Thoracic Society recommendations. Subjects reported mild to moderate symptoms during the first 24 hours of ascending (mean score of 6.4 +/- 3.1 for a maximum of 15). Forced vital capacity fell significantly in period B and returned to normal in period C and forced expiratory volume in 1 s did not change in any period. However, maximal expiratory flow and maximal midexpiratory flow rate significantly increased and remained elevated during the four days stay at the mine. No correlation was found between acute mountain sickness symptoms and changes in ventilatory function.

  18. Metals: In Sickness and in Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metals: In Sickness and in Health Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Metals: In Sickness and in Health ... Fats Do in the Body? This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  19. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  20. Predicting Motion Sickness During Parabolic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. Methods: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew 4 sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days prior to the flight. Results: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p= 0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. Conclusions: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  1. Jet lag and motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A N; Pascoe, P A; Spencer, M B; Benson, A J

    1993-04-01

    Jet lag. Present day aircraft operating round northern and southern latitudes cross time zones at almost the same rate as the earth rotates, and it is these rapid transmeridian transitions that lead to the syndrome commonly referred to as jet lag. On arrival at their destination, individuals find themselves out of synchrony with the social and time cues of their new environment and, until they adapt, may experience symptoms such as malaise, gastrointestinal disturbance, loss of appetite, tiredness during the day and poor sleep. The severity and exact nature of the problems vary with the direction of travel and the number of time zones crossed, and some people react more unfavourably to intercontinental travel than others. Clearly, with increasing numbers of passengers undertaking such journeys, there is considerable interest in strategies to reduce the immediate effects of jet lag or to facilitate acclimatisation. Motion sickness is a generic term which embraces seasickness, airsickness, carsickness, space sickness etc, names that identify the provocative environment or vehicle. It is a normal reaction of humans to exposure to certain motion stimuli that occur during passive transportation.

  2. [Review of sick house syndrome].

    PubMed

    Seki, Akihiko; Takigawa, Tomoko; Kishi, Reiko; Sakabe, Kou; Torii, Shinpei; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Katoh, Takahiko; Kira, Shohei; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2007-09-01

    'Sick house syndrome' (SHS) is a health issue that closely resembles sick building syndrome (SBS) that had occurred in European countries. The aim of this review is to clarify the characteristics of SHS by reviewing previous reports rigorously. We propose the definition of SHS as "health impairments caused by indoor air pollution, regardless of the place, causative substance, or pathogenesis". Cases of SBS are reported to occur predominantly in offices and sometimes schools, whereas those of SHS are usually found in general dwellings. In many cases, SHS is caused by biologically and/or chemically polluted indoor air. Physical factors might affect the impairments of SHS in some cases. It is considered that symptoms of SHS develop through toxic, allergic and/or some unknown mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms might also affect the development of SHS. It is still unclear whether SBS and SHS are very close or identical clinical entities, mostly because a general agreement on a diagnostic standard for SHS has not been established. Previous research gradually clarified the etiology of SHS. Further advances in research, diagnosis, and treatment of SHS are warranted with the following measures. Firstly, a clinical diagnostic standard including both subjective and objective findings must be established. Secondly, a standard procedure for assessing indoor air contamination should be established. Lastly, as previous research indicated multiple causative factors for SHS, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to obtain the grand picture of the syndrome. PMID:17969320

  3. Preventing recurrence of severe morning sickness

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon; Maltepe, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    QUESTION A recent Motherisk article showed that initiating antinauseants even before symptoms start could prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness. In the study described, however, different physicians used different drugs. How can one be sure which drugs work? ANSWER The study of 26 women who had had severe morning sickness during previous pregnancies showed that using antiemetics before symptoms of morning sickness started appeared to prevent recurrence of severe morning sickness in subsequent pregnancies. Physicians in the United States used various antinauseant drugs. Physicians in Canada administered only one drug, the combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin®), to 12 women. Subanalysis of these 12 women revealed that pre-emptive use of doxylamine-pyridoxine significantly decreased the likelihood that severe morning sickness would recur. PMID:17279232

  4. Immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (PrP27-30) in chronic wasting disease of Rocky Mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Guiroy, D C; Williams, E S; Yanagihara, R; Gajdusek, D C

    1991-05-27

    Scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (CWD), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. We report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (PrP27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) naturally affected with CWD. Similar findings have been shown in kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome in humans. Our data corroborate that CWD in Rocky Mountain elk and hybrids of mule deer and white-tailed deer belongs to the subacute spongiform virus encephalopathies (transmissible cerebral amyloidoses).

  5. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger ... of New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote ... date:  Mar 8, 2001 Images:  Christmas Mountains location:  Canada ...

  6. Rocky Mountain acidification study

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

  7. Simulator sickness in an army simulator.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, M G; Braithwaite, B D

    1990-01-01

    Simulator sickness describes a symptom reported by aircrew during or after flight simulator training. Some features are common to motion sickness but others, which are unusual during real flight, are believed to result specifically from the simulator environment. This paper describes the results of a questionnaire study examining the incidence and factors influencing simulator sickness in any army training system. Case histories are described and conclusions drawn with respect to health and safety, training and the effect on flight operations. One hundred and fifteen aircrew were registered in the questionnaire study. Data were collected from a history questionnaire, a post-sortie report and a delayed report form. Sixty-nine per cent of aircrew gave a history of symptoms in the simulator and 59.9 per cent experienced at least one symptom during the study period although few symptoms were rated as being other than slight. Only 3.6 per cent of subjects reported symptoms of disequilibrium. Comparative analysis of the results was performed after scoring symptoms to produce a sickness rating. This showed: association between simulator-induced sickness and greater flying experience; adaptation to the simulator environment; a history of sea sickness may predict susceptibility to simulator sickness; and no association of crew role and simulator sickness. Although some authorities believe simulator sickness to be a potential flight safety hazard there was little evidence from this study. Guidelines for the prevention of the problem are presented now that many factors have been identified. A general policy to 'ground' aircrew for a period following simulator training is not necessary, but severe cases should be assessed individually.

  8. [Multiple chemical sensitivity in sick-building syndrome].

    PubMed

    Arnold Llamosas, Pablo A; Arrizabalaga Clemente, Pilar; Bonet Agusti, Montserrat; de la Fuente Brull, Xavier

    2006-05-27

    The sick building syndrome includes irritation of the eyes and the respiratory tract neurotoxicity affectation and skin problems, which can occur in individuals under improperly ventilated buildings. Poor air quality, as shown in CO2 atmospheric levels of more than 1,000 ppm, results in a pathological exposure to biological and chemical products. We present a work-related case of multiple chemical hypersensitivity from a dialysis unit that had no air renewal. This person, who was summitted to continuous exposure despite having taken corrective measures in the ventilation, developed chronic fatigue syndrome. An acoustic voice observation alerted of the case which led to the analysis of the environmental conditions which confirmed the relationship between multiple chemical hypersensitivity and chronic fatigue syndrome. This case stresses the neglected fact that all health service centres pose a high risk of chemical exposure and that there exists a lack of rigoroursness in putting in practice scientific medical knowledge. PMID:16883665

  9. Simulator sickness: a problem for Army aviation.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J S

    1987-04-01

    "Simulator Sickness" describes a symptom complex frequently reported by pilots during or after flight simulator training. There were 112 helicopter pilots at a U.S. Army AH-1 Cobra Flight Weapons Simulator (FWS) who completed a symptom-oriented subjective questionnaire. Of these, 40% reported symptoms of dysequilibrium; pilots developing simulator sickness had significantly more total and AH-1 flight time. Adaptation to the syndrome occurred with increasing FWS experience. The history and aeromedical significance of simulator sickness are briefly reviewed, and a case report presented. A mandatory grounding policy in use locally is described. Potential treatment strategies are briefly discussed.

  10. Space motion sickness monitoring experiment - Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.; Lichtenberg, Byron K.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed firsthand report on symptoms and signs of space motion sickness and fluid shift observed by four specially trained crewmembers during Shuttle/Spacelab 1, launched on November 28, 1983 is presented. Results show that three crewmen experienced persistent overall discomfort and vomited repeatedly. Symptom pattern was generally similar to that seen in the individuals preflight, except that prodromalnausea was brief or absent in some cases. Symptoms were clearly modulated by head movement, were exacerbated by unfamiliar visual cues, and could be reduced by physical restraint providing contact cues around the body. The results support the view that space sickness is a form of motion sickness.

  11. Illusory self motion and simulator sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettinger, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a discussion of simulator sickness (with applications to motion sickness and space sickness) based on the notion of senses as perceptual systems, and the sensory conflict theory. Most forms of the sensory conflict theory unnecessarily propose the existence of a neural store. The neural store is thought to consist of a record of previous perceptual experiences against which currently experienced patterns of stimulation are compared. The authors seek to establish that in its most parsimonious form the sensory conflict theory does not require a construct such as the neural store. In its simpler form, the sensory conflict theory complements and extends Gibson's view of the senses as perceptual systems.

  12. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2... INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required for claiming benefits. To claim sickness benefits for a period of inability to work due to an illness or...

  13. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Steenstra, I; Verbeek, J; Heymans, M; Bongers, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. Aims: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed with acute LBP. Methods: Systematic literature search with a quality assessment of studies, assessment of levels of evidence for all factors, and pooling of effect sizes. Results: Inclusion of studies in the review was restricted to inception cohort studies of workers with LBP on sick leave for less than six weeks, with the outcome measured in absolute terms, relative terms, survival curve, or duration of sick leave. Of the studies, 18 publications (14 cohorts) fulfilled all inclusion criteria. One low quality study, four moderate quality studies, and nine high quality studies were identified; 79 prognostic factors were studied and grouped in eight categories for which the evidence was assessed. Conclusions: Specific LBP, higher disability levels, older age, female gender, more social dysfunction and more social isolation, heavier work, and receiving higher compensation were identified as predictors for a longer duration of sick leave. A history of LBP, job satisfaction, educational level, marital status, number of dependants, smoking, working more than 8 hour shifts, occupation, and size of industry or company do not influence duration of sick leave due to LBP. Many different constructs were measured to identify psychosocial predictors of long term sick leave, which made it impossible to determine the role of these factors. PMID:16299094

  14. Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are considerable phenomenological similarities between sickness behavior and depression, for example, behavioral inhibition, anorexia and weight loss, and melancholic (anhedonia), physio-somatic (fatigue, hyperalgesia, malaise), anxiety and neurocognitive symptoms. In clinical depression, however, a transition occurs to sensitization of immuno-inflammatory pathways, progressive damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA, and autoimmune responses directed against self-epitopes. The latter mechanisms are the substrate of a neuroprogressive process, whereby multiple depressive episodes cause neural tissue damage and consequent functional and cognitive sequelae. Thus, shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology. Inflammation may provoke a Janus-faced response with a good, acute side, generating protective inflammation through sickness behavior and a bad, chronic side, for example, clinical depression, a lifelong disorder with positive feedback loops between (neuro)inflammation and (neuro)degenerative processes following less well defined triggers. PMID:22747645

  15. Eating extra calories when sick - children

    MedlinePlus

    Getting more calories - children; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories ... When children are sick or undergoing cancer treatment, they may not feel like eating. But your child needs to ...

  16. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H., III; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility of decompression sickness (DCS).

  17. Cardiovascular dynamics during space sickness and deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Rigney, David R.

    1991-01-01

    We are currently funded by NASA for the project, 'Cardiovascular Dynamics During Space Sickness and Deconditioning.' NASA has given priority to the investigation of two problems encountered in the long-term space flights currently being planned: (1) space motion sickness; and (2) cardiovascular deconditioning. We have proposed to use spectral and nonlinear dynamical analysis of heart rate data to quantify the presence of these problems and to evaluate countermeasures against them.

  18. Airborne testing of three antimotion sickness preparations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. H.; Money, K. E.; Graybiel, A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirteen human volunteers were exposed to weekly flights in which standardized, steep turns were used to produce motion sickness. A combination of promethazine hydrochloride (25 mg) plus ephedrine sulphate (25 mg) was found to be equally as effective as the combination of 1-scopolamine hydrobromide (0.35 mg) plus d-amphetamine sulphate (5 mg). Droperidol (2.5 mg) was indistinguishable from the placebo. It was concluded that the treatment of choice for motion sickness is promethazine plus ephedrine.

  19. Chronic hypoxia in Andeans; are there lessons for neurology at sea level?

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Otto; Minko, Tamara; Qualls, Clifford; Pozharov, Vitaly; Gamboa, Jorge; Gamboa, Alfredo; Pakunlu, Rafica I

    2006-08-15

    Hypoxia is implicated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We posited that changes in gene expression induced by ambient hypoxia at altitude may be neuroprotective to natives of these regions. We studied 30 men. Twenty natives of Cerro de Pasco (CP), altitude 4,338 m were examined in CP; then transported within 6 h to Lima (150 m-sea level) and examined 1 h after arrival. They were assessed by a Chronic Mountain Sickness-score (CMS-sc) in CP, 10 were normal Andeans and 10 had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a sudden inexplicable loss of adaptation to their native environment. RNA was extracted from venous blood white cells. The Andeans were compared to 10 normal US men living at 1500 m using RT-PCR. We focused on the cyto-neuro-protective genes, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX 1), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70), heat shock protein-90 (HSP-90), and the neuroprotective enzyme, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 1 (Nnmat 1). CMS patients had significantly higher levels of gene expression (HMOX-1, HSP-70, ATM) than Andean controls in CP. HSP-90 and Nmnat 1, however, were higher in Andean controls in all locations. Significant reductions of all gene products, within an hour of arriving in normoxia in Lima, were found. In Andean controls, the gene products in Lima fell to levels approaching US controls. Correlation and regression methods showed men with high expression of all gene products had an average CMS-sc=19.8; those with low expression a normal score (9.4, P=0.02). ATM expression was related to age (P<0.001). The natural experiment that unfolds in the mountainous regions of the world provides opportunities to study neuroprotection in intact humans.

  20. Salivary total protein and experimental Coriolis sickness.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, M; Reschke, M F; Henley, C; MacDonald, S; Kohl, R; Mizukoshi, K

    1993-01-01

    Symptomatic reporting has been used in quantifying the severity of motion sickness including Coriolis sickness. This study was designed to objectively examine if the dynamic changes of salivary protein concentration relate to the severity of Coriolis sickness. Healthy adults with normal vestibular function underwent a modified Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI) test, utilizing a staircase profile. Salivary samples were obtained prior to stimulation, 15, 30, and 45 min following stimulus onset, and/or upon reaching "nausea-II" endpoint. Total protein concentration tended to rise over the initial 30 min of stimulation, and then level off or decline. A statistically significant difference was found between the pre-stimulation and 30 min samples. Although some variability existed among the subjects, the general pattern of changes along the time course was similar. An inverse correlation approaching statistical significance was found between control (non-stimulus) total protein levels, and minutes of Coriolis stimulation required to reach the "nausea-II" endpoint. Thus, baseline salivary total protein levels can be of use in predicting susceptibility of Coriolis sickness and other forms of motion sickness.

  1. Acetazolamide and chronic hypoxia: effects on haemorheology and pulmonary haemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Aurélien; Connes, Philippe; Quidu, Patricia; Marchant, Dominique; Brunet, Julien; Levy, Bernard I; Vilar, José; Safeukui, Innocent; Cymbalista, Florence; Maignan, Maxime; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Favret, Fabrice

    2012-12-01

    We tested the effect of acetazolamide on blood mechanical properties and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during chronic hypoxia. Six groups of rats were either treated or not treated with acetazolamide (curative: treated after 10 days of hypoxic exposure; preventive: treated before hypoxic exposure with 40 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) and either exposed or not exposed to 3 weeks of hypoxia (at altitude >5,500 m). They were then used to assess the role of acetazolamide on pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, blood volume, haematological and haemorheological parameters. Chronic hypoxia increased haematocrit, blood viscosity and PVR, and decreased cardiac output. Acetazolamide treatment in hypoxic rats decreased haematocrit (curative by -10% and preventive by -11%), PVR (curative by -36% and preventive by -49%) and right ventricular hypertrophy (preventive -20%), and increased cardiac output (curative by +60% and preventive by +115%). Blood viscosity was significantly decreased after curative acetazolamide treatment (-16%) and was correlated with PVR (r=0.87, p<0.05), suggesting that blood viscosity could influence pulmonary haemodynamics. The fall in pulmonary vascular hindrance (curative by -27% and preventive by -45%) after treatment suggests that acetazolamide could decrease pulmonary vessels remodelling under chronic hypoxia. The effect of acetazolamide is multifactorial by acting on erythropoiesis, pulmonary circulation, haemorheological properties and cardiac output, and could represent a pertinent treatment of chronic mountain sickness. PMID:22523353

  2. Prognosis for a sick planet.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Global warming is the most important science issue of the 21st century, challenging the very structure of our global society. The study of past climate has shown that the current global climate system is extremely sensitive to human-induced climate change. The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the industrial revolution has already caused changes with clear evidence for a 0.75 degrees C rise in global temperatures and 22 cm rise in sea level during the 20th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change synthesis report (2007) predicts that global temperatures by 2100 could rise by between 1.1 degrees C and 6.4 degrees C. Sea level could rise by between 28 cm and 79 cm, more if the melting of the polar ice caps accelerates. In addition, weather patterns will become less predictable and the occurrence of extreme climate events, such as storms, floods, heat waves and droughts, will increase. The potential effects of global warming on human society are devastating. We do, however, already have many of the technological solutions to cure our sick planet.

  3. [Severe decompression sickness in divers].

    PubMed

    Beuster, W; van Laak, U

    1999-01-01

    The term "decompression illness (DCI)" is a disorder which arises from the presence of ectopic gas bubbles following decompression. Scuba diving poses the risk of two typically clinical syndromes: decompression sickness (DCS) and arterial gas embolism (AGE). DCS results from the formation of gas bubbles in the tissues of the body and in the blood due to rapid reduction of the environmental pressure. AGE is caused by pulmonary overinflation if the breathing gas cannot be exhaled adequately during the ascent. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of these two disorders are quite different, both of them lead to the same result: inert gas bubbles that may cause impairment of vital functions due to hypoxia. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of DCI is the first step of the therapy. The emergency treatment contains: basic life support, advanced life support--if necessary, horizontal positioning of the victim, administration of 100% normobaric oxygen via face mask or endotracheal tube, rehydration, rapid transportation to the nearest emergency department/hyperbaric facility for definitive treatment in order to prevent serious neurological sequelae.

  4. [The sick building syndrome (SBS)].

    PubMed

    Ezratty, Véronique

    2003-10-11

    AN INCREASINGLY COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM: Complaints related to indoor environment represent one of the most frequent problems that environmental health practitioners are confronted with. Hence the incidence of the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) has been increasing since the Seventies. DIFFERING DEFINITIONS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS: The WHO defines SBS as an excess of complaints and symptoms occurring in certain occupants of non-industrial buildings. The syndrome can only be evoked after elimination in the person concerned of a disease related to the building, the aetiological agent of which is identifiable. The symptoms described during SBS (headaches, concentration problems, asthenia, irritation of the skin or nasal mucosa, of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.) are non specific and frequently observed in the general population. AN UNKNOWN CASE, BUT NUMEROUS AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS SUSPECTED: There is no unanimously accepted definition nor physio-pathological theory to explain the occurrence of SBS in a particular building. Many favouring factors, including the type and rate of ventilation, volatile organic compounds, particles and humidity have been suspected. TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL MANAGEMENT IS REQUIRED: Although the symptoms are benign, they can be uncomfortable or even handicapping and prevent the functioning of workplaces. The SBS, the social and economical costs of which are high, requires multidisciplinary management. PMID:14576597

  5. A new goldfish model to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of drugs used for motion sickness in different gravity loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathers, Claire M.; Mukai, Chiaki; Smith, Cedric M.; Schraeder, Paul L.

    2001-08-01

    This paper proposes a new goldfish model to predict pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic effects of drugs used to treat motion sickness administered in differing gravity loads. The assumption of these experiments is that the vestibular system is dominant in producing motion sickness and that the visual system is secondary or of small import in the production of motion sickness. Studies will evaluate the parameter of gravity and the contribution of vision to the role of the neurovestibular system in the initiation of motion sickness with and without pharmacologic agents. Promethazine will be studied first. A comparison of data obtained in different groups of goldfish will be done (normal vs. acutely and chronically bilaterally blinded vs. sham operated). Some fish will be bilaterally blinded 10 months prior to initiation of the experiment (designated the chronically bilaterally blinded group of goldfish) to evaluate the neuroplasticity of the nervous system and the associated return of neurovestibular function. Data will be obtained under differing gravity loads with and without a pharmacological agent for motion sickness. Experiments will differentiate pharmacological effects on vision vs. neurovestibular input to motion sickness. Comparison of data obtained in the normal fish and in acutely and chronically bilaterally blinded fish with those obtained in fish with intact and denervated otoliths will differentiate if the visual or neurovestibular system is dominant in response to altered gravity and/or drugs. Experiments will contribute to validation of the goldfish as a model for humans since plasticity of the central nervous system allows astronauts to adapt to the altered visual stimulus conditions of 0-g. Space motion sickness may occur until such an adaptation is achieved.

  6. 20 CFR 335.4 - Filing statement of sickness and claim for sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.4 Filing statement of sickness and claim for... defined in section 3 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act or has exhausted his or her rights to... employee mistakenly registered for unemployment benefits when he or she should have applied for...

  7. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, J. T.; Ford, G.; Krnavek, J. M.; Hwang, E. y.; Kornilova, L. N.; Leigh, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill-Jones, we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Methods: Nineteen subjects read text while making +/-20deg head movements in the horizontal plane at 0.2 Hz while wearing left-right reversing prisms during exposure to 4 Hz stroboscopic or normal room illumination. Testing was repeated using LCD shutter glasses as the stroboscopic source with an additional 19 subjects. Results: With Strobe, motion sickness was significantly lower than with normal room illumination. Results with the LCD shutter glasses were analogous to those observed with environmental strobe. Conclusions: Stroboscopic illumination appears to be effective where retinal slip is a factor in eliciting motion sickness. Additional research is evaluating the glasses efficacy for, carsickness, sickness in parabolic flight and seasickness. There is evidence from pilot studies showing that the glasses reduce saccade velocity to visually presented targets by approximately half of the normal values. It is interesting to note that adaptation to space flight may also slow saccade velocity.

  8. Reliability of sickness certificates in detecting potential sick leave reduction by modifying working conditions: a clinical epidemiology study

    PubMed Central

    Fleten, Nils; Johnsen, Roar; Østrem, Bente Skipenes

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical sickness certificates are generally the main source for information when scrutinizing the need for aimed intervention strategies to avoid or reduce the individual and community side effects of sick leave. This study explored the value of medical sickness certificates related to daily work in Norwegian National Insurance Offices to identify sick-listed persons, where modified working conditions might reduce the ongoing sick leave. Methods The potential for reducing the ongoing sick leave by modifying working conditions was individually assessed on routine sickness certificates in 999 consecutive sick leave episodes by four Norwegian National Insurance collaborators, two with and two without formal medical competence. The study took place in Northern Norway in 1997 and 1998. Agreement analysed with differences against mean, kappa, and proportional-agreement analysis within and between groups of assessors was used in the judgement. Agreements between the assessors and the self-assessment of sick-listed subjects were additionally analysed in 159 sick-leave episodes. Results Both sick-listed subjects and National Insurance collaborators anticipated a potential reduction in sick leave in 20–30% of cases, and in another 20% the potential was assessed as possible. The chance corrected agreements, however, were poor (k < 0.20) within and between groups of National Insurance collaborators. The agreement between National Insurance collaborators and the sick-listed subjects was no better than chance. Neither extended medical information nor formal medical competence increased agreement in cases where modified working conditions might have reduced sick leave. Conclusion Information in medical sickness certificates proved ineffective in detecting cases where modified working conditions may reduce sick leave, and focusing on medical certificates may prevent identification of needed interventions. Strategies on how to communicate directly with sick

  9. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1). The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3) %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at

  10. Does a motion base prevent simulator sickness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, Thomas J.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity motion cues to reduce the discrepancy between visually implied motion and actual motion is tested experimentally using the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Ten pilot subjects use the VMS to fly simulated S-turns and sawtooths which generate a high incidence of motion sickness. The subjects fly the maneuvers on separate days both with and without use of a motion base provided by the VMS, and data are collected regarding symptoms, dark focus, and postural equilibrium. The motion-base condition is shown to be practically irrelevant with respect to the incidence and severity of motion sickness. It is suggested that the data-collection procedure cannot detect differences in sickness levels, and the false cues of the motion condition are theorized to have an adverse impact approximately equivalent to the absence of cues in a fixed-base condition.

  11. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    PubMed

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  12. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  13. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  14. Gastrointestinal motility in space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms in space motion sickness (SMS) are significantly different from those in ordinary motion sickness (MS). Recording and tabulation of sounds was the only technique that could be used as a measure of motility during spaceflight operations. There were 17 subjects, six unaffected by SMS, who made ambulatory recordings preflight and inflight. With one exception, all those affected had sharply reduced sounds, while those unaffected had increases or moderate reductions. The mechanism of vomiting in SMS appears to be secondary to this ileus, in contrast to vomiting in ordinary MS, where the emesis center is thought to be directly triggered by the vestibular system.

  15. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H. III; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) is identified by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space, as defined in the HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD). This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility that decompression sickness may occur.

  16. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  17. Decompression Sickness in Sport Scuba Diving.

    PubMed

    Davis, J C; Bracker, M D

    1988-02-01

    In brief: Sport scuba diving in inland bodies of water has gained in popularity, and travelers to remote areas can fly home soon after a diving trip. Thus it is not unusual to see a case of decompression sickness in an emergency care facility, regardless of its location. Symptoms of decompression sickness may occur minutes or hours after diving with compressed gas. They include marked fatigue, pruritic mottled skin lesions, pain (joints, back, abdomen), weakness or paralysis of isolated or regional muscle groups, paresthesia, urinary retention, loss of anal sphincter control, dyspnea, coughing, vertigo, and substernal pain. Most patients respond quickly to prompt treatment in hyperbaric chambers, and the symptoms resolve completely.

  18. Neurohumoral mechanism of space motion sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Egorov, A. D.; Nichiporuk, I. A.

    This paper reviews existing hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of adaptation of the vestibular apparatus and related somatosensory systems to microgravity with reference to the flight data. Having in view theoretical concepts and experimental data accumulated in space flights, a conceptual model of the development of a functional system responsible for the termination of vestibular dysfunction and space motion sickness manifestations is presented. It is also shown that changes in the hormonal status during motion sickness induced by vestibular stimulation give evidence that endocrine regulation of certain functions can be involved in adaptive responses.

  19. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  20. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  1. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  2. Effect of domperidone on ventilation and polycythemia after 5 weeks of chronic hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Macarlupú, J L; Rivera-Chira, M; Monge-C, C; León-Velarde, F

    2003-04-15

    Chronically hypoxic humans and some mammals have attenuated ventilatory responses, which have been associated with high dopamine level in carotid bodies. Alveolar hypoventilation and blunted ventilatory response have been recognized to be at the basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness by generating arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. To investigate whether dopamine antagonism could decrease the hemoglobin concentration by stimulating resting ventilation (VE) and/or hypoxic ventilatory response, 18 chronically hypoxic rats (5 weeks, PB=433 Torr) were studied with and without domperidone treatment (a peripheral dopamine antagonist). Acute and prolonged treatment significantly increased poikilocapnic ventilatory response to hypoxia (RVE ml/min/kg=VE at 0.1 FI(O(2))-VE at 0.21 FI(O(2))), from 506+/-36 to 697+/-48; and from 394+/-37 to 660+/-81, respectively. In addition, Domperidone treatment decreased hemoglobin concentration from 21.6+/-0.29 to 18.9+/-0.19 (P<0.01) in rats chronically exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Our study suggests that the stimulant effect of D(2)-R blockade on ventilatory response to hypoxia seems to compensate the low hypoxic peripheral chemosensitivity after chronic exposure and the latter in turn decrease hemoglobin concentration.

  3. Differences in sickness absence between self-employed and employed doctors: a cross-sectional study on national sample of Norwegian doctors in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors have a low prevalence of sickness absence. Employment status is a determinant in the multifactorial background of sickness absence. The effect of doctors’ employment status on sickness absence is unexplored. The study compares the number of sickness absence days during the last 12 months and the impact of employment status, psychosocial work stress, self-rated health and demographics on sickness absence between self-employed practitioners and employed hospital doctors in Norway. Methods The study population consisted of a representative sample of 521 employed interns and consultants and 313 self-employed GPs and private practice specialists in Norway, who received postal questionnaires in 2010. The questionnaires contained items on sickness absence days during the last 12 months, employment status, demographics, self-rated health, professional autonomy and psychosocial work stress. Results 84% (95% CI 80 to 88%) of self-employed and 60% (95% CI 55 to 64%) of employed doctors reported no absence at all last year. In three multivariate logistic regression models with sickness absence as response variable, employment category was a highly significant predictor for absence vs. no absence, 1 to 3 days of absence vs. no absence and 4 to 99 days of absence vs. no absence), while in a model with 100 or more days of absence vs. no absence, there was no difference between employment categories, suggesting that serious chronic disease or injury is less dependent on employment category. Average or poor self-rated health and low professional autonomy, were also significant predictors of sickness absence, while psychosocial work stress, age and gender were not. Conclusion Self-employed GPs and private practice specialist reported lower sickness absence than employed hospital doctors. Differences in sickness compensation, and organisational and individual factors may to a certain extent explain this finding. PMID:24885230

  4. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  5. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  6. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section 335.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as...

  7. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  8. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section 335.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as...

  9. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of sickness benefits. 335.6 Section 335.6 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.6 Payment of sickness benefits. (a) General rule. Except as...

  10. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT SICKNESS BENEFITS § 335.2 Manner of claiming sickness benefits. (a) Forms required...

  11. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fourth consecutive day of sickness in a period of continuing sickness, as defined in § 335.1(c), but... an initial period of continuing sickness from June 14 through July 25, and all days in that period... her subsequent registration period covers June 28 to July 11, and July 12 to July 25. In the...

  12. 20 CFR 335.6 - Payment of sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fourth consecutive day of sickness in a period of continuing sickness, as defined in § 335.1(c), but... an initial period of continuing sickness from June 14 through July 25, and all days in that period... her subsequent registration period covers June 28 to July 11, and July 12 to July 25. In the...

  13. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  14. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  15. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  16. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  17. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  18. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Getting more calories - adults; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories ... If you are sick or undergoing cancer treatment, you may not feel like eating. But it is important to get enough protein and calories so you do not lose too ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 65. The incidence of this condition increases with age. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics ... adults, sick sinus syndrome is often associated with age-related changes in the heart. Over time, the SA node may ... Related Information What is a gene? What is a gene ...

  20. [Decompression sickness after diving and following flying].

    PubMed

    Laursen, S B; Grønfeldt, W; Jacobsen, E

    1999-07-26

    A case of delayed symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS) after diving and flying is reported. The diver presented with classical signs of type 2 DCS, probably caused by air travel 16 hours after SCUBA diving. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in a decompression chamber was successful. Guidelines to prevent DCS for recreational divers who plan to fly after diving are presented.

  1. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    PubMed

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem.

  2. Sensory neurobiology: demystifying the sick sense.

    PubMed

    Bozza, Thomas

    2015-02-16

    The vomeronasal organ, a sensory structure within the olfactory system, detects chemical signals that affect social and sexual behaviors and that elicit responses to predator odors. A recent study demonstrates that innate avoidance of sick conspecifics requires an intact vomeronasal organ, expanding the repertoire of biological functions known to be mediated by this olfactory subsystem. PMID:25689911

  3. [23andMe and motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand

    2016-05-01

    A Genome Wide Association Study on propensity to motion sickness published by 23andMe gives interesting results, shows validity for self-reported phenotypic information and underlines the value of the model developed by the company for customer participation in genetic studies. PMID:27225928

  4. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  5. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  6. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  7. [Sick building syndrome: three case reports].

    PubMed

    Bogacka, E

    1999-05-01

    SBS--sick building syndrome--is a set multi-organ symptoms related to long-term staying in "sick buildings". These are modern, energy saving, air tight buildings with reduced ventilation. As a result of such construction, harmful, air-borne substances issued by interior decoration materials, air-conditioning systems and working people are cumulated. The study presents three cases of allergic patients whose original allergic illnesses got aggravated as an effect of: 1) staying in a freshly redecorated room, 2) staying in a fully air-conditioned room, 3) long-term exposition to bacteria and fungi allergens developing in old, used up filters of a car air-condition system.

  8. African horse sickness and African carnivores.

    PubMed

    Alexander, K A; Kat, P W; House, J; House, C; O'Brien, S J; Laurenson, M K; McNutt, J W; Osburn, B I

    1995-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease that affects equids, and is principally transmitted by Culicoides spp. that are biological vectors of AHS viruses (AHSV). The repeated spread of AHSV from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, northern Africa and the Iberian peninsula indicate that a better understanding of AHS epizootiology is needed. African horse sickness has long been known to infect and cause mortality among domestic dogs that ingest virus contaminated meat, but it is uncertain what role carnivores play in transmission of the virus. We present evidence of widespread natural AHS infection among a diversity of African carnivore species. We hypothesize that such infection resulted from ingestion of meat and organs from AHS-infected prey species. The effect of AHS on the carnivores is unknown, as is their role in the maintenance cycle of the disease.

  9. Sick sinus syndrome: a family study.

    PubMed

    Rogińska, Natalia; Bieganowska, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    A case of related individuals affected by sick sinus syndrome is presented in this study. The clinical and electrocardiographic signs of sinus node dysfunction and the most common causes of this disease are presented. Subsequently, the article includes descriptions of sinus node disease in three related children as well as details of the disease in their relatives. A literature review of the genetics of familial sinus node dysfunction concludes the study.

  10. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  11. Integrated management of the sick child.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria and malnutrition account for more than 70% of deaths and health facility visits among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. A number of programmes in WHO and UNICEF have developed an approach to the integrated management of the sick child, which is being coordinated by WHO's Division for the Control of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease. Integrated clinical guidelines have been developed and a training course for health workers in outpatient (first level) health facilities has been completed. In addition to case management of these diseases, the course incorporates significant prevention of disease through promotion of breast-feeding, counselling to solve feeding problems, and immunization of sick children. Other materials to train and support health workers are also being developed: an inpatient case management training course, medical school curricular materials, a drug supply management course, and materials to support monitoring and reinforcement of skills after training. A planning guide for interventions to improve household management of childhood illness is also being developed. Since management of the sick child is a cost-effective health intervention, which has been estimated to have a large impact on the global burden of disease in developing countries, the completion of these materials and their wide implementation should have a substantial impact on child mortality.

  12. History of Sleeping Sickness in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hide, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    The history of human sleeping sickness in East Africa is characterized by the appearance of disease epidemics interspersed by long periods of endemicity. Despite the presence of the tsetse fly in large areas of East Africa, these epidemics tend to occur multiply in specific regions or foci rather than spreading over vast areas. Many theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but recent molecular approaches and detailed analyses of epidemics have highlighted the stability of human-infective trypanosome strains within these foci. The new molecular data, taken alongside the history and biology of human sleeping sickness, are beginning to highlight the important factors involved in the generation of epidemics. Specific, human-infective trypanosome strains may be associated with each focus, which, in the presence of the right conditions, can be responsible for the generation of an epidemic. Changes in agricultural practice, favoring the presence of tsetse flies, and the important contribution of domestic animals as a reservoir for the parasite are key factors in the maintenance of such epidemics. This review examines the contribution of molecular and genetic data to our understanding of the epidemiology and history of human sleeping sickness in East Africa. PMID:9880477

  13. A Countermeasure for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests

  14. Transfer of sick children by air.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, N N; Aggarwal, S

    2000-08-01

    The annual growth rate of air traffic is increasing at the rate of about 7% all over the world. Children and adolescents make a significant chunk of travelling population. Some of the neonates too take to civil air and travel under various circumstances. Others travel for the reasons of medical air evacuation and better treatment at some specialized tertiary care centers, within India or abroad or simply as medical emergency. With the increasing availability of air taxis and air ambulances, it has become necessary for the pediatricians to know the consequences and potential hazards of transfer of the sick by air, lest they lose their patients unintentionally despite professional proficiency. Air evacuation of sick child is a highly specialized job, much different from an evacuation by any fast car ambulance. The paper discusses the general impact of aviation stresses in civil aviation with special reference to sick neonates, children and adolescents, and provides general guidelines, which could be applied to any particular clinical condition with knowledge of underlying physiological processes and anticipated alterations in cabin environment. It also brings out the issues of proper pre-flight assessment, fitness to undertake air transfer, general handling of patient under transfer, desirable onboard procedures, do s and don ts during air transfer, limitations of conventional neonatal/child resuscitation kits, available medical support in aircraft cabins, proper use of hardware including physiology monitoring systems, permissible specialized medical aids, and the requirement and use of equipment during air evacuation. The importance of high awareness and preventive measures is reiterated.

  15. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Calkins, D S; Reschke, M F; Kennedy, R S; Dunlop, W P

    1987-09-01

    Accurate prediction of space motion sickness is dependent, in part, upon the reliability of terrestrial-based motion sickness susceptibility tests. In the present study, test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: 1) Coriolis Sickness Sensitivity Index (CSSI); 2) Staircase Velocity Movement Test (SVMT); and 3) Parabolic Flight Static Chair Test (PSCT). The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability. The apparent inconsistency between our finding of high reliability of predictive tests, and previous reports of low correlations between ground-based predictors and space motion sickness may be due to unreliability in assessment of the sickness criterion. Issues of reliability and validity of predictor and criterion measures, and their implications for future development of ground-based predictive tests are discussed in some detail.

  16. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W

    1985-10-01

    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  17. A stimulator for laboratory studies of motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A motion sickness device is described which produces motion sickness in about 40 percent of an unselected population of unrestrained female cats during a 30-min exposure at 0.28 Hz. The apparatus provides a gentle wave stimulus, similar to that provided by an amusement park Ferris Wheel. Two cats may be tested at the same time. This device is useful for studies of putative antimotion sickness drugs or the biochemical basis of the emetic response to motion.

  18. A stimulator for laboratory studies of motion sickness in cats.

    PubMed

    Crampton, G H; Lucot, J B

    1985-05-01

    A motion sickness device is described which produces motion sickness in about 40% of an unselected population of unrestrained female cats during a 30-min exposure at 0.28 Hz. The apparatus provides a gentle wave stimulus, similar to that provided by an amusement park Ferris Wheel. Two cats may be tested at the same time. This device is useful for studies of putative antimotion sickness drugs or the biochemical basis of the emetic response to motion.

  19. Chinese hyper-susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Leblanc, Ree; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that control individual differences in susceptible to motion sickness. A serendipitous observation in our laboratory that most Chinese subjects become motion sick prompted this study. We used a rotating optokinetic drum to provoke motion sickness and compared gastric responses and symptom reports of Chinese, European-American, and African-American subjects. There was no difference in the responses of European-American and African-American subjects; however, Chinese subjects showed significantly greater disturbances in gastric activity and reported significantly more severe symptoms. We suggest that this hypersusceptibility presents a natural model for the study of physiological mechanisms of nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.

  20. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD. PMID:26185123

  1. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD.

  2. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

  3. Therapeutic effects of antimotion sickness medications on the secondary symptoms of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    In addition to nausea and vomiting, motion sickness involves slowing of brain waves, loss of performance, inhibition of gastric motility and the Sopite Syndrome. The therapeutic effects of antimotion sickness drugs on these reactions were evaluated. The subjects were rotated to the M-III end-point of motion sickness. Intramuscular (IM) medications were then administered. Side effects before and after rotation were reported on the Cornell Medical Index. Brain waves were recorded on a Grass Model 6 Electroencephalograph (EEG), and gastric emptying was studied after an oral dose of 1 mCi Technetium 99m DTPA in 10 oz. isotonic saline. An increase in dizziness and drowsiness was reported with placebo after rotation. This was not prevented by IM scopolamine 0.1 mg or ephedrine 25 mg. EEG recordings indicated a slowing of alpha waves with some thea and delta waves from the frontal areas after rotation. IM ephedine and dimenhydrinate counteracted the slowing while 0.3 mg scopolamine had an additive effect. Alterations of performance on the pursuit meter correlated with the brain wave changes. Gastric emptying was restored by IM metoclopramide. Ephedrine IM but not scopolamine is effective for some of the secondary effects of motion sickness after it is established.

  4. Standardization of motion sickness induced by left-right and up-down reversing prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Vanderploeg, J. M.; Brumley, E. A.; Kolafa, J. J.; Wood, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Reversing prisms are known to produce symptoms of motion sickness, and have been used to provide a chronic stimulus for training subjects on symptom recognition and regulation. However, testing procedures with reversing prisms have not been standardized. A set of procedures were evaluated which could be standardized using prisms for provocation and to compare the results between Right/Left Reversing Prisms (R/L-RP) and Up/Down Reversing Prisms (U/D-RP). Fifteen subjects were tested with both types of prisms using a self paced walking course throughout the laboratory with work stations established at specified intervals. The work stations provided tasks requiring eye-hand-foot coordination and various head movements. Comparisons were also made between these prism tests and two other standardized susceptibility tests, the KC-135 parabolic static chair test and the Staircase Velocity Motion Test (SVMT). Two different types of subjective symptom reports were compared. The R/L-RP were significantly more provocative than the U/D-RP. The incidence of motion sickness symptoms for the R/L-RP was similar to the KC-135 parabolic static chair test. Poor correlations were found between the prism tests and the other standardized susceptibility tests, which might indicate that different mechanisms are involved in provoking motion sickness for these different tests.

  5. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  6. Analytic gain in probabilistic decompression sickness models.

    PubMed

    Howle, Laurens E

    2013-11-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease known to be related to inert gas bubble formation originating from gases dissolved in body tissues. Probabilistic DCS models, which employ survival and hazard functions, are optimized by fitting model parameters to experimental dive data. In the work reported here, I develop methods to find the survival function gain parameter analytically, thus removing it from the fitting process. I show that the number of iterations required for model optimization is significantly reduced. The analytic gain method substantially improves the condition number of the Hessian matrix which reduces the model confidence intervals by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:24209920

  7. Analytic gain in probabilistic decompression sickness models.

    PubMed

    Howle, Laurens E

    2013-11-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease known to be related to inert gas bubble formation originating from gases dissolved in body tissues. Probabilistic DCS models, which employ survival and hazard functions, are optimized by fitting model parameters to experimental dive data. In the work reported here, I develop methods to find the survival function gain parameter analytically, thus removing it from the fitting process. I show that the number of iterations required for model optimization is significantly reduced. The analytic gain method substantially improves the condition number of the Hessian matrix which reduces the model confidence intervals by more than an order of magnitude.

  8. [Pecularities of organisation and health care delivery to military servicemen under conditions of mid- and high mountains].

    PubMed

    Khalimov, Yu Sh; Vetryakov, O V; Makiev, R G; Kuzmich, V G

    2016-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of adverse climatic factors mid- and high mountains, which have a significant negative impact on fighting facility and capacity for work in military servicemen that may cause an acute mountain sickness and severe complications (high altitude pulmonary edema and high-altitude cerebral edema). Complicated mechanisms of organism disorder are shown. Sophisticated medical and tactical factors of mountain theatre of war, defining the nature of actions of troops, require special approaches to organisation of medical support. One of the major tasks of the medical service and the commanders is the timely prevention of health disorders troops in mountainous terrain.

  9. Serum sickness reaction with skin involvement induced by bee venom injection therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom injection therapy is an alternative treatment sometimes used for chronic inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, to reduce pain. Several chemical components of bee venom have anti-inflammatory effects, and apitoxin, one of the mixed components, has been used for pain prevention therapy. However, there have been no large-scale investigations regarding the efficacy or side effects or apitoxin. In this study, a case of serum sickness reaction that developed after receiving bee venom injection therapy is reported. PMID:26539406

  10. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  11. Pifithrin-μ Attenuates Acute Sickness Response to Lipopolysaccharide in C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongping; Wang, Jili; Hu, Yanling; Lu, Xu; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of behavioral changes that happen as a response to acute infectious pathogens. Its well-known benefit is to reorganize the organism's priorities to cope with infection, but the uncontrolled development of sickness behavior may trigger negative feelings or chronic depressive events. This study aims at investigating the potential effect of pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 70 substrate binding activity, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness response. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), open field test (OFT) and light-dark box test. Food intake and body weight were also evaluated. The serum corticosterone level was measured using an ELISA kit. Treatment of mice with LPS (0.33 mg/kg, i.p.) markedly increased the floating and immobility time in the FST and TST, respectively, and depressed locomotor activity in the OFT. LPS administration prolonged the latency to first transition and reduced the total number of transitions in the light-dark box test. In addition, LPS induced anorexia and increased serum corticosterone levels. Pretreatment with pifithrin-μ (1 or 5 mg/kg) attenuated behavioral changes induced by LPS in the FST, TST, OFT and light-dark box test. Pifithrin-μ also prevented the formation of anorexia as well as the increase in serum corticosterone levels in LPS-treated mice. Our previous studies showed that pifithrin-μ prevents the production of pro-inflammatory factors in both microglia and macrophages. These findings presented here extend the role of pifithrin-μ beyond an anti-inflammatory molecule to a modulator of sickness behavior.

  12. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  13. Xylazine emesis, yohimbine and motion sickness susceptibility in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in xylazine-induced vomiting and in motion sickness was investigated. Cats were divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility and were observed after s.c. injections of xylazine. The incidence of vomiting increased with the dose, and at each dose the high susceptibility group had a greater emetic incidence than the low susceptibility group. In another experiment with cats divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility, s.c. administration of yohimbine effectively antagonized the xylazine-induced emesis in both susceptibility groups. The cats in the latter experiment were then challenged with a motion sickness stimulus after s.c. pretreatment with yohimbine. Yohimbine failed to prevent motion sickness but did occasion an unexplained variability in the incidence of vomiting. These findings suggest that the emetic effect of xylazine results from stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors but that these receptors are not fundamental to feline motion sickness. The fact that susceptibilities to xylazine-induced emesis and to motion sickness are correlated suggests a point of interaction other than the area postrema, which is known to be essential for xylazine-induced vomiting but not for motion sickness in the cat.

  14. [Sickness absence certification from the medical perspective].

    PubMed

    Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Mar-Obeso, Alvaro Julián; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Méndez-Bueno, Francisco Javier; Aguilar-Sánchez, Leticia; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Sickness absence certification is a medical task with important clinical, social, occupational and ethical implications, in addition to economic consequences for the worker, the employers and social security institutions. In 2007, IMSS affiliated workers received certifications for 65,384,690 days of absence, with cash benefits for 8.1 billion pesos. The duration of return to work depends on the efficiency of health care team as well as factors associated to the worker and the occupational environment. The correct management of sickness absence certification requires adequate disease diagnosis, regulatory knowledge and adequate communication with the patient. The purpose of control and auditing is to make sure that the certification is adequate in the indication and the optimal length, in order to warrant a responsible and sustainable management of this resource of social protection. If expenditure reduction is not possible, the objective is to avoid inefficient or irrational management. Treating physicians, with proper information, can contribute to optimize the provision of this benefit to those who need it.

  15. Motion sickness elicited by passive rotation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Current theory and recent evidence suggest that motion sickness occurs under conditions of sensory input in which the normal motor programs for producing eye, head, and body movements are not functionally effective, i.e. under conditions in which there are difficulties in maintaining posture and controlling eye movements. Conditions involving conflicting or inconsistent visual-vestibular (VV) stimulation should thus result in greater sickness rates since the existing motor programs do not produce effective control of eye-head-body movements under such conditions. It is felt that the relationship of postural control to motion sickness is an important one and one often overlooked. The results are reported which showed that when postural requirements were minimized by fully restraining squirrel monkeys during hypogravity parabolic flight, no animals became motion sick, but over 80 percent of the same 11 animals became sick if they were unrestrained and maintained control of their posture.

  16. Neuronal mechanisms and the treatment of motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Schmäl, F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological basis, clinical picture and treatment options for motion sickness. Motion sickness is a well-known nausea and vomiting syndrome in otherwise healthy people. The physical signs of motion sickness occur in both humans and animals during travel by sea, automobile or airplane and in space. Furthermore, some other special situations, such as simulators, the cinema and video games, have been described as causing pseudomotion sickness. Children between 2 and 12 years old are most susceptible to motion sickness, and women are more frequently affected than men. Predisposing factors include menstruation, pregnancy, migraines and possibly a side difference in the mass of otoconia in the vestibular organs. Therapy is directed towards decreasing conflicting sensory input, accelerating the process of adaptation and controlling nausea and vomiting. To control these vegetative symptoms, scopolamine and antihistamines are the most effective drugs.

  17. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Ford, George; Krnavek, Jody M.

    2007-01-01

    Results obtained from space flight indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. Based on the initial work of Melvill Jones we have evaluated stroboscopic vision as a method of preventing motion sickness. Given that the data presented by professor Melvill Jones were primarily post hoc results following a study not designed to investigate motion sickness, it is unclear how motion sickness results were actually determined. Building on these original results, we undertook a three part study that was designed to investigate the effect of stroboscopic vision (either with a strobe light or LCD shutter glasses) on motion sickness using: (1) visual field reversal, (2) Reading while riding in a car (with or without external vision present), and (3) making large pitch head movements during parabolic flight.

  18. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bültmann, Ute; Roelen, Corné A. M.; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. Methods A cohort of 9,904 employees with a sickness absence due to CMDs, working in the Dutch Post or Telecommunication company, was studied over a 7-year period. Recurrence was defined as the start of at least one new episode of sickness absence with CMDs after complete return to work for at least 28 days. The recurrence density (RD) of sickness absence with CMDs was calculated per 1,000 person-years. Results Of the 9,904 employees with a first absence due to CMDs 1,925 (19%) had a recurrence, 90% of recurrences occurred within 3 years. The RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was 84.5 employees per 1,000 person-years (95% CI = 80.7–88.3). The RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was similar in women and in men. In men, depressive symptoms were related to higher recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs than distress symptoms and adjustment disorders. In women, no difference by diagnostic category was found. Conclusions Employees with a previous episode of sickness absence with CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence with CMDs. Relapse prevention consultations are recommended for a period of 3 years after return to work. PMID:20449605

  19. Chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging prion disease of deer, elk, and moose in North America. This fatal neurodegenerative disease was first recognized 50 years ago and its distribution was limited to the Rocky Mountains for several decades. In the past few years, CWD has been found in the ea...

  20. Motion Sickness Treatment Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F. (Inventor); Somers, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Ford, George A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for treating motion sickness. In a preferred embodiment a method of the invention comprises operating eyewear having shutter lenses to open said shutter lenses at a selected operating frequency ranging from within about 3 Hz to about 50 Hz. The shutter lenses are opened for a short duration at the selected operating frequency wherein the duration is selected to prevent retinal slip. The shutter lenses may be operated at a relatively slow frequency of about 4 Hz when the user is in passive activity such as riding in a boat or car or in limited motion situations in a spacecraft. The shutter lenses may be operated at faster frequencies related to motion of the user's head when the user is active.

  1. Bronchitis—Sickness Absence in London Transport

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, C. J.; Raffle, P. A. B.

    1961-01-01

    This study is based on the records of sickness absence of four days or longer attributed to bronchitis among nearly 60,000 London Transport employees during the years 1952 to 1956. The figures support previous observations that there is a close association between the incidence of bronchitis and the occurrence of fog in any year. The bronchitis experience of employees living and working in the north-eastern sector of London is shown to be worse than in other areas of London. The experience of employees in the country belt round London, particularly in the southern sector, is better than in London itself. With the possible exception of conductors, the figures do not suggest that there are occupational factors in the transport industry causing bronchitis. PMID:13695613

  2. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  3. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  4. Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Claude A; Thalmann, Edward D

    2004-04-15

    We do not yet know why whales occasionally strand after sonar has been deployed nearby, but such information is important for both naval undersea activities and the protection of marine mammals. Jepson et al. suggest that a peculiar gas-forming disease afflicting some stranded cetaceans could be a type of decompression sickness (DCS) resulting from exposure to mid-range sonar. However, neither decompression theory nor observation support the existence of a naturally occurring DCS in whales that is characterized by encapsulated, gas-filled cavities in the liver. Although gas-bubble formation may be aggravated by acoustic energy, more rigorous investigation is needed before sonar can be firmly linked to bubble formation in whales.

  5. Threshold altitude resulting in decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, James M.; Calkins, Dick S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of case reports, hypobaric chamber training data, and experimental evidence indicated that the threshold for incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) was influenced by various factors such as prior denitrogenation, exercise or rest, and period of exposure, in addition to individual susceptibility. Fitting these data with appropriate statistical models makes it possible to examine the influence of various factors on the threshold for DCS. This approach was illustrated by logistic regression analysis on the incidence of DCS below 9144 m. Estimations using these regressions showed that, under a noprebreathe, 6-h exposure, simulated EVA profile, the threshold for symptoms occurred at approximately 3353 m; while under a noprebreathe, 2-h exposure profile with knee-bends exercise, the threshold occurred at 7925 m.

  6. Advances in Pharmacotherapeutics of Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2006-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is common occurrence in the U.S. manned space flight program and nearly 2/3 of Shuttle crewmembers experience SMS. Several drugs have been prescribed for therapeutic management of SMS. Typically, orally-administered SMS medications (scopolamine, promethazine) have poor bioavailability and often have detrimental neurocognitive side effects at recommended doses. Intramuscularly administered promethazine (PMZ) is perceived to have optimal efficacy with minimal side effects in space. However, intramuscular injections are painful and the sedating neurocognitive side effects of promethazine, significant in controlled ground testing, may be masked in orbit because injections are usually given prior to crew sleep. Currently, EVAs cannot be performed by symptomatic crew or prior to flight day three due to the lack of a consistently efficacious drug, concern about neurocognitive side effects, and because an in-suit vomiting episode is potentially fatal. NASA has long sought a fast acting, consistently effective anti-motion sickness medication which has only minor neurocognitive side effects. Development of intranasal formulations of scopolamine and promethazine, the two commonly used SMS drugs at NASA for both space and reduced gravity environment medical operations, appears to be a logical alternative to current treatment modalities for SMS. The advantages are expected to be fast absorption, reliable and high bioavailability, and probably reduced neurocognitive side effects owing to dose reduction. Results from clinical trials with intranasal scopolamine gel formulation and pre-clinical testing of a prototype microcapsule intranasal gel dosage form of PMZ (INPMZ) will be discussed. These formulations are expected to offer a dependable and effective noninvasive treatment option for SMS.

  7. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  8. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

  9. The Natural Progression of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness: What Is the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Checchi, Francesco; Filipe, João A. N.; Barrett, Michael P.; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) is widely assumed to be 100% pathogenic and fatal. However, reports to the contrary exist, and human trypano-tolerance has been postulated. Furthermore, there is uncertainty about the actual duration of both stage 1 and stage 2 infection, particularly with respect to how long a patient remains infectious. Understanding such basic parameters of HAT infection is essential for optimising control strategies based on case detection. We considered the potential existence and relevance of human trypano-tolerance, and explored the duration of infectiousness, through a review of published evidence on the natural progression of gambiense HAT in the absence of treatment, and biological considerations. Published reports indicate that most gambiense HAT cases are fatal if untreated. Self-resolving and asymptomatic chronic infections probably constitute a minority if they do indeed exist. Chronic carriage, however, deserves further study, as it could seed renewed epidemics after control programmes cease. PMID:19104656

  10. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  11. [Assistance and care of the sick in early Christianity].

    PubMed

    Maritano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Christianity presents a new vision of man (personalistic anthropology) and refers to the example and words of Jesus, highlighting the inseparable relationship between the love of God and the love of man. The article describes the assistance and care of the sick in the East and West in the early Christian centuries; the 'places of care'- nosokomia for the sicks, gerontokomia for the olders, brephotropia for abandoned children, orphanage structures; the managers of hospitals, ecclesistical dignitaries, lay personnel, monks, operators and employees. Christianity gave dignity to the sick and opportunity to serve humanity to the healthy.

  12. Neural Circuitry Engaged by Prostaglandins during the Sickness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the “sickness syndrome” occurs, including fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain, and can be prevented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are produced at which sites and how they interact with the nervous system, researchers have identified specific neural circuits that underlie the sickness syndrome. PMID:22837039

  13. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to study motion sickness is reviewed. The use of CTA to measure motion sickness is supported by studies showing that an intact vestibular system is essential for the production of CTA when motion is the unconditioned stimulus. The magnitude of CTA is assessed at a time removed from exposure to motion, and therefore is not affected by residual effects of motion. Since the magnitude of CTA is assessed as volume or weight of flood or fluid, the degree of sickness is reflected in a continuous measure rather than in the discrete, all-or-none fashion characteristic of vomiting.

  14. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  15. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  16. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  17. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  18. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Termination of sickness benefits due to a... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement. (a) Sickness benefits payable to an eligible employee shall be paid...

  19. Sociality and Sickness: Have Cytokines Evolved to Serve Social Functions beyond Times of Pathogen Exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael B.; Deak, Terrence; Schiml, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    During pathogen exposure or some forms of stress, proinflammatory processes induce an array of motivated and behavioral adjustments termed “sickness behaviors”. Although withdrawal from social interactions is a commonly observed sickness behavior, the relation between social behavior and sickness is much more complex. Sickness can suppress or stimulate social behavior. Sickness can serve as a social cue. Stressors that are social in nature can induce sickness behaviors, and sickness behavior can be readily suppressed by meaningful social stimuli. The nature, context, and timing of these effects together suggest that cytokine-induced behavior may play a role in mediating social interactions in various non-pathological conditions. PMID:24184399

  20. [Physical activities in "sick" children, sports on prescription].

    PubMed

    de Mondenard, J P

    1991-03-01

    The medical profession seems to be more and more convinced of the beneficial effects to the child elicited by a sports activity at any age not only as morphological adaptation, but as psychological improvement too. For the sickly child, a given sport can be very helpful for his psychological development, as it gives him the means to show his abilities, to overcome his handicap and thus master his health problem. The general practitioner therefore should not prohibit going for sports. To the contrary, he should encourage, even prescribe outdoor games to the child. The child has to be carefully instructed as to how to carry out the chosen sport. We cannot put too much emphasis on the fact such as exercise treatment can only be successful if the children are particularly motivated and have been briefed. We have selected nine illnesses which include very often the bulk of the exemptions from the physical education lessons at school. We listed for each disorder a series of sports and various outdoor activities under the following headings: --activities to be recommended, --sports of lesser therapeutic value, or not to be recommended under some circumstances, --sports without demonstrated beneficial effects, or to be advised strongly against. Episodic exercise contributes certainly nothing to stabilizing the symptoms of the disease in patients suffering from a chronic disorder. To the contrary, a training program maintained for a prolonged period may be very beneficial in improving the wellbeing of the patient. Thorough information, as well as a clear exercise program which should be done in some cases under medical supervision is needed. One should keep in mind however, that any problems arising can be mastered and that the child will take an undeniable advantage of such a treatment.

  1. Chinese hyper-susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Stern, R M; Hu, S; LeBlanc, R; Koch, K L

    1993-09-01

    Little is known about the factors that control individual differences in susceptible to motion sickness. A serendipitous observation in our laboratory that most Chinese subjects become motion sick prompted this study. We used a rotating optokinetic drum to provoke motion sickness and compared gastric responses and symptom reports of Chinese, European-American, and African-American subjects. There was no difference in the responses of European-American and African-American subjects; however, Chinese subjects showed significantly greater disturbances in gastric activity and reported significantly more severe symptoms. We suggest that this hyper-susceptibility presents a natural model for the study of physiological mechanisms of nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.

  2. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. PMID:24737552

  3. Diclectin for morning sickness: Long-term neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon

    2011-02-01

    Question A pregnant patient recently asked me whether using Diclectin for morning sickness might affect the development of her child. Answer Our recent large study does show such a trend, although the differences are not necessarily clinically significant.

  4. Is Your School Sick? Five Threats to Healthy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah; Diamantes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Examines the five major threats to healthy school buildings: sick building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and general indoor air quality. Discusses ways to assess and address them. (SR)

  5. The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Meryl L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness was investigated using test conditions that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness in squirrel monkeys. Ten male rhesus monkeys and ten male Bolivian squirrel monkeys were rotated in the vertical axis at 150 deg/s for a maximum duration of 45 min. Each animal was tested in two conditions, continuous rotation and intermittent rotation. None of the rhesus monkeys vomited during the motion tests but all of the squirrel monkeys did. Differences were observed between the species in the amount of activity that occurred during motion test, with the squirrel monkeys being significantly more active than the rhesus monkeys. These results, while substantiating anecdotal reports of the resistance of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness, should be interpreted with caution because of the documented differences that exist between various species with regard to stimuli that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness.

  6. Adaptation to vection-induced symptoms of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Vasey, Michael W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated exposures to a rotating circular vection drum on the symptoms of motion sickness and tachygastria in humans were investigated. Subjects were sitting in a drum and were exposed to 15 min baseline (no rotation), followed by 15 min drum rotation at 60 deg/s, and, then, by 15 min recovery. Gastric myoelectric activity was continuously recorded with the electrogastrogram. Subjects who were exposed to the drum three times with intervals of 4-24 days all showed symptoms of tachygastria and failed to show an amelioration of motion sickness symptoms. On the other hand subjects who had only 48 h between the three sessions of drum exposure, experienced a reduction in motion-sickness symptoms and in tachygastsria upon repeated exposure to the drum, indicating that training effected a symptomatic and physiological adaptation. It is suggested that preflight adaptation to visual-vestibular sensory mismatch may reduce motion sickness in astronauts.

  7. Decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism in sports scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Gorman, D F

    1989-07-01

    Diving underwater with breathing apparatus is an increasingly popular sport. Consequently, the number of diving-related accidents, including both decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism, have increased. Though both involve bubbles, decompression sickness is a disease which involves gas bubbles forming in tissues and venous blood, while arterial gas embolism results from the introduction of gas bubbles directly into the arterial circulation. Although the pathologies and natural histories of decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism are different, the treatment of these conditions is essentially the same. Compression in a recompression chamber is the definitive treatment of both decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism, and any delay before treatment must be minimised if a good outcome is desired.

  8. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters The Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick Language: ...

  9. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees separated for retirement as of June... the applicable plan. (b) For employees separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused...

  10. Sick building syndrome, work factors and occupational stress.

    PubMed

    Crawford, J O; Bolas, S M

    1996-08-01

    The sick building syndrome has been associated with certain buildings and environmental characteristics and is estimated to affect up to 30% of new or renovated buildings. Investigations have concentrated on physical factors, and it is only recently that psychological factors have been examined. Work and personal factors have also been considered. Occupational stress has been found to be correlated with symptoms of the sick building syndrome, but much of the research has been of a cross-sectional nature, and it does not indicate whether stress is an active element or an outcome. There is a clear need for further research in this area to examine stress, personality and physical factors associated with the sick building syndrome longitudinally. There is also a clear need to assess the validity of the historical and self-report methods used to assess the sick building syndrome. PMID:8881012

  11. Stroboscopic Vision as a Treatment for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, J.T.; Ford, G.; Krnavek, J.M.; Hwang, E.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Stroboscopic illumination reduces the severity of motion sickness symptoms, and shutter glasses with a flash frequency of 4 Hz are as effective as a strobe light. Stroboscopic illumination appears to be an effective countermeasure where retinal slip is a significant factor in eliciting motion sickness. Additional research is currently underway to evaluate the stroboscopic glasses efficacy in a variety of different motion environments. Specifically, carsickness, sickness during the microgravity periods of parabolic flight and sea sickness. Possible mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of the glasses are also being investigated. There is evidence from pilot studies showing that the glasses, when strobed at the 4 Hz frequency, reduce saccade velocity to visually presented targets is reduced by approximately half of the normal values. It is interesting to note that adaptation to space flight may also slow saccade velocity.

  12. Research opportunities in space motion sickness, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Space and motion sickness, the current and projected NASA research program, and the conclusions and suggestions of the ad hoc Working Group are summarized. The frame of reference for the report is ground-based research.

  13. [Adverse reaction to cefonicid analogous to serum sickness].

    PubMed

    Ortega Calvo, M; Méndez Mora, J L; Soriano Crespo, E; Fernández Martínez, D; Torello Iserte, J; Castillo Ferrando, J R

    1995-06-01

    We report a case of a male who was treated with cephonicid because of a surgical complication. Serum-sickness like symptoms were diagnosed two weeks later. Medical references are discussed. PMID:7548647

  14. Space Motion Sickness and Stress Training Simulator using Electrophysiological Biofeedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudeau, C.; Golding, J. F.; Thevot, F.; Lucas, Y.; Bobola, P.; Thouvenot, J.

    2005-06-01

    An important problem in manned spaceflight is the nausea that typically appears during the first 3 days and then disappears after 5 days. Methods of detecting changes in electrophysiological signals are being studied in order to reduce susceptibility to space motion sickness through biofeedback training, and for the early detection of nausea during EVA. A simulator would allow subjects to control their body functions and to use biofeedback to control space motion sickness and stress.

  15. Sick sinus syndrome as a complication of mediastinal radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pohjola-Sintonen, S.; Toetterman, K.J.K.; Kupari, M. )

    1990-06-01

    A 33-year-old man who had received mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease 12 years earlier developed a symptomatic sick sinus syndrome requiring the implantation of a permanent pacemaker. The sick sinus syndrome and a finding of an occult constrictive pericarditis were considered to be due to the previous mediastinal irradiation. A ventricular pacemaker was chosen because mediastinal radiotherapy also increases the risk of developing atrioventricular conduction defects.

  16. Cases from the aerospace medicine residents' teaching file. Decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G N

    2000-12-01

    Decompression sickness is an uncommon but serious risk associated with flying and SCUBA diving with potential for significant morbidity and mortality. It can occur in both novice and experienced individuals. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of decompression sickness in an experienced amateur SCUBA diver. Clinical suspicion must be high, since the presenting symptoms can be nonspecific as in this case. Early recognition and treatment are important for maximum recovery.

  17. Heliox treatment for spinal decompression sickness following air dives.

    PubMed

    Douglas, J D; Robinson, C

    1988-07-01

    Enforced delay in treatment of spinal decompression sickness following scuba diving can result in paraplegia. Poor response from initial recompression to 18 m presents the clinician with a difficult management problem. Theoretical objections have been raised to the use of He-O2 as treatment regimen. We report 3 cases that show He-O2 to be an excellent method of treatment in spinal decompression sickness after air diving.

  18. [Effectiveness of the preparation Gavinton in preventing motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Bodo, D; Kotovskaia, A R; Galle, R R; Gavrilova, L N; Gusakova, G A

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Hungarian drug kavinton used to prevent motion sickness was assessed. During the study 8 motion sickness susceptible test subjects were kept in a chamber rotating at a rate of 6 rpm for 5 hours. The effectiveness of the drug taken regularly during the exposure was compared with that of scopolamine and placebo taken as a single dose. The results obtained are suggestive of a positive effect of kavinton as an antimotion drug.

  19. Field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    PubMed

    Hibler, Charles P; Wilson, Kathi L; Spraker, Terry R; Miller, Michael W; Zink, Robert R; DeBuse, Linda L; Andersen, Elaine; Schweitzer, Darrell; Kennedy, James A; Baeten, Laurie A; Smeltzer, John F; Salman, Mo D; Powers, Barbara E

    2003-07-01

    Tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in Colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (CWD) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (brELISA), in a 2-phase study. In the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) or obex (OB) tissue samples were examined independently by brELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). There were 137 IHC-positive samples and 4,038 IHC-negative samples. Optical density (OD) values from brELISA were classified as "not detected" or "suspect" based on recommended cutoff values during the validation phase. Using IHC-positive cases as known CWD-infected individuals and assuming IHC-negative cases as uninfected, the relative sensitivity of brELISA depending on species ranged from 98.3% to 100% for RLN samples and 92.1% to 93.3% for OB samples; the relative specificity of brELISA depending on species ranged from 99.9% to 100% for RLN samples and was 100% for OB samples. Overall agreement between brELISA and IHC was > or = 97.6% in RLN samples and > or = 95.7% in OB samples of all species where values could be calculated; moreover, mean brELISA OD values were > or = 46X higher in IHC-positive samples than in IHC-negative samples. Discrepancies were observed only in early-stage cases of CWD. Based on the validation phase data, only RLN samples were collected for the field application phase of this study and only samples with brELISA OD values > 0.1 were examined by IHC. Among 20,875 RLN samples screened with brELISA during this second testing phase, 155 of 8,877 mule deer, 33 of 11,731 elk, and 9 of 267 white-tailed deer samples (197 total) had OD values > 0.1 and were further evaluated by IHC to confirm evidence of CWD infection. Of cases flagged for IHC follow-up, 143 of 155 mule deer, 29 of 33 elk, and all 9

  20. Space sickness predictors suggest fluid shift involvement and possible countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Moseley, E. C.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Preflight data from 64 first time Shuttle crew members were examined retrospectively to predict space sickness severity (NONE, MILD, MODERATE, or SEVERE) by discriminant analysis. From 9 input variables relating to fluid, electrolyte, and cardiovascular status, 8 variables were chosen by discriminant analysis that correctly predicted space sickness severity with 59 pct. success by one method of cross validation on the original sample and 67 pct. by another method. The 8 variables in order of their importance for predicting space sickness severity are sitting systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, calculated blood volume, serum phosphate, urine osmolality, environmental temperature at the launch site, red cell count, and serum chloride. These results suggest the presence of predisposing physiologic factors to space sickness that implicate a fluid shift etiology. Addition of a 10th input variable, hours spent in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF), improved the prediction of space sickness severity to 66 pct. success by the first method of cross validation on the original sample and to 71 pct. by the second method. The data suggest that WETF training may reduce space sickness severity.

  1. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  2. Motion sickness, nausea and thermoregulation: The “toxic” hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Rudd, John A; So, Richard HY

    2014-01-01

    Principal symptoms of motion sickness in humans include facial pallor, nausea and vomiting, and sweating. It is less known that motion sickness also affects thermoregulation, and the purpose of this review is to present and discuss existing data related to this subject. Hypothermia during seasickness was firstly noted nearly 150 years ago, but detailed studies of this phenomenon were conducted only during the last 2 decades. Motion sickness-induced hypothermia is philogenetically quite broadly expressed as besides humans, it has been reported in rats, musk shrews and mice. Evidence from human and animal experiments indicates that the physiological mechanisms responsible for the motion sickness-induced hypothermia include cutaneous vasodilation and sweating (leading to an increase of heat loss) and reduced thermogenesis. Together, these results suggest that motion sickness triggers highly coordinated physiological response aiming to reduce body temperature. Finally, we describe potential adaptive role of this response, and describe the benefits of using it as an objective measure of motion sickness-induced nausea.

  3. Towards an integrative picture of human sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Shattuck, Eric C; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    Sickness behavior, a coordinated set of behavioral changes during infection and elicited by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), is well studied in non-human animals. Over the last two decades, several papers have expanded this research to include humans. However, these studies use a variety of research designs, and typically focus on a single cytokine and only a few of the many behavioral changes constituting sickness behavior. Therefore, our understanding of human sickness behavior remains equivocal. To generate a more holistic, integrative picture of this phenomenon, a meta-analysis of the human sickness behavior literature was conducted. Full model results show that both IL-6 and IL-1β have significant relationships with sickness behavior, and the strength of these relationships is affected by a number of study parameters, such as type of immune stimulus and inclusion of controls. In addition to research design heterogeneity, other issues to address in future studies include an unequal focus on different cytokines and different sickness behaviors. PMID:27165989

  4. A turning cabin simulator to reduce simulator sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourant, Ronald R.; Yin, Zhishuai

    2010-01-01

    A long time problem associated with driving simulators is simulator sickness. A possible cause of simulator sickness is that the optical flow experienced in driving simulators is much different from that experienced in real world driving. With the potential to reduce simulator sickness, a turning cabin driving simulator, whose cabin rotates around the yaw axis was built. In the multi-projector display system, algorithms were implemented to calibrate both geometric distortions and photometric distortions via software to produce a seamless high-resolution display on a cylindrical screen. An automotive seat was mounted on an AC servo actuator at the center of the cylindrical screen. The force feedback steering wheel, and gas and brake pedals, were connected to the simulator's computer. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of optical flow patterns on simulator sickness. Results suggested that the optical flow perceived by drivers in the fixed base simulator was greater than that in the turning cabin simulator. Also, drivers reported a higher degree of simulator sickness in the fixed base simulator. The lower amount of optical flow perceived in the turning cabin simulator is believed to be a positive factor in reducing simulator sickness.

  5. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  6. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS.

  7. Health and ecological dilemmas. Sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Hausner, D S

    1992-01-01

    Although trypanosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases facing African people, blind efforts to control the disease may cause greater human suffering by damaging the environment. Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as sleeping sickness, is spread by the bite of the tsetse fly and affects both humans and cattle. The disease usually causes wasting and emaciation; the human or animal wants to sleep all the time, and death may occur within a few months or years. The tsetse fly inhabits an area of 10-11 million sq. km of tropical savannah and dense forest along the same water sources used by humans. The savannahs make excellent grazing land--except for the presence of the tsetse fly. Many pastoralists chose to graze their cattle in arid areas outside the "tsetse belt." But the growth of the cattle population results in overgrazing, environmental degradation, and desertification. Population growth among farmers also limits the land available for grazing, further increasing the likelihood of overgrazing. Methods for controlling trypanosome and the tsetse fly include trypanocidal drugs for preventive and curative therapy, insecticides, traps, and land clearing--all of which possess limitations. Drugs are expensive, difficult to administer and monitor, and unpopular. Traps are effective only in their immediate setting, and insecticides and land clearing affect the environment. Trypanosomiasis control also results in increased population growth and further environmental degradation. Instead of controlling trypanosomiasis blindly, countries need to examine the problem contextually. Not doing so would result in land degradation, desertification, and land-use struggles. PMID:12159268

  8. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  9. Molds, mycotoxins, and sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Straus, David C

    2009-01-01

    The following is a review of some of the work we have done since 2004 regarding the importance of molds and their mycotoxins in the phenomenon of sick building syndrome (SBS). In these studies we showed that the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins (MTM) of Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) are easily dissociated from the surface of the organism as it grows and could therefore be consequently spread in buildings as the fungus experiences additional water events. We then showed that SC and Penicillium chrysogenum (PC) colonies remain viable long after a water source has been removed, and the MTM produced by SC remain toxic over extended periods of time. We next showed that PC when inhaled, can release in vivo, a protease allergen that can cause a significant allergic inflammatory reaction in the lungs of mice. We then showed, in a laboratory study, that the MTM of SC can become airborne attached to spores or SC particulates smaller than spores. Following that study, we next showed that the same phenomenon actually occurred in SC infested buildings where people were complaining of health problems potentially associated with SBS. Finally, we were able to demonstrate the presence of MTM in the sera of individuals who had been exposed to SC in indoor environments. This last study was done with enough mold exposed individuals to allow for the statistical significance of SC exposure to be evaluated. PMID:19854820

  10. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production.

  11. From inflammation to sickness: historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Plytycz, Barbara; Seljelid, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the four cardinal signs of acute inflammation comes from antiquity as rubor et tumor cum calore et dolore, (redness and swelling with heat and pain) extended later by functio laesa (loss of function). The contemporary understanding of this process we owe to 19th-century milestone discoveries by Rudolph Virchow, Julius Cohnheim and Elie Metchnikoff. In the 20th century, the development of potent technological tools allowed the rapid expansion of knowledge of the cells and mediators of inflammatory processes, as well as the molecular mechanisms of their interactions. It turned out that some mediators of inflammation have both local and distant targets, among them the liver (responding by the production of several acute phase reactants) and neurohormonal centers. In the last decades it has become clear that the immune system shares mediators and their receptors with the neurohormonal system of the body; thus, they form a common homeostatic entity. Such an integrative view, introduced by J. Edwin Blalock, when combined with Hans Selye's concept of stress, led to the contemporary understanding of sickness behavior, defined by Robert Dantzer as a highly organized strategy of the organism to fight infections and to respond to other environmental stressors.

  12. Motion sickness potentiates core cooling during immersion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Tipton, Michael J; Gennser, Mikael; Eiken, Ola

    2001-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that motion sickness affects thermoregulatory responses to cooling in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent three separate head-out immersions in 28 °C water after different preparatory procedures. In the ‘control’ procedure immersion was preceded by a rest period. In the ‘motion sickness’ procedure immersion was preceded by provocation of motion sickness in a human centrifuge. This comprised rapid and repeated alterations of the gravitational (G-) stress in the head-to-foot direction, plus a standardized regimen of head movements at increased G-stress. In the ‘G-control’ procedure, the subjects were exposed to similar G-stress, but without the motion sickness provocation. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the forearm and 3rd digit of the right hand (ΔTforearm-fingertip), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. Subjects provided ratings of temperature perception, thermal comfort and level of motion sickness discomfort at regular intervals. No differences were observed in any of the variables between control and G-control procedures. In the motion sickness procedure, the ΔTforearm-fingertip response was significantly attenuated, indicating a blunted vasoconstrictor response, and rectal temperature decreased at a faster rate. No other differences were observed. Motion sickness attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to skin and core cooling, thereby enhancing heat loss and the magnitude of the fall in deep body temperature. Motion sickness may predispose individuals to hypothermia, and have significant implications for survival time in maritime accidents. PMID:11533150

  13. Prediction of sickness absence: development of a screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Duijts, S F A; Kant, IJ; Landeweerd, J A; Swaen, G M H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To develop a concise screening instrument for early identification of employees at risk for sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints. Methods Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on “Fatigue at Work” were used to identify items to be associated with an increased risk of sickness absence. The analytical procedures univariate logistic regression, backward stepwise linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were successively applied. For both men and women, sum scores were calculated, and sensitivity and specificity rates of different cut‐off points on the screening instrument were defined. Results In women, results suggested that feeling depressed, having a burnout, being tired, being less interested in work, experiencing obligatory change in working days, and living alone, were strong predictors of sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints. In men, statistically significant predictors were having a history of sickness absence, compulsive thinking, being mentally fatigued, finding it hard to relax, lack of supervisor support, and having no hobbies. A potential cut‐off point of 10 on the screening instrument resulted in a sensitivity score of 41.7% for women and 38.9% for men, and a specificity score of 91.3% for women and 90.6% for men. Conclusions This study shows that it is possible to identify predictive factors for sickness absence and to develop an instrument for early identification of employees at risk for sickness absence. The results of this study increase the possibility for both employers and policymakers to implement interventions directed at the prevention of sickness absence. PMID:16698807

  14. Atrioventricular conduction in sick sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carisma, M B; Manalo, J M; Chua, W T

    1988-11-01

    With the increasing recognition of the pacemaker syndrome and with the availability of newer methods of pacing therapy, the status of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction in patients with Sick Sinus Syndrome (SSS) becomes crucial in the choice of mode of pacing. At the Philippine Heart Center, from April 1983 to November 1986, the sinus and AV node function studies of 46 patients who, by electrophysiological studies had sinus node dysfunction (SND)-SN recovery time (SNRT) greater than 1400 msec, were reviewed. These were arbitrarily classified according to duration of SNRT into: Group A--borderline SND, SNRT from 1,401 to 1,499 msec (n = 4); Group B--mild SND, SNRT from 1,500 to 2,499 msec (n = 25); Group C--moderate SND, SNRT from 2,500 to 3499 msec (n = 6); Group D--severe SND, SNRT of 3,500 m and above (n = 11). Out of the 46, 14 (30%) had concomittant AVN dysfunction (AVND)--antegrade block rate less than 130 beats per minute (BPM). The percentage occurrence of AVND was noted as follows: Group A--25% (1/4); Group B--28% (7/25); Group C--50% (3/6); Group D--27% (3/11). Out of the 14 patients with concomittant AVND, 5(35%) had antegrade block rate less than 100 BPM, 3 in Group B and 2 in Group D. The study shows that AVND occurs in only 30% of SSS patients. Its occurrence and severity has no bearing on the degree of SND. In these, antegrade block was at a rate higher than 100 BPM in the majority of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Decompression sickness ('the bends') in sea turtles.

    PubMed

    García-Párraga, D; Crespo-Picazo, J L; de Quirós, Y Bernaldo; Cervera, V; Martí-Bonmati, L; Díaz-Delgado, J; Arbelo, M; Moore, M J; Jepson, P D; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-10-16

    Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue gas tensions sufficient for bubble formation and injury in terrestrial animals. Similarly to diving mammals, sea turtles manage gas exchange and decompression through anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. In the former group, DCS-like lesions have been observed on necropsies following behavioral disturbance such as high-powered acoustic sources (e.g. active sonar) and in bycaught animals. In sea turtles, in spite of abundant literature on diving physiology and bycatch interference, this is the first report of DCS-like symptoms and lesions. We diagnosed a clinico-pathological condition consistent with DCS in 29 gas-embolized loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta from a sample of 67. Fifty-nine were recovered alive and 8 had recently died following bycatch in trawls and gillnets of local fisheries from the east coast of Spain. Gas embolization and distribution in vital organs were evaluated through conventional radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasound. Additionally, positive response following repressurization was clinically observed in 2 live affected turtles. Gas embolism was also observed postmortem in carcasses and tissues as described in cetaceans and human divers. Compositional gas analysis of intravascular bubbles was consistent with DCS. Definitive diagnosis of DCS in sea turtles opens a new era for research in sea turtle diving physiology, conservation, and bycatch impact mitigation, as well as for comparative studies in other air-breathing marine vertebrates and human divers.

  16. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  17. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  18. Dissociation between sickness behavior and emotionality during lipopolysaccharide challenge in lymphocyte deficient Rag2(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah M; Michael, Kerry C; Klaus, Joseph; Mert, Abdullah; Romano-Verthelyi, Ari; Sand, Joseph; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory diseases are highly associated with affective disorders including depression and anxiety. While the role of the innate immune system on emotionality has been extensively studied, the role of adaptive immunity is less understood. Considering that chronic inflammatory conditions are mediated largely by maladaptive lymphocyte function, the role of these cells on brain function and behavior during inflammation warrants investigation. In the present study we employed mice deficient in lymphocyte function and studied behavioral and inflammatory responses during challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Rag2(-/-) mice lacking mature lymphocytes were susceptible to death under sub-septic (5 mg/kg) doses of LPS and survived only to moderate (1 mg/kg) doses of LPS. Under these conditions, they displayed attenuated TNF-alpha responses and behavioral symptoms of sickness when compared with immunocompetent mice. Nevertheless, Rag2(-/-) mice had protracted motivational impairments after recovery from sickness suggesting a specific function for lymphocytes on the re-establishment of motivational states after activation of the innate immune system. The behavioral impairments in Rag2(-/-) mice were paralleled by an elevation in plasma corticosterone after behavioral tests. These results provide evidence that the absence of adaptive immunity may be associated with emotional deficits during inflammation and suggest that depressive states associated with medical illness may be mediated in part by impaired lymphocyte responses.

  19. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this proposal is to understand the relationship between human orientation control and motion sickness susceptibility. Three areas related to orientation control will be investigated. These three areas are (1) reflexes associated with the control of eye movements and posture, (2) the perception of body rotation and position with respect to gravity, and (3) the strategies used to resolve sensory conflict situations which arise when different sensory systems provide orientation cues which are not consistent with one another or with previous experience. Of particular interest is the possibility that a subject may be able to ignore an inaccurate sensory modality in favor of one or more other sensory modalities which do provide accurate orientation reference information. We refer to this process as sensory selection. This proposal will attempt to quantify subjects' sensory selection abilities and determine if this ability confers some immunity to the development of motion sickness symptoms. Measurements of reflexes, motion perception, sensory selection abilities, and motion sickness susceptibility will concentrate on pitch and roll motions since these seem most relevant to the space motion sickness problem. Vestibulo-ocular (VOR) and oculomotor reflexes will be measured using a unique two-axis rotation device developed in our laboratory over the last seven years. Posture control reflexes will be measured using a movable posture platform capable of independently altering proprioceptive and visual orientation cues. Motion perception will be quantified using closed loop feedback technique developed by Zacharias and Young (Exp Brain Res, 1981). This technique requires a subject to null out motions induced by the experimenter while being exposed to various confounding sensory orientation cues. A subject's sensory selection abilities will be measured by the magnitude and timing of his reactions to changes in sensory environments. Motion sickness

  20. Simulator sickness in U.S. Navy flight simulators.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R S; Lilienthal, M G; Berbaum, K S; Baltzley, D R; McCauley, M E

    1989-01-01

    Flight simulators have become a major factor in pilot training. A general finding from Navy research on simulator design is that equipment features that offer faithful representation improve pilot performance and promote pilot acceptance. To the extent that an aircraft produces motion sickness, its simulator should induce the same result. However, reports of simulator sickness appear to be increasing and a shortcoming in simulation is implied when these effects occur in simulators during maneuvers that do not occasion them in the aircraft. This article presents incidence data from surveys of the 10 simulators at 6 different Naval/Marine Corps Air Stations. Approximately 1,200 simulator flights were recorded. Some severe motion sickness symptoms were recorded and some simulators induced unsteadiness afterwards. Individuals experiencing effects may be at risk if they drive themselves home or return to demanding activities at work. The simulators which exhibited the highest incidences of sickness were helicopter simulators with cathode ray tube (CRT) infinity optics and six-degrees-of-freedom moving base systems. Of those studied, fixed-wing, fixed-base, dome displays had relatively low incidence of simulator sickness. PMID:2923588

  1. What Is Being Done to Control Motion Sickness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Y. D.

    1985-01-01

    AFT (Autogenic Feedback Training) involves practicing a series of mental exercises to speed up or slow down the control of autonomic activity. This produces a reduced tendency for autonomic activity levels to diverge from baseline (at rest) under stressful motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Subjects conditions. Subjects engaged in applying AFT exercises are required to closely monitor their own bodily sensations during motion-sickness-eliciting tests. These tests include the Coriolis Sickness Susceptibility Index (CSSI), which consists of sitting a subject into a rotating chair that moves at various speeds while a visual background turns at differing speeds and directions, and the Vertical Acceleration Rotation Device (VARD) test, which involves the placing of a subject in a drum that moves in an upward and downward motion until he or she is sick, while simultaneously monitoring the subject's vital signs. These tests provide investigators with evidence of slight changes in autonomic activities such as increases in heart rate, skin temperature, and sweat. All of these symptoms occur in subjects that experience bodily weakness or discomfort with the onset of motion sickness.

  2. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  3. Neurochemical background and approaches in the understanding of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The problems and nature of space motion sickness were defined. The neurochemical and neurophysiological bases of vestibular system function and of the expression of motion sickness wre reviewed. Emphasis was given to the elucidation of the neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of scopolamine and amphetamine on motion sickness. Characterization of the ascending reticular activating system and the limbic system provided clues to the etiology of the side effects of scopolamine. The interrelationship between central cholinergic pathways and the peripheral (autonomic) expression of motion sickness was described. A correlation between the stress of excessive motion and a variety of hormonal responses to that stress was also detailed. The cholinergic system is involved in the efferent modulation of the vestibular hair cells, as an afferent modulator of the vestibular nuclei, in the activation of cortical and limbic structures, in the expression of motion sickness symptoms and most likely underscores a number of the hormonal changes that occur in stressful motion environments. The role of lecithin in the regulation of the levels of neurotransmitters was characterized as a possible means by which cholinergic neurochemistry can be modulated.

  4. Simulator sickness in U.S. Navy flight simulators.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R S; Lilienthal, M G; Berbaum, K S; Baltzley, D R; McCauley, M E

    1989-01-01

    Flight simulators have become a major factor in pilot training. A general finding from Navy research on simulator design is that equipment features that offer faithful representation improve pilot performance and promote pilot acceptance. To the extent that an aircraft produces motion sickness, its simulator should induce the same result. However, reports of simulator sickness appear to be increasing and a shortcoming in simulation is implied when these effects occur in simulators during maneuvers that do not occasion them in the aircraft. This article presents incidence data from surveys of the 10 simulators at 6 different Naval/Marine Corps Air Stations. Approximately 1,200 simulator flights were recorded. Some severe motion sickness symptoms were recorded and some simulators induced unsteadiness afterwards. Individuals experiencing effects may be at risk if they drive themselves home or return to demanding activities at work. The simulators which exhibited the highest incidences of sickness were helicopter simulators with cathode ray tube (CRT) infinity optics and six-degrees-of-freedom moving base systems. Of those studied, fixed-wing, fixed-base, dome displays had relatively low incidence of simulator sickness.

  5. DCIS, cytokeratins, and the theory of the sick lobe.

    PubMed

    Tot, Tibor

    2005-07-01

    We postulate that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and consequently breast carcinoma in general, is a lobar disease, as the simultaneously or asynchronously appearing, often multiple, in situ tumor foci are localized within a single lobe. Although the whole lobe is sick, carrying some form of genetic instability, the malignant transformation of the epithelial cells may appear localized to a part or different parts of the sick lobe at the same time or with varying time difference. It may be confined to terminal ductal lobular units (TDLUs), to ducts or both. The malignant transformation is often associated with aberrant branching and/or aberrant lobularization within the sick lobe. Involvement of a single individual TDLU or of a group of adjacent TDLUs generates a unifocal lesion. Multifocal lesions appear if distant TDLUs are involved. Diffuse growth pattern in DCIS indicates involvement of the larger ducts. The extent of the involved area in multifocal or diffuse cases varies considerably. Diffuse growth pattern with or without evidence of aberrant arborisation within the sick lobe seems to characterize a subgroup of DCIS with unfavourable prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the anatomical, embryological and pathological background of the theory of the sick lobe and present supporting evidence from modern radiological breast imaging, long-term follow-up studies and from our own series of 108 DCIS cases.

  6. Effects of scopolamine on autonomic profiles underlying motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uijtdehaage, Sebastian H. J.; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of scopolamine on the physiological patterns occurring prior to and during motion sickness stimulation. In addition, the use of physiological profiles in the prediction of motion sickness was evaluated. Sixty subjects ingested either 0.6 mg scopolamine, 2.5 mg methoscopolamine, or a placebo. Heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an index of vagal tone), and electrogastrograms were measured prior to and during the exposure to a rotating optokinetic drum. Compared to the other groups, the scopolamine group reported fewer motion sickness symptoms, and displayed lower HR, higher vagal tone, enhanced normal gastric myoelectric activity, and depressed gastric dysrhythmias before and during motion sickness induction. Distinct physiological profiles prior to drum rotation could reliably differentiate individuals who would develop gastric discomfort from those who would not. Symptom-free subjects were characterized by high levels of vagal tone and low HR across conditions, and by maintaining normal (3 cpm) electrogastrographic activity during drum rotation. It was concluded that scopolamine offered motion sickness protection by initiating a pattern of increased vagal tone and gastric myoelectric stability.

  7. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  8. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS.

  9. Sick leave and workers' compensation for police officers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In Australia it has been necessary to enact specific provisions into industrial and employment laws to ensure workplace protection and coverage of police officers because at common law police officers have not been regarded as employees. Police unions in Australia have emerged as strong industrial players and have secured a range of terms and conditions of employment which do not apply to the broader workforce. However, the battle in relation to workers' compensation coverage and extended sick leave seems to be ongoing, particularly in Western Australia. The area of interaction between workers' compensation laws and sick leave entitlements is often neglected against the background of other industrial matters concerning police. This article investigates the entitlements of Australian police officers to these benefits against the historical background of industrial laws. It concludes that there is no uniformity in coverage for workers' compensation and sick leave and that the publicly available data in relation to absence from work of police officers due to sickness are generally incomplete and present challenges for cross-jurisdictional comparisons. The article points to future areas of research into police sick leave. PMID:20552944

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Acute Mountain Sickness: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Xing, Yanwei; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, Wenrui; Huang, Junyi; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing Chinese herbal medicine against placebo, no drugs, Western drugs, or a combination of routine treatment drugs against routine treatment drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Nine randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as low. Two trials compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with Western drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −2.23 [−3.98, −0.49], P = 0.01). Only one trial compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with no drugs. A meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −6.00 [−6.45, −5.55], P < 0.00001). Four trials compared Chinese formula used alone with placebo. A meta-analysis also showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −1.10 [−1.64, −0.55], P < 0.0001). Two trials compared the combination of Chinese formula plus routine treatment drugs with routine treatment drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −5.99 [−11.11, −0.86], P = 0.02). Conclusions. No firm conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS can be made. More rigorous high-quality trials are required to generate a high level of evidence and to confirm the results. PMID:24454510

  11. PROFILE OF PATIENTS ON SICK LEAVE WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Judson Welber Veríssimo; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Nascimento, Valdênia das Graças; de Paiva, Henver Ribeiro; Viecili, Leandro; Rocha, Murilo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) on sick leave admitted in a University Hospital. Methods: This is a transversal study conducted with patients admitted sequentially over 18 years of age, without distinction of gender and race in the period between September and November 2014. Patients answered a questionnaire and underwent physical examination carried out by the authors. Results: Twenty-five patients were admitted within three months, all females, the mean age was 50.24 years old (standard deviation 10,39) . Among the professions they performed, general and cleaning services were the most prevalent. Most patients featured obesity, followed by depression and systemic arterial hypertension. Approximately half of them were on sick leave. Sleep disorders were also a frequent complaint. Conclusion: CTS is a frequent cause of sick leave and it is related to obesity, dyslipidemia and depression. Level of Evidence IV, Series of Cases. PMID:26981030

  12. Comparison of treatment strategies for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment strategies for space motion sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of space motion sickness were graded as mild, moderate, or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through private medical conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for nineteen crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolomine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and fifteen crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophylaxis for space motion sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in nine crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in seven.

  13. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  14. Mechanisms underlying spinal cord damage in decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Hallenbeck, J M; Bove, A A; Elliott, D H

    1975-04-01

    Decompression sickness, which damaged the spinal cord, was produced in anesthetized dogs using a compression chamber. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure and several intravascular and intracardiac pressures were monitored during the course of the simulated dives. Manometric responses to forcible lung inflation and abdominal compression were measured both predive and postdive after signs of spinal cord damage were evident. Cinevenography of the epidural vertebral venous system was performed both predive and postdive. Histopathologic studies of the brains and cords of both predive and postdive. Histopathologic studies of the brains and cords of paretic animals were carried out. The results indicate that the epidural vertebral venous system becomes obstructed during spinal cord damaging decompression sickness and strongly suggests that spinal cord infarction in decompression sickness is caused by obstruction of cord venous drainage at the level of the epidural vertebral venous system. PMID:1168317

  15. When is it socially acceptable to feel sick?

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Disease is a ubiquitous and powerful evolutionary force. Hosts have evolved behavioural and physiological responses to disease that are associated with increased survival. Behavioural modifications, known as ‘sickness behaviours’, frequently involve symptoms such as lethargy, somnolence and anorexia. Current research has demonstrated that the social environment is a potent modulator of these behaviours: when conflicting social opportunities arise, animals can decrease or entirely forgo experiencing sickness symptoms. Here, I review how different social contexts, such as the presence of mates, caring for offspring, competing for territories or maintaining social status, affect the expression of sickness behaviours. Exploiting the circumstances that promote this behavioural plasticity will provide new insights into the evolutionary ecology of social behaviours. A deeper understanding of when and how this modulation takes place may lead to better tools to treat symptoms of infection and be relevant for the development of more efficient disease control programmes. PMID:24943375

  16. Cash benefits for short-term sickness, 1948--76.

    PubMed

    Price, D N

    1978-10-01

    National income-maintenance programs provide cash benefits when workers become unemployed, retire, are injured on the job, have a long-term disability, or die. For short-term sickness, however, only five States, one other jurisdiction, and a single industry require wage-replacement protection. Voluntary plans cover a substantial number of additional workers, including many whose protection was established through labor-management negotiations. In this annual update of estimates on the extent of protection provided, many of the historical statistics have been revised back to 1967 as a result of new information on the amount of sick-leave benefits paid to employees of the Federal Government. The effects of the new data on the benefit series are examined, as are trends in the provision of sickness benefits for maternity--an issue subject to considerable recent controversy. PMID:715639

  17. [Sick day management in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Susumu

    2013-11-01

    A bad cold, the flu or a serious illness can make blood glucose too high in elderly person with diabetes. Gastrointestinal illnesses may cause hypoglycemia for individuals treated with insulin, sulfonylureas or glitinides. When the persons with diabetes discontinue insulin or diabetes medications because of appetite loss and reduced food intake, they may fall into diabetic crises, such as ketoacidosis, or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome. The elderly patients need to take extra precautions on sick days to avoid diabetic crises or hypoglycemia. Key principles of sick day management are (1) maintaining hydration and carbohydrate intake, (2) monitoring blood glucose and ketone levels, (3) adjusting diabetes medications according to carbohydrate intake, blood glucose and ketone levels. In Japan, the numbers of frail elderly diabetic patients is markedly increased, effective and efficient sick day management for frail elderly diabetic patients is requested.

  18. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Altitude Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION - Exercise accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of exercise are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psi exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity (CEVIS and ISLE). Additional work is required to investigate whether exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation. METHODS - The CEVIS protocol was replicated with one exception. Our subjects completed controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining non-ambulatory throughout. Decompression stress was graded with aural Doppler (Spencer 0-IV scale). Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was used to look for left heart gas emboli (the presence of which prompted test termination). Venous blood was collected at three points to correlate Doppler measures of decompression stress with microparticle (cell fragment) accumulation. Fisher Exact Tests compared test and control groups. Trial suspension would occur when DCS risk >15% or grade IV venous gas emboli (VGE) risk >20% (at 70% confidence). RESULTS - Eleven person-trials were completed (9 male, 2 female) when DCS prompted suspension. DCS was greater than in CEVIS trials (3/11 [27%] vs. 0/45 [0%], respectively, p=0.03). Statistical significance was not reached for peak grade IV VGE (2/11 [18%] vs. 3/45 [7%], p=0.149) or cumulative grade IV VGE observations per subject-trial (8/128 [6%] vs. 26/630 [4%], p=0.151). Microparticle data were collected for 5/11 trials (3 with DCS outcomes), with widely varying patterns that could not be resolved statistically

  19. Cerebral vasoconstriction reactions and plasma levels of ETBR, ET-1, and eNOS in patients with chronic high altitude disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shizheng; Hao, Guisheng; Zhang, Shukun; Jiang, Dongmei; Wuren, Tana; Luo, Junming

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine cerebral vasoconstriction in patients with chronic high altitude disease [cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)], and to evaluate differences in alterations of brain vascular contractile reactivity of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) patients and healthy controls. Alterations of endothelin (ET) and its receptor, as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels in the plasma were examined to determine the cerebral reservation capacities in CMS patients. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound and carbon dioxide analysis methods were used to detect the CVR variances. At the same time, enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay approaches were utilized to detect the ET and ET B receptor and the eNOS levels in serum of the CMS patients and healthy controls. CVR and CVRI levels in CMS patients were lower than those of the healthy control subjects and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, eNOS and ET‑1 levels were not statistically significant for CMS and healthy controls (P>0.05). However, the ET receptor concentration level was higher in CMS than the healthy controls. Thus, ET‑1 may not be a direct etiological variation but may play compensatory roles in CMS patients. The results of the study may provide scientific clues for the prevention and treatment of CMS with higher blood coagulation states of cerebral infarction in patients with chronic high altitude disease.

  20. Cerebral vasoconstriction reactions and plasma levels of ETBR, ET-1, and eNOS in patients with chronic high altitude disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shizheng; Hao, Guisheng; Zhang, Shukun; Jiang, Dongmei; Wuren, Tana; Luo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine cerebral vasoconstriction in patients with chronic high altitude disease [cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)], and to evaluate differences in alterations of brain vascular contractile reactivity of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) patients and healthy controls. Alterations of endothelin (ET) and its receptor, as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels in the plasma were examined to determine the cerebral reservation capacities in CMS patients. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound and carbon dioxide analysis methods were used to detect the CVR variances. At the same time, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay approaches were utilized to detect the ET and ET B receptor and the eNOS levels in serum of the CMS patients and healthy controls. CVR and CVRI levels in CMS patients were lower than those of the healthy control subjects and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). By contrast, eNOS and ET-1 levels were not statistically significant for CMS and healthy controls (P>0.05). However, the ET receptor concentration level was higher in CMS than the healthy controls. Thus, ET-1 may not be a direct etiological variation but may play compensatory roles in CMS patients. The results of the study may provide scientific clues for the prevention and treatment of CMS with higher blood coagulation states of cerebral infarction in patients with chronic high altitude disease. PMID:27485004

  1. Antitrypanosomal activity of fexinidazole, a new oral nitroimidazole drug candidate for treatment of sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marcel; Bray, Michael A; Cal, Monica; Bourdin Trunz, Bernadette; Torreele, Els; Brun, Reto

    2011-12-01

    Fexinidazole is a 5-nitroimidazole drug currently in clinical development for the treatment of human sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]), caused by infection with species of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The compound and its two principal metabolites, sulfoxide and sulfone, have been assessed for their ability to kill a range of T. brucei parasite strains in vitro and to cure both acute and chronic HAT disease models in the mouse. The parent molecule and both metabolites have shown trypanocidal activity in vitro in the 0.7-to-3.3 μM (0.2-to-0.9 μg/ml) range against all parasite strains tested. In vivo, fexinidazole is orally effective in curing both acute and chronic diseases in the mouse at doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight/day for 4 days and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days, respectively. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that it is likely that the sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites provide most, if not all, of the in vivo killing activity. Fexinidazole and its metabolites require up to 48 h exposure in order to induce maximal trypanocidal efficacy in vitro. The parent drug and its metabolites show no in vitro cross-reactivity in terms of trypanocidal activity with either themselves or other known trypanocidal drugs in use in humans. The in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal activities of fexinidazole and its two principal metabolites provide evidence that the compound has the potential to be an effective oral treatment for both the T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense forms of human sleeping sickness and both stages of the disease.

  2. [Sick leave benefits for workers in the Brazilian meat and fish industries in 2008].

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Heinz Roland; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bueno, Luis Fernando; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors associated with sick leave rates among workers in the meat, fish, and seafood industries in Brazil. The study analyzed all sick leave benefits granted by the country's social security system to workers in these industries in 2008. Incidence of sick leave per 10 thousand jobs was stratified by sex, age, diagnosis, job position, State, and nature and length of benefits. The study analyzed 31,913 sick leaves, with an annual incidence of 788.7. Meat processing and packaging showed the highest incidence, and fish and seafood processing and packaging showed the longest mean length of sick leave. Women showed a higher sick leave incidence, while men received longer average sick leaves. Injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders accounted for 67.2% of sick leaves. The most common diagnoses were lower back pain, first-trimester bleeding in pregnancy, and depression. The data suggest poor job protection and adverse working conditions in these industries.

  3. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  4. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    PubMed

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory.

  5. Electrogastrograms during motion sickness in fasted and fed subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John J.; Wood, Mary J.; Wood, Charles D.

    1989-01-01

    Seven human volunteers were subjected to stressful Coriolis stimulation (rotating chair) either during the fasted state or following the ingestion of yogurt (6 oz). Subjects tested after yogurt reached a malaise-III (M-III) endpoint of motion sickness after significantly (p smaller than 0.01) fewer head movements than subjects tested in the fasted state. Surface electrogastrogram (EGG) recordings at M-III were similar for both dietary stats and consisted of a brief period of tachygastria, followed by a period of low-amplitude EGG waves. Ingestion of yogurt enhanced susceptibility to motion sickness but did not affect the associated pattern of EGG.

  6. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: how are they related?

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Riecke, Bernhard E.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Campos, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (vection), however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate as to whether vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). That is, can there be VIMS without any sensation of self-motion? In this paper, we will describe the possible nature of this relationship, review the literature that addresses this relationship (including theoretical accounts of vection and VIMS), and offer suggestions with respect to operationally defining and reporting these phenomena in future. PMID:25941509

  7. Treatment efficacy of intramuscular promethazine for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Jennings, Richard T.; Beck, Bradley G.; Bagian, James P.

    1993-01-01

    Intramuscular promethazine and its efficacy in the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) were evaluated using standardized questions administered during postflight debriefings to crewmembers immediately after their first Shuttle flight. The comparison showed that 25 percent of crewmembers treated with IM promethazine were 'sick' on flight day 2, compared to 50 percent of crewmembers who did not receive promethazine, 90 percent reported immediate symptom relief as well. Untreated crewmembers typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h, and those treated with oral scopolamine/dextroamphetamine show delayed symptom development. This study suggests that intramuscular promethazine is an effective treatment for SMS and merits continued use and further controlled investigations.

  8. Gene-environment mismatch in decompression sickness and air embolism.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Joe; Brainard, Andrew H

    2010-08-01

    Decompression sickness causes injury and death in SCUBA divers when air bubbles obstruct the flow of blood. Platelets aggregate in response to gas and promote inflammation. Inflammation in decompression sickness may have its origin in the innate immune system's response to pathogens. Bubbles are often found in tissues during gas-forming infections and in infection-prone states. In these diseases, intravascular gas offers a signal of infection to immune cells. Platelet activation by gas may often accompany a beneficial immune response to pathogens. Pathologic bubble-platelet interaction in decompression illness may be an example of gene-environment mismatch.

  9. Spinal Cord Decompression Sickness in a Sport Scuba Diver.

    PubMed

    Zwingelberg, K M

    1981-10-01

    In brief: A 26-year-old diver suffered spinal cord decompression sickness even though he did not exceed the time and depth limits set in standard US Navy diving tables. This case shows that when dives are strenuous and almost reach time and depth limits they may exceed the parameters of the tables. The case also illustrates the importance of rapid diagnosis and hyperbaric oxygen treatment of pressure-related diving casualties. The author says optimum treatment of decompression sickness depends on a high level of suspicion, an accurate diving history, and prompt treatment with hyperbaric oxygen.

  10. Inner ear decompression sickness following a shallow scuba dive.

    PubMed

    Reissman, P; Shupak, A; Nachum, Z; Melamed, Y

    1990-06-01

    Inner Ear Decompression Sickness (IEDCS)--manifested by tinnitus, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and hearing loss--is usually associated with deep air or mixed gas dives, and accompanied by other CNS symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Early recompression treatment is required in order to avoid permanent inner ear damage. We present an unusual case of a scuba diver suffering from IEDCS as the only manifestation of DCS following a short shallow scuba dive, successfully treated by U.S. Navy treatment table 6 and tranquilizers. This case suggests that diving medical personnel should be more aware of the possible occurrence of IEDCS among the wide population of sport scuba divers.

  11. Immersed false vertical room. A new motion sickness model.

    PubMed

    Coats, A C; Norfleet, W T

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated a new model of motion sickness--an enclosure decorated with visual cues to upright which was immersed either inverted or "front"-wall down, in Johnson Space Center's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) pool. This "WETF False Vertical Room" (WFVR) was tested with 19 male and 3 female SCUBA diver subjects, aged 23 to 57, who alternately set clocks mounted near the room's 8 corners and made exaggerated pitch head movements. We found that (1) the WFVR test runs produced motion sickness symptoms in 56% and 36% of subjects in the room-inverted and room-front-down positions, respectively. (2) Pitch head movements were the most provocative acts, followed closely by setting the clocks--particularly when a clock face filled the visual field. (3) When measured with a self-ranking questionnaire, terrestrial motion sickness susceptibility correlated strongly (P < 0.005) with WFVR sickness susceptibility. (4) Standing instability, measured with a modified Fregly-Graybiel floor battery, also correlated strongly (P < 0.005) with WFVR sickness susceptibility. This result may reflect a relationship between visual dominance and WFVR sickness. (5) A control study demonstrated that the inverted and front-down positions produced WFVR sickness, but the upright position did not, and that adaptation may have occurred in some subjects with repeated exposure. The WFVR could become a useful terrestrial model of space motion sickness (SMS) because it duplicates the nature of the gravity-dependent sensory conflicts created by microgravity (visual and otolith inputs conflict while somatosensory gravity cues are minimized), and it also duplicates the nature of the provocative stimulus (sensory environment "rule change" versus application of motion to passive subject) more closely than any other proposed terrestrial SMS model. Also, unlike any other proposed terrestrial SMS model, the WFVR incorporates whole-body movement in all three spatial dimensions. However, the WFVR

  12. Pathophysiology and treatment of decompression sickness and gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Loewenherz, J W

    1992-09-01

    Decompression sickness and cerebral gas embolism can present as dramatic and profound sudden onset injuries in patients engaged in tunnel work and compressed gas diving, including scuba. The history and management of these illnesses span centuries. The pathophysiology relates to occurrence of gas bubbles in extrapulmonic sites. Decompression sickness is due to supersaturation of the tissue with dissolved gas and subsequent evolution of gas bubbles. Gas embolism results from the direct transit of molecular gas from a pulmonary or intravascular origin into the arterial circulation causing occlusion of a distal locus. Treatment relates to increasing hydrostatic pressure, thus maximizing the gradient for gas reabsorption and dissolution and subsequently gas excretion via the lungs.

  13. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy.

    PubMed

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1988-05-28

    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  14. Child and Parent Attributions in Chronic Pediatric Conditions: Phenylketonuria (PKU) as an Exemplar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Brewster, Scott; Waisbren, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Attribution theory, self-regulation, self-handicapping and sick role theories all suggest that children with chronic disease may be held to different standards. This study assesses child and parent attributions in pediatric chronic health conditions and addresses how attributional style may be related to treatment adherence. Methods:…

  15. Summary of proceedings of the first meeting of the NASA Ames Simulator Sickness Steering Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Mccauley, Michael E.; Cook, Anthony E.; Voorhees, James W.

    1989-01-01

    A program of research to investigate simulator induced sickness has recently been initiated under the sponsorship of NASA Ames Research Center to coordinate efforts to investigate and eventually eliminate the problem of simulator sickness. As part of this program, a Simulator Sickness Steering Committee has been assembled, comprised of eighteen representatives from the Army, Air Force, Navy, NASA, NATO, academia, and industry. The proceedings of the first meeting of the NASA Ames Simulator Sickness Steering Committee are summarized and discussed.

  16. Motion sickness in cats - A symptom rating scale used in laboratory and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suri, K. B.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The cat is proposed as a model for the study of motion and space sickness. Development of a scale for rating the motion sickness severity in the cat is described. The scale is used to evaluate an antimotion sickness drug, d-amphetamine plus scopolamine, and to determine whether it is possible to predict sickness susceptibility during parabolic flight, including zero-G maneuvers, from scores obtained during ground based trials.

  17. What you thought you knew about motion sickness isn't necessarily so

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, P. S.; Malmstrom, F. V.

    1984-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms, stimuli, and drug therapy are discussed. Autogenic feedback training (AFT) methods of preventing motion sickness are explained. Research with AFT indicates that participants who had AFT could withstand longer periods of Coriolis acceleration, participants with high or low susceptibility to motion sickness could control their symptoms with AFT, AFT for Coriolis acceleration is transferable to other motion sickness stimuli, and most people can learn AFT, though with varying rates of learning.

  18. [Chronic knee pain and specific heat phobia. A case report].

    PubMed

    Pepke, W; Neubauer, E; Schiltenwolf, M

    2013-02-01

    This case report presents the medical history of a patient suffering from chronic knee pain with specific heat phobia who had a long history of sick certificates. Using multimodal pain therapy and biofeedback therapy the acquired anxiety disorder could be solved. Long-term working ability could be achieved. PMID:23321701

  19. Child Care Providers' Experiences Caring for Sick Children: Implications for Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, S. Jody; Vo, Phuong Hong; Bergstrom, Cara A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the experiences of preschool and school-age child care providers regarding sick child care. Found that providers repeatedly described sick children whose health problems made it impossible to provide adequate care for sick and well children in their care. Findings pose international public health policy implications for child care and…

  20. 20 CFR 341.8 - Termination of sickness benefits due to a settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.8 Termination of sickness benefits... settlement shall be made to the Sickness and Unemployment Benefits Section and shall include the information... Unemployment Benefits Section shall take steps within five additional working days to verify whether there...

  1. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  2. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  3. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  4. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  5. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  6. Benefits and Harms of Sick Leave: Lack of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelsson, Inge; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to try to identify those randomized controlled trials that compare sick leave with no sick leave or a different duration or degree of sick leave. A comprehensive, systematic, electronic search of Clinical Evidence, the Cochrane Library and PubMed, and a manual search of the Campbell Library and a journal supplement was…

  7. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  10. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  11. 26 CFR 1.104-1 - Compensation for injuries or sickness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation for injuries or sickness. 1.104-1... Compensation for injuries or sickness. (a) In general. Section 104(a) provides an exclusion from gross income... are received for personal injuries or sickness, except to the extent that such amounts...

  12. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  13. 20 CFR 336.12 - Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness... Exhaustion of rights to normal sickness benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers that an employee has exhausted his or her current rights to normal benefits for days of sickness if: (a)...

  14. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  15. Head movements in low and high gravitoinertial force environments elicit motion sickness - Implications for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton

    1987-01-01

    Astronauts report that head movements in flight tend to bring on symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS). The effects of head movements in pitch, yaw, and roll (made both with normal vision and with eyes occluded) on susceptibility to motion sickness in the zero G phase of parabolic flight maneuvers were evaluated. The findings are clear-cut: pitch head movements are most provocative, yaw least provocative, and roll intermediate. These experiments suggest that SMS is not a unique nosological entity, but is the consequence of exposure to nonterrestrial force levels. Head movements during departures in either direction from 1 G elicit symptoms.

  16. Widespread pain in chronic epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Pienimäki, Tuomo; Siira, Pertti; Vanharanta, Heikki

    2011-10-01

    We studied the associations of widespread pain with other pain and functional measures among patients with chronic epicondylitis. A total of 190 patients (66% females) participated in the study; with a mean age 43.7, mean duration of symptoms 48weeks, chronic lateral (n=160) and medial (n=30) epicondylitis. We analysed clinical status, grip strength and cubital pain thresholds and interviewed pain and disability, leisure time physical activity, strenuous hobby activities for arms, duration of symptoms, other systemic and upper extremity disorders, arm operations, and work ability. The location of pain was analysed using a whole-body pain drawing, categorized into three groups; the highest of which was classified as widespread pain. A total of 85 patients (45%) reported widespread pain. It was highly associated with female gender, high pain scores, decreased grip strength and pain thresholds (p<0.001 for all), with increased number of positive manual tests, low level of hobby strain for arms and physical activity, long duration of symptoms, and sick leave (p for all <0.05). It was also related to upper extremity disorders and arm surgery, but not with operated epicondylitis, other systemic diseases, workload or work ability. In addition, 39% of patients without other disease reported widespread pain. Widespread pain is common in chronic epicondylitis with and without other diseases, and is related to high pain scores, decreased function of the arm, long duration of symptoms, sick leave, and with a low level of physical activity.

  17. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders.

  18. What's Out There Making Us Sick?

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the continuum of medical and scientific history, repeated evidence has confirmed that the main etiological determinants of disease are nutritional deficiency, toxicant exposures, genetic predisposition, infectious agents, and psychological dysfunction. Contemporary conventional medicine generally operates within a genetic predestination paradigm, attributing most chronic and degenerative illness to genomic factors, while incorporating pathogens and psychological disorder in specific situations. Toxicity and deficiency states often receive insufficient attention as common source causes of chronic disease in the developed world. Recent scientific evidence in health disciplines including molecular medicine, epigenetics, and environmental health sciences, however, reveal ineluctable evidence that deficiency and toxicity states feature prominently as common etiological determinants of contemporary ill-health. Incorporating evidence from historical and emerging science, it is evident that a reevaluation of conventional wisdom on the current construct of disease origins should be considered and that new knowledge should receive expeditious translation into clinical strategies for disease management and health promotion. An analysis of almost any scientific problem leads automatically to a study of its history.—Ernst Mayr PMID:22262979

  19. Blood glycated hemoglobin evaluation in sick dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Marca, M C; Loste, A; Unzueta, A; Pérez, M

    2000-01-01

    Blood glycated hemoglobin concentration reflects long-term serum glucose levels in dogs. In this study, the effects of several diseases on blood glycated hemoglobin levels have been evaluated. For this study, blood samples were drawn from 93 unhealthy dogs. The animals were distributed into 10 groups according to pathological process (group 1, digestive problems; group 2, leishmaniasis; group 3, anemia; group 4, dermatological disorders; group 5, urinary problems; group 6, cardiorespiratory problems; group 7, diabetes mellitus; group 8, insulinoma; group 9, general diseases; group 10, control group). Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin and hematocrit values were analyzed in all the animals. In diabetic dogs, a strong increase in blood glycated hemoglobin was observed when compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). In contrast, dogs with insulinoma showed a decrease in blood glycated hemoglobin, though significant differences were not reported in all cases. No change in blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations were reported in dogs affected by other diseases. So, we can suppose that only the chronic alterations in glucose metabolism (chronic hyper- or hypoglycemia) can induce significant changes on the blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations in dogs. PMID:10805256

  20. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence in office workers with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional...

  1. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (>7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. Methods: The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. Results: When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Conclusions: Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level. PMID:24176393

  2. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  3. Sickness absence in Pertamina E.P. directorate

    SciTech Connect

    Harjono, P.T.; Arief, N.

    1996-12-31

    Pertamina is the only one state oil enterprise in the country has a strategic position in the national development, mainly in terms of foreign exchange and domestic ID energy supply. Hence human factor in the company productivity is very important. Workday loss by sickness in the last 4 years was 2.00{per_thousand} up to 3.00{per_thousand} and 0.88 days up to 1.12 days loss per worker annually. Workday loss by sickness was 96.86 % up to 99.12 % of total workday loss and the rest by work injuries, These relative low sickness absence figures achieved by multidisiplinary efforts in the company mainly by health department. All sickness absence certificate even for one day off should be signed by company medical doctor. Health department conduct comprehensive health care including occupational health programme. Health & safety issues solved by multidisiplinary approach. Beside health department also organize employee assistance programme (counseling) mainly for healthy life style and psychosocial problems. The low workday loss is one of the basic important factors to support discipline and human productivity mainly since mostly oil reserve discoveries located in the remote areas inland as well as offshore.

  4. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  5. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... regulations are in response to only a portion of OPM's proposed regulations (74 FR 43064) issued on August 26... covered servicemember undergoing medical treatment, recuperation, or therapy, for a serious injury or... regulations (75 FR 33491) amending the definition of family member for sick leave purposes to now...

  6. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration.

    PubMed

    Roelen, C A M; Koopmans, P C; Groothoff, J W

    2009-01-01

    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping styles which are important in absenteeism. The Effort-Reward Imbalance model takes coping into account. Little is known about occupational rewards and their relationship with sickness absence. This study investigated the relations between occupational rewards and the frequency and duration of sickness absence among 366 workers. The data of 326 employees (89%) were suitable for statistical analysis. Rewards in terms of job esteem (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.47-0.87) and job perspectives (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.57-0.84) were negatively related to the absence frequency in men. Satisfaction with income (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35-0.81) was negatively related to the absence frequency in women. Occupational rewards were not associated with the mean duration of absence episodes. The associations we found warrant more attention for occupational rewards in sickness absence research.

  7. The Living Arrangement Dynamics of Sick, Elderly Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostie, Benoit; Leger, Pierre Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We model the dynamics associated with living-arrangement decisions of sick elderly individuals. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics? Parental Health Supplement, we construct the complete living-arrangement histories of elderly individuals in need of care. We use a simultaneous random-effects competing-risks model to analyze the impact of…

  8. Air embolism and decompression sickness in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Whitcraft, D D; Karas, S

    1976-05-01

    The recognition and prompt treatment of air embolism and decompression sickness by the emergency physician can do much to reverse the unfavorable outcome of these two medical emergencies. Recognition depends on the physician maintaining a high index of suspicion. While the primary treatment for these disorders is recompression, other forms of therapy are outlined which must be instituted promptly.

  9. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  10. [A Roman soap opera: Justus' wife and love sickness].

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fiction rather than a story. Galen is called to visit Justus' wife, ill with a mysterious disease. The narrative of love sickness that afflicts her allows the author to draw an interesting picture of the social status of Roman women, the issues of reproduction and maritalbe trayal, and to shed light on magic practices for obtaining or preventing love affairs.

  11. Clinical features of serum sickness after Australian snake antivenom.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicole M; Downes, Michael A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-12-15

    Serum sickness is a delayed immune reaction in which the immune system responds to a protein in antiserum as a potentially harmful substance and mounts an IgG-mediated antibody response. A 32 year-old female patient had systemic envenoming following a bite by a red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus). She was treated with Tiger snake antivenom and recovered over 24 h and did not develop myotoxicity. She then presented with local pain, itching and swelling, which was partially treated with antihistamines. Eleven days after the bite she presented again with symptoms of worsening serum sickness including rash on the upper legs, joint and muscle pain in arms, ankles and knees, and nausea. The patient was prescribed five days of prednisone 50 mg/day, antihistamine 10 mg/day and analgesia 1000 mg/day and improved over 2 days. She had no further problems on follow up at 4 months. This case highlights that serum sickness can cause significant effects after the treatment of snake envenoming. It develops 5-14 days after antivenom administration and has characteristic clinical and laboratory features. Severe cases of serum sickness can result in morbidity but it appears to respond well to corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26525657

  12. Evaluation of putative neurochemical intermediaries in space/motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: the emetic stimuli used on the cats in the study; analysis of the constituents of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A agonists; other 5-HT receptors; and additional studies and activities.

  13. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n = 801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10–2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. PMID:26740344

  14. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence.

  15. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence. PMID:24607666

  16. Comparison of treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of Space Motion Sickness were graded as mild, moderate or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through Private Medical Conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for 19 crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and 15 crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular (IM) or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophaxis for Space Motion Sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in 9 crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in 7. Only three crewmembers who took scopdex had no symptoms inflight. Fourteen out of 15 crewmembers treated with IM promethazine and 6 of 8 treated with promethazine suppositories after symptom development had immediate (within 12 h) symptom relief and required no additional medication. There were no cases of delayed symptom presentation in the crewmembers treated with promethazine. This response is in contrast to untreated crewmembers who typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h. We conclude that promethazine is an effective treatment of Space Motion Sickness symptoms inflight. NASA policy currently recommends treating crewmembers with Space Motion Sickness after symptom development, and no longer recommends prophylaxis with scopdex due to delayed symptom development and apparent variable absorption of oral medications during early flight days.

  17. Increasing accuracy in the assessment of motion sickness: A construct methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to introduce a new methodology that should improve the accuracy of the assessment of motion sickness. This construct methodology utilizes both subjective reports of motion sickness and objective measures of physiological correlates to assess motion sickness. Current techniques and methods used in the framework of a construct methodology are inadequate. Current assessment techniques for diagnosing motion sickness and space motion sickness are reviewed, and attention is called to the problems with the current methods. Further, principles of psychophysiology that when applied will probably resolve some of these problems are described in detail.

  18. Volatile organic compounds, respirable dust, and personal factors related to prevalence and incidence of sick building syndrome in primary schools.

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, D; Torgén, M; Edling, C

    1990-01-01

    Possible relations between incidence and prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS), indoor exposures, and personal factors were studied in a four year longitudinal study among personnel (n = 129) in six primary schools. The mean concentration of carbon dioxide was above the recommended value of 0.08 microliter/l (800 ppm) in all schools, indicating a poor outdoor air supply. Indoor concentration of volatile hydrocarbon (VOC) was enhanced at high room temperatures. Respirable dust, but not concentration of VOC was enhanced at lower ventilation rates and high air humidity. Chronic SBS was related to VOC, previous wall to wall carpeting in the schools, hyper-reactivity, and psychosocial factors. Incidence of new SBS was related to concentration of respirable dust, current smoking, and the psychosocial climate. Remission of hyperreactivity, decrease in sick leave owing to airway illness, removal of carpeting in the schools, and moving from new to old dwellings resulted in a decrease in SBS score. It is concluded that SBS is of multifactorial origin, related to a variety of factors and exposures. The total concentration of hydrocarbons is a simple and convenient measure of exposure, which also seems to be a predictor of chronic symptoms. Further investigations on the effect of temperature, ventilation, and air humidity on SBS should consider how these factors may influence the chemical composition of the air. Because poor air quality in schools could also affect the children, it may have implications for the state of health of a large proportion of the population. PMID:2123116

  19. Head movements in non-terrestrial force environments elicit motion sickness - Implications for the etiology of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    Space motion sickness has become an operational concern in manned space flight. Considerable evidence exists that head movements in free fall, especially pitch movements, are provocative until adaptation occurs. The question arises whether space motion sickness is an unique nosological entity or is due to body movements in a nonterrestrial force environment, a force environment for which the body's dynamic sensory-motor adaptions to 1 G are no longer appropriate. To evaluate this issue, subjects were asked to make controlled head movements during exposure to high gravitoinertial force levels, 1.8-2.0 G, in parabolic flight maneuvers. Head movements in pitch with eyes open were most evocative of motion sickness, yaw movements with eyes covered were least provocative. This pattern is identical to that which occurs when the same types of head movements are made in the free fall phase of parabolic maneuvers. It appears that space motion sickness is the consequence of prolonged exposure to a nonterrestrial force background rather than of exposure to free fall per se.

  20. Ambulation Increases Decompression Sickness in Spacewalk Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. Understanding the relationships is important to evaluate exercise prebreathe protocols and quantify decompression risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS. METHODS Four experiments will replicate the CEVIS exercise-enhanced oxygen prebreathe protocol, each with a different exception. The first of these is currently underway. Experiment 1 - Subjects complete controlled ambulation (walking in place with fixed cadence and step height) during both preflight and at 4.3 psi instead of remaining nonambulatory throughout. Experiment 2 - Subjects remain non-ambulatory during the preflight period and ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 3 - Subjects ambulate during the preflight period and remain non-ambulatory at 4.3 psi. Experiment 4 - The order of heavy and light exercise employed in the CEVIS protocol is

  1. Changes in plasma vasopressin during motion sickness in cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert; Keil, L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Thomsen, D.; Dictor, M.; Chee, O.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in levels of plasma vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol (C) have been shown to be correlated with motion sickness and nausea in man. As part of the research aimed at validation of the cat as an appropriate animal model for motion sickness research, levels of these hormones were investigated in the cat during motion sickness elicited by vertical linear acceleration of approximately 0.6 Hz and 1 +/- 0.6 G. In Study 1, 15 cats previously screened for susceptibility to motion sickness were prepared with indwelling jugular catheters to permit withdrawl of blood with minimal disruption of the stimulus and minimum stress to the animal. AVP and C were measured in blood samples obtained during exposure to vertical linear acceleration and during control sessions in which the animals were placed in the stationary apparatus. 10 min and 1 min prior to duration; 1, 5, 10, and 20 min after start of motion. Total duration of exposure to motion was 20 min. The data indicate that both AVP and C are elevated during exposure to motion if emesis occurs. AVP reaches maximum levels during or about the same time as emesis, while C increases gradually throughout the period of vertical acceleration. In Study 2, four cats were prepared with indwelling catheters and AVP was measured in blood withdrawn during exposure to the vertical linear acceleration. A single pre-motion sample consisting of three samples drawn 5 min prior to motion onset. Two series of samples consisting of three samples drawn at 3-min intervals were obtained during motion. The first series was initiated at emesis, and the second 25 min after emesis. Results show that levels of circulating AVP were elevated (2 to 27 times the control and pre-motion levels) in the samples taken during emesis and decreased, but remained 1 to 6 times above the pre-motion or control levels within 25 min. The results of these two studies indicate that AVP is elevated during motion-produced emesis than is C. These findings are in general

  2. Exercise and nitric oxide prevent bubble formation: a novel approach to the prevention of decompression sickness?

    PubMed

    Wisløff, Ulrik; Richardson, Russell S; Brubakk, Alf O

    2004-03-16

    Nitrogen dissolves in the blood during dives, but comes out of solution if divers return to normal pressure too rapidly. Nitrogen bubbles cause a range of effects from skin rashes to seizures, coma and death. It is believed that these bubbles form from bubble precursors (gas nuclei). Recently we have shown that a single bout of exercise 20 h, but not 48 h, before a simulated dive prevents bubble formation and protects rats from severe decompression sickness (DCS) and death. Furthermore, we demonstrated that administration of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), turns a dive from safe to unsafe in sedentary but not exercised rats. Therefore based upon previous data an attractive hypothesis is that it may be possible to use either exercise or NO-releasing agents before a dive to inhibit bubble formation and thus protect against DCS. Consequently, the aims of the present study were to determine whether protection against bubble formation in 'diving' rats was provided by (1) chronic and acute administration of a NO-releasing agent and (2) exercise less than 20 h prior to the dive. NO given for 5 days and then 20 h prior to a dive to 700 kPa lasting 45 min breathing air significantly reduced bubble formation and prevented death. The same effect was seen if NO was given only 30 min before the dive. Exercise 20 h before a dive suppressed bubble formation and prevented death, with no effect at any other time (48, 10, 5 and 0.5 h prior to the dive). Pre-dive activities have not been considered to influence the growth of bubbles and thus the risk of serious DCS. The present novel findings of a protective effect against bubble formation and death by appropriately timed exercise and an NO-releasing agent may form the basis of a new approach to preventing serious decompression sickness.

  3. Molecular Hydrogen Reduces LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation and Promotes Recovery from Sickness Behaviour in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spulber, Stefan; Edoff, Karin; Hong, Lie; Morisawa, Shinkatsu; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in mouse models of acute neurodegeneration. The effect was suggested to be mediated by its free-radical scavenger properties. However, it has been shown recently that molecular hydrogen alters gene expression and protein phosphorylation. The aim of this study was to test whether chronic ad libitum consumption of molecular hydrogen-enriched electrochemically reduced water (H-ERW) improves the outcome of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. Seven days after the initiation of H-ERW treatment, C57Bl/6 mice received a single injection of LPS (0.33 mg/kg i.p.) or an equivalent volume of vehicle. The LPS-induced sickness behaviour was assessed 2 h after the injection, and recovery was assessed by monitoring the spontaneous locomotor activity in the homecage for 72 h after the administration of LPS. The mice were killed in the acute or recovery phase, and the expression of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was assessed by real-time PCR. We found that molecular hydrogen reduces the LPS-induced sickness behaviour and promotes recovery. These effects are associated with a shift towards anti-inflammatory gene expression profile at baseline (downregulation of TNF- α and upregulation of IL-10). In addition, molecular hydrogen increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration and promotes the extinction of neuroinflammation. Consistently, molecular hydrogen modulates the activation and gene expression in a similar fashion in immortalized murine microglia (BV-2 cell line), suggesting that the effects observed in vivo may involve the modulation of microglial activation. Taken together, our data point to the regulation of cytokine expression being an additional critical mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen. PMID:22860058

  4. Pregnancy in sick sinus syndrome with pacemaker - two cases.

    PubMed

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N; Sharmin, F

    2013-04-01

    Sick sinus syndrome is a generalized abnormality of cardiac impulse formation that may be caused by extrinsic causes or by intrinsic disease of the sinus node making it unable to perform pace making function. It can be manifested for the first time in pregnancy. First case was diagnosed as sick sinus syndrome at 8 weeks of gestation having Mobitz type I heart block (Wenckebach block), and needed temporary pacemaker during caesarean section. Second case was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation having complete heart block and needed permanent pacemaker at 38 weeks of gestation due to exaggeration of the symptoms. Both the cases were dealt successfully by caesarean section under general anesthesia in close collaboration with cardiologists and anesthesiologists.

  5. The neurochemical and neuropharmacological basis of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for producing motion sickness in laboratory animals and constructed at the university is herein described. The apparatus is a modified version of that previously described by Fox and Daunton. It consists of a 66-inch steel arm anchored at the center to a wooden platform and attached to a motor that makes the arm move in a see-saw fashion. At each end of the steel arm is mounted an aluminum disc that can be rotated by a motorized device. Detachable cages are mounted on each disc for animal holding. The animal can then be exposed to rotational motion by rotation of the aluminum disc, or to see-saw motion simultaneously (Cross-coupled). The apparatus is presently being used in our laboratory to study the neuropharmacological basis of motion sickness in the rat. The device can be adapted for use with other animal species by modifying the cage mounted on the aluminum discs.

  6. Space motion sickness and vestibular adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Theories of space motion sickness are discussed together with near future vestibular experiments for three Spacelab missions. The sensory conflict theory is covered, as well as theories involving unequal otolith masses, semicircular canals, cardiovascular adaptation and fluid shift toward the head, and extra-labyrinthine effects. Experiments will test the hypothesis that the sensitivity of the otolith organ response is shifted during weightlessness and that this shift carries over to the post-flight experience. Visual-vestibular-tactile interaction, vestibulo-ocular reflexes, ocular counterrolling, awareness of body position, otolith-spinal reflexes, and motion sickness susceptibility are among the parameters to be studied. Preflight and postflight tests will emphasize evaluation of any residual effects of the seven day weightless exposure on vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular pathways.

  7. Predictive modeling of altitude decompression sickness in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, D. J.; Hamilton, R. W., Jr.; Colley, I. A.; Schreiner, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The coding of data on 2,565 individual human altitude chamber tests is reported as part of a selection procedure designed to eliminate individuals who are highly susceptible to decompression sickness, individual aircrew members were exposed to the pressure equivalent of 37,000 feet and observed for one hour. Many entries refer to subjects who have been tested two or three times. This data contains a substantial body of statistical information important to the understanding of the mechanisms of altitude decompression sickness and for the computation of improved high altitude operating procedures. Appropriate computer formats and encoding procedures were developed and all 2,565 entries have been converted to these formats and stored on magnetic tape. A gas loading file was produced.

  8. [Inner ear decompression sickness following a scuba dive].

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Kitahara, S; Inouye, T; Ikeda, T

    1992-04-01

    Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is one form of Type II decompression sickness. Most cases of IEDCS have been associated with saturation dives, so there are very few reports of occurrence following shallow scuba dives. We present here the case of a diver who suffered from IEDCS following a shallow scuba dive (30m), and was successfully treated by the protocol outlined in U.S. Navy treatment table 6. This case suggests that there is the possibility of occurrence of IEDCS, even following a shallow scuba dive, if proper decompression procedures are not adhered to. In addition, detailed analysis of diving profiles should be used to distinguish the inner ear dysfunction seen in some divers from inner ear barotrauma which may be attributable to IEDCS.

  9. Mechanisms underlying the antimotion sickness effects of psychostimulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Lewis, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Data related to the mechanism responsible for the antimotion sickness effects of psychostimulants such as amphetamine are examined. From the analysis of current literature and new evidence, the following three hypotheses are suggested: (1) selective enhancement of dopaminergic, but not noradrenergic, transmission is sufficient to account for amphetamine-induced resistance and, perhaps, for natural resistance to motion sickness; (2) the site of this enhanced dopaminergic transmission is probably within the basal ganglia; and (3) the neuropharmacology of the basal ganglia, but not of the brain-stem vestibular areas, can account for the therapeutic synergism of scopolamine and amphetamine. The therapeutic action of psychostimulants may be dissociable from some of their side effects, particularly cardiovascular effects related to peripheral norepinephrine release.

  10. Doppler bubble detection and decompression sickness: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bayne, C G; Hunt, W S; Johanson, D C; Flynn, E T; Weathersby, P K

    1985-09-01

    Decompression sickness in human beings exposed to high ambient pressure is thought to follow from gas bubble formation and growth in the body during return to low pressure. Detection of Doppler-shifted ultrasonic reflections in major blood vessels has been promoted as a noninvasive and sensitive indicator of the imminence of decompression sickness. We have conducted a double-blind, prospective clinical trial of Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection in simulated diving using 83 men, of whom 8 were stricken and treated for the clinical disease. Diagnosis based only on the Doppler signals had no correlation with clinical diagnosis. Bubble scores were only slightly higher in the stricken group. The Doppler technique does not appear to be of diagnostic value in the absence of other clinical information.

  11. Prevention of decompression sickness during a simulated space docking mission.

    PubMed

    Cooke, J P; Bollinger, R R; Richardson, B

    1975-07-01

    This study has shown that repetitive exchanges between the American Apollo space vehicle atmosphere of 100% oxygen at 5 psia (258 torr) and the Russian Soyuz spacecraft atmosphere of 30% oxygen-70% nitrogen at 10 psia (523 torr), as simulated in altitude chambers, will not likely result in any form of decompression sickness. This conclusion is based upon the absence of any form of bends in seven crewmen who participated in 11 tests distributed over three 24-h periods. During each period, three transfers from the 5 to the 10 psia environments were performed by simulating passage through a docking module which served as an airlock where astronauts and cosmonauts first adapted to each other's cabin gases and pressures before transfer. Biochemical tests, subjective fatigue scores, and the complete absence of any form of pain were also indicative that decompression sickness should not be expected if this spacecraft transfer schedule is followed.

  12. [Reducing problematic sickness absence: of importance to every general practitioner].

    PubMed

    Wind, H; Opstelten, W; Hendriks, A C

    2016-01-01

    Problematic sickness absence is an issue that concerns not only occupational health physicians, but all physicians. More collaboration between occupational health and treating physicians, plus improved alignment of symptom treatment and reintegration counselling, can help avoid long-term sickness absence of employees. Achieving this goal presupposes mutual knowledge of each other's professions. Medical practice guidelines are a tool par excellence to share knowledge and bring this into practice. Treating physicians should not refrain from posing work-related and return-to-work questions, even if the overall responsibility lies with the occupational health physicians in terms of reintegration efforts. The patient's interest should be the leading principle for all physicians involved. This means not only provision of good care, aimed at patient recovery, but also adequate reintegration in the labour market. Occupational health physicians, general practitioners and consultant specialists should share this common goal. PMID:27299497

  13. Mechanisms of selective attention and space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mismatch theory of space motion sickness asserts that the central and peripheral autonomic sequelae of discordant sensory input arise from central integrative processes falling to reconcile patterns of incoming sensory information with existing memory. Stated differently, perceived novelty reaches a stress level as integrative mechanisms fail to return a sense of control to the individual in the new environment. Based on evidence summarized here, the severity of the neural mismatch may be dependent upon the relative amount of attention selectively afforded to each sensory input competing for control of behavior. Components of the limbic system may play important roles in match-mismatch operations, be therapeutically modulated by antimotion sickness drugs, and be optimally positioned to control autonomic output.

  14. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    PubMed

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  15. Pharmacology in space. Part 2. Controlling motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    In this second article in the two-part series on pharmacology in space, Claire Lathers and colleagues discuss the pharmacology of drugs used to control motion sickness in space and note that the pharmacology of the 'ideal' agent has yet to be worked out. That motion sickness may impair the pharmacological action of a drug by interfering with its absorption and distribution because of alteration of physiology is a problem unique to pharmacology in space. The authors comment on the problem of designing suitable ground-based studies to evaluate the pharmacological effect of drugs to be used in space and discuss the use of salivary samples collected during space flight to allow pharmacokinetic evaluations necessary for non-invasive clinical drug monitoring.

  16. Ruptured identities: leaving work because of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christine

    2010-01-01

    When people in contemporary society have to leave paid employment because they are too ill to continue, the impact is greater than the loss of income and daily activity, as social identity is bound up with paid employment. Loss of a chosen identity may be accompanied by the assumption of an unwanted identity. This article explores the value of reconsidering Parsons' "sick role" in relation to deviance. While the "sick role" has been dismissed because it does not appear relevant to chronic illnesses, the author argues that in the current political economic context of neoliberalism, people who cannot be responsible for their own welfare now assume a deviant status. People with chronic illnesses who are unable to work are examples of this form of deviance. The deviant status of being unable to work explains why many chronically ill people adopt behaviors described by Goffman in Stigma. PMID:21058535

  17. [Evaluation of Motion Sickness Induced by 3D Video Clips].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The use of stereoscopic images has been spreading rapidly. Nowadays, stereoscopic movies are nothing new to people. Stereoscopic systems date back to 280 A.D. when Euclid first recognized the concept of depth perception by humans. Despite the increase in the production of three-dimensional (3D) display products and many studies on stereoscopic vision, the effect of stereoscopic vision on the human body has been insufficiently understood. However, symptoms such as eye fatigue and 3D sickness have been the concerns when viewing 3D films for a prolonged period of time; therefore, it is important to consider the safety of viewing virtual 3D contents as a contribution to society. It is generally explained to the public that accommodation and convergence are mismatched during stereoscopic vision and that this is the main reason for the visual fatigue and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during 3D viewing. We have devised a method to simultaneously measure lens accommodation and convergence. We used this simultaneous measurement device to characterize 3D vision. Fixation distance was compared between accommodation and convergence during the viewing of 3D films with repeated measurements. Time courses of these fixation distances and their distributions were compared in subjects who viewed 2D and 3D video clips. The results indicated that after 90 s of continuously viewing 3D images, the accommodative power does not correspond to the distance of convergence. In this paper, remarks on methods to measure the severity of motion sickness induced by viewing 3D films are also given. From the epidemiological viewpoint, it is useful to obtain novel knowledge for reduction and/or prevention of VIMS. We should accumulate empirical data on motion sickness, which may contribute to the development of relevant fields in science and technology.

  18. IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-08-01

    When selecting minimum ventilation rates, employers should balance the well-recognized energy costs of providing higher minimum ventilation rates with the expected, but less well quantified, health benefits from a higher ventilation rate. This is a summary of the paper by Milton, et al. that found low employee sick leave associated with high ventilation rates in a set of buildings located in Massachusetts. A simple cost-benefit analysis also is presented.

  19. Investigating motion sickness using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The avoidance of foods which are associated with uncomfortable or aversive internal states has long been recognized. Many people are aware, either directly or via anecdotal reports, of individuals who avoid foods which were eaten just before the onset of sickness. Awareness of this phenomenon can be traced to the writings of John Locke. The disruption of diet during cancer therapy is sometimes ascribed to the attribution of an unpleasant quality to foods eaten preceding the sickness induced by therapy itself. In addition, it has long been recognized by the manufacturers of rodent poisons that animals avoid the injection of food treated with nonlethal doses of poison. An important part of the laboratory study of this phenomenon was directed toward studying the role learning plays in this type of avoidance behavior. Following the lead of Garcia and his associates, this avoidance has come to be interpreted as arising from a form of classical conditioning. In typical laboratory studies of this bahavior, a novel food is ingested just prior to exposure to some stimulus, commonly poisoning or irradiation, which produces illness. Following the terminology of classical conditioning, it is common to describe this procedure as one of 'pairing' a conditioned stimulus (CS), the novel food, with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the illness induced by toxicosis or irradiation. Avoidance of the food in succeeding feeding opportunities is viewed as a learned response or a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Garcia et al. asserted that motion sickness could produce 'gustatory' aversions, but passive motion was first reported as an US to establish CTA by Green and Rachlin. The purpose is to review the manner in which CTA has been used to study motion sickness. Numerous reviews concentrating on other aspects of CTA are available in the existing literature. Readers are encouraged to consult the various papers and edited books for extensive information on other aspects of this literature.

  20. Postural activity and motion sickness during video game play in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Tseng, Li-Ya; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-03-01

    Research has confirmed that console video games give rise to motion sickness in many adults. During exposure to console video games, there are differences in postural activity (movement of the head and torso) between participants who later experience motion sickness and those who do not, confirming a prediction of the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Previous research has not addressed relations between video games, movement and motion sickness in children. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of a commercially available console video game in both adults and 10-year-old children. Individuals played the game for up to 50 min and were instructed to discontinue immediately if they experienced any symptoms of motion sickness, however mild. During game play, we monitored movement of the head and torso. Motion sickness was reported by 67% of adults and by 56% of children; these rates did not differ. As a group, children moved more than adults. Across age groups, the positional variability of the head and torso increased over time during game play. In addition, we found differences in movement between participants who later reported motion sickness and those who did not. Some of these differences were general across age groups but we also found significant differences between the movement of adults and children who later reported motion sickness. The results confirm that console video games can induce motion sickness in children and demonstrate that changes in postural activity precede the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness in children.

  1. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%.

  2. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%. PMID:24808604

  3. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  5. Modeling sensory conflict and motion sickness in artificial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Paul Z.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to characterize the vestibular response associated with head movements for various centrifuge rotation rates if one is to explore short-radius centrifugation as a viable form of artificial gravity for future spaceflights. An existing motion sickness model was modified to design an adaptation protocol to facilitate head movements at a centrifuge speed of 30 rpm. Modification involved addition of a quantitative sensory conflict model to serve as the input to the motion sickness model. Sensory conflict in this context was based on the dynamics of head movements during centrifugation as well as a previously developed transfer function relating angular accelerations to semicircular canal firing rates. Additionally, an adaptation parameter based on comparison between model predictions and previous experimental results was added. A 3-day incremental adaptation protocol was conducted in which 16 subjects successfully made 30 yaw head movements during rotation at 30 rpm on day 3. Motion sickness results showed good agreement with model predictions and demonstrated the feasibility of adaptation to increasingly high rotation rates.

  6. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  7. Electrical acustimulation relieves vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Stern, R. M.; Koch, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of electrical acustimulation on gastric myoelectric activity and severity of symptoms of motion sickness. In experiment 1, 16 Chinese subjects received electrical acustimulation in one of two sessions. In experiment 2, 45 white and black American subjects were randomly divided into three groups: acustimulation, sham acustimulation, and control. Each subject sat in an optokinetic drum for 15 minutes baseline and 15 minutes of drum rotation. Subjects' electrogastrograms and subjective symptoms of motion sickness were obtained. In experiment 1, the mean symptom score and tachyarrhythmia during acustimulation sessions were significantly lower than during no-acustimulation sessions. In experiment 2, the mean symptom score of the acustimulation group was significantly lower than that of the sham-stimulation group and the control group; tachyarrhythmia in the acustimulation group was significantly less than that of the control group but not the sham-stimulation group. In conclusion, electrical acustimulation reduces the severity of symptoms of motion sickness and appears to decrease gastric tachyarrhythmia.

  8. Relative efficacy of the proposed Space Shuttle antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordinsky, J. R.; Schwartz, E.; Beier, J.; Martin, J.; Aust, G.

    1982-07-01

    Space motion sickness has been estimated as affecting between 1/3 and 1/2 of all space flight participants. NASA has at the moment proposed a combination of promethazine and ephedrine ( P/E) and one of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine ( S/D), both given orally, as well as a transdermally applied scopolamine (TAS), as preventive and ameliorative measures. The reported double-blind study tests the early phase actions and efficacy of the transdermal scopolamine (Transderm ™-V of ALZA Corporation) and compares these in detail to the oral medications. Motion sickness resistance was tested by standardized head movements while accelerating at 0.2°/sec 2 to a maximum rotation of 240°/sec, with an intermediate plateau of 10 min at 180°/sec. To permit weighting motion sickness protection against other system influences, cardiovascular, psychological (subjective and objective), and visual parameter changes were documented for the three therapeutic modes. The relative impact of the various modalities on operational and experimental components of space missions is discussed. A comparison to intramuscularly administered promethazine (a backup therapeutic mode suggested for Space Shuttle use) is also included.

  9. Motion sickness and proprioceptive aftereffects following virtual environment exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanney, K. M.; Kennedy, R. S.; Drexler, J. M.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    To study the potential aftereffects of virtual environments (VE), tests of visually guided behavior and felt limb position (pointing with eyes open and closed) along with self-reports of motion sickness-like discomfort were administered before and after 30 min exposure of 34 subjects. When post- discomfort was compared to a pre-baseline, the participants reported more sickness afterward (p < 0.03). The change in felt limb position resulted in subjects pointing higher (p < 0.038) and slightly to the left, although the latter difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). When findings from a second study using a different VE system were compared, they essentially replicated the results of the first study with higher sickness afterward (p < 0.001) and post- pointing errors were also up (p < 0.001) and to the left (p < 0.001). While alternative explanations (e.g. learning, fatigue, boredom, habituation, etc.) of these outcomes cannot be ruled out, the consistency of the post- effects on felt limb position changes in the two VE implies that these recalibrations may linger once interaction with the VE has concluded, rendering users potentially physiologically maladapted for the real world when they return. This suggests there may be safety concerns following VE exposures until pre-exposure functioning has been regained. The results of this study emphasize the need for developing and using objective measures of post-VE exposure aftereffects in order to systematically determine under what conditions these effects may occur.

  10. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S

    2013-03-01

    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information.

  11. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  12. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Horneij, Eva L; Jensen, Irene B; Holmström, Eva B; Ekdahl, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD) is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1) future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I) and 2) future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II). Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97) and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31), were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77) previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17), high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23) and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86) were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low back disorders and

  13. Use of physical culture to increase resistance of sailors to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salanin, I. V.

    1980-01-01

    From 50% to 70% of sailors are exposed to motion sickness in storms. A program of physical exercises is described and tested for effectiveness in preventing this problem. In comparing the results of tests of susceptibility to motion sickness given to groups before and after a program of exercises and to a control group, it is found that physical education can strengthen the vestibulary apparatus and help prevent motion sickness.

  14. Spatial orientation, adaptation, and motion sickness in real and virtual environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Reason and Brand (1975) noted that motion sickness occurs in many situations involving either passive body motion or active interaction with the world via indirect sensorimotor interfaces (e.g., prism spectacles). As might be expected, motion sickness is being reported in VEs that involve apparent self-motion through space, the best known examples being flight simulators (Kennedy et al., 1990). The goals of this paper are to introduce the motion-sickness symptomatology; to outline some concepts that are central to theories of motion sickness, spatial orientation, and adaptation; and to discuss the implications of some trends in VE research and development.

  15. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine.

  16. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine. PMID:26125158

  17. Dissociation between sickness behavior and emotionality during lipopolysaccharide challenge in lymphocyte deficient Rag2−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sarah M.; Michael, Kerry C.; Klaus, Joseph; Mert, Abdullah; Romano-Verthelyi, Ari; Sand, Joseph; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are highly associated with affective disorders including depression and anxiety. While the role of the innate immune system on emotionality has been extensively studied, the role of adaptive immunity is less understood. Considering that chronic inflammatory conditions are mediated largely by maladaptive lymphocyte function, the role of these cells on brain function and behavior during inflammation warrants investigation. In the present study we employed mice deficient in lymphocyte function and studied behavioral and inflammatory responses during challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Rag2−/− mice lacking mature lymphocytes were susceptible to death under sub-septic (5 mg/kg) doses of LPS and survived only to moderate (1 mg/kg) doses of LPS. Under these conditions, they displayed attenuated TNF-alpha responses and behavioral symptoms of sickness when compared with immunocompetent mice. Nevertheless, Rag2−/− mice had protracted motivational impairments after recovery from sickness suggesting a specific function for lymphocytes on the reestablishment of motivational states after activation of the innate immune system. The behavioral impairments in Rag2−/− mice were paralleled by an elevation in plasma corticosterone after behavioral tests. These results provide evidence that the absence of adaptive immunity may be associated with emotional deficits during inflammation and suggest that depressive states associated with medical illness may be mediated in part by impaired lymphocyte responses. PMID:25257108

  18. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Satayanarayan; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Khan, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), force swim test (FST), as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks) these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state. PMID:26901349

  19. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, Neetu; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satayanarayan; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Khan, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), force swim test (FST), as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks) these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state. PMID:26901349

  20. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees.

  1. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees. PMID:25795993

  2. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects. PMID:17434541

  3. Estimating and Mapping the Population at Risk of Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Franco, José R.; Paone, Massimo; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Ruiz-Postigo, José Antonio; Fèvre, Eric M.; Mattioli, Raffaele C.; Jannin, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, persists as a public health problem in several sub-Saharan countries. Evidence-based, spatially explicit estimates of population at risk are needed to inform planning and implementation of field interventions, monitor disease trends, raise awareness and support advocacy. Comprehensive, geo-referenced epidemiological records from HAT-affected countries were combined with human population layers to map five categories of risk, ranging from “very high” to “very low,” and to estimate the corresponding at-risk population. Results Approximately 70 million people distributed over a surface of 1.55 million km2 are estimated to be at different levels of risk of contracting HAT. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 82.2% of the population at risk, the remaining 17.8% being at risk of infection from T. b. rhodesiense. Twenty-one million people live in areas classified as moderate to very high risk, where more than 1 HAT case per 10,000 inhabitants per annum is reported. Discussion Updated estimates of the population at risk of sleeping sickness were made, based on quantitative information on the reported cases and the geographic distribution of human population. Due to substantial methodological differences, it is not possible to make direct comparisons with previous figures for at-risk population. By contrast, it will be possible to explore trends in the future. The presented maps of different HAT risk levels will help to develop site-specific strategies for control and surveillance, and to monitor progress achieved by ongoing efforts aimed at the elimination of sleeping sickness. PMID:23145192

  4. The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Marco; Mirante, Nadia; Casagrande, Maria; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Lugli, Vittoria

    2007-05-16

    Pensacola Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) is a valuable method to analyse symptoms evoked by exposure to a flight simulator environment that can also be adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive tools, aiming at reducing simulator sickness (SS). In this study we analysed SSQ data in subjects undergoing a standard ground based spatial disorientation training inside a flight simulator, in order to evaluate the SS prevention obtained with two different pharmacological tools. Twelve males volunteers participated to an experimental design based on a double-blind, balanced administration of either 30 mg cinnarizine (CIN), or Cocculus Indicus 6CH (COC), or placebo (PLC) before one trial of about one hour spent inside a spatial disorientation trainer. All subjects underwent the three different conditions (CIN, COC, PLC) during 3 non-consecutive days separated by at least 2 weeks. During each experimental day, all subjects filled in SSQ. In addition, both postural instability (with the use of a static stabilometric platform), and sleepiness symptoms were evaluated. All the tests were performed before and after the simulated flight, at different times, in one-and-half-hour intervals. Results indicated a strong increase of sickness after flight simulation that linearly decreased, showing pre-simulator scores after 1.30 hours. In contrast to both PLC and COC, CIN showed significant side effects immediately following flight simulation, with no benefit at the simultaneous SSQ scores. Globally, no highly significant differences between COC and PLC were observed, although a minor degree of postural instability could be detected after COC administration. As far as the present exposure to a simulator environment is concerned, none of the pharmacological tools administered in this study resulted effective in reducing SS symptoms as detected by the SSQ. Moreover, CIN significantly increased sleepiness and postural instability in most subjects.

  5. Family-centered Care for Sick Newborns: A Thumbnail View

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Arti; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) for sick newborns is emerging as a paradigmatic shift in the practice of facility-based newborn care. It seeks to transforming a provider-centered model into a client-centered one and thus build a new therapeutic alliance. FCC is the cornerstone of continuum of care, imparting caregiving competencies to parents/caregivers both within institutions as well as after the discharge. This has potential gains for the newborn, family members, and facility-level staff. The initial model piloted in tertiary-care settings is now undergoing translation at five sites across the country; the outcomes are keenly awaited. PMID:26917867

  6. From sick role to narrative subject: An analytic memoir.

    PubMed

    Frank, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Questions of illness experience and identity are discussed, based on the analysis of a story told by the breast-cancer activist Audre Lorde. Displacing Parsons' conceptualization of illness as a sick role, I understand the ill person as a narrative subject, defined by discursive possibilities. Three discourses of illness are proposed: the medical institutional discourse, the discourse of illness experience, and the pink-ribbon discourse. Each has its preferred narratives. These discourses overlap and mutually affect each other. Problems with the Foucauldian conceptualization of the subject are considered, and a dialogical imagination of relations of governmentality is proposed. PMID:26582351

  7. [Sleeping sickness: one hundred years of control strategy evolution].

    PubMed

    Louis, F J; Simarro, P P; Lucas, P

    2002-12-01

    Sleeping sickness has been known since the fifteenth century but the real progress in the knowledge of the disease occurred in the nineteenth century with the development of microscopy. From 1841 to 1901 the parasites and their vectors have been identified, the symptomatology and the epidemiology have been described. However, due to absence of any effective cure, the campaign against the disease was still based on the isolation of the patients and the transfer of exposed populations. The discovery of atoxyl in 1905 provided doctors with their first therapeutic weapon and, in 1910, the first action of vector control was undertaken with success in the Island of Principe. Between the two world conflicts, Jamot published the rules to fight against major outbreaks. Their application in Oubangui-Chari, in Cameroon and in French Occidental Africa brought tremendous results and signed the triumph of the mobile unit concept. Success which will not be denied until the sixties when the disease was believed to be eradicated. From the sixties to the nineties, the concept of the integration of prevention and care added to the exclusion of any vertical system will result in a progressive reniewed outbreak of the sleeping sickness in the known foci. As a paradox, it is a time rich in discovery as regards diagnosis, treatment and entomology. In 1994, the World Health Organisation got concerned with the situation of the disease in Central Africa where the outbreak of the disease reinforced. A second paradox appeared; it is the next to total disinterest from the politics and fund raisers which will save the disease. Today, sleeping sickness is the typical example of the orphan disease, a show case brandished by all the good souls. In 2001, an agreement between the WHO and the pharmaceutical industry brings back the financial funds required to fight the disease. Basically, it is a matter of resuming the action by using what is still existing and by creating new strategies considering

  8. [Disability evaluation in decompression sickness treated with hyperbaric therapy].

    PubMed

    Zannini, D; Chiozza, G; Formai, C; Oltracqua, S

    1981-12-30

    The Authors report 41 cases of decompression sickness following air scuba diving observed during the last three years at the Istituto di Medicina del Lavoro of the University of Genoa and discuss about consequent injuries and damages (period of hospitalization, temporary and permanent disability). The Authors say that in 12 cases remain permanent disability with limitation more or less serious of the working capacity. They, at last, emphasize that neurological symptoms are getting better during several months so to be necessary to wait for two years at least before estimating definitively advise.

  9. Family-centered Care for Sick Newborns: A Thumbnail View.

    PubMed

    Maria, Arti; Dasgupta, Rajib

    2016-01-01

    Family-centered care (FCC) for sick newborns is emerging as a paradigmatic shift in the practice of facility-based newborn care. It seeks to transforming a provider-centered model into a client-centered one and thus build a new therapeutic alliance. FCC is the cornerstone of continuum of care, imparting caregiving competencies to parents/caregivers both within institutions as well as after the discharge. This has potential gains for the newborn, family members, and facility-level staff. The initial model piloted in tertiary-care settings is now undergoing translation at five sites across the country; the outcomes are keenly awaited. PMID:26917867

  10. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  11. Space motion sickness medications - Interference with biomedical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Winget, C. M.; Leach, C. S.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility that drugs administered to Skylab 3 and 4 crewmen for space motion sickness may have interfered with their biomedical evaluation in space is investigated. The mixture of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine produced changes which allow a more valid interpretation of the early biomedical changes ocurring in weightlessness. There is no doubt that the dramatic increase in aldosterone excretion is not attributable to the drug, while the drug could have contributed to the in-flight changes observed in cortisol, epinephrine, heart rate and possibly urine volume.

  12. Palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus disease: selling sickness for future?

    PubMed

    Yudina, Ekaterina V; Ziganshina, Liliya E

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades Russia has gone through dramatic "democratic" changes resulting in unprecedented deterioration of health, loss of lives and extinction of population. The health system turned into a ridiculous monster of poorly organized business exploiting reminiscent social values of the past to build profits on selling sickness-for-all in consumer culture. We present facts and conclude that introduction of palivizumab into clinical practice for the most vulnerable patient category was done without confirmation of efficacy, without pharmacoeconomics evaluations, without any precautionary measures in a country with undeveloped pharmacovigilance system. The situation calls for immediate action of responsible authorities and the society as a whole.

  13. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The inflamed bronchial tubes produce a lot of mucus. This leads to coughing and difficulty breathing. Cigarette smoking is the most ... diagnose chronic bronchitis, your doctor will look at your signs ...

  14. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  15. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  16. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  17. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  18. Age differences in the associations between sick leave and aspects of health, psychosocial workload and family life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Judith T; van der Velden, Koos; van der Gulden, Joost W J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate differences in associations between sick leave and aspects of health, psychosocial workload, family life and work–family interference between four age groups (<36, 36–45, 46–55 and 55+ years). Design A cross-sectional study; a questionnaire was sent to the home addresses of all employees of a university. Setting A Dutch university. Participants 1843 employees returned the questionnaire (net response: 49.1%). The age distribution was as follows: <36: 32%; 36–45: 26%; 46–55: 27% and 55+: 12%. Primary outcomes Frequent sick leave (FSL, ≥3 times in the past 12 months) and prolonged sick leave (PSL, >2 weeks in total in the past 12 months). Differences between the age groups in independent variables and outcomes were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate associations between various variables and the sick leave outcomes. Interaction terms were included to detect differences between the age groups. Results Age differences were found for many work- and family-related characteristics but not in the mean scores for health-related aspects. Presence of chronic disease was reported more frequently with increasing age. The 55+ age group had almost two times less chance of FSL, but 1.6 times more chance of PSL than the <36 age group. Age moderates the associations between career opportunities, partner's contribution in domestic tasks and sex, and FSL. Job security and pay, support from supervisor, challenging work and being breadwinner have different associations with PSL. However, life events in private lives and perceived health complaints are important in all age groups. FSL and PSL have some determinants in common, but there are differences between the outcomes as well. Conclusions Age should be treated as a variable of interest instead of a control variable. Employers and occupational physicians need to be aware that each phase in life has specific difficulties that can lead to FSL and PSL. PMID

  19. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  20. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  1. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  2. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  3. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  4. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  5. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  6. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. PMID:22337584

  7. [Polymorphism of connexin 40 gene-- a novel genetic marker of the sick sinus node syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Shul'man, V A; Kukushkina, T S; Voevoda, M I; Maksimov, V N

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have demonstrated for the first time on the clinico-genetic material association between hereditary sick sinus node syndrome and connexin 40 gene polymorphism. We have revealed that heterozygous variant of connexin 40 gene variant is more frequent among patients with sick sinus node syndrome and their healthy relatives than in persons of control group.

  8. Are Colombian Sickness Funds Cream Skimming Enrollees? An Analysis with Suggestions for Policy Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; McCalla, Dawn C.

    2004-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of Colombian social health insurance reform was to increase competition among for-profit insurers. Unfortunately, the flat capitated formula creates an opportunity for sickness funds to maximize reimbursement gains by "cream skimming"--selecting against unhealthy individuals. This paper explores sickness fund…

  9. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-3 - Extension of withholding to sick pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(o)-3 Extension of withholding to sick pay... withhold income tax with respect to payments of sick pay made on or after May 1, 1981. If such a request...

  10. Long Sick Leave after Orthopaedic Inpatient Rehabilitation: Treatment Failure or Relapse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangels, Marija; Schwarz, Susanne; Worringen, Ulrike; Holme, Martin; Rief, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether short-term versus long-term sick leave after orthopaedic inpatient rehabilitation can be predicted by initial assessment information, the clinical status at discharge, or whether the follow-up interval is crucial for later sick leave. We examined 214 patients from an orthopaedic rehabilitation hospital at admission,…

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-3 - Extension of withholding to sick pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension of withholding to sick pay. 31.3402(o)-3 Section 31.3402(o)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(o)-3 Extension of withholding to sick...

  12. The relationship between motion sickness experience and vestibular tests in pilots and nonpilots.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The contribution of the vestibular system to motion sickness experience is studied by means of an attempt to determine the relationship between five subjective tests of vestibular function and reports of motion sickness experiences by pilots and nonpilots. The experimental procedure is described and the obtained results are discussed.

  13. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  14. Vestibular system and neural correlates of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1986-01-01

    Initial studies re-examine the role of certain central nervous system structures in the production of vestibular-induced vomiting and vomiting in general. All experiments were conducted using cats. Since these studies demonstrated that the essential role of various central structures in vestibular-induced vomiting is only poorly understood, efforts were re-directed to study the control of the effector muscles (diaphragm and abdominal muscles) that produce the pressure changes responsible for vomiting, with the goal of determining how this control mechanism is engaged during motion sickness. Experiments were conducted to localize the motoneurons that innervate the individual abdominal muscles and the portion of the diaphragm that surrounds the esophagus. A central question regarding respiratory muscle control during vomiting is whether these muscles are activated via the same brain stem pre-motor neurons that provide descending respiratory drive and/or by other descending input(s). In other experiments, the use of a combination of pitch and roll motions to produce motion sickness in unrestrained cats was evaluated. This stimulus combination can produce vomiting in only the most susceptible cats and is thus not as provacative a stimulus for cats as vertical linear acceleration.

  15. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Reports for The Risk of Decompression Sickness (from here on referred to as the 2014 DCS Evidence Report) and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (from here on referred to as the 2014 EVA Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plans for these Risks. The SRP appreciated the time and effort that the DCS and EVA disciplines put into their review documents and presentations. The SRP felt that the 2014 DCS Evidence Report and the 2014 EVA Evidence Reports were very thorough and addressed the majority of the known DCS and EVA issues. The researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have the knowledge base to deal with the DCS and EVA issues. Overall, the SRP thinks the DCS and EVA research teams have compiled excellent reports which address the majority of the literature and background information.

  16. Motion sickness susceptibility in parabolic flight and velocity storage activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    1991-01-01

    In parabolic flight experiments, postrotary nystagmus is as found to be differentially suppressed in free fall (G) and in a high gravitoinertial force (1.8 G) background relative to 1 G. In addition, the influence of postrotary head movements on nystagmus suppression was found to be contingent on G-dependency of the velocity storage and dumping mechanisms. Here, susceptibility to motion sickness during head movements in 0 G and 1.8 G was rank-correlated with the following: (1) the decay time constant of the slow phase velocity of postrotary nystagmus under 1 G, no head movement, baseline conditions, (2) the extent of time constant reduction elicited in 0 G and 1.8 G; (3) the extent of time constant reduction elicited by head tilts in 1 G; and (4) changes in the extent of time constants reduction in 0 G and 1.8 G over repeated tests. Susceptibility was significantly correlated with the extent to which a head movement reduced the time constant in 1 G, was weakly correlated with the baseline time constant, but was not correlated with the extent of reduction in 0 G or 1.8 G. This pattern suggests a link between mechanisms evoking symptoms of space motion sickness and the mechanisms of velocity storage and dumping. Experimental means of evaluating this link are described.

  17. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  18. Sick man walking: Perception of health status from body motion.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, T; Karshikoff, B; Axelsson, E; Höglund, C Olgart; Lekander, M; Axelsson, J

    2015-08-01

    An ability to detect subtle signs of sickness in others would be highly beneficial, as it would allow for behaviors that help us avoid contagious pathogens. Recent findings suggest that both animals and humans are able to detect distinctive odor signals of individuals with activated innate immune responses. This study tested whether an innate immune response affects a person's walking speed and whether other people perceive that person as less healthy. 43 subjects watched films of persons who were experiencing experimental immune activation, and rated the walking individuals in the films with respect to health, tiredness, and sadness. Furthermore, the walking speed in the films was analyzed. After LPS injections, participants walked more slowly and were perceived as less healthy and more tired as compared to when injected with placebo. There was also a trend for the subjects to look sadder after LPS injection than after placebo. Furthermore, there were strong associations between walking speed and the appearance of health, tiredness, and sadness. These findings support the notion that walking speed is affected by an activated immune response, and that humans may be able to detect very early signs of sickness in others by merely observing their gait. This ability is likely to aid both a "behavioral immune system", by providing more opportunities for adaptive behaviors such as avoidance, and the anticipatory priming of biochemical immune responses. PMID:25801061

  19. Neural Origins of Human Sickness in Interoceptive Responses to Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A.; Brydon, Lena; Walker, Cicely; Gray, Marcus A.; Steptoe, Andrew; Dolan, Raymond J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammation is associated with psychological, emotional, and behavioral disturbance, known as sickness behavior. Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in coordinating this central motivational reorientation accompanying peripheral immunologic responses to pathogens. Studies in rodents suggest an afferent interoceptive neural mechanism, although comparable data in humans are lacking. Methods In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 16 healthy male volunteers received typhoid vaccination or saline (placebo) injection in two experimental sessions. Profile of Mood State questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 2 and 3 hours. Two hours after injection, participants performed a high-demand color word Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were performed at baseline and immediately after scanning. Results Typhoid but not placebo injection produced a robust inflammatory response indexed by increased circulating interleukin-6 accompanied by a significant increase in fatigue, confusion, and impaired concentration at 3 hours. Performance of the Stroop task under inflammation activated brain regions encoding representations of internal bodily state. Spatial and temporal characteristics of this response are consistent with interoceptive information flow via afferent autonomic fibers. During performance of this task, activity within interoceptive brain regions also predicted individual differences in inflammation-associated but not placebo-associated fatigue and confusion. Maintenance of cognitive performance, despite inflammation-associated fatigue, led to recruitment of additional prefrontal cortical regions. Conclusions These findings suggest that peripheral infection selectively influences central nervous system function to generate core symptoms of sickness and reorient basic motivational states. PMID:19409533

  20. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Wood, M. J.; Manno, B. R.; Mims, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.