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Sample records for chronic pesticide intoxication

  1. Chronic manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. )

    1989-10-01

    We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.

  2. [Clinical cases of occupational chronic manganese intoxication].

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, T N; Lakhman, O L; Katamanova, E V; Kartapol'tseva, N V; Meshcheriagin, V A; Rusanova, D V; Andreeva, O K

    2009-01-01

    Classic symptoms of manganese intoxication are very rarely seen nowadays. Clinic in Angarsk Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology registered two cases of stage I and II chronic manganese intoxication over 10 years among electric welders. The cases were diagnosed with consideration of long length of exposure to manganese with the ambient air level exceeding the MAC 1.5 times, the disease manifestation at middle age, high manganese level in serum and urine, characteristic neurologic symptoms in association with organic psychopathologic defects and polyneuropathy of limbs.

  3. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    PubMed

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  4. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A S; Prichard, J S; Freedman, M H

    1973-03-17

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale.

  5. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Bælum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution. PMID:16630337

  6. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication.

  7. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  8. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- HCO3-, Ca++), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  9. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  10. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes. PMID:7036487

  11. [Intoxication due to pesticides in the central northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil - 2002 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Neves, Pedro Dias Mangolini; Bellini, Marcella

    2013-11-01

    This research is based on epidemiological records of toxicological occurrences in individual records of investigation into pesticide poisoning at the Maringá Intoxication Control Center at the Regional University Hospital of Maringá. The intoxications in patients poisoned from 2002 to 2011, in towns that comprise the Central Northern Paraná Geographic Mesoregion where Maringá is located, were taken into consideration in this study. As a result, it was established that approximately 67.12% of those poisoned were males, the age groups most affected are 20-29 years old and 30-39 years old. Suicide attempts appear as the main motivation for hospitalization (possibly disguising the chronic intoxication), and mainly insecticides and herbicides are involved in the poisonings, with 62.60% and 26%, respectively. Lastly, the urgent need for public health policies in to reduce this statistic immediately is self-evident, as these poisonings are the ones recorded, as those resulting from food poisoning are not being computed.

  12. [CHRONIC FLUORIDE INTOXICATION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS].

    PubMed

    Korotenko, O Yu; Panev, N I; Zakharenkov, V V; Filimonov, S N; Semenova, E A; Panev, R N

    2015-01-01

    In workers employed in the aluminum industry, the main harmful production factor is exposure to fluoride salts, which can cause chronic fluoride intoxication. For the assessment of the impact of chronic fluoride intoxication on the development of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 87 aluminum-metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication and 43 aluminum-metal makers without occupational diseases, mean age--52.1 ± 0.4 years. There were considered the presence and severity of atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries, and the arteries of the lower extremities in the studied group, there was evaluated the effect of other risk factors for atherosclerosis (smoking, presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia). With the use of Doppler ultrasound of the arteries it was revealed that in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication atherosclerosis was detected in 73.6% versus 55.8% in persons of the comparison group. The performed analysis of the prevalence of main risk factors for atherosclerosis showed that in metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis hypertension is more common (in 54.7%) than in metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication without atherosclerosis--only 26.1%. According to the frequency of occurrence of smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, there were no significant differences between the metallurgists with chronic fluoride intoxication, with and without atherosclerosis, and the control group, the increase in LDL cholesterol occurs significantly more often in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication in combination with atherosclerosis if compared to workers without occupational diseases. Thus, chronic fluoride intoxication acts as a risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis: atherosclerosis in metal-makers with chronic fluoride intoxication occurs more frequently than in workers who do not have professional pathology

  13. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication.

  14. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  15. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fa...

  16. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few reports of long-term exposure. Reports in the literature describing "chronic" exposures to pesticides are, in fact, a...

  17. Prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment of intoxications caused by nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Musilek, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Soukup, Ondrej

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of intoxications caused by nerve agents and organophosphorus pesticides consists of different approaches. The first approach is called prophylaxis or pre-exposure administration of antidotes such as cholinesterase reactivators or bioscavengers. The second, post-exposure treatment consists of anticholinergic drugs, acetylcholinesterase reactivators and anticonvulsants. This article is aimed at both mentioned approaches, especially focused on cholinesterase reactivators, which are a broad group of structurally different compounds that can be used in prophylaxis (separately or in combination with butyrylcholinesterase) and also as post-exposure treatment.

  18. Noncirrhotic presinusoidal portal hypertension associated with chronic arsenical intoxication.

    PubMed

    Huet, P M; Guillaume, E; Cote, J; Légaré, A; Lavoie, P; Viallet, A

    1975-05-01

    A 39-year-old male with bleeding esophageal varices due to portal hypertension was observed. The patient had taken an arsenical preparation during a period of 12 yr because of psoriasis and subsequently developed keratotic changes of the palms and soles of his feet and an epithelioma of the scrotum. Physical examination was unremarkable except for splenomegaly and skin lesions. Liver function tests were normal; a needle biopsy of the liver (right lobe) showed nonspecific changes. Combined hepatic and umbilicoportal catheterization revealed, on splenography and portography, huge esophageal varices and patent portal vein; dilation, distortion, and cut-off of many intrahepatic portal branches were found. A marked gradient existed between the free portal venous pressure (25 mm Hg) and the wedged hepatic venous pressure (9.5 mm Hg). Hepatic blood flow, portal PO2, cardiac output, cardiac index, and blOOD volume were within normal range. Arteriographies did not reveal arteriovenous shunts in the splanchnic or splenic vessels. A splenorenal shunt were performed and a wedged biopsy of the liver (left lobe) revealed nonspecific changes. Three years later the patient had not experienced any episode of hemorrhage or hepatic encephalopathy but developed an epithelioma of the tongue. No known cause could be incriminated in the pathogenesis of the portal hypertension. However, there was unequivocal chronic arsenic intoxication. Toxic hepatitis, cirrhosis, noncirrhotic portal hypertension, and hemangiosarcoma of the liver have been reported with the intake of arsenicals. Thus, it is suggested that in this patient, presinusoidal portal hypertension was secondary to chronic arsenical intake associated with marked intrahepatic vascular changes seen on portography.

  19. Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn) fruit causes central nervous system damage during chronic intoxication in the rat.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Verdin, Eduardo M; Bermúdez-Barba, M V; Salazar-Leal, Martha E; Ancer Rodríguez, J; Romero-Diaz, Víktor; Soto-Domínguez, Adolfo; Ballesteros-Eliozondo, Raquel G; Saucedo-Cardenas, Odila; Piñeyro Lopez, Alfredo; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, Julio

    2009-05-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana fruit (Kh) causes a neurological disorder 3-4 weeks after ingestion, characterized by flaccid, symmetrical, ascending paralysis, similar to the Guillain-Barre syndrome. In this polyneuropathy the lesion (demyelization) in peripheral nerves has been described in several animal species, both in acute and in chronic intoxication. However, no reports exist about the presence of lesions in the Central Nervous System (CNS), in chronic intoxication. We considered it important to evaluate, with histological techniques, the possible presence of lesions in the brain, by using a model of chronic intoxication that reproduces the same stages present in the human intoxication, to better understanding of this pathological process. In our present work we fed the ground Kh fruit to Wistar rats and samples of brain, cerebellum, and pons were embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (HE) and special stains for nerve tissue. Histopathological changes were evaluated in the CNS through the different stages of the polyneuropathy and comparison to a control group. With this methodology, we found lesions in the motor pathway. This is the first report about the presence of neuronal damage caused by Kh in the Central Nervous System in chronic intoxication.

  20. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  1. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  2. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  3. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  4. An outbreak of food borne illness due to methomyl pesticide intoxication in Korea.

    PubMed

    Gil, Hyo-Wook; Jeong, Mi-Hye; Park, Jung Soo; Choi, Hwan-Won; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2013-11-01

    On February 21, 2013, 6 elderly people collapsed abruptly after eating bean sprout bibimbab (boiled rice mixed with bean sprouts and seasoned with soybean sauce) at a countryside restaurant in the Chungbuk Province, Korea. Minutes after eating the meal, all of the patients lapsed into a state of stupor. Respiratory arrest developed in 2 patients; and one of two patients died of cardiac arrest. The autopsy identified methomyl and methanol in the deceased patient's gastric contents and in the remaining soybeanbean sauce seasoning. Five of the 6 patients ingested one spoonful of the soybeanbean sauce seasoning and survived, while one patient who died of cardiac arrest, ingested approximately two spoons. Symptoms of toxicity presented quickly in the subjects and progressed rapidly, including chest tightness, an unusual sensation in the pit of the stomach, dizziness, ataxia, and finally, collapse. Three patients who drank ethanol with the meal experienced only mild toxic symptoms. Our analysis of the clinical observations in these cases suggests that ingestion of methomyl pesticide and the additive toxicity of methanol may have been responsible for the intoxication.

  5. Effect of chronic acetaldehyde intoxication on ethanol tolerance and membrane fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Latge, C; Lamboeuf, Y; Roumec, C; de Saint Blanquat, G

    1987-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that acetaldehyde participates directly in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. Its action has been attributed mainly to its physico-chemical properties. Results of direct intoxication of laboratory animals with acetaldehyde have been reported, but only for short periods of exposure and at high doses. These are probably not representative of the conditions found during alcohol intoxication. The pulmonary route of administration described here enables long term intoxication with acetaldehyde, at levels corresponding to values measured during chronic ethanol intoxication. Chronic administration of acetaldehyde during 3 weeks induced a metabolic tolerance to ethanol as tested by the sleeping time after a challenge dose of ethanol; behavioural tolerance (measured by blood alcohol levels on waking) was not observed. At the end of the intoxication, phospholipid fatty acids of erythrocyte and synaptosome membranes were also analysed. Small changes in levels of the shorter fatty acids were observed in the phosphatidyl-choline fraction. By comparison with the effects of ethanol on the same membrane preparations, only a small part of this effect can be attributed to acetaldehyde. The first metabolite of ethanol has, however, a sure effect on the pattern of fatty acid phospholipids.

  6. [A case of chronic toluene intoxication presenting stimulus-sensitive segmental spinal myoclonus].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama-Oishi, A; Arakawa, K; Araki, E; Yamada, T; Tobimatsu, S; Kira, J

    2000-05-01

    We reported a 48-year-old male who showed stimulus-sensitive spinal myoclonus due to chronic toluene intoxication. He has been exposed to thinner for more than 30 years as a painter, and occasionally experienced an episode of headache, nausea and dizziness because of acute thinner intoxication. He noted tremor of his hands 10 years ago. He also noticed memory disturbance since the end of 1997. Neurological examination revealed postural tremor of his fingers on the bilateral sides and the left arm. In addition, rhythmic myoclonic jerks were induced in the right upper limb muscles by a tendon tap given on the right brachioradialis muscles. Surface EMG revealed repetitive grouping discharges in those two muscles approximately 100 msec after the tendon tap which continued for about 30-50 msec. A long loop reflex (C-reflex) and giant SEPs were not observed in his right upper limb, and EEG showed no spike. Urinary excretion of N-benzoylglycine, which was a metabolite of toluene was increased (1.17 g/l). Therefore, he was diagnosed as a case of chronic toluene intoxication. His myoclonic jerks were considered to be stimulus-sensitive spinal myoclonus, because they were induced segmentally and because cortical hyperexcitability was not seen. This is the first report to describe the occurrence of stimulus-sensitive spinal myoclonus in the case of chronic toluene intoxication.

  7. Unexpected improvements of spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fengju; Song, Ning; Zhao, Chenyang; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The liposoluble insecticide rotenone is commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor to replicate Parkinson's disease (PD) pathological features. However, there was no assessment of the spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone-induced PD models. In the present study, by rotarod test and Thioflavine T staining, we first noted the impairment of motor coordination in rotenone-treated group for 3 months, as well as alpha-synuclein inclusions in the nigral dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice with intragastrical delivery of rotenone (5 mg/Kg) for 3 months rather than 1 month. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze task in this model. The results showed escape latency reduced in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 3 months, indicating an improvement of learning ability. However, it was delayed slightly but not significantly in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 1 month. Similarly, we demonstrated that spatial memory ability was enhanced in 3-month-treatment group, but impaired in 1-month-treatment group. There were no proliferating cell nuclear antigen and doublecortin positive cells in the hippocampus by double immunofluorescent staining, indicating the absence of hippocampal neurogenesis in rotenone-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that spatial learning and memory abilities are disturbed in chronic rotenone-intoxicated PD model.

  8. Effect of oral chronic intoxication with sodium arsenite on murine giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Lourdes, Claudia; Martínez, Fernando Diaz-Barriga; Medina de la Garza, Carlos Eduardo; Calvillo, Roberto Quezada

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to toxicants alters immune function that can affect the ability of the host to mount a response to infection. Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal disease in which subtle alteration in immunity of the host can transform the normal acute infection into a chronic one. In this work we used a murine giardiasis model to evaluate the effect of chronic oral intoxication with sodium arsenite on the characteristics of giardiasis. BALB/c mice were intoxicated during 45 days with water containing 50, 125 or 250 microg/mL sodium arsenite. Each group was then inoculated with G. muris cysts. Cysts excreted in the feces were isolated and quantified. The toxic effect of arsenic on intestinal trophozoites was evaluated using G. lamblia trophozoites cultured in vitro with different arsenic concentrations, corresponding to equivalent concentrations of arsenic found in the gut lumen of intoxicated mice. Mice intoxicated with 125 and 250 microg/mL of sodium arsenite and infected with G. muris cysts displayed a shorter period of cysts excretion and were resistant to secondary infection with the parasite. In vitro studies showed that G. lamblia trophozoites were able to grow in presence of high sodium arsenite concentrations, suggesting the absence of a direct toxic effect on the parasite in the gut. Since a longer period of Giardia cysts excretion is associated with suppression of the immune system, the earlier clearance of primary G. muris infection in intoxicated mice suggests the induction of an immune modification that leads to an improved ability of mice to overcome the infection.

  9. Chronic elemental mercury intoxication: clinical and field studies in lampsocket manufacturers.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y J; Huang, C C; Shih, T S; Yang, S S

    1994-01-01

    Four workers chronically exposed to elemental mental mercury in a lampsocket manufacturing factory were studied. The clinical manifestations were severe in one, mild in another, and suspicious in the remaining two. Correlation between severity of clinical features and increased urinary mercury concentrations was found. The time weighted average mercury concentrations were 0.945 mg/m3 and 0.709 mg/m3 for two workers in one room and 0.225 mg/m3 in the other. After stopping exposure, the workers recovered spontaneously or with D-penicillamine treatment within six months. It is concluded that recovery from chronic elemental mercury intoxication may be complete when patients are removed early from the exposure environment. The hazard of mercury intoxication in recycling of waste substances is emphasised. PMID:8199670

  10. Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: I. Copper intoxications with predominantly gastointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eife, R; Weiss, M; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Goriup, U; Komb, D; Wolf, W; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

    1999-06-28

    Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (copper induced liver cirrhosis). Besides cirrhosis, another type of disease with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms has occurred which likewise appeared to be induced by copper in tap water. - In a retrospective investigation we looked for additional indications and proof that chronic copper poisoning has been the cause of the observed gastrointestinal diseases. All patients suffering from this type of disease had copper plumbing in their houses. - The patients (children and adults) suffered from nausea, vomiting, colic, and diarrhoea. In the group of infants, one refused formula milk (prepared with tap water) and the others suffered from persistent restlessness, unexplainable screaming (especially at night) and/or long lasting diaper rash. - We accept the diagnosis of chronic copper intoxication as the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms when at least one of the following criteria were fulfilled: 1. first manifestation, remission and relapse of the disease depend on intake and a non-intake of water containing copper, respectively. 2. hypercupric state of the patients (i.e. pathological high concentrations of the non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper in serum and/or elevated copper levels in urine) 3. signs of systemic copper intoxication in the same patient 4. signs of systemic copper intoxication or hypercupric states in members of the patient s family or in his neighbourhood (non-relatives) - We found that the disease can even be caused by copper concentrations below the allowed concentration given by the German Guidelines for Drinking Water (Trinkwasserverordnung). - The data prove that copper in drinking water can cause gastrointestinal diseases and not only the better known systemic diseases (i.e. copper induced liver cirrhosis). Copper poisoning must be considered as a possible cause of chronic

  11. Chronic arsenicism: criminal poisoning or drug-intoxication? Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sass, U; Grosshans, E; Simonart, J M

    1993-01-01

    We report two cases with chronic arsenicism. The first one is a young 37-year-old woman who presents leucomelanoderma, plantar keratoderma, polyneuropathy of the legs and transversal striae of the nails. After investigations, criminal intoxication with arsenic caused by her own sister was discovered. The second case is a 42-year-old man who had developed plantar keratoderma, arsenical keratoses and two squamous cell epitheliomas 10 years after a 2-year treatment with Fowler's solution for androgenetic alopecia.

  12. [PROTEIN CONTENT CHANGES IN RATS' LIVER AND BRAIN UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION].

    PubMed

    Raksha, N G; Savchuk, A N; Kharchenko, O I; Galenova, T I; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    An electrophoretic investigation of quantitative protein content in rat's' tissyes under chronic alcoholic intoxication has been done. It was shown the significant increase of protein content with molecular mass 55, 48-50, 43-45, 39-41 KDa and the decrease-of protein fractions with molecular mass 46-48, 34-35, 27-30, 16-18 KDa accordingly in liver and brain homogenates of experimental animals. PMID:26827457

  13. Managing pesticide chronic health risks: U.S. policies.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lynn R

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of U.S. government pesticide risk management efforts over time and in recent years, relevant to chronic health risks of pesticides. Pesticides are in widespread usage in the U.S. With hundreds of active ingredients and thousands of products on the market, management of pesticide risks has been a daunting challenge. The first legislation providing federal authority for regulating pesticides was enacted in 1910. With the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and amendments to the pesticide law in 1972, the federal government was for the first time given the authority to regulate health and environmental risks of pesticides. However, older pesticide risks were not addressed until legislation was enacted in 1988, requiring "reregistration" and 1996, requiring that pesticide food standards are safe for children. In result, the U.S. has seen an expansion of development of pesticide products that are registered as "reduced risk" or are biologicals. Additionally a large number of older pesticides have been cancelled or reduced from the market and/or from individual food uses. Through biomonitoring data, the U.S. may now be seeing trends in reduction of exposure to certain pesticides, the organophosphate insecticides. However, pesticide sales data through 2001 do not provide evidence for such trends. PMID:18032337

  14. Mechanisms of intracellular defense and activity of free radical oxidation in rat myocardium in the dynamics of chronic fluorine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, A G; Alekhina, D A; Sazontova, T G; Prokop'ev, Yu A; Gorokhova, L G; Stryapko, N V; Mikhailova, N N

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of intracellular defense and activity of free radical oxidation in the myocardium were studied in the dynamics of chronic fluorine intoxication. At the early stages of fluorine intoxication (day 3-week 3), the concentrations of defense proteins HIF-1α, HSC73, and HOx-2 and activity of the main metabolic enzymes increased, which promoted maintenance of cardiomyocyte structure and function at the normal physiological level. At late stages of fluorine intoxication (weeks 6 and 9), metabolic changes in the myocardium attest to high strain of the adaptive mechanisms.

  15. Aluminium intoxication in undialysed adults with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, L S; Beale, G; Sandroni, S; Ballinger, W E

    1992-01-01

    The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome (DES) consists of altered mental status, communication difficulty, seizures and myoclonus. It has been attributed to elevated serum aluminium (A1) levels. Two undialysed patients with chronic renal failure who presented with the characteristic syndrome are reported. The first, a 48 year old female, had used A1 containing phosphate binders for two years. Her serum A1 level was 25.34 mumol/L. Despite treatment with desferoximine and dialysis, she died. Necropsy revealed elevated A1 levels in the cerebral cortex (19 mcg/gm) and spongioform change in the outer three cortical layers. The second patient, a 46 year old woman, had a serum A1 of 8.70 mumol/L. She had never taken A1 containing phosphate binders but had taken several grams/day of citrate for at least six months. Treatment with haemodialysis and discontinuation of the citrate produced a resolution of symptoms and return of the A1 level to normal. During two years of haemodialysis there has been no recurrence. Images PMID:1527541

  16. Pesticides and human chronic diseases: Evidences, mechanisms, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafalou, Sara; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-04-15

    Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, chronic nephropathies, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and aging. The common feature of chronic disorders is a disturbance in cellular homeostasis, which can be induced via pesticides' primary action like perturbation of ion channels, enzymes, receptors, etc., or can as well be mediated via pathways other than the main mechanism. In this review, we present the highlighted evidence on the association of pesticide's exposure with the incidence of chronic diseases and introduce genetic damages, epigenetic modifications, endocrine disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), impairment of ubiquitin proteasome system, and defective autophagy as the effective mechanisms of action. - Highlights: ► There is a link between exposure to pesticides and incidence of chronic diseases. ► Genotoxicity and proteotoxicity are two main involved mechanisms. ► Epigenetic knowledge may help diagnose the relationships. ► Efficient policies on safe use of pesticides should be set up.

  17. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  18. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    PubMed

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  19. Immunohistochemical changes and atrophy after chronic ethanol intoxication in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism in humans is a chronic and progressive disease, characterized by loss of ethanol consumption control. Previous studies have reported that prolonged exposure to ethanol was responsible for alterations in glandular tissues of human and rodents. However, the interrelationship between ethanol and the glandular system is still the subject of numerous investigations, including the possible resistance of the submandibular gland (SG). In the present study, we investigated whether chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence may affect the parotid gland (PG) and SG in female rats. Female rats (n=16) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (dose of 6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) through gavage for 55 days. Glands were collected, weighed and submitted to histological processing. Morphometric analysis was assessed by parenchymal and stromal area measurements. Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and apoptotic caspase-3 (CAS) were measured using ImageJ® software. Chronic ethanol administration did not alter the body weight of rats after treatment, although it increased glandular weight (p<0.001), reduced the parenchyma area (p<0.001) and decreased CK19 and α-SMA immunostainning in the PG. Besides, ethanol induced CK19 and CAS overexpression, and the occurrence of duct-like structures in SG. These results suggest that ethanol induces histological and morphometric changes in salivary glands of female rats intoxicated with ethanol during adolescence. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these alterations needs to be investigated but may be not related to the inflammatory process.

  20. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  1. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  2. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  3. Chronic Cocaine Dampens Dopamine Signaling during Cocaine Intoxication and Unbalances D1 over D2 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kicheon; Pan, Yingtian

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine increases triggered by cocaine and consequent stimulation of dopamine receptors (including D1 and D2) are associated with its rewarding effects. However, while facilitation of D1 receptor (D1R) signaling enhances the rewarding effects of cocaine, facilitation of D2R signaling decreases it, which indicates that for cocaine to be rewarding it must result in a predominance of D1R over D2R signaling. Moreover, the transition to compulsive cocaine intake might result from an imbalance between D1R and D2R signaling. To test the hypothesis that chronic cocaine use unbalances D1R over D2R signaling during cocaine intoxication, we used microprobe optical imaging to compare dynamic changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i, marker of neuronal activation) to acute cocaine in striatal D1R-EGFP and D2R-EGFP-expressing neurons between control and chronically treated mice. Chronic cocaine attenuated responses to acute cocaine in D1R (blunting Ca2+ increases by 67 ± 16%) and D2R (blunting Ca2+ decrease by 72 ± 17%) neurons in most D1R and D2R neurons (∼75%). However, the dynamics of this attenuation during cocaine intoxication was longer lasting for D2R than for D1R. Thus, whereas control mice showed a fast but short-lasting predominance of D1R over D2R signaling (peaking at ∼8 min) during acute cocaine intoxication, in chronically treated mice D1R predominance was sustained for >30 min (throughout the measurement period). Thus, chronic cocaine use dramatically reduced cocaine-induced DA signaling, shifting the balance between D1R and D2R signaling during intoxication to a predominance of D1R (stimulatory) over D2R (inhibitory) signaling, which might facilitate compulsive intake in addiction. PMID:24089490

  4. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACMT Recognition Awards Annual Scientific Meeting Travel Scholarships Pesticides Public Health > Public > Toxicology FAQ's > Pesticides Pesticides What are pesticides ? How do pesticides work ? How ...

  5. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy. PMID:27418952

  6. Effects of aflatoxin chronic intoxication in renal function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de-Anda, A; Valdivia, A G; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Reyes, J L; Ortiz, R; Quezada, T; de Luna, M C; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) have a high impact in both human and animal health, causing significant economic losses in the poultry industry, especially by diminution of avian growth, feed efficiency, and product quality. Aflatoxins affect the whole organism, particularly liver and kidney. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal function alterations in laying hens during chronic AF ingestion. Randomly, 84 Leghorn Hy-Line laying hens (13 wk old) were assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 21): 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of AF/kg of feed. The AF (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) was obtained from 2 toxicogenic local strains of Aspergillus flavus grown in corn grains; the grain was sterilized, ground, and added to basal diets to achieve the selected AF concentrations. Hens ingested, during 17 and 42 wk, feed contaminated with AF. Data were analyzed in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Hens were anesthetized, ureteral urine samples were collected, and arterial blood samples were taken. The renal functional tests were evaluated by spectrophotometric and flame photometric methods, including a) Na, K, Ca, and phosphate fractional excretions; b) renal hemodynamic studies, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, respectively; and c) identification of macroscopic and histopathologic lesions. The hens intoxicated at all levels of AF showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in Ca, Na, and phosphate fraction excretions. Sodium and phosphates were excreted in a pattern of response time-dose. However, glomerular filtration rate exhibited a significant reduction (P < 0.05). The K fractional excretion and renal plasma flow remained unchanged. These results suggest that AF chronic ingestion affects renal functions of laying hens and induces Ca(++), (-3)PO(4), and Na(+) losses, which are of great concern to the poultry industry. PMID:20634516

  7. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Intoxication with Inorganic Mercury on Memory and Motor Control in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Francisco B.; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Farias-Junior, Paulo M. A.; Costa, Natacha M. M.; Fernandes, Luanna M. P.; Santana, Luana N. S.; Silva-Junior, Ademir F.; Silva, Marcia C. F.; Maia, Cristiane S. F.; Lima, Rafael R.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether chronic intoxication with mercury chloride (HgCl2), in a low concentration over a long time, can be deposited in the central nervous tissue and to determine if this exposure induces motor and cognitive impairments. Twenty animals were intoxicated for 45 days at a dose of 0.375 mg/kg/day. After this period, the animals underwent a battery of behavioral tests, in a sequence of open field, social recognition, elevated T maze and rotarod tests. They were then sacrificed, their brains collected and the motor cortex and hippocampus dissected for quantification of mercury deposited. This study demonstrates that long-term chronic HgCl2 intoxication in rats promotes functional damage. Exposure to HgCl2 induced anxiety-related responses, short- and long-term memory impairments and motor deficits. Additionally, HgCl2 accumulated in both the hippocampus and cortex of the brain with a higher affinity for the cortex. PMID:25198682

  9. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation exhibit sexual dimorphism after chronic alcohol consumption but not acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Frost, Robert A; Vary, Thomas C

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests alcoholic myopathy is more severe in females than males, but comparable animal studies are lacking that make elucidating the biochemical locus for this defect problematic. The present study determined whether skeletal muscle protein synthesis and markers of degradation exhibit a sexual dimorphic response to either chronic alcohol consumption or acute intoxication. Male and female rats were fed an alcohol-containing diet, pair-fed for 26 wk (chronic), or received an intraperitoneal injection of alcohol (acute). In males, chronic alcohol decreased gastrocnemius protein synthesis by 20%. This reduction was associated with a twofold increase in the inactive eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E.4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) complex and a 60% reduction in the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex. This redistribution of eIF4E was associated with decreased phosphorylation of both 4E-BP1 and eIF4G (50-55%). The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 was also reduced 60% in alcohol-consuming male rats. In contrast, neither rates of protein synthesis nor indexes of translation initiation in muscle were altered in alcohol-fed female rats despite blood alcohol levels comparable to males. Chronic alcohol ingestion did not alter atrogin-1 or muscle RING finger-1 mRNA content (biomarkers of muscle proteolysis) in males but increased their expression in females 50-100%. Acute alcohol intoxication produced a comparable decrease in muscle protein synthesis and translation initiation in both male and female rats. Our data demonstrate a sexual dimorphism for muscle protein synthesis, translation initiation, and proteolysis in response to chronic, but not acute, alcohol intoxication; however, they do not support evidence indicating females are more sensitive toward the development of alcoholic skeletal muscle myopathy.

  10. Study of hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Mahieu, Stella; Bazzoni, Graciela; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic Al-intoxication (Al). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=6 each one): Sham (rats subjected to simulated surgery); Al+Sham; Partial Hepatectomy (animals subjected to 65% liver resection) and Al+Partial Hepatectomy. Our results show that both Partial Hepatectomy and Al treatment produce a decrease of plasma cholesterol level, which showed a negative association with Rigidity Index increase (r(s)=-0.6475, p<0.05). The increase of Rigidity Index observed in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy could be related to the increase of the proportion of non-discocytic erythrocytes, particularly stomatocytes, which determines a diminution of the Morphological Index. In the Altreated groups, greater changes in Rigidity Index and Morphological Index were observed. The relative viscosity of blood at a standard haematocrit of 40% was increased in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy as compared to Sham, due to erythrocyte rigidity. On the other hand, we observed that the increase of plasma fibrinogen concentration correlates with augmentation of plasma viscosity (r(s)=0.689, p=0.004) for all the experimental groups studied. The results indicate that both administration of Al and Partial Hepatectomy induce microcytic hypocromic anaemia in the rats reflected by a significant decrease of haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. From these results, we conclude that in partially hepatectomized, Al-overloaded rats the decrease in erythrocyte deformability may be an important factor leading to the installation of anaemia. PMID:17148841

  11. Study of hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Mahieu, Stella; Bazzoni, Graciela; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic Al-intoxication (Al). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=6 each one): Sham (rats subjected to simulated surgery); Al+Sham; Partial Hepatectomy (animals subjected to 65% liver resection) and Al+Partial Hepatectomy. Our results show that both Partial Hepatectomy and Al treatment produce a decrease of plasma cholesterol level, which showed a negative association with Rigidity Index increase (r(s)=-0.6475, p<0.05). The increase of Rigidity Index observed in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy could be related to the increase of the proportion of non-discocytic erythrocytes, particularly stomatocytes, which determines a diminution of the Morphological Index. In the Altreated groups, greater changes in Rigidity Index and Morphological Index were observed. The relative viscosity of blood at a standard haematocrit of 40% was increased in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy as compared to Sham, due to erythrocyte rigidity. On the other hand, we observed that the increase of plasma fibrinogen concentration correlates with augmentation of plasma viscosity (r(s)=0.689, p=0.004) for all the experimental groups studied. The results indicate that both administration of Al and Partial Hepatectomy induce microcytic hypocromic anaemia in the rats reflected by a significant decrease of haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. From these results, we conclude that in partially hepatectomized, Al-overloaded rats the decrease in erythrocyte deformability may be an important factor leading to the installation of anaemia.

  12. [The activity of 2',5'-oligoadenylate-synthetase in rat spleen lymphocytes in the chronic ethanol intoxication and administration of zinc acetate].

    PubMed

    Chaĭka, V O; Kompanets', I V; Hadiliia, O P; Kharchenko, O I; Ostapchenko, L I

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that the activity of interferon-induced enzyme 2',5'-oligoadenylate-synthetase is suppressed in rat spleen lymphocytes under the chronic alcohol intoxication. The values of enzyme activity were minimal under the long-term action of etanol (21 day). The combined administration of zinc acetate and etanol to rats causes the increase of enzyme activity, the effect is most expressed on the late stages of alcohol intoxication development.

  13. Pesticide Use And Chronic Bronchitis Among Farmers in The Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Valcin, Martin; Henneberger, Paul K.; Kullman, Greg J.; Umbach, David M.; London, Stephanie J.; Alavanja, Michael CR; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Farmers have increased risk for chronic bronchitis. Few investigators have considered pesticides. Methods We evaluated pesticides as risk factors for chronic bronchitis using the Agricultural Health Study enrollment data on lifetime pesticide use and history of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis from 20,908 private pesticide applicators, primarily farmers. Results A total of 654 farmers (3%) reported chronic bronchitis diagnosed after age 20. After adjustment for correlated pesticides as well as confounders, 11 pesticides were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis. Heptachlor use had the highest odds ratio (OR=1.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.19, 1.89). Increased prevalence for chronic bronchitis was also seen for individuals who had a history of a high pesticide exposure event (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.51, 2.25) and for those who also applied pesticides in off-farm jobs (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.04, 1.88). Co-morbid asthma and current farm activities did not explain these results. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that pesticide use may increase chronic bronchitis prevalence. PMID:17975796

  14. Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well as from the use of Ba as an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signalling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. It is proposed that chronic contamination of the biosystem with the reactive types of Ba salts can initiate the pathogenesis of MS; due to the conjugation of Ba with free sulphate, which subsequently deprives the endogenous sulphated proteoglycan molecules (heparan sulfates) of their sulphate co partner, thereby disrupting synthesis of S-proteoglycans and their crucial role in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling which induces oligodendrocyte progenitors to maintain the growth and structural integrity of the myelin sheath. Loss of S-proteoglycan activity explains other key facets of MS pathogenesis; such as the aggregation of platelets and the proliferation of superoxide generated oxidative stress. Ba intoxications disturb the sodium-potassium ion pump--another key feature of the MS profile. The co-clustering of various neurodegenerative diseases in these Ba-contaminated ecosystems suggests that the pathogenesis of all of these diseases could pivot upon a

  15. Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well as from the use of Ba as an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signalling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. It is proposed that chronic contamination of the biosystem with the reactive types of Ba salts can initiate the pathogenesis of MS; due to the conjugation of Ba with free sulphate, which subsequently deprives the endogenous sulphated proteoglycan molecules (heparan sulfates) of their sulphate co partner, thereby disrupting synthesis of S-proteoglycans and their crucial role in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling which induces oligodendrocyte progenitors to maintain the growth and structural integrity of the myelin sheath. Loss of S-proteoglycan activity explains other key facets of MS pathogenesis; such as the aggregation of platelets and the proliferation of superoxide generated oxidative stress. Ba intoxications disturb the sodium-potassium ion pump--another key feature of the MS profile. The co-clustering of various neurodegenerative diseases in these Ba-contaminated ecosystems suggests that the pathogenesis of all of these diseases could pivot upon a

  16. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk.

  17. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  18. Manganese Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Charles H.; Pasi, Aurelio

    1975-01-01

    We have reported two cases of chronic manganese poisoning. Case 1 followed exposure to manganese fumes in cutting and burning manganese steel. Case 2 resulted from exposure to dusts of manganese dioxide, an ingredient used in glazing of ceramics. There were initial difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis. Prominent clinical features were severe and persistent chronic depressive psychosis (Case 1), transient acute brain syndrome (Case 2) and the presence of various extrapyramidal symptoms in both cases. Manganese intoxication has not previously been reported as occurring in California. With increasing use of the metal, the disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurologic and psychiatric disease. Our observations were made in the period 1964 through 1968. Recently the prognosis of victims of manganese poisoning has been improved dramatically by the introduction of levodopa as a therapeutic agent. PMID:1179714

  19. Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Wiebecke, B; Hübner, G; Eife, R; Kellner, M; Schramel, P

    1988-02-01

    A severe copper storage disease of the liver with micronodular cirrhosis resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) was found in two siblings of a German family leading to death in one infant at the age of 13 months. The fatal outcome correlated with severe ballooning of hepatocytes and excessive formation of Mallory bodies. The copper content of the liver was 698 micrograms per gramme wet weight (control 5 micrograms) in the living patient and 2154 micrograms per gramme dry weight (controls 39, 54 micrograms) in the dead infant. In both cases copper was stored not only in hepatocytes but also to a high degree in mesenchymal cells. Chronic contamination of drinking water supplied from a well via copper pipes could be verified as the cause of copper intoxication, lending further support to ICC as an environmental, acquired disorder. Accumulation of exogenic copper already very early in infancy appears most important for the development of the disease, as both the parents and one child not exposed to copper intoxication during the first 9 months of its life are clinically healthy.

  20. Copper storage disease of the liver and chronic dietary copper intoxication in two further German infants mimicking Indian childhood cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Müller-Höcker, J; Meyer, U; Wiebecke, B; Hübner, G; Eife, R; Kellner, M; Schramel, P

    1988-02-01

    A severe copper storage disease of the liver with micronodular cirrhosis resembling Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) was found in two siblings of a German family leading to death in one infant at the age of 13 months. The fatal outcome correlated with severe ballooning of hepatocytes and excessive formation of Mallory bodies. The copper content of the liver was 698 micrograms per gramme wet weight (control 5 micrograms) in the living patient and 2154 micrograms per gramme dry weight (controls 39, 54 micrograms) in the dead infant. In both cases copper was stored not only in hepatocytes but also to a high degree in mesenchymal cells. Chronic contamination of drinking water supplied from a well via copper pipes could be verified as the cause of copper intoxication, lending further support to ICC as an environmental, acquired disorder. Accumulation of exogenic copper already very early in infancy appears most important for the development of the disease, as both the parents and one child not exposed to copper intoxication during the first 9 months of its life are clinically healthy. PMID:3362750

  1. [The morphofunctional features of the heart associated with acute morphine poisoning during the period of chronic drug intoxication].

    PubMed

    Altaeva, A Zh; Galitsky, F A; Zhakupova, T Z; Aidarkulov, A Sh; Selivokhina, N V; Zhunisov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve forensic medical diagnostics of the cases of death associated with morphine poisoning based on the investigation into the biochemical changes in blood and pericardial fluid as well as morphological changes in the myocardial structures. The studies were carried out with the use of thin-layer chromatography, colorimetric and morphological methods including hematoxylin and eosin, Lee's methylene blue, and van Gieson's picrofuscin staining. These techniques were supplemented by light and polarization microscopy. The study has demonstrated the presence of morphine in 99.16% of the blood and pericardial samples obtained in the cases of poisoning. The comparison of the results of biochemical and pathomorphological studies of the myocardium made it possible to evaluate the functional and morphological conditions of the heart in the case of acute morphine poisoning during the period of chronic drug intoxication.

  2. Phosphorylation-related immunoreactivity and the rate of transport of neurofilaments in chronic 2,5-hexanedione intoxication.

    PubMed

    Watson, D F; Fittro, K P; Hoffman, P N; Griffin, J W

    1991-01-18

    Axonal transport of neurofilaments and the phosphorylation of epitopes on neurofilament proteins was studied in rats chronically intoxicated with 2,5-hexanedione. Sensory axons arising from the L5 dorsal root ganglion exhibited accelerated transport and a reduced abundance of neurofilament proteins. The binding of an antibody to phosphorylated neurofilament epitopes was compared to the binding of an antibody to non-phosphorylated epitopes by quantitative ELISA. This immunochemical index of neurofilament phosphorylation was reduced in dorsal roots, proximal peripheral sensory axons and ventral roots, but not in a distal nerve (the nerve to the soleus). Axotomy produced a reduction in neurofilament protein abundance comparable to hexanedione without any change in the immunochemical phosphorylation index. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the state of phosphorylation of neurofilaments in proximal axons is correlated with the rate of neurofilament transport.

  3. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  4. [Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on Krebs cycle in the rat kidney in chronic phosphorus intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kulkybaev, G A; Merkusheva, N V

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of Krebs cycle state in kidney homogenates of August rats subjected to oral intoxication with oil solution of yellow phosphorus in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, has shown that under conditions of balanced nutrition the activity of NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and accumulation of the substrate fund of the cycle decreased 3.5-fold as compared to the control. The addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the ration produced a positive effect on Krebs cycle state: dehydrogenase activity was not significantly changed, accumulation of Krebs cycle substrate was two-fold lower. However, this ration did not completely abolish the toxic action of yellow phosphorus on Krebs cycle.

  5. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cause harm to crops, people, or animals. Pesticides can help get rid of them. Pesticides are not just insect killers. They also include ... mildew, germs, and more. Many household products contain pesticides. Pesticides can protect your health by killing germs, ...

  6. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  7. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption. PMID:21866840

  8. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rats. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to ... effects of these pesticide residues. Results from the Agricultural Health Study, an ongoing study of pesticide exposures ...

  9. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Wilks, Martin F.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well-designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases. PMID:27600395

  10. Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides and cytokine pathways in chronic diseases (Review).

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Silvia; Gofita, Eliza; Costa, Chiara; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tzanakakis, George; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Wilks, Martin F; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides can exert numerous effects on human health as a consequence of both environmental and occupational exposures. The available knowledge base suggests that exposure to pesticides may result in detrimental reproductive changes, neurological dysfunction and several chronic disorders, which are defined by slow evolution and long-term duration. Moreover, an ever increasing amount of data have identified an association between exposure to pesticides and the harmful effects on the immune system. The real impact of alterations in humoral cytokine levels on human health, in particular in the case of chronic diseases, is still unclear. To date, studies have suggested that although exposure to pesticides can affect the immune system functionally, the development of immune disorders depends on the dose and duration of exposure to pesticides. However, many of the respective studies exhibit limitations, such as a lack of information on exposure levels, differences in the pesticide administration procedures, difficulty in characterizing a prognostic significance to the weak modifications often observed and the interpretation of obtained results. The main challenge is not just to understand the role of individual pesticides and their combinations, but also to determine the manner and the duration of exposure, as the toxic effects on the immune system cannot be separated from these considerations. There is a clear need for more well‑designed and standardized epidemiological and experimental studies to recognize the exact association between exposure levels and toxic effects and to identify useful biomarkers of exposure. This review focuses on and critically discusses the immunotoxicity of pesticides and the impact of cytokine levels on health, focusing on the development of several chronic diseases. PMID:27600395

  11. Continuous MPTP intoxication in the Göttingen minipig results in chronic parkinsonian deficits.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mette Slot; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne; Mogensen, Poul; Bender, Dirk; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Doudet, Doris; Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, resulting from progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Neuroprotective therapies in PD are still not available, perhaps because animal models do not imitate the chronic and progressive nature of the clinical state of PD. To address this, we performed a feasibility study aimed at establishing a chronic non-primate large animal PD model in Göttingen minipigs based on continuous infusion of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl‑1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Twelve female Göttingen minipigs were divided into groups of 2-4 animals and implanted with infusion pumps for continuous intramuscular MPTP delivery of 4-24 mg MPTP/day for 11 weeks. The animals showed parkinsonian symptoms with bradykinesia, rigidity, coordination and chewing difficulties. Symptoms were stable in the 12 and 18 mg MPTP/day groups, whereas the remaining groups showed partial or full behavioral recovery. Digital gait analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements and stereological counts of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons in the SNc revealed a dose-related decrease in gait velocity, striatal metabolite levels and neuron numbers with increasing doses of MPTP. No neuronal inclusions were observed, but alpha-synuclein staining intensified with increased cumulative MPTP dosages. We conclude that this large-animal model of chronic MPTP administration in Göttingen minipigs shows trends of stable parkinsonian deficits at 18 mg MPTP/day in all modalities examined. This PD model shares many of the characteristics seen in patients and, although preliminary, holds considerable promise for future pre-clinical trials of neuroprotective therapies. PMID:27685773

  12. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  13. Opioid intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop. This is from the talc, cornstarch, or cellulose that is used to dilute or bind the ... McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 167. Lank PM, Kusin S. Ethanol and opioid intoxication and withdrawal. In: Adams JG, ...

  14. Study of iron homeostasis following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminum intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Ferri, Alejandro; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2007-01-01

    Effects of both chronic aluminum (Al) exposure and partial hepatectomy on iron (Fe) homeostasis were studied. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered either 27 mg Al/kg body weight (as aluminum hydroxide) or the vehicle saline, three times a week for 3 mo. After this time, half of the rats of each group was sham operated (SH) and the other half was partially hepatectomized (PH). Animals of the four experimental groups (vehicle+SH [SH]; Al+SH; vehicle+PH [PH], and Al+PH) were killed 48 h after the surgical procedure. Serum, hepatic, and intestinal Al levels were found to be increased both for Al+SH and Al+PH. The serum Fe concentration and transferrin saturation percentage were significantly diminished in the rats of the Al+PH group, thus showing interaction between Al administration and PH. The 59Fe mucosal-to-serosal transport, studied in the intestinal loop in situ, was not affected by Al or PH. The malregulation of intestinal Fe absorption in Al exposure and/or PH when the serum Fe concentration was diminished could be the result of the increased lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) observed in this tissue. Mucosal TBARS were increased by Al exposure (+26%) and PH (+37%) and interaction between Al and PH was observed (+44%). These results show that when liver surgery is performed after prolonged Al exposure, it leads to impairment of Fe homeostasis. We underline the importance of the exposure to Al, a potentially toxic element, in the study of risk assessment in patients who must be submitted to major liver resection. PMID:17406072

  15. Study of iron homeostasis following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminum intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Ferri, Alejandro; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2007-01-01

    Effects of both chronic aluminum (Al) exposure and partial hepatectomy on iron (Fe) homeostasis were studied. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered either 27 mg Al/kg body weight (as aluminum hydroxide) or the vehicle saline, three times a week for 3 mo. After this time, half of the rats of each group was sham operated (SH) and the other half was partially hepatectomized (PH). Animals of the four experimental groups (vehicle+SH [SH]; Al+SH; vehicle+PH [PH], and Al+PH) were killed 48 h after the surgical procedure. Serum, hepatic, and intestinal Al levels were found to be increased both for Al+SH and Al+PH. The serum Fe concentration and transferrin saturation percentage were significantly diminished in the rats of the Al+PH group, thus showing interaction between Al administration and PH. The 59Fe mucosal-to-serosal transport, studied in the intestinal loop in situ, was not affected by Al or PH. The malregulation of intestinal Fe absorption in Al exposure and/or PH when the serum Fe concentration was diminished could be the result of the increased lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) observed in this tissue. Mucosal TBARS were increased by Al exposure (+26%) and PH (+37%) and interaction between Al and PH was observed (+44%). These results show that when liver surgery is performed after prolonged Al exposure, it leads to impairment of Fe homeostasis. We underline the importance of the exposure to Al, a potentially toxic element, in the study of risk assessment in patients who must be submitted to major liver resection.

  16. Chronic dietary risk for pesticide residues in food in Brazil: an update.

    PubMed

    Caldas, E D; Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to conduct a dietary risk assessment of pesticides registered in Brazil up to 14 January 2004. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) was calculated for 275 compounds using the Brazilian maximum residue limits (MRL) and food consumption. The chronic dietary risk assessment was conducted by comparing the TMDI with the Brazilian acceptable daily intake (ADI) or, when not available, with the ADI from other sources. The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100) in at least one Brazilian region for eight pesticides, including five organophosphorus insecticides. For these compounds, the higher TMDI (expressed as %ADI) ranged from 140 (metam sodium) to 14,000 (methyl bromide). Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities that contributed most to ingestion. Change in pesticide use patterns and the establishment of ADIs by the Brazilian government have reduced the number of compounds for which the TMDI exceeded the ADI in the last 4 years. Risk assessment methodology based on TMDI calculation, however, is conservative as it assumes that the food supply is always treated with all the registered pesticides for that crop and that one always consumes food containing residues at the tolerance level. Furthermore, for six compounds with TMDI exceeding the ADI, a more realistic estimation of the pesticide daily intake was conducted using monitoring residue data from the Brazilian National Pesticide Residue Program. For these compounds, the higher refined intakes ranged from 2% (dimethoate) to 180% (fenitrothion) of the ADIs. The implementation of a national pesticide residue monitoring programme by the government was important to allow the refinement of the risk assessment. However, adequate daily food consumption data are still needed to assess better the public health risk to Brazilian consumers from food produced from crops treated with pesticides.

  17. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  18. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Dara A; Smith, Karen E; Raine, Nigel E

    2015-11-16

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness.

  19. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Dara A.; Smith, Karen E.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebees are exposed to pesticides applied for crop protection while foraging on treated plants, with increasing evidence suggesting that this sublethal exposure has implications for pollinator declines. The challenges of navigating and learning to manipulate many different flowers underline the critical role learning plays for the foraging success and survival of bees. We assessed the impacts of both acute and chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of a widely applied neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on bumblebee odour learning and memory. Although bees exposed to acute doses showed conditioned responses less frequently than controls, we found no difference in the number of individuals able to learn at field-realistic exposure levels. However, following chronic pesticide exposure, bees exposed to field-realistic levels learnt more slowly and their short-term memory was significantly impaired following exposure to 2.4 ppb pesticide. These results indicate that field-realistic pesticide exposure can have appreciable impacts on learning and memory, with potential implications for essential individual behaviour and colony fitness. PMID:26568480

  20. Short-term Curcuminoid Supplementation for Chronic Pulmonary Complications due to Sulfur Mustard Intoxication: Positive Results of a Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Y; Ghanei, M; Bashiri, S; Hajihashemi, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary problems are among the most frequent chronic complications of sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication and are often accompanied by deregulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Curcuminoids, comprising curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are phytochemicals with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties that are derived from dried rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa L. (turmeric). The present pilot study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on markers of pulmonary function and systemic inflammation in SM-intoxicated subjects. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 89 male subjects who were suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications were recruited and assigned to either curcuminoids (500 mg TID per oral; n=45) or placebo (n=44) for a period of 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and serum levels of inflammatory mediators including interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). 78 subjects completed the trial. Although FEV1 and FVC remained comparable between the groups, there was a greater effect of curcuminoids vs. placebo in improving FEV1/FVC (p=0.002). Curcuminoids were also significantly more efficacious compared to placebo in modulating all assessed inflammatory mediators: IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-8 (p=0.035), TNFα (p<0.001), TGFβ (p<0.001), substance P (p=0.016), hs-CRP (p<0.001), CGRP (p<0.001) and MCP-1 (p<0.001). Curcuminoids were safe and well-tolerated throughout the trial. Short-term adjunctive therapy with curcuminoids can suppress systemic inflammation in patients suffering from SM-induced chronic pulmonary complications. PMID:25268878

  1. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 1. Epidemiology and clinical and laboratory findings in patients*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of an epidemic of more than 1000 cases of spastic paraparesis in a drought-striken cassava staple area of Mozambique strongly suggests an association between this disease (called mantakassa), chronic cyanide intoxication, and cassava consumption. In previous reports of neurological disease with similar associations, the disease affected an older age group with usually a gradual onset, and the predominant clinical feature was an ataxic neuropathy. In mantakassa the onset was acute, and mostly women of reproductive age and children were affected. Serum thiocyanate levels in these patients were much higher than previously reported; while spastic paraparesis of unknown etiology occurs in many tropical countries, it has not previously been linked with raised thiocyanate levels. The present evidence linking cassava consumption to the disease is circumstantial, and dietary deficiency is also probably involved. Cassava is an important food crop and a major source of energy for people in many parts of the world. In these areas, when there is a shortage of food production, e.g., during a drought, the inhabitants may be exposed to the risk of dietary cyanide intoxication. Further research is needed on the causes of mantakassa so that a repetition of this disaster could be prevented. PMID:6331909

  2. Analysis of brain metabolism changes induced by acute potassium cyanide intoxication by 31P NMR in vivo using chronically implanted surface coils.

    PubMed

    Decorps, M; Lebas, J F; Leviel, J L; Confort, S; Remy, C; Benabid, A L

    1984-03-12

    Chronic implantation of surface coils on the skull has been developed to record 31P NMR spectra of the brain in unanesthetized rats. Intraperitoneal sublethal potassium cyanide doses induce strong and reversible changes in high-energy phosphate compounds in the brain, similar in part to those induced by ischemia. These effects are dose-dependent as far as phosphocreatine, inorganic orthophosphates and pH are concerned; ATP does not seem to be altered by KCN doses ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg but starts decreasing at a dose of 6 mg/kg. The fraction of Mg2+ complexed ATP which could be estimated as about 90% was not affected by KCN intoxication. For high doses (6 mg/kg) a new peak, appearing on the upfield side of the inorganic phosphate peak, may correspond to an acidic compartment, the significance of which is discussed.

  3. Analysis of brain metabolism changes induced by acute potassium cyanide intoxication by 31P NMR in vivo using chronically implanted surface coils.

    PubMed

    Decorps, M; Lebas, J F; Leviel, J L; Confort, S; Remy, C; Benabid, A L

    1984-03-12

    Chronic implantation of surface coils on the skull has been developed to record 31P NMR spectra of the brain in unanesthetized rats. Intraperitoneal sublethal potassium cyanide doses induce strong and reversible changes in high-energy phosphate compounds in the brain, similar in part to those induced by ischemia. These effects are dose-dependent as far as phosphocreatine, inorganic orthophosphates and pH are concerned; ATP does not seem to be altered by KCN doses ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg but starts decreasing at a dose of 6 mg/kg. The fraction of Mg2+ complexed ATP which could be estimated as about 90% was not affected by KCN intoxication. For high doses (6 mg/kg) a new peak, appearing on the upfield side of the inorganic phosphate peak, may correspond to an acidic compartment, the significance of which is discussed. PMID:6705916

  4. How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Sultan, Charles; Buiatti, Marcello; Gallagher, Lou; Antoniou, Michael; Dronamraju, Krishna R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings may be revealed. This discussion is about the need to investigate the relevant criteria to consider those as biologically significant. The sex differences and the non linear dose or time related effects should be considered in contrast to the claims of a Monsanto-supported expert panel about a GMO, the MON 863 Bt maize, but also for pesticides or drugs, in particular to reveal hormone-dependent diseases and first signs of toxicities. PMID:19584953

  5. How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Sultan, Charles; Buiatti, Marcello; Gallagher, Lou; Antoniou, Michael; Dronamraju, Krishna R

    2009-06-17

    Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings may be revealed. This discussion is about the need to investigate the relevant criteria to consider those as biologically significant. The sex differences and the non linear dose or time related effects should be considered in contrast to the claims of a Monsanto-supported expert panel about a GMO, the MON 863 Bt maize, but also for pesticides or drugs, in particular to reveal hormone-dependent diseases and first signs of toxicities.

  6. Barbiturate intoxication and overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Intoxication - barbiturates ... Symptoms of barbiturate intoxication and overdose include: Altered level of consciousness Difficulty in thinking Drowsiness or coma Faulty judgment Lack of coordination Shallow ...

  7. Barbiturate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jay M.; Bischel, Margaret D.; Wagers, Park W.; Barbour, Benjamin H.

    1976-01-01

    The complications encountered in caring for 185 patients intoxicated with barbiturates were reviewed. The population consisted of 142 patients with long-acting barbiturate concentrations of 8 mg per 100 ml or greater, 20 patients with short-acting barbiturate concentrations of 3 mg per 100 ml or greater and 23 consecutive patients with short-acting barbiturate intoxication referred for monitoring. Pneumonia was the major cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the use of an endotracheal tube in treatment. Cardiovascular instability manifested by pulmonary edema was the next leading cause of morbidity and mortality and correlated best with the initial depth of coma and the quantity of intravenous fluid administered. In retrospect, use of eliminative measures such as dialysis would probably not have altered the outcome in most of the patients who died and attempts at forced diuresis may have contributed to several deaths. Particular emphasis should be placed on the problems of sepsis and fluid therapy in the management of these patients. PMID:1258466

  8. Association of chronic pesticide exposure with serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary functions.

    PubMed

    Sutoluk, Zeynel; Kekec, Zeynep; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hant, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the analysis of serum cholinesterase levels and the pulmonary function tests in seasonal farm workers who were chronically exposed to pesticides, mostly organophosphorus, in comparison with non-farm workers in the farming areas of Cukurova region, Turkey. Serum cholinesterase levels and pulmonary function tests using spyrometer in 50 male seasonal farm workers (study group) were compared to 50 male non-farm workers (control group) in this cross-sectional study. The mean serum cholinesterase enzyme level in the farm worker group (7095.5 ± 1699.4 U/L) was significantly lower than those of the control group (9716.4 ± 1484.4 U/L) (p < .001). There was no significant difference between pulmonary function tests of 2 groups (p > .05). These results show that chronic environmental organophosphorus exposure caused a decrease in the serum cholinesterase enzyme levels in farm workers, emphasizing the importance of primary prevention. PMID:24484366

  9. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2011-07-01

    A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales.

  10. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI. PMID:24964748

  11. [Differential diagnostics of chronic tonsillitis based on the severity of manifestations of tonsillogenic intoxication of the organism].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T; Gurov, A V; Aksenova, A V; Guseva, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the objective diagnostic criteria for the differentiation between various forms of chronic tonsillitis (CT) based on the results of clinical, bacteriological, and serological investigations. A total of 13 patients presenting with various forms of CT were available for the examination. The mathematical analysis of the data thus obtained made it possible to identify the most clinically significant diagnostic criteria allowing to verify the form of CT. It is concluded that their application in the combination with the classification of chronic tonsillitis proposed earlier by B.S. Preobrazhensky and V.T. Pal'chun can be recommended for the choice of the most adequate strategy for the treatment of the patients chronic tonsillitis on an individual basis. PMID:26525464

  12. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen. PMID:6088100

  13. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course. PMID:26394503

  14. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  15. [The Development of Clinical and Morphological Manifestations of Chronic Alcoholic Myopathy in Men with Prolonged Alcohol Intoxication].

    PubMed

    Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S; Zinovyeva, o E; Kazantseva, Iu V; Samkhaeva, N D

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy occurs in 40-60% of patients who abuse alcohol, and is accompanied by decreased performance, proximal paresis and atrophy of skeletal muscles. However, it is unknown what is important in the development of the disease: duration of alcohol abuse, or the dose of ethanol consumed. Unknown dynamics of the pathological process in skeletal muscle. We examined male patients identified with alcoholic myopathy and without it, evaluated the duration of alcohol abuse, intake of ethanol, morphological characteristics m.quadriceps vastus lateralis and the content of IGF-1 in plasma. It has been shown that chronic alcoholic myopathy develops after 10 years of alcohol abuse; proximal paresis is observed only in patients with atrophy of muscle fibers, thus there is a transformation of myosin phenotype from slow to fast. The decrease IGF-1 in plasma detected at the early stages of the Church, including in patients without clinical manifestations of proximal paresis and morphological signs of atrophy of muscle fibers.

  16. Naloxone and ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Askenasi, R; Fontaine, J

    1982-01-01

    Naloxone has been said to be an antidote of acute ethanol intoxication in man. Experimental and clinical studies are however not convincing and contradictory. We have used naloxone to antagonize the effect of ethanol in mice. Results are compared to those obtained with morphine intoxication. Even at high doses (5 mg/kg) naloxone is not a good antagonist of ethanol intoxication in mice.

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  18. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  19. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  20. Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

  1. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood ascorbic acid, vitamin E, an lipid peroxide in chronic cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, S Z; Ognjanović, B I; Stajn, A S; Zikić, R V; Saicić, Z S; Petrović, V M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on ascorbic acid (AsA), vitamin E (vit E), and lipid peroxide (LP) concentrations in the blood of rats chronically treated with cadmium. Results were compared to those obtained in control animals, as well as to those obtained in animals treated with olive oil. Compared to that of the control animals, the AsA concentration was significantly increased in rats treated with CoQ10 and olive oil, whereas vit E concentration was significantly increased in animals treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. A significant decrease in LP concentration was noted in animals treated with cadmium or with cadmium + CoQ10o, whereas a significant increase was seen in animals treated with olive oil. Compared to that of the animals treated with olive oil, the ascorbic acid concentration was significantly decreased in rats treated with cadmium or with cadmium + CoQ10, whereas vit E concentration was significantly increased in animals treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. LP concentration was significantly decreased in rats treated with cadmium, CoQ10, or cadmium + CoQ10. Our study showed that CoQ10 administration in rats chronically exposed to exogenous cadmium exerts beneficial effects on the nonenzymatic components of the antioxidant defense system, such as AsA and vit E, resulting in a decreased concentration of LP in the blood. PMID:11394712

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota. PMID:27448754

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  4. Combined administration of iron and monoisoamyl-DMSA in the treatment of chronic arsenic intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Modi, M; Flora, S J S

    2007-11-01

    Co-administration of iron in combination with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) against chronic arsenic poisoning in mice was studied. Mice preexposed to arsenic (25 ppm in drinking water for 6 months) mice were treated with MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) either alone or in combination with iron (75 or 150 mg/kg, orally) once daily for 5 days. Arsenic exposure led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC) counts accompanied by small decline in blood hemoglobin level. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities showed a significant decrease while, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels increased on arsenic exposure, indicating arsenic-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Liver aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST and ALT) activities also decreased significantly on arsenic exposure. Kidney GSH, GSSG, catalase level and SOD activities remained unchanged, while, TBARS level increased significantly following arsenic exposure. Brain GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and SOD activities decreased, accompanied by a significant elevation of TBARS level after chronic arsenic exposure. Treatment with MiADMSA was marginally effective in reducing ALAD activity, while administration of iron was ineffective when given alone. Iron when co-administered with MiADMSA restored blood ALAD activity. Administration of iron alone had no beneficial effects on hepatic oxidative stress, while in combination with MiADMSA it produced significant decline in hepatic TBARS level compared to the individual effect of MiADMSA. Renal biochemical variables were insensitive to any of the treatments. Combined administration of iron with MiADMSA also had no additional beneficial effect over the individual protective effect of MiADMSA on brain oxidative stress. Interestingly, combined administration of

  5. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  6. Distinct influence of filter strips on acute and chronic pesticide aquatic environmental exposure assessments across U.S. EPA scenarios.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, George J; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are proposed for protection of receiving water bodies and aquatic organisms from pesticides in runoff, but there is debate regarding the efficiency and filter size requirements. This debate is largely due to the belief that no quantitative methodology exists for predicting runoff buffer efficiency when conducting acute and/or chronic environmental exposure assessments. Previous research has proposed a modeling approach that links the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) PRZM/EXAMS with a well-tested process-based model for VFS (VFSMOD). In this research, we apply the modeling framework to determine (1) the most important input factors for quantifying mass reductions of pesticides by VFS in aquatic exposure assessments relative to three distinct U.S. EPA scenarios encompassing a wide range of conditions; (2) the expected range in percent reductions in acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs); and (3) the differential influence of VFS when conducting acute versus chronic exposure assessments. This research utilized three, 30-yr U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. A global sensitivity analysis (GSA) method identified the most important input factors based on discrete uniform probability distributions for five input factors: VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (K(oc)), half-lives in both water and soil phases, and application timing. For percent reductions in acute and chronic EECs, VL and application timing were consistently the most important input factors independent of EPA scenario. The potential ranges in acute and chronic EECs varied as a function of EPA scenario and application timing. Reductions in acute EECs were typically less than percent reductions in chronic EECs because acute exposure was driven primarily by large individual rainfall and runon events. Importantly, generic specification of VFS design characteristics equal across scenarios

  7. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Goulson, Dave

    2016-04-13

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees. PMID:27053744

  8. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Goulson, Dave

    2016-04-13

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees.

  9. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  10. [Acute intoxication by cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Nida, F

    1975-01-01

    Intoxications due to cosmetics are of various types, but certain substances may be particularly harmful, especially when the constituants include acetone, boric acid and borates, ethyl alcohol, bromates, formol, methyl alcohol, propylene glycol, thallium, thioglycolate.. Every cosmetic substance may induce accidental intoxications. Most often, fluid cosmetics are absorbed either by children or by feeble-minded subjects. In all intoxication, one must take account of the age and weight of the patient, of the quantity absorbed, of the toxicity and of the constituants of the substance.

  11. Chelating agents and cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Shinobu, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of conventional chelating agents have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating agents belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only provide antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating agents was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.

  12. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 1. Epidemiology and clinical and laboratory findings in patients. Ministry of Health, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of an epidemic of more than 1000 cases of spastic paraparesis in a drought-striken cassava staple area of Mozambique strongly suggests an association between this disease (called mantakassa), chronic cyanide intoxication, and cassava consumption. In previous reports of neurological disease with similar associations, the disease affected an older age group with usually a gradual onset, and the predominant clinical feature was an ataxic neuropathy. In mantakassa the onset was acute, and mostly women of reproductive age and children were affected. Serum thiocyanate levels in these patients were much higher than previously reported; while spastic paraparesis of unknown etiology occurs in many tropical countries, it has not previously been linked with raised thiocyanate levels. The present evidence linking cassava consumption to the disease is circumstantial, and dietary deficiency is also probably involved. Cassava is an important food crop and a major source of energy for people in many parts of the world. In these areas, when there is a shortage of food production, e.g., during a drought, the inhabitants may be exposed to the risk of dietary cyanide intoxication. Further research is needed on the causes of mantakassa so that a repetition of this disaster could be prevented.

  13. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery. PMID:26454485

  14. Thallium intoxication. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.

  15. Van Gogh's vision. Digitalis intoxication?

    PubMed

    Lee, T C

    1981-02-20

    Vincent van Gogh, the Dutch postimpressionist painter, died in 1890. He was an uncommon man. Automutilation, depression, insanity, and suicide are part of his medical history. During the last few years of his life, his paintings were characterized by halos and the color yellow. Critics have ascribed these aberrations to innumerable causes, including chronic solar injury, glaucoma, and cataracts. Van Gogh may have been under the influence of digitalis intoxication and its side effects: xanthopsia and coronas. This hypothesis is based on his twice having painted his physician holding a foxglove plant; that this medicine was used in the latter part of the 19th century in the treatment of epilepsy; and that the toxic effects of digitalis may have, in part, dictated the artist's technique.

  16. Platelet aggregation associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, S.; Walenga, J.; Fareed, J.; Schumacher, H. )

    1989-02-09

    Alcohol is known to produce profound effects on blood; during chronic intoxication, prolongation of bleeding time has been reported. Utilizing human platelet rich plasma, we have studied the effect of alcohol on epinephrine, arachidonic acid and ADP induced aggregation. Control responses were obtained with saline from which the relative inhibition by alcohol was calculated. These studies were carried out at a concentration of 1.25-5.0 mg/ml which represents 0.125-0.5% alcohol blood levels. From 25 normal male and female volunteers, without prior hemostatic defects or drug ingestion, a dose-dependent inhibition by alcohol of all three agonist induced aggregations was noted. Alcohol itself did not produce any aggregation response. These studies demonstrate that alcohol at levels which are reached during intoxication is capable of impairing platelet function. The implication of this finding on the bleeding complications in healthy intoxicated patients may be significant during traumatic events, and individuals taking antiplatelet drugs may present a more serious hemostatic deficit during alcohol intoxication.

  17. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  18. Pesticides and the Third World.

    PubMed

    Forget, G

    1991-01-01

    Many developing countries are importing industrial processes that make use of toxic chemicals. By the same token, pesticides, which are toxic by design, are also used increasingly in agriculture and in public health programs to control pests and vector-borne diseases. Recent estimates suggest that pesticides account for more than 20,000 fatalities yearly, and that most of these will have occurred in developing countries. This may actually be a gross underreporting. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are still responsible for many of those poisoning cases, herbicides such as paraquat are also increasingly being implicated in fatal poisoning cases. Newer pesticides such as the synthetic derivatives of pyrethrin, which were believed to be relatively safe to humans, now appear to be implicated in some serious cases of intoxication. Community-based pest control using locally available botanical pesticides could have severe consequences unless the toxicity of these compounds is carefully assessed relative to nontarget organisms. A high proportion of pesticide intoxications appear to be due to lack of knowledge, unsafe attitudes, and dangerous practices. The technology available to small farmers for pesticide application is often inappropriate: faulty sprayers, lack of protective equipment adapted to tropical conditions, nonexistent first-aid provisions. Agricultural extension is often not oriented to the transfer of information relative to the dangers inherent in the use of pesticides. The lack of information at all levels may be one of the most important causative factors of chemical intoxication in developing countries. Research should at this time concentrate on behaviors leading to chemical intoxication. This should be done concurrently with proper prospective and retrospective surveys of poisonings in developing country communities. More information should be sought relative to the decision processes of import, legislation, and licensing. Research

  19. Phenol burns and intoxications.

    PubMed

    Horch, R; Spilker, G; Stark, G B

    1994-02-01

    Phenol burns and intoxications are life-threatening injuries. Roughly 50 per cent of all reported cases have a fatal outcome. Only a small number of cases have been reported with high serum concentrations after phenol burns who survived. In our own experience a patient with 20.5 per cent total body surface area deep partial skin thickness phenol burns and serum concentrations of 17,400 micrograms/litre survived after immediate and repeated treatment of the scalds with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silver sulphadiazine. A literature review of experiences with phenol intoxications reveals the advantages of PEG application. Questions on the need for enforced diuresis and haemodialysis as well as the initial treatment procedures are discussed. Advantages of different solutions for local therapy are reported.

  20. [Fatal intoxication with paramethoxyamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiergowski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    From August to December of the year 2000 we ascertained 7 rapid deaths because of acute intoxication with tablets colloquially called Ufo. There were five men and two women aged from 20 to 29 (average 24) years. Analytic tests showed that one tablet of Ufo contains 40 mg of paramethoxyamphetamine, 1.0 mg of amphetamine, 0.05 mg of methamphetamine, 0.03 mg of 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. The levels of paramethoxyamphe-tamine in the blood of the deceased, determined by gas chromatography, were from 0.68 to 10.0 (approx. 3.2) mg/L and in the urine from 16 to 64 (approx. 35) mg/L. The press and television campaign caused elimination of fatal intoxications with parametoxy-amphetamine during the last 13 months. PMID:12184013

  1. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon.

  2. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. PMID:26449577

  3. Odor and marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Shea, D; Costa, L

    1978-07-01

    Assigned 48 volunteer adult males to four groups: a marijuana high dose, a marijuana low dose, a placebo, and a coltsfoot group. Each S participated in two 80-minute sessions; one involved listening to music, socializing, and smoking the drug, and the second was identical to the first with the addition of two extra placebo cigarettes which contained finely cut amounts of human hair. The odor of burning hair was rated previously as quite aversive by non-intoxicated Ss. Contrary to expectation, Ss in the odor condition indicated on self-ratings that they became significantly more intoxicated after the smoking of the hair cigarette. The opposite effect was found with a pulse rate measure. An additional 24 Ss were divided into high and low dose marijuana groups and run in an odor session, in which they were informed prior to smoking of the hair content. Heart rate for these Ss decreased significantly more than for the comparable uninformed Ss, although self-ratings continued to reflect increased intoxication.

  4. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication: an important cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.

  5. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products. Ministry of Health, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen. PMID:6088100

  6. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products. Ministry of Health, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen.

  7. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    This statement presents the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on pesticides. Pesticides are a collective term for chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Children encounter pesticides daily and have unique susceptibilities to their potential toxicity. Acute poisoning risks are clear, and understanding of chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure are emerging. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates associations between early life exposure to pesticides and pediatric cancers, decreased cognitive function, and behavioral problems. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Recognizing and reducing problematic exposures will require attention to current inadequacies in medical training, public health tracking, and regulatory action on pesticides. Ongoing research describing toxicologic vulnerabilities and exposure factors across the life span are needed to inform regulatory needs and appropriate interventions. Policies that promote integrated pest management, comprehensive pesticide labeling, and marketing practices that incorporate child health considerations will enhance safe use. PMID:23184103

  8. [Drugs of abuse acute intoxication in paediatric emergencies].

    PubMed

    García-Algar, O; Papaseit, E; Velasco, M; López, N; Martínez, L; Luaces, C; Vall, O

    2011-06-01

    Documented cases show that acute drugs of abuse intoxication in children usually is the Fritz clinical evidence of a chronic exposure. Published clinical reports of drugs of abuse acute poisonings in children are reviewed, above all those with an underlying chronic exposure to the same or another substance. Biological matrices and exposure biomarkers useful in toxicology analysis in Paediatrics are reviewed. In toxicology, biomarkers refer to original parental substances and its metabolites and matrices refer to body substances where biomarkers are detected. In these matrices acute and chronic (previous days, weeks or months) exposures can be detected. Hair analysis has become the gold standard of drugs of abuse chronic exposure. Recommendation includes to confirm previous chronic exposure to drugs of abuse by hair analysis of children and their parents. This protocol must be applied in all cases with suspicion of acute drugs of abuse intoxication, parental consumption and/or children living in a risk environment.

  9. The disruption of marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Spiers, P; Shea, D

    1977-05-01

    Ninety-six males Ss were divided into four drug conditions; coltsfoot, placebo, marijuana low dose, and marijuana high dose. Half of the Ss smoked marijuana while listening to music in a relaxing environment, and half smoked marijuana in the same environment but had two 10-min periods of aversive-noise superimposed over the music. A subjective measure of intoxication demonstrated significant drug and environmental group effects with suppression of self-report of intoxication being especially strong for the marijuana low dose noise group. The usual positive correlation between subjective measures and pulse rate measures of marijuana intoxication was interfered with by the noise effect. Although subjective ratings were suppressed, the noise group demonstrated significantly higher pulse rates than the music group. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of extraneous factors on marijuana intoxication, the significance of dosage in this type of research, and the nature of marijuana intoxication.

  10. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis.

  11. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. PMID:26052116

  12. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese.

  13. Arsenic intoxication as a cause of megaloblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, D D; Samaha, R J; Barnes, A

    1975-02-01

    We have described a case of chronic arsenic intoxication associated with pancytopenia and megaloblastic erythropoiesis. The patient had the typical laboratory manifestations of effective erythorpoiesis due to a megaloblastic process, including macroovalocytes, mild pancytopenia, low reticulocyte index, increased marrow cellularity with erythroid hyperplasia, and morphologic evidence of megaloblastic maturation in the marrow. The patient's serum folate and vitamin B12 were normal, and the anemia regressed without therapy. Our case suggests that the combination of megaloblastosis with normoblastic or megaloblastic karyorrhexis,should raise the suspicion of arsenic intoxication in the mind of the observer. In addition, arsenic should be added to the list of agents causing a reversible megaloblastic anemia.

  14. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Pachauri, Vidhu

    2010-01-01

    Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications. PMID:20717537

  15. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  16. Experimental studies on the bone metabolism of male rats chronically exposed to cadmium intoxication using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Yokota, H; Tonami, H

    2008-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been identified as the etiologic agent of itai-itai disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic Cd exposure affects bone metabolism in a male rat model and to estimate the bone mineral density (BMD) differences in lumbar and femoral bone because of Cd exposure. Six-week-old male Hos Donryu rats were used in this experiment. Cadmium was administered at a dose of 200 ppm to rats in the diet to produce experimental chronic Cd poisoning. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) with a high-resolution scan collimator (0.25 mm diameter) (Hologic QDR-2000). The Cd content in renal tissue reached a critical concentration of 128.42 +/- 14.38 microg/g 10 months after the administration of the element (Table 3). The average blood urea nitrogen (BUN) value was increased throughout the period of the experiment, and the serum creatinine value of the experimental group showed an increase after 2 months of Cd administration (0.46 +/- 0.09 mg/dL). The concentration of urinary calcium changed in the experimental group after exposure to Cd for 12 months (15.4 +/- 0.13 mg/dL). DEXA showed a greater reduction in the bone mineral density of the 5th vertebral body (L5) in rats that had ingested Cd for 4 months (0.359 +/- 0.013 g/cm2) than in control rats (0.372 +/- 0.012 g/cm2, P < 0.01). On the contrary, the difference in bone mineral content between rats ingesting Cd for 6-8 months and control rats was not significant. However, significant reductions in bone mineral content were again noted in rats that had ingested Cd for 12 months (0.339 +/- 0.023 g/cm2) compared with the control group (0.385 +/- 0.012 g/cm2, P < 0.01). The bone mineral density of the right femoral bone in control rats was 0.328 +/- 0.018 g/cm2 and that in experimental rats was 0.306 +/- 0.012 g/cm2, and a meaningful difference was recognized (P < 0.05). Histological examination of the rats exposed to Cd for 12 months showed that the 5

  17. Biomarkers of manganese intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Fu, Sherleen X; Dydak, Ulrike; Cowan, Dallas M

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), upon absorption, is primarily sequestered in tissue and intracellular compartments. For this reason, blood Mn concentration does not always accurately reflect Mn concentration in the targeted tissue, particularly in the brain. The discrepancy between Mn concentrations in tissue or intracellular components means that blood Mn is a poor biomarker of Mn exposure or toxicity under many conditions and that other biomarkers must be established. For group comparisons of active workers, blood Mn has some utility for distinguishing exposed from unexposed subjects, although the large variability in mean values renders it insensitive for discriminating one individual from the rest of the study population. Mn exposure is known to alter iron (Fe) homeostasis. The Mn/Fe ratio (MIR) in plasma or erythrocytes reflects not only steady-state concentrations of Mn or Fe in tested individuals, but also a biological response (altered Fe homeostasis) to Mn exposure. Recent human studies support the potential value for using MIR to distinguish individuals with Mn exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in combination with noninvasive assessment of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), provides convincing evidence of Mn exposure, even without clinical symptoms of Mn intoxication. For subjects with long-term, low-dose Mn exposure or for those exposed in the past but not the present, neither blood Mn nor MRI provides a confident distinction for Mn exposure or intoxication. While plasma or erythrocyte MIR is more likely a sensitive measure, the cut-off values for MIR among the general population need to be further tested and established. Considering the large accumulation of Mn in bone, developing an X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy or neutron-based spectroscopy method may create yet another novel non-invasive tool for assessing Mn exposure and toxicity. PMID:20946915

  18. [Crystalluria in ethylene glycol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Thouvenin, Maxime; Luxey, Grégoire; Schendel, Adeline; Parent, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    When seen, some habits of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (whewellite) are so typical of ethylene glycol intoxication that they may be helpful for its diagnosis when circumstances are not clearly established.

  19. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  20. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  1. [Pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, A

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the families of chemical products most widely used by man. They have been used above all to combat pests because of their effect on harvests and as vectors of transmissible diseases. Pesticides can be classified according to their use (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides em leader ) or by their chemical family (organochlorates, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, Bipyridilium compounds, inorganic salts em leader ). All of them are biocides, which normally implies a high toxicity for humans, which has been a cause for concern since the mid-XX century due to the widespread and indiscriminate use of these products. Exposure to pesticides can have effects that are acute, chronic and long-term. Some organochlorate compounds (such as DDT) were the first to be used in massive fumigations to fight malaria and have had to be banned because of their capacity for bioaccumulation and environmental persistence. The danger represented by the widespread presence of these agents has been demonstrated in numerous episodes of human toxic epidemics, producers of a high morbidity/mortality, described for nearly all chemical families: organochlorate insecticides and fungicides, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, organomercurial fungicides and inorganic salts. These episodes have above all been caused through the ingestion of foodstuffs and in the occupational field. Other causes of health concern are their carcinogenic capacity and occasional reproductive alterations. The principal characteristics of some of the most relevant families are presented. PMID:12813483

  2. Intravenous naphazoline intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Montfrans, G A; van Steenwijk, R P; Vyth, A; Borst, C

    1981-01-01

    Nine pale perspiring drug addicts with drowsiness, nausea, headache, normal blood pressure and marked sinus bradycardia with premature ventricular beats were seen at the Casualty Department soon after alleged i.v. cocaine administration. Eight were treated with atropine, as the bradycardia suggested intoxication with a parasympathomimetic compound. Seven were discharged in good condition after a few hours' observation. One patient developed a blood pressure of 150/120 mmHg after atropine. Subsequently, a hemiparesis was found and an intracerebral haematoma was evaluated at surgery. Another patient was admitted forthwith to the CCU. He did not receive any medication and recovered within two days. Urinalysis of these two patients disclosed contents of naphazoline, a powerful alpha-adrenergic agent. Samples of the alleged cocaine contained 97% naphazoline HCl. A conscious rabbit was injected with naphazoline and thereafter with atropine. I.v. naphazoline doubled mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduced heart rate (HR) from 167 to 30 beats/min. Atropine doubled HR, but caused a marked rise in MAP, too, stressing the adverse effects of atropine in these cases. When confronted with patients after alleged cocaine abuse, the role of substitute drugs, especially alpha-adrenergic compounds, should be considered as this should influence the therapeutic approach.

  3. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

  4. Acute bromadiolone intoxication.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10). PMID:16803669

  5. Chronic lead intoxication in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transmammary movement of lead is exemplified by increased levels of lead in mothers milk. Control animals had mean levels of 0.18 p.p.m. of lead in their milk, while the lead experimental mothers averaged approximately 0.60 p.p.m. (range from 0.30 to 1.30 p.p.m.). In most cases, the first milk expressed from the mother contained more lead than subsequently obtained samples. A comparison of blood lead values between lead experimental mothers and their offspring were shown to be generally within 10-15% of one another at birth, and significantly different (p < 0.001) from controls. Zinc protoporphyrin concentrations were significantly different (p < 0.001) at birth between lead experimental infants and control infant. This illustrates that lead, is indeed, transplacental and disrupts the normal mechanisms responsible for heme biosynthesis in utero.

  6. Vestibular dysfunction in occupational chronic solvent intoxication.

    PubMed

    Arlien-Søborg, P; Zilstorff, K; Grandjean, B; Milling Pedersen, L

    1981-08-01

    Neurotoxic volatile organic solvents used by house and car painters may lead to professional toxic encephalopathy after several years of exposure. The symptoms are memory impairment, fatigue, personality changes, headache and dizziness. Vestibular dysfunction was found in 55% of 113 painters examined, mainly in the form of reduced caloric vestibular reactions. No correlation between vestibular dysfunction and the duration of exposure, cerebral atrophy or intellectual impairment could be demonstrated. Vestibular examination may be helpful in detecting early changes in exposed persons and in determining more accurate safety limits for harmful chemicals.

  7. Osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa

    2013-04-01

    A 47-year-old woman consulted her dermatologist complaining whole body dermatitis, urticaria and irritating bullous eruptions on the plantar and side surfaces of her feet. She had had multiple hypopigmented spots on her skin since her early adulthood. The patient was treated with topical medication without significant improvement of symptoms. One year later she suffered a myocardial infarction, accompanied by refractory anaemia. At the age of 49, a breast cancer was diagnosed and shortly thereafter her last menstruation occurred. At age 50years, upon complaint of weight loss despite normal food intake, Hashimoto thyroiditis with latent hyperthyroidism, vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, and poikilocytic anaemia with anisochromia, hypochromia, anisocytosis, elliptocytes, drepanocytes, dacryocytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, schizocytes, stomatocytes and target cells were diagnosed. The osteodensitometric and laboratory examinations revealed osteoporosis with sustained elevation of urinary Dipyridinolin-crosslinks (u-Dpd), and urinary arsenic (u-As) of 500μg/l (equivalent to 0.5 parts per million-ppm, 2.5μg/mg creatinine/dl, u-As: Phosphate of 26μg/mmol; the estimated bone As:P and As/kg body weight were 500μg/g and 11.3mg/kg, respectively). Thalassemia, immunoglobinopathy and iron deficiency were excluded. Supplementation with oral vitamin D and calcium, and antiresorptive therapy with intravenous zolendronate normalised the u-Dpd, significantly decreased the urinary arsenic concentration, and cured the anemia and the urticaria. A diagnosis of osteoresorptive arsenic intoxication (ORAI) was established. PMID:23337042

  8. Fatal doxepin intoxication--suicide or slow gradual intoxication?

    PubMed

    Neukamm, M A; Vogt, S; Hermanns-Clausen, M; Naue, J; Thierauf, A; Auwärter, V

    2013-04-10

    The differentiation of intoxication courses is one of the most difficult challenges for forensic pathologists and toxicologists. The case of a 52-year-old female inpatient of a psychiatric clinic with multiple medications who died from doxepin intoxication is reported. Concentrations of doxepin metabolites and isomers, pharmacokinetic modelling and genotyping of the doxepin-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes led to the following conclusion: the lethal doxepin concentration of 2100 ng/mL was more likely to have been reached due to drug interactions and genetic peculiarities leading to a reduction of the metabolic capacity and not by an acute (suicidal) overdose.

  9. Clinical cases in acute intoxication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sean B; Maguire, Jennifer; Mauck, Karen F

    2009-12-01

    Over 2.5 million accidental and intentional drug-related poisonings are reported annually in the United States. Early diagnosis and management of patients who present with acute intoxication can significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality. The initial evaluation of patients with suspected or proven intoxications should focus on hemodynamic stability, mental status, and respiratory function. However, early recognition of toxic ingestion is paramount to implementing life-saving treatments. Important historical clues are often found in a social history that considers intravenous drug use, alcohol use, and any access or exposure to illicit substances. A patient's medication list should also be scrutinized for psychoactive or sedative medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants or opioids. In this article we present case-based discussions of the specific diagnosis and management of 5 commonly occurring acute intoxication syndromes. PMID:20877175

  10. [Acute intoxications by tricyclic antidepressants (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Ginies, G; Renard, J P; Lamisse, F; Choutet, P; Breteau, M

    The authors report 87 cases of acute voluntary intoxications with tricyclic antidepressants. They essentially studied the cardiac complications; and conclude that the prognosis is more severe than for other intoxications.

  11. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Carter, Dawn S; Phillips, Kristin F; Blair, Robert E; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity.

  12. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  13. Voluntary intoxication and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, D B; Lambert, J B; Thompson, R G

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the law related to voluntary intoxication and criminal responsibility in the 50 United States, the District of Columbia, the US Virgin islands, and Puerto Rico. Statutory and case law citations are provided which govern the use of intoxication evidence in each jurisdiction to negate mens rea (i.e., to establish diminished capacity), to support an insanity defense, and to mitigate criminal sentencing. Factors that courts typically focus on when deciding whether to admit this evidence in a particular case are discussed, and these factors are related to clinically relevant criteria.

  14. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  15. [Barium intoxication: a case report].

    PubMed

    Jan, I S; Jong, Y S; Lo, H M

    1991-09-01

    Barium intoxication, a rare cause of hypokalemia, can sometimes result in respiratory paralysis and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Herein, we report one such case. A 29-year-old man swallowed barium-contaminated fried flour-coated sweet potatoes. Then, abdominal discomfort, vomiting, diarrhea, progressive muscular weakness, apnea and ventricular tachycardia developed and laboratory data revealed profound hypokalemia. He regained his health after mechanical ventilation, anti-arrhythmic agent and aggressive potassium chloride supplement. Analysis of blood, urine and contaminated flour showed the presence of barium carbonate. Barium intoxication is a medical emergency which requires rapid therapy to prevent mortality.

  16. Lithium intoxication: a coordinated treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Minden, S L; Bassuk, E L; Nadler, S P

    1993-01-01

    This case illustrates the clinical features of lithium intoxication and the problems in treating it that may arise as a result of lithium's effects on the kidney. It also demonstrates the difficulties that can develop when a delicate physiologic balance is inadvertently disrupted by nonpharmacologic interventions such as seclusion and consequent restriction of access to food and water. Patients with lithium-induced urine-concentrating defects are especially at risk for dehydration, and care must be taken to ensure adequate fluid and salt intake. This case also shows how intense negative feelings evoked by chronically mentally ill patients can adversely affect their psychiatric and medical care. While such feelings are inevitable, their impact may be lessened by improved communication and coordination between the medical and psychiatric systems of care and by the presence of psychiatrists in the general medical hospital. PMID:8419561

  17. Role of the calcium plateau in neuronal injury and behavioral morbidities following organophosphate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Blair, Robert E; Phillips, Kristin F; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate (OP) chemicals include nerve agents and pesticides, and there is a growing concern of OP-based chemical attacks against civilians. Current antidotes are essential in limiting immediate mortality associated with OP exposure. However, further research is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term neurological deficits following survival of OP toxicity in order to develop effective therapeutics. We have developed rat survival models of OP-induced status epilepticus (SE) that mimic chronic mortality and morbidity following OP intoxication. We have observed significant elevations in hippocampal calcium levels after OP SE that persisted for weeks following initial survival. Drugs inhibiting intracellular calcium-induced calcium release, such as dantrolene, levetiracetam, and carisbamate, lowered OP SE-mediated protracted calcium elevations. Given the critical role of calcium signaling in modulating behavior and cell death mechanisms, drugs targeted at preventing the development of the calcium plateau could enhance neuroprotection, help reduce morbidity, and improve outcomes following survival of OP SE. PMID:27327161

  18. Unusual manifestations of arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, G P; Deal, J; Spurling, T; Richter, J; Chernow, B

    1985-05-01

    A patient with arsenic intoxication is reported, who presented with a variety of gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances including unilateral facial nerve palsy and acute symptomatic pancreatitis, neither of which have been previously described as sequelae of arsenic poisoning. The patient also suffered hematologic, dermatologic, and cardiopulmonary complications. A review of the literature about this interesting problem is also presented.

  19. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  20. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  1. Glycoconjugate histochemistry in the small and large intestine of normal and Solanum glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzi, C N; Barbeito, C G; Ortíz, M L; Lozza, F A; Fontana, P A; Portiansky, E L; Gimeno, E J

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin D participates in mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation, cell growth and differentiation. The leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum contain high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as glycoside derivatives and their chronic ingestion generates a hypervitaminosis D-like state. We analyzed changes on carbohydrate expression as a cell differentiation indicator on samples of the small and large intestine of S. glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits, using conventional and lectin histochemistry. Male New Zealand white rabbits were intoxicated with S. glaucophyllum during two or four weeks and killed the day after. A group of animals ("possibly recovered group") were intoxicated during 15 days and killed at day 45 of the beginning of the experiment. We found changes in the lectin binding pattern in the small and large intestine of the intoxicated rabbits. Some of these changes were reverted in the possibly recovered group. Vitamin D could be a new regulator factor of the intestinal glycosylation process. PMID:20350732

  2. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-16

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure.

  3. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family's residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure. PMID:26784217

  4. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Probably Caused by Arsenic-Based Pesticides: Findings from an Investigation Study of a Household

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongfang; Ye, Feng; Wang, Anwei; Wang, Da; Yang, Boyi; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan; Gao, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    In addition to naturally occurring arsenic, man-made arsenic-based compounds are other sources of arsenic exposure. In 2013, our group identified 12 suspected arsenicosis patients in a household (32 living members). Of them, eight members were diagnosed with skin cancer. Interestingly, all of these patients had lived in the household prior to 1989. An investigation revealed that approximately 2 tons of arsenic-based pesticides had been previously placed near a well that had supplied drinking water to the family from 1973 to 1989. The current arsenic level in the well water was 620 μg/L. No other high arsenic wells were found near the family’s residence. Based on these findings, it is possible to infer that the skin lesions exhibited by these family members were caused by long-term exposure to well water contaminated with arsenic-based pesticides. Additionally, biochemical analysis showed that the individuals exposed to arsenic had higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase than those who were not exposed. These findings might indicate the presence of liver dysfunction in the arsenic-exposed individuals. This report elucidates the effects of arsenical compounds on the occurrence of high levels of arsenic in the environment and emphasizes the severe human health impact of arsenic exposure. PMID:26784217

  5. Methanol intoxication: pathological changes of central nervous system (17 cases).

    PubMed

    Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu A; Sav, Aydin; Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2010-03-01

    The nervous system has increased susceptibility for methanol intoxication. The aim of this study is to investigate various central nervous system lesions of methanol intoxication in 17 cases autopsied in the mortuary department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Turkey. The reasons of methanol intoxication in the cases was likely the unwitting ingestion of methanol while drinking illegal alcohol. Survival times ranged from several hours to days. In 8 cases (47%), cerebral edema and in 9 cases (53%) at occipital, temporal and parietal cortex, basal ganglia and pons, petechial bleeding was observed. In addition to these findings, hemorrhagic necrosis were observed in thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus in 5 cases (29.4%) and, in cerebral cortex in another 3 cases (17.6%). In 3 of the cases (17.6%) in which cerebral edema was found, herniation findings accompanied to the situation and in 2 cases (11.7%), pons bleeding was observed. Around the basal ganglia, in 2 of the cases with hemorrhagic necrosis, the situation ended with a ventricular compression. In 7 cases (41%), the associated findings of chronic ischemic changes in cortical neurons, lacunae formation, degeneration of granular cell layer of the cerebellum, and reactive gliosis were considered as the results of chronic alcoholism.

  6. Proteinuria of industrial lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III

    1986-12-01

    Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a hazard primarily in the oil and gas industry, agriculture, sewage and animal waste handling, construction (asphalt operations and disturbing marshy terrain), and other settings where organic material decomposes under reducing conditions, and in geothermal operations. It is an insoluble gas, heavier than air, with a very low odor threshold and high toxicity, driven by concentration more than duration of exposure. Toxicity presents in a unique, reliable, and characteristic toxidrome consisting, in ascending order of exposure, of mucosal irritation, especially of the eye ("gas eye"), olfactory paralysis (not to be confused with olfactory fatigue), sudden but reversible loss of consciousness ("knockdown"), pulmonary edema (with an unusually favorable prognosis), and death (probably with apnea contributing). The risk of chronic neurcognitive changes is controversial, with the best evidence at high exposure levels and after knockdowns, which are frequently accompanied by head injury or oxygen deprivation. Treatment cannot be initiated promptly in the prehospital phase, and currently rests primarily on supportive care, hyperbaric oxygen, and nitrite administration. The mechanism of action for sublethal neurotoxicity and knockdown is clearly not inhibition of cytochrome oxidase c, as generally assumed, although this may play a role in overwhelming exposures. High levels of endogenous sulfide are found in the brain, presumably relating to the function of hydrogen sulfide as a gaseous neurotransmitter and immunomodulator. Prevention requires control of exposure and rigorous training to stop doomed rescue attempts attempted without self-contained breathing apparatus, especially in confined spaces, and in sudden release in the oil and gas sector, which result in multiple avoidable deaths. PMID:26563786

  8. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  9. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    recover within 1 year. Neuropsychologic abnormalities with chronic CO exposure are found even when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are normal. White-matter damage in the centrum semiovale and periventricular area and abnormalities in the globus pallidus are most commonly seen on MRI following CO exposure. Though not as common, toxic or ischemic peripheral neuropathies are associated with CO exposure in humans and animals. The cornerstone for treatment for CO poisoning is 100% oxygen using a tight-fitting mask for greater than 6 hours. The indications for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen to decrease the half-life of COHb remain controversial. PMID:26563790

  10. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  11. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  12. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  13. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  14. Zinc phosphide intoxication of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Poppenga, Robert H; Ziegler, Andre F; Habecker, Perry L; Singletary, Don L; Walter, Mark K; Miller, Paul G

    2005-01-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a rodenticide used to control a variety of small mammal species. It is available over-the-counter or as a restricted-use pesticide depending on how it is to be applied. The toxicity of Zn3P2 is dependent on the species exposed, whether the animal is able to vomit or not, and whether it is ingested on a full or empty stomach. Nontarget species can be exposed through inadvertent or intentional product misapplication. In this article we describe four mortality events in which wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were believed to have been intoxicated following the ingestion of baits containing Zn3P2.

  15. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  16. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  17. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  18. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  19. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited....

  20. Perceived Intoxication: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Mary E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among perceived levels of intoxication, blood alcohol levels, and impairment of selected psychomotor skills used in driving. Results reinforced previous findings which correlated perceptions of intoxication and other measures. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption tables, which calculate one's…

  1. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful conduct or purpose whatsoever. No trader shall use...

  2. Transient proteinuria and aminoaciduria in rodents following uranium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Stockwell, D.R.; Britt, K.A.; Kerr, C.B.

    1985-03-01

    Alternative human bioassay procedures for uranium are being investigated. Aminoaciduria in uranium hexafluoride and uranium mill employees has been examined. Although not conclusive, the results suggest that chronic human urinary uranium concentrations of 30-50 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ produce marked changes in the amino acid excretion profile although no consistent patterns emerged. As part of a program to examine alternative bioassay techniques for occupationally exposed uranium workers and to assist in interpretation of amino acid obtained from human incident exposures, the authors have examined the occurrence of transient aminoaciduria following uranium intoxication in female rats.

  3. Fungating Bowen's disease with presumed arsenic intoxication. A case report.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, M R; Rippey, J J; Thompson, P

    1982-11-01

    A patient with a bizarre fungating tumour of the anterior abdominal wall is described. The lesion had the histological features of Bowen's disease and also had the appearance of a basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. In addition, the patient had 'raindrop' pigmentation typical of chronic arsenic intoxication. As far as we know, Bowen's disease has once previously been reported in a Black patient in South Africa. We have not encountered any other description in the literature of Bowen's disease presenting as a fungating tumour.

  4. An interesting thinner intoxication case: intrathoracic injection.

    PubMed

    Solak, Ilhami; Cankayali, Ilkin; Aksu, Hasim; Moral, Ali Resat

    2006-01-01

    Thinners, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, xylene, and N-hexane, are widely used in industry for the production of plastics, varnish, paint, and glue. Use of these toxic agents frequently leads to chronic intoxication caused by abuse or misuse of solvents, which are usually taken in through inhalation. Thinners may have neurotoxic, myotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and cardiotoxic systemic effects. The patient described in this report attempted to commit suicide by injecting 10 cc thinner into the left hemithorax. Acute chemical empyema developed at the left hemithorax. No bacterial growth was noted in empyema liquid and blood samples. Empyema was treated with tube thoracostomy, and full remission was observed after 33 d. No systemic toxic signs were noted, other than a low level of hepatotoxicity. Although pleural effusion, atelectasis, and pleural thickening were observed at the acute phase on computed tomography (CT) of the thorax, only pleural thickening persisted on CT of the thorax after 1 y. Investigators could not find a documented case of parenteral use of thinners in the medical literature. PMID:16912033

  5. Alcohol intoxication and post-burn complications.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2006-01-01

    Results from the studies discussed in this article suggest that alcohol (EtOH) intoxication is a major public health problem. While the effects of injury and EtOH intoxication independent of each other have been studied in detail, only few studies have evaluated the effect of a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury on host defense. An analysis of the studies conducted in the clinical setting suggests that intoxicated patients require frequent intubations, experience delayed wound healing and longer hospital stay. Furthermore, there is a greater risk of mortality in these patients compared to those who sustained injuries in the absence of EtOH intoxication. On the other hand, there are a few studies that do not support this notion. The results obtained in experimental models clearly suggest that acute EtOH intoxication before burn injury impairs host defense and increases susceptibility to infection. Additionally, experimental data from our laboratory also indicate that EtOH intoxication before burn injury suppresses intestinal immune defense, impairs gut barrier functions and increases bacterial growth. This results in increased bacterial translocation in EtOH and burn injury. In addition, a decrease in cardiac function is also reported following a combined insult of EtOH intoxication and burn injury. Altogether, these findings suggest that EtOH intoxication before burn injury diminishes host resistance resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. Moreover, the findings of a higher incidence of infectious complications in burn and trauma patients who sustained injury in the presence of EtOH compared to those in its absence suggest that EtOH intoxication at the time of injury is a risk factor. Therefore blood EtOH should be monitored in burn/trauma patients at the time of admission in the emergency room.

  6. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  7. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  8. Monosodium glutamate neonatal intoxication associated with obesity in adult stage is characterized by chronic inflammation and increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Roman-Ramos, Ruben; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Fortis-Barrera, Angeles; Jasso, Edgar I; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario; Campos-Sepulveda, Alfonso E; Cruz, Miguel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J

    2011-06-01

    The monosodium glutamate (MSG) neonatal administration in mice provides a model of obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance. However, the inflammatory profile of cytokines produced from fat tissue and its relationship to the metabolic dysfunction induced by MSG have not yet been revealed. The aim of this study was to establish the inflammatory profile attributed to MSG by measuring the expression of adipokines in visceral fat and serum of 19-week-old mice as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma (PPARα and γ). Some metabolic and biochemical parameters were also quantified. The MSG increased mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), resistin and leptin, but adiponectin did not exhibit any changes. In addition, impaired glucose tolerance, increased levels of insulin, resistin and leptin were observed in serum. Both PPARα and PPARγ were activated in MSG-induced obese mice, which might explain its inflammatory profile. However, liver transaminases were severely depressed, indicating that MSG may also induce liver injury, contributing to inflammation. The MSG neonatal neuro-intoxication in mice may thus provide a model of obesity and inflammation characterized by the dual activation of PPARα and PPARγ, which might offer new insights into the mechanism of inflammatory diabetes in obesity leading to steatohepatitis, as well as a suitable model to study the role of new therapeutic agents to prevent or reduce insulin resistance, the inflammatory state and liver steatosis.

  9. Cocaine Intoxication and Thyroid Storm

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cocaine, a widely used sympathomimetic drug, causes thermoregulatory and cardiac manifestations that can mimic a life-threatening thyroid storm. Case. A man presented to the emergency department requesting only cocaine detoxification. He reported symptoms over the last few years including weight loss and diarrhea, which he attributed to ongoing cocaine use. On presentation he had an elevated temperature of 39.4°C and a heart rate up to 130 beats per minute. Examination revealed the presence of an enlarged, nontender goiter with bilateral continuous bruits. He was found to have thyrotoxicosis by labs and was treated for thyroid storm and cocaine intoxication concurrently. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Graves’ disease and treated with iodine-131 therapy. Conclusion. Cocaine use should be considered a possible trigger for thyroid storm. Recognition of thyroid storm is critical because of the necessity for targeted therapy and the significant mortality associated with the condition if left untreated. PMID:26425625

  10. [Resuscitation after intoxication with amitriptylin].

    PubMed

    Fippel, A; Berkel, H; Finkemeyer, S; Knape, R; Hoitz, J

    2005-09-01

    Intoxications with tricyclic antidepressants are often life threatening situations. In consequence of interference with many organ systems specific treatment consists in transportation to hospital under cardiopulmonary monitoring by physicians. The multiple possibilities of complications require the following treatments: continuous monitoring of the cardiovascular system, gastrolavage, application of carbon through a nasogastric tube, intubation and controlled ventilation in case of coma and continuous stand by for defibrillation. Additionally patients with stable parameters should be monitored in intensive care units because often there are no precursors of cardiac or pulmonary complications. We report the case of a 49-year old women with ingestion of 2500 mg of amitriptyline who suffered from multiple cardiac arrhythmias with following cardiac arrests and who required multiple defibrillations and resuscitation.

  11. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization. (iii) Routes by which pesticides can.... (ix) Prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness. (x) Safety...

  12. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization. (iii) Routes by which pesticides can.... (ix) Prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness. (x) Safety...

  13. Alcohol intoxication: Ion channels and genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.R.; Allan, A.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Acute in vitro exposure to ethanol and other intoxicant-anesthetics activates {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-stimulated chloride channels and inhibits voltage-dependent calcium and sodium channels of isolated brain membranes. The question of whether these neurochemical actions are responsible for intoxication in vivo has been addressed using animal populations displaying genetic differences in sensitivity to alcohol and benzodiazepine intoxication. These genetic approaches include inbred strains, selected lines, recombinant inbred strains, and heterogeneous stocks. Genetic differences in ion channel function provide strong evidence for a role of the GABA-stimulated chloride channel in ethanol and benzodiazepine intoxication; the role of calcium and sodium channels is less clear.

  14. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, A.; Stout, S.; Casarella, J.; Vayalapalli, S.; Cox, J.; Drexler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose. PMID:22879747

  15. Severe verapamil intoxication despite correct use of low-dose verapamil.

    PubMed

    Mandigers, Loes; Bollen, Pauline D J; Bijlstra, Peter J; Brands, Els

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of an adult patient using chronic low-dose verapamil who developed severe verapamil intoxication. A 57-year-old male patient was presented at the emergency room after a collapse of unknown etiology. The airway was compromised, and thus, an endotracheal tube was inserted. The patient deteriorated hemodynamically. Because of verapamil use and bradycardia, verapamil intoxication was suspected. The treatment was supported with intravenous fluids, calcium, inotropes, and a transvenous pacemaker. The patient progressively developed circulatory shock. Verapamil intoxication was confirmed, and therapy was adjusted accordingly. Insulin and calcium infusion were intensified, and glucagon and Intralipid® infusion were initiated. With this therapy, the patient's condition improved rapidly. We found different factors in this patient that could have precipitated this event such as diminished metabolism by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, a slightly diminished renal function with hypoalbuminemia, and interaction with other protein-binding drugs. PMID:26908375

  16. Inhibition of renal Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng . E-mail: yspark@ns.kosinmed.or.kr

    2005-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl{sub 2} (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V{sub max} of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport with no changes in K{sub Na} in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na{sup +}-HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal.

  17. Vitamin D Intoxication Treated with Porcine Calcitonin

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, R. M.; Gamlen, T. R.; Pullen, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Porcine calcitonin was used to treat three patients with hypercalcaemia due to vitamin D intoxication. In two patients a rapid and sustained fall to normal in serum calcium occurred within three days, in the third patient normocalcaemia was achieved in seven days. In view of its rapid and sustained effect calcitonin may be of value in the urgent treatment of hypercalcaemia due to vitamin D intoxication. PMID:4261142

  18. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  19. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  20. Arsenic intoxication, a hemorheologic view.

    PubMed

    Bollini, A; Huarte, M; Hernández, G; Bazzoni, G; Piehl, L; Mengarelli, G; de Celis, E Rubín; Rasia, M

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic semi-metal of wide distribution in nature. People living in regions where drinking water contains large quantities of arsenic, have an unusually high likelihood of developing blood-vessel diseases, but little is known about the mechanisms involved, i.e. the blood rheologic alterations that would contribute to the circulatory obstruction. Erythrocytes are the main target cells for arsenic compounds systemically absorbed and their cell membrane is the first place against the toxic. In this paper we have examined the in vitro effect of arsenic (As(V)) on the rheologic properties of human erythrocytes in relation with membrane fluidity and internal microviscosity. According to our present results, As(V) treatment produces oxidative degradation of membrane lipids and alteration of internal microviscosity. These red blood cells (RBCs) membrane and cytoplasmic structural damage consequently alters RBCs rheologic properties: an alteration of the RBCs discoid shape to stomatocytes, a diminution of erythrocyte deformability and an enhancement of osmotic fragility and cell aggregability. These effects impaired blood fluid behaviour that contribute to obstruct peripheral circulation and provides anemia, both clinic evidences typical of arsenic cronic intoxication.

  1. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  2. Fatal intoxication with tianeptine (Stablon).

    PubMed

    Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-01

    Tianeptine (Stablon), although structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants, acts by enhancing the reuptake of serotonin. A fatal case is presented involving a 26-year-old man, found lying in bed with a "mushroom of foam" around his mouth. Empty blister packs of Stablon and a suicide note were found next to the body. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure with n-hexane: ethyl acetate and n-hexane: 2-propanol, followed by LC-DAD-MS analysis, using positive mode electrospray ionization was performed. The detection limit was 0.001 microg/mL. The toxicological results revealed the following tianeptine concentrations in the post-mortem samples: blood 5.1 microg/mL; urine 2.0 microg/mL; liver 23 microg/g; stomach contents 22 mg. Femoral blood analyses also revealed an ethanol concentration of 0.53 g/L. The present method was also developed and validated for the other post-mortem specimens, since no previous published data had confirmed the post-mortem distribution of tianeptine. The absence of other suitable direct causes of death (macroscopic or histological) and the positive results achieved with the toxicological analysis led the pathologist to rule that death was due to an intoxication caused by the suicidal ingestion of tianeptine in combination with alcohol.

  3. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  4. Pesticides: Improvements Needed To Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Peter F.

    In response to a Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined issues related to pesticide safety for children in agricultural settings. Pesticides can cause acute, chronic, or delayed-onset illnesses. Children may be exposed to pesticides through farm work; eating pesticide-treated foods; or contact with drift from pesticide…

  5. Effect of chronic pesticide exposure on murine cornea: a histopathological, cytological and flow cytometric approach to study ocular damage by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Shalini; Das, Prosun; Law, Sujata

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide exposure can occur directly or indirectly in an occupational setting or otherwise. The health hazards of pesticides have long been studied; however, little is known about the ocular insult of these potent chemicals. In this study, we examined the consequences of long-term pesticide exposure on the ocular tissue in animal model with special focus on the cornea. Swiss Albino mice were sacrificed to obtain the eye globes and various cytological, cytotoxic and histological evaluations, in vitro growth kinetic studies and flow cytometric analyses of select cytokeratins were performed to determine the structural and functional damage due to pesticide exposure. Our study revealed the detrimental impact of this xenobiotic insult by cataloguing the damage to each layer of the cornea wherein it was discovered that all the functional layers as well as the membranes were compromised. We hope that our investigation will pave the way for future studies in this oft overlooked area of affront caused by pesticide exposure to the ocular surface. PMID:26897134

  6. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  7. [Metabolic encephalopathy secondary to vitamin D intoxication].

    PubMed

    Herrera Martínez, Aura; Viñals Torràs, Montserrat; Muñoz Jiménez, Ma Concepción; Arenas de Larriva, Antonio Pablo; Molina Puerta, Ma José; Manzano García, Gregorio; Gálvez Moreno, Ma Ángeles; Calañas-Continente, Alfonso

    2014-10-25

    The association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of, among others, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases has lead in the last years to an enhanced interest in the usage of supplements to achieve the normalization of plasmatic values at 25(OH) D. Apparently this search for normalization is resulting in an higher incidence on vitamin D intoxication. We present the case of an 81 years old woman with metabolic encephalopathy and renal failure secondary to iatrogenic vitamin D intoxication. Calcium and vitamin D oral supplements were prescribed after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The patient improved clinically as well as analytically after receiving treatment with diuretics and hydration. We emphasize the importance of discarding hypercalcemia as a cause of metabolic encephalopathy; moreover we highly recommend keeping vitamin D intoxication in mind as an uncommon although always possible etiology of reversible hypercalcemia and renal failure.

  8. Children with alcohol intoxication in Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism among minors is a serious social problem. The aim of the current study was to analyze alcohol intoxication in children based on hospitalizations in the University Children's Hospital in Cracow between the years 2007 and 2015. During these 9 years, 381 patients were hospitalized due to excessive alcohol consumption. Most patients were junior high school or high school students. The highest blood alcohol concentrations in hospitalized patients were found in a 16-year-old boy (BAC .41%) and a 15-year-old girl (BAC .37%). Alcohol consumption and severe intoxication are linked to a wide variety of familial, social, and personal problems. PMID:26745242

  9. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  10. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  11. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  14. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  15. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  16. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  17. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  3. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  4. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  5. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not...

  6. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  7. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  8. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or...

  9. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  10. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug,...

  11. Hemodialysis as an alternative treatment of mexiletine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Akıncı, Emine; Yüzbaşıoglu, Yücel; Coşkun, Figen

    2011-11-01

    Mexiletine is a class IB antiarrhythmic agent. Although it is primarily used in treating ventricular arrhythmias, recent indications for use of mexiletine include chronic and neuropathic pains. At high doses, mexiletine causes drowsiness, confusion, nausea, hypotension, sinus bradycardia, paresthesia, seizures, bundle branch block, atrioventricular heart block, ventricular arrhythmias, asystole, cardiovascular collapse, and coma. A 23-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with intentional ingestion of high-dose mexiletine. Despite decontamination and supportive treatment, his vitals deteriorated during the observation period; and he developed stupor and dysarthria. Patient then underwent hemodialysis. His vital signs and overall condition improved rapidly following hemodialysis treatment. In this case report, we aimed to emphasize hemodialysis as a useful alternative therapy for severe mexiletine intoxications. PMID:20971596

  12. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    PubMed

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  13. [Chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Lozano Armando, V; Ochoa Angel, A

    1979-01-01

    A case of chronic arsenic intoxication due to ingestion of contaminated water for several years is reported. The main symptoms were keratosis palmaris et plantaris, confetti - Like dyschromias in chest, post - necrotic liver cirrhosis multiple intraepithelial epidermoid carcinomas and invasive epidermoid carcinoma. The epidemiologic study showed high concentration of arsenic in the water of the well used by the patient; likewise, chronic arsenicalism was found in the whole family and in several neighbors who consumed water from the same well.

  14. Passive marijuana usage and water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, B. A.; Logan, S. J.; Ramdial, H. L.; Walton, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a case of a 3-month-old male presenting with hyponatremic seizure and hypothermia. The presence of marijuana in the infant's urine was remarkable. An etiologic role for the drug is questioned. A review of the literature is provided and the hypothesis of child neglect in the genesis of water intoxication is explored. PMID:8478974

  15. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  16. Pesticide-related health problems and farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Moses, M

    1989-03-01

    1. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are primarily ethnic minorities who are excluded from federal laws that protect other workers. Farmworkers live and work under substandard conditions that place them at increased risk of pesticide-related illness. 2. Agriculture uses 80% of all pesticides in the U.S. Handlers who mix, load and apply pesticides as well as workers cultivating and harvesting crops sprayed with them are at risk of acute poisoning or even death from their exposures. Drift and run-off of agricultural pesticides pollute the air, soil and water, creating additional hazards to workers' families, community residents, and the environment. 3. Chronic effects, including cancer in adults and children, adverse reproductive outcomes, delayed neuropathy and neurobehavioral effects, are also associated with occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:2647086

  17. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Products NPRO: Pesticide Product Search Pesticide Ingredients ...

  18. Clinically and electrophysiologically diagnosed botulinum intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kotan, Dilcan; Aygul, Recep; Ceylan, Mustafa; Yilikoglu, Yalcin

    2013-01-03

    In this case report, clinical and electrophysiological findings of 43-year-old female patient who developed Clostridium botulinum intoxication after consumption of home-made canned food are presented. Following the sudden onset of severe nausea and vomiting, diplopia, blurred vision, bilateral ptosis, weakness, speech and swallowing difficulties have developed and the patient declared that she has just tasted the canned beans after she had rinsed them several times. The case, where serological tests cannot be performed, was diagnosed clinically and treated with antitoxin immediately. During follow-up, consecutive nerve stimulation was performed and significant incremental response was observed. There was an improvement in symptoms within 2 weeks, and in 5 or 6 weeks the symptoms had disappeared completely. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed that the findings turned to normal. The case showed that immediate antitoxin treatment is life-saving even the diagnosis of botulinum intoxication is based on clinical findings.

  19. Vestibular response in denatured rape oil intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, C; Gavilán, J; Abril, A

    1985-10-01

    During the spring of 1981 a massive intoxication broke out in Spain, which is presently attributed to the ingestion of denatured rape oil, and which has been called 'Toxic Syndrome' (TS). We studied 51 patients affected by the TS one year after the onset of their disease, analyzing their vestibular responses in the caloric test with the help of an analog-digital computer. A significant decrease in the number of nystagmic beats of the affected patients can be observed, while the rest of the parameters studied show similar values to those found simultaneously in 30 normal subjects. It is suggested that these differences are yet another manifestation of the polyneuropathy found in intoxication by denatured rape oil. PMID:3877134

  20. Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, A; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis. PMID:25715861

  1. Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, A; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis.

  2. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. PMID:26328908

  3. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response.

  4. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  5. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    PubMed

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms.

  6. Cardiogenic shock due to acute tramadol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Perdreau, Elodie; Iriart, Xavier; Mouton, Jean-Baptiste; Jalal, Zakaria; Thambo, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol is a common analgesic, widely prescribed because of its efficiency and safety. We report the case of a 7-year-old child admitted in cardiac intensive care unit for cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication. Without any past history, the child was admitted at emergency room for generalised convulsion, followed by respiratory distress. Cardiogenic shock was suspected after clinical examination and chest X-ray and confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography showing low left ventricular ejection fraction (<30 %) with pulmonary hypertension. No evidence of cardiac infarction or myocarditis was found. Tramadol intoxication was suspected because of empty tramadol tablets found near the child and later confirmed by toxicologic analysis showing high blood concentration of tramadol (>1 mg/L) and O-desmethyltramadol (>1.5 mg/L). Hemodynamic support by inotropic drug infusion and diuretics was necessary. Left ventricular function normalised after 2 days of treatment allowing drug infusion weaning. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 days after admission confirmed normal left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes without evidence of late gadolinium enhancement. Cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication is rare but exists. Negative inotropic effect of high doses of tramadol has been suspected. Quick recovery is possible.

  7. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Sultana, Nargis

    2007-11-01

    This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other countries, it has started causing environmental problems in the area. In some areas of Punjab and Sindh groundwater has been found contaminated and is constantly being under the process of contamination due to pesticide use. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused and misused pesticides especially in cotton-growing areas. It is evident from the biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore, the intensive use of pesticides (higher sprays more than the recommended dose) in cotton areas involves a special risk for the field workers, pickers, and of an unacceptable residue concentration in cottonseed oil and cakes. The authors have also discussed the merits and demerits of different studies. The review will set the future course of action of different studies on pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Data limitations are still the major obstacle towards establishing clear environmental trends in Pakistan. The authors suggest that a reliable monitoring, assessment and reporting procedures shall be implemented in accordance with appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides exposure.

  8. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  9. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    PubMed

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  10. The Mickey Finn defense: involuntary intoxication and insanity.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R L

    1992-01-01

    The legal context of voluntary and involuntary intoxication is delineated. The author reports a case of involuntary intoxication involving scopolamine toxic psychosis or delirium, in which he testified as a psychiatric expert witness. The specific psychological and physiological symptomatology produced by scopolamine intoxication is outlined. The forensic psychiatrist should be alert to the involuntary intoxication defense in these cases and should familiarize himself with the specific toxicity of scopolamine, in view of the significant increase in the number of incidents in which it is utilized as "knockout" drops in certain jurisdictions.

  11. Association of Pesticide Exposure with Neurologic Dysfunction and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2004-01-01

    Poisoning by acute high-level exposure to certain pesticides has well-known neurotoxic effects, but whether chronic exposure to moderate levels of pesticides is also neurotoxic is more controversial. Most studies of moderate pesticide exposure have found increased prevalence of neurologic symptoms and changes in neurobehavioral performance, reflecting cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. There is less evidence that moderate exposure is related to deficits in sensory or motor function or peripheral nerve conduction, but fewer studies have considered these outcomes. It is possible that the most sensitive manifestation of pesticide neurotoxicity is a general malaise lacking in specificity and related to mild cognitive dysfunction, similar to that described for Gulf War syndrome. Most studies have focused on organophosphate insecticides, but some found neuro-toxic effects from other pesticides, including fungicides, fumigants, and organochlorine and carbamate insecticides. Pesticide exposure may also be associated with increased risk of Parkinson disease; several classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, have been implicated. Studies of other neurodegenerative diseases are limited and inconclusive. Future studies will need to improve assessment of pesticide exposure in individuals and consider the role of genetic susceptibility. More studies of pesticides other than organophosphates are needed. Major unresolved issues include the relative importance of acute and chronic exposure, the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning, and the relationship of pesticide-related neurotoxicity to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:15198914

  12. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  13. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Rosa, Islene Ferreira; Aguiar, Ada Cristina Pontes

    2013-09-01

    The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026) in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010). With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05) as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  14. Chronic sequelae of foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade the complexity of foodborne pathogens, as well as their adaptability and ability to cause acute illness, and in some cases chronic (secondary) complications, have been newly appreciated. This overview examines long-term consequences of foodborne infections and intoxications to emphasize the need for more research and education. PMID:9366595

  15. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute and chronic effects, delayed...) Requirements of this subpart designed to reduce the risks of illness or injury resulting from...

  16. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute and chronic effects, delayed...) Requirements of this subpart designed to reduce the risks of illness or injury resulting from...

  17. [Lethal intoxication with arsenic using prepared butter].

    PubMed

    Weller, Jens-Peter; Larsch, Klaus-Peter; Teske, Jörg; Tröger, Hans Dieter

    2008-01-01

    The present case report deals with a lethal intoxication with arsenic mixed into butter. It describes the course of events over about two days on the basis of the statements by the persons involved, the clinical findings after the belated hospitalisation of the victim, the results of the first pathological autopsy, the forensic autopsy performed after exhumation and the results of the chemical-toxicological investigations. The results are discussed in relation to the later confession of the female perpetrator and her statements regarding a previous unsuccessful murder attempt by poisoning. It also presents the judgement pronounced by the court and the reasons given for it.

  18. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  19. Possible unaware intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticide

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Ghaffari, Saba; Nassiri-Toossi, Mohsen; Amini, Mohsen; Edalatifard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Superwarfarin toxicity may be a serious problem. It needs high clinical suspicious in patients with bleeding diathesis without hematologic or liver diseases even in patients with apparent negative history of warfarin or other anticoagulant accessibility. Here we reported a patient with a negative history of any medical diseases or drug administration who was referred with generalized ecchymosis. Increased international normalized ratio and decreased vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors were detected in this patient. His hematologic and liver evaluations were normal. Clinical pharmacist emphasis in taking history revealed using anticoagulant rodenticide all over the farm the patient lived in that might result in unaware intoxication in this patient who suffered dementia. PMID:25535623

  20. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Franzblau, A.; Lilis, R. )

    1989-11-01

    Reports of acute arsenic poisoning arising from environmental exposure are rare. Two cases of acute arsenic intoxication resulting from ingestion of contaminated well water are described. These patients experienced a variety of problems: acute gastrointestinal symptoms, central and peripheral neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, hepatic toxicity, and mild mucous membrane and cutaneous changes. Although located adjacent to an abandoned mine, the well water had been tested for microorganisms only and was found to be safe. Regulations for testing of water from private wells for fitness to drink are frequently nonexistent, or only mandate biologic tests for microorganisms. Well water, particularly in areas near mining activity, should be tested for metals.

  1. Influence of essential elements on manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Khandelwal, S.; Ashquin, M.; Tandon, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    With a view to explore the influence of essential metals in manganese intoxication, the effect of calcium, iron or zinc supplementation on the uptake of manganese and on the activity of manganese sensitive enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in brain and liver of rat was investigated. The choice of the two mitochondrial enzymes was based on the fact that the mitochondria are the chief site of manganese accumulation and their activity in brain, liver and blood of rats is significantly influenced by manganese.

  2. Datura stramonium intoxication in two children.

    PubMed

    Rakotomavo, Falihery; Andriamasy, Caroline; Rasamoelina, Ndrantoniaina; Raveloson, Nasolotsiry

    2014-06-01

    Datura stramonium is a toxic plant member of the Solanaceae family. Its consumption may result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. We report the intoxication of 5- and 4-year-old brothers with Datura stramonium, which presented in two different manners. The first child presented agitation, hallucination and mydriasis that improved rapidly with benzodiazepine medication. The second presented comatose, mydriasis and Babinski signs. Gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration were performed. The child was intubated and mechanically ventilated until consciousness improvement. Datura stramonium poisoning may be considered by physicians in case of acute onset of decreased consciousness or behaviour trouble associated with anticholinergic signs and symptoms. PMID:24894939

  3. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  4. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  5. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  6. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  7. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  8. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... § 520.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of...

  9. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  10. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  11. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  12. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  13. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  14. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  15. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  16. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  17. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle...

  18. ["Pathological intoxication."Diagnostic artefact or a reliable psychiatric diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Winckler, P

    1999-09-01

    "Pathological intoxication" has been a matter of controversial discussions during the last years. On one hand diagnosis of "pathological intoxication" in forensic expertise often is associated with the assumption of legal insanity. On the other hand it has been suggested that the term "pathological intoxication" should be abandoned in favor of more accurate clinical diagnosis, and recently "alcoholic idiosyncratic intoxication" was canceled as a separate diagnosis in DSM-IV. In order to register the diagnostic habits connected with "pathological intoxication" we had sent a questionnaire to all psychiatric institutes (n = 541) in Germany. We were then able to evaluate 338 questionnaires (62.5%) relating to number of diagnoses and diagnostic criteria. In synopsis diagnostic habits turned out to be very inhomogeneous. Nearly two third of psychiatric institutes reported not to have used the diagnostic category between 1991 and 1993, whereas nearly 50% of diagnoses (210 out of 456) were reported by only 13 (3.9%) institutes. Diagnosis of "pathological intoxication" is based predominantly on vague and non-distinct criteria, such as "violent excitation" or "strange unusual behavior". In accordance to DSM-IV we therefore suggest that the diagnostic term "pathological intoxication" should be abandoned, especially in the context of forensic psychiatric expertise. Instead, assessment of intoxication must be based on individual somatic and psychopathological symptoms.

  19. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  20. Naphazoline nasal drops intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    Vitezić, D; Rozmanić, V; Franulović, J; Ahel, V; Matesić, D

    1994-03-01

    Naphazoline, a sympathomimetic and an imidazoline derivative, is used as 0.05-0.1% solution for local decongestion of the nasal and ocular mucosa. In excessive dosage, or if ingested by accident, may cause depression of the central nervous system (disturbances of consciousness progressing to coma), hypothermia, bradycardia and sweating. These naphazoline effects are particularly strongly pronounced in children. Anglo-Saxon pharmacotherapy excludes the application of naphazoline nasal drops in children younger than six years, whereas the Croatian pharmacotherapeutic literature (and practice) allows its use even in infancy. At the Kantrida Paediatric Clinic, Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka, 11 children with signs of intoxication with naphazoline nasal drops were hospitalized from 1990 to 1992. The symptoms pertaining to the central nervous system i.e. disturbances of consciousness in the form of somnolence were clearly marked in all children. Some children developed skin pallor, bradycardia, bradypnoea and hypothermia. Resolution occurred within 24 hours and the findings returned to normal values. Clinical picture followed by rapid resolution and normal findings, with a personal history of drug taking, is a safe indication for diagnosis. There are several reasons to account for intoxication (drops difficult to use with children, containers inadequate for proper dosage), but the major factor is the age of the patient--all hospitalized children were younger than six years. It is pointed out that administration of naphazoline drops at an early age is not advisable.

  1. [Arsenic intoxication: information and case report].

    PubMed

    Bucio Jurado, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    Arsine intoxication is a true medical emergency with a high fatality rate, characteristic of acute and massive hemolysis. Inhalation of 250 ppm of arsine gas is instantly lethal. Exposure to 25 to 50 ppm for 30 minutes is lethal. Arsine is a colorless gas with a garlic scent, entering the organism by breathing and passing directly into the circulation. Its hemolytic activity is due to its ability to cause a fall in erythrocyte-reduced glutathione content. Manifestations are suggestive of a general toxic state with alterations of consciousness, from confusion until delirium, crash, hematuria, jaundice and renal insufficiency. This can generate confusion and difficulty in the diagnosis and in the opportune treatment to avoid death or sequelae. This type of intoxication must be suspected in electrolysis process workers or those working with lead, copper, zinc, iron, gold, silver and tin. In the present case, sources for arsenic ingestion in the organism were discarded and the presence of arsine in the workplace was confirmed. In spite of the administered treatment, the patient experienced renal insufficiency.

  2. [Arsenic intoxication: information and case report].

    PubMed

    Bucio Jurado, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    Arsine intoxication is a true medical emergency with a high fatality rate, characteristic of acute and massive hemolysis. Inhalation of 250 ppm of arsine gas is instantly lethal. Exposure to 25 to 50 ppm for 30 minutes is lethal. Arsine is a colorless gas with a garlic scent, entering the organism by breathing and passing directly into the circulation. Its hemolytic activity is due to its ability to cause a fall in erythrocyte-reduced glutathione content. Manifestations are suggestive of a general toxic state with alterations of consciousness, from confusion until delirium, crash, hematuria, jaundice and renal insufficiency. This can generate confusion and difficulty in the diagnosis and in the opportune treatment to avoid death or sequelae. This type of intoxication must be suspected in electrolysis process workers or those working with lead, copper, zinc, iron, gold, silver and tin. In the present case, sources for arsenic ingestion in the organism were discarded and the presence of arsine in the workplace was confirmed. In spite of the administered treatment, the patient experienced renal insufficiency. PMID:15998481

  3. Fatal intoxication caused by the application of the multiple transdermals patchs of fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Serghini, Issam; Qamouss, Youssef; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui, Jaafar Salim; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-phenyl-N-(1-2-phenylethyl-4-piperidyl)propanamide) is a potent synthetic narcotic analgesic. He has an analgesic effect 100 times greater than that of morphine. The use of transdermal fentanyl delivrery systems has increased over recent years especially in patients with chronic pain who are already treated with high doses of morphine or it is derivate. However, many cases of fentanyl intoxication through a variety of transderrmal systems have been reported. This paper reports a fatality due to excessive administered Fentanyl Sandoz® Matrix 50 µg/h transdermal therapeutic systems.

  4. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  5. Impairment of autophagy: from hereditary disorder to drug intoxication.

    PubMed

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2013-09-15

    At first, the molecular mechanism of autophagy was unveiled in a unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), followed by the discovery that the basic mechanism of autophagy is conserved in multicellular organisms including mammals. Although autophagy was considered to be a non-selective bulk protein degradation system to recycle amino acids during periods of nutrient starvation, it is also believed to be an essential mechanism for the selective elimination of proteins/organelles that are damaged under pathological conditions. Research advances made using autophagy-deficient animals have revealed that impairments of autophagy often underlie the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders such as Danon, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, there are many reports that drugs and toxicants, including arsenic, cadmium, paraquat, methamphetamine, and ethanol, induce autophagy during the development of their toxicity on many organs including heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver. Although the question as to whether autophagic machinery is involved in the execution of cell death or not remains controversial, the current view of the role of autophagy during cell/tissue injury is that it is an important, often essential, cytoprotective reaction; disturbances in cytoprotective autophagy aggravate cell/tissue injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a gross summarization of autophagy processes, which are becoming more important in the field of toxicology, and (2) examples of important studies reporting the involvement of perturbations in autophagy in cell/tissue injuries caused by acute as well as chronic intoxication. PMID:23851159

  6. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    PubMed

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions. PMID:27090425

  7. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    PubMed

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions.

  8. Protective effects of desferrioxamine and deferiprone on the spleen tissue of aluminum intoxicated mice: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J

    2014-05-21

    The present study was designed to examine the protective effects of the chelating agents desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) in aluminum intoxicated spleen tissue of mice by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The finding revealed the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, phosphodiester and nucleic acids of the spleen tissue of mice at molecular level. The significant decreased in the peak areas of asymmetric and symmetric mode of the phosphodiester groups from control to aluminum intoxicated, but improved it by DFP and DFO+DFP treatments respectively for nearer control value. The bands ratio at I1081/I1232 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by DFP and DFO+DFP respectively. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of diseases in the spleen. Amide I and amide II peak area values decreased from control to aluminum intoxicated spleen tissue, but treated with DFP and DFO+DFP significantly improved. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of Olefinic=CH stretching in aluminum intoxicated spleen suggests an altered lipid levels. Concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Histopathological findings confirmed the biochemical observations of this study. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and demonstrated that FTIR can be used successfully applied to toxicological studies at molecular level.

  9. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  10. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  11. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  12. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Ahmet; Satar, Salim; Uzun, Belkan; Topal, Metin; Yesilagac, Hasan; Avci, Andakkan

    2006-12-01

    Methanol is a common component of gasoline, antifreeze, washer fluid, perfume, household cleaners and various other industrial products. Acute methanol poisoning produces severe metabolic acidosis, serious neurologic sequelae and rarely imaging findings. In this paper, we describe a 35-year-old man with methanol intoxication who was in a comatose stage. Computed tomography (CT) showed widespread brain edema and hemorrhages localized in the supratentorial region of the temporal lobe, nearly 3 x 1 cm in a crescent shape, in the white matter surrounding the capsula externa and extending to the periventricular white matter and occipital lobes. Temporal lobe hemorrhage in our patient might also have been due to the effect of heparinization during hemodialysis, metabolic and lactic acidosis, or formate.

  14. Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa Belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mainly symptomatic including gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. In severe cases, physostigmine can be used as an antidote. We report the case of 11 year old girl with Atropa Belladonna poisoning which was administrated in a therapeutic purpose as a remedy to jaundice. The child presented essentially a central anti-cholinergic syndrome. She was admitted in the intensive care unit, the progression was favorable with symptomatic treatment. PMID:22655106

  15. Complete atrioventricular block caused by mad honey intoxication.

    PubMed

    Oguzturk, H; Ciftci, O; Turtay, M G; Yumrutepe, S

    2012-11-01

    The honey produced by the bees fed on Rhododendron family plants containing grayanotoxin is known as mad honey in our country. This intoxication is seen rarely. However, it may lead life-threatening hemoinstability mentioned above and may be confused with various diseases. For these reasons the exact diagnosis and treatment of this intoxication seems very important. We aim to describe a case admitted to the Emergency Department in consequence of mad honey intoxication and treated and discharged after hypotension and complete atrioventricular block development.

  16. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  17. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  18. Household organophosphorus pesticide use and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Paul, Kimberly; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background Household pesticide use is widespread in the USA. Since the 1970s, organophosphorus chemicals (OPs) have been common active ingredients in these products. Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been linked to pesticide exposures but little is known about the contributions of chronic exposures to household pesticides. Here we investigate whether long-term use of household pesticides, especially those containing OPs, increases the odds of PD. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we assessed frequency of household pesticide use for 357 cases and 807 controls, relying on the California Department of Pesticide Regulation product label database to identify ingredients in reported household pesticide products and the Pesticide Action Network pesticide database of chemical ingredients. Using logistic regression we estimated the effects of household pesticide use. Results Frequent use of any household pesticide increased the odds of PD by 47% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.92)]; frequent use of products containing OPs increased the odds of PD more strongly by 71% [OR = 1.71, (95% CI: 1.21, 2.41)] and frequent organothiophosphate use almost doubled the odds of PD. Sensitivity analyses showed that estimated effects were independent of other pesticide exposures (ambient and occupational) and the largest odds ratios were estimated for frequent OP users who were carriers of the 192QQ paraoxonase genetic variant related to slower detoxification of OPs. Conclusions We provide evidence that household use of OP pesticides is associated with an increased risk of developing PD. PMID:24057998

  19. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  20. The UK epidemic of BSE: slow virus or chronic pesticide-initiated modification of the prion protein? Part 1: Mechanisms for a chemically induced pathogenesis/transmissibility.

    PubMed

    Purdey, M

    1996-05-01

    It is proposed that exposure of the bovine embryo to specific high-dose lipophilic formulations of organophosphate insecticide (containing phthalimide) applied exclusively in the UK during the 1980s/early 1990s was the primary trigger that initiated the UK's bovine spongioform encephalopathy epidemic. Multi-site binding organophosphate toxic metabolites penetrate the fetus, covalently binding with, phosphorylating and ageing serine, tyrosine or histidine active sites on fetal central nervous system prion protein. An abnormal negative charge corrupts prion protein molecular surface, which blocks both proteases and chaperones from accessing their cleavage/bonding sites. This impairs normal degradation and folding of prion protein respectively. Once the abnormally phosphorylated abnormal prion protein isoform agent is initiated, any stress event ensuing in adult life induces a nerve growth factor-mediated synthesis of normal cellular prion protein isoform that aggregates to abnormally phosphorylated abnormal prion protein isoform, thereby becoming 'infected'/transformed into the same; due to the vicious circle of positive feedback invoked by the blocking of a prion protein-specific kinase. Prion protein could therefore serve as a hitherto unrecognized critical link in a chain of delayed neuroexcitotoxic proteins that are triggered off by chronic exposure to specific classes of chemical/metal that 'hit and run' during the vulnerable in utero period, producing spongioform encephalopathy disease years later. PMID:8735881

  1. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Santed, Fernando; Colomina, Maria Teresa; Herrero Hernández, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are used extensively throughout the world. The main sources of contamination for humans are dietary ingestion and occupational exposures. The major concerns related to OP exposure are delayed effects following high level exposures as well as the impact of low level exposures during the lifespan which are suggested to be a risk factor for nervous system chronic diseases. Both high and low level exposures may have a particularly high impact in population subgroups such as aged or genetically vulnerable populations. Apart from the principle action of OPs which involves inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, several molecular targets, such as hormones; neurotransmitters; neurotrophic factors; enzymes related to the metabolism of beta amyloid protein as well as inflammatory changes have been identified for OP compounds. Here we review the main neurological and/or cognitive deficits described and the experimental and epidemiological relationships found between pesticide exposure and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) diseases. This report also focuses on possible individual differences making groups resilient or vulnerable to these toxicants. A critical discussion of the evidence obtained from experimental models and possible sources of bias in epidemiological studies is included. In particular this review aims to discuss common targets and pathways identified which may underlie the functional deficits associated with both pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration. PMID:26687930

  2. Hemodialysis of acute arsenic intoxication with transient renal failure.

    PubMed

    Giberson, A; Vaziri, N D; Mirahamadi, K; Rosen, S M

    1976-11-01

    A striking reduction in serum arsenic level was achieved after four hours of hemodialysis in a patient with acute arsenic intoxication and transient renal failure. Quantitative dialysance of arsenic and a comparison of daily urinary excretion of arsenic with amount removed by dialysis suggested that hemodialysis is indicated in the treatment of acute arsenic intoxication if there is concomitant renal failure. In the presence of normal renal function, supportive measures, including dimercaprol (BAL in Oil) therapy, constitute the best available treatment.

  3. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  4. Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions.

  5. [Management recommendations in patients with methotrexate intoxication].

    PubMed

    Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2007-02-10

    Intoxication due to insufficient renal clearance developed in 2 patients, a 54-year-old man and a 61-year-old woman, who were under treatment with methotrexate (MTX) for a primary cerebral lymphoma and a recurrence of large-cell B-cell-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively. Both were treated with folinic acid rescue, thymidine, and alkalisation of the urine. MTX is a cytotoxic drug that is often used in oncology and rheumatology. Significant and even lethal toxicity can develop when the elimination ofMTX is delayed or when supportive care, such as folinic acid rescue, is inadequate. Delayed elimination can be caused by reduced renal function, by the 'third space' phenomenon such as in case of ascites, pleural fluid accumulation and oedema, and by drug-drug interactions leading to reduced renal function or a disturbance in the plasma protein binding ofMTX. Once toxicity has developed, the therapy must be directed at protection of the normal tissues, restoration of renal function and hence the renal elimination ofMTX, restoration of the alkalisation of the urine, and general supportive therapy.

  6. Fatal mephedrone intoxication--a case report.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan; Stanaszek, Roman; Slopianka, Markus

    2013-01-01

    A death caused by a new designer drug, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), is reported. Eight small plastic bags containing white powder were found in the jacket of a young dead male. Spot tests conducted by the police officer indicated the presence of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in the powders. Laboratory routine screening analyses of blood and vitreous humor did not reveal any positive results; therefore, 2C-B was excluded. Analysis of powders was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The purity of mephedrone found in all powder samples was in the range of 80.4-87.3%. In connection with these findings, blood and vitreous humor samples were analyzed for mephedrone. Analyses were conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mephedrone was found in blood and vitreous humor at the concentrations of 5.5 and 7.1 µg/mL, respectively, revealing that this was a fatal mephedrone intoxication.

  7. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  8. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  9. After-effects of acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Regan, S G

    1988-01-01

    Female, Long-Evans hooded rats (N = 10, 4 months of age) were given ethanol via intragastric intubation in doses of 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 g/kg (repeated measures design). After-effects (hypothermia, free operant activity, motor performance) were measured at six, twelve and sixteen hours, respectively, for the above doses and were compared to the effects observed after the intubation of equivolume amounts of tap water. The after-effects of ethanol on rectal temperature were varied. Both rotarod performance and free operant activity were impaired after each of the above doses of ethanol. Blood ethanol analyses revealed low blood levels of ethanol (range 6.6 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.4 mg/100 ml) at the time behavioral tests were performed. Thus, quantifiable behavioral impairment was observed after blood ethanol values had declined following acute intoxication episodes. These changes may be related to "hangover" symptomatology in man and may serve as a model for investigating the influence of a variety of factors related to drug dosage, rate of ethanol ingestion, type of alcoholic beverage, and prophylactic or acute intervention therapeutics.

  10. An accidental fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Maria; Thelander, Gunilla; Dahlgren, Maria; Kronstrand, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an unintentional death involving the administration of methoxetamine [2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)-cyclohexanone] and offers some reference values from living drug abusers. Methoxetamine is a new recreational drug with a similar structure to ketamine. The deceased was a 26-year-old male with a history of drug abuse; he was found lying on the floor in his apartment. Several "red-line" plastic bags were found, one of which was labeled "2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(ethylamino)-cyclohexanone" and another labeled "Haze." In four cases from living subjects with unknown doses, concentrations of methoxetamine were found from 0.13 to 0.49 µg/g. In three of the cases, the blood samples also contained natural or synthetic cannabinoids. In the autopsy case, a considerably higher concentration of methoxetamine, 8.6 µg/g, was found in femoral blood. In addition, tetrahydrocannabinol and the three different synthetic cannabinoids AM-694, AM-2201, and JWH-018, were present in femoral blood. The circumstances and the high femoral blood concentration of methoxetamine point toward an unintentional, acute fatal intoxication with methoxetamine, although the presence of the three synthetic cannabinoids may have contributed to the death.

  11. [Risk assessment of human exposure to pesticides in food].

    PubMed

    Knežević, Zorka; Serdar, Maja

    2011-09-01

    This review presents methods for the assessment of acute and chronic risk from pesticide residues in food. Multiple pesticide residues can often be found in food. Currently, there is no internationally accepted procedure for the assessment of cumulative exposure to multiple pesticide residues in food. Therefore, risk assessment is based on toxicological evaluation of single compounds in a food matrix. The international estimation of short-term intake model (IESTI) has been used to calculate acute intake. IESTI is based on "the worst-case scenario" and addresses the possibility that consumers sometimes eat large amounts of a food item, and such a large amount might contain residues at highest levels. However, it should take into account uneven distribution of pesticide residues in food. Chronic exposure is based on a deterministic approach, analogous to the calculation of the theoretical maximum daily intake.

  12. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  13. Pesticides and health risks.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Robyn C; Huffling, Katie; Sattler, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are a category of chemicals formulated to kill or repel a pest or halt its reproduction. In this article we review the toxicological and epidemiological literature; describe common potential pesticide exposures; and focus on the associated health risks to fetal development. Clinical implications are reviewed, and recommendations are made regarding the integration of this environmental health concern into nursing education, practice, research, and policy/advocacy work. Recommendations for pesticide elimination and reduction in health care settings are included. PMID:20409108

  14. An assessment of the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and health of rice farmers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sankoh, Alhaji I; Whittle, Rebecca; Semple, Kirk T; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges faced by Sierra Leonean farmers is pest control. Birds, rodents, insects, crustaceans and other organisms can drastically reduce yields. In order to prevent these organisms from destroying their crop, farmers use pesticides. However there are reports that these chemicals are being misused and such misuse is having a negative impact on the environment and the health of the farmers. This research study aimed to investigate the use of pesticides in rice fields and its potential effects on the environment and on the farmers of Sierra Leone. Five hundred farmers and one hundred health workers across the country were interviewed. Fifty focus group discussions were also completed. Field observations were also undertaken to see how farmers apply pesticides to their farms and the possible threats these methods have on human health and the environment. It is clear that a wide range of pesticides are used by rice farmers in Sierra Leone with 60% of the pesticides used entering the country illegally. Most farmers have no knowledge about the safe handling of pesticides as 71% of them have never received any form of training. The pesticides kill both target and non-target organisms some of which enter the food chain. Cases of health problems such as nausea, respiratory disorders and blurred vision investigated in this research are significantly higher among farmers who use pesticides than those who do not use pesticides. Cases of pesticide intoxication are not investigated by health workers but results obtained from interviews with them also indicated that cases of pesticides related symptoms are significantly higher in environments where pesticides are used than those in which pesticides are not used.

  15. An assessment of the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and health of rice farmers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Sankoh, Alhaji I; Whittle, Rebecca; Semple, Kirk T; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges faced by Sierra Leonean farmers is pest control. Birds, rodents, insects, crustaceans and other organisms can drastically reduce yields. In order to prevent these organisms from destroying their crop, farmers use pesticides. However there are reports that these chemicals are being misused and such misuse is having a negative impact on the environment and the health of the farmers. This research study aimed to investigate the use of pesticides in rice fields and its potential effects on the environment and on the farmers of Sierra Leone. Five hundred farmers and one hundred health workers across the country were interviewed. Fifty focus group discussions were also completed. Field observations were also undertaken to see how farmers apply pesticides to their farms and the possible threats these methods have on human health and the environment. It is clear that a wide range of pesticides are used by rice farmers in Sierra Leone with 60% of the pesticides used entering the country illegally. Most farmers have no knowledge about the safe handling of pesticides as 71% of them have never received any form of training. The pesticides kill both target and non-target organisms some of which enter the food chain. Cases of health problems such as nausea, respiratory disorders and blurred vision investigated in this research are significantly higher among farmers who use pesticides than those who do not use pesticides. Cases of pesticide intoxication are not investigated by health workers but results obtained from interviews with them also indicated that cases of pesticides related symptoms are significantly higher in environments where pesticides are used than those in which pesticides are not used. PMID:27316626

  16. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  17. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  18. Protective effect of naringenin on hepatic and renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Mershiba, Sam Daniel; Dassprakash, M Velayutham; Saraswathy, Sundara Dhakshinamurthy

    2013-05-01

    Arsenic has a long history as a potent human poison, chronic exposure over a period of time may result in the manifestation of toxicity in practically all systems of the body. In the present investigation the efficacy of naringenin (NRG), a naturally occurring citrus flavanone against arsenic-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic manifestations have been studied in rats. Arsenic trioxide was administered orally at the dose of 2 mg/kg/day with or without combination of NRG (20 or 50 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. At the end of the experimental period the hepatic and renal dysfunction was evaluated by histological examination, serum biomarkers and markers of oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Arsenic intoxication increased serum bilirubin, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels, additionally enhanced the activities of hepatic marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Also, the hepatic and renal tissues showed a marked elevation in LPO levels with a decrease in GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase on arsenic treatment. Simultaneous treatment with NRG restored the activities of serum biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes in the tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the histopathological studies confirmed the protective effect of NRG co-treatment by reducing the pathological changes due to arsenic intoxication in both liver and kidney. Thus, our present study demonstrates that NRG has a potential to protect arsenic-induced oxidative hepatic and renal dysfunction.

  19. S-adenosyl-L-methionine and lead intoxication: its therapeutic effect varying the route of administration

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, S.R.; Fukuda, H.; Kozicki, P.A.; Rossetti, M.V.; Conti, H.; Batlle, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    A comparative study on the effect of oral and subcutaneous (sc) or intravenous (iv) administration of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in lead poisoning was carried out. SAM was given daily sc (20 mg/kg) and orally (80 mg/kg) to acute lead-intoxicated mice for 20 days. Chronic lead-poisoned patients received SAM, administered intravenously at a daily dose of 12 mg/kg or orally at a dose of 25-30 mg/kg. Independent of the method of administration in either animals or patients, GSH concentration in reduced lead intoxication was increased after SAM dosing. Corresponding blood lead content rapidly decreased and a significant recovery of hepatic and erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), initially reduced, was clearly produced in the groups receiving SAM, although the response was slightly slower when SAM was given orally. It was found that the bulk of body lead burden was excreted in the feces, showing a peak within the first 24-48 hr and being much greater in animals treated with SAM. In these cases, urinary lead excretion was very low. Lead ALA-D inhibition was also evidenced by elevated urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen (PBG), and porphyrins. During treatment, precursors and porphyrins elimination declined, reaching normal levels soon after therapy ended. A good correlation between the recovery of both GSH levels and ALA-D activity and decreased lead content was observed.

  20. Pesticides and myocardial infarction incidence and mortality among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katherine T; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2009-10-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides.

  1. Pesticides and Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Mortality Among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.

    2009-01-01

    Acute organophosphate and carbamate pesticide poisonings result in adverse cardiac outcomes. The cardiac effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure have not been studied. The authors analyzed self-reported lifetime use of pesticides reported at enrollment (1993–1997) and myocardial infarction mortality through 2006 and self-reported nonfatal myocardial infarction through 2003 among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Using proportional hazard models, the authors estimated the association between lifetime use of 49 pesticides and fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction. There were 476 deaths from myocardial infarction among 54,069 men enrolled in the study and 839 nonfatal myocardial infarctions among the 32,024 participants who completed the follow-up interview. Fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions were associated with commonly reported risk factors, including age and smoking. There was little evidence of an association between having used pesticides, individually or by class, and myocardial infarction mortality (e.g., insecticide hazard ratio (HR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.24; herbicide HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.10) or nonfatal myocardial infarction incidence (e.g., insecticide HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.09; herbicide HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.36). There was no evidence of a dose response with any pesticide measure. In a population with low risk for myocardial infarction, the authors observed little evidence of increased risk of myocardial infarction mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction associated with the occupational use of pesticides. PMID:19700503

  2. Petechial Hemorrhages and Ethanol in Deaths from Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Flaagøy, Siren Helen; Morild, Inge; Maehle, Bjørn Ove; Lilleng, Peer Kaare

    2016-09-01

    Petechiae in conjunctivae and in the palpebrae/skin of the eyelids are of particular interest for the forensic pathologist, because of their association with pressure on the neck. They have been described in the eyelids of intoxicated persons both in case reports and in text books of forensic pathology. We studied 590 deaths caused by intoxication, and 75 had petechiae either in the conjunctivae, the eyelids, or in both locations. We examined the influence of drugs and ethanol on the location of the petechial hemorrhages in these deaths. Deaths with ethanol in blood and in urine/vitreous humor more often had petechiae in both locations than those without. This association was statistically significant, independent of body position and livor mortis. No association between the location of petechiae, medicinal drugs, or narcotics was found. These results suggest that ethanol may contribute to the development of petechial hemorrhages in deaths from intoxication. PMID:27341349

  3. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable except for elevated amylase/lipase levels (134/222 U/L), which were even higher 7 days later and remained elevated for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse pancreatic swelling. The patient improved with conservative care and was discharged to home 19 days after admission. This is the first reported case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication. We recommend early aggressive management in the emergency department and close monitoring in the intensive care unit to detect and treat potentially fatal deterioration after chlorfenapyr intoxication. PMID:27752575

  4. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  5. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  6. Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2015-10-15

    The amount of pesticides used in crop production in Pakistan has increased rapidly in the last decades, whereas farmers in many areas of the country show little knowledge of safe and efficient use of pesticides. The level of willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding health risks by pesticides was studied among 318 randomly selected cotton farmers from two districts of the area of Punjab (i.e., Vehari and Lodhran) in Pakistan, using the contingent valuation method. Most farmers felt that pesticide use is a prerequisite for successful cotton production, whereas at the same time they were well aware of pesticide health risks, which they considered minor. The majority of the farmers (77%) showed varying levels of WTP some fee up to 20% of the current pesticide expenditures for avoiding pesticide health risks, but few were willing to pay a fee over 20%. The mean WTP per farmer was low, reaching 5.8 $US on an annual basis. By contrast, a considerable proportion of the farmers (23%) were not willing to pay any fee for avoiding pesticide health risks. These individuals were mostly poor small-scale farmers with limited or no education. High levels of risk perception about pesticides, past experience of pesticide intoxication, high levels of education, and high income were associated with high farmers' WTP for less health risks by pesticides. Farmers who perceived major health risks by pesticides appeared to be highly willing to pay a premium for safe pesticides. Elderly farmers appeared more likely to pay some premium for safe pesticides as a result of higher farming experience and higher income than young farmers. Well-educated farmers were more likely to pay a high premium for safe pesticides. Large farm size was a significant predictor of positive WTP, which was interpreted as an indicator of farmers' wealth.

  7. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  8. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  9. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  10. Detoxification of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents through RSDL: efficacy evaluation by (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, especially by pesticides, poses a considerable risk to the affected individual. Countermeasures involve both medical intervention by means of antidotes as well as external decontamination to reduce the risk of dermal absorption. One of the few decontamination options available is Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), which was originally developed for military use. Here, we present a (31)P NMR spectroscopy based methodology to evaluate the detoxification efficacy of RSDL with respect to a series of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. Kinetic analysis of the obtained NMR data provided degradation half-lives proving that RSDL is also reasonably effective against organophosphorus pesticides. Unexpected observations of different RSDL degradation patterns are presented in view of its reported oximate-catalyzed mechanism of action.

  11. Detoxification of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents through RSDL: efficacy evaluation by (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, especially by pesticides, poses a considerable risk to the affected individual. Countermeasures involve both medical intervention by means of antidotes as well as external decontamination to reduce the risk of dermal absorption. One of the few decontamination options available is Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), which was originally developed for military use. Here, we present a (31)P NMR spectroscopy based methodology to evaluate the detoxification efficacy of RSDL with respect to a series of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. Kinetic analysis of the obtained NMR data provided degradation half-lives proving that RSDL is also reasonably effective against organophosphorus pesticides. Unexpected observations of different RSDL degradation patterns are presented in view of its reported oximate-catalyzed mechanism of action. PMID:25597861

  12. Peripheral neuropathy in lead-intoxicated sickle cell patients.

    PubMed

    Imbus, C E; Warner, J; Smith, E; Pegelow, C H; Allen, J P; Powars, D R

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and hypertension caused by lead intoxication are reported in two children with sickle cell anemia. One child had generalized weakness in the initial occurrence and distal paralysis during a relapse two years later. The second child had foot and wrist drop. Both had slow peripheral nerve conduction velocities during the episodes. Chelation therapy was successful and resulted in a return of strength (over a period of several months) and a normalization of the blood pressures. Children with sickle cell anemia who are subjected to lead intoxication appear to be predisposed to peripheral nerve damage.

  13. Arsenic intoxication presenting with macrocytosis and peripheral neuropathy, without anemia.

    PubMed

    Heaven, R; Duncan, M; Vukelja, S J

    1994-01-01

    A case of arsenic intoxication associated with macrocytosis and neuropathy, without anemia, is presented. Evaluation of a 68-year-old man with a long history of peripheral neuropathy and persistent macrocytosis revealed exposure to an insecticide. Analysis of urine and hair revealed elevated levels of arsenic. A short course of d-penicillamine failed to promote urinary excretion of arsenic. Removal of the insecticide resulted in resolution of macrocytosis and slight improvement of neuropathy. This case emphasizes that arsenic intoxication should be considered in patients with macrocytosis with peripheral neuropathy, even in the absence of anemia.

  14. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  15. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  16. We use Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Overdoses and Intoxications.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Valerie Jorge; Shirali, Anushree C

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal modalities for the removal of drugs and toxins are indicated for the treatment of overdoses and intoxications. Well-established modalities include hemodialysis (HD), high-flux HD (HfD), and charcoal hemoperfusion (HP). Recently, there have been increasing reports on the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), such as continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD), continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) or CVVH combined with dialysis (CVVHDF). In the present article, we will discuss the various factors that determine the clearance of drugs and toxins and accordingly, we will propose that with few exceptions, CRRT does not have a role in the routine management of intoxications.

  17. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 4. Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Cole, Donald; Abelsohn, Alan; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    PESTICIDE EXPOSURE CAN CAUSE MANY DIFFERENT HEALTH EFFECTS, from acute problems such as dermatitis and asthma exacerbation to chronic problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. The resulting clinical presentations are undifferentiated, and specific knowledge of the links to environmental exposures is often required for effective diagnosis. In this article we illustrate the use of the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Drugs and Diet), a history-taking tool that assists physicians in quickly identifying possible environmental exposures. We also provide clinical information on the epidemiology, clinical presentations, treatment and prevention of pesticide exposures. PMID:12054413

  18. Evaluation of Cholinesterase Activities During in Vivo Intoxication Using an Electrochemical Sensor Strip – Correlation With Intoxication Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Novotný, Ladislav; Misík, Jan; Kuca, Kamil; Zdarova-Karasova, Jana; Hrabinova, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 – 65 – 125 – 170 – 250 – 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed. PMID:22412329

  19. Prolonged neuropsychiatric effects following management of chloroquine intoxication with psychotropic polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Nicole M; Nevin, Remington L; Stahl, Stephen; Block, Jerald; Shugarts, Sarah; Wu, Alan H B; Dominy, Stephen; Solano-Blanco, Miguel Alonso; Kappelman-Culver, Sharon; Lee-Messer, Christopher; Maldonado, Jose; Maxwell, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Susceptibility to quinoline antimalarial intoxication may reflect individual genetic and drug-induced variation in neuropharmacokinetics. In this report, we describe a case of chloroquine intoxication that appeared to be prolonged by subsequent use of multiple psychotropic medications. This case highlights important new considerations for the management of quinoline antimalarial intoxication. PMID:26185633

  20. Atropine intoxication from the ingestion and smoking of jimson weed (Datura stramonium).

    PubMed

    Guharoy, S R; Barajas, M

    1991-12-01

    Anticholinergic effects occur due to jimson weed intoxication. The most common intoxication involves teenagers desiring mind-altering properties from the plant. We report 4 cases of jimson weed intoxication due to ingestion and inhalation (smoking) of jimson weed. Clinicians should be aware of the potential abuse of botanicals such as jimson weed. PMID:1808839

  1. Intoxication by the chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus): nervous system and skeletal findings.

    PubMed

    Cohn, D F; Streifler, M

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred patients with chronic neurolathyrism were examined 25-35 years after the appearance of signs and symptoms of intoxication of the chickling pea. Their daily food intake, in a German forced labor camp during World War II, consisted of 400 g Lathyrus sativus peas cooked in water plus 200 g bread baked of barley and straw. Apart from the classic signs of neurolathyrism, i.e., a spastic paraparesis, in five cases, the skeletal findings observed were similar to experimental osteolathyrism. There was an absence of ossification centers of the iliac creasts, ischial tuberosities and vertebrae; and bowing with thickening of the femoral shaft also occurred. These bony changes in human lathyrism have not been described before.

  2. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  3. Pesticides in Iowa precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nations, B.K.; Hallberg, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Rainfall was sampled for pesticides to assess their occurrence in precipitation and potential impacts on water resources. Three areas in Iowa were sampled; two localities were in rural settings, and a third in an urban area. Fourteen pesticides, including ten herbicides and four insecticides, were detected from October 1987 through September 1990. Atrazine, alachlor, cyanazine, and metolachlor were the most commonly detected, with one or more of these four herbicides found in almost every rainfall sample during the growing season. Concentrations of individual pesticides ranged from 0.1 ??g L-1 to 40.0 ??g L-1, with most detections under 1.0 ??g L-1. Pesticide detections in rainfall began in April and ended in July or August, probably related to the timing of chemical application and greater volatilization rates during warmer weather. Samples from the urban site had detections of the same agricultural chemicals found at the rural sites, but in lesser quantities. In addition to the commonly detected herbicides, three of the four insecticides detected in rainfall were only found in urban samples. Two of these have urban as well as agricultural uses. Some variation of pesticide detections were seen at the three sampling localities, related to regional and local use patterns. Concentrations were greater at sampling sites near fields where pesticides are applied, suggesting that local volatilization and distance of transport affect the concentrations in rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were highest at the beginning of a rainfall event with concentrations becoming lower in samples taken later in the event.

  4. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  5. Sustained low-efficiency daily diafiltration with hemoperfusion as a therapy for severe star fruit intoxication: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication decreased in the Taiwanese society due to improved public education on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Various complications including hiccups, altered levels of consciousness, coma, and seizures have been reported in individuals with renal failure who ingested fresh star fruit or star fruit juice. A high mortality rate (from 33 to 80%) was observed in patients with altered levels of consciousness, despite prompt dialysis and supportive care. According to previous case reports, the proposed treatment of choice for severe star fruit intoxication may be continuous renal replacement therapy with or without hemoperfusion. We report two cases of star fruit intoxication with stage V CKD (one case is predialysis) presenting with coma and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The two patients were treated with sustained low-efficiency daily diafiltration (SLEDD-f) and charcoal hemoperfusion. Status epilepticus was controlled fairly quickly after treatment with SLEDD-f and hemoperfusion. However, the outcomes in this report are still poor (both remained comatose; one of two patients died). Currently, there are no data for the use of SLEDD-f with hemoperfusion for severe star fruit intoxication. SLEDD-f with charcoal hemoperfusion may play a role in managing refractory status epilepticus in patients with severe star fruit poisoning.

  6. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  7. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... (77 FR 74003) (FRL-9362-3). In that document, EPA requested comment on a draft PR notice that provided... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the...

  8. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  9. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  10. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  11. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  12. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND... narcotics. Entering the premises or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of any intoxicating beverage or narcotic drug or the use of such drug in or on the premises...

  13. Superwarfarin intoxication: hematuria is a major clinical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Feng; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Wang, Chuan-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Ching

    2009-09-01

    Since superwarfarin is popular and readily available in stores, it may cause intoxication or overexposure, which can result in coagulopathy or abnormal bleeding in humans and, thus, is an important public health problem. We report our clinical experience with superwarfarin intoxication. Nine patients, including eight patients who had histories of ingesting superwarfarin, were studied. Of the patients, hematuria occurred in eight. Laboratory tests among the nine patients showed extremely prolonged prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times, which could be corrected to normal by mixing 1:1 with normal pooled plasma; they also had very low functional levels of factor II, VII, IX, X, and proteins C and S, but normal functional levels of factors V, VIII, fibrinogen, and anti-thrombin III. Large doses of vitamin K1 were needed for 3 months or more to treat and correct the coagulopathy among the patients. The majority of the patients presented with gross hematuria, suggesting that hematuria is probably a major clinical manifestation of superwarfarin intoxication. Prolonged use of large doses of vitamin K1 is needed for the treatment of superwarfarin intoxication.

  14. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  15. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  16. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  17. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  18. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  19. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8...

  20. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  1. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  2. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  3. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  4. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  5. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section 501.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER,...

  6. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  7. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  8. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  9. Korean Patients with Superwarfarin Intoxication and Their Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Junshik; Yhim, Ho-Young; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yuh, Young Jin; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Seung Taik; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested. PMID:21165290

  10. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  11. Electroencephalographic study of naloxone effects in the recovery of an acute alcoholic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Dawid-Milner, M S; Díaz-Calavia, E J; Lara, J P; Fernández del Moral, R; Jiménez-Vargas, J

    1989-06-01

    Experimental assays analysing EEG changes during the recovery of an acute alcoholic intoxication were carried out in three groups of cats: 1) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication produced by continuous intravenous perfusion of ethanol, 0.06 g/kg/min, during 20 minutes. 2) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication by injecting naloxone (400 micrograms/kg), just after finishing alcohol perfusion. 3) Recovery of acute alcoholic intoxication by injecting naloxone (400 micrograms/kg), 15 min after finishing perfusion. Naloxone administered after an acute alcoholic intoxication worsens the recovery of EEG parameters; 1-2 (p less than 0.05), 1-3 (p less than 0.05).

  12. Antibody protection against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luisa W; Stanker, Larry H; Henderson, Thomas D; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D

    2009-10-01

    Adulteration of food or feed with any of the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potential bioterrorism concern. Currently, there is strong interest in the development of detection reagents, vaccines, therapeutics, and other countermeasures. A sensitive immunoassay for detecting BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) F1-2 and F1-40, has been developed and used in complex matrices. The epitope for F1-2 has been mapped to the heavy chain of BoNT/A, and the epitope of F1-40 has been mapped to the light chain. The ability of these MAbs to provide therapeutic protection against BoNT/A intoxication in mouse intravenous and oral intoxication models was tested. High dosages of individual MAbs protected mice well both pre- and postexposure to BoNT/A holotoxin. A combination therapy consisting of antibodies against both the light and heavy chains of the toxin, however, significantly increased protection, even at a lower MAb dosage. An in vitro peptide assay for measuring toxin activity showed that pretreatment of toxin with these MAbs did not block catalytic activity but instead blocked toxin entry into primary and cultured neuronal cells. The timing of antibody rescue in the mouse intoxication models revealed windows of opportunity for antibody therapeutic treatment that correlated well with the biologic half-life of the toxin in the serum. Knowledge of BoNT intoxication and antibody clearance in these mouse models and understanding of the pharmacokinetics of BoNT are invaluable for future development of antibodies and therapeutics against intoxication by BoNT.

  13. Efficacy of chelation therapy to remove aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    There is a distinct correlation between aluminium (Al) intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We demonstrated how patients affected by ND showing Al intoxication benefit from short-term treatment with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (chelation therapy). Such therapy further improved through daily treatment with the antioxidant Cellfood. In the present study we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment, using both EDTA and Cellfood. Slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (2 g/10 mL diluted in 500 mL physiological saline administered in 2 h) (chelation test) removed Al, which was detected (using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in urine samples collected from patients over 12 h. Patients that revealed Al intoxication (expressed in μg per g creatinine) underwent EDTA chelation therapy once a week for ten weeks, then once every two weeks for a further six or twelve months. At the end of treatment (a total of 22 or 34 chelation therapies, respectively), associated with daily assumption of Cellfood, Al levels in the urine samples were analysed. In addition, the following blood parameters were determined: homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate, as well as the oxidative status e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and glutathione. Our results showed that Al intoxication reduced significantly following EDTA and Cellfood treatment, and clinical symptoms improved. After treatment, ROS, oxLDL, and homocysteine decreased significantly, whereas vitamin B12, folate and TAC improved significantly. In conclusion, our data show the efficacy of chelation therapy associated with Cellfood in subjects affected by Al intoxication who have developed ND.

  14. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  15. [Clozapine intoxication: theoretical aspects and forensic-medical examination ].

    PubMed

    Shigeev, S V; Ivanova, N A; Ivanov, S V

    2013-01-01

    This literature review is focused on diagnostics of acute clozapine intoxication with the fatal outcome. According to the Russian authors, clozapine intoxication ranks first in the structure of criminal poisoning and accounted for 99.7% of all the cases that occurred in Moscow during the period from 2003 to 2006. Toximetric investigations of clinical manifestations of clozapine intoxication revealed that the threshold clozapine concentration in blood is 0.12 ± 0.06 mg/I, the critical and lethal concentrations are 1.01 ± 0.2 mg/I and 3.5 ± 1.5 mg/I respectively. Autopsy on corpses of the victims of clozapine intoxication showed that most clozapine-induced pathological changes have a non-specific character (including largely circulatory disorders and dystrophic changes in parenchymatous organs). Clozapine poisoning is associated with the lengthening of QT-interval on ECG; at the values in excess of 500 ms, the risk of severe arrhythmia and sudden death significantly increases. Clozapine intake may lead to the development of potentially fatal myocarditis (the so-called clozapine-associated eosinophilic myocardium) in somatically healthy subjects. Foreign researchers report the possibility of a post-mortem increase of blood clozapine content compared with its antemortem level. They also showed that simultaneous use of substances stimulating activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes (ethyl alcohol, finlepsin, fenitrin, nicotine) and clozapine accelerates metabolism and thereby reduces clozapine concentration in blood. It is concluded that comprehensive investigations of clozapine intoxication are needed taking into consideration pathomorphological changes induced by this agent, its potential interaction with other factors influencing human body, and the results of forensic chemical expertise of the fatal cases. PMID:25474921

  16. What Is a Pesticide?

    MedlinePlus

    ... must be identified by name on the pesticide product's label together with its percentage by weight. There are ... identify inert ingredients by name or percentage on product labels. In general, only the total percentage of all ...

  17. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  18. Health risk assessment of pesticides residue in maize and cowpea from Ejura, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akoto, O; Andoh, H; Darko, G; Eshun, K; Osei-Fosu, P

    2013-06-01

    Low productivity in agriculture due to damage cause by pests has led to the application of pesticides to control pest infestation. Residues of pesticides applied on crops are often found in the food which can cause chronic effect on the health of humans who consume such products. The aim of this study is to measure pesticides residues in maize and cowpea and compare the values with stablished safety limits. A total of 37 pesticides comprising 15 organochlorines, 13 organophosphorus and 9 pyrethroids pesticides were identified in maize and cowpea samples obtained from farms in Ejura. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatograph equipped with Electron Capture Detector and Pulse Flame Photometric Detector after clean-up on alumina/activated charcoal column. The results showed that the mean concentration of pesticides in maize ranged from 0.001 to 0.103 mg kg(-1) for organochlorine pesticides, 0.002-0.019 mg kg(-1) for organophosphorus pesticides and 0.002-0.028 mg kg(-1) for pyrethroids pesticides. In cowpea the mean concentration ranged from 0.001 to 0.108 mg kg(-1) for organochlorine pesticides, 0.002-0.015 mg kg(-1) for organophosphorus pesticides and 0.001-0.039 mg kg(-1) for pyrethroids pesticides. Maximum Residue Limits for β-HCH, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were exceeded in both maize and cowpea samples. Health risk estimation revealed that residues of heptachlor, dieldrin, endrin, β-endosulfna, γ-chlordane and chlorfenvinphos found in maize exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake. Similarly the levels of heptachlor and p,p'-DDD found in cowpea also exceeded the Acceptable Daily Intake. This suggests a great potential for chronic toxicity to consumers of these food items.

  19. Clinical pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: case reports and review of the treatment of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Blaho, K; Merigian, K; Winbery, S; Geraci, S A; Smartt, C

    1997-01-01

    Intoxication and overdose are common presenting complaints to the emergency department. Acute intoxication with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has become a relatively rare event, especially when compared with the incidence of ethanol and cocaine intoxication. We recently had an outbreak of presumed LSD intoxications occurring over one weekend. All patients had attended a performance by the musical group The Grateful Dead. At present, LSD intoxication or overdose can only be suspected based on clinical findings because there are no readily available rapid laboratory tests for detecting either the parent compound or the metabolites of the drug. The clinical findings and outcomes of five patients with suspected LSD intoxication are presented. The pharmacological effects of LSD and treatment modalities of intoxication are reviewed. All patients were treated conservatively based on clinical signs and symptoms. Only one patient required hospital admission for combative behavior that was initially refractory to pharmacological restraint.

  20. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  1. Sub-chronic exposure to the insecticide dimethoate induces a proinflammatory status and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to bacterial lypopolysaccharide in the hippocampus and striatum of male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Astiz, Mariana Diz-Chaves, Yolanda Garcia-Segura, Luis M.

    2013-10-15

    Dimethoate is an organophosphorus insecticide extensively used in horticulture. Previous studies have shown that the administration of dimethoate to male rats, at a very low dose and during a sub-chronic period, increases the oxidation of lipids and proteins, reduces the levels of antioxidants and impairs mitochondrial function in various brain regions. In this study, we have assessed in C57Bl/6 adult male mice, whether sub-chronic (5 weeks) intoxication with a low dose of dimethoate (1.4 mg/kg) affects the expression of inflammatory molecules and the reactivity of microglia in the hippocampus and striatum under basal conditions and after an immune challenge caused by the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide. Dimethoate increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6 in the hippocampus, and increased the proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype in dentate gyrus and striatum. Lipopolysaccharide caused a significant increase in the mRNA levels of IL1β, TNFα, IL6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, and a significant increase in the proportion of microglia with reactive phenotype in the hippocampus and the striatum. Some of the effects of lipopolysaccharide (proportion of Iba1 immunoreactive cells with reactive phenotype and IL6 mRNA levels) were amplified in the animals treated with dimethoate, but only in the striatum. These findings indicate that a sub-chronic period of administration of a low dose of dimethoate, comparable to the levels of the pesticide present as residues in food, causes a proinflammatory status in the brain and enhances the neuroinflammatory response to the lipopolysaccharide challenge with regional specificity. - Highlights: • The dose of pesticide used was comparable to the levels of residues found in food. • Dimethoate administration increased cytokine expression and microglia reactivity. • Hippocampus and striatum were differentially affected by the treatment.

  2. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  3. [Health risk control for organophosphate pesticides in Mexico: challenges under the Free Trade Treaty].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ceseña, J; Espinosa-Torres, F; López-Carrillo, L

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses recent trends concerning the commercialization of pesticides in Mexico and focuses on organophosphates and their potential health risk impact. It points out the existing lack of knowledge on health effects associated to chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides. A need for both toxicological and epidemiologic studies of chronic exposure is identified. Regulatory programs for pesticides in Mexico and the United States are also compared. The paper also addresses the possibility of effective enforcement of environmental and health regulations in Mexico as a result of more rigorous surveillance under NAFTA.

  4. Health risk for children and adults consuming apples with pesticide residue.

    PubMed

    Lozowicka, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in apples raises serious health concerns, especially when the fresh fruits are consumed by children, particularly vulnerable to the pesticide hazards. This study demonstrates the results from nine years of investigation (2005-2013) of 696 samples of Polish apples for 182 pesticides using gas and liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric techniques. Only 33.5% of the samples did not contain residues above the limit of detection. In 66.5% of the samples, 34 pesticides were detected, of which maximum residue level (MRL) was exceeded in 3%. Multiple residues were present in 35% of the samples with two to six pesticides, and one sample contained seven compounds. A study of the health risk for children, adults and the general population consuming apples with these pesticides was performed. The pesticide residue data have been combined with the consumption of apples in the 97.5 percentile and the mean diet. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures that are based on the average and high concentrations of residues. Additionally, the "worst-case scenario" and "optimistic case scenario" were used to assess the chronic risk. In certain cases, the total dietary pesticide intake calculated from the residue levels observed in apples exceeds the toxicological criteria. Children were the group most exposed to the pesticides, and the greatest short-term hazard stemmed from flusilazole at 624%, dimethoate at 312%, tebuconazole at 173%, and chlorpyrifos methyl and captan with 104% Acute Reference Dose (ARfD) each. In the cumulative chronic exposure, among the 17 groups of compounds studied, organophosphate insecticides constituted 99% acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results indicate that the occurrence of pesticide residues in apples could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring and tighter regulation of pesticide residues is recommended.

  5. Researching the intoxicated: informed consent implications for alcohol and drug research.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Judith; Charles, Vikki

    2008-03-01

    This article considers the informed consent process in relation to carrying out research with intoxicated participants in 'field' research settings. There is little discussion in the literature of the potential problems that the intoxication of research participants may pose to research. Intoxication is a potential problem for all researchers but is heightened in field research that takes place in settings where participants are likely to be intoxicated, such as licensed venues, in drug consumption rooms, or police custody suites. The risks to research participants that intoxication poses should not be resolved by electing not to do research with intoxicated participants; it is argued that these risks can be managed to some extent, and are offset by the benefits of such research. Moreover, intoxication (and the impairment of cognitive functions relevant to valid informed consent) may not always be identifiable through behavioural or biochemical methods of detection. The search for accurate and field-practical methods for identifying intoxication amongst participants is useful, but not the only strategy for researchers who want to ensure the validity of the consent process. Suggestions are provided for devising research protocols that acknowledge and accept intoxication of research participants and attempt to protect them. One solution is to side-step identification of intoxication per se as a strategic objective in the consent process, and turn instead to established methods for ensuring that information has been understood by potential research participants.

  6. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (p<0.01) in Pb and HX animals. TBA-RS content was significantly higher in gums of rats with or without EP only by means of Pb. The SMG PGE2 content increased by Pb or HX was higher in PbHX rats (p<0.01). Pb and HX increased EP induced alveolar bone loss, while Pb showed spontaneous bone loss also. In conclusion, these results show that lead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease.

  7. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  8. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  9. Neurohistologic and ultrastructural lesions in cattle experimentally intoxicated with the plant Prosopis juliflora.

    PubMed

    Tabosa, I M; Riet-Correa, F; Barros, S S; Summers, B A; Simões, S V D; Medeiros, R M T; Nobre, V M T

    2006-09-01

    Intoxication by pods of Prosopis juliflora (mesquite beans) causes an impairment of cranial nerve function in cattle and goats. In goats, vacuolation of neurons in the trigeminal motor nuclei has been reported. To study the lesions in cattle caused by consumption of P. juliflora pods and dry ground pods, eight 6- to 12-month-old male cattle were divided into 4 groups: group 1 was fed a ration containing 50% of pods; groups 2 and 3 received a ration containing 50 and 75% of dry ground pods, respectively; group 4 was the control. After 200 days, all cattle were killed and sampled for histologic evaluation. Samples of the trigeminal motor nucleus were examined by electron microscopy. All cattle from groups 1, 2, and 3 showed clinical signs resulting from impaired function of cranial nerves V, IX, X, and XII, starting 45-75 days after consumption of the plant. The main histologic lesions were vacuolation and loss of neurons in trigeminal motor nuclei and other motor cranial nerve nuclei with Wallerian-like degeneration in the cranial nerves. Mild denervation atrophy was observed in the masseter and other masticatory muscles. On electron microscopy, neurons of the trigeminal nuclei had markedly swollen mitochondria, with the mitochondrial cristae displaced peripherally, disoriented and disintegrating. Intoxication by P. juliflora seems to have a novel pathogenesis, characterized by a selective, primary, chronic, and progressive injury to mitochondria of neurons of the trigeminal and other cranial nerve nuclei. Cranial nerve degeneration and denervation atrophy of the muscles occurs as a consequence of the neuronal lesion.

  10. Protective effect of naringenin on hepatic and renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Mershiba, Sam Daniel; Dassprakash, M Velayutham; Saraswathy, Sundara Dhakshinamurthy

    2013-05-01

    Arsenic has a long history as a potent human poison, chronic exposure over a period of time may result in the manifestation of toxicity in practically all systems of the body. In the present investigation the efficacy of naringenin (NRG), a naturally occurring citrus flavanone against arsenic-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic manifestations have been studied in rats. Arsenic trioxide was administered orally at the dose of 2 mg/kg/day with or without combination of NRG (20 or 50 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. At the end of the experimental period the hepatic and renal dysfunction was evaluated by histological examination, serum biomarkers and markers of oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Arsenic intoxication increased serum bilirubin, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels, additionally enhanced the activities of hepatic marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Also, the hepatic and renal tissues showed a marked elevation in LPO levels with a decrease in GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase on arsenic treatment. Simultaneous treatment with NRG restored the activities of serum biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes in the tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the histopathological studies confirmed the protective effect of NRG co-treatment by reducing the pathological changes due to arsenic intoxication in both liver and kidney. Thus, our present study demonstrates that NRG has a potential to protect arsenic-induced oxidative hepatic and renal dysfunction. PMID:23283742

  11. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  12. [Evaluation of the endogenous intoxication syndrome in food toxic infections].

    PubMed

    Marzhokhova, M Iu; Zhelikhazheva, Zh M

    2009-01-01

    To study the endogenous intoxication syndrome in patients with food toxic infections is essential in revealing the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disease. For this, the authors measured the level of low and average molecular weight, as well as their protein component--oligopeptides in plasma, red blood cells, and urine in the course of the disease. There were increased levels of the study parameters, which depended on the stage and degree of a pathological process. The determination of the level of low and average molecular weight and oligopeptides in plasma, red blood cells, and urine may serve as a marker of the intoxication syndrome; the level of the study parameters may be used as additional criteria for the severity of the process, the prediction of disease development and comorbidity, and as a criterion for recovery completeness.

  13. Mind the gap: a case of severe methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Melnick, Stephen; Ansari, Shabana; Kanneh, Haitham T

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes on sitagliptin, an alcohol abuser who was brought unresponsive to the emergency department of our hospital. On arrival, the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to a low Glasgow Coma score of 3/15. Initial laboratory testing identified profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Owing to the dubious circumstances and the depth of acidosis, methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication was suspected. Further evaluation revealed a significantly increased serum osmolal gap. Pending volatile compound screen, fomepizole was started and urgent haemodialysis undertaken. Subsequent brain MRI identified changes in putamen of bilateral basal ganglia, suggestive of methanol intoxication. The patient was later found to have an initial methanol level of 237 mg/dL. She was successfully extubated on day 2 of hospitalisation, with residual cognitive and visual deficits.

  14. Combined intoxication with methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Eiji; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Takashi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujisaki, Mihisa; Miyatake, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2007-01-30

    Although preclinical studies suggest that methylone (2-methylamino-1-[3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl]propan-1-one) and 5-MeO-MIPT (5-methoxy-N-methyl,N-isopropyl tryptamine) may have psychostimulant properties, the scientific reports about the clinical effects of these agents are scant. We describe a 27-year-old male patient with substance intoxication after a single ingestion of the mixture of methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT. Though he bought the drug as pure methylone powder via an internet order, our chemical analyses indicated that the drug was composed of about 60% methylone (120 mg) and 38% 5-MeO-MIPT (76 mg). This case report suggests that clinicians should be alert to the possibility of the emergence of methylone or 5-MeO-MIPT intoxication, and substance-related mental disorder may be complicated by combined use of other psychoactive drugs.

  15. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness. PMID:22852289

  16. Mind the gap: a case of severe methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Salik; Melnick, Stephen; Ansari, Shabana; Kanneh, Haitham T

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old woman with non-insulin-dependent diabetes on sitagliptin, an alcohol abuser who was brought unresponsive to the emergency department of our hospital. On arrival, the patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated due to a low Glasgow Coma score of 3/15. Initial laboratory testing identified profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Owing to the dubious circumstances and the depth of acidosis, methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication was suspected. Further evaluation revealed a significantly increased serum osmolal gap. Pending volatile compound screen, fomepizole was started and urgent haemodialysis undertaken. Subsequent brain MRI identified changes in putamen of bilateral basal ganglia, suggestive of methanol intoxication. The patient was later found to have an initial methanol level of 237 mg/dL. She was successfully extubated on day 2 of hospitalisation, with residual cognitive and visual deficits. PMID:26917798

  17. Accidental organophosphate insecticide intoxication in children: a reminder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Misuse of organophosphate insecticides, even in case of domestic application, can be life threatening. We report the case of siblings admitted with respiratory distress, pinpoint pupils and slurred speech. The symptoms appear after spraying the skin by insecticides. Plasma pseudocholinesterase level appeared to be very low, consistent with acute intoxication with organophosphate insecticide. Management of organophosphate poisoning consists of airway management, administration of oxygen and fluid, as well as atropine in increasing doses and pralidoxime. Decontamination of the patient's skin and the removal of the patient's clothes are mandatory in order to avoid recontamination of the patient as well as the surrounding healthcare personnel. Plasma pseudocholinesterase analysis is a cheap and an easy indicator for organophosphate insecticides intoxications and could be used for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PMID:21676238

  18. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  19. Skin cancer and arsenical intoxication from well water.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S L; Maliner, J S; Morton, W E; Braman, R S

    1979-10-01

    A case of acute arsenical intoxication arising from ingested well water containing only 1.2 ppm of arsenic is reported. After a latent period of 14 years, multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinomas developed. The water was analyzed for a variety of other trace elements and compounds and no evidence for the existence of other carcinogens was found. This study strengthens the concept that arsenic is a carcinogen. The role of a possible selenium deficiency is also discussed.

  20. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  1. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  2. An undercovered health threat in Turkey: transdermal methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Uca, Ali Ulvi; Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Altaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colorless solvent used in antifreeze solutions, varnishes, cologne, copying machine fluids, perfume, spirit, paint, and fuel. Even small amounts of ingested methanol can cause acute permanent neurological dysfunction and irreversible blindness. Although there are many reports of methanol poisoning due to suicidal or accidental ingestion, reports of transdermal absorption are rare. We present a 68-year-old man with transdermal methanol intoxication applied to our hospital's emergency department with weakness, loss of vision, and altered state of consciousness.

  3. Risk assessment for honey bees and pesticides--recent developments and 'new issues'.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen M

    2010-11-01

    In 2008, major areas of discussion at the ICPBR Bee Protection Group meeting were the development of a honey bee risk assessment scheme for systemic pesticides and revision of the test guidelines for semi-field and field studies. The risk assessment scheme for systemic pesticides is based on analysis of conditions for exposure of bees to residues. These are based on a stepwise approach, starting with simple calculations based on existing data in dossiers and progressing to higher-tier semi-field and field studies (the guidelines for these have been modified in line with this). The proposed scheme has been tested with data packages of high- and low-risk PPPs. A future area of interest for the group may be the risks posed by guttation fluid containing systemic pesticides. A recent paper on 'Translocation of neonicotinoid insecticides from coated seeds to seedling guttation drops: a novel way of intoxication for bees' has focused significant interest on the possible risks posed by the presence of residues of systemic pesticides in guttation fluid to water-collecting honey bees. The occurrence of guttation and the presence of pesticide residues in the fluid are discussed, together with remaining questions that will need to be addressed in answering whether such a route of exposure may pose a risk to honey bees.

  4. [Acute oral suicidal intoxication with captan--a case report].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Waldman, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    According to the best of our knowledge the second case of acute intoxication with captan was described. In this paper a 22-year old female was admitted to the Department of Toxicology with a nausea, weakness, numbness of upper limbs and substernal pain. She said that these symptoms began two hours after suicidal ingestion of 5.0 g of captan. At admission the patient was alert. Temperature was 37 degrees C, heart rate 100-120 b/min., BP 100-120/60-70 mm Hg and breathing rate 17/min. WBC were slightly elevated 12.4 x 10(3)/microl as well as the creatine kinase activity 329 U/L. ECG showed inversion of a T segment in V1-V4 leads. ECHO-sound made in 4th and 120th day after the onset of intoxication showed no changes, with EF--70%. Temporary increase of creatine kinase activity as well as the presence of inverted T segment in V1-V4 leads may suggest cardiotoxic effects of captan during acute intoxication.

  5. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  6. Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wallin, R; Patrick, S D; Ballard, J O

    1986-04-30

    An in vitro system which expresses all enzyme activities related to vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of blood clotting factors was prepared from livers of rats overdosed with warfarin, difenacoum and dicumarol respectively. In this system, the activities of the two pathways that are known to produce active reduced vitamin K1 cofactor for the carboxylation reaction were measured. Also the ability of high concentrations of vitamin K1 to overcome inhibition of clotting factor synthesis was studied. In the systems prepared from livers of warfarin and difenacoum intoxicated rats, pathway I was inactive. Vitamin K epoxide reductase was also inactive which strongly suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the activity of pathway I in vivo. Reduction of vitamin K1 by pathway II bypassed the inactive pathway I and resulted in carboxylation activity. This pathway therefore mediates the antidotic effect of vitamin K1 in the coumarin intoxicated liver. In the in vitro system prepared from dicumarol intoxicated livers the activity of pathway I was not significantly affected. Dicumarol however was a strong inhibitor when added to liver microsomes in vitro. PMID:2424118

  7. Intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine for acute iron intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, Rachelle; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Goldstein, Lee H; Youngster, Ilan; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-10-01

    Free radical formation and release of oxidant agents have been suggested as possible mechanisms for tissue damage in acute iron intoxication. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substitute and an antioxidant, is widely used as an antidote for various intoxications. Our aim was to determine whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) NAC would reduce the mortality of rats after acute, toxic oral doses of iron. Male Wistar rats were studied in three phases. In the first phase, animals were assigned to groups 1 (distilled water by gavage) and 2 (i.p. NAC) and observed for survival. In the second phase, rats were assigned to groups 3 (400 mg/kg elemental iron orally) and 4 (400 mg/kg elemental iron, followed by 150 mg/kg i.p. NAC). Survival was observed. Because most rats in Group 3 died within 90 minutes after iron administration, a third phase was conducted in order to allow for comparison of iron and transaminase serum levels after the administration of iron and NAC (group 5: n = 10). Mortality was significantly lower in rats treated with iron and NAC, compared to those treated with iron (P = 0.016). Median serum iron level was significantly lower among rats treated with iron and NAC, compared with rats treated with iron alone (P = 0.002). In a rat model of acute iron intoxication, i.p. administration of NAC may decrease serum iron levels and mortality. PMID:21740343

  8. [Polonium-210 acute and chronic pathomorphology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kvacheva, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed.

  9. [Polonium-210 acute and chronic pathomorphology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kvacheva, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed. PMID:26856053

  10. Acute unintentional intoxication with paraffin in a 25-year old patient - clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa

    2014-08-01

    "Fire-breathing" or "fire-eating" is a special kind of street art where the acts are always stunning, spectacular and amazing. People exhibiting this kind of show are professionals, not rare amateurs, who use different kind of fuels, usually hydrocarbons, in order to produce a pillar of fire. Intoxications caused by ingestion or inhalation of liquid paraffin, used as a fuel while performing, are numerous and various. We present a clinical case report of a 25-year old, previously healthy, amateur "fire-breather". During October, 2010 this young men arrived at the Emergency Unit of the University Clinic for toxicology and Urgent Internal Medicine in a severe clinical condition, after his unsuccessful attempt to perform real "fire-breathing". He had fever, strong headaches, mild abdominal and chest pain and he also had difficulties breathing and persistent dry cough. The patient was extremely dyspneic with peripheral cyanosis and shortness of breath. "Fire-breathers" must be viewed as a population at risk of paraffin-induced pneumonia, which has low mortality rate, but still is related with numerous and various chronic complications. Our patient was first in a life threatening, extremely serious clinical condition which was urgently treated with appropriate vigorous and effective therapy. This therapeutic protocol led to successful full recovery of these young men, who luckily didn't exhibit any chronic complications.

  11. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  12. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  13. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... referred to as ``mold-related pesticides''). ``Fungicides'' are antimicrobial pesticides that destroy fungi... efficacy data when any specific species of fungus is listed on the label of fungicides, or when...

  14. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often.

  15. [Mitochondrial dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms in liver cells during acute carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2015-01-01

    Electron-transport chain and redox-balance of mitochondria are important targets that are damaged during intoxication. The aim of the present work was to estimate the role of impairments in cellular bioenergetic function in the development of liver damage during acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats and to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms. Acute CCl4-induced rat intoxication (0.8 g/kg or 4 g/kg) resulted in considerable impairments of respiratory and synthetic mitochondrial functions; their manifestations depended on the dose of the toxic agent and the duration of the intoxication increased and accompanied by complete uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation processes in liver mitochondria. The intoxication induced considerable liver damage and accumulation of NO in blood plasma and liver tissue. The changes of some parameters of liver mitochondrial functional activity demonstrate an oscillative pattern, reflecting compensatory mechanisms during intoxication that involved increased reduced glutathione level and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:26716745

  16. [Mitochondrial dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms in liver cells during acute carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication].

    PubMed

    Zavodnik, I B

    2015-01-01

    Electron-transport chain and redox-balance of mitochondria are important targets that are damaged during intoxication. The aim of the present work was to estimate the role of impairments in cellular bioenergetic function in the development of liver damage during acute carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats and to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms. Acute CCl4-induced rat intoxication (0.8 g/kg or 4 g/kg) resulted in considerable impairments of respiratory and synthetic mitochondrial functions; their manifestations depended on the dose of the toxic agent and the duration of the intoxication increased and accompanied by complete uncoupling of oxidation and phosphorylation processes in liver mitochondria. The intoxication induced considerable liver damage and accumulation of NO in blood plasma and liver tissue. The changes of some parameters of liver mitochondrial functional activity demonstrate an oscillative pattern, reflecting compensatory mechanisms during intoxication that involved increased reduced glutathione level and enhanced succinate dehydrogenase activity.

  17. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  18. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  19. Pesticide personal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Branson, D H; Sweeney, M

    1991-01-01

    A fairly large established data base provides information on clothing worn by U.S. and Canadian farmers to work with pesticides, their attitudes and beliefs about pesticide risk, and clothing as a dermal barrier. Very limited similar data are available for farmers in less developed countries. Clearly, farmers perceive the benefits of pesticides to far exceed any risks. While few report poisoning symptoms, most believe that their usual work clothing offers a sufficient pesticide barrier, and few wear special-purpose protective clothing. Gloves of various materials, including cotton and leather, appear to be the major protective clothing item. Although farmers feel that their usual work clothing provides excellent protection, fabric penetration research does not support this. Shirting-weight fabrics offer some limited protection against light spray of field-strenght pesticides. Heavier-weight fabrics, such as denim and twill, are better barriers. With a heavier spray or a spill, usual work clothing does not give sufficient protection. Greater protection can usually be achieved with the use of a fluorocarbon finished fabric, such as Scotchgard or Zepel. Scotchgard can readily be applied at home. A durable-press finish does not appear to improve fabric's pesticide-barrier resistance and some data suggest that it may decrease barrier properties. A second alternative for increased protection is the use of a special-purpose fabric, such as a coated nonwoven or possibly Gore-Tex. Numerous other new "waterproof breathable" fabrics have recently come to the market. Many of these are finished or coated fabrics and one would expect them to be at least somewhat resistant to pesticides. However, they have not been tested. Wearing an additional layer also appears to be another clothing strategy to minimize exposure. Fabric penetration research also shows that pesticide formulation, volume or spray regime, concentration, and active ingredients influence the barrier properties of

  20. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    PubMed

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  1. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    PubMed

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  2. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  3. Party Characteristics, Drinking Settings, and College Students’ Risk of Intoxication: A Multi-Campus Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Bavarian, Niloofar; Paschall, Mallie J.; Mair, Christina; Saltz, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We examined party characteristics across different college drinking settings, associations between party characteristics and likelihood of drinking to intoxication, and the mediating role of perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Students (N = 6903) attending 14 public universities in California during the 2010 and 2011 fall semesters completed surveys on individual and party characteristics in six unique settings (e.g., residence hall). We used descriptive statistics to examine party characteristics by setting. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models to identify party characteristics associated with drinking to intoxication, and we used RMediation to determine significance of mediating effects. Individual and party characteristics varied by drinking context. Greater time at a party was associated with drinking to intoxication at five of six settings, while larger party size was significant only for outdoor settings. Enforcing the legal drinking age and refusing to serve intoxicated patrons were associated with lower likelihood of intoxication at Greek and off-campus parties. The presence of a keg was associated with drinking to intoxication at Greek, off-campus and outdoor parties; at bars, cover charges and drink promotions were positively associated with drinking to intoxication. In four of six settings, we found evidence of significant mediating effects through perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Findings highlight risk and protective characteristics of parties by drinking setting, and have prevention implications. PMID:25976418

  4. Evaluating health risks from occupational exposure to pesticides and the regulatory response.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, T J; Kyle, A D; Bois, F Y

    1994-01-01

    In this study, we used measurements of occupational exposures to pesticides in agriculture to evaluate health risks and analyzed how the federal regulatory program is addressing these risks. Dose estimates developed by the State of California from measured occupational exposures to 41 pesticides were compared to standard indices of acute toxicity (LD50) and chronic effects (reference dose). Lifetime cancer risks were estimated using cancer potencies. Estimated absorbed daily doses for mixers, loaders, and applicators of pesticides ranged from less than 0.0001% to 48% of the estimated human LD50 values, and doses for 10 of 40 pesticides exceeded 1% of the estimated human LD50 values. Estimated lifetime absorbed daily doses ranged from 0.1% to 114,000% of the reference doses developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and doses for 13 of 25 pesticides were above them. Lifetime cancer risks ranged from 1 per million to 1700 per million, and estimates for 12 of 13 pesticides were above 1 per million. Similar results were obtained for field workers and flaggers. For the pesticides examined, exposures pose greater risks of chronic effects than acute effects. Exposure reduction measures, including use of closed mixing systems and personal protective equipment, significantly reduced exposures. Proposed regulations rely primarily on requirements for personal protective equipment and use restrictions to protect workers. Chronic health risks are not considered in setting these requirements. Reviews of pesticides by the federal pesticide regulatory program have had little effect on occupational risks. Policy strategies that offer immediate protection for workers and that are not dependent on extensive review of individual pesticides should be pursued. Images Figure 1. PMID:7713022

  5. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  6. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  7. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  8. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  9. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  10. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  11. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  12. New screening approach for risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara; Millet, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (Koa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m-3. For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.

  13. Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid and sodium N-benzyl-N-dithiocarboxy-D-glucamine as antagonists for cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M; Basinger, M A; Topping, R J; Gale, G R; Jones, S G; Holscher, M A

    1988-08-01

    Orally administered meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is an effective antagonist for acute oral cadmium chloride (1 mmol/kg) intoxication in mice when administered up to 8 h after cadmium ingestion. Administration of sodium N-benzyl-N-dithiocarboxy-D-glucamine (NaB) i.p. along with DMSA p.o. resulted in kidney and liver cadmium levels only marginally smaller than those obtained with DMSA alone. Both chelation treatment regimens permitted survival of 80% or more of the animals, in comparison to a survival rate of 40-50% in untreated animals. Intraperitoneally administered NaB by itself is a very effective antagonist for cadmium chloride administered intraperitoneally in either acute or chronic cadmium intoxication. A dose-response study was made of the mobilization of cadmium from the liver and kidney of cadmium-loaded mice by NaB; this showed that NaB is one of the most effective cadmium mobilizing agents developed to date. We have also confirmed the earlier report of Kojima and his co-workers of the ability of NaB to remove cadmium from animals which have been treated with cadmium over an extended period of time. NaB causes a very large increase in the biliary excretion of cadmium. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 113Cd in bile from treated animals and model solutions indicates that such cadmium is undergoing rapid ligand exchange.

  14. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  15. Hypothermia and undressing associated with non-fatal bromazepam intoxication.

    PubMed

    Michaud, K; Romain, N; Giroud, C; Brandt, C; Mangin, P

    2001-12-27

    A 42-year-old woman with a history of depression was found unconscious, lying near her car in an early autumn morning. The lower part of her body was undressed and there were multiple purple spots and excoriations on the body suggesting at first a sexual assault. On admission to the intensive care unit, she presented a hypothermia with a central temperature of 28.4 degrees C. The biological samples obtained at the hospital were analysed. Blood concentration of bromazepam was 7.7 mg/l, which is above the highest level reported till now in a case of fatal intoxication. PMID:11792498

  16. Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.

    PubMed

    Murone, Anne-Joëlle Bosset; Stucki, Pascal; Roback, Mark G; Gehri, Mario

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate food intoxication in infants as a consequence of fennel ingestion. Four cases of methemoglobinemia (MetHb) are presented here. Each patient ate homemade fennel purée a few hours prior to arriving to the emergency department with cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen, in the absence of suspected cyanotic heart disease. All 4 patients received treatment with methylene blue and fully recovered. Our cases emphasize that improper handling and storing of vegetables can lead to life-threatening MetHb.

  17. Perceived Danger while Intoxicated Uniquely Contributes to Driving after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David H.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Niculete, Maria E.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that alcohol alters perceptions of risky behaviors such as drinking and driving. However, studies testing these perceptions as a predictor of drinking and driving typically measure these perceptions while participants are sober. The present study tested whether the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed while intoxicated was associated with increased willingness to drive and self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions assessed while sober. Additionally, we tested the effect of acute tolerance on the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed on the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve. Methods Eighty-two young adults attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions. In one session, participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (men: .72 g/kg, women: .65 g/kg) and reported the perceived danger of driving and their willingness to drive at multiple points across the BrAC curve. On a separate occasion, participants remained sober and appraised the dangerousness of driving at a hypothetical, illegal BrAC. Results Perceptions of the dangerousness of driving following alcohol administration were associated with increased willingness to drive and higher rates of self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions reported when sober. Furthermore, perceived danger was reduced on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, compared to the ascending limb, suggesting the occurrence of acute tolerance. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that intoxicated perceptions are uniquely associated with drinking-and-driving decisions and that the perceived danger of drinking and driving is lower on the descending limb of the BrAC curve. Efforts to prevent alcohol-impaired driving have focused on increasing awareness of the danger of driving after drinking. Prevention efforts may be enhanced by educating drivers about how intoxication

  18. [Role of hemodialysis in the management of acute lithium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, Jaouad El; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 47-years old patient, traited with lithium for manic-depressive psychosis over a period of twenty and admitted to hospital with a disorder of consciousness after suicide attempt with lithium overdose (ingestion of 30 tablets of Téralithe(®) LP 400, delayed action galenic forms corresponding to 12 g of lithium carbonate), clinically improved after three hemodialysis sessions. This study illustrates the therapeutic role of hemodialysis in voluntary intoxications with extended release lithium even a week after the ingestion and the therapeutic insufficiency of a single hemodialysis session. PMID:27583091

  19. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant. PMID:25466782

  20. Pesticide Vendors in the Informal Sector: Trading Health for Income.

    PubMed

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2016-08-01

    South African low-income communities face many challenges (e.g., insufficient housing, poor service delivery, and abject poverty); additionally, a silent challenge of pest infestation plagues these areas resulting in disease risks, nuisances, and stigma. Consequently, an enterprising urban informal sector business has emerged providing residents with highly toxic, effective, cheap, and illegal "street pesticides." These pesticides pose acute and chronic health risks for vendors and residents. The economic opportunity provided by the high demand for effective and cheap pest control results in the high risk of health effects being traded for income. Current measures to control and "regulate" the massive street pesticide sales result in toxic stockpiles and government's "turning a blind eye." Solutions will only be achieved through open dialog identifying and developing non-toxic pest control strategies while ensuring vendors' income; and relevant stakeholder recognition that pest infestation is a social and environmental health determinant needing acknowledgement in different government policies. PMID:27235997

  1. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 350 and applicable policy and guidelines. ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt,...

  2. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 350 and applicable policy and guidelines. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt,...

  3. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 350 and applicable policy and guidelines. ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt,...

  4. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 350 and applicable policy and guidelines. ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt,...

  5. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 350 and applicable policy and guidelines. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt,...

  6. Acute care for alcohol intoxication. Be prepared to consider clinical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yost, David A

    2002-12-01

    The clinical assessment of an acutely intoxicated patient should be performed with meticulous care and include repetitive examinations to properly determine the patient's condition. Multiple factors, such as trauma and concomitant use of other drugs, can confuse the diagnostic picture and affect the choice of therapy. In this article, Dr Yost reviews the diagnostic considerations, appropriate treatment, and clinic discharge for the intoxicated patient.

  7. [Method and empirical results from expert opinions on 90 offenders concerning the question of complete intoxication].

    PubMed

    Mitterauer, Bernhard; Griebnitz, Ernst; Rothuber, Helfried

    2010-01-01

    Based on a 3-year sample of expert opinions concerning the question of complete intoxication (n = 90), methodology and results are presented. Since more than half of the offenders (n = 53) claim amnesia regarding the circumstances of the offence, this subjective amnesia is considered methodologically. If the file contains observations on the offender's behaviour, it is generally possible to assess if the offender was still able to self-reflect and act in a purposeful way. If so, complete intoxication must be negated independent of the objective degree of alcohol or drug intoxication, and the subjective amnesia claimed by the offender is implausible. In the assessment procedure of complete intoxication a decision tree is used. 37/90 offenders showed no significant memory impairment as well as no psychiatric diagnosis, thus excluding both criminal irresponsibility and complete intoxication. The assessment of subjective amnesia and total intoxication was based on the following information from the decision tree: in 51 (47 males, 4 females) of the 53 offenders claiming subjective amnesia the file contained behavioural observations at the time of the offence. Only in two cases, a considerable lack of information prevented a clear decision regarding the question of complete intoxication. Despite the fact that only in about 50% of the offenders claiming subjective amnesia evidence of alcohol or drug influence was demonstrated according to the files, the question of complete intoxication could be successfully evaluated in all but two cases according to the decision tree.

  8. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take...

  9. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take...

  10. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  11. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  12. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  13. Alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy effects on women's condom use intentions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L; George, William H; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n=436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration experiment examined the effects of intoxication and condom use self-efficacy on women's condom negotiation and future condom use intentions. After a questionnaire session, alcohol condition (control, .10% target peak BAL) was experimentally manipulated between subjects. Participants then read and responded to a hypothetical risky sexual decision-making scenario. SEM analyses revealed that alcohol intoxication directly decreased women's intentions to use condoms in the future. Women with greater condom use self-efficacy had stronger intentions to engage in condom negotiation; however, this effect was moderated by intoxication. Specifically, the association between condom use self-efficacy and condom negotiation intentions was stronger for intoxicated women than for sober women. These novel findings regarding the synergistic effects of alcohol intoxication and condom use self-efficacy support continued prevention efforts aimed at strengthening women's condom use self-efficacy, which may reduce even those sexual risk decisions made during states of intoxication. PMID:24129265

  14. 15 CFR 265.38 - Intoxication or other impairment of function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxication or other impairment of function. 265.38 Section 265.38 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... § 265.38 Intoxication or other impairment of function. No person shall enter or remain on the site...

  15. 15 CFR 265.38 - Intoxication or other impairment of function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxication or other impairment of function. 265.38 Section 265.38 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... § 265.38 Intoxication or other impairment of function. No person shall enter or remain on the site...

  16. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  17. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  18. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  19. Pesticides in fog.

    PubMed

    Glotfelty, D E; Seiber, J N; Liljedahl, L A

    The discovery of the very acidic nature of fog and clouds has created much interest in sampling, analysing, and elucidating the chemistry of fog, principally because an understanding of the chemical transformations leading to acid fog may provide important clues to the origin of acid rain. Recently, the knowledge of the chemistry of fog has expanded to include carbonyl compounds, volatile organic acids, and alkyl sulphonates. We have discovered that a variety of pesticides and their toxic alteration products are present in fog, and that they occasionally reach high concentrations relative to reported rainwater concentrations. In our experiments, we were able to measure the air-water distribution coefficients of pesticides between the liquid fog and the interstitial gas phase. These measurements reveal that some chemicals are enriched several thousandfold in the suspended liquid fog droplets compared to equilibrium distributions expected from Henry's Law coefficients for pure aqueous solutions.

  20. Pesticides and healthy public policy.

    PubMed

    Labonte, R N

    1989-01-01

    Despite concern over long-term human and environmental health risks, Canadian and international pesticide use continues to increase. Enormous gaps in pesticide toxicity data persist and, though equivocal, there is mounting evidence that certain pesticide families are carcinogenic. Farmworkers are at greatest risk of pesticide poisoning and long-term health effects, and unions representing farmworkers have initiated a boycott of California grapes to draw attention to the need to reduce pesticide use and improve health and safety conditions. The boycott is a model of "healthy public policy" in action, and can be one element in a public health strategy to reduce significantly pesticide use and promote less toxic alternatives and less chemically dependent forms of agriculture and silviculture. PMID:2790629

  1. Pesticide residues in eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Cromartie, E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.

    1969-01-01

    Bald and golden eagles found sick or dead in 18 States and Canada during 1964-1965 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues in bald eagles were considerably higher than in golden eagles. Residues of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin were detected in all samples of bald eagle carcasses; other compounds found, less frequently were heptachlor epoxide, endrin, and DCBP, a metabolite of DDT. DDE was detected in all samples of golden eagle carcasses; DDD, DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were detected less frequently.

  2. Methocarbamol CRI for symptomatic treatment of pyrethroid intoxication: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Draper, William E; Bolfer, Luiz; Cottam, Emily; McMichael, Maureen; Schubert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are popular for use in companion animals due to their relatively low mammalian toxicity and efficacy against arthropods. Nonetheless, pyrethroid intoxication has been reported in cats and dogs, and cats appear to be more susceptible due to difficulty in biotransformation and excretion of pyrethroids. Pyrethroid intoxications are generally due to either the improper use or accidental ingestion of approved products. Methocarbamol, given as intermittent injections, is a common first-line treatment choice for the tremors associated with pyrethroid intoxication. Two cats and one dog were treated with a methocarbamol continuous rate infusion (CRI) for pyrethroid intoxication. Clinical signs of toxicity resolved within a few hr in all three cases, with no adverse drug effects. A methocarbamol CRI can be considered in animals presenting with pyrethroid intoxication. PMID:23535756

  3. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  4. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  5. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  6. Pesticides in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Mañay, N; Rampoldi, O; Alvarez, C; Piastra, C; Heller, T; Viapiana, P; Korbut, S

    2004-01-01

    This is a review, from an independent and scientific point of view, of the different aspects involved in the issue of pesticides in Uruguay. In its preparation, the University, responsible official institutions, nongovenment environmental organizations, and independent experts have been consulted. As to the legal framework, the responsibilities of the institutions are described and evaluated. The earlier and current regulations for the registration and sale of pesticides are presented, as well as the available information on the active ingredients most used in Uruguay. Official control is evaluated in reference to pesticide residues in food, drinking water, and the environment and to final waste disposal. Maximum allowed residue limits and the responsibilities of the corresponding governmental institutions are presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there are no publicly available data. Several research programs are presented, mainly from academia, and usually are not completed due to lack of financial support. In the conclusions the most problematic aspects are pointed out, emphasizing the need to improve national regulations for the country to establish an effective system of control. The importance of financial support to achieve this control and to conduct interdisciplinary studies to determine the real situation is discussed. All compounds are listed in Table 19. PMID:14738198

  7. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  8. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in rostral ventrolateral medulla impairs brain stem cardiovascular regulation that underpins circulatory depression during mevinphos intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Yi; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Julie Y H; Chan, Samuel H H

    2014-03-01

    As the most widely used pesticides in the globe, the organophosphate compounds are understandably linked with the highest incidence of suicidal poisoning. Whereas the elicited toxicity is often associated with circulatory depression, the underlying mechanisms require further delineation. Employing the pesticide mevinphos as our experimental tool, we evaluated the hypothesis that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-κB on activation of the PI3K/Akt cascade in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the brain stem site that maintains blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor tone, underpins the circulatory depressive effects of organophosphate poisons. Microinjection of mevinphos (10 nmol) bilaterally into the RVLM of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats induced a progressive hypotension that was accompanied sequentially by an increase (Phase I) and a decrease (Phase II) of an experimental index for the baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone. There were also progressive augmentations in PI3K or Akt enzyme activity and phosphorylation of p85 or Akt(Thr308) subunit in the RVLM that were causally related to an increase in NF-κB transcription activity and elevation in NOS II or peroxynitrite expression. Loss-of-function manipulations of PI3K or Akt in the RVLM significantly antagonized the reduced baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone and hypotension during Phase II mevinphos intoxication, and blunted the increase in NF-κB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling. We conclude that activation of the PI3K/Akt cascade, leading to upregulation of NF-κB/NOS II/peroxynitrite signaling in the RVLM, elicits impairment of brain stem cardiovascular regulation that underpins circulatory depression during mevinphos intoxication.

  9. AMPA receptor potentiation can prevent ethanol-induced intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas; Messenger, Marcus J; O'Neill, Michael J; Oldershaw, Anna; Gilmour, Gary; Simmons, Rosa M A; Iyengar, Smriti; Libri, Vincenzo; Tricklebank, Mark; Williams, Steve C R

    2008-06-01

    We present a substantial series of behavioral and imaging experiments, which demonstrate, for the first time, that increasing AMPA receptor-mediated neurotransmission via administration of potent and selective biarylsulfonamide AMPA potentiators LY404187 and LY451395 reverses the central effects of an acutely intoxicating dose of ethanol in the rat. Using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we observed that LY404187 attenuated ethanol-induced reductions in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) in the anesthetized rat brain. A similar attenuation was apparent when measuring local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) via C14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography in freely moving conscious rats. Both LY404187 and LY451395 significantly and dose-dependently reversed ethanol-induced deficits in both motor coordination and disruptions in an operant task where animals were trained to press a lever for food reward. Both prophylactic and acute intervention treatment with LY404187 reversed ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination. Given that LY451395 and related AMPA receptor potentiators/ampakines are tolerated in both healthy volunteers and elderly patients, these data suggest that such compounds may form a potential management strategy for acute alcohol intoxication.

  10. [Minoxidil intoxication, the pharmacological agent of a hair lotion].

    PubMed

    Aprahamian, A; Escoda, S; Patteau, G; Merckx, A; Chéron, G

    2011-12-01

    Accidental intoxications in children are frequent but most of them are without serious consequences. We describe herein the case of a young girl who drank 100 mg of a topical hair lotion with minoxidil. On arrival, she had no symptoms except flush on the face and ears. Four and half hours after ingestion, tachycardia appeared with a pulse above 170 beats per min with hypotension at 76/24 mmHg. The heart rate remained between 170 and 190 beats per min for 12 h and then lowered to between 140 and 160 beats per min. Thirty-six hours after ingestion, the heart beat was at 140 beats per min. Minoxidil is a strong vasodilator used first in the 1970s for severe hypertension. It produces hypotension by direct arteriolar vasodilatation. Only a few cases of minoxidil intoxication have been described in the literature, including only one pediatric case. This young boy had only tachycardia of 160 beats per min for 40 h. Most serious cases have been described in adults. They suffered long-lasting tachycardia, hypotension, and ECG changes. Most patients need a bolus of normal saline fluid and some with hemodynamic problems need vasoactive drugs such as dopamine and/or phenylephrine. All patients need to be under medical supervision for a long time because of the product's very long action.

  11. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  12. Lead intoxication from an unexpected source. [Fruit drink dispensers

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfeld, M.J.

    1982-02-01

    A case of lead intoxication from an unexpected source is reported. An 18-year-old man came to the Divisin of Safety and Health, New York City, complaining of periodic cramping abdominal pain and weakness of several weeks' duration. In view of clinical laboratory findings, lead intoxication was considered in the differential diagnosis and determination of blood lead and urinary amino levulinic acid (ALA) were done. The blood lead value was 70 ..mu..g/100 g of whole blood. The urinary ALA value was 3.61 mg/100 of creatinine (normal, < 2.0 mg/100 mg of creatinine). A repeated urinary ALA test on the following day gave a value of 3.50 mg/100 mg of creatinine. An industrial hygiene survey was made to ascertain the patient's exposure to lead. The work place was a luncheonette that served flavored fruit drinks. The fruit drinks were dispensed from 12 tanks, and a sampling of these tanks showed that six of them were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. In one tank a chunk of lead was found. An analysis of this chunk of lead revealed that the lead content was 50.1%. Only two of the 12 tanks showed levels of lead that were excessively high; these were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. It was recommended to the owner that acid-containing drinks should be stored in tanks constructed of stainless steel,plastic, or other lead-free materials.

  13. Acute colchicine intoxication in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Biçer, Suat; Soysal, Demet D; Ctak, Agop; Uçsel, Raif; Karaböcüoğlu, Metin; Uzel, Nedret

    2007-05-01

    Colchicine poisoning is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening, toxicologic emergency. The clinical features associated with overdose and the options for treatment are discussed. Colchicine poisoning typically shows 3 phases: initially, gastrointestinal symptoms predominate; in the second phase, multiorgan failure may occur, possibly leading to death. If the patient survives, the third phase of recovery follows, during which the patient often presents with hair loss. Early fatality is due to cardiovascular collapse and respiratory failure; however, pancytopenia and overwhelming septicemia can occur later. All patients suspected of having colchicine intoxication because of its unpredictable outcome should be managed according to the principles of intensive care, irrespective of the actual degree of poisoning. In those patients who survive the initial phase of poisoning, filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) offers an effective method of treating pancytopenia and preventing overwhelming septicemia. Daily monitoring of the patients' hematological status is strongly recommended. We are reporting a case of previously healthy girl who developed a multisystem organ failure after colchicine intoxication. The patient recovered completely and had no residual outcome.

  14. Combined dextromethorphan and chlorpheniramine intoxication in impaired drivers.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K

    2009-09-01

    Dextromethorphan is a nonprescription antitussive which has been gaining in popularity as an abused drug, because of the hallucinogenic, dissociative, and intoxicating effects it produces at high doses. This report describes a series of eight drivers arrested for driving under the influence of the combined effects of dextromethorphan and chlorpheniramine, and a further four drivers under the influence of dextromethorphan alone. In the combined dextromethorphan/chlorpheniramine cases, blood dextromethorphan concentrations ranged from 150 to 1220 ng/mL (n = 8; mean 676 ng/mL, median 670 ng/mL), and chlorpheniramine concentrations ranged from 70 to 270 ng/mL (n = 8; mean 200 ng/mL, median 180 ng/mL). The four cases without chlorpheniramine present had blood dextromethorphan concentrations between 190 and 1000 ng/mL (mean 570 ng/mL, median 545 ng/mL). Some drivers had therapeutic concentrations of other drugs present. Drivers generally displayed symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depressant intoxication, and there was gross evidence of impairment in their driving, including weaving, leaving the lane of travel, failing to obey traffic signals, and involvement in collisions. Drug Recognition Expert opinions confirmed that the subjects were under the influence of a drug in the CNS-depressant category.

  15. Fatal intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    MDMB-CHMICA is a synthetic cannabinoid that appeared on the European drug market in September 2014. This substance was found in Poland in the herbal mixture "Mocarz" ("Strongman"), which caused a large outbreak of intoxications at the beginning of July 2015. This paper describes the circumstances of death and toxicological findings in a fatal intoxication with MDMB-CHMICA (in combination with alcohol). Loss of consciousness and asystole occurred a few minutes after smoking the 'legal high'. The man died after 4 days of hospitalisation. The cause of death accepted by the medical examiner was multiple organ failure. MDMB-CHMICA was detected and quantified in blood (ante- and postmortem) and internal organs tissues. The samples were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of MDMB-CHMICA in antemortem blood was 5.6 ng/mL. Although the death occurred after 4 days from administration a relatively high concentration (2.6 ng/g) was estimated in the brain. Traces of this compound were also found in other postmortem materials (blood, stomach, liver, bile, and kidney). The presented case shows the health risks associated with MDMB-CHMICA use. The administration of this substance can lead to the number of organ failures, cardiac arrest and consequently death.

  16. Characteristic manifestations of acute paint thinner-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Agin, Khosrow; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the acute clinical and para-clinical abnormalities arising from paint thinner (PT) poisoning in children. Data were collected from 2008 to 2013, and sourced from the medical records of PT-intoxicated children and through questionnaires. A total of 42 children were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 37.2±2.4 months. The participants ranged from10 to 96 months of age; with a median age of 3 months; and a modal age of 24 months. The sex ratio in the study was 22 males (64.9%) to 20 females (35.1%). Clinical biochemistry results of participants revealed the significant presence of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, 569.25±151.58U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 576.14±164.97 IU/L). Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was also carried out. Chest X-ray predominantly revealed right side alveolar air space consolidation. These results confirmed hepatotoxicity and pneumonia in PT-intoxicated children. The study also revealed that positive outcomes were achieved in patients with early treatment and management. In addition, the current finding confirmed the timely transfer of the victim to the poisoning center. PMID:27235798

  17. Alcohol intoxication and hangover: modification of hangover by chlormethiazole.

    PubMed

    Myrsten, A L; Rydberg, U; Ideström, C M; Lamble, R

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication and hangover were studied in 12 healthy male subjects who participated in three 18-h experimental sessions; two sessions in which they consumed 1.43 g alcohol/kg body weight as mixed beverages together with food, and one control session when mineral water was substituted for the alcoholic beverages. In one of the alcohol sessions they received chlormethiazole, 1 g at bedtime and 0.5 g early the following morning, in the other, they were given placebo tablets. The following variables were studied: blood-alcohol concentration; blood pressure; heart rate; blood lactate; blood pyruvate; urinary catecholamines (only during hangover); psychomotor and cognitive capacities; as well as subjective reactions. During intoxication, heart rate and lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly increased and performance efficiency was significantly deteriorated in comparison with the control condition. During hangover, heart rate, blood pressure, and lactate-pyruvate ratio were significantly elevated, and cognitive performance was still affected, in some tests to a significant degree. During this stage there was a great variation between subjects as regards subjective hangover. Chlormethiazole was found to lower blood pressure and adrenaline output and, furthermore, to relieve unpleasant physical symptoms, but did not affect fatigue and drowsiness. The cognitive test results were only slightly influenced by this agent, while psychomotor performance was significantly impaired. Subjects with severe subjective hangover seemed to benefit more from the chlormethiazole treatment than subjects with a mild hangover.

  18. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P),...

  19. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  20. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  1. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  2. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  3. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  4. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products...), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,...

  5. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions...

  6. Animal models that best reproduce the clinical manifestations of human intoxication with organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edna F R; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Basinger, G William; Wakayama, Edgar J; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2014-08-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases-the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds-they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans.

  7. Effects of lead intoxication on blood pressure and vascular adrenergic neuroeffector mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Adjei, G.B.; Nath, R.G.; McCalden, T.A.

    1986-03-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to determine the effects of chronic lead intoxication on vascular sympathetic neuroeffector function. The portal vein from normal and lead drinking Sprague-Dawley descendant male rats was set up in vitro for determination of the spontaneous muscle activity and responses to nerve stimulation (2-20 Hz) and exogenous norepinephrine (10-8 to 10-4M). The lead treated rats showed a BP of 194 +/- 13 mmHg which was higher than that of Controls (150 +/- 10 mmHg). When the in vitro portal vein was stretched the myogenic spontaneous activity was elicited at each level of load in Treated relative to Controls. At the highest load of 0.7 g the amplitude of spontaneous contractions was 0.20 + 0.06 g in Controls compared to 0.56 + 0.10 g in lead treated rats. The optimum load was also increased in the lead treated animals (0.5 vs 0.8 g). Furthermore, sensitivity of the lead treated portal vein to nerve stimulation and exogenous norepinephrine was significantly increased, with a shift of the dose response curve to the left and an increased maximal response. This shows that vascular neuroeffector function was increased in lead treated rats and this may have contributed to the hypertension.

  8. Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

    2014-01-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases—the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds—they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

  9. Intoxications with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine: an analysis of fatal and non-fatal events.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Kölle, Markus A; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-11-01

    Tranylcypromine (TCP) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor and an effective agent in the treatment of major depression. It features a complex pharmacologic profile and overdoses might induce severe intoxications. To identify typical clinical presentations of TCP-intoxications, range of associated TCP-dosages and possible differences between fatal and non-fatal intoxications a systematic review of all previously published cases of TCP-intoxications was conducted. We detected n=20 reports of TCP-intoxications in the literature (fatalities n=10). Mean age was 36.7 years (median 37); the majority of patients were female (60%). Frequent findings in patients with TCP-intoxications were disturbance of consciousness/cognitive dysfunction (90%), cardio-vascular symptoms (55%), hyperthermia (50%), respiratory distress (45%), delirium (45%), muscular rigidity (30%) and renal failure (20%). Suicidal intent was present in n=18 (90%) patients. First clinical symptoms related to TCP-intoxication developed on average in less than 1 day. The average dosage related to TCP-intoxication was 677 mg. The highest survived TCP-dosage was 4000 mg and the lowest fatal dosage was 170 mg. Patients with fatal intoxications were on average older (40.5 vs. 32.8 years) and developed a more rapid onset of symptoms (0.2 vs. 0.8 days). Death occurred after a mean time of 0.6 days; symptom relief in patients with non-fatal intoxications developed on average after 3.2 days. Considering the large dose spectrum between survived and lethal TCP-dosages individual susceptibility factors might play a role regarding the severity of clinical symptoms independently of the ingested dosage.

  10. Persistent pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A

    1996-01-01

    As part of the recent increase in the international interest in persistent organic pollutants and their environmental and health hazards, it was found that although most of them have been severely controlled in developed countries, in most developing countries--including Mexico--their import, use, and in some cases production have continued up to the present without sufficient or adequate controls. Despite the large and continuing use of persistent organic chemicals in Mexico in agriculture, public health, and industry, data on their import, production, use, disposal, and the presence of their residues in the environment, food, and human tissues are extremely scarce and widely dispersed. This review is devoted only to the use of persistent pesticides in Mexico; it is the first effort to locate, gather, and analyze this information and to summarize and discuss the past and current situation of the control of these chemicals in Mexico. This review discusses the general background for the use of these pesticides in the country, including historical development, the reasons for substitution by less persistent products in crops intended for export, and the undesirable effect of this substitution on the health of migratory agricultural workers. The current status of the legal framework for the control of pesticides in Mexico is presented with emphasis on its slow and haphazard development; the legal, technical, and administrative reasons for the insufficient enforcement and oversight of the existing regulations and standards are highlighted. The low priority of this research area for the Mexican science and technology authorities and the negative consequences of this low priority on the existence of sufficient reliable data on pesticide residues in the environment and humans in Mexico are also discussed. The available data on production and uses of persistent pesticides in Mexico are presented, and the existing information on their residues in the environment, biota

  11. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  12. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  13. Relative toxicity and occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds dominated by corn and soybean production.

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Gilliom, Robert J; Martin, Jeffrey D; Lydy, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the relative toxicity and the occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds, a 3-step approach was used. First, a landscape of interest was identified, defined, and isolated. Second, the relative toxicity of mixtures, on the basis of pesticide toxicity index scores, was compared with the relative toxicity of the highest individual pesticide, on the basis of highest toxicity quotient values. Third, occurrence patterns of pesticide mixtures were identified for use in follow-up mechanistic studies. The landscape of interest was identified as the corn and soybeans crop setting and concentrations of pesticides in streams within this crop setting were determined from US Geological Survey data. Pesticide toxicity index scores for individual samples were highest for the primary producers, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Lemna gibba; with 95th percentile pesticide toxicity index scores of 4.7 and 1.9, respectively. The 95th percentile pesticide toxicity index score for Daphnia magna was 0.40 when a chronic sublethal endpoint was used. Pesticide toxicity index values were above the highest toxicity quotient values, indicating that consideration of mixtures does increase the estimated risk, but pesticide toxicity index scores were generally within a factor of 2 of highest toxicity quotient values, indicating that the increased risk is not large for most samples. Pesticide toxicity index scores tended to be dominated by individual pesticides and simple mixtures. Two different prioritization strategies were used to identify important mixtures for further study on the basis of potential effects on P. subcapitata. Both techniques decreased the complexity of the pesticide mixtures to consider by reducing the number of components within the identified mixtures as well as identifying a few specific combinations that constitute the majority of mixtures within the sample. Nearly all important pesticides for P. subcapitata were

  14. Acute intoxication due to ingestion of vegetables contaminated with aldicarb.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Carlos A C; Mendes, Gloria E; Cipullo, José Paulo; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2005-01-01

    Three members of the same family ingested vegetables treated with aldicarb. All three developed signs and symptoms of acetylcholinesterase inhibition and all recovered a few hours after the ingestion. Reports of toxicity from the ingestion of aldicarb-contaminated food are uncommon. Aldicarb is a potent pesticide which can only be used safely if governmental and industry regulations are followed carefully.

  15. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  16. Agricultural pesticides in Mississippi Delta oxbow lake sediments during autumn and their effects on Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Richard E; Knight, Scott S; Bryant, Charles T; Smith, Sammie

    2009-10-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination of sediments from five Mississippi Delta oxbow lakes and their effects and bioavailablity to Hyalella azteca were assessed during a low-application season-autumn. Three reference oxbow lakes were located in the White River National Wildlife Refuge (WRNWR), Arkansas and two impaired lakes, according to the US Environmental Agency Sect. 303 (d) Clean Water Act, were located in Mississippi. Surface sediment (top 5 cm) was collected at three sites within each lake and analyzed for 17 current and historic-use pesticides and metabolites. Chronic 28-day H. azteca sediment bioassays and pesticide body residue analyses were completed to determine the degree of biological responses and bioavailability. The greatest number of detectable pesticides in WRNWR and 303 (d) sediment samples was 9 and 12, respectively, with historic-use pesticide metabolite, p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] ubiquitous. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in animal survival were observed among sites. Animal growth was significantly (p < 0.05) less at only one site in a 303 (d)-listed lake (Macon Lake). Only six pesticides were observed in H. azteca with current-use pesticides detected at three sites; historic-use pesticides and metabolites detected at 11 sites. Animal body residues of a historic-use pesticide (dieldrin) and metabolite (p,p'-DDE) were associated with observed growth responses. Results show limited current-use pesticide contamination of sediments and H. azteca body tissues during autumn and that historic-use pesticides and metabolites are the primary contributors to observed biological responses. PMID:19399548

  17. Acute work-related poisoning by pesticides in The Netherlands; a one year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Meulenbelt, J; de Vries, I

    1997-01-01

    The National Poisons Control Centre of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands conducted a prospective study on acute poisoning arising from exposure to pesticides in agricultural workers. The study was performed to determine the extent and severity of acute pesticide poisoning in the Netherlands and the working conditions that lead to these poisonings. All cases of potential acute occupational intoxication by pesticides in which the Poisons Control Centre was consulted in 1991 were thoroughly studied by an occupational hygienist and a specialist in internal medicine. With the consent of the patients and their physicians, the patients' medical condition and the working conditions leading to exposure were investigated on the spot. After the exclusion of 73 patients (27 non-occupational exposures, 7 occupational exposures in non-agricultural workers, 1 accident occurred abroad, 32 patients with illnesses unrelated to pesticides and 6 who could not be traced for follow-up), 54 cases of possible acute work-related pesticide poisoning remained for study. In 37 of the 54 events there was a direct relation between exposure to pesticides and acute health problems. In one patient doubt remained about the origin of the complaints and in 16 of the 54 cases pesticide poisoning was highly unlikely and the complaints could be attributed to other diseases. In the 37 remaining cases symptoms consisted of skin and/or eye lesions (23 cases) and systemic health effects (14 cases). Exposure to the soil disinfectant 1,3-dichloropropene resulted in severe skin damage. Direct contact of pesticides with the eyes invariability resulted in local irritation. Severe systemic poisonings occurred after exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides and the soil disinfectant methyl bromide. Investigations at the site of the exposure revealed 43 cases of clear exposure to pesticides, in which, except for two cases, 1 worker per incident was involved

  18. Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticide rinsate.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen S

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide rinsate has been considered as one of the major threats for the environment. In this study, photocatalysts such as TiO2 and O3 were used to promote the efficiency of direct UV photolysis to prevent such wastewater pollution. Carbofuran (a carbamate pesticide) and mevinphos (an organophosphate pesticide) with a concentration of 100 mg/L were selected as the test pesticide rinsates. Parent pesticide compound, COD, and microtoxicity analysis were employed to investigate the effect of photocatalyst on the degradation efficiency of pesticide in rinsate. It was found that the photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/O3, UV/TiO2) showed much higher COD removal and microtoxicity reduction efficiency for pesticide rinsate than did direct UV photolysis under the imposed conditions, suggesting that photocatalytic oxidation processes such as UV/O3 and UV/TiO2 could be a better alternative to treat pesticide rinsate. In addition, it was noted that increasing the initial pH of mevinphos rinsate to a basic level was required to reach higher COD removal efficiency and positive microtoxicity reduction efficiency while it was not necessary for the treatment of carbofuran rinsate.

  19. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  20. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...