Xanthos, Dimitris N.; Bennett, Gary J.; Coderre, Terence J.
Painful hypersensitivity to norepinephrine (NE) has been reported in various chronic pain conditions that exhibit sympathetically-maintained pain (SMP), particularly CRPS-I and II. We investigated the parallels between the nociceptive and vascular sensitivity to NE in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP), an animal model of CRPS-I induced by hind paw ischemia-reperfusion injury. Intradermal injections of NE to the affected hind paw induced dose-dependent nociceptive behaviours in CPIP rats, but not sham animals. These behaviours were blocked by α1- and α 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, or a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Using laser Doppler flowmetry, we detected vasoconstrictor hypersensitivity in the ipsilateral CPIP hind paw, as compared to responses in sham animals or the contralateral hind paw. The vasoconstrictor hypersensitivity was also attenuated by adrenergic antagonists. Intradermal injection of [Arg8] vasopressin (AVP) or the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, L-NIO, to the affected paw also induced nociceptive behaviours in CPIP rats, but not sham rats. These results suggest CPIP rats display abnormal nociceptive responses to adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictive agents. Furthermore, the nociceptive responses to NE in CPIP rats are paralleled by enhanced vasoconstrictive responses to NE, and are relieved by α-adrenergic antagonists or a vasodilator. We conclude that persistent tissue ischemia and hypersensitivity to sympathetic vasoconstriction are important mechanisms for pain in CPIP rats, and that either reducing vasoconstriction or enhancing vasodilatation may be effective methods of relieving the pain of CRPS-I. PMID:18079061
... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on for ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis Pain ...
Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org National ...
Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread
... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... pain has done. Scientists believe that advances in neuroscience will lead to more and better treatments for ...
... related, condition. Chronic Pain and the Americans with Disabilities Act Is chronic pain a disability under the ADA? The ADA does not contain a list of medical conditions that constitute disabilities. Instead, the ADA has a general definition of ...
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fighting Chronic Pain Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... diagnose, health care professionals and scientists know that chronic pain is very complex. Below are some of the ...
Salama-Hanna, Joseph; Chen, Grace
Preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic pain is important because it may lead to multidisciplinary preoperative treatment of patients' pain and a multimodal analgesia plan for effective pain control. Preoperative multidisciplinary management of chronic pain and comorbid conditions, such as depression, anxiety, deconditioning, and opioid tolerance, can improve patient satisfaction and surgical recovery. Multimodal analgesia using pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies shifts the burden of analgesia away from simply increasing opioid dosing. In more complicated chronic pain patients, multidisciplinary treatment, including pain psychology, physical therapy, judicious medication management, and minimally invasive interventions by pain specialists, can improve patients' satisfaction and surgical outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Serrie, A; Thurel, C
Recent data indicate that 25 to 30% of the population in industrialized countries suffers from benign chronic pain. Among these patients, 50 to 75% are professionally incapable for varied lengths of time, from a few days to some weeks or months, or even definitively. The aetiology and clinical presentation of chronic benign pain are enormously varied because this definition includes such different pathologies as headache, pain of rheumatologic, postsurgical, organic, and post-zoster origin, lombalgia, radiculalgia, post-amputation pain, neuropathologic pain, causalgia, algoneurodystrophic pain, psychosomatic and idiopathic pain. Since these syndromes and causes of pain could not be discussed individually, they have been grouped according to their neurophysiology and pathophysiology.
... doctor or your pharmacist.AcetaminophenAcetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol) helps many kinds of chronic pain. Remember, many over-the-counter and prescription pain medicines have acetaminophen in them. If you’re not careful, you ...
... to treat chronic pelvic pain. They include medications, physical therapy, nutritional therapy, and surgery: Lifestyle changes—Good posture ... are helpful in relieving pelvic pain, especially dysmenorrhea . Physical therapy—Acupuncture, acupressure, and nerve stimulation therapies may be ...
Cachemaille, Matthieu; Blanc, Catherine
Chronic postoperative pain remains a frequent pathology whose global impact approximates 20 and 30% and accounts for 20% of the consultations in a pain center. Risk factors consider firstly each patient's feature and comorbidity and also different surgical procedures with their technical approach. Neuropathic pain compared to nociceptive pain is a great component in the postoperative period and needs to be recognized by specific tests (DN4). Pain prevention involves risk factors' detection, appropriate anesthetic support and effective postoperative pain management. Treatment is based on the type of pain and includes a multimodal analgesia with interventional pain therapy.
Landau, R; Bollag, L; Ortner, C
With over four million deliveries annually in the United States alone and a constant increase in cesarean delivery rate, childbirth is likely to have a huge impact on the occurrence of acute and possibly chronic postpartum pain. Recent awareness that chronic pain may occur after childbirth has prompted clinicians and researchers to investigate this topic. Current evidence points towards a relatively low incidence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery, with rates ranging between 1% and 18%. To provide a potential mechanistic explanation for the relatively low occurrence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery compared with that after other types of surgery, it has been proposed that endogenous secretion of oxytocin may confer specific protection. Clinical interventions to reduce the incidence and severity of chronic post-surgical pain have not been consistently effective. Likely explanations are that the drugs that have been investigated were truly ineffective or that the effect was too modest because with a low incidence of chronic pain, studies were likely to be underpowered and failed to demonstrate an effect. In addition, since not all women require preventive therapies, preoperative testing that may identify women vulnerable to pain may be highly beneficial. Further research is needed to identify valid models that predict persistent pain to allow targeted interventions to women most likely to benefit from more tailored anti-hyperalgesic therapies.
Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine
Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.
Patient Education Sheet Tips for Chronic Pain The SSF thanks Stuart S. Kassan, MD, FACP, Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, for authoring ...
Summary points 1. Musculoskeletal problems are the commonest reason for medical discharge in all the British armed forces. By definition, these problems are chronic and resistant to treatment. 2. Pain is also common in veterans who have experienced severe injuries (polytrauma), often accompanied by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) orpostconcussive syndrome. 3. In veterans seeking treatment for chronic pain, PTSD is common. There is also evidence for elevated levels of alcohol misuse in veterans who have been deployed to conflict. However, most veterans do not have pain, PTSD or alcohol problems. 4. Pain clinicians would benefit from training in meeting veterans’ needs, in order to promote their engagement and successful treatment. This should include countering stereotypes, information about the military and support for the assessment and onward referral of PTSD and alcohol problems. PMID:26516504
Guiraud-Chaumeil, Bernard; Pariente, Jérémie; Albucher, Jean-François; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Chollet, François
Stroke is one of the most common affliction of patients with neurological symptoms. Rehabilitation of stroke patients is a difficult task. Our knowledge on rehabilitation has recently improved with the emergence of data from new neuroimaging techniques. A prospective, double blind, cross over, placebo, controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia, is conducted to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke. Each patient undergoes two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations, one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. A single dose of fluoxetine is enough to modulate cerebral sensori-motor activation and significantly improves motor skills of the affected side. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of chronic administration of fluoxetine on motor function.
Calderon, Raul; Copenhaver, David
Questions from patients about pain conditions, analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The use of transdermal buprenorphine for chronic pain management is discussed. A brief history of the medication is provided. The use of the medication in opioid maintenance, and withdrawal and other concerns are discussed. Possible side effects are described.
Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).
Ballantyne, Jane C
Opioids remain the strongest and most effective analgesics available. The downside is that they are addictive and potentially dangerous. Throughout history, although recognizing the value of opioids in treating serious pain, especially acute pain and pain at the end of life, there has been caution about using opioids to treat chronic pain. This article presents how opioids should be used to treat chronic pain considering recent concerns about their efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apkarian, A. Vania; Baliki, Marwan N.; Farmer, Melissa A.
Purpose of review Most individuals who develop pain following an inciting event will return to a healthy state as the injury heals. However, a small percentage continue to suffer, that is, transition to chronic pain. Chronic pain may persist for years and is accompanied by cognitive abnormalities, as well as diminished quality of life. In animals, persistent pain is characterized by peripheral and spinal cord reorganization, and recent evidence in humans also indicates cortical reorganization. Yet, despite more than 30 years of research, there is little agreement on the neural mechanisms that mediate the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent findings In a longitudinal brain-imaging study, individuals who developed an intense back pain episode were followed over a 1-year period, during which pain and brain parameters were collected repeatedly. A smaller number of healthy individuals and chronic back pain patients were also studied concomitantly, as positive and negative controls. At the time of entry into the study, strength of synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (i.e. functional connectivity) was predictive (>80% accuracy) of individuals who subsequently transition to chronicity 1 year later. Summary Properties of the brain’s emotional learning circuitry predict the transition to chronic pain. The involvement of this circuitry in pain remains mostly unexplored. Future human and animal model studies are necessary to unravel underlying mechanisms driving pain chronicity, with the potential of advancing novel therapeutics for preventing pain chronification. PMID:23823463
Chronic pain is a major personal, family, and community disaster. The sufferer usually has difficulties in every aspect of life. The key to successful treatment lies in a comprehensive and accurate assessment that must include family, marital, legal, behavioural, mental, and organic considerations. With comprehensive assessment, a logical plan of treatment can be constructed. Non-compliance, substance abuse, doctor shopping and secondary gain, as well as complex psychodynamics, make management of such pain difficult and frustrating. The patients are frequently playing “games” in which they control the rules, and which the physician can never win. Success rates are poor even in specialized centres, and many patients are ultimately injured by inappropriate investigation or treatment. Physicians who have become over-involved with such patients may also be injured by the process, to the detriment of their general care of other patients and themselves. PMID:21248889
Peng, Philip W H
In the last 2 decades, a growing body of research aimed at investigating the health benefits of Tai Chi in various chronic health conditions has been recognized in the literature. This article reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the evidence for the role of Tai Chi in a few selected chronic pain conditions. The ancient health art of Tai Chi contributes to chronic pain management in 3 major areas: adaptive exercise, mind-body interaction, and meditation. Trials examining the health benefit of Tai Chi in chronic pain conditions are mostly low quality. Only 5 pain conditions were reviewed: osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, and headache. Of these, Tai Chi seems to be an effective intervention in osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. The limitations of the Tai Chi study design and suggestions for the direction of future research are also discussed.
Introduction Over 70% of people in resource-rich countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non-recent-onset patients still experience pain one year later. Many chronic patients who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 74 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural steroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulative therapy, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445791
Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.
Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799
Hague, Matthew; Shenker, Nicholas
Chronic pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience persisting longer than the normal process of healing, usually longer than 3 months. About a fifth of the world's population is believed to suffer from chronic pain. In Europe, chronic pain accounts for nearly 500 m lost working days, and it costs the European economy >€34 billion (£28 billion) every year. Establishing a reliable diagnosis is the primary challenge in evaluating a patient with chronic pain. Common diagnoses not to miss include seronegative spondyloarthritides, endocrine abnormalities including severe vitamin D deficiency and polymyalgia rheumatica. Once important or treatable diagnoses have been ruled out, the history can be used as a tool to establish a therapeutic plan for shared decision-making using the biopsychosocial model. Onward referral to pain clinics can be helpful for more involved patient management, but often good outcomes are achieved with the support of primary care.
Fontaine, D; Blond, S; Mertens, P; Lanteri-Minet, M
Neurosurgical treatment of pain used two kind of techniques: 1) Lesional techniques interrupt the transmission of nociceptive neural input by lesionning the nociceptive pathways (drezotomy, cordotomy, tractotomy…). They are indicated to treat morphine-resistant cancer pain and few cases of selected neuropathic pain. 2) Neuromodulation techniques try to decrease pain by reinforcing inhibitory and/or to limit activatory mechanisms. Chronic electrical stimulation of the nervous system (peripheral nerve stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, motor cortex stimulation…) is used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Intrathecal infusion of analgesics (morphine, ziconotide…), using implantable pumps, allows to increase their efficacy and to reduce their side effects. These techniques can improve, sometimes dramatically, selected patients with severe and chronic pain, refractory to all other treatments. The quality of the analgesic outcome depends on the relevance of the indications.
Introduction Over 70% of people in developed countries develop low back pain (LBP) at some time. But recovery is not always favourable: 82% of non recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Many patients with chronic LBP who were initially told that their natural history was good spend months or years seeking relief. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments? What are the effects of injection therapy? What are the effects of non-drug treatments? What are the effects of non-surgical and surgical treatments? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 64 systematic reviews or RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, analgesics, antidepressants, back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes, lumbar supports, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-surgical interventional therapies (intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency denervation), spinal manipulative therapy, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:21418678
Dale, Rebecca; Stacey, Brett
Most patients with chronic pain receive multimodal treatment. There is scant literature to guide us, but when approaching combination pharmacotherapy, the practitioner and patient must weigh the benefits with the side effects; many medications have modest effect yet carry significant side effects that can be additive. Chronic pain often leads to depression, anxiety, and deconditioning, which are targets for treatment. Structured interdisciplinary programs are beneficial but costly. Interventions have their place in the treatment of chronic pain and should be a part of a multidisciplinary treatment plan. Further research is needed to validate many common combination treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Bramanti, Placido; Osculati, Francesco; Flonta, Maria-Luisa; Radu, Mihai; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo Francesco
Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with major socioeconomic impact, whose neurobiological basis is still not clear. An involvement of the neurovascular unit (NVU) has been recently proposed. In particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), two NVU key players, may be affected during the development of chronic pain; in particular, transient permeabilization of the barrier is suggested by several inflammatory- and nerve-injury-based pain models, and we argue that the clarification of molecular BBB/BSCB permeabilization events will shed new light in understanding chronic pain mechanisms. Possible biases in experiments supporting this theory and its translational potentials are discussed. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the role of the endothelium, we propose that our understanding of the mechanisms subserving chronic pain will benefit from the extension of research efforts to the NVU as a whole. In this view, the available evidence on the interaction between analgesic drugs and the NVU is here reviewed. Chronic pain comorbidities, such as neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are also discussed in view of NVU changes, together with innovative pharmacological solutions targeting NVU components in chronic pain treatment. PMID:23840097
... hernia — can lead to recurring pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. This can occur if a long-term infection, often sexually transmitted, causes scarring that involves your pelvic organs. Ovarian remnant. After surgical removal of the ...
Librach, S. L.
Pain is common in family practice. In dealing with chronic pain, both the family physician and the patient often have problems in defining and in understanding the origin of chronic pain and in providing effective pain relief. This article explores a practical, holistic approach to understanding and managing chronic pain. PMID:8471902
Raithel, Kathryn Simmons
Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)
Speer, Linda M; Mushkbar, Saudia; Erbele, Tara
Chronic pelvic pain in women is defined as persistent, noncyclic pain perceived to be in structures related to the pelvis and lasting more than six months. Often no specific etiology can be identified, and it can be conceptualized as a chronic regional pain syndrome or functional somatic pain syndrome. It is typically associated with other functional somatic pain syndromes (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome, nonspecific chronic fatigue syndrome) and mental health disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). Diagnosis is based on findings from the history and physical examination. Pelvic ultrasonography is indicated to rule out anatomic abnormalities. Referral for diagnostic evaluation of endometriosis by laparoscopy is usually indicated in severe cases. Curative treatment is elusive, and evidence-based therapies are limited. Patient engagement in a biopsychosocial approach is recommended, with treatment of any identifiable disease process such as endometriosis, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, and comorbid depression. Potentially beneficial medications include depot medroxyprogesterone, gabapentin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with add-back hormone therapy. Pelvic floor physical therapy may be helpful. Behavioral therapy is an integral part of treatment. In select cases, neuromodulation of sacral nerves may be appropriate. Hysterectomy may be considered as a last resort if pain seems to be of uterine origin, although significant improvement occurs in only about one-half of cases. Chronic pelvic pain should be managed with a collaborative, patient-centered approach.
Raithel, Kathryn Simmons
Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)
Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit
Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.
Sibert, L; Safsaf, A; Rigaud, J; Delavierre, D; Labat, J-J
To list clinical and ethiopathogenical elements relevant to the analysis of an epididymal and testicular pain. Review of published articles on the subject in the Medline(®) (PubMed(®)) database, selected according to their scientific relevance. Assessment of a chronic epididymal and testicular pain is mostly clinical and should: (1) eliminate local urological disorder; (2) suggest a neurological problem, based on signs and semiology; (3) suggest injury of nervous truncus according to medical history and scars; (4) detect referred pains, primarily back and thoracolumbar pains. The causal link between epididymal cysts, surgical aftereffect, local infection and chronic epididymal and testicular pain is not established with certainty. Spermatic cord nerve block, as a diagnostic test, should be done before undergoing any invasive procedure. The fundamental notion is being able to distinguish epididymal and testicular pain and scrotal pain, because the testis has an abdominal origin, and therefore a sympathetic instead of sacral innervation. An absence evident somatic or iatrogenous cause should suggest hypersensibility to pain. Assessment of an epididymal and testicular pain requires a global clinical examination, which should take into account every aspect of the pain, including its functional and emotional components. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Descalzi, Giannina; Ikegami, Daigo; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Nestler, Eric J; Zachariou, Venetia; Narita, Minoru
Neuropathic and inflammatory pain promote a large number of persisting adaptations at the cellular and molecular level, allowing even transient tissue or nerve damage to elicit changes in cells that contribute to the development of chronic pain and associated symptoms. There is evidence that injury-induced changes in chromatin structure drive stable changes in gene expression and neural function, which may cause several symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, anxiety, and depression. Recent findings on epigenetic changes in the spinal cord and brain during chronic pain may guide fundamental advances in new treatments. Here, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic regulation in the nervous system and then discuss the still-limited literature that directly implicates epigenetic modifications in chronic pain syndromes.
Descalzi, Giannina; Ikegami, Daigo; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Nestler, Eric; Zachariou, Venetia; Narita, Minoru
Neuropathic and inflammatory pain promote a large number of persisting adaptations at the cellular and molecular level, allowing tissue or nerve damage, even if only transient, to elicit changes in cells that contribute to the development of chronic pain and associated symptoms. There is evidence that injury-induced changes in chromatin structure drive stable changes in gene expression and neural function, which may cause several symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, anxiety, and depression. Recent findings on epigenetic changes in the spinal cord and brain during chronic pain may guide fundamental advances in new treatments. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic regulation in the nervous system and then discuss the still-limited literature that directly implicates epigenetic modifications in chronic pain syndromes. PMID:25765319
Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D
Chronic pelvic pain remains a difficult management problem that is often refractory to traditional medical or surgical therapy. The pain management center approach used successfully for the treatment of cancer pain and headache can be adapted to the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The results of this pilot study suggest that the multidisciplinary techniques of pain management promise to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.
Until recently the paradigms of pain research were predominantly related to acute pain in humans and animals. Some 20 years ago the focus of basic and clinical research was shifted towards the mechanisms of chronic pain. Usually the nociceptors of our joints respond only to overload and lesions and thus serve protective functions. However, in case of a lasting pain condition mechanisms emerge in the nervous system that result in an increasing sensitivity of the neuronal pain system-these are the initial steps toward the process of pain chronicity. Inflammatory mediators including cytokines result in a dramatic enhancement of peripheral nervous system sensitivity. The ensuing plastic changes in the central neurotransmitter systems result in long term potentiation of synaptic transmission and may include adaptations in neuronal gene transcription. Interactions between the nervous and immune systems as well as learning processes may further wind up pain sensitivity. The tendency of perpetuation inherent to these processes contribute to pain chronicity-can this be halted by preventive treatment strategies?
Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S; Aziz, Qasim; Drewes, Asbjørn M
Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological and psychological interventions, thereby providing a mechanism-orientated approach to treatment. Patients can frequently become disenfranchised, and subsequently disengaged, with healthcare providers leading to repeated consultations. Thus, a key aspect of management is to break this cycle by validating patients' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations in central pain processing.
Slipp, Marlene; Burnham, Robert
Background: The prevalence of chronic pain is high and increasing. Medication management is an important component of chronic pain management. There is a shortage of physicians who are available and comfortable providing this service. In Alberta, pharmacists have been granted an advanced scope of practice. Given this empowerment, their availability, training and skill set, pharmacists are well positioned to play an expanded role in the medication management of chronic pain sufferers. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and cost of a physician-only vs a pharmacist-physician team model of medication management for chronic nonmalignant pain sufferers. Method: Data was analyzed for 89 patients who had received exclusively medication management at a rural Alberta multidisciplinary clinic. 56 were managed by a sole physician. 33 were managed by a team (pharmacist + physician). In the team model, the physician did the medical assessment, diagnosis, and established a treatment plan in consultation with the patient and pharmacist. The pharmacist then provided the ongoing follow-up including education, dose titration and side effect management and consulted with the physician as needed. Change in pain (Numerical Rating Scale) and disability (Pain Interference Questionnaire) over the course of treatment were recorded. The treatment duration and number of visits were used to calculate cost of care. Results: Both models of medication management resulted in significant and comparable improvements in pain, disability and patient perception of medication effectiveness. Patients in the physician-only group were seen more frequently and at a greater cost. The pharmacist-physician team approach was markedly more cost-effective, and patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with their medication management. Conclusions: The pharmacist-physician team model of medication management results in significant reductions of pain and disability for chronic nonmalignant pain sufferers
Arnold, Lesley M
Chronic widespread pain is associated with several medical and psychiatric disorders including, but not limited to, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mood disorders, hepatitis, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, and rheumatologic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Careful and comprehensive differential diagnosis must be performed to ensure a correct diagnosis before an appropriate treatment can be selected. Fibromyalgia, in particular, is challenging to diagnose and treat because it shares many characteristics with other disorders and is commonly concurrent with major mood disorders. A comprehensive disease management strategy including patient education, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and aerobic and other forms of exercise can be beneficial for many patients with fibromyalgia.
Choy, Ernest; Clauw, Daniel J.; Goldenberg, Don L.; Harris, Richard E.; Helfenstein, Milton; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Noguchi, Koichi; Silverman, Stuart L.; Ushida, Takahiro; Wang, Guochun
This manuscript, developed by a group of chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia (FM) and identify ongoing challenges in the field of FM and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of FM and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with FM and other conditions with FM-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients’ lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about FM and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of FM. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of FM and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to FM and chronic pain in general. PMID:27022674
... if bending to pick up heavy pots sends shooting pain down your back, rearrange your kitchen so ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...
Saha, Felix J.; Brüning, Alexander; Barcelona, Cyrus; Büssing, Arndt; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger
Abstract Introduction: Integrative medicine inpatient treatment has been shown to improve physical and mental health in patients with internal medicine conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient treatment in patients with chronic pain syndromes and the association of treatment success with patient-related process variables. Methods: Inpatients with chronic pain syndromes participating in a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient program were included. Patients’ pain intensity, pain disability, pain perception, quality of life, depression, and perceived stress were measured on admission, discharge, and 6 months after discharge. Likewise process variables including ability and will to change, emotional/rational disease acceptance, mindfulness, life and health satisfaction, and easiness of life were assessed. Results: A total of 310 inpatients (91% female, mean age 50.7 ± 12.4 year, 26.5% low back pain, and 22.9% fibromyalgia) were included. Using mixed linear models, significant improvements in pain intensity, pain disability, pain perception, quality of life, depression, and perceived stress were found (all P < 0.05). Ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, mindfulness, life and health satisfaction, and light heartedness/easiness likewise improved (all P < 0.05). Improved outcomes were associated with increases in process variables, mainly ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, life and health satisfaction, and light heartedness/easiness (R2 = 0.03–0.40). Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that a 2-week integrative medicine inpatient treatment can benefit patients with chronic pain conditions. Functional improvements are associated with improved ability to change and implementation, disease acceptance, and satisfaction. PMID:27399133
Pain is a real issue of public health, quality and evolution of a system of health test: this is a major social problem. Pain management meets a humanistic, ethical purpose and dignity of man because of the physical and psychological implications. It induces a disability which excludes the patient of society gradually or suddenly. The physical pain and mental suffering to all ages of life make more vulnerable people weakened by disease. Rebel chronic pain are sources of disability, disabilities, disability and major alterations in the quality of life. All of these data shows the impact of pain and its intensity on the professional conditions, on professional activity and productivity, on the use of care systems (very significant increase in medical consultations, hospitalizations), as well as on the mental and physical health. These results confirmed analyses which consider that the unrelieved pain has a major economic impact on care systems and constitutes a public health problem with around two thirds of persons professionally impacted by pain. The progress of medicine has helped the healing of certain serious diseases, but also favoured acute diseases to turn to chronic diseases. The result is an increase in of lifetime sometimes without disease, but this survival may be also accompanied by disease or disability. Progress, pain and suffering, the end of life, ethics will be the core of the basic thoughts of tomorrow.
Cimmino, Marco A; Ferrone, Carmela; Cutolo, Maurizio
Chronic widespread pain (CWP) due to musculoskeletal conditions is a major social burden. The case definition of CWP relies on pain, chronicity (more than 3 months' duration) and widespread distribution (both sides of the body including the axial skeleton). Health Interview Survey (HIS) and Health Examination Survey (HES) have been used to assess the frequency of CWP in the general population. Unfortunately, both techniques are poorly standardised, which hampers comparison of data pertaining to different populations and countries. A major effort in the European Union (EU) is the development of common strategies to investigate musculoskeletal pain through HIS. Issues to be addressed include: (1) loss of daily life functions due to pain; (2) pain duration and rhythm; (3) affected sites; and (4) type of pain. We know that musculoskeletal pain affects between 13.5% and 47% of the general population, with CWP prevalence varying between 11.4% and 24%. Risk factors for musculoskeletal pain include age, gender, smoking, low education, low physical activity, poor social interaction, low family income, depression, anxiety and sleep disorders, as well as performing manual work, being a recent immigrant, non-Caucasian and widowed, separated or divorced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lavielle, Pilar; Clark, Patricia; Martínez, Homero; Mercado, Francisco; Ryan, Gery
To describe the illness behaviour in patients with chronic pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews to 53 patients during 2000, in a tertiary care center. We explored their initial interpretations, responses and subsequent practices to chronic pain, until they received a diagnosis that satisfied them. Illness behaviour was determined by pain intensity and disability; beliefs regarding pain causes, trust in social networks, and quality and satisfaction with the health care systems. In terms of the decision to seek care, the first option was to go to the popular sector, followed by consulting a general physician, and as last resort, to go to a tertiary care center ("with a specialist"). Illness behaviour should be conceptualized as a process, which combines the use of different health care sectors by the same subjects, as a result of care provided sequentially by each previous sector.
Current terminology uses the 2008 European Association of Urology guidelines, but variably used historical terms suggest inflammation or infection that is rarely found. Central sensitisation is important in causing visceral and muscle hyperalgesia throughout the pelvis. There can be considerable overlap between urogenital pain conditions. Men who have a chronic urological pain condition often have a disturbance of urinary, bowel and sexual function. Working with urologists as well as a multidisciplinary team is essential. PMID:26526127
Wilson, Anna C; Fales, Jessica L
This study aims to describe what adults with chronic pain experience in their role as parents, utilizing quantitative and qualitative methods. The first aim was to compare parents with chronic pain to parents without chronic pain on perceptions of their adolescent's pain, parental response to pain, and catastrophizing beliefs about pain. The study also examined predictors of parental protective behaviors, and examined whether these associations differed by study group. Parents with chronic pain (n=58) and parents without chronic pain (n=72) participated, and completed questionnaire measures of pain characteristics and pain interference, as well as measures of parental catastrophizing and protective pain responses. Parents with chronic pain also completed a structured interview about their experience of being a parent. Interview responses were videotaped and subsequently coded for content. Compared with controls, parents with chronic pain endorsed more pain in their adolescents, and were more likely to catastrophize about their adolescent's pain and respond with protective behaviors. Parent's own pain interference and the perception of higher pain in their adolescent was associated with increased protective parenting in the chronic pain group. Qualitative coding revealed a number of areas of common impact of chronic pain on parenting. Chronic pain impacts everyday parenting activities and emotions, and impacts pain-specific parent responses that are known to be related to increased pain and pain catastrophizing in children and adolescents. Parents with chronic pain might benefit from interventions that address potential parenting difficulties, and might improve outcomes for their children.
Kapur, Bhushan M; Lala, Prateek K; Shaw, Julie L V
The experience of chronic pain is one of the commonest reasons individuals seek medical attention, making the management of chronic pain a major issue in clinical practice. Drug metabolism and responses are affected by many factors, with genetic variations offering only a partial explanation of an individual's response. There is a paucity of evidence for the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing in the context of pain management. We reviewed the literature between 2000 and 2013, and references cited therein, using various keywords related to pain management, pharmacology and pharmacogenetics. Opioids continue to be the mainstay of chronic pain management. Several non-opioid based therapies, such as treatment with cannabinoids, gene therapy and epigenetic-based approaches are now available for these patients. Adjuvant therapies with antidepressants, benzodiazepines or anticonvulsants can also be useful in managing pain. Currently, laboratory monitoring of pain management patients, if performed, is largely through urine drug measurements. Drug half-life calculations can be used as functional markers of the cumulative effect of pharmacogenetics and drug-drug interactions. Assessment of half-life and therapeutic effects may be more useful than genetic testing in preventing adverse drug reactions to pain medications, while ensuring effective analgesia. Definitive, mass spectrometry-based methods, capable of measuring parent drug and metabolite levels, are the most useful assays for this purpose. Urine drug measurements do not necessarily correlate with serum drug concentrations or therapeutic effects. Therefore, they are limited in their use in monitoring efficacy and toxicity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas
Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P < 0.001) indicating induction of CPM. Conditioned pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P < 0.001), but CPM in CWP and FMS did not differ. Interestingly, a higher number of painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values <0.01). Our findings suggest that CPM dysfunction is associated with CWP and not with FMS as suggested previously. FMS seems to differ from CWP without FMS by higher psychosocial burden. Moreover, patients with CBP should be stratified into CLP and CWP, and centrally acting treatments targeting endogenous pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.
Danilov, Andrei; Kurganova, Julia
Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by epiphysis and extrapineal structures. It performs several functions including chronobiotic, antioxidant, oncostatic, immune modulating, normothermal, and anxiolytic functions. Melatonin affects the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract, participates in reproduction and metabolism, and body mass regulation. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated melatonin efficacy in relation to pain syndromes. The present paper reviews the studies on melatonin use in fibromyalgia, headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. The paper discusses the possible mechanisms of melatonin analgesic properties. On one hand, circadian rhythms normalization results in sleep improvement, which is inevitably disordered in chronic pain syndromes, and activation of melatonin adaptive capabilities. On the other hand, there is evidence of melatonin-independent analgesic effect involving melatonin receptors and several neurotransmitter systems.
Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus; Licht, Peter B; Toft, Palle
Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. Nine patients developed chronic unexplained pain 12 months postoperatively. In a multivariate analysis model, cumulated visceral pain during the first week and number of preoperative biliary pain attacks were identified as independent risk factors for unexplained chronic pain 12 months postoperatively. There were no consistent signs of hypersensitivity in the referred pain area either pre- or postoperatively. There were no significant associations to any other variables examined. The risk of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is relatively low, but significantly related to the visceral pain response during the first postoperative week. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Timerbaev, V Kh; Genov, P G
About 23% of the population according to WHO data suffer from chronic pain. It significantly reduces the quality of life of this patients and lead to their disability. Physicians of any existing specialties in Russia are not trained properly to the treatment of chronic pain. Anesthesiologists have the best background for management chronic pain syndrome.
Biasi, G; Di Sabatino, V; Ghizzani, A; Galeazzi, M
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition that has a major impact on the quality of life of both men and women. Male CPP is usually attributable to well-defined urogenital conditions (most frequently infectious/non infectious prostatic diseases) or musculoskeletal or bowel diseases, whereas the features of female CPP are much more complex and are of particular clinical and epidemiological importance. It is a multifactorial syndrome that can be due to diseases of the urogenital, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal systems, or to neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. It is not always easy to identify its predominant pathogenesis, although it often occurs as a central sensitization syndrome triggered by an initial stimulus which is no longer detectable and only manifests itself clinically through pain. In this respect, there are some very interesting relationships between vulvodynia and fibromyalgic syndrome, as identified in a preliminary study of women with chronic musculoskeletal pain in which it was demonstrated that vulvar pain plays an important role, although it is often overlooked and undiagnosed.
Miller, D B
Chronic Pain extracts a "penalty" on society now estimated to be well in excess of $100 million per year. The "penalty" that Chronic Pain extracts from its victims is incalculable. Chronic Pain is a major component of Temporomandibular Disorders. The current neurological theory of the mechanism of chronic TMD pain is explored along with the current modes of treatment. Pharmacological management of Chronic Pain in a clinical setting is outlined. Dentists are involved in pain management on a daily basis. Dentists treat pain both prophylacticly and in response to specific patient symptoms. Most dental treatment involves some type of pain management. We, dentists, have become very adept at managing acute pain. We have much greater difficulty managing chronic pain. The word "pain" derives from the Greek word for penalty, and appeared to them to be a "penalty" inflicted by the gods. In 1984, Bonica estimated that one-third of all Americans suffered from some kind of chronic pain at a "penalty" to society of $65 Billion annually in medical expenses and lost wages and productivity. This figure is certainly much greater now. Chronic pain can be a very complex problem that can require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Chronic pain in the dental setting is most frequetly caused by prolonged Temporomandibular Disorders.
Berk, Hanife Ozlem Sertel; Bahadir, Güler
Chronic pain is well appreciated as a universal problem in the sense that it causes serious impairment in the individuals' physical and psychosocial status of functioning. Research, psychological assessment and psychotherapeutic process towards chronic pain is most frequently based on the principles of cognitive-behavioral approach (CBA). However, Sharp criticised CBA for its ongoing dependency on the operant premises of the pure behavioral approach and proposed a "reformulated CBA" where the emphasis is on specific cognitive factors, primarily the pain beliefs. According to current studies in chronic pain, it is becoming increasingly apparent that pain beliefs play an important role in the maintainance and management of chronic pain. In Turkey, there are no studies and tools on pain beliefs. In this specific review, the literature on pain beliefs is discussed in terms of necessity of research and material development on pain beliefs that tab factors specific to Turkish culture.
Becker, S; Diers, M
Many chronic pain syndromes are characterized by enhanced perception of painful stimuli as well as alterations in cortical processing in sensory and motor regions. In this review article the alterations in muscle pain and neuropathic pain are described. Alterations in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic back pain are described as examples for musculoskeletal pain and also in patients with phantom limb pain after amputation and complex regional pain syndrome as examples for neuropathic pain. In addition to altered pain perception, cumulative evidence on alterations in the processing of reward and the underlying mechanisms in chronic pain has been described. A description is given of what is known on how pain and reward interact and affect each other. The relevance of such interactions for chronic pain is discussed. The implications of these findings for therapeutic approaches are delineated with respect to sensorimotor training and behavioral therapy, focusing on the effectiveness of these approaches, mechanisms and future developments. In particular, we discuss operant behavioral therapy in patients with chronic back pain and fibromyalgia as well as prosthesis training in patients with phantom limb pain and discrimination, mirror and imaginary training in patients with phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. With respect to the processing of reward, the focus of the discussion is on the role of reward and associated learning in pain therapy.
Alonso Fernández, Francisco
The comorbidity integrated by chronic pain and depression is very common. The somatoform depressive symptoms appear often as diferent types of pain. Amon them premenstrual pain and fibromialgia are some of the most important clinical pictures. Chronic pain leads to depression as a consequence of these three kinds of factors: biomedical, psychosocial (passive attitude, disability) and pharmacological agents. Copping and acceptance of chronic pain is associated with lower pain intensity, less depression and less psychosocial disability. The appropriate use of analgesics in the management of chronic pain demands individualization. Several antidepressants have possitive effects on pain syndrom. Depression is underrecognized ad undertreated above all in patients with chronic pain. In order screening the depression seven ways are described here: personal and family history, type of the personality, clinic and evolutive aspects of somatoform symptom, search of other depressive symptoms and positive therapeutic effect determinated by an antidepressant.
Carinci, Adam J; Mehta, Pankaj; Christo, Paul J
Torture is widely practiced throughout the world. Recent studies indicate that 50% of all countries, including 79% of the G-20 countries, continue to practice systematic torture despite a universal ban. It is well known that torture has numerous physical, psychological, and pain-related sequelae that can inflict a devastating and enduring burden on its victims. Health care professionals, particularly those who specialize in the treatment of chronic pain, have an obligation to better understand the physical and psychological effects of torture. This review highlights the epidemiology, classification, pain sequelae, and clinical treatment guidelines of torture victims. In addition, the role of pharmacologic and psychologic interventions is explored in the context of rehabilitation.
Vickers, E R; Cousins, M J; Woodhouse, A
A multidisciplinary pain centre study of 120 consecutive chronic orofacial pain patients assessed pain description and intensity ratings, gender differences, prevalence of concurrent conditions, and interinstrument relationships of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain words chosen by patients to describe conditions were predominantly sensory words, and patients with concurrent conditions often listed words indicating a substantial affective component. Results showed pain intensity ratings of chronic orofacial pain conditions have similar or higher pain ratings when compared with other medical chronic pain conditions such as back pain, cancer pain and arthritis. There was a significantly higher female: male ratio (88:32) with gender playing an important but poorly understood causal role. The most frequent condition diagnosed was atypical facial pain (n = 40), followed by temporomandibular disorder (n = 32), atypical odontalgia (n = 29) and pathology of the orofacial region (n = 19). Temporomandibular disorder was present in 75 of the 120 subjects, as the sole pain complaint (n = 32) or as an associated secondary condition (n = 43), indicating concurrent pain conditions exist and may be related. There were significantly higher total pain scores of the McGill Pain Questionnaire in patients with multiple conditions compared with patients with a single condition. The visual analogue scale showed a significant correlation to the number of words chosen index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire for orofacial pain.
The recent American Academy of Neurology position paper by Franklin, “Opioids for chronic noncancer pain,” suggests that the benefits of opioid treatment are very likely to be substantially outweighed by the risks and recommends avoidance of doses above 80–120 mg/day morphine equivalent. However, close reading of the primary literature supports a different conclusion: opioids have been shown in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to be highly effective in the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain; long-term follow-up studies have shown that this effectiveness can be maintained; and effectiveness has been limited in many clinical trials by failure to take into account high variability in dose requirements, failure to adequately treat depression, and use of suboptimal outcome measures. Frequency of side effects in many RCTs has been inflated by overly rapid dose titration and failure to appreciate the high interindividual variability in side effect profiles. The recent marked increase in incidence of opioid overdose is of grave concern, but there is good reason to believe that it has been somewhat exaggerated. Potential causes of overdose include inadequately treated depression; inadequately treated pain, particularly when compounded by hopelessness; inadvertent overdose; concurrent use of alcohol; and insufficient practitioner expertise. Effective treatment of pain can enable large numbers of patients to lead productive lives and improve quality of life. Effective alleviation of suffering associated with pain falls squarely within the physician's professional obligation. Existing scientific studies provide the basis for many improvements in pain management that can increase effectiveness and reduce risk. Many potentially useful areas of further research can be identified. PMID:26138946
Szumita, Richard P; Szumita, Paul M; Just, Nancy
The specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery has had at its core the foundations of anesthesia and pain and anxiety control. This article attempts to refamiliarize the reader with clinical pearls helpful in the management of patients with chronic pain conditions. The authors also hope to highlight the interplay of chronic pain and psychology as it relates to the oral and maxillofacial surgery patient. To that end, the article outlines and reviews the neurophysiology of pain, the definitions of pain, conditions encountered by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon that produce chronic pain, the psychological impact and comorbidities associated with patients experiencing chronic pain conditions, and concepts of multimodal treatment for patients experiencing chronic pain conditions.
Davis, Charles G
This article is to provide insights into the mechanisms underlying chronic pain from whiplash injury. Studies show that injury produces plasticity changes of different neuronal structures that are responsible for amplification of nociception and exaggerated pain responses. There is consistent evidence for hypersensitivity of the central nervous system to sensory stimulation in chronic pain after whiplash injury. Tissue damage, detected or not by the available diagnostic methods, is probably the main determinant of central hypersensitivity. Different mechanisms underlie and co-exist in the chronic whiplash condition. Spinal cord hyperexcitability in patients with chronic pain after whiplash injury can cause exaggerated pain following low intensity nociceptive or innocuous peripheral stimulation. Spinal hypersensitivity may explain pain in the absence of detectable tissue damage. Whiplash is a heterogeneous condition with some individuals showing features suggestive of neuropathic pain. A predominantly neuropathic pain component is related to a higher pain/disability level.
Sisk, Allen L.
There are many conditions in which chronic orofacial pain is a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. It is generally accepted that surgical treatment for these chronic pain problems should be resorted to only when more conservative treatments have been ineffective. Literature concerning selected orofacial pain problems is reviewed and the indications for surgical management are discussed. PMID:6370045
Apkarian, A. Vania; Baliki, Marwan N.; Geha, Paul Y.
In this review we integrate recent human and animal studies from the viewpoint of chronic pain. First, we briefly review the impact of chronic pain on society and address current pitfalls of its definition and clinical management. Second, we examine pain mechanisms via nociceptive information transmission cephalad and its impact and interaction with the cortex. Third, we present recent discoveries on the active role of the cortex in chronic pain, with findings indicating that the human cortex continuously reorganizes as it lives in chronic pain. We also introduce data emphasizing that distinct chronic pain conditions impact on the cortex in unique patterns. Fourth, animal studies regarding nociceptive transmission, recent evidence for supraspinal reorganization during pain, the necessity of descending modulation for maintenance of neuropathic behavior, and the impact of cortical manipulations on neuropathic pain is also reviewed. We further expound on the notion that chronic pain can be reformulated within the context of learning and memory, and demonstrate the relevance of the idea in the design of novel pharmacotherapies. Lastly, we integrate the human and animal data into a unified working model outlining the mechanism by which acute pain transitions into a chronic state. It incorporates knowledge of underlying brain structures and their reorganization, and also includes specific variations as a function of pain persistence and injury type, thereby providing mechanistic descriptions of several unique chronic pain conditions within a single model. PMID:18952143
Wilson, Anna C.; Fales, Jessica L.
Objectives This study aims to describe what adults with chronic pain experience in their role as parents, utilizing quantitative and qualitative methods. The first aim is to compare parents with chronic pain to parents without chronic pain on perceptions of their adolescent’s pain, parental response to pain, and catastrophizing beliefs about pain. The study also examined predictors of parental protective behaviors, and examined whether these associations differed by study group. Methods Parents with chronic pain (n=58) and parents without chronic pain (n=72) participated, and completed questionnaire measures of pain characteristics and pain interference, as well as measures of parental catastrophizing and protective pain responses. Parents with chronic pain also completed a structured interview about their experience of being a parent. Interview responses were videotaped and subsequently coded for content. Results Compared to controls, parents with chronic pain endorsed more pain in their adolescents, and were more likely to catastrophize about their adolescent’s pain and respond with protective behaviors. Parent’s own pain interference and the perception of higher pain in their adolescent was associated with increased protective parenting in the chronic pain group. Qualitative coding revealed a number of areas of common impact of chronic pain on parenting. Discussion Chronic pain impacts everyday parenting activities and emotions, and impacts pain-specific parent responses that are known to be related to increased pain and pain catastrophizing in children and adolescents. Parents with chronic pain might benefit from interventions that address potential parenting difficulties, and might improve outcomes for their children. PMID:25232862
Kissin, Igor; Gelman, Simon
Background Surgical injury can frequently lead to chronic pain. Despite the obvious importance of this problem, the first publications on chronic pain after surgery as a general topic appeared only a decade ago. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic postsurgical pain was, and still is, represented insufficiently. Methods We analyzed the presentation of this topic in journal articles covered by PubMed and in surgical textbooks. The following signs of insufficient representation in journal articles were used: (1) the lack of journal editorials on chronic pain after surgery, (2) the lack of journal articles with titles clearly indicating that they are devoted to chronic postsurgical pain, and (3) the insufficient representation of chronic postsurgical pain in the top surgical journals. Results It was demonstrated that insufficient representation of this topic existed in 1981–2000, especially in surgical journals and textbooks. Interest in this topic began to increase, however, mostly regarding one specific surgery: herniorrhaphy. It is important that the change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain spreads to other groups of surgeries. Conclusion Chronic postsurgical pain is still a neglected topic, except for pain after herniorrhaphy. The change in the attitude toward chronic postsurgical pain is the important first step in the approach to this problem. PMID:23152698
Conwill, W L
The pastoral counselor often interviews patients suffering from chronic pain. Many of them express religious notions about their suffering. This article examines some traditional concepts of pain and types of religious interpretations, and proposes appropiate roles for the pastoral counselor.
de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Sanderman, Robbert
Objectives Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. Results The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II) is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS) did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. Discussion Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of “acting with awareness” is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS. PMID:24489915
HELLMAN, Kevin M.; PATANWALA, Insiyyah Y.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; TU, Frank F.
Objective To evaluate candidate mechanisms underlying the pelvic floor dysfunction in women with chronic pelvic pain and/or painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Notably, prior studies have not consistently controlled for potential confounding by psychological or anatomical factors. Study Design As part of a larger study on pelvic floor pain dysfunction and bladder pain sensitivity, we compared a measure of mechanical pain sensitivity, pressure pain thresholds, between women with pelvic pain and pain-free controls. We also assessed a novel pain measure using degree and duration of post-exam pain aftersensation, and conducted structural and functional assessments of the pelvic floor to account for any potential confounding. Phenotypic specificity of pelvic floor measures was assessed with receiver-operator characteristic curves adjusted for prevalence. Results A total of 23 women with chronic pelvic pain, 23 painful bladder syndrome, and 42 pain-free controls completed the study. Women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome exhibited enhanced pain sensitivity with lower pressure pain thresholds (1.18 [interquartile range: 0.87–1.41] kg/cm2) than pain-free participants (1.48 [1.11–1.76] kg/cm2; p<0.001) and prolonged pain aftersensation (3.5 [0–9] vs 0 [0–1] minutes; p< 0.001). Although genital hiatus (p<0.01) was wider in women with chronic pelvic pain there were no consistently observed group differences in pelvic floor anatomy, muscle tone or strength. The combination of pressure pain thresholds and aftersensation duration correlated with severity of pelvic floor tenderness (R2 =41–51, p’s< 0.01). Even after adjustment for prevalence, the combined metrics discriminated pain-free controls from women with chronic pelvic pain or painful bladder syndrome (area under the curve=0.87). Conclusion Both experimental assessment of pelvic floor pain thresholds and measurement of sustained pain are independently associated with pelvic pain
Nikkolo, Ceith; Lepner, Urmas
Following the widespread use of mesh repairs, recurrence rates after inguinal hernia surgery have become acceptable and focus has shifted from recurrence to chronic pain. Although pain can be controlled with analgesics, chronic postsurgical pain is a major clinical problem, which can significantly influence the patient's quality of life. The rate of chronic pain after inguinal hernia mesh repair can reach 51.6%. The reasons for posthernioplasty chronic pain are often unclear. It has been linked to nerve injury and nerve entrapment, but there is also association between the rate of chronic pain and the type of mesh used for hernia repair. As there are >160 meshes available in the market, it is difficult to choose a mesh whose usage would result in the best outcome. Different mesh characteristics have been studied, among them weight of mesh has probably gained the most attention. The choice of adequate therapy for chronic groin pain after inguinal hernia repair is controversial. The European Hernia Society recommends that a multidisciplinary approach at a pain clinic should be considered for the treatment of chronic postoperative pain. Although surgical treatment of chronic posthernioplasty pain is limited because of the lack of relevant research data, resection of entrapped nerves, mesh removal in the case of mesh related pain or removal of fixation sutures can be beneficial for the patient with severe pain after inguinal hernia surgery. One drawback of published studies is the lack of consensus over definition of chronic pain, which makes it complicated to compare the results of different studies and to conduct meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Therefore, a uniform definition of chronic pain and its best assessment methods should be developed in order to conduct top quality multicenter randomized trials. Further research to develop meshes with optimal parameters is of vital importance and should be encouraged.
DiLorenzo, Miranda; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Holsti, Liisa
This topical review presents the current challenges in defining chronic pain in infants, summarizes evidence from animal and human infant studies regarding the biological processes necessary for chronic pain signaling, and presents observational/experiential evidence from clinical experts. A literature search of four databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE) was conducted, along with hand searches of reference lists. Evidence from animal studies suggest that important neurophysiological mechanisms, such as the availability of key neurotransmitters needed for maintenance of chronic pain, may be immature or absent in the developing neonate. In some cases, human infants may be significantly less likely to develop chronic pain. However, evidence also points to altered pain perception, such as allodynia and hyperalgesia, with significant injury. Moreover, clinicians and parents in pediatric intensive care settings describe groups of infants with altered behavioral responses to repeated or prolonged painful stimuli, yet agreement on a working definition of chronic pain in infancy remains elusive. While our understanding of infant chronic pain is still in the rudimentary stages, a promising avenue for the future assessment of chronic pain in infancy would be to develop a clinical tool that uses both neurophysiological approaches and clinical perceptions already presented in the literature. PMID:27834860
The pharmacologic management of chronic orofacial pain involves the use of medications not used routinely in dental practice. Additionally, many drugs are used for long periods of time necessitating careful monitoring for adverse effects and potential drug interactions. This article will review commonly used medications for chronic orofacial pain and highlight important areas of concern. PMID:20843228
Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter
Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed.
Darnall, Beth D.; Sazie, Elizabeth
Chronic pain in incarcerated women is understudied and poorly described. Study objectives were to describe pain characteristics, correlates, and predictors in a convenience sample of incarcerated women with chronic pain. A survey packet that included the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was distributed to all inmates at a state prison for women. Those who self-identified as having chronic pain ≥4 on a 0–10 numeric rating scale were invited to complete the survey. Demographics and medical and psychiatric diagnoses were abstracted by chart review. Participants (N=159) rated their current and average pain intensity as severe. Pain catastrophizing was found to predict average pain intensity and level of pain-related interference in functioning. Pain catastrophizing is treatable with behavioral intervention in the general population. Findings suggest that pain catastrophizing may be an important target for research and treatment in incarcerated women with chronic pain. PMID:22643606
Tonial, Leandro Freitas; Stechman, José; Hummig, Wagner
ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the relation between the degrees of chronic pain and drowsiness levels. Methods: The study was conducted with 115 patients, who answered the questionnaire as diagnostic criteria in the survey. After evaluation based on the protocol of chronic pain registry RDC/TMD- Axis II, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was applied to assess drowsiness levels. Results: Among the participating patients, there were more females (80%), and the type of pain more prevalent was chronic (70.4%). Concerning the grades of chronic pain, grade II predominated (38.3%), corresponding to high pain intensity and low disability. The ratio observed for levels of sleepiness was more prevalent for sleep debt average (38.3%). Conclusion: The grades of chronic pain and the levels of sleepiness did not correlate with each other or with the gender of patients. PMID:25003919
Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa
Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…
Logan, Deirdre E.; Catanese, Sarah P.; Coakley, Rachael M.; Scharff, Lisa
Background: School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students.…
Rekand, Tiina; Hagen, Ellen Merete; Grønning, Marit
Chronic pain following spinal cord injury is common, and may result in a substantially reduced quality of life. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of pain conditions resulting from spinal cord injuries and an update on therapy options. The article is based on literature searches in PubMed review articles for the period 2006-2011, using the search phrases «pain and spinal cord injury/injuries», «chronic pain and spinal cord injury/injuries» and «neuropathic pain and spinal cord injury/injuries». Some key articles on neuropathic pain are also included, irrespective of the year of publication. Patients with spinal cord injury may develop nociceptive and/or neuropathic pain.The cause, nature and localisation of the pain must be established before therapy is initiated. Neuropathic pain should primarily be treated with amitriptyline, gabapentin or pregabalin. Duloxetine, lamotrigine and tramadol may also be effective. Local treatment with high-concentration capsaicin and lidocaine may relieve localised neuropathic pain. Selected patients with intractable chronic neuropathic pain can be treated with intrathecal medication using an implanted pain pump or by microsurgical DREZotomy (Dorsal Root Entry Zone). Physiotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids are most widely used for treating nociceptive pain. Physical exercise and acupuncture may provide relief from shoulder pain. There may be several causes of chronic pain following spinal cord injury. Different measures have been tested for the management of chronic pain after spinal cord injury, but most studies have been performed on a limited number of patients. Further studies are needed to find more effective means of relieving pain following spinal cord injuries.
Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Almonte, Wilson; Shaparin, Naum; Pappagallo, Marco; Smith, Howard
In the United States, millions of Americans are affected by chronic pain, which adds heavily to national rates of morbidity, mortality, and disability, with an ever-increasing prevalence. According to a 2011 report titled Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, pain not only exacts its toll on people's lives but also on the economy with an estimated annual economic cost of at least $560 - 635 billion in health care costs and the cost of lost productivity attributed to chronic pain. Intravenous infusions of certain pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with various chronic painful conditions. Some of these infusions are better, and although not necessarily the first therapeutic choice, have been widely used and extensively studied. The others show promise, however are in need of further investigations. This article will focus on non-opiate intravenous infusions that have been utilized for chronic painful disorders such as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, phantom limb pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), diabetic neuropathy, and central pain related to stroke or spinal cord injuries. The management of patients with chronic pain conditions is challenging and continues to evolve as new treatment modalities are explored and tested. The following intravenous infusions used to treat the aforementioned chronic pain conditions will be reviewed: lidocaine, ketamine, phentolamine, dexmedetomidine, and bisphosphonates. This overview is intended to familiarize the practitioner with the variety of infusions for patients with chronic pain. It will not, however, be able to provide guidelines for their use due to the lack of sufficient evidence.
Carroll, Ian; Hah, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean; Ottestad, Einar; Kong, Jiang Ti; Lahidji, Sam; Tawfik, Vivianne; Younger, Jarred; Curtin, Catherine
Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors–so called “preventative analgesia.” In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan. PMID:23463498
Burns, Stephanie T.
Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…
Burns, Stephanie T.
Chronic pain affects 35% to 57% of the adult population in the United States and results in billions of dollars spent annually in direct health-care costs and lost productivity. Extensive research confirms the considerable role psychological factors play in the experience and expression of chronic pain. The author discusses implications for…
Chronic pain constitutes a challenge for patients. It makes them uneasy with regard to their personality, their corporality and their life balance, and leaves long-lasting effects on their experience as a patient. The development of adaptation strategies and resources to deal with chronic pain is therefore essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kuner, Rohini; Flor, Herta
Chronic pain is not simply a temporal continuum of acute pain. Studies on functional plasticity in neural circuits of pain have provided mechanistic insights and linked various modulatory factors to a change in perception and behaviour. However, plasticity also occurs in the context of structural remodelling and reorganisation of synapses, cells and circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term nature of chronic pain. This Review discusses maladaptive structural plasticity in neural circuits of pain, spanning multiple anatomical and spatial scales in animal models and human patients, and addresses key questions on structure-function relationships.
Wicksell, Rikard K.; Kanstrup, Marie; Kemani, Mike K.; Holmström, Linda
Pediatric chronic pain is a major health problem commonly associated with impaired functioning. There is a great need for more knowledge regarding the complex interplay between demographic variables such as age and gender, pain, and functioning in pediatric chronic pain. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate if; (1) pediatric chronic pain patients with high and low levels of functioning differ in demographic variables, pain, and pain interference; (2) explore the mediating function of pain interference in the relationship between pain and functioning (i.e., depression and functional disability). Method: The study includes a consecutive sample of children and adolescents referred to a tertiary pain clinic due to chronic pain (n = 163). Cross-sectional data was analyzed to investigate the interrelationships between variables. Analyses of indirect effects were used to assess the impact of pain interference on the relation between pain and depression. Results: Findings illustrate high levels of depression, school absence and pain interference in this sample. Furthermore, pain interference mediated the relationship between pain and depression. Conclusion: Thus, this study adds to the growing support of findings suggesting that functioning and pain interference should be routinely assessed in pediatric chronic pain and a central target in treatment. Particularly, these findings imply a need for interventions specifically aimed at improved functioning for patients with chronic debilitating pain. PMID:28082931
Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa
Several empirical studies have shown that personal characteristics act as differential variables, which determine how pain is experienced and how the chronic pain patient adjusts to pain. The main aim of the present research is to review the relationships between some dispositional characteristics and pain adjustment. Taking into account the empirical literature, 6 personality traits that are relevant to the pain experience have been selected: neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and experiential avoidance as risk factors that increase the probability of patients experiencing a disability; and extraversion, optimism, and resilience as personal resources that increase their capacity to manage pain effectively. The results suggest that it would be useful to include an assessment of normal personality structure during the multi-dimensional evaluation of a person with chronic pain. Understanding these individual personality characteristics will aid in designing pain intervention programs and help predict possible treatment outcomes.
Nizar, Abd Jalil
Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P < 0.001) in Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and Modified Oswestry Disability Score (MODS) with standard management during three consecutive visits at six-month intervals. Conclusions MPS prevalence among chronic back pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607
Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.
In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in
Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G
In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the
Lieberman, Gregory; Shpaner, Marina; Watts, Richard; Andrews, Trevor; Filippi, Christopher G; Davis, Marcia; Naylor, Magdalena R
There is emerging evidence that chronic musculoskeletal pain is associated with anatomic and functional abnormalities in gray matter. However, little research has investigated the relationship between chronic musculoskeletal pain and white matter. In this study, we used whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics and region-of-interest analyses of diffusion tensor imaging data to demonstrate that patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain exhibit several abnormal metrics of white matter integrity compared with healthy controls. Chronic musculoskeletal pain was associated with lower fractional anisotropy in the splenium of the corpus callosum and the left cingulum adjacent to the hippocampus. Patients also had higher radial diffusivity in the splenium, right anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, external capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cerebral peduncle. Patterns of axial diffusivity (AD) varied: patients exhibited lower AD in the left cingulum adjacent to the hippocampus and higher AD in the anterior limbs of the internal capsule and in the right cerebral peduncle. Several correlations between diffusion metrics and clinical variables were also significant at a P < .01 level: fractional anisotropy in the left uncinate fasciculus correlated positively with total pain experience and typical levels of pain severity. AD in the left anterior limb of the internal capsule and left uncinate fasciculus was correlated with total pain experience and typical pain level. Positive correlations were also found between AD in the right uncinate and both total pain experience and pain catastrophizing. These results demonstrate that white matter abnormalities play a role in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a cause, a predisposing factor, a consequence, or a compensatory adaptation. Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain exhibit altered metrics of diffusion in the brain's white matter compared with healthy volunteers, and some of these differences are
Elkins, Gary; Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.
This article reviews controlled prospective trials of hypnosis for the treatment of chronic pain. Thirteen studies, excluding studies of headaches, were identified that compared outcomes from hypnosis for the treatment of chronic pain to either baseline data or a control condition. The findings indicate that hypnosis interventions consistently produce significant decreases in pain associated with a variety of chronic-pain problems. Also, hypnosis was generally found to be more effective than nonhypnotic interventions such as attention, physical therapy, and education. Most of the hypnosis interventions for chronic pain include instructions in self-hypnosis. However, there is a lack of standardization of the hypnotic interventions examined in clinical trials, and the number of patients enrolled in the studies has tended to be low and lacking long-term follow-up. Implications of the findings for future clinical research and applications are discussed. PMID:17558718
Monsivais, Diane B
To describe stigmatizing experiences in a group of Mexican-American women with chronic pain and provide clinical implications for decreasing stigma. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semistructured interviews, participant observations, and fieldwork. Participants provided detailed descriptions of communicating about chronic pain symptoms, treatment, and management. The sample consisted of 15 English-speaking Mexican-American women 21-65 years old (average age = 45.6 years) who had nonmalignant chronic pain symptoms for 1 year or more. The cultural and social norm in the United States is the expectation for objective evidence (such as an injury) to be present if a pain condition exists. In this study, this norm created suspicion and subsequent stigmatization on the part of family, co-workers, and even those with the pain syndromes, that the painful condition was imagined instead of real. To decrease stigmatization of chronic pain, providers must understand their own misconceptions about chronic pain, possess the skills and resources to access and use the highest level of practice evidence available, and become an advocate for improved pain care at local, state, and national levels. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew
Background This is an update of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2007. Some antiepileptic medicines have a place in the treatment of neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). This updated review adds five new additional studies looking at evidence for Lamotrigine as an effective treatment for acute and chronic pain. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine in acute and chronic pain. Search methods Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of lamotrigine in acute, and chronic pain (including cancer pain) were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL up to January 2011. Additional studies were sought from the reference list of the retrieved papers. Selection criteria RCTs investigating the use of lamotrigine (any dose, by any route, and for any study duration) for the treatment of acute or chronic pain. Assessment of pain intensity or pain relief, or both, using validated scales. Participants were adults aged 18 and over. Only full journal publication articles were included. Data collection and analysis Dichotomous data (ideally for the outcome of at least 50% pain relief) were used to calculate relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed-effect model. Numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTs) were calculated as the reciprocal of the absolute risk reduction. For unwanted effects, the NNT becomes the number needed to harm (NNH) and was calculated. Main results Twelve included studies in 11 publications (1511 participants), all with chronic neuropathic pain: central post stroke pain (1), chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain (1), diabetic neuropathy (4), HIV related neuropathy (2), mixed neuropathic pain (2), spinal cord injury related pain (1), and trigeminal neuralgia (1); none investigated lamotrigine in acute pain. The update had five additional studies (1111 additional participants). Participants were aged between 26 and 77 years. Study duration
Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Amirzadeh, Kimia; Mohabbati, Vahid; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza
Background: The effects of chronic pain (CP) on physical function and emotional and mental health of individuals, families, and community are well established. No adequate research is conducted in this field in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of CP, types of treatments used for CP and patients’ satisfaction with the CP treatments in an Iranian urban population. Patients and Methods: In the current study, CP was investigated using the international CP questionnaire administered to 1,050 adults living in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions used to evaluate the effects of CP on the studied population including the prevalence of CP, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CP, and participants’ satisfaction with CP treatments. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In the current study, 6.95% of the 1,050 subjects willing to participate in the study had CP for more than six months. According to the results, 54% of the subjects with CP used analgesics, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotic analgesics. Besides, 37% of the subjects used other pain relief methods such as traditional medicine and acupuncture. The results also showed an acceptable rate of satisfaction with treatments. Conclusions: The number of subjects with CP proved it as a prevalent problem in the study population. Furthermore, characteristics and associations of those experiencing CP demonstrated that it might have significant negative health and psychosocial outcomes in this group. The problem was found significant enough to consider special health programs to prevent and manage CP in urban population of Shiraz. PMID:26473099
Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Amirzadeh, Kimia; Mohabbati, Vahid; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza
The effects of chronic pain (CP) on physical function and emotional and mental health of individuals, families, and community are well established. No adequate research is conducted in this field in Iran. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of CP, types of treatments used for CP and patients' satisfaction with the CP treatments in an Iranian urban population. In the current study, CP was investigated using the international CP questionnaire administered to 1,050 adults living in Shiraz, Iran. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions used to evaluate the effects of CP on the studied population including the prevalence of CP, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CP, and participants' satisfaction with CP treatments. All the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 18. In the current study, 6.95% of the 1,050 subjects willing to participate in the study had CP for more than six months. According to the results, 54% of the subjects with CP used analgesics, mostly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and narcotic analgesics. Besides, 37% of the subjects used other pain relief methods such as traditional medicine and acupuncture. The results also showed an acceptable rate of satisfaction with treatments. The number of subjects with CP proved it as a prevalent problem in the study population. Furthermore, characteristics and associations of those experiencing CP demonstrated that it might have significant negative health and psychosocial outcomes in this group. The problem was found significant enough to consider special health programs to prevent and manage CP in urban population of Shiraz.
Logan, Deirdre E; Catanese, Sarah P; Coakley, Rachael M; Scharff, Lisa
School absenteeism and other impairments in school function are significant problems among children with chronic pain syndromes; yet, little is known about how chronic pain is perceived in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attributions about the causes of chronic pain in adolescent students. Classroom teachers (n = 260) read vignettes describing a hypothetical student with limb pain. They were presented with a list of possible physical and psychological causes for the pain and asked to identify the causes to which they attributed the pain. Vignettes varied by the presence or absence of (1) documented medical evidence for the pain and (2) communication from the medical team. Teachers also responded to questions assessing their responses to the student in terms of support for academic accommodations and sympathy for the student. Teachers tended to endorse a dualistic (ie, either physical or psychological) model for pain rather than a biopsychosocial model. Documented medical evidence supporting the pain was the most influential factor affecting teachers' attributions about chronic pain. Teachers who attributed the pain to physical causes-either in isolation or in combination with psychological causes-responded more positively toward the student. Many teachers lack a biopsychosocial framework through which to understand chronic pain syndromes in students. How chronic pain is described to school personnel may affect how teachers understand the pain and respond to it.
Teets, Raymond Y; Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie
Chronic pain can be a frustrating condition for patient and clinician. The integrative medicine approach to pain can offer hope, adding safe complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies to mitigate pain and suffering. Such CAM therapies include nutrition, supplements and herbs, manual medicine, acupuncture, yoga, and mind-body approaches. The evidence is heterogeneous regarding these approaches, but some evidence suggests efficacy and confirms safety. The integrative medicine approach can be beneficial in a patient with chronic pain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M.
Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27879686
Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M
Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children's activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child's experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research.
Driessen, Bernd; Bauquier, Sébastien H; Zarucco, Laura
Managing pain in horses afflicted by chronic laminitis is one of the greatest challenges in equine clinical practice because it is the dreadful suffering of the animals that most often forces the veterinarian to end the battle with this disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in generating and amplifying pain in animals with laminitis and, based on this information, to propose a modified approach to pain therapy. Furthermore, a recently developed pain scoring technique is presented that may help better quantify pain and the monitoring of responses to analgesic treatment in horses with laminitis.
Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A
Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.
Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A
Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.
Märker-Hermann, E; Kiltz, U; Braun, J
Back pain is a significant medical problem and one of the most common causes of medical consultations and missed work. In acute low back pain, patients with "red flags" indicating a serious underlying spinal or extraspinal disease must be identified by medical evaluation. Most cases of acute back pain are non-specific, and education, physical activity and pain medication is recommended. In addition, yellow flags (risks of developing chronic pain) should be recognized. The management of low back pain has been addressed by the German National Disease Management Guideline (NVL) low back pain published in 2010. This guideline evaluates the evidence and effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions with a focus on nonspecific back pain. For chronic nonspecific low back pain intervention based on nondrug and drug therapy and a multiprofessional assessment is recommended. In patients with chronic inflammatory low back pain with onset before the age of 45, rheumatic spondyloarthritis should be considered. Recently, a guideline (S3-Leitlinie) for the management of axial spondyloarthritis including ankylosing spondylitis has become available. It provides evidence of physical and drug therapy including nonsteroidal antirheumatic and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy.
Medvedeva, L A; Zagorul'ko, O I; Gnezdilov, A V
The literature on methods of invasive local treatment of chronic pain was analyzed. We reviewed 14 publications including meta-analyses and systematic reviews. The use of regional anesthesia conducted by anesthesiologists in pain clinics demonstrated the evidence based efficacy of different types of peridural injections of local anesthetics with steroids in patients with root pain syndromes at cervical and lumbar levels. Therapeutic blockades of the occipital nerve is effective method of treatment of cervicogenic and cluster headache as well as occipital nerve neuralgia. There are clear indications of the efficacy of local injections in primary chronic cephalgia (migraine and headache of tension). The possibility of the abortion of the pain information flow in peripheral nociceptive pathways and, as a consequence, breaking the vicious circle is emphasized. Issues on the efficacy of local injections at trigger points in the treatment of chronic pain are highlighted.
Smith, Christopher P.
Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome collectively referred to as urologic CPPS (UCPPS) is defined by the absence of identifiable bacterial infection as a cause for the chronic pain and urinary symptoms. Methods: A PubMed search of all recent relevant articles using the keywords/phrases: CPPS, CPPS, and male pelvic pain, was conducted. Results: CPPS has a high worldwide prevalence and its negative impact on quality of life compares with or exceeds common chronic morbidities. Triggers include certain comestibles as well as psychosocial factors that promote catastrophizing and illness focused behavior. Several validated tools are currently available to help diagnose and direct targeted therapy. Treatment should begin with the most simple and least invasive based on the presenting clinical phenotype. Conclusions: Although no gold-standard treatment exists, a multidisciplinary approach with multimodal therapy gives the UCPPS patient the best chance of symptom relief. PMID:26941492
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164156.html Shingles Vaccine Cuts Chronic Pain, Hospitalizations Protection lasts years after ... age, researchers said. The new study showed the vaccine was 74 percent effective in preventing hospitalizations for ...
Souza, Israel; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Caumo, Wolnei; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes
The aim of this study was to identify resilience profiles of patients with chronic pain. Using latent class analysis in a sample of 414 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, three profiles were identified: primary resilience (40%), consisting of individuals 40 years or younger with high education, who seek medical care, are not working, and without symptoms of psychological stress; secondary resilience (30%), consisting of women over 54 years of age with low schooling, who seek medical care, are not working, and with low likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress; tertiary resilience (29%), women with medium schooling, 40 to 54 years old, working, who do not seek medical care, and with a high likelihood of symptoms of psychological stress. The three profiles display different paths of resilience in chronic pain that are relevant to clinical practice, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary care for patients with chronic pain.
Blyth, F M; March, L M; Brnabic, A J; Jorm, L R; Williamson, M; Cousins, M J
This study reports chronic pain prevalence in a randomly selected sample of the adult Australian population. Data were collected by Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) using randomly generated telephone numbers and a two-stage stratified sample design. Chronic pain was defined as pain experienced every day for three months in the six months prior to interview. There were 17,543 completed interviews (response rate=70.8%). Chronic pain was reported by 17.1% of males and 20.0% of females. For males, prevalence peaked at 27.0% in the 65--69 year age group and for females, prevalence peaked at 31.0% in the oldest age group (80--84 years). Having chronic pain was significantly associated with older age, female gender, lower levels of completed education, and not having private health insurance; it was also strongly associated with receiving a disability benefit (adjusted OR=3.89, P<0.001) or unemployment benefit (adjusted OR=1.99, P<0.001); being unemployed for health reasons (adjusted OR=6.41, P<0.001); having poor self-rated health (adjusted OR=7.24, P<0.001); and high levels of psychological distress (adjusted OR=3.16, P<0.001). Eleven per cent of males and 13.5% of females in the survey reported some degree of interference with daily activities caused by their pain. Prevalence of interference was highest in the 55--59 year age group in both males (17.2%) and females (19.7%). Younger respondents with chronic pain were proportionately most likely to report interference due to pain, affecting 84.3% of females and 75.9% of males aged 20--24 years with chronic pain. Within the subgroup of respondents reporting chronic pain, the presence of interference with daily activities caused by pain was significantly associated with younger age; female gender; and not having private health insurance. There were strong associations between having interfering chronic pain and receiving disability benefits (adjusted OR=3.31, P<0.001) or being unemployed due to health reasons
Keefe, Francis J.; Beckham, Jean C.
Orofacial pain is usually evaluated and treated from a biomedical perspective. There is no question that the large majority of individuals having acute orofacial pain benefit from timely and appropriate medical intervention. When orofacial pain persists, however, the likelihood that this pain can influence and be influenced by behavioral factors increases. While some individuals are able to adapt and cope with chronic orofacial pain, others develop significant behavioral problems. These problems may include an overly sedentary lifestyle, dependence on habit-forming narcotic medications, or severe depression or anxiety. The hallmark of the behavioral perspective on chronic pain is the insistence that a careful assessment and treatment of such behavioral problems is just as important as appropriate biomedical intervention.1 PMID:2085202
Lieberman, Gregory; Shpaner, Marina; Watts, Richard; Andrews, Trevor; Filippi, Christopher G.; Davis, Marcia; Naylor, Magdalena R.
There is emerging evidence that chronic musculoskeletal pain is associated with anatomical and functional abnormalities in gray matter. However, little research has investigated the relationship between chronic musculoskeletal pain and white matter (WM). In this study, we used whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics, and region-of-interest analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to demonstrate that patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain exhibit several abnormal WM integrity as compared to healthy controls. Chronic musculoskeletal pain was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the splenium of corpus callosum, and left cingulum adjacent to the hippocampus. Patients also had higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium, right anterior and posterior limbs of internal capsule, external capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and cerebral peduncle. Patterns of axial diffusivity (AD) varied: patients exhibited lower AD in the left cingulum adjacent to the hippocampus and higher AD bilaterally in the anterior limbs of internal capsule, and in the right cerebral peduncle. Several correlations between diffusion metrics and clinical variables were also significant at a p<0.01 level: FA in the left uncinate fasciculus correlated positively with Total Pain Experience and typical levels of pain severity. AD in the left anterior limb of internal capsule and left uncinate fasciculus were correlated with Total Pain Experience and typical pain level. Positive correlations were also found between AD in the right uncinate and both Total Pain Experience and Pain Catastrophizing. These results demonstrate that WM abnormalities play a role in chronic musculoskeletal pain; either as a cause, predisposing factor, consequence, or compensatory adaptation. PMID:25135468
Neill, M E; Swash, M
Thirty-five patients with chronic anal pain of obscure origin are described. This syndrome is ill-defined and treatment is unsatisfactory. There is a high incidence of sciatica and of damage to the pelvic floor musculature, but although the pain has features consistent with a neuralgia, its cause is unknown. PMID:7069679
Callegari, Camilla; Salvaggio, Fabio; Gerlini, Anna; Vender, Simone
Chronic pain is a widespread problem in general medicine and in psychiatry. It consists in physical and psychic elements. The pain has a specific role, a different frequency and a different intensity in each mental illness. Medical treatments can get benefit from psychiatric drugs.
Weisberg, J N; Vaillancourt, P D
It has long been recognized that there is a relationship between certain personality types and personality disorders (PD) and chronic nonmalignant pain (CP). The relationship, however, is far from understood and the physiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie it are unclear. Those who treat chronic pain face many challenges when dealing with individuals who have personality disorders and they often become frustrated when interacting with these patients. Patients with certain traits and personality disorders may continue to worry and ruminate about their symptoms long after the tissue pathology has resolved. Other individuals may overly rely on the clinician and assume a passive role in their treatment, thereby decreasing the likelihood for a positive outcome. Moreover, patients with personality disorders may be demanding (eg, borderline), self-absorbed (eg, narcissistic), or substance seeking (eg, antisocial, borderline). In an attempt to improve management of such patients, pain specialists have attempted to better understand the complex relationship between personality and chronic pain. In this article, we will review the predominant historical and current theories of pain and personality, discuss aspects of the gate-control theory of pain that may relate to personality, and discuss the diathesis-stress model of personality disorders in pain. Last, we will review studies of personality and personality disorders in chronic pain and their treatment implications. We conclude that, based on the underlying neurochemistry, there may be a direct or indirect link between PD and CP, but further prospective research, both on the biological and psychological relationship, should be conducted.
Borsook, David; Moulton, Eric A; Schmidt, Karl F; Becerra, Lino R
An understanding of how the brain changes in chronic pain or responds to pharmacological or other therapeutic interventions has been significantly changed as a result of developments in neuroimaging of the CNS. These developments have occurred in 3 domains : (1) Anatomical Imaging which has demonstrated changes in brain volume in chronic pain; (2) Functional Imaging (fMRI) that has demonstrated an altered state in the brain in chronic pain conditions including back pain, neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndromes. In addition the response of the brain to drugs has provided new insights into how these may modify normal and abnormal circuits (phMRI or pharmacological MRI); (3) Chemical Imaging (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS) has helped our understanding of measures of chemical changes in chronic pain. Taken together these three domains have already changed the way in which we think of pain – it should now be considered an altered brain state in which there may be altered functional connections or systems and a state that has components of degenerative aspects of the CNS. PMID:17848191
Logan, Deirdre E; Simons, Laura E; Stein, Michelle J; Chastain, Laura
The purpose of this study was to assess and describe school functioning among adolescents presenting for evaluation in a tertiary care pediatric chronic pain clinic. Adolescents (n = 220, aged 12-17) and their parents participated in the study, providing self-reported data on school attendance, school performance, and perceived academic competence. Participants' schools provided official attendance records, descriptions of accommodations implemented to address the student's pain problems in the school setting, and teacher ratings of academic competence. Results show that many adolescents with chronic pain miss a significant amount of school, experience a decline in grades, and perceive pain to interfere with their school success. Various indicators of school impairment are highly intercorrelated, suggesting that impairment or success in 1 domain is typically associated with similar patterns in other domains of school functioning. However, as a group, adolescents with pain are viewed by themselves and their teachers as academically competent. Strong correlations emerged between different reporters of school functioning indicators such as attendance, suggesting that reliance on parent or adolescent reporting may be sufficient when assessing these domains. Findings underscore the importance of broadly assessing school functioning in adolescents with chronic pain. This study extends our understanding of school functioning among adolescents with chronic pain. It highlights the need to assess both school attendance and performance in this population as well as how schools respond to pain problems. Devising summary indicators of school impairment can be useful in both clinical and research contexts.
A child or adolescent can suffer from chronic pain. Whatever the causes, it can trap the child in a specific process whereby they focus on the pain, fearing that it will appear and experiencing anxiety. Hypno-analgesia and hypnotherapy enable them to escape this process and find within themselves the capacity to face up to the pain. Moreover, these techniques offer them an autonomy which they can use in all areas of their life.
Wukich, Dane K; Tuason, Dominick A
The differential diagnosis for chronic ankle pain is quite broad. Ankle pain can be caused by intra-articular or extra-articular pathology and may be a result of a traumatic or nontraumatic event. A detailed patient history and physical examination, coupled with judicious selection of the appropriate imaging modalities, are vital in making an accurate diagnosis and providing effective treatment. Chronic ankle pain can affect all age groups, ranging from young athletes to elderly patients with degenerative joint and soft-tissue disorders. It has been estimated that 23,000 ankle sprains occur each day in the United States, representing approximately 1 sprain per 10,000 people per day. Because nearly one in five ankle injuries result in chronic symptoms, orthopaedic surgeons are likely to see patients with chronic ankle pain. Many patients with chronic ankle pain do not recall any history of trauma. Reviewing the management of the various disorders that can cause chronic ankle pain will help orthopaedic surgeons provide the best treatment for their patients.
Dell, U; Covic, D; Singer, E; Fendrich, M
Epidural or intrathecal opiate analgesia, combined with bupivacain by means of an implanted pump, represents a possibility for providing good pain management for cancer patients as well as other chronic pain patients. Several indications, for implantation of a percutanously refillable pump are demonstrated in 27 patients. Twenty-four patients were treated with epidural and 3 with intrathecal catheters. Nineteen patients were suffering from chronic pain, and 8 had pain because of cancer. Four patients with chronic pain have been treated with continuous epidural opiate analgesia by means of an implanted pump for more than 2 years and 1 patient for more than 5 years. In the course of 2 years there has been no significant increase in the daily dose of buprenorphin given epidurally to patients with chronic pain. There were no addiction problems with opiates given epidurally or intrathecally by means of implanted pumps. Because of a 13% complication rate, pumps and epidural or intrathecal catheters should only be implanted by an experienced team.
Alshelh, Zeynab; Di Pietro, Flavia; Youssef, Andrew M; Reeves, Jenna M; Macey, Paul M; Vickers, E Russell; Peck, Christopher C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A
The neural mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic neuropathic pain remain unclear. Evidence from human investigations suggests that neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic burst firing and thalamocortical dysrhythmia. Additionally, experimental animal investigations show that neuropathic pain is associated with altered infra-slow (<0.1 Hz) frequency oscillations within the dorsal horn and somatosensory thalamus. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether, in humans, neuropathic pain was also associated with altered infra-slow oscillations within the ascending "pain" pathway. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that individuals with orofacial neuropathic pain have increased infra-slow oscillatory activity throughout the ascending pain pathway, including within the spinal trigeminal nucleus, somatosensory thalamus, thalamic reticular nucleus, and primary somatosensory cortex. Furthermore, these infra-slow oscillations were temporally coupled across these multiple sites and occurred at frequencies similar to calcium waves in activated astrocytes. The region encompassing the spinal trigeminal nucleus also displayed increased regional homogeneity, consistent with a local spread of neural activity by astrocyte activation. In contrast, no increase in oscillatory behavior within the ascending pain pathway occurred during acute noxious stimuli in healthy individuals. These data reveal increased oscillatory activity within the ascending pain pathway that likely underpins increased thalamocortical oscillatory activity, a self-sustaining thalamocortical dysrhythmia, and the constant perception of pain. Significance statement: Chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic firing and thalamocortical dysrhythmia. The mechanisms responsible for these changes remain unknown. In this study, we report in individuals with neuropathic pain increased oscillatory neural activity within the
Furquim, Bruno D'Aurea; Flamengui, Lívia Maria Sales Pinto; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues
This review aims at presenting a current view on the physiopathologic mechanisms associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). While joint pain is characterized by a well-defined inflammatory process mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin, chronic muscle pain presents with enigmatic physiopathologic mechanisms, being considered a functional pain syndrome similar to fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Central sensitization is the common factor unifying these conditions, and may be influenced by the autonomic nervous system and genetic polymorphisms. Thus, TMDs symptoms should be understood as a complex response which might get worse or improve depending on an individual's adaptation. PMID:25741834
Světlík, Svatopluk; Hronová, Karolína; Bakhouche, Hana; Matoušková, Olga; Slanař, Ondřej
This paper reviews the impact of genetic variability of drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and pathways involved in chronic pain perception on the efficacy and safety of analgesics and other drugs used for chronic pain treatment. Several candidate genes have been identified in the literature, while there is usually only limited clinical evidence substantiating for the penetration of the testing for these candidate biomarkers into the clinical practice. Further, the pain-perception regulation and modulation are still not fully understood, and thus more complex knowledge of genetic and epigenetic background for analgesia will be needed prior to the clinical use of the candidate genetic biomarkers. PMID:23766564
Smith, Diane; Wilkie, Ross; Uthman, Olalekan; Jordan, Joanne L.; McBeth, John
Background Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality. Methods A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia) and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies. Results Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n = 7)(I2 = 78.8%) and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95–1.37) for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n = 5,I2 = 82.3%) MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93–1.60). The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors. Conclusion This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn
Okifuji, Akiko; Hare, Bradford D
Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two conditions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit. PMID:26203274
Courtney, Carol A; O'Hearn, Michael A; Franck, Carla C
The Mexican artist Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) is one of the most celebrated artists of the 20th century. Although famous for her colorful self-portraits and associations with celebrities Diego Rivera and Leon Trotsky, less known is the fact that she had lifelong chronic pain. Frida Kahlo developed poliomyelitis at age 6 years, was in a horrific trolley car accident in her teens, and would eventually endure numerous failed spinal surgeries and, ultimately, limb amputation. She endured several physical, emotional, and psychological traumas in her lifetime, yet through her art, she was able to transcend a life of pain and disability. Of her work, her self-portraits are conspicuous in their capacity to convey her life experience, much of which was imbued with chronic pain. Signs and symptoms of chronic neuropathic pain and central sensitization of nociceptive pathways are evident when analyzing her paintings and medical history. This article uses a narrative approach to describe how events in the life of this artist contributed to her chronic pain. The purpose of this article is to discuss Frida Kahlo's medical history and her art from a modern pain sciences perspective, and perhaps to increase our understanding of the pain experience from the patient's perspective.
Lynch, Kara L.; Shapiro, Brad J.; Coffa, Diana; Novak, Scott P.; Kral, Alex H.
Background Concomitant use of opioids and promethazine has been reported in various subpopulations, including methadone maintenance patients, injection drug users, and at-risk teenagers. Promethazine is thought to potentiate the “high” from opioids. However, to date, the prevalence of promethazine use has not been determined among patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. Methods Urine samples from 921 patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain were analyzed for promethazine. Demographic data, toxicology results, and opioid prescription information were obtained through medical record abstraction. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with promethazine use with bivariable and multivariable statistics. Results The prevalence of promethazine-positive urine samples among chronic pain patients was 9%. Only 50% of promethazine-positive patients had an active prescription for promethazine. Having benzodiazepine-positive urine with no prescription for a benzodiazepine was statistically associated with promethazine use. Also, having a prescription for methadone for pain or being in methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence were both statistically associated with promethazine use. Chronic pain patients prescribed only a long-acting opioid were more likely to have promethazine-positive urines than patients prescribed a short-acting opioid. Conclusions The study provides compelling evidence of significant promethazine use in chronic pain patients. Promethazine should be considered as a potential drug of abuse that could cause increased morbidity in opioid-using populations. PMID:25754939
Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Augustyn, Jason S.; Cook, Andrew J.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
Spatial perception is sensitive to the energetic costs required to perform intended actions. For example, hills look steeper to people who are fatigued or burdened by a heavy load. Similarly, perceived distance is also influenced by the energy required to walk or throw to a target. Such experiments demonstrate that perception is a function, not just of optical information, but also of the perceiver’s potential to act and the energetic costs associated with the intended action. In the current paper, we expand on the notion of “cost” by examining perceived distance in patients diagnosed with chronic pain, a multifactorial disease, which is experienced while walking. We found that chronic pain patients perceive target distances to be farther away than a control group. These results indicate the physical, and perhaps emotional, costs of chronic pain affect spatial perceptions. PMID:18949471
Takura, Tomoyuki; Shibata, Masahiko; Inoue, Shinsuke; Matsuda, Yoichi; Uematsu, Hironobu; Yamada, Keiko; Ushida, Takahiro
The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of pain treatments in two pain centers in Japan. The study population comprised 91 patients receiving various treatments for chronic pain, which were divided into three categories: (1) medication, (2) medication + nerve block, and (3) other modalities (exercise and/or pain education). Pain was assessed using the Pain Disability Assessment Scale (PDAS) score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score, Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) score, and EQ-5D score. First, the reliability of the EQ-5D score first assessed by evaluating the correlation this score with those of the other pain-related evaluation instruments, and then the cost effectiveness of the pain treatments was evaluated. Evaluation of medical costs was based on data provided from the Management Services of the hospital, which in turn were based on national health scheme medical treatment fees. The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) value was calculated from the EQ-5D score, converted to 12 months, and then used for cost-benefit analysis along with medical treatment fees. According to the recent IASP classification, more patients had chronic neuropathic pain (41) than chronic primary pain (37 patients) or chronic musculoskeletal pain (27 patients). There was a significant correlation between the EQ-5D score and the PDAS, HADS, and PCS scores, which demonstrated the reliability of the EQ-5D score. Significant improvement in the HADS, PCS, and EQ-5D scores was noted after 3 months of pain treatment. Calculation of the cost-effectiveness based on the estimated annual medical treatment cost and QALY revealed a mean value of US $45,879 ± 103,155 per QALY (median US $16,903), indicating adequate socioeconomic utility. Based on our results, the EQ-5D is reliable for evaluating chronic pain in patients. The medico-economic balance was appropriate for all treatments provided in two comprehensive pain centers in Japan.
Ji, Ru-Rong; Berta, Temugin; Nedergaard, Maiken
Activation of glial cells and neuro-glial interactions are emerging as key mechanisms underlying chronic pain. Accumulating evidence has implicated 3 types of glial cells in the development and maintenance of chronic pain: microglia and astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), and satellite glial cells of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Painful syndromes are associated with different glial activation states: (1) glial reaction (ie, upregulation of glial markers such as IBA1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and/or morphological changes, including hypertrophy, proliferation, and modifications of glial networks); (2) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways; (3) upregulation of adenosine triphosphate and chemokine receptors and hemichannels and downregulation of glutamate transporters; and (4) synthesis and release of glial mediators (eg, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases) to the extracellular space. Although widely detected in chronic pain resulting from nerve trauma, inflammation, cancer, and chemotherapy in rodents, and more recently, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy in human beings, glial reaction (activation state 1) is not thought to mediate pain sensitivity directly. Instead, activation states 2 to 4 have been demonstrated to enhance pain sensitivity via a number of synergistic neuro-glial interactions. Glial mediators have been shown to powerfully modulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission at presynaptic, postsynaptic, and extrasynaptic sites. Glial activation also occurs in acute pain conditions, and acute opioid treatment activates peripheral glia to mask opioid analgesia. Thus, chronic pain could be a result of "gliopathy," that is, dysregulation of glial functions in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances and discuss remaining questions.
Gordy, Stephanie; Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John
The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability is not well described. Two hundred three patients with rib fractures were followed for 6 months. Chronic pain was assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire Pain Rating Index and Present Pain Intensity (PPI) scales. Disability was defined as a decrease in work or functional status. The prevalence of chronic pain was 22% and disability was 53%. Acute PPI predicted chronic pain. Associated injuries, bilateral rib fractures, injury severity score, and number of rib fractures were not predictive of chronic pain. No acute injury characteristics were predictive of disability. Among 89 patients with isolated rib fractures, the prevalence of chronic pain was 28% and of disability was 40%. No injury characteristics predicted chronic pain. Bilateral rib fractures and acute PPI predicted disability. The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability is significant but unpredictable with conventional injury descriptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turmo, M; Echevarria, M; Rubio, P; Almeida, C
To analyze the incidence of chronic pain 5 months after episiotomy, as well as potential prognostic factors. A prospective cohort observational study was conducted on pregnant women age≥18 years who had undergone an episiotomy. The presence of pain was evaluated in the area of episiotomy at 24 and 48 h of delivery using a structured face-to-face questionnaire, and by telephone questionnaire at 5 months. The primary endpoint was the presence of persistent pain at 5 months. A record was made of the presence of pain at delivery, and its intensity, the presence or absence of epidural analgesia, instrumental delivery, perineal tear, and pain when episiotomy was performed, as well as the presence of dyspareunia and urinary incontinence at 5 months post-episiotomy. A total of 87 parturient patients were included, of whom 78 completed the study. Of the patients who completed the study, 12.8% reported chronic episiotomy pain. Epidural analgesia was associated with a higher incidence of instrumental delivery and less pain at the time of episiotomy and expulsion (P<.0005, P<.02, and P<.01, respectively). Chronic pain is associated with operative delivery (P<.017), and with the presence of pain at rest at 24 and 48 h (P<.01), of wound complications (P<.026), and of dyspareunia (P<.001). An incidence of 12.8% of women developing chronic pain after delivery with episiotomy suggests a health problem. More studies are needed to confirm our results. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Atul; Nar, Amandeep Singh; Bawa, Ashvind; Kaur, Gurinder; Bawa, Sayesha; Mishra, Seema
Introduction: Chronic post–thoracotomy pain (CPP) has very high incidence and therefore it needs attention. Usually, it is burning, dysaesthetic and aching in nature and it displays many features of neuropathic pain. No one technique of thoracotomy has been shown to reduce the incidence of chronic post thoracotomy pain. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with chronic post–thoracotomy pain. Methods: This prospective, randomized study was conducted on 50 consenting patients who underwent posterolateral thoracotomy. 25 patients were given pregabalin for 21 days (Group A). Another 25 were given diclofenac sodium (Group B) on demand and they escaped treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring was performed on days 0, 1 and 7, then follow up was done at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The data was analyzed by using t-test and Chi- square test for various variables. Results: The pain VAS scores in Group A were significantly low at all observation points except on day 0, day 1 and day 7 post-operatively, when the difference in pain scores in both the groups were comparable. The overall pain scores of Group A were comparable at day 0, day 1 and at day 7 as compared to those of Group B (p>0.9). Pain was significantly low at three weeks (p<0.05). Pain scores of Group A were significantly low at 6 weeks,12 weeks and 24 weeks as compared to those of Group B (p<0.001) and the difference was statistically significant. No significant adverse reactions were observed during study period. Conclusion: Pregabalin is a safe and an effective adjuvant which is used for reducing the chronic post thoracotomy pain, which has no side effects and a high patient compliance. These results should be supported with multidisciplinary studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups. PMID:24086867
Reid, Kathy; Simmonds, Mark; Verrier, Michelle; Dick, Bruce
Chronic pain is a significant problem in children and teens, and adolescents with chronic pain often struggle to attend school on a regular basis. We present in this article a novel program we developed that integrates attendance at a group cognitive-behavioural chronic pain self-management program with earning high school credits. We collaborated with Alberta Education in the development of this course, Chronic Pain 35. Adolescents who choose to enroll are invited to demonstrate their scientific knowledge related to pain, understanding of and engagement with treatment homework, and demonstrate their creativity by completing a project, which demonstrates at least one concept. Integrating Chronic Pain 35 into an adolescent’s academic achievements is a creative strategy that facilitates the engagement of adolescents in learning and adopting pain coping techniques. It also helps teens to advocate for themselves in the school environment and improve their parents’ and teachers’ understanding of adolescent chronic pain. This is one of the first successful collaborations between a pediatric health program and provincial education leaders, aimed at integrating learning and obtaining school credit for learning about and engaging in health self-management for teens. The authors hope this paper serves as an effective reference model for any future collaborating programs aimed at supporting teens with chronic pain to obtain high school credits. PMID:27869766
Reid, Kathy; Simmonds, Mark; Verrier, Michelle; Dick, Bruce
Chronic pain is a significant problem in children and teens, and adolescents with chronic pain often struggle to attend school on a regular basis. We present in this article a novel program we developed that integrates attendance at a group cognitive-behavioural chronic pain self-management program with earning high school credits. We collaborated with Alberta Education in the development of this course, Chronic Pain 35. Adolescents who choose to enroll are invited to demonstrate their scientific knowledge related to pain, understanding of and engagement with treatment homework, and demonstrate their creativity by completing a project, which demonstrates at least one concept. Integrating Chronic Pain 35 into an adolescent's academic achievements is a creative strategy that facilitates the engagement of adolescents in learning and adopting pain coping techniques. It also helps teens to advocate for themselves in the school environment and improve their parents' and teachers' understanding of adolescent chronic pain. This is one of the first successful collaborations between a pediatric health program and provincial education leaders, aimed at integrating learning and obtaining school credit for learning about and engaging in health self-management for teens. The authors hope this paper serves as an effective reference model for any future collaborating programs aimed at supporting teens with chronic pain to obtain high school credits.
Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre
Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.
The source of chronic pelvic pain may be reproductive organ, urological, musculoskeletal - neurological, gastrointestinal, or myofascial. A psychological component almost always is a factor, whether as an antecedent event or presenting as depression as result of the pain. Surgical interventions for chronic pelvic pain include: 1) resection or vaporization of vulvar/vestibular tissue for human papillion virus (HPV) induced or chronic vulvodynia/vestibulitis; 2) cervical dilation for cervix stenosis; 3) hysteroscopic resection for intracavitary or submucous myomas or intracavitary polyps; 4) myomectomy or myolysis for symptomatic intramural, subserosal or pedunculated myomas; 5) adhesiolysis for peritubular and periovarian adhesions, and enterolysis for bowel adhesions, adhesiolysis for all thick adhesions in areas of pain as well as thin ahesions affecting critical structures such as ovaries and tubes; 6) salpingectomy or neosalpingostomy for symptomatic hydrosalpinx; 7) ovarian treatment for symptomatic ovarian pain; 8) uterosacral nerve vaporization for dysmenorrhea; 9) presacral neurectomy for disabling central pain primarily of uterine but also of bladder origin; 10) resection of endometriosis from all surfaces including removal from bladder and bowel as well as from the rectovaginal septal space. Complete resection of all disease in a debulking operation is essential; 11) appendectomy for symptoms of chronic appendicitis, and chronic right lower quadrant pain; 12) uterine suspension for symptoms of collision dyspareunia, pelvic congestion, severe dysmenorrhea, cul-desac endometriosis; 13) repair of all hernia defects whether sciatic, inguinal, femoral, Spigelian, ventral or incisional; 14) hysterectomy if relief has not been achieved by organ-preserving surgery such as resection of all endometriosis and presacral neurectomy, or the central pain continues to be disabling. Before such a radical step is taken, MRI of the uterus to confirm presence of adenomyosis
Coluzzi, F; Valensise, H; Sacco, M; Allegri, M
During pregnancy most of women will experience some kind of pain, either as a result of a pre-existing condition (low back pain, headache, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis) or as a direct consequence of pregnancy (weight gain, postural changes, pelvic floor dysfunction, hormonal factors). However, chronic pain management during pregnancy and lactation remains a challenge for clinicians and pregnant women are at risk of undertreatment for painful conditions, because of fear about use of drugs during pregnancy. Few analgesic drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but studies in pregnant women are not available for most of pain medications. The aim of this paper is to review the safety profile in pregnancy or lactation of the commonly prescribed pain medications and non-pharmacological treatments. In addition to the conventional classifications from the Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Paediatrics, authors analyzed the currently available clinical data from literature.
Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.
Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078
Breser, María L; Salazar, Florencia C; Rivero, Viginia E; Motrich, Rubén D
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain.
Breser, María L.; Salazar, Florencia C.; Rivero, Viginia E.; Motrich, Rubén D.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is the most common urologic morbidity in men younger than 50 years and is characterized by a diverse range of pain and inflammatory symptoms, both in type and severity, that involve the region of the pelvis, perineum, scrotum, rectum, testes, penis, and lower back. In most patients, pain is accompanied by inflammation in the absence of an invading infectious agent. Since CP/CPPS etiology is still not well established, available therapeutic options for patients are far from satisfactory for either physicians or patients. During the past two decades, chronic inflammation has been deeply explored as the cause of CP/CPPS. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge regarding immunological mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain and prostate inflammation in CP/CPPS. Cumulative evidence obtained from both human disease and animal models indicate that several factors may trigger chronic inflammation in the form of autoimmunity against prostate, fostering chronic prostate recruitment of Th1 cells, and different other leukocytes, including mast cells, which might be the main actors in the consequent development of chronic pelvic pain. Thus, the local inflammatory milieu and the secretion of inflammatory mediators may induce neural sensitization leading to chronic pelvic pain development. Although scientific advances are encouraging, additional studies are urgently needed to establish the relationship between prostatitis development, mast cell recruitment to the prostate, and the precise mechanisms by which they would induce pelvic pain. PMID:28824626
Epstein, Lawrence J; Palmieri, Marco
Since its introduction as a procedure of last resort in a terminally ill patient with intractable cancer-related pain, spinal cord stimulation has been used to effectively treat chronic pain of varied origins. Spinal cord stimulation is commonly used for control of pain secondary to failed back surgery syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome, as well as pain from angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and other causes. By stimulating one or more electrodes implanted in the posterior epidural space, the patient feels paresthesias in their areas of pain, which reduces the level of pain. Pain is reduced without the side effects associated with analgesic medications. Patients have improved quality of life and improved function, with many returning to work. Spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be cost effective as compared with conservative management alone. There is strong evidence for efficacy and cost effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of pain associated with intractable angina, failed back surgery syndrome, and complex regional pain syndrome. In this article, we review the history and pathophysiology of spinal cord stimulation, and the evidence (or lack thereof) for efficacy in common clinical practice.
Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas
Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.
Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.
Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…
Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.
Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…
Chronic orofacial myalgia is characterized by muscle pain, tenderness, stiffness, and restricted range of mandibular movement. It can be localized and due to temporomandibular disorders, or part of a generalized myalgia, e.g. fibromyalgia. The etiology and pathophysiology are unclear, but it is reasonable to assume that both peripheral and central mechanisms take part. Peripheral sensitization by serotonin and other mediators is a possible mechanism behind the development and modulation of chronic myalgia, while amplification of pain due to central sensitization in conjunction with disordered antinociception may represent the mechanisms for the maintenance of pain. Central sensitization seems to involve wind-up phenomena due to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors located on second-order neurons in the brainstem. Derangements in descending endogenous pain modulating systems due to central serotonin deficiency may explain the disordered antinociception.
At least 5 million patients with chronic and severely debilitating pain exist among the adult population in Germany, i.e. 8% of this population. Various biological and psychosocial risk factors contribute to the continuing chronicity of pain, resulting in enormous direct and indirect costs totalling an estimated 38 billion euro annually. The introduction of a medical specialty for pain treatment in 1998 has not appreciably affected the quality of outpatient pain management. In contrast, more recent approaches of multimodal treatment, including medical, psychological and behavioral components, have shown a significant and lasting effect in patients with a high incidence of workplace incapacitation and sick leave. In particular, the GRIP pilot project (Göttingen Intensive Back Project) has resulted in an increased rate (to 200%) of return to the workplace and in a decrease in health system expenses to 50% of the pretreatment level.
Carey, Erin T; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Advancements in further understanding the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes continue to direct therapy. The mechanisms of chronic pelvic pain are often multifactorial and therefore require a multidisciplinary approach. The final treatment plan is often an accumulation of organ-specific treatment and chronic pain medications directed to the CNS and PNS. This article is a review of commonly used medications for chronic pelvic neuropathic pain disorders as well as an introduction to recent innovative developments in pain medicine.
Carey, Erin T; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Advancements in further understanding the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes continue to direct therapy. The mechanisms of chronic pelvic pain are often multifactorial and therefore require a multidisciplinary approach. The final treatment plan is often an accumulation of organ-specific treatment and chronic pain medications directed to the CNS and PNS. This article is a review of commonly used medications for chronic pelvic neuropathic pain disorders as well as an introduction to recent innovative developments in pain medicine. PMID:28116131
In chronic pain trials, proper handling of missing data due to dropout is an important issue because the dropout rate is high and the study conclusion may depend on the method chosen. The intent-to-treat (ITT) principle usually requires imputations for missing data to include the dropouts as well as completers in the statistical analysis. However, a statistical analysis with imputation might lead to a misinterpretation of clinical data. In chronic pain trials, treatment-related dropouts are clinical outcomes themselves. For example, an early dropout due to toxicity usually indicates a treatment failure, as does a dropout due to lack of efficacy. Problems with traditional methods such as last observation carried forward (LOCF) or baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) are identified especially in the chronic pain setting. Alternative methods, such as continuous responder analysis and two-part model analysis, treating dropouts as clinical events, are introduced with an example of osteoarthritis clinical trial data.
The acute whiplash injury is a significant health burden for patients and the healthcare system. Traditional approaches to treatment fail to resolve this ever growing medicolegal and social problem. A new biopsychosocial model of whiplash disorder encourages new ways of treating and preventing of the chronic disability. This biopsychosocial model takes into account the mechanism by which acute pain becomes chronic pain, and how this can be prevented. Specific education and treatments encourage a behaviour after whiplash injury that is conducive to more rapid recovery, and provides the whiplash patient with insight into the mediators of chronic pain. The article describes in practical terms how to use education, reassurance, a more judicious use of therapy, and exercise to achieve this goal. Practical guidelines are provided on educating the patient about other symptoms that may cause concern. PMID:12421777
Joong, Mo Ahn; El-Khoury, Georges Y
Chronic foot pain is a common and often disabling clinical complaint that can interfere with a patient's routine activities. Despite careful and detailed clinical history and physical examination, providing an accurate diagnosis is often difficult because chronic foot pain has a broad spectrum of potential causes. Therefore, imaging studies play a key role in diagnosis and management. Initial assessment is typically done by plain radiography; however, magnetic resonance imaging has superior soft-tissue contrast resolution and multiplanar capability, which makes it important in the early diagnosis of ambiguous or clinically equivocal cases when initial radiographic findings are inconclusive. Computed tomography displays bony detail in stress fractures, as well as in arthritides and tarsal coalition. Bone scanning and ultrasonography also are useful tools for diagnosing specific conditions that produce chronic foot pain.
Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B
Chronic pain reduces quality of life, utilizes healthcare resources, and increases healthcare costs. It is widespread, but generally inadequately treated or managed, partly due to several obstacles, including a limited number of mechanistic options for long-term pharmacologic agents. Opioids are generally the primary class of analgesic prescribed, but because of associated side effects during long-term treatment, many patients become noncompliant or discontinue treatment. A long-term use analgesic with a good benefit/risk ratio is advantageous. A literature search for randomized trials using tapentadol extended release (ER) for noncancer chronic pain patients was conducted. Databases searched included PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, using key terms "tapentadol," "prolonged release," "extended release," and "chronic pain" individually or in combination. The results were synthesized and evaluated. A total of six randomized, controlled studies were identified. Chronic pain conditions analyzed included low back, osteoarthritis, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Treatment arms consisted most often of placebo, tapentadol ER (100-250 mg twice daily [b.i.d.]), and/or oxycodone CR (controlled release) (20-50 mg b.i.d.). Subjects treated with tapentadol ER had significant reduction in pain intensity compared to placebo controls and similar efficacy to oxycodone CR. Overall, the safety profile was superior to that of oxycodone CR in regards to reduction in side effects, reduced severity of side effects (particularly gastrointestinal related), and lower study discontinuation rates. The two mechanisms of analgesic action of tapentadol, combined with an ER, appears to provide equal efficacy to a strong controlled-release opioid while providing greater gastrointestinal tolerability. The reduction in incidence and severity of gastrointestinal side effects correlated with a higher compliance rate. These findings suggest that tapentadol ER might be a viable
Patients for whom medical and surgical management has failed to relieve chronic pain were treated in a multimodal programme which included interpretive psychotherapy. Dynamic conflicts were identified in all cases and utilized in the psychotherapy and programme design. Examined in the light of ego functioning, pain that was previously considered intractible, yielded to psychological treatment. Further research is planned to identify the parts played by the different modalities and to study outcome.
Lefort, Paul E.
Sooner or later, all family physicians will face patients with chronic low back pain. This disorder does not result from the same causes and does not respond to the same treatment as acute back pain. A thorough assessment is the key to efficient treatment and should include data about familial, social, and occupational environments. The treatment should be multimodal and tailored to the patient's type of personality and to the causes of the syndrome. PMID:21249069
Thompson, James M; Chiasson, Roland; Loisel, Patrick; Besemann, Lt Col Markus; Pranger, Tina
A few years after leaving the navy, a 50-year-old Veteran* presents to a new family physician with chronic knee and back pain. He is seeking a new physician for opioid and benzodiazepine refills, referrals for ongoing acupuncture and massage therapy, and completion of Veteran Affairs Canada (VAC) disability claim forms for his back. He was medically released at the rank of Petty Officer owing to knee impairment secondary to a fracture sustained aboard ship. He twice strained his back on deployments, but did not develop chronic low back pain until after leaving the Canadian Forces (CF). On release from the CF he completed comprehensive medical, psychosocial, and vocational rehabilitation in the VAC Rehabilitation Program for disability related to his knee impairment. Lately, chronic low back pain prevents him from continuing civilian employment and enjoying life.The physician takes the Veteran's history, performs appropriate physical examination and diagnostic investigations, and obtains previous medical records. The physician diagnoses chronic mechanic allow back pain and knee osteoarthritis, and is concerned about the Veteran's mental health. When the family physician tries to explore the mental health differential diagnosis, the Veteran initially becomes upset,but he responds to motivational interviewing. The physician books follow-up appointments to develop a therapeutic relationship with the Veteran and completes the VAC forms. With consent, the physician also sends a referral letter to the VAC district office, outlining the Veteran's health issues. The client is found to be eligible to re-enter the VAC Rehabilitation Program to manage disability related to his back pain. The Veteran is ultimately able to withdraw from chronic opiate and benzodiazepine medications and optimize his participation in life.
Kopf, A; Gjoni, E
Chronic pain is a common and disabling disorder with major consequences for patient quality of life and it is also a major economic burden to society. The management of chronic pain comprises a large range of different intervention strategies including pharmacological therapy, non-medicinal and invasive therapeutic options. While non-pharmacological and multimodal options are underused, monomodal options, especially pharmacotherapy and invasive therapies are overused. The effectiveness of multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment programs including physical and rehabilitation interventions and psychological treatment has been extensively studied in the last two decades. Evidence from randomized controlled trials demonstrates that there is low quality evidence for the effectiveness of exercise therapy alone, there is some evidence for the effectiveness of behavioral therapy and there is at least moderate evidence for the effectiveness of multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment and other active treatment reducing pain and increasing functional capacity at short and intermediate term. Therefore, blanket coverage with provision of adequate treatment programs for chronic pain as well as studies evaluating the best composition of treatment elements are needed. The characteristics of chronic pain, the necessary assessment procedures and treatment types are described.
Lynch, Mary E; Watson, C Peter N
The past two decades have contributed a large body of preclinical work that has assisted in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause chronic pain. In this context, it has been recognized that effective treatment of pain is a priority and that treatment often involves the use of one or a combination of agents with analgesic action. The current review presents an evidence-based approach to the pharmacotherapy of chronic pain. Medline searches were done for all agents used as conventional treatment in chronic pain. Published papers up to June 2005 were included. The search strategy included randomized, controlled trials, and where available, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further references were found in reference sections of papers located using the above search strategy. Agents for which there were no controlled trials supporting efficacy in treatment of chronic pain were not included in the present review, except in cases where preclinical science was compelling, or where initial human work has been positive and where it was thought the reader would be interested in the scientific evidence to date. PMID:16511612
Kjøgx, Heidi; Kasch, Helge; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene
Pain catastrophizing (PC) has been related to pain levels in both patients experiencing acute or chronic pain and in healthy volunteers exposed to experimental pain. Still, it is unclear whether high levels of pain catastrophizing lead to high levels of pain or vice versa. We therefore tested whether levels of pain catastrophizing could be increased and decreased in the same participant through hypnotic suggestions and whether the altered level of situation-specific pain catastrophizing was related to increased and decreased pain levels, respectively. Using the spontaneous pain of 22 patients with chronic tension-type headache and experimentally induced pain in 22 healthy volunteers, participants were tested in 3 randomized sessions where they received 3 types of hypnotic suggestions: Negative (based on the 13 items in the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), Positive (coping-oriented reversion of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and Neutral (neutral sentence) hypnotic suggestions. The hypnotic suggestions significantly increased and decreased situation-specific PC in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Also, the levels of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were significantly altered in both patients and healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Furthermore, regression analyses showed that changes in pain catastrophizing predicted changes in pain in patients (R = 0.204-0.304; P < 0.045) and in healthy volunteers (R = 0.328-0.252; P < 0.018). This is the first study to successfully manipulate PC in positive and negative directions in both patients with chronic pain and healthy volunteers and to show that these manipulations significantly influence pain levels. These findings may have important theoretical and clinical implications.
Uddin, Zakir; MacDermid, Joy C
In recent years, several published articles have demonstrated that quantitative sensory testing (QST) is useful in the analysis of musculoskeletal pain disorders. Based on the evidence from these studies, it is assumed that QST might be a useful tool in the analysis of the pathogenesis, classification, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of chronic musculoskeletal pain. The objective of this paper is to discuss measurement properties of QST and potentials research and clinical applications in musculoskeletal pain. This is a review of the current knowledge base on QST as it relates to musculoskeletal pain disorders. We based our summary on articles retrieved from Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to present) including EMBASE, AMED, and PsycINFO databases to search for all published literature focused on QST and musculoskeletal pain. QST has been shown to be related to neural sensitivity in musculoskeletal pain. QST measurement properties have been evaluated for multiple sensory evaluation modalities and protocols with no clear superior instrument or test protocol. The research evidence is incomplete, but suggests potential clinical benefits for predicting outcomes and subtyping pain. Threshold detection testing is commonly used to quantify sensory loss or gain, in current practice and has shown moderate reliability. Intensity/magnitude rating can be assessed on a wide range of rating scales and may be more useful for pain rating in a clinical context. Threshold detection-based testing and intensity/magnitude rating-based testing can be combined to determine pain threshold in clinical evaluation. Musculoskeletal pain management may benefit from treatment algorithms that consider mechanism, pain quality, or neurophysiological correlates. Non-invasive QST may be helpful to find sensory array of altered nociceptive process. Due to the diverse etiopathogenetic basis of musculoskeletal pain disorders, a broad range of reliable and valid QST tests may be needed to analyze the various
Parekattil, Sijo J; Cohen, Marc S
The use of robotic assistance during microsurgical procedures has evolved from its early beginnings in the early 2000s. Currently, its use is expanding in the treatment of male infertility and patients with chronic testicular or groin pain. The addition of this technology may allow an improvement in outcomes as when the operating microscope was introduced in microsurgery. However, this is yet to be proven. This review covers new robotic microsurgical tools and applications of the robotic platform in microsurgical procedures such as vasectomy reversal, varicocelectomy, microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic testicular or groin pain, post-vasectomy pain, sports hernia pain, postnephrectomy, donor nephrectomy and phantom groin pain. Preliminary animal studies show an advantage in terms of improved operative efficiency and improved surgical outcomes. Preliminary human clinical studies appear to support these findings. The use of robotic assistance during robotic microsurgical vasovasostomy appears to decrease operative duration and improve early postoperative sperm counts compared to the pure microsurgical technique. Long-term prospective controlled trials are necessary to assess the true cost-benefit ratio for robotic assisted microsurgery. The preliminary findings are promising and evidence is mounting, but further evaluation is warranted.
Kalapurakkel, Sreeja; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Simons, Laura E.
Objective To apply resilience theory and the extant literature to propose a resilience-risk model for pediatric chronic pain and provide an agenda for research and clinical practice in pediatric chronic pain resilience. Method Literature review to develop a resilience-risk model for pediatric chronic pain. Results The chronic pain literature has identified unique individual and social/environmental resilience resources and pain-related resilience mechanisms that promote pain adaptation. These data support our ecological resilience-risk model for pediatric chronic pain, and the model highlights novel directions for clinical and research efforts for youth with chronic pain. Conclusions The examination of pediatric chronic pain from a strengths-based approach might lead to novel clinical avenues to empower youth to positively adapt and live beyond their pain. PMID:25979085
Roberts, Melissa H; Mapel, Douglas W; Hartry, Ann; Von Worley, Ann; Thomson, Heather
Pain is a common problem for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, pain is minimally discussed in COPD management guidelines. The objective of this study was to describe chronic pain prevalence among patients with COPD compared with similar patients with other chronic diseases in a managed care population in the southwestern United States (age ≥ 40 yr). Using data for the period January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2010, patients with COPD were matched to two control subjects without COPD but with another chronic illness based on age, sex, insurance, and healthcare encounter type. Odds ratios (OR) for evidence of chronic pain were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Pulmonary function data for 200 randomly selected patients with COPD were abstracted. Retrospectively analyzed recurrent pain-related utilization (diagnoses and treatment) was considered evidence of chronic pain. The study sample comprised 7,952 patients with COPD (mean age, 69 yr; 42% male) and 15,904 patients with other chronic diseases (non-COPD). Patients with COPD compared with non-COPD patients had a higher percentage of chronic pain (59.8 vs. 51.7%; P < 0.001), chronic use of pain-related medications (41.2 vs. 31.5%; P < 0.001), and chronic use of short-acting (24.2 vs. 15.1%; P < 0.001) and long-acting opioids (4.4 vs. 1.9%; P < 0.001) compared with non-COPD patients. In conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity, and comorbidities, patients with COPD had higher odds of chronic pain (OR, 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.71), chronic use of pain-related medications (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.46-1.74), and chronic use of short-acting or long-acting opioids (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.57-1.92). Chronic pain and opioid use are prevalent among adults with COPD. This finding was not explained by the burden of comorbidity.
Binder, Andreas; Baron, Ralf
Chronic neuropathic pain, including painful peripheral polyneuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia, affects 6.9-10% of the general population. In this article, we present current treatment recommendations on the basis of a selective review of the literature. Neuropathic pain does not respond consistently to classic non-opioid analgesic drugs and is better treated with co-analgesic, antidepressant, and anticonvulsant drugs and topical agents. Under certain conditions, however, neuropathic pain can be treated with opioids, even chronically. It was concluded in a large-scale m eta- analysis that tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin- norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and calcium-channel anticonvulsants are the drugs of first choice, with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 3.5-7.7 for a 50% reduction of pain. An analysis of all studies yielded an estimated publication bias of 10%. Treatment planning must include adequate consideration of the patient's age and comorbidities, concomitant medication, and potential side effects. Drugs are now chosen to treat neuropathic pain independently of the cause and symptoms of the pain. Topical agents are used only to treat peripheral neuropathy. The utility of a treatment approach based on the patient's symptoms and pathological mechanisms was recently demonstrated for the first time in a randomized trial. The goal of current research is to facilitate treatment planning on the basis of the clinical phenotype.
Boureau, F; Luu, M; Doubrère, J F
This study evaluates (i) the effect of heterotopic chronic pain on various experimental pain measures, (ii) the relationship between experimental pain measures and chronic pain symptomatology assessment, and (iii) the influence of the various pain aetiologies on experimental pain measures. Fifty-three chronic pain patients were compared to 17 pain-free subjects with the following psychophysical and physiological indices: pain threshold (PTh), pain tolerance (PTol), verbal estimation of intensity and unpleasantness (intensity scale, IS; unpleasantness scale, US), threshold for intensity and unpleasantness (ITh and UTh), lower limb RIII nociceptive reflex (RIIITh and RIII frequency of occurrence). Chronic pain syndromes included neuropathic pain (n = 12), iodopathic pain (n = 12), myofascial syndromes (n = 9), headache (n = 9), and miscellaneous pain (n = 11). Chronic pain symptomatology was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS), a French MPQ adaptation (QDSA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State Trait Inventory (STAI) and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI). No significant difference was observed between chronic pain patients and pain-free control groups and between patient subgroups for PTh, PTol and RIIITh. No significant correlation was found between experimental pain measures and clinical pain, anxiety or depression scores. However, the chronic pain patients had a higher threshold for unpleasantness and judged the suprathreshold stimuli significantly less intense and less unpleasant than the control group. These results are discussed in relation to diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and the adaptation level theory of chronic pain experience.
Hess, Leonardo Emanuel; Haimovici, Ariel; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Montoya, Pedro
Risky decision-making seems to be markedly disrupted in patients with chronic pain, probably due to the high cost that impose pain and negative mood on executive control functions. Patients’ behavioral performance on decision-making tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is characterized by selecting cards more frequently from disadvantageous than from advantageous decks, and by switching often between competing responses in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). In the present study, we developed a simple heuristic model to simulate individuals’ choice behavior by varying the level of decision randomness and the importance given to gains and losses. The findings revealed that the model was able to differentiate the behavioral performance of patients with chronic pain and HCs at the group, as well as at the individual level. The best fit of the model in patients with chronic pain was yielded when decisions were not based on previous choices and when gains were considered more relevant than losses. By contrast, the best account of the available data in HCs was obtained when decisions were based on previous experiences and losses loomed larger than gains. In conclusion, our model seems to provide useful information to measure each individual participant extensively, and to deal with the data on a participant-by-participant basis. PMID:25136301
Sokal, Paweł; Zieliński, Piotr; Harat, Marek
Chronic pelvic pain is a syndrome of chronic non-malignant pain of multifactorial pathophysiology. Perineal, anal and coccygeal pain can be a form of failed-back surgery syndrome or complex regional pain syndrome. Apart from conservative treatment interventional methods are useful in this condition as neurolytic blocks or non-destructive neuromodulation procedures. Peripheral nerve, spinal cord stimulation or sacral stimulation can be applied. We describe a minimally invasive method of sacral roots stimulation with percutaneous electrodes implanted through the sacral hiatus in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. We evaluated a series of nine female patients with pelvic pain treated with sacral roots stimulation in regard of efficacy and complications of this method. Short-term results in all patients were satisfactory with statistically significant improvement (median VAS=9 before surgery) (median VAS=2 after implantation, p=0.001), (median VAS=3 after 6 months, p=0.043). The long-term follow-up revealed less satisfactory result (median VAS=6 after 12 months). High incidence of complications was noted: mainly infection in 3/9 patients. Sacral roots stimulation is a non-destructive and minimally invasive neuromodulation method in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. It can be effective even in the long-term observation but special care is advised to secure aseptic conditions in the implantation and to prevent the infection which leads to removal of the stimulating system. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Leardi, S; Delmonaco, S; Ventura, T; Chiominto, A; De Rubeis, G; Simi, M
Chronic appendicitis may be the cause of recurrent abdominal pain. This hypothesis is the subject of controversy. The aim is to clarify the possible existence of a chronic inflammation of the appendix by a clinical and histopathologic study. The case history and the preoperative symptoms and serum findings of 269 patients with appendectomy have been studied. All the appendices have been histologically examined. Chronic appendicitis was diagnosed when at least two typical histological factors of chronic inflammation were present. The histological findings of the appendices have been correlated with preoperative clinical and serum findings of the patients. 14-46 months after the appendectomy, the patients have been examined. Histological examination revealed 187 cases (69.5%) with acute appendicitis, 44 cases (16.3%) with non disease of appendix and 38 cases (14.2%) with chronic appendicitis. Recurrent abdominal pain and normal leukocyte count were closely correlated (chi 2 = 18.3, p < 0.001; chi 2 = 21.3, p < 0.001 respectively) with diagnosis of chronic appendicitis. 81.8% of 33 patients with chronic appendicitis who underwent follow-up had relief of all the symptoms after appendectomy. Therefore, the study seems to confirm the existence of a clinico-pathological condition that can be defined as chronic appendicitis, resolvable with appendectomy.
Roch, C; Knöchlein, C; Albrecht, J
A 34-year-old woman presented with a complex pain disorder and a previous diagnosis of the rare Gitelman syndrome but with a negative genetic test. The patient was admitted to a routine ward for treatment of the pain but was transferred to the intensive care unit after suffering severe hypokalemia and a narcoleptic attack. In the period of intensive care all blood parameters were stable but on release to the normal ward severe hypokalemia immediately reoccurred. With consent the patient's belongings were inspected and many diuretics and laxatives were found. The patient admitted to uncontrolled self-medication so that the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome also appeared to be an artificial disorder.
Schmidtko, Achim; Lötsch, Jörn; Freynhagen, Rainer; Geisslinger, Gerd
Pharmacological management of severe chronic pain is difficult to achieve with currently available analgesic drugs, and remains a large unmet therapeutic need. The synthetic peptide ziconotide has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for intrathecal treatment of patients with severe chronic pain that is refractory to other treatment modalities. Ziconotide is the first member in the new drug class of selective N-type voltage-sensitive calcium-channel blockers. The ziconotide-induced blockade of N-type calcium channels in the spinal cord inhibits release of pain-relevant neurotransmitters from central terminals of primary afferent neurons. By this mechanism, ziconotide can effectively reduce pain. However, ziconotide has a narrow therapeutic window because of substantial CNS side-effects, and thus treatment with ziconotide is appropriate for only a small subset of patients with severe chronic pain. We provide an overview of the benefits and limitations of intrathecal ziconotide treatment and review potential future developments in this new drug class.
Mayer, Emeran A; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Hong, Jui-Yang
Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity, and connectivity, as well as in gray and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data-driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions.
Mayer, Emeran A.; Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Hong, Jui-Yang
Chronic visceral pain syndromes are important clinical problems with largely unmet medical needs. Based on the common overlap with other chronic disorders of visceral or somatic pain, mood and affect, and their responsiveness to centrally targeted treatments, an important role of central nervous system in their pathophysiology is likely. A growing number of brain imaging studies in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis has identified abnormalities in evoked brain responses, resting state activity and connectivity, as well as in grey and white matter properties. Structural and functional alterations in brain regions of the salience, emotional arousal, and sensorimotor networks, as well as in prefrontal regions, are the most consistently reported findings. Some of these changes show moderate correlations with behavioral and clinical measures. Most recently, data driven machine-learning approaches to larger data sets have been able to classify visceral pain syndromes from healthy control subjects. Future studies need to identify the mechanisms underlying the altered brain signatures of chronic visceral pain and identify targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:25789437
Vehof, Jelle; Zavos, Helena M S; Lachance, Genevieve; Hammond, Christopher J; Williams, Frances M K
Chronic pain syndromes (CPS) are highly prevalent in the general population, and increasingly the evidence points to a common etiological pathway. Using a large cohort of twins (n=8564) characterized for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP), chronic pelvic pain (PP), migraine (MIG), dry eye disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), we explored the underlying genetic and environmental factors contributing to CPS and the correlation between them. The sample was predominantly female (87.3%), with a mean age of 54.7 (±14.7) years. Prevalence of the different CPS ranged from 7.4% (PP) to 15.7% (MIG). For all CPS the within-twin correlation in monozygotic twin pairs was higher than in dizygotic pairs, suggesting a heritable component. Estimated heritability ranged from 19% (IBS) to 46% (PP). Except for MIG, we found significant pairwise phenotypic correlations between the CPS. The phenotypic correlation was highest between CWP and IBS (0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 0.46). Excluding MIG from further analyses, cross-twin cross-trait correlations were higher in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twin pairs, suggestive of shared genetic factors between CWP, PP, IBS, and dry eye disease. Twin modeling analysis revealed the common pathway model as the model best explaining the observed pattern of correlation between the traits, with an estimated heritability of 66% of the underlying latent variable. These results are evidence of shared genetic factors in conditions manifesting chronic pain and justify the search for underlying genetic variants.
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is becoming increasingly common in young athletes. When these athletes do not respond well to standard treatments, for example physical theraphy and anti-inflammatories, other diagnoses must be considered, such as reflex sympathetic dystrophy, fibromyalgia, and/or overtraining syndrome.
Jensen, Mark P.; Patterson, David R.
The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802
Tsao, Jennie CI; Evans, Subhadra; Seidman, Laura C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K
BACKGROUND: Extant research comparing laboratory pain responses of children with chronic pain with healthy controls is mixed, with some studies indicating lower pain responsivity for controls and others showing no differences. Few studies have included different pain modalities or assessment protocols. OBJECTIVES: To compare pain responses among 26 children (18 girls) with chronic pain and matched controls (mean age 14.8 years), to laboratory tasks involving thermal heat, pressure and cold pain. Responses to cold pain were assessed using two different protocols: an initial trial of unspecified duration and a second trial of specified duration. METHODS: Four trials of pressure pain and of thermal heat pain stimuli, all of unspecified duration, were administered, as well as the two cold pain trials. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and after completion of the pain tasks. RESULTS: Pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ between children with chronic pain and controls for the unspecified trials. For the specified cold pressor trial, 92% of children with chronic pain completed the entire trial compared with only 61.5% of controls. Children with chronic pain exhibited a trend toward higher baseline and postsession heart rate and reported more anxiety and depression symptoms compared with control children. CONCLUSIONS: Contextual factors related to the fixed trial may have exerted a greater influence on pain tolerance in children with chronic pain relative to controls. Children with chronic pain demonstrated a tendency toward increased arousal in anticipation of and following pain induction compared with controls. PMID:22518373
Fall, Magnus; Baranowski, Andrew P; Elneil, Sohier; Engeler, Daniel; Hughes, John; Messelink, Embert J; Oberpenning, Frank; de C Williams, Amanda C
These guidelines were prepared on behalf of the European Association of Urology (EAU) to help urologists assess the evidence-based management of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and to incorporate the recommendations into their clinical practice. To revise guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of CPP patients. Guidelines were compiled by a working group and based on a systematic review of current literature using the PubMed database, with important papers reviewed for the 2003 EAU guidelines as a background. A panel of experts weighted the references. The full text of the guidelines is available through the EAU Central Office and the EAU Web site (www.uroweb.org). This article is a short version of the full guidelines text and summarises the main conclusions from the guidelines on the management of CPP. A guidelines text is presented including chapters on chronic prostate pain and bladder pain syndromes, urethral pain, scrotal pain, pelvic pain in gynaecologic practice, neurogenic dysfunctions, the role of the pelvic floor and pudendal nerve, psychological factors, general treatment of CPP, nerve blocks, and neuromodulation. These guidelines have been drawn up to provide support in the management of the large and difficult group of patients suffering from CPP.
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163650.html Chronic Pain More Likely for Poor, Less Educated: Study Researchers ... 17, 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic pain is much more common among poor, less educated ...
Sparks, Jayne A.; Clark, Donald W.
Discusses certain factors that contribute to the development of chronic pain. Psychosocial factors are explored with a summary of their implications for treatment. Medical treatment for chronic pain is reviewed and holistic treatment is surveyed. (Author)
Several randomised trials suggest that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment in patients with painful chronic knee osteoarthritis or chronic low back pain. However, comparisons with sham acupuncture provide no evidence that acupuncture has a specific effect.
Angheluta, Anne-Marie; Lee, Bonnie K.
Chronic pain is acknowledged as a phenomenological experience resulting from biological, psychological, and social interactions. Consequently, treatment for this complex and debilitating health phenomenon is often approached from multidisciplinary and biopsychosocial perspectives. One approach to treating chronic pain involves implementing…
... chronic pain may involve a team of different pain management specialists—including a physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, pharmacist, and others who specialize in pain management. “It takes a team to take care of ...
Torrance, Nicola; Smith, Blair H
Chronic pain is common and complex and has a large impact on individuals and society. Good epidemiological pain data provide key information on the use of resources (both in general practice and in specialist clinics), insight into factors that lead to or favour chronicity and the design of interventions aimed at reducing or preventing the effects of chronic pain. This review aims to highlight the important factors associated with chronic pain, including those factors which are amenable to lifestyle intervention. PMID:26516524
Kingham, J G; Dawson, A M
We have studied 22 consecutive patients referred for investigation of severe chronic right upper quadrant pain. The majority were women whose symptoms had been present for many years. All had undergone repeated investigations of the pancreatico-biliary, gastro-intestinal, urinary, and even gynaecological systems without a satisfactory diagnosis. Most had undergone at least one abdominal operation in an unsuccessful attempt to cure their pain. In 21 of 22 patients the customary pain was completely and reproducibly mimicked by balloon distension of the small or large intestine in at least one site. The trigger sites were jejunum (15), ileum (12), right colon (nine), and duodenum (six). In 12 more than one trigger site was found. Close questioning revealed features of the irritable bowel syndrome in the majority and depression in many though the symptoms were not spontaneously volunteered. Reproduction of pain has provided a convincing demonstration to this difficult group of patients that they have a sensitive gut and allows appropriate management.
Outcalt, Samantha D; Ang, Dennis C; Wu, Jingwei; Sargent, Christy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Bair, Matthew J
Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) co-occur at high rates, and Veterans from recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to both conditions. The objective of this study was to identify key aspects of chronic pain, cognitions, and psychological distress associated with comorbid PTSD among this sample of Veterans. Baseline data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial testing a stepped-care intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans with chronic pain only (n = 173) were compared with those with chronic pain and clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (n = 68). Group differences on pain characteristics, pain cognitions, and psychological distress were evaluated. Results demonstrated that OIF/OEF Veterans with comorbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and PTSD experienced higher pain severity, greater pain-related disability and increased pain interference, more maladaptive pain cognitions (e.g., catastrophizing, self-efficacy, pain centrality), and higher affective distress than those with chronic pain alone. Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to the compounded adverse effects of chronic pain and PTSD. These results highlight a more intense and disabling pain and psychological experience for those with chronic pain and PTSD than for those without PTSD.
Rowell, Robert M; Rylander, Steven J
The purpose of this article is to report the case of a patient who had low-back pain, leg pain, and idiopathic chronic testicular pain and who sought chiropractic care for his low-back and leg pain and received pain relief including his testicular pain. A 36-year-old male patient had low-back pain, right leg pain, and testicular pain that was worsening. All had been present for 5 years. He had been seen by several medical physicians and had lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and x-rays performed. All were read as normal. Examination revealed tenderness of the testicles bilaterally with no masses or other abnormality of the testicles or scrotum. Orthopedic and neurological testing was unremarkable. Tenderness rated 8 out of 10 was noted at the L4 spinous process. The patient was treated with Cox Technic (flexion-distraction) of the lumbar spine, receiving a total of 19 treatments over an 8-week time period. After 4 weeks, the patient's low-back pain was decreased and his leg pain was gone. The testicular pain was improved after the first treatment and gone after 3 weeks of care. The patient was followed up by telephone at 3 and 6 months after discharge to find out if the testicle pain had returned, which it had not. This case was one of chronic idiopathic testicular pain. The patient was treated with the Cox Technic, and his low-back pain improved with complete remission of his leg and testicular pain. The testicular pain had not returned 6 months following his discharge from care.
Hirabayashi, Kiyoshi; Takayama, Shinichiro
Persistent chronic pain in victims injured in traffic accident often results from psychological factors to punish the person who caused the accident. Patients with whiplash associated disorders sometimes have fear that they can not make full recovery from various symptoms including acute or chronic pain. Such a fear deteriorates prognosis of the patients as well. Therefore, doctors in charge of those patients in emergency room should make effort to subside fear. They should not exaggerate seriousness of the injury by overdiagnosis and/or overtreatments, but to give correct and adequate information. In addition, in patients with complex regional pain syndrome I, psychological dispositions have serious effect on prognosis. Although various treatments in pain clinics might be ultimate, they are not radical therapeutic procedures that ensure full recovery to daily living and social activities. To the patients with CRPS-I, correct diagnosis based on the newly established criteria and appropriate treatments in the early stage, such as medication of steroids and/or active-passive exercise of extremities in alternating hot and cold baths to prevent worsening of chronic symptoms are the most essential elements for favorable outcome.
Murphy, Stephen F.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen
The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526
Wang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Xing, Guo-Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, You
It has been reported that oscillatory gamma activity participates in brief acute pain and tonic ongoing pain. It is of great interest to determine whether the gamma activity is involved in chronic pain since chronic pain is a more severe pathological condition characterized by pain persistency. To investigate the oscillatory gamma activity in chronic pain, in the present study, we recorded spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals during chronic pain development in rats with chronic inflammatory pain induced by monoarthritis. Power spectrum analysis of ECoG data showed that gamma power increased significantly at the late stage of chronic inflammatory pain. The increased gamma activity occurred mainly at electrodes over primary somatosensory cortices. In rats with chronic pain, the gamma power was positively correlated with the hyperalgesia measured by laser energy that elicited hindpaw withdrawal response. Furthermore, an increased coupling between the amplitude of gamma power and the phase of theta oscillations was observed in chronic inflammatory pain condition. These results indicate an enhanced spontaneous gamma activity in chronic pain and suggest a potential biomarker for the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27847461
Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol.
Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan
A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account.
Delavierre, D; Rigaud, J; Sibert, L; Labat, J-J
To review the diagnosis and pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis (CP) and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). A review of the literature was performed by searching the Medline database (National Library of Medicine). Search terms were either medical subject heading (MeSH) keywords (microbiology, pelvic pain, prostatitis) or terms derived from the title or abstract. Search terms were used alone or in combinations by using the "AND" operator. The literature search was conducted from 1990 to the present time. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a chronic, recurrent bacterial infection of the prostate, accounting for about 5 to 10% of all cases of chronic prostatitis (CP). CPPS is nonbacterial genitourinary pelvic pain present for at least 3 months, sometimes associated with sexual and voiding disorders. Although the prostate does not appear to be involved in all cases of chronic pelvic pain in men, the term CP usually remains associated with CPPS (CP/CPPS). CP/CPPS has a negative impact on quality of life. The precise pathogenesis of CP/CPPS has not been elucidated, but prostatic infection and inflammation could be involved, not as direct causes, but as initiating factors of a neurological hypersensitization phenomenon. Evaluation of CP/CPPS comprises clinical interview completed by the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index questionnaire (NIH-CPSI), physical examination, urine culture and uroflowmetry combined with determination of the post-voiding residual volume. The other investigations are optional and are designed to exclude other urological diagnoses. The Meares-Stamey four-glass test should be abandoned in favour of a simplified test comprising urine analysis before and after prostatic massage. However, the indications for this test are limited to patients in whom chronic bacterial prostatitis is suspected or with bacteriuria on urine culture. Chronic bacterial prostatitis represents only about 5 to 10% of all cases of CP. The usual
Cheatle, Martin D
Chronic pain affects nearly one-third of the American population. Chronic pain can lead to a variety of problems for a pain sufferer, including developing secondary medical problems, depression, functional and vocational disability, opioid abuse and suicide. Current pain care models are deficient in providing a necessary comprehensive approach. Most patients with chronic pain are managed by primary care clinicians who are typically ill prepared to effectively and efficiently manage these cases. A biopsychosocial approach to evaluate and treat chronic pain is clinically and economically efficacious, but unique delivery systems are required to meet the challenge of access to specialty care.
Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.
Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…
Keefe, Francis J.; Gil, Karen M.
Reviews behavioral and psychological concepts currently applied to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain syndromes, including operant conditioning and psychophysiologic concepts such as the stress-pain hypothesis, the pain-muscle spasm-pain cycle, and the neuromuscular pain model. Discusses relaxation and biofeedback training and concepts…
Sluka, Kathleen A; Clauw, Daniel J
Fibromyalgia is the current term for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain for which no alternative cause can be identified. The underlying mechanisms, in both human and animal studies, for the continued pain in individuals with fibromyalgia will be explored in this review. There is a substantial amount of support for alterations of central nervous system nociceptive processing in people with fibromyalgia, and that psychological factors such as stress can enhance the pain experience. Emerging evidence has begun exploring other potential mechanisms including a peripheral nervous system component to the generation of pain and the role of systemic inflammation. We will explore the data and neurobiology related to the role of the CNS in nociceptive processing, followed by a short review of studies examining potential peripheral nervous system changes and cytokine involvement. We will not only explore the data from human subjects with fibromyalgia but will relate this to findings from animal models of fibromyalgia. We conclude that fibromyalgia and related disorders are heterogenous conditions with a complicated pathobiology with patients falling along a continuum with one end a purely peripherally driven painful condition and the other end of the continuum is when pain is purely centrally driven. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara
Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.
Ankawi, Brett; Slepian, P Maxwell; Himawan, Lina K; France, Christopher R
Psychosocial factors that protect against negative outcomes for individuals with chronic pain have received increased attention in recent years. Pain resilience, or the ability to maintain behavioral engagement and regulate emotions as well as cognitions despite prolonged or intense pain, is one such factor. A measure of pain-specific resilience, the Pain Resilience Scale, was previously identified as a better predictor of acute pain tolerance than general resilience. The present study sought to validate this measure in a chronic pain sample, while also furthering understanding of the role of pain resilience compared with other protective factors. Participants with chronic pain completed online questionnaires to assess factors related to positive pain outcomes, pain vulnerability, pain intensity, and quality of life. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 2-factor structure of the Pain Resilience Scale previously observed among respondents without chronic pain, although one item from each subscale was dropped in the final version. For this chronic pain sample, structural equation modeling showed that pain resilience contributes unique variance to a model including pain acceptance and pain self-efficacy in predicting quality of life and pain intensity. Further, pain resilience was a better fit in this model than general resilience, strengthening the argument for assessing pain resilience over general resilience. A modified version of the Pain Resilience Scale retained the original factor structure when tested in a chronic pain sample. Construct validity was supported by expected relationships with pain-related protective and vulnerability measures. Further, a model including positive pain constructs showed that pain resilience accounts for unique variability when predicting quality of life and pain intensity. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Webster, Lynn R
Opioids prescribed for chronic cancer and noncancer pain have been embroiled in public policy debates as to effectiveness and potential for contributing to society's problem with misuse, addiction, and overdose mortality. The conundrum of opioid prescribing is to determine who will most likely benefit from opioids and how medical practitioners may safely provide chronic opioid therapy, while also identifying patients who are unlikely to benefit or could divert illicit pharmaceuticals into society. Risk assessment and monitoring are essential to meet the standard of care, as is compliance with federal controlled substances law as well as state regulations.
Apkarian, A.V.; Hashmi, J.A.; Baliki, M.N.
We review recent advances in brain imaging in humans, concentrating on advances in our understanding of the human brain in clinical chronic pain. Understanding regarding anatomical and functional reorganization of the brain in chronic pain is emphasized. We conclude by proposing a brain model for the transition of the human from acute to chronic pain. PMID:21146929
Hocking, L J; Morris, A D; Dominiczak, A F; Porteous, D J; Smith, B H
Chronic pain is pathological, persisting beyond normal tissue healing time. Previous work has suggested ∼50% variation in chronic pain development is heritable. No data are currently available on the heritability of pain categorized using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG). Furthermore, few existing studies have accounted for potential confounders that may themselves be under genetic control or indeed 'heritable' non-genetic traits. This study aimed to determine the relative contributions of genetic, measured and shared environmental and lifestyle factors to chronic pain. Chronic pain status was determined and CPG measured in participants from Generation Scotland: the Scottish Family Health Study, a large cohort of well-characterized, extended families from throughout Scotland, UK. Heritability estimates (h (2) ) for 'any chronic pain' and 'severe' chronic pain (CPG 3 or 4) were generated using SOLAR software, with and without adjustment for shared household effects and measured covariates age, body mass index, gender, household income, occupation and physical activity. Data were available for 7644 individuals in 2195 extended families. Without adjustment, h (2) for 'any chronic pain' was 29% [standard errors (SE) 6%; p < 0.001], and for 'severe' chronic pain was 44% (SE 3%; p <0.001). After adjustment, 'any chronic pain' h(2) = 16% (SE 7%; p = 0.02) and 'severe' chronic pain h(2) = 30% (SE 13%; p = 0.007). Co-heritability of both traits was 11% (SE 76%). This study supports the use of chronic pain as a phenotype in genetic studies, with adequate correction for confounders to specifically identify genetic risk factors for chronic pain. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Ahmed Ali, Usama; Jens, Sjoerd; Busch, Olivier R C; Keus, Frederik; van Goor, Harry; Gooszen, Hein G; Boermeester, Marja A
Reduced intake and absorption of antioxidants due to pain and malabsorption are probable causes of the lower levels of antioxidants observed in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Improving the status of antioxidants might be effective in slowing the disease process and reducing pain in CP. To assess the benefits and harms of antioxidants for the treatment of pain in patients with CP. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index from inception to October 2012. Two review authors performed the selection of trials independently. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating antioxidants for treatment of pain in CP. All trials were included irrespective of blinding, numbers of participants randomly assigned and language of the article. Two review authors extracted data independently. The risk of bias of included trials was assessed. Study authors were asked for additional information in the case of missing data. Twelve RCTs with a total of 585 participants were included. Six trials were double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies, and the other six trials were of less adequate methodology. Most trials were small and had high rates of dropout. Eleven of the 12 included trials described the effects of antioxidants on chronic abdominal pain in chronic pancreatitis. Pain as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS, scale range 0 to 10) after one to six months was less in the antioxidant group than in the control group (mean difference (MD) -0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64 to -0.02, P value 0.04, moderate-quality evidence). The number of pain-free participants was not statistically significantly different (risk ratio (RR) 1.73, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.15, P value 0.07, low-quality evidence). More adverse events were observed in the antioxidant group, both in the parallel trials (RR 4.43, 95% CI 1.60 to 12.29, P value 0.0004, moderate-quality evidence) and in
Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Van Damme, Stefaan; De Schryver, Maarten; Crombez, Geert
Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment.
Dampier, Carlton; Palermo, Tonya M; Darbari, Deepika S; Hassell, Kathryn; Smith, Wally; Zempsky, William
Pain in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs. Although episodic acute pain is the hallmark of this disorder, there is an increasing awareness that chronic pain is part of the pain experience of many older adolescents and adults. A common set of criteria for classifying chronic pain associated with SCD would enhance SCD pain research efforts in epidemiology, pain mechanisms, and clinical trials of pain management interventions, and ultimately improve clinical assessment and management. As part of the collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy initiative developed the outline of an optimal diagnostic system for chronic pain conditions. Subsequently, a working group of experts in SCD pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for chronic pain associated with SCD. The working group synthesized available literature to provide evidence for the dimensions of this disease-specific pain taxonomy. A single pain condition labeled chronic SCD pain was derived with 3 modifiers reflecting different clinical features. Future systematic research is needed to evaluate the feasibility, validity, and reliability of these criteria.
Salsitz, Edwin A
Over the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the prescribing of opioids, with associated increases in opioid addiction and overdose deaths. This article reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and risk of developing an opioid use disorder (OUD) in those patients treated with chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Rates of development of OUD range from 0-50 %, and aberrant drug related behaviors (ADRBs) are reported to be 20 %. Health care providers must properly assess, screen, and carefully monitor patients on COT utilizing evidence-based tools.
Argoff, Charles E
Many chronic pain patients have multiple etiologies for their pain, and accurate characterization of pain qualities and pain relief is essential for managing their pain. The ability to utilize a validated tool for assessing pain qualities and for identifying unique analgesic therapy effects on different pain qualities may assist clinicians in devising an appropriate treatment regimen. The Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS) is a novel pain metric for characterizing pain in 10 dimensions. The ability to differentiate among pain qualities for each patient may result in a more refined and effective choice of therapy. The three research articles in this Supplement demonstrate the utility of the NPS in chronic pain patients treated with the lidocaine patch 5%, a peripherally acting medication that is not associated with systemic accumulation of the active drug. Significant reduction in the intensity of commonly reported pain qualities in patients with neuropathic and non-neuropathic chronic pain due to low-back pain, osteoarthritis, post-herpetic neuralgia, and painful diabetic neuropathy were achieved. The NPS offers clinicians a reliable means to accurately identify pain qualities associated with each individual patient and to target and assess the efficacy of various therapeutic options on those pain components. Utilizing the NPS, the lidocaine patch 5% was effective in treating chronic pain of both neuropathic and non-neuropathic origins suggesting that a given treatment's effect on various pain qualities may be consistent across pain types.
Triolo, Onofrio; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sturlese, Emanuele
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) could be considered nowadays a deep health problem that challenges physicians all over the world. This because its aetiology is still unclear, the course of the disease could vary a lot among different patients and through time in the same patient, and the response to treatments is not every time successful. Among women who underwent laparoscopy for CPP, endometriosis is found in about 1/3 of the cases, while only 25% of women with histological confirmed endometriosis are asymptomatic. A wide range of variables may exert their influence on the resulting pain syndrome in endometriosis; for example, score according to American society for reproductive medicine (rASRM), size of the sub-peritoneal and pelvic wall implants, Douglas obliteration, previous surgery. It is widely accepted nowadays that central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) seems to influence each other and this interconnection play a key role in pain modulation. Moreover, the phenomena induced by endometriosis in the pelvis, including the breakdown of peritoneal homeostasis and the induction of the production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines, are responsible of altered innervations and modulation of pain pathways in these patients. There are many proposed medical and surgical approach to treat this painful syndrome, although there is necessity of more efforts to create new non-invasive strategies that set a more accurate diagnosis of the causes of endometriotic-related CPP, and therefore facilitate its eradication. PMID:23671540
Strauss, Adam C.; Dimitrakov, Jordan D.
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition among men of a wide age range, with detrimental effects on quality of life. The etiology, pathogenesis, and optimal treatment of CP/CPPS remain unknown, although progress has been made in these domains in recent years. A wide variety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies have been studied in clinical trials, but most have shown limited efficacy in symptom alleviation. CP/CPPS is increasingly viewed as a condition that involves variable degrees of neuropathic pain. Medications such as gabapentin, pregabalin, memantine, and tricyclic antidepressants are often used in other neuropathic pain conditions and, therefore, are considered potential treatments for CP/CPPS. Few studies of these agents in patients with CP/CPPS have been reported, but future clinical trials should help to determine their utility and to characterize the pathogenetic mechanisms of pain in CP/CPPS. Combining treatment trials with biomarker, genomic, and imaging studies, in addition to epidemiologic and symptom-based assessments, will maximize the ability to probe disease etiology and pathogenesis, as well as identify effective treatment. PMID:20142810
Edwards, Robert R; Smith, Michael T; Kudel, Ian; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer
Living with chronic pain is associated with many deleterious outcomes, including a substantially increased risk of suicide. While many general risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior have been identified, few studies have examined pain-related factors that confer increased or decreased risk for suicidality. The present study assessed individual differences in the use of pain-related coping strategies and pain-related catastrophizing as correlates of suicidal ideation in patients with chronic pain. A total of 1512 patients seeking treatment for chronic pain completed a variety of questionnaires assessing pain, coping, and psychosocial functioning. On written questionnaires, approximately 32% of this clinic sample reported some form of recent suicidal ideation. The two most consistent predictors of the presence and degree of suicidal ideation were the magnitude of depressive symptoms and the degree of pain-related catastrophizing, a maladaptive cognitive/emotional pain-coping strategy. Demographic and other pain-related variables such as pain severity and duration were not generally robust predictors of suicidal ideation in this sample of patients with chronic pain. These are the first findings to suggest a unique (e.g., independent of pain severity or depressive symptomatology) association between pain-coping strategies and suicide-related cognitions in the context of chronic pain. Further research in this area, including the addition of suicide prevention materials to pain-coping skills training programs, may benefit large numbers of individuals who are at elevated suicide risk as a consequence of chronic pain.
Piper, Brian J; Beals, Monica L; Abess, Alexander T; Nichols, Stephanie D; Martin, Maurice W; Cobb, Catherine M; DeKeuster, Rebecca M
Medical cannabis (MC) is used for a variety of conditions including chronic pain. The goal of this report was to provide an in-depth qualitative exploration of patient perspectives on the strengths and limitations of MC. Members of MC dispensaries (N = 984) in New England including two-thirds with a history of chronic pain completed an online survey. In response to "How effective is medical cannabis in treating your symptoms or conditions?," with options of 0% "no relief" to 100% "complete relief," the average was 74.6% ± 0.6. The average amount spent on MC each year was $3064.47 ± 117.60, median = $2320.23, range = $52.14 to $52,140.00. Open-ended responses were coded into themes and subthemes. Analysis of answers to "What is it that you like most about MC?" (N = 2592 responses) identified 10 themes, including health benefits (36.0% of responses, eg, "Changes perception and experience of my chronic pain."), the product (14.2%, eg, "Knowing exactly what strain you are getting"), nonhealth benefits (14.1%), general considerations (10.3%), and medications (7.1%). Responses (N = 1678) to "What is it that you like least about MC?" identified 12 themes, including money (28.4%, eg, "The cost is expensive for someone on a fixed income"), effects (21.7%, eg, "The effects on my lungs"), the view of others (11.4%), access (8.2%), and method of administration (7.1%). These findings provide a patient-centered view on the advantages (eg, efficacy in pain treatment, reduced use of other medications) and disadvantages (eg, economic and stigma) of MC.
Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn; Pongprasobchai, Supot
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The main symptom of patients with CP is chronic and severe abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of pain in CP remains obscure. Traditionally, researchers believed that the pain was caused by anatomical changes in pancreatic structure. However, treatment outcomes based on such beliefs are considered unsatisfactory. The emerging explanations of pain in CP are trending toward neurobiological theories. This article aims to review current evidence regarding the neuropathophysiology of pain in CP and its potential implications for the development of new treatments for pain in CP. PMID:26600977
Bushnell, M Catherine; Ceko, Marta; Low, Lucie A
Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind-body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states - important components of mind-body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic.
Bushnell, M. Catherine; Čeko, Marta; Low, Lucie A.
Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in our modern world, with millions of people debilitated by conditions such as back pain, headache and arthritis. To address this growing problem, many people are turning to mind–body therapies, including meditation, yoga and cognitive behavioural therapy. This article will review the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain by cognitive and emotional states — important components of mind–body therapies. It will also examine the accumulating evidence that chronic pain itself alters brain circuitry, including that involved in endogenous pain control, suggesting that controlling pain becomes increasingly difficult as pain becomes chronic. PMID:23719569
Navratilova, Edita; Morimura, Kozo; Xie, Jennifer Y; Atcherley, Christopher W; Ossipov, Michael H; Porreca, Frank
Chronic pain is an important public health problem that negatively impacts the quality of life of affected individuals and exacts enormous socioeconomic costs. Chronic pain is often accompanied by comorbid emotional disorders including anxiety, depression, and possibly anhedonia. The neural circuits underlying the intersection of pain and pleasure are not well understood. We summarize recent human and animal investigations and demonstrate that aversive aspects of pain are encoded in brain regions overlapping with areas processing reward and motivation. We highlight findings revealing anatomical and functional alterations of reward/motivation circuits in chronic pain. Finally, we review supporting evidence for the concept that pain relief is rewarding and activates brain reward/motivation circuits. Adaptations in brain reward circuits may be fundamental to the pathology of chronic pain. Knowledge of brain reward processing in the context of pain could lead to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of emotional aspects of pain and comorbid conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Navratilova, Edita; Morimura, Kozo; Xie, Jennifer Y.; Atcherley, Christopher W.; Ossipov, Michael H.; Porreca, Frank
Chronic pain is an important public health problem that negatively impacts quality of life of affected individuals and exacts enormous socio-economic costs. Chronic pain is often accompanied by comorbid emotional disorders including anxiety, depression and possibly anhedonia. The neural circuits underlying the intersection of pain and pleasure are not well understood. We summarize recent human and animal investigations demonstrating that aversive aspects of pain are encoded in brain regions overlapping with areas processing reward and motivation. We highlight findings revealing anatomical and functional alterations of reward/motivation circuits in chronic pain. Finally, we review supporting evidence for the concept that pain relief is rewarding and activates brain reward/motivation circuits. Adaptations in brain reward circuits may be fundamental to the pathology of chronic pain. Knowledge of brain reward processing in the context of pain could lead to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of emotional aspects of pain and comorbid conditions. PMID:26788716
Lutz, Brianna; Meiler, Steffen E.; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang
Sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy, causes sickling of red blood cells, resulting in vessel blockage, stroke, anemia, inflammation, and extreme pain. A vast majority of SCD patients experience pain on a chronic basis, and many turn to opioids to provide limited relief. The side effects that come with chronic opioid use push for research into understanding the specific mechanisms of SCD-associated chronic pain. Current advances in SCD-associated pain have focused on alterations in the pain pathway including nociceptor sensitization and endogenous pain inducers. This article reviews the underlying pathophysiology of SCD, potential pain mechanisms, current treatments and their mechanism of action, and future directions of SCD-associated pain management. The information provided could help propel research in SCD-associated chronic pain and uncover novel treatment options for clinicians. PMID:26301256
Fisher, Robert B; Johnson, Quinn L; Reeves-Viets, Joseph L
In the U.S., there is a growing percentage of chronic pain patients requiring surgery. Chronic pain patients require careful evaluation and planning to achieve appropriate acute pain management. Peri-surgical pain management often requires continuation of previously prescribed chronic pain modalities and careful selection of multimodal acute pain interventions. This article will provide a broad overview of chronic pain, definitions, and current recommendations for the treatment of perioperative pain in patients maintained on opioid therapy.
Hylands-White, Nicholas; Duarte, Rui V; Raphael, Jon H
Pain which persists after healing is expected to have taken place, or which exists in the absence of tissue damage, is termed chronic pain. By definition chronic pain cannot be treated and cured in the conventional biomedical sense; rather, the patient who is suffering from the pain must be given the tools with which their long-term pain can be managed to an acceptable level. This article will provide an overview of treatment approaches available for the management of persistent non-malignant pain. As well as attempting to provide relief from the physical aspects of pain through the judicious use of analgesics, interventions, stimulations, and irritations, it is important to pay equal attention to the psychosocial complaints which almost always accompany long-term pain. The pain clinic offers a biopsychosocial approach to treatment with the multidisciplinary pain management programme; encouraging patients to take control of their pain problem and lead a fulfilling life in spite of the pain.
Vogel, Marc; Frank, Anastasia; Choi, Fiona; Strehlau, Verena; Nikoo, Nooshin; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Hwang, Stephen W; Somers, Julian; Krausz, Michael R; Schütz, Christian G
Chronic pain is an important public health issue. However, characteristics and needs of marginalized populations have received limited attention. Studies on prevalence and correlates of chronic pain among homeless persons are lacking. We assessed chronic pain among homeless persons with mental illness in the At Home/Chez Soi study. Cross-sectional data from a randomized controlled trial on homelessness and mental health. Data collected between 2009 and 2013 in three Canadian cities. One thousand two hundred eighty-seven homeless persons with mental illness. Data on chronic pain and utilization of prescribed and nonprescribed interventions was assessed using a chronic pain screening instrument. Mental illness was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Forty-three percent reported moderate to severe chronic pain, interfering with general daily activities (80%), sleep (78%), and social interactions (61%). Multivariate analysis indicated that increasing age and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, mood disorder with psychotic features, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were independent predictors of chronic pain. Chronic pain was further associated with increased suicidality. Among participants reporting chronic pain, 64% had sought medical treatment and 56% treated pain with prescribed drugs, while 38% used illicit drugs for pain relief. Chronic pain is very common among homeless persons with mental illness and affects activities of daily living. Clinicians treating this population should be aware of the common connections between chronic pain, depression, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. While the data indicate the contribution of chronic pain to complex treatment needs, they also indicate a clear treatment gap.
van Eekelen, Francijna C A; Perquin, Christel W; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan; van der Wouden, Johannes C
The aim of the study was to determine whether children with chronic benign pain are in contact with their general practitioner (GP) more frequently than those without chronic benign pain. A random sample of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years of age was drawn from the records of ten general practices. According to their responses to a pain questionnaire, subjects were assigned to the chronic benign pain group (n = 95) if they had pain of more than three months' duration, or to the control group (n = 105) if they had pain of less than three months' duration or no pain at all. All the subjects had an average GP consultation rate of 2.6 contacts per year. No significant age and sex differences were found. Chronic benign pain in childhood and adolescence is not related to increased use of healthcare services, suggesting that somatisation does not play a major role in children with chronic benign pain. PMID:12030664
Hayaki, Chie; Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako
Previous studies have shown differences in the psychosocial factors related to chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). However, no studies have done an evaluation of differences between CLP and CWP from the viewpoint of family functioning. We did a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care setting to investigate possible differences in the relation of CWP and CLP to family functioning.Patients with CLP (N = 126) or CWP (N = 75) were assessed for family functioning by the Family Assessment Device (FAD) and a comparison was done. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations of family functioning subscales with pain status (CWP vs CLP), controlling for demographic variables, pain variables; pain duration, pain ratings, pain disability, and psychological factors; depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. The odds ratios (ORs) for the presence of CWP were calculated.Compared to patients with CLP, patients with CWP showed a lower functional status for Roles and Affective Involvement. The ORs for CWP were significantly higher in lower functioning Roles (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.21-4.65) and Affective Involvement (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.56-5.24) after adjusting for demographic variables. The significant association of CWP to Roles and Affective Involvement remained after controlling for the pain variables and psychological factors.This study shows that the families of patients with CWP have poorer family functioning than those with CLP. Our findings suggest that early identification and interventions for the family dysfunction of chronic pain patients are important to the treatment and prevention of CWP.
This study aimed to evaluate the presence and importance of pain catastrophizing among men diagnosed with chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in a routine clinical setting. 61 men, mean age 46 ± 11 years, with a mean CP/CPPS history of 11 ± 11 years, completed the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) to evaluate pain catastrophizing, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). They were also scored according to the UPOINT system. The patients' mean scores were: IEEF-5 17.6 ± 7.3, NIH-CPSI pain subscale 11.1 ± 4.4, quality of life question 2.7 ± 1.6, quality of life impact subscale 6.9 ± 2.7 and CSQ catastrophizing score 15.3 ± 9.1. Patients with a high tendency for catastrophizing (CSQ score ≥20) (28%) had higher UPOINT and pain scores, worse quality of life and quality of life impact, but did not stand out regarding voiding dysfunction and ejaculatory pain. Two distinctly different cohorts could be identified: a smaller cohort with a high degree of catastrophizing, severe pain and poor quality of life, and a larger one with a low degree of catastrophizing, less severe pain and moderately reduced quality of life. It is important in clinical practice to distinguish between the two groups since they require different therapeutic approaches.
Effects of light upon human tissue are divided into irreversible effects and reversible effects. Irreversible effects can be called as high level laser therapy (HLLT), and reversible effects can be called as low level light therapy (LLLT). Light irradiators for chronic pain act under principle of LLLT. Laser diode, halogen lamp and xenon lamp are used as light sources for light irradiator for various chronic pain. These days, light emitting diode (LED) is used as light source for light irradiator for various kinds of pain. Light irradiators are now divided into portable light weight low power machine and heavy weight, high power machine. In the dental area Nd : YAG laser is using as HLLT tool. But, now there are many reports about Nd : YAG laser used as anesthetic machine. In these reports, topical anesthetic effects of Nd : YAG laser are immediate and with fewer side effects compared with topical anesthetic agents. These effects are explained as LLLT. Halogen lamp and xenon lamp type irradiators were also introduced. MEDILASER SOFT PULSE10, an laser diode type irradiator was withdrawn from the market.
Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Roy, Mathieu; Woo, Choong-Wan; Kunz, Miriam; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Sullivan, Michael J; Jackson, Philip L; Wager, Tor D; Rainville, Pierre
Pain behaviors are shaped by social demands and learning processes, and chronic pain has been previously suggested to affect their meaning. In this study, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with in-scanner video recording during thermal pain stimulations and use multilevel mediation analyses to study the brain mediators of pain facial expressions and the perception of pain intensity (self-reports) in healthy individuals and patients with chronic back pain (CBP). Behavioral data showed that the relation between pain expression and pain report was disrupted in CBP. In both patients with CBP and healthy controls, brain activity varying on a trial-by-trial basis with pain facial expressions was mainly located in the primary motor cortex and completely dissociated from the pattern of brain activity varying with pain intensity ratings. Stronger activity was observed in CBP specifically during pain facial expressions in several nonmotor brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, the precuneus, and the medial temporal lobe. In sharp contrast, no moderating effect of chronic pain was observed on brain activity associated with pain intensity ratings. Our results demonstrate that pain facial expressions and pain intensity ratings reflect different aspects of pain processing and support psychosocial models of pain suggesting that distinctive mechanisms are involved in the regulation of pain behaviors in chronic pain.
Kingham, J G; Dawson, A M
We have studied 22 consecutive patients referred for investigation of severe chronic right upper quadrant pain. The majority were women whose symptoms had been present for many years. All had undergone repeated investigations of the pancreatico-biliary, gastro-intestinal, urinary, and even gynaecological systems without a satisfactory diagnosis. Most had undergone at least one abdominal operation in an unsuccessful attempt to cure their pain. In 21 of 22 patients the customary pain was completely and reproducibly mimicked by balloon distension of the small or large intestine in at least one site. The trigger sites were jejunum (15), ileum (12), right colon (nine), and duodenum (six). In 12 more than one trigger site was found. Close questioning revealed features of the irritable bowel syndrome in the majority and depression in many though the symptoms were not spontaneously volunteered. Reproduction of pain has provided a convincing demonstration to this difficult group of patients that they have a sensitive gut and allows appropriate management. PMID:4018643
Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier
OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293
Strong, Jenny; And Others
Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and…
Strong, Jenny; And Others
Integrated six dimensions of chronic low back pain (pain intensity, functional disability, attitudes toward pain, pain coping strategies, depression, illness behavior) to provide multidimensional patient profile. Data from 100 patients revealed presence of three distinct patient groups: patients who were in control, patients who were depressed and…
Furnes, Bodil; Dysvik, Elin
To examine the experiences of therapeutic writing from the perspectives of patients attending a chronic pain management programme. Pain is a multifaceted experience. Increased awareness, understanding and gaining new insights are essential aspects of dealing with chronic pain. It is crucial to find powerful ways to cope with chronic pain. Several studies point to writing as a tool for managing such demanding life experiences. Therapeutic writing in a cognitive behavioural approach may be used to facilitate the rehabilitation process. A qualitative study with a descriptive and explorative design including a phenomenological perspective was used. A consecutive sample of 34 outpatients with chronic pain was recruited to an eight-week group-based pain management programme. A therapeutic writing tool was developed and included as part of the homework tasks. Guidelines were used to initiate and guide the therapeutic writing activity. Written reports were collected after completion. Three thematic findings emerged from the analysis: 'increased understanding of chronic pain as a multifaceted experience', 'new insights into managing the chronic pain situation' and 'different performances lead to different experiences with therapeutic writing'. Increased awareness, understanding and new insights are essential to dealing with chronic pain. People with chronic pain need tools and skills for optimal adaptation. Our findings suggest therapeutic writing may strengthen cognitive behavioural therapy by facilitating cognitive restructuring processes. Therapeutic writing may be used as a tool to express individual experiences and to improve adaptation to chronic pain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Becker, Karin L
Chronic pain is a pervasive and expensive public health problem affecting roughly one-third of the American population. The inability of language to accurately convey pain expressions combined with the social stigmas associated with discussing pain persuade many sufferers to remain silent about their pain. Gender politics and fear of professional repercussions further encourage silence. This article explores the need for a safe and secure place for chronic pain sufferers to talk of their pain experiences. The extent to which digital communication technology can fulfill this need is examined. This descriptive study examines the use of one online chronic pain management workshop for its ability to create an engaged community of choice. Workshop admittance was based on participants having a qualifying chronic pain condition. A thematic discourse analysis is conducted of all entries chronic pain participants posted. In addition to goal setting, participants discuss the ways in which pain affects them on a daily basis. Two themes emerge: validation and encouragement. This study suggests that chronic pain users need a discursive space to legitimate their chronic pain identity. It confirms that online websites and virtual audiences facilitate disclosure and allow for authentic communication. The benefits of computer-mediated discussion as well as its limitations are examined.
Gustin, Sylvia M; Burke, Lucinda A; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A
The role of personality in the experience of chronic pain is a growing field, with endless debate regarding the existence of a "pain personality". This study aims to compare different chronic pain types and consolidate the existence of a common personality. Thirty-two females with chronic orofacial pain and 37 age-matched healthy females were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Chronic pain subjects had either trigeminal neuropathy (neuropathic pain) or temporomandibular disorders (nociceptive pain). This study revealed that individuals with different chronic pain types exhibit a mutual personality profile encompassing significantly higher scores in Harm Avoidance and significantly lower scores in Self-Directedness when compared to healthy subjects. In fact, this combination is associated with Cluster C personality disorders. In conclusion, our study reveals that irrespective of type, chronic pain may be associated with Cluster C personality disorders. Indeed, there has never been empirical evidence in the past to suggest that chronic pain as an overall concept is associated with any particular personality disorders. Therefore, a potential future avenue of chronic pain treatment may lie in targeting particular personality aspects and shift the target of pain-relieving treatments from sensory and psychologically state focused to psychologically trait focused. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.
Kratz, Anna L; Ehde, Dawn M; Bombardier, Charles H; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Hanks, Robin A
Pain acceptance is a robust predictor of adjustment to chronic pain; however, the dynamics of pain acceptance in daily life are largely unexamined. Furthermore, research on pain acceptance in those with pain and physical disability is needed. To examine pain acceptance in daily life, we collected 7 days of ecological momentary assessments of pain intensity and pain interference (5 times per day) with continuous accelerometry (physical activity) in 128 individuals with chronic pain and spinal cord injury. Multilevel modeling revealed that pain acceptance significantly moderated the momentary association between pain intensity and pain interference; those with higher pain acceptance experienced a blunted increase in interference when pain was high. Pain acceptance also moderated the association between pain intensity and physical activity; high pain acceptance was associated with an increase and low pain acceptance with a decrease in physical activity in the context of high pain. The activities engagement component of pain acceptance was a slightly more robust driver of these interaction effects; whereas activities engagement significantly moderated the association between momentary pain and pain interference as well as physical activity, pain willingness exerted a significant moderating effect on the momentary association between pain intensity and pain interference only. These findings suggest that both components contribute to the decoupling effects of pain acceptance. Task persistence did not show the same moderating effects, indicating that pain acceptance may be unique from other types of behavioral pain coping in its ability to decouple expected associations between pain intensity, pain interference, and physical activity. In the daily lives of individuals with chronic pain and spinal cord injury, pain acceptance buffered expected increases in pain interference and decreases in physical activity in the context of high pain. These findings can inform further
Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare
Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.
Von Korff, Michael R.
Increased opioid prescribing for back pain and other chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions has been accompanied by dramatic increases in prescription opioid addiction and fatal overdose. Opioid-related risks appear to increase with dose. While short-term randomized trials of opioids for chronic pain have found modest analgesic benefits (a one-third reduction in pain intensity on average), the long-term safety and effectiveness of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. Given the lack of large, long-term randomized trials, recent epidemiologic data suggests the need for caution when considering long-term use of opioids to manage chronic musculoskeletal pain, particularly at higher dosage levels. Principles for achieving more selective and cautious use of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain are proposed. PMID:24315147
Cooper, Tess E; Chen, Junqiao; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Carr, Daniel B; Aldington, Dominic; Cole, Peter; Moore, R Andrew
Neuropathic pain, which is caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, may be central or peripheral in origin. Neuropathic pain often includes symptoms such as burning or shooting sensations, abnormal sensitivity to normally painless stimuli, or an increased sensitivity to normally painful stimuli. Neuropathic pain is a common symptom in many diseases of the nervous system. Opioid drugs, including morphine, are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain. Most reviews have examined all opioids together. This review sought evidence specifically for morphine; other opioids are considered in separate reviews. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse events of morphine for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase for randomised controlled trials from inception to February 2017. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and online clinical trial registries. We included randomised, double-blind trials of two weeks' duration or longer, comparing morphine (any route of administration) with placebo or another active treatment for neuropathic pain, with participant-reported pain assessment. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality and potential bias. Primary outcomes were participants with substantial pain relief (at least 50% pain relief over baseline or very much improved on Patient Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC)), or moderate pain relief (at least 30% pain relief over baseline or much or very much improved on PGIC). Where pooled analysis was possible, we used dichotomous data to calculate risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) or harmful outcome (NNH). We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created 'Summary of findings' tables. We identified five randomised, double-blind, cross-over studies with treatment periods of four to
... to predict whether a subject would recover from low back pain. Red dots represent differences in white matter structure ... may predict whether a person will suffer chronic low back pain, according to researchers who used brain scans. The ...
... in drug misuse or even abuse, especially of opioid pain relievers. As noted earlier in this section, more than 76 million Americans suffer from some form of chronic pain. And yet, almost half of them receive ...
Davidson, Megan A; Tripp, Dean A; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Davidson, Paul R
BACKGROUND: There are many measures assessing related dimensions of the chronic pain experience (eg, pain severity, pain coping, depression, activity level), but the relationships among them have not been systematically established. OBJECTIVE: The present study set out to determine the core dimensions requiring assessment in individuals with chronic pain. METHODS: Individuals with chronic pain (n=126) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Chronic Pain Coping Index, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form, Pain Disability Index and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. RESULTS: Before an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the nine chronic pain measures, EFAs were conducted on each of the individual measures, and the derived factors (subscales) from each measure were submitted together for a single EFA. A seven-factor model best fit the data, representing the core factors of pain and disability, pain description, affective distress, support, positive coping strategies, negative coping strategies and activity. CONCLUSIONS: Seven meaningful dimensions of the pain experience were reliably and systematically extracted. Implications and future directions for this work are discussed. PMID:18719712
Shen, Francis H; Samartzis, Dino; Andersson, Gunnar B J
A variety of nonsurgical treatment alternatives exists for acute and chronic low back pain. Patients should receive appropriate education about the favorable natural history of low back pain, basic body mechanics, and methods (eg, exercises, activity modification, behavioral modification) that can reduce symptoms. Nonprescription medication is efficacious for mild to moderate pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alone or in combination with muscle relaxants, relieve pain and improve overall symptoms of acute low back pain. Exercise therapy has limited value for acute low back pain, but strong evidence supports exercise therapy in the management of chronic low back pain. Moderately strong evidence supports the use of manipulation in acute back pain. Evidence is weak for the use of epidural corticosteroid injections in patients with acute low back pain, strong for short-term relief of chronic low back pain, and limited for long-term relief of chronic low back pain. The use of facet injections in the management of acute low back pain is not supported by evidence, nor is the effectiveness of orthoses, traction, magnets, or acupuncture. Trigger point injections are not indicated for nonspecific acute or chronic low back pain, and sacroiliac joint injections are not indicated in the routine management of low back pain. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
Almoznino, Galit; Benoliel, Rafael; Sharav, Yair; Haviv, Yaron
Chronic craniofacial pain involves the head, face and oral cavity and is associated with significant morbidity and high levels of health care utilization. A bidirectional relationship is suggested in the literature for poor sleep and pain, and craniofacial pain and sleep are reciprocally related. We review this relationship and discuss management options. Part I reviews the relationship between pain and sleep disorders in the context of four diagnostic categories of chronic craniofacial pain: 1) primary headaches: migraines, tension-type headache (TTH), trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and hypnic headache, 2) secondary headaches: sleep apnea headache, 3) temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) and 4) painful cranial neuropathies: trigeminal neuralgia, post-herpetic trigeminal neuropathy, painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PTTN) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Part II discusses the management of patients with chronic craniofacial pain and sleep disorders addressing the factors that modulate the pain experience as well as sleep disorders and including both non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities.
Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Meirleir, Kenny De
In addition to debilitating fatigue the majority of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience chronic widespread pain. Conducting a systematic review to critically assess the existing knowledge on chronic pain in CFS. We focussed on the definition, the prevalence and incidence, the aetiology, the relevance and the therapy strategy for chronic musculoskeletal pain and post-exertional pain in CFS. To identify relevant articles, we searched eight medical search engines. The search terms "chronic fatigue syndrome" AND "pain", "nociception", "arthralgia" and "myalgia", were used to identify articles concerning pain in CFS. Included articles were reviewed by two blinded researchers. Twenty-five articles and two abstract were identified and selected for further appraisal. Only 11 search results focussed on musculoskeletal pain in CFS patients. Regarding the standardized review of the articles, a 96% agreement between the researchers was observed. There is no consensus in defining chronic widespread pain in CFS, and although there is little or no strong proof for the exact prevalence, chronic pain is strongly disabling in CFS. Aetiological theories are proposed (sleep abnormalities, tryptophan, parovirus-B, hormonal and brain abnormalities and central sensitisation) and a reduction of pain threshold after exercise has been shown. Furthermore depression seemed not related to pain in CFS and a staphylococcus toxoid vaccine caused no significant pain reduction. The results from the systematic review highlight the clinical importance of chronic pain in CFS, but only few studies addressing the aetiology or treatment of chronic pain in CFS are currently available.
Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammad Mostafa; Naderi, Nasim
Heart failure (HF) is one of the main causes of death and disability in the world. The prevalence of HF in developed countries is between 1% and 2% of the adult population and approximately between 6% and 10% in the elderly, giving rise to high costs of care and treatment. Indeed, in the United States, the direct and indirect costs exceeded 23 billion dollars in 2002. HF is typically characterized by periods of acute symptoms followed by returns to nearly asymptomatic periods. As dyspnea and fatigue are considered the signature symptoms of HF, other symptoms such as pain go unnoticed. Awareness of the burden of pain, however, is growing in patients with chronic HF. The past 2 decades have witnessed remarkable technical headway in cardiology and many patients have survived despite the progressive impairment of their cardiovascular function. It is, therefore, of great value to investigate the prevalence and management of pain in patients with HF. To that end, we undertook a comprehensive search using the MEDLINE database for studies and guidelines on the subject of pain and HF and the complications and considerations and finally selected 65 studies for review.
Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Ansari-Ramandi, Mohammad Mostafa; Naderi, Nasim
Heart failure (HF) is one of the main causes of death and disability in the world. The prevalence of HF in developed countries is between 1% and 2% of the adult population and approximately between 6% and 10% in the elderly, giving rise to high costs of care and treatment. Indeed, in the United States, the direct and indirect costs exceeded 23 billion dollars in 2002. HF is typically characterized by periods of acute symptoms followed by returns to nearly asymptomatic periods. As dyspnea and fatigue are considered the signature symptoms of HF, other symptoms such as pain go unnoticed. Awareness of the burden of pain, however, is growing in patients with chronic HF. The past 2 decades have witnessed remarkable technical headway in cardiology and many patients have survived despite the progressive impairment of their cardiovascular function. It is, therefore, of great value to investigate the prevalence and management of pain in patients with HF. To that end, we undertook a comprehensive search using the MEDLINE database for studies and guidelines on the subject of pain and HF and the complications and considerations and finally selected 65 studies for review. PMID:28828019
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Caraway, David L; Benyamin, Ramsin M
Treatment of chronic non-cancer pain with opioid therapy has escalated in recent years, resulting in exploding therapeutic use and misuse of prescription opioids and multiple adverse drug events. Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain experienced by individuals who have relatively stable and adequately controlled baseline cancer pain. Further, the definition of breakthrough pain, prevalence, characteristics, implications, and treatment modalities have been extensively described for chronic cancer pain. However, the literature for breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain including its terminology, prevalence, relevance, characteristics, and treatments, have been poorly described and continue to be debated. The philosophy of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain raises multiple issues leading almost all patients to be on high dose long-acting opioids, followed by supplementing with short-acting drugs, instead of treating the patients with only short-acting drugs as required. Consequently, the subject of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain is looked at with suspicion due to the lack of evidence and inherent bias associated with its evaluation, followed by escalating use and abuse of opioids. Multiple issues related to the concept of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain evolve around extensive use, overuse, misuse, and abuse of opioids. In the era of eliminating opioids or significantly curtailing their use to only appropriate indications, the concept of breakthrough pain raises multiple questions without any scientific evidence. This review illustrates that there is no significant evidence for any type of breakthrough pain in chronic non-cancer pain based on available literature, methodology utilized, and response to opioids in chronic non-cancer pain. The advocacy for increased usage of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain dates back to the liberalization of laws governing opioid prescription for the treatment
Smith, Heather; Youn, Youngwon; Guay, Ryan C; Laufer, Andras; Pilitsis, Julie G
Invasive analgesic therapies provide an alternative to medical management of chronic pain. With the increasing incidence of chronic pain not only in the United States but worldwide, more therapies have evolved to address the growing need for pain relief options. These therapies include spinal injections, nerve blocks, radiofrequency ablation, neurostimulation, and intrathecal drug delivery.
Chronic postoperative pain is a poorly recognized potential outcome from surgery. It affects millions of patients every year, with pain lasting for months to years, resulting in patient suffering and ensuing economic consequences. The operations with the highest incidence of chronic postoperative pain are amputations, thoracotomies, cardiac surgery, and breast surgery. Other risk factors include preoperative pain, psychological factors, demographics, and the intensity of acute postoperative pain. Attempts to prevent chronic postoperative pain have often led to debatable results. This article presents data from recently published studies examining the incidence, risk factors, mechanisms, treatment options, and preventive strategies for chronic postoperative pain in adults. In summary, many of the previously identified risk factors for chronic postoperative pain have been confirmed and some novel ones discovered, such as the importance of the trajectory of acute pain and the fact that catastrophizing may not always be predictive. The incidence of chronic postoperative pain hasn’t changed over time, and there is limited new information regarding an effective preventive therapy. For example, pregabalin may actually cause more harm in certain surgeries. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether multimodal analgesic techniques have the best chance of significantly reducing the incidence of chronic postoperative pain and to determine which combination of agents is best for given surgical types and different patient populations. PMID:28713565
Lewandowski, Wendy; Morris, Rebecca; Draucker, Claire Burke; Risko, Judy
The chronic pain experience is the product of a complex interaction of many factors including biological, social, psychological, environmental, and familial. The presence of chronic pain can impact the family system with significant, negative consequences; the family may also be responsible, in part, for maintaining and perpetuating pain problems. The need to examine the family dimension of the chronic pain experience and offer family/couple therapy, should it be indicated, is vital to comprehensive pain management. Operant behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and structural family therapy approaches are advocated for such families, along with a clear need for controlled evaluations of these approaches.
Ojala, Tapio; Häkkinen, Arja; Karppinen, Jaro; Sipilä, Kirsi; Suutama, Timo; Piirainen, Arja
Chronic pain may disable the body, depress the mind and ruin the quality of life. The aim of this study was to use the participants' personal experiences to explore the meaning of the experience of chronic pain and to find successful ways to manage chronic pain. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain were interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological method consisting of four phases: (1) reading the transcriptions several times, (2) discriminating meaning units, (3) collecting meaning units into groups and (4) the synthesis. The participants stated that the key to managing chronic pain was to reconsider the individual meaning of the experience of pain. As a result of the interviews, seven subthemes were found based on the 'Negativity of chronic pain', namely, 'State of reflection', 'Reconsidering values', 'Acceptance of pain', 'Support network', 'Altered self', 'Joys in life' and 'Pain dissociation'. Pain is an aversive sensation, which leads to the conclusion that the meaning of the experience is also negative, but it can be reversed. In clinical practice, the focus should be on revising the subjective meaning of pain in order to manage pain and to restore positivity in personal life. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Pain; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
Zhang, Ran; Chomistek, Andrea K.; Dimitrakoff, Jordan D.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Wu, Kana
Purpose Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent urologic disorder among men, but its etiology is still poorly understood. Our objective was to examine the relationship between physical activity and incidence of CP/CPPS in a large cohort of male health professionals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study followed from 1986 to 2008. The study population included 20,918 men who completed all CP/CPPS questions on the 2008 questionnaire. Leisure-time physical activity, including type and intensity of activity, was measured by questionnaire in 1986. A National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain score was calculated based on the responses on the 2008 questionnaire. Participants with pain scores ≥ 8 were considered CP/CPPS cases (n=689). Results Higher leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risk of CP/CPPS. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing >35.0 to ≤3.5 MET-h/wk of physical activity was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 0.92, p for trend <0.001). Observed inverse associations between physical activity and CP/CPPS were similar for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Sedentary behavior, measured as time spent watching television, was not associated with risk of CP/CPPS (p for trend 0.64). Conclusions Findings from this study, the first large scale and most comprehensive study to date on this association, suggest that higher levels of leisure-time physical activity may lower risk of CP/CPPS in middle-aged and older men. PMID:25116086
Feng, Frank L.; Schofferman, Jerome
Chronic axial neck pain and cervicogenic headache are common problems, and there have been significant advances in the understanding of the etiology and treatment of each. The severity and duration of pain drives the process. For patients who have had slight to moderate pain that has been present for less than 6 months and have no significant motor loss, strength training of anterior, posterior, and interscapular muscle groups coupled with body mechanics training is prescribed. After 8 weeks, if the patient is better, exercises are continued at home or in a gym. If the patient is not better, physical therapy is continued for up to 8 more weeks. In patients with motor loss or severe pain, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be ordered at the initial visit. In patients with slight to moderate pain who are not better by 4 to 6 months, plain radiographs of the neck and MRI should be ordered. Based on the results, a spinal injection is usually prescribed. If MRI reveals spinal stenosis of the central or lateral canal, or a disc herniation, an epidural corticosteroid injection should be ordered. If the epidural provides good relief, the patient can be referred for more aggressive physical therapy and repeat the epidural as needed up to a maximum of three times. If there is no pathology within the canal, medial branch blocks and intra-articular steroid injections can be ordered based on the joints that are most tender or where disc space narrowing is greatest, or MRI or radiographs are recommended. If there is excellent relief from the medial branch block and joint injections, repeat when the steroids wear off. If there is good relief again, but pain recurs, medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy is recommended. For patients with one or two level disc degeneration that has not responded, a psychologic evaluation and discography is recommended. If there are no significant psychologic abnormalities, and one or two (rarely three) painful discs, surgical
Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia
Prior studies found a range of psychological factors related to the perception of pain, maintenance of pain and disability. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pain fear-avoidance and pain acceptance in chronic pain adjustment. The influence of two diathesis variables (resilience and experiential avoidance) was also analyzed. The sample was composed of 686 patients with chronic spinal pain. Structural equation modelling analyses were used to test the hypothetical model. Experiential avoidance was associated with pain fear-avoidance, and resilience was strongly associated with pain acceptance. Pain acceptance was negatively associated with negative mood, functional impairment and pain intensity. However, pain fear-avoidance was positively and significantly associated with negative mood but had no association with pain intensity. There was a path from functional impairment to pain fear-avoidance. Resilience and experiential avoidance appear as variables which could explain individual differences in pain experience.
Byers, Haley D; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Thorn, Beverly E
We examined the unique and shared contributions of pain catastrophizing, cognitive pre-sleep arousal, and somatic pre-sleep arousal, to the prediction of insomnia severity in chronic pain. Forty-eight adults with chronic pain completed self-report measures of these study variables, health, and mood. Hierarchical regression showed that pain catastrophizing accounted for unique variance in insomnia severity, independent of pain intensity, depression, restless legs symptoms, and demographics. However, when cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousal were also taken into account, the significance of cognitive pre-sleep arousal rendered pain catastrophizing non-significant. We identify research and clinical implications of this study.
Thompson, Lindsay A; Meinert, Elizabeth; Baker, Kimberly; Knapp, Caprice
Pain is common as a presenting complaint to outpatient and emergency departments for children, yet pain management represents one of the children's largest unmet needs. A child may present with acute pain for an intermittent issue or may have acute or chronic pain in the setting of chronic illness. The mainstay of treatment for pain uses a stepwise approach for pain management, such as set up by the World Health Organization. For children with life-limiting illnesses, the Institute of Medicine guidelines recommends referral upon diagnosis for palliative care, meaning that the child receives comprehensive services that include pain control in coordination with curative therapies; yet barriers remain. From the provider perspective, pain can be better addressed through a careful assessment of one's own knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The key components of pain management in children are multimodal, regardless of the cause of the pain.
Harvie, Daniel S; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hillier, Susan L; Meulders, Ann
Prominent clinical models of chronic pain propose a fundamental role of classical conditioning in the development of pain-related disability. If classical conditioning is key to this process, then people with chronic pain may show a different response to pain-related conditioned stimuli (CS) than healthy controls. We set out to determine whether this is the case by undertaking a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. To identify studies comparing classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy controls, the databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Scopus, CINAHL, were searched using key words and MESH headings consistent with 'classical conditioning' AND 'pain'. Articles were included when a) pain-free control and chronic pain groups were included, and b) a differential classical conditioning design was used. The systematic search revealed seven studies investigating differences in classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy controls. The included studies involved a total of 129 people with chronic pain (Fibromyalgia syndrome, Spinal pain, Hand pain, Irritable bowel syndrome), and 104 healthy controls. Outcomes included indices of pain-related conditioning such as unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy and contingency awareness, self-report and physiological measures of pain-related fear, evaluative judgments of conditioned stimulus (CS) pleasantness, and muscular and cortical responses. Due to variability in outcomes, meta-analyses included a maximum of four studies. People with chronic pain tended to show reduced differential learning and flatter generalisation gradients with respect to US-expectancy and fear-potentiated eyeblink startle responses. Some studies demonstrated a propensity for greater muscular responses and perceptions of unpleasantness in response to pain-associated cues, relative to control cues.
Secondarily, to determine whether treatment produces variability in secondary biopsychosocial variables often associated with chronic pain. Design...alone. Secondarily, to determine whether treatment produces variability in secondary biopsychosocial variables often associated with chronic pain...to measure the biopsychosocial sequelae often associated with chronic LBP. These instruments included: The Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist
Di Lernia, Daniele; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe
Pain is a complex and multidimensional perception, embodied in our daily experiences through interoceptive appraisal processes. The article reviews the recent literature about interoception along with predictive coding theories and tries to explain a missing link between the sense of the physiological condition of the entire body and the perception of pain in chronic conditions, which are characterized by interoceptive deficits. Understanding chronic pain from an interoceptive point of view allows us to better comprehend the multidimensional nature of this specific organic information, integrating the input of several sources from Gifford's Mature Organism Model to Melzack's neuromatrix. The article proposes the concept of residual interoceptive images (ghosts), to explain the diffuse multilevel nature of chronic pain perceptions. Lastly, we introduce a treatment concept, forged upon the possibility to modify the interoceptive chronic representation of pain through external input in a process that we call interoceptive modeling, with the ultimate goal of reducing pain in chronic subjects. PMID:27445681
Rowe, John; Caprio, Anthony J
This issue of the NCMJ addresses the problem of chronic pain in North Carolina; its diagnosis and management in primary and specialty care; and the need to balance efficacy and safety when prescribing opioid medications, as these drugs are associated with significant potential for misuse and abuse. The commentaries in this issue not only address the use of opioids for the management of chronic pain but also explore various alternatives, including medical marijuana, epidural and other injections, surgery, acupuncture, and other integrative therapies. Articles in this issue also describe the management of chronic pain in palliative care, the ways in which mental health affects pain, and the unintended consequences of chronic pain management. Finally, this issue describes several initiatives across the state that are addressing the epidemic of prescription drug abuse; these initiatives are effecting systematic changes in clinical practice to more effectively manage chronic pain, protect patients, and minimize the negative impact of prescription drug abuse on communities.
Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.
Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)
Anderson, Louis P.; Rehm, Lynn P.
Examined the relationship between perception of pain, personality, coping, and the reaction of family members in three chronic pain groups (sickle cell anemia, arthritis, and low back pain) (N=60). Analyses suggested that the three groups were not distinguishable in coping, personality, or in their experience of pain. (LLL)
... injury, stroke, radiculopathy) Tension headache Migraine Facial pain Fibromyalgia Low back pain Pelvic pain The painkilling mechanism ... or excessive sweating. Milnacipran is used to relieve fibromyalgia pain and can cause side effects, such as ...
Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos
Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667
Jamison, R N; Stetson, B; Sbrocco, T; Parris, W C
This study examined the effect of significant weight gain on physical, demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors in a representative sample of chronic pain patients. One hundred fifty-five chronic pain patients who reported gaining more than 15 pounds since the onset of their pain were compared with 341 pain patients who stated that their weight had remained the same since the onset of their pain. All patients were given a medical examination and each patient completed a comprehensive pain questionnaire and an SCL-90. Results showed that a significant relationship exists between weight gain and decreased physical activity, increased emotional distress, and accident liability. This study suggests that the inclusion of weight management training in multidisciplinary pain centers may play an important part in the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients.
Claar, Robyn Lewis; Logan, Deirdre L.
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine relations among parental responses, adolescent pain coping, and pain behaviors in adolescents with chronic pain. Methods This study included 217 adolescents (12–17 years) evaluated at a multidisciplinary pain clinic and their parents. Adolescents completed measures assessing their pain, pain coping responses, functional disability, and somatic symptoms. Parents reported on their responses to their adolescent's pain. Results Passive and active coping interacted with parental protective behavior to predict adolescents’ pain behaviors. Contrary to expectations, among adolescents who reported infrequent use of passive or active coping strategies, higher levels of parental protective behavior were associated with higher levels of disability and somatic symptoms. Discussion Among adolescents who report infrequent use of passive and active coping responses, parental protective responses to pain may inadvertently promote greater disability and symptom complaints. Parental responses to pain may be an important target to treat adolescent chronic pain. PMID:18375447
Simons, Laura E; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Logan, Deirdre L
The aim of this study was to examine relations among parental responses, adolescent pain coping, and pain behaviors in adolescents with chronic pain. This study included 217 adolescents (12-17 years) evaluated at a multidisciplinary pain clinic and their parents. Adolescents completed measures assessing their pain, pain coping responses, functional disability, and somatic symptoms. Parents reported on their responses to their adolescent's pain. Passive and active coping interacted with parental protective behavior to predict adolescents' pain behaviors. Contrary to expectations, among adolescents who reported infrequent use of passive or active coping strategies, higher levels of parental protective behavior were associated with higher levels of disability and somatic symptoms. Discussion Among adolescents who report infrequent use of passive and active coping responses, parental protective responses to pain may inadvertently promote greater disability and symptom complaints. Parental responses to pain may be an important target to treat adolescent chronic pain.
Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie
The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic.
Wuest, Judith; Merritt-Gray, Marilyn; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Lent, Barbara; Varcoe, Colleen; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
In this descriptive study of chronic pain in a community sample of 292 women who had separated from their abusive partners on average 20 months previously, more than one-third experienced high disability pain as measured by Von Korff's Chronic Pain Grade. Beyond the usual pain locations associated with abuse, 43.2% reported swollen/painful joints. More interference in daily life was attributed to joint pain than to back, head, stomach, pelvic or bowel pain. Women with high disability pain were more likely to have experienced child abuse, adult sexual assault, more severe spousal abuse, lifetime abuse-related injuries, symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, lifetime suicide attempts, difficulty sleeping, and unemployment. High disability pain also was associated with visits to a family doctor and psychiatrist and use of medication in more than prescribed dosages. Less than 25% of women with high disability pain were taking opioids, or prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Interestingly, high disability pain was not related to smoking, use of street drugs, potential for alcohol dependence, age, income, or education. The findings add to knowledge of severity and patterns of chronic pain in abused women and support the need for further multivariate analysis of the relationships among abuse experiences, mental health, and chronic pain severity to better inform decisions regarding diagnosis and treatment. Understanding patterns of chronic pain in abuse survivors and their associations with abuse history, mental health symptoms, health service use, and medication is important for clinical assessment and intervention. Chronic pain persisted long after leaving abusive partners and extended beyond usual locations (back, headache, pelvic, gastrointestinal) to include swollen/painful joints.
He, Chun-Hong; Yu, Feng; Jiang, Zhao-Cai; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei
Cognitive impairment plays a role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Patients with painful disorders are reported to show attentional biases toward pain-related information. However, these findings are controversial, and rarely has any study examined whether chronic pain patients have attentional biases to pain-related conditioned stimuli (CS). In this study, twenty-one patients diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) were recruited from the neurosurgical department of a large urban general hospital. Sixteen family members and twenty-one pain-free volunteers were included as two separate control groups. Pain ratings, pain-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depression were measured in all subjects using questionnaires. Two dot probe tests were performed, one that used pictures of painful versus neutral faces as cues, and another that presented three types of CS as cues that predicted certain, uncertain, or no pain. Our results demonstrate that the TN patients showed attentional biases towards painful faces and the CSs that signaled uncertain pain. Moreover, the ratings of negative emotion about their pain conditions correlated significantly with the presence of attentional biases. The patients' close family members, however, displayed biases towards uncertain-pain CS. This study demonstrates that patients with chronic pain have increased attention towards pain-related information, and the fearful thinking about pain was positively correlated with this phenomenon.
Kleinke, C L; Spangler, A S
Sixty chronic back-pain patients were administered the audiovisual taxonomy of pain behavior during their first and last weeks in an inpatient multidisciplinary pain clinic. Audiovisual total score provided a useful index of pain behavior with a suitable frequency and reliability, while offering unique variance as a measure of treatment outcome. Patients' pain behaviors upon admission to the pain program were positively correlated with the following background variables: receiving worker's compensation, pounds overweight, and number of back surgeries. Patients' pain behaviors upon completion of the pain program were significantly correlated with their preferences for pain treatment modalities. High levels of pain behavior correlated with a preference for treatments of ice and heat. Low levels of pain behavior correlated with a preference for physical therapy, social work, lectures, and relaxation. It was suggested that treatment outcome in a multidisciplinary pain clinic is more immediately related to patients' coping styles and their choice of pain treatment modalities than to their demographics and personalities.
Jensen, Mark P
The manifestation of pain in any individual patient may result from a variety of underlying mechanisms that also may vary from one disease state to another. Global measures of pain intensity and relief are inadequate for characterizing specific pain qualities or identifying the unique effects of pain treatments on different pain qualities. The Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS) is a recently developed measure designed to assess distinct pain qualities and may allow differentiation of therapeutic effects, even in cases where global pain response may be similar. Three studies are presented that provide preliminary evidence for the utility of the NPS for characterizing distinct pain qualities and changes in pain qualities in patients treated with the lidocaine patch 5% for a variety of neuropathic and non-neuropathic chronic pain conditions, including low-back pain, osteoarthritis, post-herpetic neuralgia, and painful diabetic neuropathy.
Agar-Wilson, M; Jackson, T
Although emotion regulation capacities have been linked to adjustment among people with chronic pain, researchers have yet to determine whether these capacities are related to functioning independent of established facets of pain coping. The present study was designed to address this gap. A sample 128 Australian adults with chronic pain (44 men, 84 women) completed self-report measures of adjustment (quality of life, negative affect, and pain-related disability), pain coping, and features of emotion regulation (emotion appraisal, perceived efficacy in emotion regulation, emotion utilization). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that efficacy in emotion regulation was related to quality of life and reduced negative affect even after statistically controlling for effects of other measures of adjustment, pain coping efficacy, and pain coping. Conversely, features of emotion regulation did not improve the prediction model for pain-related disability. Findings suggest emotion regulation capacities may have a unique role in the prediction of specific facets of adjustment among people with chronic pain.
Pozek, John-Paul J; Beausang, David; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a distressing disease process that can lead to long-term disability, reduced quality of life, and increased health care spending. Although the exact mechanism of development of CPSP is unknown, nerve injury and inflammation may lead to peripheral and central sensitization. Given the complexity of the disease process, no novel treatment has been identified. The preoperative use of multimodal analgesia has been shown to decrease acute postoperative pain, but it has no proven efficacy in preventing development of CPSP.
Esteve, Rosa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen
Prior studies found that pain fear avoidance and pain acceptance are significantly associated with adjustment to chronic pain. The purpose of this study is to compare the influence of pain fear avoidance and pain acceptance on adjustment to chronic pain across three samples: patients with chronic back pain treated at primary care centres, patients with heterogeneous pain conditions treated at a pain clinic and patients with pain associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Structural equation modelling was used to test for differences between groups in the linear relationships between variables. The model had the best fit for the group of patients with back pain. Three significant relationships were equal across the groups: experiential avoidance on pain fear avoidance, pain intensity on pain fear avoidance, and pain fear avoidance on negative mood. The associations between both pain fear avoidance and pain acceptance and adjustment to chronic pain vary depending on the pain condition and the type of health care centres where the patients are treated.
Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro
Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384
Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin; Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin; Asgerally, Abbas; Vadivelu, Nalini
There is increasing interest in the use of complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of chronic pain. This review examines alternative and complimentary therapies, which can be incorporated as part of a biopsychosocial approach in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. In the present investigation, literature from articles indexed on PubMed was evaluated including topics of alternative therapies, complimentary therapies, pain psychology, biofeedback therapy, physical exercise therapies, acupuncture, natural and herbal supplements, whole-body cryotherapy, and smartphone technologies in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. This review highlights the key role of psychology in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be the most impactful while biofeedback therapy has also been shown to be effective for chronic pain. Exercise therapy has been shown to be effective in short-, intermediate-, and long-term pain states. When compared to that in sham controls, acupuncture has shown some benefit for neck pain immediately after the procedure and in the short term and improvement has also been demonstrated in the treatment of headaches. The role of smartphones and whole-body cryotherapy are new modalities and further studies are needed. Recent literature suggests that several alternate therapies could play a role in the treatment of chronic pain, supporting the biopsychosocial model in the treatment of pain states.
Uysal, Ahmet; Lu, Qian
Self-concealment is the predisposition to hide negative personal information. The present research examined whether self-concealment was associated with acute and chronic pain. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N = 44) completed an online questionnaire packet and then completed a cold-pressor task in the laboratory. In Study 2, individuals with chronic pain (N = 85) completed an online survey. Study 1: Trait self-concealment was negatively associated with pain tolerance. Study 2: Self-concealment of chronic pain (hiding aspects of one's chronic pain condition from others) was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain and lower psychological well-being, independent of disclosure of feelings regarding pain. Furthermore, this association was mediated by autonomy and competence needs. Self-concealment was found to be associated with higher levels of pain in both healthy and chronic pain samples. Moreover, the findings also suggest that intervention methods using the self-determination theory framework (i.e., autonomy and competence supportive) might be effective for individuals with chronic pain.
Chronic pain is a significant health problem that greatly impacts the quality of life of individuals and imparts high costs to society. Despite intense research effort in understanding of the mechanism of pain, chronic pain remains a clinical problem that has few effective therapies. The advent of human brain imaging research in recent years has changed the way that chronic pain is viewed. To further extend the use of human brain imaging techniques for better therapies, the adoption of imaging technique onto the animal pain models is essential, in which underlying brain mechanisms can be systematically studied using various combination of imaging and invasive techniques. The general goal of this thesis is to addresses how brain develops and maintains chronic pain in an animal model using fMRI. We demonstrate that nucleus accumbens, the central component of mesolimbic circuitry, is essential in development of chronic pain. To advance our imaging technique, we develop an innovative methodology to carry out fMRI in awake, conscious rat. Using this cutting-edge technique, we show that allodynia is assoicated with shift brain response toward neural circuits associated nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex that regulate affective and cognitive component of pain. Taken together, this thesis provides a deeper understanding of how brain mediates pain. It builds on the existing body of knowledge through maximizing the depth of insight into brain imaging of chronic pain.
Chronic noncancer pain is a significant and growing public health challenge in the United States. Lacking effective alternative interventions for effective chronic noncancer pain management, many physicians have turned to opioid pharmacotherapy. Increased opioid prescribing brings not only gains in therapeutic benefit but also a higher incidence of adverse drug events including increased medication misuse and opioid related mortality. Currently the United States must confront the dual problems of widespread undertreated chronic noncancer pain and a prescription opioid abuse crisis. Withholding pain relieving drugs from patients in need is unjustifiable, yet drug diversion, abuse and adverse drug events have become major social as well as medical problems. At the heart of this crisis is the lack of definitive evidence about the risk to benefit ratio of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain both on an individual case and on a population basis. This article describes the extent and severity of the American chronic noncancer pain problem and the history of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain in the United States. It then discusses the concept of evidence based practice and reviews current evidence supporting opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain as well as adverse drug events related to opioid pharmacotherapy including misuse and abuse. Finally, it considers the conflict of providing pain relief versus protecting society and reviews steps that governmental agencies, industry and others are taking to contain and ultimately resolve the problems of excessive prescribing and conflicting priorities. PMID:23342201
Schreiber, Kristin L; Campbell, Claudia; Martel, Marc O; Greenbaum, Seth; Wasan, Ajay D; Borsook, David; Jamison, Robert N; Edwards, Robert R
Diverting attention away from noxious stimulation (i.e., distraction) is a common pain-coping strategy. Its effects are variable across individuals, however, and the authors hypothesized that chronic pain patients who reported higher levels of pain catastrophizing would derive less pain-reducing benefit from distraction. Chronic pain patients (n=149) underwent psychometric and quantitative sensory testing, including assessment of the temporal summation of pain in the presence and absence of a distracting motor task. A simple distraction task decreased temporal summation of pain overall, but, surprisingly, a greater distraction analgesia was observed in high catastrophizers. This enhanced distraction analgesia in high catastrophizers was not altered when controlling for current pain scores, depression, anxiety, or opioid use (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]: F=8.7, P<0.005). Interestingly, the magnitude of distraction analgesia was inversely correlated with conditioned pain modulation (Pearson R=-0.23, P=0.005). Distraction produced greater analgesia among chronic pain patients with higher catastrophizing, suggesting that catastrophizing's pain-amplifying effects may be due in part to greater attention to pain, and these patients may benefit from distraction-based pain management approaches. Furthermore, these data suggest that distraction analgesia and conditioned pain modulation may involve separate underlying mechanisms.
Woda, Alain; Picard, Pascale; Dutheil, Frédéric
Many dysfunctional and chronic pain conditions overlap. This review describes the different modes of chronic deregulation of the adaptive response to stress which may be a common factor for these conditions. Several types of dysfunction can be identified within the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: basal hypercortisolism, hyper-reactivity, basal hypocortisolism and hypo-reactivity. Neuroactive steroid synthesis is another component of the adaptive response to stress. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form DHEA-S, and progesterone and its derivatives are synthetized in cutaneous, nervous, and adipose cells. They are neuroactive factors that act locally. They may have a role in the localization of the symptoms and their levels can vary both in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Persistent changes in neuroactive steroid levels or precursors can induce localized neurodegeneration. The autonomic nervous system is another component of the stress response. Its dysfunction in chronic stress responses can be expressed by decreased basal parasympathethic activity, increased basal sympathetic activity or sympathetic hyporeactivity to a stressful stimulus. The immune and genetic systems also participate. The helper-T cells Th1 secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whereas Th2 secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IGF-10, IL-13. Chronic deregulation of the Th1/Th2 balance can occur in favor of anti- or pro-inflammatory direction, locally or systemically. Individual vulnerability to stress can be due to environmental factors but can also be genetically influenced. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics are the main keys to understanding the influence of genetics on the response of individuals to constraints.
Roy, Nelson; Volinn, Ernest; Merrill, Ray M; Chapman, C Richard
Chronic back pain and its sequelae can influence cognitive, affective, and neuromuscular functioning. Speech production--a complex sensorimotor activity--integrates shared cognitive, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal resources, and therefore could be altered by chronic pain. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to determine whether speech alternating motion rates (i.e., speech AMRs) which require rapid, reciprocally coordinated articulatory movements were associated with chronic back pain; and 2) to identify factors that might mediate any observed alterations. Fifty participants, fully or partially disabled by chronic back pain, completed standardized protocols related to pain, depression, disability, medications, as well as speech AMRs. Higher levels of back pain were significantly associated with slower speech AMRs. Stepwise multiple regression assessed the unique and cumulative effects of specific variables such as degree of back pain, depression, level of disability, and medication use on speech motor performance. Speech motor slowness was uniquely related to back pain and the use of nonprescription pain medications, but not to level of depression or disability. Chronic back pain independently influences speech motor rates. Several explanatory models are proposed including pain-induced centrally mediated motor retardation/inhibition, reduced selective attention, and peripherally based "bracing/holding" of shared musculoskeletal environments.
Baetz, Marilyn; Bowen, Rudy
BACKGROUND: Conditions with chronic, non-life-threatening pain and fatigue remain a challenge to treat, and are associated with high health care use. Understanding psychological and psychosocial contributing and coping factors, and working with patients to modify them, is one goal of management. An individual’s spirituality and/or religion may be one such factor that can influence the experience of chronic pain or fatigue. METHODS: The Canadian Community Health Survey (2002) obtained data from 37,000 individuals 15 years of age or older. From these data, four conditions with chronic pain and fatigue were analyzed together – fibromyalgia, back pain, migraine headaches and chronic fatigue syndrome. Additional data from the survey were used to determine how religion and spirituality affect psychological well-being, as well as the use of various coping methods. RESULTS: Religious persons were less likely to have chronic pain and fatigue, while those who were spiritual but not affiliated with regular worship attendance were more likely to have those conditions. Individuals with chronic pain and fatigue were more likely to use prayer and seek spiritual support as a coping method than the general population. Furthermore, chronic pain and fatigue sufferers who were both religious and spiritual were more likely to have better psychological well-being and use positive coping strategies. INTERPRETATION: Consideration of an individual’s spirituality and/or religion, and how it may be used in coping may be an additional component to the overall management of chronic pain and fatigue. PMID:18958309
Brown, Cary A
This article presents an argument for framing chronic pain within a complex adaptive systems (CAS) paradigm. The first aim of this article is to demonstrate how chronic pain can be framed as a CAS and how paradox, one of the core characteristics of a CAS, exists within the chronic pain experience. The second aim is to illustrate how paradox exists at multiple levels within the health care encounter and ongoing experience of chronic pain. Finally, the article will use the example of interactions at the patient/clinician level to illustrate how health care workers' efforts to deal with issues emergent from the range of paradoxes have for the most part been ineffective, and at times harmful, to persons experiencing chronic pain. This article uses the example of chronic pain to explore how the manner in which health care providers and patients recognize and deal with paradoxes can either worsen the pain experience or help generate creative new ways to manage the chronic pain condition. The CAS principles discussed in this article hold application across a range of chronic conditions for which a traditional biomedical paradigm proves insufficient.
Finn, Paul E.
Presents overview of multiple factors affecting the life style of chronic pain patients, with an emphasis on assessment and rehabilitation. Focuses on chronic pain rehabilitation, including assessment, treatment, and evaluation of the rehabilitation outcome with the understanding that the goal of therapy is to restore the patient as closely as…
Magistro, Giuseppe; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Grabe, Magnus; Weidner, Wolfgang; Stief, Christian G; Nickel, J Curtis
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition that causes severe symptoms, bother, and quality-of-life impact in the 8.2% of men who are believed to be affected. Research suggests a complex pathophysiology underlying this syndrome that is mirrored by its heterogeneous clinical presentation. Management of patients diagnosed with CP/CPPS has always been a formidable task in clinical practice. Due to its enigmatic etiology, a plethora of clinical trials failed to identify an efficient monotherapy. A comprehensive review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of CP/CPPS and practical best evidence recommendations for management. Medline and the Cochrane database were screened for RCTs on the treatment of CP/CPPS from 1998 to December 2014, using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index as an objective outcome measure. Published data in concert with expert opinion were used to formulate a practical best evidence statement for the management of CP/CPPS. Twenty-eight RCTs identified were eligible for this review and presented. Trials evaluating antibiotics, α-blockers, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating substances, hormonal agents, phytotherapeutics, neuromodulatory drugs, agents that modify bladder function, and physical treatment options failed to reveal a clear therapeutic benefit. With its multifactorial pathophysiology and its various clinical presentations, the management of CP/CPPS demands a phenotypic-directed approach addressing the individual clinical profile of each patient. Different categorization algorithms have been proposed. First studies applying the UPOINTs classification system provided promising results. Introducing three index patients with CP/CPPS, we present practical best evidence recommendations for management. Our current understanding of the pathophysiology underlying CP/CPPS resulting in this highly variable syndrome does not speak in favor of a
Non-specific chronic low back pain is an occupational hazard for nurses. It may result in persistent and disabling pain for some people. There are many techniques for investigating, assessing and treating chronic low back pain. However, research to support some of these interventions and the assumptions that underlie them is limited. Interventions that may be beneficial are not always available to those who need them. Changes to service provision are required to rectify this situation and provide effective treatment for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain.
Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D
We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures.
Chronic pain is now recognized as a disease state that involves changes in brain function. This concept is reinforced by data that document structural and morphological remapping of brain circuitry under conditions of chronic pain. Evidence for aberrant neurophysiology in the brain further confirms neuroplasticity at cellular and molecular levels. Proper detection of pain-induced changes using emerging non-invasive and cost-effective technologies, such as analytical electroencephalography methods, could yield objective diagnostic measures and may guide therapeutic interventions targeting the brain for effective management of chronic pain.
The management of chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain, still has significant unmet needs. In addition to inadequate symptomatic relief, there are concerns about adverse effects and addiction associated with treatments. The transplantation of cells that secrete neuroactive substances with analgesic properties into the central nervous system has only become of practical interest in more recent years, but provides a novel strategy to challenge current approaches in treating chronic pain. This review covers pre-clinical and clinical studies from both allogeneic and xenogeneic sources for management of chronic refractory pain.
Bell, Rae F
Ketamine misuse and abuse is on the increase. This review focuses on recent studies on ketamine toxicity in recreational users and possible implications for the use of ketamine in chronic pain therapy. Urological toxicity, hepatotoxicity and cognitive deficits are all reported as adverse effects of the recreational use of ketamine. Urological toxicity and hepatotoxicity have been reported as adverse effects of ketamine in pain therapy. These findings may have implications for the clinical use of ketamine in chronic noncancer pain conditions. Until safety issues are resolved, it is suggested that chronic pain treatment involving higher doses and repeated exposure to ketamine be restricted to the context of randomized, controlled trials or clinical audits.
Gao, Kenneth; Sulea, Camelia; Wiederhold, Mark D.
Abstract We explored the use of virtual reality distraction techniques for use as adjunctive therapy to treat chronic pain. Virtual environments were specifically created to provide pleasant and engaging experiences where patients navigated on their own through rich and varied simulated worlds. Real-time physiological monitoring was used as a guide to determine the effectiveness and sustainability of this intervention. Human factors studies showed that virtual navigation is a safe and effective method for use with chronic pain patients. Chronic pain patients demonstrated significant relief in subjective ratings of pain that corresponded to objective measurements in peripheral, noninvasive physiological measures. PMID:24892196
Lang, E; Eisele, R; Bickel, A; Winter, E; Schlabeck, M; Kastner, S; Sittl, R; Liebig, K; Martus, P; Neundörfer, B
Outcome quality of medical treatment depends on structure quality of the treatment facility. In the present study we tried evaluate structural parameters of outpatient treatment facilities relating to management of headache, low back pain and cancer pain. 109 outpatient treatment facilities (104 offices, 3 outpatient departments of hospitals, 2 pain ambulances of hospitals) in middle franconia, one of the larger Bavarian administrative division (population: 1,6 Mio.), have been evaluated by questionnaires. Questions examined certain structural conditions of the treatment facility as compared to german guidelines for outpatient treatment of pain patients ("Schmerztherapievereinbarung"). Only one treatment facility worked within an interdisciplinary setting. Less than 25% (median) of total patients of an outpatient treatment facility suffered from acute or chronic headache, low back pain or cancer pain. 38% of physicians participated regularly on pain conferences. Established methods for diagnosis and documentation of patients suffering from chronic headache, chronic back pain and cancer pain were regularly used by 16%, 12% and 10% of physicians, respectively. Regular interdisciplinary cooperation in the management of patients with chronic headache, chronic back pain and cancer pain was indicated by 28%, 24% and 41% of physicians, respectively. However, personal discussion of patient related problems took place in less than 5% of physicians. Although a considerable number of different therapies (included as standard therapy for outpatient management of chronic pain in the "Schmerztherapievereinbarung") can be applied in each outpatient treatment facility (median:5), psychological therapy for management of chronic headache, chronic back pain and cancer pain was used regularly by 5%, 2% and 7% of physicians, respectively. Scoring of all examined structural parameters provides a measure for the quality of the parameters of a certain outpatient treatment facility as
Nickel, J. Curtis
Acceptance of the National Institutes of Health definition of Category III Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) and the development and validation of the Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index has stimulated significant research into treatment of this condition. Evidence-based suggestions for treatment include the following. (i) Antimicrobials cannot be recommended for men with longstanding, previously treated CP/CPPS. (ii) Alpha-blockers can be recommended as first-line medical therapy, particularly in alpha-blocker-naïve men with moderately severe symptoms who have relatively recent onset of symptoms. (iii) Alpha-blockers cannot be recommended in men with longstanding CP/CPPS who have tried and failed alpha-blockers in the past. And (iv) anti-inflammatory therapy, finasteride and pentosan polysulfate are not recommended as primary treatment; however, they may have a useful adjunctive role in a multimodal therapeutic regimen. Early data on herbal therapies, particularly quercetin and cernilton, are intriguing, but larger multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trials are required before a high level of evidence recommendation can be made on its use. At this time, surgery (including minimally invasive) is recommended only for definitive indications and not generally for CP/CPPS. PMID:17954024
Women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) often present without obvious cause on imaging studies, laboratory values or physical exam. Dysfunctional sensory processing in the central nervous system (CNS) may explain pain of unclear origin. Central sensitization (CS), a mechanism of centrally mediated pain, describes this abnormal processing of sensory information. Women with CPP often present with several seemingly unrelated symptoms. This can be explained by co-existing chronic pain syndromes occurring in the same patient. Central sensitization occurs in all of these pain syndromes, also described as dysfunctional pain syndromes, and thus may explain why several often occur in the same patient. Six of the most common pain disorders that co-exist in CPP include endometriosis, painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cysitis, vulvodynia, myofascial pain/ pelvic floor hypertonus, irritable bowel syndrome, and primary dysmenorrhea. Central pain generators, (pain originating from CS) and peripheral pain generators, (pain from local tissue damage), can both occur in each of these six conditions. These pain generators will be described. Chronic pain, specifically dysfunctional sensory processing, is recognized as a systemic disease process like diabetes to be managed as opposed to a local problem to be "fixed" or cured. A multi-disciplinary approach to assessment and treatment with a focus on improving emotional, physical and social functioning instead of focusing strictly on pain reduction is more effective in decreasing disability. This is best achieved by determining the patient's needs and perspective through a patient-centered approach. Algorithms for such an approach to assessment and treatment are outlined.
Huber, Alexa; Suman, Anna Lisa; Rendo, Carmela Anna; Biasi, Giovanni; Marcolongo, Roberto; Carli, Giancarlo
The use of unidimensional scales to measure pain intensity has been criticised because of the multidimensional nature of pain. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses to determine which dimensions of pain--sensory versus affective--predicted scores on unidimensional scales measuring pain intensity and emotions in 109 Italian women suffering from chronic, non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. We then compared the results with earlier findings in two groups of cancer patients suffering from acute post-operative pain and chronic cancer-related pain, respectively. Age, physical capacity and scores on the multidimensional affect and pain survey (MAPS) were used to predict patients' ratings on one visual analogue scale (VAS) and three numerical rating scales (NRS) measuring pain intensity, anxiety and depressed mood. Unidimensional pain intensity ratings were predicted better from sensory than from affective pain predictors, and the affective predictors made no unique contribution (NRS), or only a very small one (VAS). Both sensory and emotional pain aspects were unique predictors of NRS anxiety and depression. Therefore, in contrast to earlier findings in two different types of cancer patients, in subjects affected by chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain, the scores on unidimensional pain intensity scales mainly reflect sensory pain dimensions, supporting the discriminant validity of the NRS and VAS used. However, the patients had some difficulty in distinguishing between sensory and emotional information. For this reason, several unidimensional scales to rate pain intensity and emotions separately should be used to obtain a complete picture of the status and needs of any given patient.
Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman
Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain.
Mun, Chung Jung; Thummala, Kirti; Davis, Mary C; Karoly, Paul; Tennen, Howard; Zautra, Alex J
Previous research suggests that for people living with chronic pain, pain expectancy can undermine access to adaptive resources and functioning. We tested and replicated the unique effect of pain expectancy on subsequent pain through 2 daily diary studies. We also extended previous findings by examining cognitive and affective antecedents of pain expectancy and the consequences of pain expectancy for daily social enjoyment and stress. In study 1, 231 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis completed 30 end-of-day diaries. Results of multilevel structural equation model showed that controlling for today's pain, pain expectancy predicted next day pain. In study 2, diary assessments of affective, cognitive, and social factors were collected during the morning, afternoon, and evening for 21 days from a sample of 220 individuals with fibromyalgia. Results showed that both positive affect and the extent to which pain interfered with daily activities in the afternoon predicted evening pain expectancy in the expected direction. However, negative affect and pain coping efficacy were not associated with pain expectancy. Consistent with study 1, more than usual evening pain expectancy was related to greater next morning pain. We also found that next morning pain predicted next afternoon social enjoyment but not social stress. The findings of these 2 studies point to the importance of promoting positive affect and reducing pain expectancy as a way of decreasing the detrimental effect of chronic pain on enjoyable social experiences.
van den Hout, J H; Vlaeyen, J W; Houben, R M; Soeters, A P; Peters, M L
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of non-pain-related failure experiences and pain-related fear on pain report, pain tolerance and pain avoidance in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Moreover, the mediating and moderating role of negative affectivity (trait-NA) in the relationship between failure experiences and pain was examined. Seventy-six patients were divided into high and low pain-related fear groups and within each group they were randomly assigned to the failure or success feedback condition. In the first part of the study patients completed a 'social empathy test' and experimenter 1 subsequently delivered false failure or success feedback. A second experimenter, who was blind for the condition, subsequently administered two lifting tasks in order to obtain measures of pain report, tolerance and avoidance. Failure feedback did have an effect on pain avoidance but unexpectedly, and not as hypothesized, pain avoidance was reduced instead of enhanced. With regard to pain report and pain tolerance similar patterns were found, but these were not statistically significant. The effect of failure feedback on pain avoidance was moderated by trait-NA. Only in the subgroup of patients who scored low on trait-NA did failure feedback decrease pain avoidance. State-NA did not mediate the effects of feedback. In line with previous findings, pain-related fear resulted in lower pain tolerance. Moreover, this study was the first to show that pain-related fear predicted higher pain report in CLBP patients. Pain-related fear did not predict pain avoidance when pre-lifting pain and gender were controlled for. Finally, pre-lifting pain turned out to be the strongest predictor with regard to all pain measures. The role of pain-related fear and unexpected findings with regard to feedback are discussed as well as some clinical implications.
Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James
The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0-10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Three participants (10%) reported no change between pre and post pain ratings. Ten participants (33%) reported complete pain relief while doing the virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted.
Jones, Ted; Moore, Todd; Choo, James
The treatment of chronic pain could benefit from additional non-opioid interventions. Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in decreasing pain for procedural or acute pain but to date there have been few studies on its use in chronic pain. The present study was an investigation of the impact of a virtual reality application for chronic pain. Thirty (30) participants with various chronic pain conditions were offered a five-minute session using a virtual reality application called Cool! Participants were asked about their pain using a 0–10 visual analog scale rating before the VR session, during the session and immediately after the session. They were also asked about immersion into the VR world and about possible side effects. Pain was reduced from pre-session to post-session by 33%. Pain was reduced from pre-session during the VR session by 60%. These changes were both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Three participants (10%) reported no change between pre and post pain ratings. Ten participants (33%) reported complete pain relief while doing the virtual reality session. All participants (100%) reported a decrease in pain to some degree between pre-session pain and during-session pain. The virtual reality experience was found here to provide a significant amount of pain relief. A head mounted display (HMD) was used with all subjects and no discomfort was experienced. Only one participant noted any side effects. VR seems to have promise as a non-opioid treatment for chronic pain and further investigation is warranted. PMID:27997539
Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul
Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…
Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyue; Cai, Youqing; Pan, Zhizhong Z
Chronic pain with comorbid emotional disorders is a prevalent neurological disease in patients under various pathological conditions, yet patients show considerable difference in their vulnerability to developing chronic pain. Understanding the neurobiological basis underlying this pain vulnerability is essential to develop targeted therapies of higher efficiency in pain treatment of precision medicine. However, this pain vulnerability has not been addressed in preclinical pain research in animals to date. In this study, we investigated individual variance in both sensory and affective/emotional dimensions of pain behaviors in response to chronic neuropathic pain condition in a mouse model of chronic pain. We found that mice displayed considerably diverse sensitivities in the chronic pain-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of affective pain. Importantly, the mouse group that was more vulnerable to developing anxiety was also more vulnerable to developing depressive behavior under the chronic pain condition. In contrast, there was relatively much less variance in individual responses in the sensory dimension of pain sensitization. Molecular analysis revealed that those mice vulnerable to developing the emotional disorders showed a significant reduction in the protein level of DNA methyltransferase 3a in the emotion-processing central nucleus of the amygdala. In addition, social stress also revealed significant individual variance in anxiety behavior in mice. These findings suggest that individual pain vulnerability may be inherent mostly in the emotional/affective component of chronic pain and remain consistent in different aspects of negative emotion, in which adaptive changes in the function of DNA methyltransferase 3a for DNA methylation in central amygdala may play an important role. This may open a new avenue of basic research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain vulnerability.
Wang, Wei; Li, Caiyue; Cai, Youqing
Chronic pain with comorbid emotional disorders is a prevalent neurological disease in patients under various pathological conditions, yet patients show considerable difference in their vulnerability to developing chronic pain. Understanding the neurobiological basis underlying this pain vulnerability is essential to develop targeted therapies of higher efficiency in pain treatment of precision medicine. However, this pain vulnerability has not been addressed in preclinical pain research in animals to date. In this study, we investigated individual variance in both sensory and affective/emotional dimensions of pain behaviors in response to chronic neuropathic pain condition in a mouse model of chronic pain. We found that mice displayed considerably diverse sensitivities in the chronic pain-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of affective pain. Importantly, the mouse group that was more vulnerable to developing anxiety was also more vulnerable to developing depressive behavior under the chronic pain condition. In contrast, there was relatively much less variance in individual responses in the sensory dimension of pain sensitization. Molecular analysis revealed that those mice vulnerable to developing the emotional disorders showed a significant reduction in the protein level of DNA methyltransferase 3a in the emotion-processing central nucleus of the amygdala. In addition, social stress also revealed significant individual variance in anxiety behavior in mice. These findings suggest that individual pain vulnerability may be inherent mostly in the emotional/affective component of chronic pain and remain consistent in different aspects of negative emotion, in which adaptive changes in the function of DNA methyltransferase 3a for DNA methylation in central amygdala may play an important role. This may open a new avenue of basic research into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain vulnerability. PMID:28849714
Zagorul'ko, O I; Medvedeva, L A; Gnezdilov, A V; Nikoda, V V
Chronic non-cancer pain management is an urgent global problem. To set up pain clinics is a promising and economically sound approach. There are pain clinics operating in Russia; however, there are no unified approaches to solving their organizational, therapeutic, and educational-and-methodological problems. An antipain care model is proposed for patients with chronic non-cancer pain, which makes it possible to optimize the treatment of the patients, to train pain specialists, and to enhance the economic efficiency of management.
Clark, A J; Lynch, M E; Ware, M; Beaulieu, P; McGilveray, I J; Gourlay, D
To provide clinicians with guidelines for the use of cannabinoid compounds in the treatment of chronic pain. Publications indexed from 1990 to 2005 in the National Library of Medicine Index Medicus were searched through PubMed. A consensus concerning these guidelines was achieved by the authors through review and discussion. There are few clinical trials, case reports or case series concerning the use of cannabinoid compounds in the treatment of chronic pain. There are no randomized clinical trials examining the use of herbal cannabis in the treatment of chronic pain. A practical approach to the treatment of chronic pain with cannabinoid compounds is presented. Specific suggestions about the off-label dosing of nabilone (Cesamet, Valeant Canada limitee/Limited) and dronabinol (Marinol, Solvay Pharma Inc, Canada) in the treatment of chronic pain are provided.
Garland, Eric L
Chronic pain is a prevalent problem that exacts a significant toll on society. The medical system has responded to this issue by implementing pain management services centered on opioid pharmacotherapy. However, for many chronic pain patients, the analgesic efficacy of long-term opioids is limited. Moreover, chronic exposure to opioids can result in opioid misuse, addiction, and risk of overdose. As such, non-opioid treatment options are needed. This article first provides a selective review of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms implicated in chronic pain to be targeted by novel non-opioid treatments. Next, it briefly details one such treatment approach, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement, and describes evidence suggesting that this intervention can disrupt the risk chain linking chronic pain to prescription opioid misuse.
Background People who suffer from psychiatric disorders are burdened with a high prevalence of chronic illnesses and pain, but evidence on pain prevalence among adolescents with psychiatric disorders is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and location of self-reported chronic pain and pain-related disability in adolescent psychiatric patients. Methods This study was part of the larger Health Survey administered at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) at St. Olav’s University Hospital, in Trondheim, Norway. All patients aged 13–18 years who visited the CAP clinic at least once between February 15, 2009 and February 15, 2011 were invited to participate. A total of 717 (43.5% of eligible/invited patients) participated; of these, 566 were diagnosed with one or more psychiatric disorders. The adolescents completed a questionnaire, which included questions about pain and pain-related disability. Clinical diagnoses were classified by a clinician according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision criteria. Results In adolescents with psychiatric disorders, 70.4% reported chronic pain, and 37.3% experienced chronic pain in three or more locations (multisite pain). Chronic musculoskeletal pain was the most prevalent type of pain (57.7%). Pain-related disability was found in 22.2% of the sample. The frequency of chronic pain and multisite pain increased with age, and girls reported a higher frequency of chronic pain, multisite pain and pain-related disability than boys did. There was an increased risk of chronic pain among adolescents with mood or anxiety disorders versus those with hyperkinetic disorders, yet this was not present after adjusting for sex. Comorbidity between hyperkinetic and mood or anxiety disorders involved an increased risk of pain-related disability. Conclusions In this study, seven out of 10 adolescents with psychiatric disorders reported chronic
Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383
Buenaver, Luis F.; Coryell, Virginia T.; Smith, Michael T.
This article summarizes the literature on cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in patients with comorbid insomnia and chronic pain. An empirical rationale for the development of CBT-I in chronic pain is provided. The six randomized controlled trials in this area are described and contrasted. The data suggest that CBT-I for patients with comorbid insomnia and chronic pain produces clinically meaningful improvements in sleep symptoms. Effects on pain are inconsistent, but tend to favor functional measures over pain severity. Hybrid interventions for insomnia and pain have demonstrated feasibility, but larger trials must be conducted to determine efficacy relative to CBT-I alone. Future efforts should employ more comprehensive assessments of pain and psychosocial factors. PMID:25477769
Simons, Laura E; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology.
Niesters, Marieke; Martini, Christian; Dahan, Albert
The anaesthetic ketamine is used to treat various chronic pain syndromes, especially those that have a neuropathic component. Low dose ketamine produces strong analgesia in neuropathic pain states, presumably by inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor although other mechanisms are possibly involved, including enhancement of descending inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects at central sites. Current data on short term infusions indicate that ketamine produces potent analgesia during administration only, while three studies on the effect of prolonged infusion (4–14 days) show long-term analgesic effects up to 3 months following infusion. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Blind extrapolation of these risks to clinical patients is difficult because of the variable, high and recurrent exposure to the drug in ketamine abusers and the high frequency of abuse of other illicit substances in this population. In clinical settings, ketamine is well tolerated, especially when benzodiazepines are used to tame the psychotropic side effects. Irrespective, close monitoring of patients receiving ketamine is mandatory, particularly aimed at CNS, haemodynamic, renal and hepatic symptoms as well as abuse. Further research is required to assess whether the benefits outweigh the risks and costs. Until definite proof is obtained ketamine administration should be restricted to patients with therapy-resistant severe neuropathic pain. PMID:23432384
Niesters, Marieke; Martini, Christian; Dahan, Albert
The anaesthetic ketamine is used to treat various chronic pain syndromes, especially those that have a neuropathic component. Low dose ketamine produces strong analgesia in neuropathic pain states, presumably by inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor although other mechanisms are possibly involved, including enhancement of descending inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects at central sites. Current data on short term infusions indicate that ketamine produces potent analgesia during administration only, while three studies on the effect of prolonged infusion (4-14 days) show long-term analgesic effects up to 3 months following infusion. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Blind extrapolation of these risks to clinical patients is difficult because of the variable, high and recurrent exposure to the drug in ketamine abusers and the high frequency of abuse of other illicit substances in this population. In clinical settings, ketamine is well tolerated, especially when benzodiazepines are used to tame the psychotropic side effects. Irrespective, close monitoring of patients receiving ketamine is mandatory, particularly aimed at CNS, haemodynamic, renal and hepatic symptoms as well as abuse. Further research is required to assess whether the benefits outweigh the risks and costs. Until definite proof is obtained ketamine administration should be restricted to patients with therapy-resistant severe neuropathic pain. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter
The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A 1 standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Worley, Matthew J.; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter
The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (N = 149) who received buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multi-site clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least two of the previous three weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = − 0.36, p < .001). Patients with greater pain volatility were less likely to have a good treatment outcome (OR = 0.55, p < .05), controlling for baseline pain severity and rate of change in pain over time. A one standard deviation increase in pain volatility was associated with a 44% reduction in the probability of endpoint abstinence. The significant reduction in subjective pain during treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP-NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk for returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP-NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain. PMID:26302337
Background Chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing haemodialysis. However, epidemiological data for chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- or late-stage CKD who are not undergoing dialysis are limited. Method A cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of chronic MS pain and factors associated with chronic MS pain in patients with early- and late-stage CKD who were not undergoing dialysis, was conducted. In addition, the distribution of pain severity among patients with different stages of CKD was evaluated. Results Of the 456 CKD patients studied, 53.3% (n = 243/456) had chronic MS pain. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, as well as with the calcium × phosphate product levels. In CKD patients with hyperuricemia, chronic MS pain showed a negative, independent significant association with diabetes mellitus as a co-morbidity (odds ratio: 0.413, p = 0.020). However, in the CKD patients without hyperuricemia as a co-morbidity, chronic MS pain showed an independent significant association with the calcium × phosphate product levels (odds ratio: 1.093, p = 0.027). Furthermore, stage-5 CKD patients seemed to experience more severe chronic MS pain than patients with other stages of CKD. Conclusion Chronic MS pain is common in CKD patients. Chronic MS pain was independently and significantly associated with hyperuricemia as co-morbidity, and with the calcium × phosphate product levels in early- and late-stage CKD patients who were not on dialysis. PMID:24400957
As gynaecologists frequently function as “general practitioners” for women, gynaecologists are frequently confronted with questions which initially appear to have only a tenuous connection to their field. Chronic pain syndromes represent a particular challenge, especially as pain syndromes are often associated with severe psychosocial stress for the affected woman. This article discusses some of the psychometric aspects of chronic pain in endometriosis and fibromyalgia together with practical therapeutic approaches. PMID:26640283
Elman, Igor; Borsook, David
While chronic pain is considered by some to be a CNS disease, little is understood about underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Addiction models have heuristic value in this regard, because both pain and addictive disorders are characterized by impaired hedonic capacity, compulsive drug seeking, and high stress. In drug addiction such symptomatology has been attributed to reward deficiency, impaired inhibitory control, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning, and anti-reward allostatic neuroadaptations. Here we propose that similar neuroadaptations exist in chronic pain patients.
Chapin, Heather L; Darnall, Beth D; Seppala, Emma M; Doty, James R; Hah, Jennifer M; Mackey, Sean C
Background The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting it may be beneficial as a dual treatment for pain and anger. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study of a 9-week group compassion cultivation intervention in chronic pain to examine its effect on pain severity, anger, pain acceptance and pain-related interference. We also aimed to describe observer ratings provided by patients’ significant others and secondary effects of the intervention. Methods Pilot clinical trial with repeated measures design that included a within-subjects wait-list control period. Twelve chronic pain patients completed the intervention (F= 10). Data were collected from patients at enrollment, treatment baseline and post-treatment; participant significant others contributed data at the enrollment and post-treatment time points. Results In this predominantly female sample, patients had significantly reduced pain severity and anger and increased pain acceptance at post-treatment compared to treatment baseline. Significant other qualitative data corroborated patient reports for reductions in pain severity and anger. Conclusions Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further examine how
Ciszek, Brittney P.; Khan, Asma A.; Dang, Hong; Slade, Gary D.; Smith, Shad; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Zolnoun, Denniz; Nackley, Andrea G.
Chronic pain is a significant healthcare problem, ineffectively treated due to its unclear etiology and heterogeneous clinical presentation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that microRNAs regulate the expression of pain-relevant genes, yet little is known about their role in chronic pain. Here, we evaluate the relationship between pain, psychological characteristics, plasma cytokines and whole blood microRNAs in 22 healthy controls (HC); 33 subjects with chronic pelvic pain (vestibulodynia: VBD); and 23 subjects with VBD and irritable bowel syndrome (VBD+IBS). VBD subjects were similar to HCs in self-reported pain, psychological profiles and remote bodily pain. VBD+IBS subjects reported decreased health and function; and an increase in headaches, somatization and remote bodily pain. Furthermore, VBD subjects exhibited a balance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, while VBD+IBS subjects failed to exhibit a compensatory increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. VBD subjects differed from controls in expression of 10 microRNAs of predicted importance for pain and estrogen signaling. VBD+IBS subjects differed from controls in expression of 11 microRNAs of predicted importance for pain, cell physiology and insulin signaling. MicroRNA expression was correlated with pain-relevant phenotypes and cytokine levels. These results suggest microRNAs represent a valuable tool for differentiating VBD subtypes (localized pain with apparent peripheral neurosensory disruption versus widespread pain with a central sensory contribution) that may require different treatment approaches. PMID:26166255
Seidler, Anna Lene; Rethberg, Constanze; Schmitt, Jochen; Nienhaus, Albert; Seidler, Andreas
Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem, with a large potential for primary prevention. Health utilities (HU) reflect which proportion of their expected remaining life time individuals would hypothetically trade to be alleviated of a health condition of interest. A value of 0 means "prefer to die immediately", a value of 1 means "not willing to trade any life time". The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess HU for LBP patients and for healthy participants and to examine whether HU for LBP are useful indicators to substantiate preventive and therapeutic decision making. Healthy participants (n = 126) and LBP patients (n = 32) were recruited mainly among the employees of a tertiary care hospital in Germany. Standardized LBP scenarios were presented to all participants and HU values were assessed using the time-trade-off method. Median HU for LBP were 0.90 (IQR 0.31) for participants and 0.93 (IQR 0.10) for LBP patients. Measurements were consistent across illness severity ratings with HU and with a visual analogue scale (VAS); in the healthy sample the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.61 (95% CI 0.23-1.00, F(1125) = 190, p < .001), in the patient sample the ICC was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.24-1.00, F(1,31) = 62, p < .001). 8% of participants reported HU of 1. There was no statistically significant relation between HU and age, income, or gender. On average, participants chose a 7 to 10% shorter life expectancy to avoid LBP, but almost 1 in 10 participants were not willing to trade any life years. The results indicate a certain stability of HU due to the comparability of HU ratings across patients and healthy participants, the measurement consistency when comparing VAS and HU ratings, and the lack of association between demographic variables and HU. This underlines the usefulness of HU for measuring illness severity in comparative health economics evaluations of preventive and therapeutic measures that address
Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa; López, Alicia E
A cross-sectional study. To analyze the relationship between resilience, acceptance, coping, and adjustment to spinal chronic pain. Several studies have concluded that resilience is relevant in predicting pain and physical functioning among patients with chronic pain. Although resilience may have a role in preventing or living with chronic pain, there is little research on the effects of resilience on adjustment among patients with chronic pain. Multivariate multiple regression by structural equation modeling was performed to simultaneously determine the influence of all the predictor variables on all the dependent variables. The sample was composed of 299 patients (138 men and 161 women) suffering from chronic spinal pain. : Higher levels of resilience were associated with higher levels of pain acceptance and active coping strategies. Active coping and acceptance were associated with higher levels of adjustment to pain. Positive personality characteristics could play a crucial role in patient adjustment, and thus clinicians should take into account the positive path to capacity to better understand the chronic pain experience.
van Ganzewinkel, Christ-jan; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Kramer, Boris W; Andriessen, Peter
Chronic pain is poorly addressed in neonatal pain research. We aimed at contributing to define the concept of chronic pain in the newborn. We designed a Web-based, 3-round Delphi survey. We invited an international panel of experts (health care providers and parents) in the fields of neonatology and neonatal pain to participate. In the first round, participants (n=189) answered 3 open-ended questions: (1) define chronic pain in your own words, (2) what are the possible causes, and (3) which signs and symptoms are used to diagnose chronic pain? The answers were categorized and summarized into 437 statements, which were valued by the participants (n=189) on a 5-point Likert scale. In the second round, the remaining participants (n=72) were asked to reflect on 65 selected statements with a mode or median ≥4 or mean ≥3.75. These threshold values provided the opportunity to reach consensus in the following round. In the third round, the remaining participants (n=33) were provided with the group and individual responses. This process resulted in 23 statements with mode, mean, and median of ≥4, on which the participants reached consensus. Although several etiologic factors were defined, no useful diagnostic criterion could be identified. The survey resulted in a description of chronic pain in the newborn. Identifying chronic pain is clinically relevant because it interferes with growth, prolongs hospitalization, leads to altered pain perception, and impairs cognitive and behavioral development.
Sugimine, Satomi; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru
Background Neuropathic characteristics are highly involved in the development of chronic pain both physically and psychologically. However, little is known about the relationship between neuropathic characteristics and brain morphological alteration. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of chronic pain development by examining the above-mentioned relationships by voxel-based morphometry in patients with chronic pain. Methods First, we assessed neuropathic characteristics using the painDETECT Questionnaire in 12 chronic pain patients. Second, to assess the gray matter volume changes by voxel-based morphometry, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We applied multiregression analysis of these two assessment methods. Results There were significant positive correlations between painDETECT Questionnaire scores and the gray matter volume in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and right posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuropathic characteristics strongly affect the brain regions related to modulation of pain in patients with chronic pain and, therefore, contribute to the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27284013
Wilson, Hilary D.
Chronic pain is a pervasive health care issue affecting over 50 million Americans and costing more than $100 billion dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. As a financially and emotionally taxing condition, the families and friends of people with chronic pain, as well as society at large, are affected. Current theory supports the role of biological, psychological, and environmental factors in the etiology, exacerbation, and maintenance of chronic pain. Recently, the specific role of pain-related fear in pain experience has received increasing attention. This article summarizes current understanding of the role of pain-related fear in the onset of acute pain incidents, the transition of acute pain to chronic, and the pain severity and disability of patients with ongoing chronic pain conditions. Treatments demonstrated to reduce pain-related fear are presented, evidence demonstrating their efficacy at reducing disability and pain severity are summarized, and recent criticisms of the fear-avoidance model and future directions are considered. PMID:20425197
Gasenzer, Elena R; Klumpp, Marie-Juliana; Pieper, Dawid; Neugebauer, Edmund A M
Background: The study investigated the incidence of chronic pain as well as causes and mechanisms of pain chronification in orchestra musicians. Aims: Chronic pain is a serious problem in the study group due to very specific playing techniques and body positions while playing, with a high impact on professional and private life. Methods: 8,645 professional musicians from 132 German cultural orchestras were contacted and asked about chronic pain via an online questionnaire. The study group comprised orchestra musicians suffering from pain. The control group consisted of musicians playing the same type of instruments (same working conditions) who reported to be free of pain. Results: The response rate was 8.6% (740 musicians). 66.2% (n=490) out of 740 musicians who completed the questionnaire reported chronic pain. The most frequently reported localizations of pain were the body parts which are mostly involved in instrumental playing such as back (70%), shoulders (67.8%), neck (64.1%), hands and wrists (39.8%). 27.4% of the investigated musicians suffered from pain with a high degree of impairment. Conclusions: These results appear conclusive and indicate a need to continue research into chronic pain in musicians.
Gasenzer, Elena R.; Klumpp, Marie-Juliana; Pieper, Dawid; Neugebauer, Edmund A. M.
Background: The study investigated the incidence of chronic pain as well as causes and mechanisms of pain chronification in orchestra musicians. Aims: Chronic pain is a serious problem in the study group due to very specific playing techniques and body positions while playing, with a high impact on professional and private life. Methods: 8,645 professional musicians from 132 German cultural orchestras were contacted and asked about chronic pain via an online questionnaire. The study group comprised orchestra musicians suffering from pain. The control group consisted of musicians playing the same type of instruments (same working conditions) who reported to be free of pain. Results: The response rate was 8.6% (740 musicians). 66.2% (n=490) out of 740 musicians who completed the questionnaire reported chronic pain. The most frequently reported localizations of pain were the body parts which are mostly involved in instrumental playing such as back (70%), shoulders (67.8%), neck (64.1%), hands and wrists (39.8%). 27.4% of the investigated musicians suffered from pain with a high degree of impairment. Conclusions: These results appear conclusive and indicate a need to continue research into chronic pain in musicians. PMID:28149258
Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I
Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
patients with chronic migraine, fibromyalgia , post-traumatic pain post mTBI, asymptomatic individuals post mTBI, and normal controls. Resting state...disorders. The specific study groups to be compared for this work include patients with chronic migraine, fibromyalgia , post-traumatic pain post...following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), those with fibromyalgia , chronic migraine without aura, asymptomatic individuals after mTBI, and in
Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia
Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP. PMID:27099529
Ewan, Eric E; Martin, Thomas J
Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state.
Paolucci, Teresa; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria; Piccinini, Giulia
Osteoporosis (OP) is a pathological condition that manifests clinically as pain, fractures, and physical disability, resulting in the loss of independence and the need for long-term care. Chronic pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive aspects. Age can affect each of these dimensions and the pain that is experienced. In OP, chronic pain appears to have sensory characteristics and properties of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Its evaluation and treatment thus require a holistic approach that focuses on the specific characteristics of this population. Pain management must therefore include pharmacological approaches, physiotherapy interventions, educational measures, and, in rare cases, surgical treatment. Most rehabilitative treatments in the management of patients with OP do not evaluate pain or physical function, and there is no consensus on the effects of rehabilitation therapy on back pain or quality of life in women with OP. Pharmacological treatment of pain in patients with OP is usually insufficient. The management of chronic pain in patients with OP is complicated with regard to its diagnosis, the search for reversible secondary causes, the efficacy and duration of oral bisphosphonates, and the function of calcium and vitamin D. The aim of this review is to discuss the most appropriate solutions in the management of chronic pain in OP.
Ewan, Eric E.; Martin, Thomas J.
Previously preclinical pain research has focused on simple behavioral endpoints to assess the efficacy of analgesics in acute and chronic pain models, primarily reflexive withdrawal from an applied mechanical or thermal stimulus. However recent research has been aimed at investigating other behavioral states in the presence of pain, including spontaneous, non-elicited pain. One approach is to investigate the reinforcing effects of analgesics in animals with experimental pain, which should serve as reinforcers by virtue of their ability to alleviate the relevant subjective states induced by pain. The gold standard for assessing drug reinforcement is generally accepted to be drug self-administration, and this review highlights the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in animals with experimental neuropathic pain, and the extent to which this behavior is altered in chronic pain states. Additionally, intracranial self-stimulation is an operant procedure that has been used extensively to study drug reinforcement mechanisms and the manner in which neuropathic pain alters the ability of drugs to serve as reinforcers in this paradigm will also be discussed. Drug self-administration and intracranial self-stimulation have promise as tools to investigate behavioral effects of analgesics in animals with chronic pain, particularly regarding the mechanisms through which these drugs motivate consumption in a chronic pain state. PMID:23973302
Vierck, Charles J.; Wong, Fong; King, Christopher D.; Mauderli, Andre P.; Schmidt, Siegfried; Riley, Joseph L.
Objectives To describe and understand varieties and characteristics of sensitization contributing to hyperalgesia for patients with chronic pain conditions. Methods Thermal stimulation was delivered to the face, forearm and calf of pain-free subjects and individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), temporomandibular pain disorder (TMD) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Three second contacts of a preheated thermode occurred at 30 sec. intervals in ascending and then descending series (0.7°C steps). Results Thermal pain ratings during ascending series were greater at each site for individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Strong pain at the time of testing further enhanced the ratings at all sites, but mild or moderate clinical pain did not have this effect. Thermal pain for all subjects was greater during descending series than during ascending series of arm and leg stimulation. The hypersensitivity during descending series was comparable for pain-free, FMS and TMD subjects but was increased in duration for arm or leg stimulation of FMS subjects. Discussion The widespread sensitization for IBS and TMD subjects does not rely on mechanisms of spatial and temporal summation often invoked to explain widespread hyperalgesia associated with chronic pain. Increased sensitivity during descending series during stimulation of an arm or leg but not the face indicates a propensity for sensitization of nociceptive input to the spinal cord. Abnormally prolonged sensitization for FMS patients reveals a unique influence of widespread chronic pain referred to deep somatic tissues. PMID:23629594
Zaza, C; Stolee, P; Prkachin, K
Although the multidimensional nature of chronic pain has been recognized since the 1960s, pain management continues to reflect a biomedical model for many chronic pain patients. The application of a biopsychosocial approach would be aided by measurement tools that reflect the multidimensional nature of pain, facilitate interdisciplinary care planning, and focus treatment on the consequences of pain that are important to patients. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) is an individualized health outcome measure that is suitable for health problems that warrant a multidimensional and individualized approach to treatment planning and outcome measurement. This paper describes the use of GAS as a treatment and research tool in cancer pain, pediatric pain, work-related nonmalignant pain, and geriatric pain. Unlike the typical process where goals are not explicitly stated, GAS allows goals to be stated in a systematic measurable manner that is relevant and meaningful for each patient, and that can guide individual treatment planning. GAS is an appropriate technique for guiding and monitoring the treatment of individual chronic pain patients, and may provide a useful tool for evaluating chronic pain programs.
Gosden, T; Morris, P G; Ferreira, N B; Grady, C; Gillanders, D T
Research into mental imagery has increased our understanding of a range of psychological problems. However, there has been little study into the spontaneous mental images experienced in response to chronic pain. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and characteristics of these pain-related mental images. Four hundred ninety-one people with chronic pain who had attended a pain clinic were sent invites to participate and 105 people responded (21%). A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) was used to explore the prevalence of pain-related mental imagery, differences between imagers and non-imagers, and the content of imagery in pain. In our sample, 36% of respondents reported having mental images of their pain, with the majority describing them as clear and vivid (83%), experienced daily (80.5%), and distressing (83%). Participants who experienced mental images reported higher depression scores, higher anxiety and higher pain unpleasantness. Frequency of imagery was associated with greater pain unpleasantness. Content analysis of the pain images revealed emerging themes relating to the sensory qualities of pain, anatomical representations, pain as a form of threat or attack, pain as an object, and pain as an abstract image. This study describes themes and characteristics of pain-related mental imagery and confirms that they are a frequent, vivid and distressing experience for many chronic pain sufferers. The results of this study suggest that pain-related mental imagery could provide an additional route for assessment and intervention. Further research should focus on assessment, measurement and intervention in clinical populations. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Younger, Jarred; Barelka, Peter; Carroll, Ian; Kaplan, Kim; Chu, Larry; Prasad, Ravi; Gaeta, Ray; Mackey, Sean
Objective One potential consequence of chronic opioid analgesic administration is a paradoxical increase of pain sensitivity over time. Little scientific attention has been given to how cessation of opioid medication affects the hyperalgesic state. In this study, we examined the effects of opioid tapering on pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients. Design Twelve chronic pain patients on long-term opioid analgesic treatment were observed in a 7- to 14-day inpatient pain rehabilitation program, with cold pain tolerance assessed at admission and discharge. The majority of participants were completely withdrawn from their opioids during their stay. Outcome Measures We hypothesized that those patients with the greatest reduction in daily opioid use would show the greatest increases in pain tolerance, as assessed by a cold pressor task. Results A linear regression revealed that the amount of opioid medication withdrawn was a significant predictor of pain tolerance changes, but not in the direction hypothesized. Greater opioid reduction was associated with decreased pain tolerance. This reduction of pain tolerance was not associated with opioid withdrawal symptoms or changes in general pain. Conclusions These findings suggest that the withdrawal of opioids in a chronic pain sample leads to an acute increase in pain sensitivity. PMID:18564998
Siebenhuener, Klarissa; Eschmann, Emmanuel; Kienast, Alexander; Schneider, Dominik; Minder, Christoph E; Saller, Reinhard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Blaser, Jürg; Battegay, Edouard; Holzer, Barbara M
Chronic pain is common in multimorbid patients. However, little is known about the implications of chronic pain and analgesic treatment on multimorbid patients. This study aimed to assess chronic pain therapy with regard to the interaction potential in a sample of inpatients with multiple chronic conditions. We conducted a retrospective study with all multimorbid inpatients aged ≥18 years admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of University Hospital Zurich in 2011 (n = 1,039 patients). Data were extracted from the electronic health records and reviewed. We identified 433 hospitalizations of patients with chronic pain and analyzed their combinations of chronic conditions (multimorbidity). We then classified all analgesic prescriptions according to the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. Furthermore, we used a Swiss drug-drug interactions knowledge base to identify potential interactions between opioids and other drug classes, in particular coanalgesics and other concomitant drugs. Chronic pain was present in 38% of patients with multimorbidity. On average, patients with chronic pain were aged 65.7 years and had a mean number of 6.6 diagnoses. Hypertension was the most common chronic condition. Chronic back pain was the most common painful condition. Almost 90% of patients were exposed to polypharmacotherapy. Of the chronic pain patients, 71.1% received opioids for moderate to severe pain, 43.4% received coanalgesics. We identified 3,186 potential drug-drug interactions, with 17% classified between analgesics (without coanalgesics). Analgesic drugs-related DDIs, in particular opioids, in multimorbid patients are often complex and difficult to assess by using DDI knowledge bases alone. Drug-multimorbidity interactions are not sufficiently investigated and understood. Today, the scientific literature is scarce for chronic pain in combination with multiple coexisting medical conditions and medication regimens. Our work may provide useful
Siebenhuener, Klarissa; Eschmann, Emmanuel; Kienast, Alexander; Schneider, Dominik; Minder, Christoph E.; Saller, Reinhard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Blaser, Jürg; Battegay, Edouard
Background Chronic pain is common in multimorbid patients. However, little is known about the implications of chronic pain and analgesic treatment on multimorbid patients. This study aimed to assess chronic pain therapy with regard to the interaction potential in a sample of inpatients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective study with all multimorbid inpatients aged ≥18 years admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of University Hospital Zurich in 2011 (n = 1,039 patients). Data were extracted from the electronic health records and reviewed. We identified 433 hospitalizations of patients with chronic pain and analyzed their combinations of chronic conditions (multimorbidity). We then classified all analgesic prescriptions according to the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. Furthermore, we used a Swiss drug-drug interactions knowledge base to identify potential interactions between opioids and other drug classes, in particular coanalgesics and other concomitant drugs. Chronic pain was present in 38% of patients with multimorbidity. On average, patients with chronic pain were aged 65.7 years and had a mean number of 6.6 diagnoses. Hypertension was the most common chronic condition. Chronic back pain was the most common painful condition. Almost 90% of patients were exposed to polypharmacotherapy. Of the chronic pain patients, 71.1% received opioids for moderate to severe pain, 43.4% received coanalgesics. We identified 3,186 potential drug-drug interactions, with 17% classified between analgesics (without coanalgesics). Conclusions Analgesic drugs-related DDIs, in particular opioids, in multimorbid patients are often complex and difficult to assess by using DDI knowledge bases alone. Drug-multimorbidity interactions are not sufficiently investigated and understood. Today, the scientific literature is scarce for chronic pain in combination with multiple coexisting medical conditions and medication
Bisogni, Sofia; Dini, Chiara; Olivini, Nicole; Ciofi, Daniele; Giusti, Francesca; Caprilli, Simona; Gonzalez Lopez, José Rafael; Festini, Filippo
Venipuncture pain in children results from a variety of co-factors which increase the intensity of the nociceptive stimulus. Among them, anticipatory anxiety plays an important role. Children with chronic diseases undergo invasive procedures and venipuncture more often than other children. Some healthcare professionals still believe that children who are repeatedly exposed to painful procedures, such as children with chronic diseases, gradually increase their pain tolerance and that, as a result, they have a higher pain threshold than children with no chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a difference exists in the perception of venipuncture pain between children with chronic diseases and children with no previous health problems nor experience of venipuncture. A cross-sectional study was carried out using the Wong and numeric pain scales and the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD) for the assessment of behavioral distress. A group of children with chronic diseases and a group of children with no previous health problems nor experience of venipuncture, aged 4 to 12 years, both boys and girls, were observed during a standardized venipuncture procedure. The study included 230 children in total: 82 of them suffered from chronic diseases and had already experienced venipuncture at least once, while the remaining 148 children had no previous experience of venipuncture. The children with chronic diseases reported more pain (median pain score of 8 on the Wong or numeric scales,) and showed more signs of behavioral distress (median score of 27 on the OSBD) than non-chronic children (median pain score of 2 on the Wong/numeric scales, p = 0.00001; median OSBD score 5, p = 0.00001). Our study suggests that children with chronic diseases have a lower pain threshold than children of the same sex and age who experience venipuncture for the first time.
Neziri, Alban Y; Curatolo, Michele; Limacher, Andreas; Nüesch, Eveline; Radanov, Bogdan; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Jüni, Peter
Low back pain is associated with plasticity changes and central hypersensitivity in a subset of patients. We performed a case-control study to explore the discriminative ability of different quantitative sensory tests in distinguishing between 40 cases with chronic low back pain and 300 pain-free controls, and to rank these tests according to the extent of their association with chronic pain. Gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and psychological measures were recorded as potential confounders. We used 26 quantitative sensory tests, including different modalities of pressure, heat, cold, and electrical stimulation. As measures of discrimination, we estimated receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and likelihood ratios. Six tests seemed useful (in order of their discriminative ability): (1) pressure pain detection threshold at the site of most severe pain (fitted area under the ROC, 0.87), (2) single electrical stimulation pain detection threshold (0.87), (3) single electrical stimulation reflex threshold (0.83), (4) pressure pain tolerance threshold at the site of most severe pain (0.81), (5) pressure pain detection threshold at suprascapular region (0.80), and (6) temporal summation pain threshold (0.80). Pressure and electrical pain modalities seemed most promising and may be used for diagnosis of pain hypersensitivity and potentially for identifying individuals at risk of developing chronic low back pain over time.
Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.
Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300
Jolliffe, Christopher D; Nicholas, Michael K
Effective treatments for chronic pain have been based on the operant model for chronic pain, which holds that pain behaviours can be operantly controlled by various reinforcers. Support for the operant model comes primarily from treatment/outcome studies which report significant reductions in pain behaviours in chronic pain patients, but fail to demonstrate the underlying operant thesis that various reinforcers play a significant role in the establishment and maintenance of pain behaviours. In an experimental test of this hypothesis, the pain reports of forty-six healthy undergraduate students were measured over two sets of fifteen trials, in which the pressure from a blood-pressure cuff applied to their arm either remained stable or decreased over time. Half of the subjects received positive verbal reinforcement from the experimenter after each trial if their report of pain intensity exceeded that of the previous trial. Overall, the mean pain reports of reinforced subjects were significantly greater than those of the non-reinforced subjects both when the intensity of the cuff was stable over trials, and when it decreased, as expected. These results provide support for the operant model of chronic pain. The clinical and theoretical implications of these results for the operant model of chronic pain are discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.
Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Wolf, Oliver T.
Learning to predict pain based on internal or external cues constitutes a fundamental and highly adaptive process aimed at self-protection. Pain-related fear is an essential component of this response, which is formed by associative and instrumental learning processes. In chronic pain, pain-related fear may become maladaptive, drive avoidance behaviors and contribute to symptom chronicity. Pavlovian fear conditioning has proven fruitful to elucidate associative learning and extinction involving aversive stimuli, including pain, but studies in chronic pain remain scarce. Stress demonstrably exerts differential effects on emotional learning and memory processes, but this has not been transferred to pain-related fear. Within this perspective, we propose that stress could contribute to impaired pain-related associative learning and extinction processes and call for interdisciplinary research. Specifically, we suggest to test the hypotheses that: (1) extinction-related phenomena inducing a re-activation of maladaptive pain-related fear (e.g., reinstatement, renewal) likely occur in everyday life of chronic pain patients and may alter pain processing, impair perceptual discrimination and favor overgeneralization; (2) acute stress prior to or during acquisition of pain-related fear may facilitate the formation and/or consolidation of pain-related fear memories; (3) stress during or after extinction may impair extinction efficacy resulting in greater reinstatement or context-dependent renewal of pain-related fear; and (4) these effects could be amplified by chronic stress due to early adversity and/or psychiatric comorbidity such depression or anxiety in patients with chronic pain. PMID:26733831
Davin, Sara; Wilt, Josh; Covington, Edward; Scheman, Judith
Chronic pain and sleep disturbance frequently coexist and often complicate the course of treatment. Despite the well-established comorbidity, there are no studies that have investigated concurrent changes in sleep and pain among patients participating in an interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program (ICPRP). The goal of this study was to investigate the daily changes in sleep and pain among patients participating in an ICPRP. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to evaluate the daily changes in total sleep time (TST) and pain among a sample of 50 patients with chronic noncancer pain participating in the ICPRP. Increases in TST were predictive of less pain the following treatment day, although daily pain ratings were not predictive of that night's TST. Time in treatment was a significant predictor of both TST and pain reduction, even while controlling for age, gender, anxiety, and depression. Additional analyses revealed significant individual variability in the relationship between TST and next day pain. Individuals with stronger associations between previous night's TST and next day pain were found to experience the greatest treatment benefits overall, in terms of pain reduction and TST. Our results provide compelling support for individual variability of the pain-sleep relationship in patients with intractable pain conditions participating in an ICPRP. Importantly, these findings suggest that when pain and sleep are comorbid, both must be addressed to reap the maximum response to treatment programs such as an ICPRP. This study demonstrates the utility of treating sleep problems in patients participating in an interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program. Results highlight the benefits of accounting for individual variability in the pain-sleep relationship in a clinical setting and targeting sleep interventions for those individuals whose pain and sleep problems are comorbid. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bouwense, Stefan AW; de Vries, Marjan; Schreuder, Luuk TW; Olesen, Søren S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG
Pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) shows similarities with other visceral pain syndromes (i.e., inflammatory bowel disease and esophagitis), which should thus be managed in a similar fashion. Typical causes of CP pain include increased intrapancreatic pressure, pancreatic inflammation and pancreatic/extrapancreatic complications. Unfortunately, CP pain continues to be a major clinical challenge. It is recognized that ongoing pain may induce altered central pain processing, e.g., central sensitization or pro-nociceptive pain modulation. When this is present conventional pain treatment targeting the nociceptive focus, e.g., opioid analgesia or surgical/endoscopic intervention, often fails even if technically successful. If central nervous system pain processing is altered, specific treatment targeting these changes should be instituted (e.g., gabapentinoids, ketamine or tricyclic antidepressants). Suitable tools are now available to make altered central processing visible, including quantitative sensory testing, electroencephalograpy and (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques are potentially clinically useful diagnostic tools to analyze central pain processing and thus define optimum management approaches for pain in CP and other visceral pain syndromes. The present review proposes a systematic mechanism-orientated approach to pain management in CP based on a holistic view of the mechanisms involved. Future research should address the circumstances under which central nervous system pain processing changes in CP, and how this is influenced by ongoing nociceptive input and therapies. Thus we hope to predict which patients are at risk for developing chronic pain or not responding to therapy, leading to improved treatment of chronic pain in CP and other visceral pain disorders. PMID:25574079
The pain of chronic pancreatitis represents a major challenge to those working in the field, including pain specialists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. This article describes the different aetiologies of chronic pancreatitis and lists the models for the pathogenesis of pain, including novel ideas such as the role of the immune system in the modulation of pain. The patient profile in chronic pancreatitis is discussed along with the social impact of the disease in relation to alcohol misuse. The range of treatment strategies including medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches are evaluated. Common analgesic regimes and their limitations are reviewed. The pain of chronic pancreatitis remains refractory to effective treatment in many cases and further study and understanding of the underlying pathophysiology are required. PMID:26516493
The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of self-organization in chronic pain using Rodgers' (2000) evolutionary approach. This article describes the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of self-organization in chronic pain. Self-organization in chronic pain may be achieved through the attributes of being believed, accessing credible resources, and taking action and responsibility. Self-organization occurs when the patient with pain develops a transformed identity, new insights, and is an active, in-control participant in care. Chronic pain is a common and costly problem, and recognition of the key attributes of self-organization in this condition is an important step in promoting positive health outcomes. Rehabilitation nurses play a key role in providing credible resources and working with the patient to take action and responsibility.
Houry, Debra; Baldwin, Grant
This guideline provides recommendations for primary care providers who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. The guideline addresses: (a) when to initiate or continue opioids for chronic pain; (b) opioid selection, dosage, duration, follow-up, and discontinuation; and (c) assessing risk and addressing harms of opioid use. This guideline is intended to improve communication between providers and patients about the risks and benefits of opioid therapy for chronic pain, improve the safety and effectiveness of pain treatment, and reduce the risks associated with long-term opioid therapy, including abuse, dependence, overdose, and death (Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain - United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65:1-49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6501e1.). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Pielech, Melissa; Sieberg, Christine B.; Simons, Laura E.
Objectives To help address the unique needs of parents of children with chronic pain, a four module, parent-only, group art therapy curriculum was designed and implemented within an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation treatment program. We evaluated perceived satisfaction and helpfulness of the group intervention. Methods Fifty-three parents of children experiencing chronic pain enrolled in a day hospital interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program participated. The voluntary parent art therapy group was offered one time per week for one hour. Participants completed a measure of satisfaction, helpfulness, and perceived social support at the end of each group session. Results Parents enjoyed participating in the group, agreed that they would try art therapy again, and found it to be a helpful, supportive, and validating experience. Conclusions Initial results are promising that group art therapy is an appropriate and helpful means of supporting parents of children with chronic pain during interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation. PMID:24563827
Dionne, Frédérick; Blais, Marie-Claude; Monestès, Jean-Louis
The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for the treatment of chronic pain. The historical context of the development of cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) for chronic pain will be described and the theoretical aspects of ACT will be introduced. The components of an acceptance and mindfulness based treatment will also be presented by exploring various processes of the psychological flexibility model. Finally, the article will summarize the scientific evidence supporting ACT based on experimental, correlational and clinical studies in the field of chronic pain. The theoretical aspects underlying ACT, as well as its clinical components in the specific domain of chronic pain were described based on major books in this area, such as McCracken (2005) and Dahl et al. (2005). A descriptive literature review was undertaken to explore the data on the efficacy of ACT for the treatment of chronic pain. Psycinfo and Medline, as well as the Association for Contextual Science website were analyzed for relevant articles. The key search terms were: "Acceptance and Commitment Therapy" or "ACT" or "acceptance" or "mindfulness" or "defusion" and "chronic pain" or "pain." The reference lists of the articles retrieved were also analyzed. The articles that were not in English or French were excluded as well as those that were not specific to ACT and chronic pain. Results show that ACT is a relevant and empirically supported approach that may be used as a complement to CBT strategies in the treatment of chronic pain. There is growing evidence stemming from experimental and correlational studies that support the majority of the ACT processes. Clinical studies undertaken in the field of chronic pain from different backgrounds support the efficacy of ACT for the management of this condition. ACT is a promising and evidence-based approach for the treatment of chronic pain. More research is needed to further validate its
Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Roy, Rubén; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P
The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments-neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis-when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.
Sakai, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hidenori
Chronic pain is a debilitating syndrome caused by a variety of disorders, and represents a major clinical problem because of the lack of adequate medication. In chronic pain, massive changes in gene expression are observed in a variety of cells, including neurons and glia, in the overall somatosensory system from the sensory ganglia to the higher central nervous system. The protein expressions of hundreds of genes are thought to be post-transcriptionally regulated by a single type of microRNA in a sequence-specific manner. Recently, critical roles of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of chronic pain have been emerging. Genome-wide screenings of microRNA expression changes have been reported in a variety of painful conditions, including peripheral nerve injury, inflammatory diseases, cancer and spinal cord injury. The data obtained suggest that a wide range of microRNAs change their expressions in individual pain conditions, although the pathological significance of individual microRNAs as causal mediators in distinct pain conditions remains to be revealed for a limited number of microRNAs. Insights into the roles of microRNAs in chronic pain will enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic pain and allow prompt therapeutic application of microRNA-related drugs against intractable persistent pain.
Elliott, Alison M; Smith, Blair H; Chambers, W Alastair
The authors of this review are members of the Aberdeen Pain Group, a group of multidisciplinary researchers who have been researching chronic pain for over 10 years. This review draws upon their experience to consider the measurement of chronic pain severity from a research perspective. The first half summarizes the requirements of a measure of pain severity for epidemiological research, describes a number of existing measures of pain severity and discusses the appropriateness of these instruments for measuring chronic pain as part of a postal epidemiological survey. The second half focuses on the use of the Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire by the Aberdeen Pain Group. The reliability and validity of this instrument as part of a postal questionnaire, its sensitivity to change over time, and how the use of such an instrument compares with retrospective perceptions of patients are all investigated. The review concludes with a brief discussion of future issues relating to the measurement of chronic pain severity, again from a research perspective.
Miró, Jordi; Castarlenas, Elena; de la Vega, Rocío; Roy, Rubén; Solé, Ester; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Jensen, Mark P.
The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments—neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis—when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function), at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1) providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2) identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment. PMID:27929419
Robinson, Katie; Kennedy, Norelee; Harmon, Dominic
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discourses used by people with chronic pain. Using qualitative interview data from five Irish people with a variety of chronic pain conditions, Foucauldian discourse analysis was undertaken to identify the discourses in operation in participants' accounts. Three discourses were identified: a moral discourse, a discourse of pain as personal tragedy, and a biomedical discourse. A moral discourse was used to construct participants as moral individuals experiencing real pain who try to accomplish activities and fulfil social roles without burdening others. The discourse of chronic pain as personal tragedy describes the multiple negative consequences of chronic pain including activity, relationship, physical, financial, and emotional consequences, and changed expectations of the future. This discourse bolsters the moral discourse through rejecting any benefits associated with chronic pain. Participants rejected a biomedical discourse by proposing their own explanatory models of pain, resisting psychosocial understandings of pain, criticizing medical professionals and healthcare services, and challenging medical expertise, professionalism, and power. These practices allow participants to reject the patient subject-position with its attendant passivity and requirements for adherence and compliance.
Ritter, Alexander; Franz, Marcel; Puta, Christian; Dietrich, Caroline; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy controls (HC) and pain-free migraine patients found activations to pain-related words in brain regions known to be activated while subjects experience pain. The aim of the present study was to identify neural activations induced by pain-related words in a sample of chronic back pain (CBP) patients experiencing current chronic pain compared to HC. In particular, we were interested in how current pain influences brain activations induced by pain-related adjectives. Subjects viewed pain-related, negative, positive, and neutral words; subjects were asked to generate mental images related to these words during fMRI scanning. Brain activation was compared between CBP patients and HC in response to the different word categories and examined in relation to current pain in CBP patients. Pain-related words vs. neutral words activated a network of brain regions including cingulate cortex and insula in subjects and patients. There was stronger activation in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior midcingulate cortex in CPB patients than in HC. The magnitude of activation for pain-related vs. negative words showed a negative linear relationship to CBP patients’ current pain. Our findings confirm earlier observations showing that pain-related words activate brain networks similar to noxious stimulation. Importantly, CBP patients show even stronger activation of these structures while merely processing pain-related words. Current pain directly influences on this activation. PMID:27517967
Arora, Hans C.; Eng, Charis
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization—all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients. PMID:28217695
Arora, Hans C; Eng, Charis; Shoskes, Daniel A
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment. One such condition, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), has several etiological and potentiating contributions from infection, inflammation, central nervous system (CNS) changes, stress, and central sensitization-all factors that play important roles in the crosstalk between the human body and its microbiome. No singular cause of CP/CPPS has been identified and it is most likely a syndrome with multifactorial causes. This heterogeneity and ambiguity are sources of significant frustration for patients and providers alike. Despite multiple attempts, treatment of chronic prostatitis with monotherapy has seen limited success, which is thought to be due to its heterogeneous nature. Phenotypic approaches to both classify the disease and direct treatment for CP/CPPS have proven beneficial in these patients, but questions still remain regarding etiology. Newer microbiome research has found correlations between symptom scores and disease severity and the degree of dysbiosis in urine and gut (stool) microbiomes in these patients as compared to un-afflicted controls. These findings present potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CP/CPPS patients.
Martin, Andrea L; McGrath, Patricia A; Brown, Stephen C; Katz, Joel
BACKGROUND: Converging lines of evidence suggest that anxiety sensitivity and fear of pain may be important vulnerability factors in the development of avoidance behaviours and disability in adults with chronic pain. However, these factors have not been evaluated in children with chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships among anxiety sensitivity, fear of pain and pain-related disability in children and adolescents with chronic pain. METHODS: An interview and five questionnaires (Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale, Functional Disability Inventory, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and Reynolds Child or Adolescent Depression Scale) were administered to 21 children and adolescents eight to 17 years of age (mean ± SD 14.24±2.21 years) who continued to experience pain an average of three years after discharge from a specialized pain clinic for children. RESULTS: Anxiety sensitivity accounted for 38.6% of the variance in fear of pain (F[1,20]=11.30; P=0.003) and fear of pain accounted for 39.9% of the variance in pain-related disability (F[1,20]=11.95; P=0.003), but anxiety sensitivity was not significantly related to pain disability (R2=0.09; P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that children with high levels of anxiety sensitivity had a higher fear of pain, which, in turn, was linked to increased pain disability. The results of this study suggest that anxiety sensitivity and fear of pain may play important and distinct roles in the processes that maintain chronic pain and pain-related disability in children. PMID:18080045
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D
Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain. PMID:15169547
elicits a number of changes in the activity, properties and transmitter content of pain -pathway neurons2. This central sensitization to nociceptive ...AD______ Award Number: W81XHW-11-1-0806 TITLE: Chronic pain following spinal cord injury. The...role of immunogenetics and time of injury pain treatment. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Mark Hutchinson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The
Costello, Elaine; Bogue, John E; Sarma, Kiran; McGuire, Brian E
International research has consistently found increased risk for physical health and psychological difficulties among prison officers including elevated risk of assault resulting in acute pain. This study represented an exploratory examination of the experience of chronic pain conditions among Irish prison officers with particular reference to the psychosocial predictors of pain severity, pain interference, and depression. A questionnaire battery was completed by 152 Irish prison officers. The questionnaires measured pain severity and interference, anxiety, depression, social support, coping strategies, and resilience. Results showed that 48% of participants reported chronic pain based on the International Association for the Study of Pain definition. Psychological distress was high among respondents reporting chronic pain, with 38% of participants meeting the criteria for "probable depression" while 51% met the criteria for "probable anxiety disorder." In regression analyses, depression emerged as a significant predictor of both pain severity and pain interference while anxiety and pain interference emerged as significant predictors of depression. Chronic pain appears to be prevalent in prison officers and is associated with both physical and psychological impairment. Health care staff in correctional facilities should be aware that these health difficulties are prevalent in the prison work environment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pastore, Elizabeth Anne; Katzman, Wendy B.
Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by healthcare providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, PMID:22862153
Harmon, Jennifer B.; Sanders, Anne E.; Wilder, Rebecca S.; Essick, Greg K.; Slade, Gary D.; Hartung, Jane E.; Nackley, Andrea G.
AIMS The biological basis for painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) remains unclear. An emerging literature implicates circulating inflammatory cytokines in the development of pain sensitivity and painful TMD. One newly discovered anti-inflammatory adipokine, omentin-1, has decreased expression in several inflammatory conditions including osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between omentin-1 levels and painful TMD. METHODS Using a case-control design, chronic painful TMD cases (n=90) and TMD-free controls (n=54) were selected participants in the multisite OPPERA study (Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment). Painful TMD case status was determined by examiner using established Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. Levels of omentin-1 were measured in stored blood plasma samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Binary logistic regression calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits (CLs) for the association between omentin-1 and painful TMD. Models adjusted for study site, age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS The unadjusted association between omentin-1 and chronic painful TMD was statistically non-significant (P=.072) Following adjustment of the negative confounding bias of covariates, odds of painful decreased 36% per standard deviation increase in circulating omentin-1 (adjusted OR=0.64, 95% CL: 0.43, 0.96. P=.031). CONCLUSION Circulating levels of omentin-1 were significantly lower in painful TMD cases than controls, suggesting that painful TMD pain is mediated by inflammatory pathways. PMID:27472522
Paice, Judith A.; Mulvey, Matt; Bennett, Michael; Dougherty, Patrick M.; Farrar, John T.; Mantyh, Patrick W.; Miaskowski, Christine; Schmidt, Brian; Smith, Thomas J.
Chronic cancer pain is a serious complication of malignancy or its treatment. Currently, no comprehensive, universally accepted cancer pain classification system exists. Clarity in classification of common cancer pain syndromes would improve clinical assessment and management. Moreover, an evidence-based taxonomy would enhance cancer pain research efforts by providing consistent diagnostic criteria, ensuring comparability across clinical trials. As part of a collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy initiative worked to develop the characteristics of an optimal diagnostic system. After the establishment of these characteristics, a working group consisting of clinicians and clinical and basic scientists with expertise in cancer and cancer-related pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for an illustrative sample of 3 chronic pain syndromes associated with cancer (ie, bone pain and pancreatic cancer pain as models of pain related to a tumor) or its treatment (ie, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). A systematic review and synthesis was conducted to provide evidence for the dimensions that comprise this cancer pain taxonomy. Future efforts will subject these diagnostic categories and criteria to systematic empirical evaluation of their feasibility, reliability, and validity and extension to other cancer-related pain syndromes. PMID:27884691
Paice, Judith A; Mulvey, Matt; Bennett, Michael; Dougherty, Patrick M; Farrar, John T; Mantyh, Patrick W; Miaskowski, Christine; Schmidt, Brian; Smith, Thomas J
Chronic cancer pain is a serious complication of malignancy or its treatment. Currently, no comprehensive, universally accepted cancer pain classification system exists. Clarity in classification of common cancer pain syndromes would improve clinical assessment and management. Moreover, an evidence-based taxonomy would enhance cancer pain research efforts by providing consistent diagnostic criteria, ensuring comparability across clinical trials. As part of a collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy initiative worked to develop the characteristics of an optimal diagnostic system. After the establishment of these characteristics, a working group consisting of clinicians and clinical and basic scientists with expertise in cancer and cancer-related pain was convened to generate core diagnostic criteria for an illustrative sample of 3 chronic pain syndromes associated with cancer (ie, bone pain and pancreatic cancer pain as models of pain related to a tumor) or its treatment (ie, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). A systematic review and synthesis was conducted to provide evidence for the dimensions that comprise this cancer pain taxonomy. Future efforts will subject these diagnostic categories and criteria to systematic empirical evaluation of their feasibility, reliability, and validity and extension to other cancer-related pain syndromes.
Burns, J W
This study examined whether repression predicts outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain and whether links between anxiety and outcome are obscured by repressors. Ninety-three chronic pain patients completed a 4-week pain program. Lifting capacity, walking endurance, depression, pain severity, and activity were measured at pre- and posttreatment. Low-anxious, repressor, high-anxious, and defensive/high-anxious groups were formed from median splits of Anxiety Content (ACS) and Lie scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989). Significant ACS x Lie interactions were found for lifting capacity, depression, and pain severity changes. Planned comparisons showed that both repressors and high-anxious patients performed poorly on lifting capacity; repressors alone recovered poorly on depression and pain severity. Results imply that repression may interfere with the process and outcome of pain programs.
Malanga, Gerard; Paster, Zorba
People aged 65 years and over make up the fastest growing demographic in the United States. By the year 2040 they will comprise approximately one fourth of the US population. The elderly patient in need of chronic pain therapy presents challenges best met with an enlightened and effective treatment strategy. Practice standards must include a thorough pain assessment and formation of a multimodal care plan, which applies knowledge of pain management in an objective and scientific manner. In this article, a patient case study illustrates how the appropriate management of chronic pain in an elderly patient can lead to better clinical outcomes.
The treatment of pain is a complex process that requires a team approach. This article provides an overview of the pharmaceutical treatments available. It gives providers treating upper extremity disorders more tools to treat their patients with chronic pain. Another goal is to improve hand providers' understanding of the medications their pain colleagues prescribe in shared patients. Pharmaceuticals are an important component in the treatment of chronic pain and opioids are often not a good solution. Knowing what other medications are available can improve the care for these challenging patients.
Michael, Elizabeth S; Burns, John W
Pain catastrophizing is a particularly harmful cognitive factor among patients with chronic pain, but little is known of mechanisms linking this factor to pain and disability. The study examined whether attentional focus on sensory versus affective information about pain constitutes a pathway by which catastrophizing affects responses to painful stimuli. Participants were 82 chronic pain patients assigned randomly to sensory focus, affect focus, or control conditions. They underwent cold pressors first prior to and then following an information focus manipulation, and they completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Regressions produced significant Condition x PCS interaction effects on threshold and tolerance change from first to second cold pressor, such that PCS scores were significantly and negatively related to these changes in both sensory and affect focus conditions, but not in the control condition. Only a main effect for PCS scores emerged for self-reported pain changes. Solving regression equations for hypothetical PCS values (+- 1 SD from the mean) revealed that (a) high catastrophizers decreased threshold and tolerance in the affect focus condition and showed no appreciable changes in sensory focus and (b) low catastrophziers showed increases in threshold and tolerance in sensory focus, but no appreciable changes in affect focus. Further, the degree to which patients focused on emotions during pain partly mediated effects of PCS scores on threshold and tolerance changes. Catastrophizing about pain may affect pain severity and distress of chronic pain patients through a bias toward processing the most disturbing elements of a painful stimulus.
Knaster, Peter; Estlander, Ann-Mari; Karlsson, Hasse; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kalso, Eija
Objective Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. Methods One hundred chronic pain patients in a multidisciplinary pain clinic participated in the study. The patients were assessed using the HA scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of Cloninger and Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 (PASS-20). Both the HA total score and the four subscales of HA were analyzed. Current pain intensity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to control for the influence of depression on the personality measurement. Results The HA total score was associated with PASS-20, but the association became non-significant after controlling for depression. The HA4 Fatigability subscale was associated with the PASS scales. Depression did not influence this association. Pain intensity was not correlated with HA or the PASS scales. However, the association between HA4 Fatigability and PASS was influenced by pain intensity. Higher pain intensity was associated with stronger association between the scales. Conclusion Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician's understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients. PMID:23133510
Wilson, Anna C.; Samuelson, Bethany; Palermo, Tonya M.
Objectives Obesity is associated with functional disability in adults with chronic pain, but less is known about obesity among youth with chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to 1) identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents receiving treatment for chronic pain, and 2) examine associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), pain intensity, and activity limitations in this population. Methods Data was obtained from records of 118 patients, ages 8 to 18, seen in a multidisciplinary pediatric pain clinic. Information about age, gender, pain problem, duration and severity, medical diagnoses, medications, height and weight were collected from medical records and intake questionnaires. The CDC’s pediatric BMI calculator was used to obtain percentile and category (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, obese). Children and parents completed the Child Activity Limitations Interview-21 (CALI-21), a self-report measure of activity limitations. Results A significantly higher rate of overweight and obesity was observed among youth with chronic pain compared to a normative sample. BMI percentile was predictive of concurrent limitations in vigorous activities, according to parent report. Discussion BMI percentile and weight status may contribute to activity limitations among children and adolescents with chronic pain. Weight status is an important factor to consider in the context of treatment of chronic pain and disability in children and adolescents. PMID:20664337
Martel, M O; Thibault, P; Sullivan, M J L
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the temporal stability of communicative and protective pain behaviors in patients with chronic back pain. The study also examined whether the stability of pain behaviors could be accounted for by patients' levels of pain severity, catastrophizing, or fear of movement. Patients (n=70) were filmed on two separate occasions (i.e., baseline, follow-up) while performing a standardized lifting task designed to elicit pain behaviors. Consistent with previous studies, the results provided evidence for the stability of pain behaviors in patients with chronic pain. The analyses indicated that communicative and protective pain behavior scores did not change significantly from baseline to follow-up. In addition, significant test-retest correlations were found between baseline and follow-up pain behavior scores. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses further showed that pain behaviors remained stable over time even when accounting for patients' levels of pain severity. Regression analyses also showed that pain behaviors remained stable when accounting for patients' levels of catastrophizing and fear of movement. Discussion addresses the potential contribution of central neural mechanisms and social environmental reinforcement contingencies to the stability of pain behaviors. The discussion also addresses how treatment interventions specifically aimed at targeting pain behaviors might help to augment the overall impact of pain and disability management programs.
Dodge, Amanda K.
Abstract Peripheral inflammation causes mechanical pain behavior and increased action potential firing. However, most studies examine inflammatory pain at acute, rather than chronic time points, despite the greater burden of chronic pain on patient populations, especially aged individuals. Furthermore, there is disagreement in the field about whether primary afferents contribute to chronic pain. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the contribution of nociceptor activity to the generation of pain behaviors during the acute and chronic phases of inflammation in both young and aged mice. We found that both young (2 months old) and aged (>18 months old) mice exhibited prominent pain behaviors during both acute (2 day) and chronic (8 week) inflammation. However, young mice exhibited greater behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli than their aged counterparts. Teased fiber recordings in young animals revealed a twofold mechanical sensitization in C fibers during acute inflammation, but an unexpected twofold reduction in firing during chronic inflammation. Responsiveness to capsaicin and mechanical responsiveness of A-mechanonociceptor (AM) fibers were also reduced chronically. Importantly, this lack of sensitization in afferent firing during chronic inflammation occurred even as these inflamed mice exhibited continued behavioral sensitization. Interestingly, C fibers from inflamed aged animals showed no change in mechanical firing compared with controls during either the acute or chronic inflammatory phases, despite strong behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli at these time points. These results reveal the following two important findings: (1) nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation depends on age and the chronicity of injury; and (2) maintenance of chronic inflammatory pain does not rely on enhanced peripheral drive. PMID:26866058
Gaber, T A Z K; McGlashan, K A; Love, S; Jenner, J R; Crisp, A J
Levels of physical activity in chronic low back pain patients are relatively low due to their fear of provoking pain. This may have a secondary impact on maintenance of bone mass. The objective of this study is to determine if patients with chronic low back pain are at a higher risk of bone demineralization. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 25 chronic low back pain patients at the lumbar spine, hip and distal forearm. A university hospital. Twenty-five chronic low back pain patients (mean age 45 years) enrolled on a residential back pain rehabilitation programme. Thirteen patients (52%) were osteopenic or osteoporotic in one or more sites. BMD at the lumbar spine was generally lower than the mean BMD of age-matched subjects (p = 0.04). There was no significant relationship between BMD and duration of pain, disability, sex or previous surgical intervention. Chronic low back pain patients have an increased incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This finding reinforces the importance of motivating patients to incorporate exercise into daily life. Given the limited set of subjects used in the present study, further studies are required.
Chronic pain is a common presentation to general practice. This article explores the role of the mind in the experience of pain and describes how mind-body techniques can be used in the management of chronic pain. The mind, emotions and attention play an important role in the experience of pain. In patients with chronic pain, stress, fear and depression can amplify the perception of pain. Mind-body approaches act to change a person's mental or emotional state or utilise physical movement to train attention or produce mental relaxation. They are occasionally used as a sole treatment, but more commonly as adjuncts to other therapies. Mind-body approaches include progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, laughter, mindfulness based approaches, hypnosis, guided imagery, yoga, biofeedback and cognitive behavioural therapy. Studies have shown that mind-body approaches can be effective in various conditions associated with chronic pain, however levels of evidence vary. Group delivered courses with healthcare professional input may have more beneficial effects than individual therapy. General practitioners are well placed to recommend or learn and provide a range of mind-body approaches to improve outcomes for patients with chronic pain.
Heffner, Kathi L.; France, Christopher R.; Trost, Zina; Mei Ng, H.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.
Objectives Sleep disturbance is a common co-morbidity of chronic pain. Inflammatory processes are dysregulated in sleep disturbance and also contribute to pain sensitivity. Thus, inflammation may play an important role in bi-directional associations between pain and sleep. Little is known about concurrent relationships among chronic pain, sleep, and inflammation. The aim of our study was to examine associations among sleep disturbance and circulating levels of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), in individuals with and without chronic low back pain. Methods Gender and age-matched adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP; n = 25) or without chronic pain (controls; n = 25) completed measures of sleep quality in the past month and depressive symptoms in the past week, and provided a blood draw for IL-6. The next morning, participants reported their sleep quality the previous night and their current experience of morning pain. Results Individuals with CLBP had more sleep disturbance than controls. Circulating IL-6 levels were similar for the two groups; however, in adults with CLBP, poorer sleep quality was associated with higher IL-6 levels, and both sleep and IL-6 related to pain reports. Unlike CLBP participants, controls showed normal, age-related increases in IL-6 levels, whereas sleep quality was unrelated to IL-6 levels. Depressive symptoms could not fully explain the observed associations. Discussion Inflammatory processes may play a significant role in cycles of pain and sleep disturbance. Clinical interventions that improve sleep and reduce concomitant inflammatory dysregulation hold promise for chronic pain management. PMID:21188850
Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E
Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease.
Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha
Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215
Chronic pelvic pain is a debilitating, life-altering syndrome that negatively affects a woman's quality of life and personal relationships. Many women continue to suffer with pelvic pain despite having undergone multiple medical and surgical treatments. Unfortunately, some women are incorrectly labeled as having psychological illness when organic disease may be present. I report a case of a woman who underwent multiple pelvic and abdominal surgeries before the cause of her pain was identified through microlaparoscopic conscious pain mapping. PMID:12004805
Schliessbach, J; Siegenthaler, A; Streitberger, K; Eichenberger, U; Nüesch, E; Jüni, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Curatolo, M
Chronic pain is associated with generalized hypersensitivity and impaired endogenous pain modulation (conditioned pain modulation; CPM). Despite extensive research, their prevalence in chronic pain patients is unknown. This study investigated the prevalence and potential determinants of widespread central hypersensitivity and described the distribution of CPM in chronic pain patients. We examined 464 consecutive chronic pain patients for generalized hypersensitivity and CPM using pressure algometry at the second toe and cold pressor test. Potential determinants of generalized central hypersensitivity were studied using uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Prevalence of generalized central hypersensitivity was calculated for the 5th, 10th and 25th percentile of normative values for pressure algometry obtained by a previous large study on healthy volunteers. CPM was addressed on a descriptive basis, since normative values are not available. Depending on the percentile of normative values considered, generalized central hypersensitivity affected 17.5-35.3% of patients. 23.7% of patients showed no increase in pressure pain threshold after cold pressor test. Generalized central hypersensitivity was more frequent and CPM less effective in women than in men. Unclearly classifiable pain syndromes showed higher frequencies of generalized central hypersensitivity than other pain syndromes. Although prevalent in chronic pain, generalized central hypersensitivity is not present in every patient. An individual assessment is therefore required in order to detect altered pain processing. The broad basic knowledge about central hypersensitivity now needs to be translated into concrete clinical consequences, so that patients can be offered an individually tailored mechanism-based treatment. © 2013 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie
The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic. PMID:17521810
Ge, Hong-You; Vangsgaard, Steffen; Omland, Øyvind; Madeleine, Pascal; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
Musculoskeletal pain from the upper extremity and shoulder region is commonly reported by computer users. However, the functional status of central pain mechanisms, i.e., central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), has not been investigated in this population. The aim was to evaluate sensitization and CPM in computer users with and without chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) mapping in the neck-shoulder (15 points) and the elbow (12 points) was assessed together with PPT measurement at mid-point in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle among 47 computer users with chronic pain in the upper extremity and/or neck-shoulder pain (pain group) and 17 pain-free computer users (control group). Induced pain intensities and profiles over time were recorded using a 0-10 cm electronic visual analogue scale (VAS) in response to different levels of pressure stimuli on the forearm with a new technique of dynamic pressure algometry. The efficiency of CPM was assessed using cuff-induced pain as conditioning pain stimulus and PPT at TA as test stimulus. The demographics, job seniority and number of working hours/week using a computer were similar between groups. The PPTs measured at all 15 points in the neck-shoulder region were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups neither in PPTs nor pain intensity induced by dynamic pressure algometry. No significant difference in PPT was observed in TA between groups. During CPM, a significant increase in PPT at TA was observed in both groups (P < 0.05) without significant differences between groups. For the chronic pain group, higher clinical pain intensity, lower PPT values from the neck-shoulder and higher pain intensity evoked by the roller were all correlated with less efficient descending pain modulation (P < 0.05). This suggests that the excitability of the central pain system is normal in a large group of computer users with low pain intensity
Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; López-López, Almudena; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy
The objective was to compare and correlate disability, pain intensity, the impact of headache on daily life and the fear of movement between subgroups of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients diagnosed with chronic painful TMD. Patients were divided into: 1) joint pain (JP); 2) muscle pain (MP); and 3) mixed pain. The following measures were included: Craniomandibular pain and disability (Craniofacial pain and disability inventory), neck disability (Neck Dsiability Index), pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), impact of headache (Headache Impact Test 6) and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11). A total of 154 patients were recruited. The mixed pain group showed significant differences compared with the JP group or MP group in neck disability (p < 0.001, d = 1.99; and p < 0.001, d = 1.17), craniomandibular pain and disability (p < 0.001, d = 1.34; and p < 0.001, d = 0.9, respectively), and impact of headache (p < 0.001, d = 1.91; and p < 0.001, d = 0.91, respectively). In addition, significant differences were observed between JP group and MP group for impact of headache (p < 0.001, d = 1.08). Neck disability was a significant covariate (37 % of variance) of craniomandibular pain and disability for the MP group (β = 0.62; p < 0.001). In the mixed chronic pain group, neck disability (β = 0.40; p < 0.001) and kinesiophobia (β = 0.30; p = 0.03) were significant covariate (33 % of variance) of craniomandibular pain and disability. Mixed chronic pain patients show greater craniomandibular and neck disability than patients diagnosed with chronic JP or MP. Neck disability predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for patients with MP. Neck disability and kinesiophobia predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for those with chronic mixed pain.
Marotta, Joseph T.
Facial pain is a common presenting complaint requiring patience and diagnostic acumen. The proliferation of eponyms attached to various syndromes complicates the subject. The most frequent cause of pain is likely to be muscle spasm in masticatory or temporalis muscles. This article presents a rank order for the common causes of facial pain that present diagnostic difficulty, such as temporomandibular joint pain, trigeminal neuralgia, giant cell arteritis, and post-herpetic neuralgia. PMID:21286580
Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Oh, Seog-Bae; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun
Autism spectrum disorder is a debilitating mental illness and social issue. Autism spectrum disorder patients suffer from social isolation, cognitive deficits, compulsive behavior, and sensory deficits, including hyposensitivity to pain. However, recent studies argued that autism spectrum disorder patients show physiological pain response and, in some cases, even extremely intense pain response to harmless stimulation. Recently, Shank gene family was reported as one of the genetic risk factors of autism spectrum disorder. Thus, in this study, we used Shank2(-) (/) (-) (Shank2 knock-out, KO) mice to investigate the controversial pain sensitivity issue and found that Shank2 KO mice showed reduced tactile perception and analgesia to chronic pain.
Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei
It has been widely accepted that the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) plays an essential role in the sensory-discriminative aspect of pain perception. However, it remains unclear whether the SI has a role in the descending modulation of pain. Although there are abundant fibers projecting back from sensory cortex to thalamic nuclei, and the influence of cortical modulation from SI on the thalamic nociceptive relay neurons has been addressed, little is known about how the cortical outputs modulate the nociceptive behaviors resulting from tissue injury or evoked by painful stimulation. The present study was designed to test whether the cortical outputs influenced the nociceptive behaviors using rat models of noxious thermal-induced acute pain, formalin-induced acute and CFA-evoked chronic inflammatory pain. The results showed that intracortical microinjection of GABAA agonist muscimol significantly reduced the first and second phase behaviors in formalin tests and elevated the nociceptive thresholds in the thermal stimulus-elicited acute pain, suggesting a facilitatory influence of SI on the acute pain sensation. By contrast, microinjection of GABAA antagonist bicuculline remarkably reduced the thermal hyperalgesia of the CFA-inflamed hindpaws, indicating an inhibitory effect of SI output in the chronic pain state. The opposite modulatory effects in acute and chronic pain states suggest that there exists a functional switch for the SI cortex at different stages of pain disease, which is of great significance for the biological adaptation.
Martikainen, Ilkka K.; Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany M.; Nuechterlein, Emily B.; Cummiford, Chelsea M.; Green, Carmen R.; Harris, Richard E.; Stohler, Christian S.
The absence of consistent end organ abnormalities in many chronic pain syndromes has led to a search for maladaptive CNS mechanisms that may explain their clinical presentations and course. Here, we addressed the role of brain regional μ-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission, one of the best recognized mechanisms of pain regulation, in chronic back pain in human subjects. We compared μ-opioid receptor availability in vivo at baseline, during pain expectation, and with moderate levels of sustained pain in 16 patients with chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP) and in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, using the μ-opioid receptor-selective radioligand [11C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography. We found that CNBP patients showed baseline increases in thalamic μ-opioid receptor availability, contrary to a previously studied sample of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. During both pain expectation and sustained pain challenges, CNBP patients showed regional reductions in the capacity to activate this neurotransmitter system compared with their control sample, further associated with clinical pain and affective state ratings. Our results demonstrate heterogeneity in endogenous opioid system functional measures across pain conditions, and alterations in both receptor availability and endogenous opioid function in CNBP that are relevant to the clinical presentation of these patients and the effects of opioid analgesics on μ-opioid receptors. PMID:24027273
Martikainen, Ilkka K; Peciña, Marta; Love, Tiffany M; Nuechterlein, Emily B; Cummiford, Chelsea M; Green, Carmen R; Harris, Richard E; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
The absence of consistent end organ abnormalities in many chronic pain syndromes has led to a search for maladaptive CNS mechanisms that may explain their clinical presentations and course. Here, we addressed the role of brain regional μ-opioid receptor-mediated neurotransmission, one of the best recognized mechanisms of pain regulation, in chronic back pain in human subjects. We compared μ-opioid receptor availability in vivo at baseline, during pain expectation, and with moderate levels of sustained pain in 16 patients with chronic nonspecific back pain (CNBP) and in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, using the μ-opioid receptor-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography. We found that CNBP patients showed baseline increases in thalamic μ-opioid receptor availability, contrary to a previously studied sample of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. During both pain expectation and sustained pain challenges, CNBP patients showed regional reductions in the capacity to activate this neurotransmitter system compared with their control sample, further associated with clinical pain and affective state ratings. Our results demonstrate heterogeneity in endogenous opioid system functional measures across pain conditions, and alterations in both receptor availability and endogenous opioid function in CNBP that are relevant to the clinical presentation of these patients and the effects of opioid analgesics on μ-opioid receptors.
Kandil, Enas; Melikman, Emily; Adinoff, Bryon
Opioid abuse is a national epidemic in the United States, where it is estimated that a prescription drug overdose death occurs every 19 minutes. While opioids are highly effective in acute and subacute pain control, their use for treatment of chronic pain is controversial. Chronic opioids use is associated with tolerance, dependency, hyperalgesia. Although there are new strategies and practice guidelines to reduce opioid dependence and opioid prescription drug overdose, there has been little focus on development of opioid-sparing therapeutic approaches. Lidocaine infusion has been shown to be successful in controlling pain where other agents have failed. The opioid sparing properties of lidocaine infusion added to its analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties make lidocaine infusion a viable option for pain control in opioid dependent patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the opioid abuse epidemic, and we outline current evidence supporting the potential use of lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant therapeutic approach for management of chronic pain. PMID:28239510
Cheng, Hsinlin Thomas
Chronic pain is a prevalent and challenging problem for most medical practitioners. Due to complex pathological mechanisms involved in chronic pain, optimal treatment is still under development. The spinal cord is an important gateway for peripheral pain signals transmitted to the brain. In chronic pain states, painful stimuli trigger afferent fibers in the dorsal horn to release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. These events induce multiple inflammatory and neuropathic processes in the spinal cord dorsal horn and trigger modification and plasticity of local neural circuits. As a result, ongoing noxious signals to the brain are amplified and prolonged, a phenomenon known as central sensitization. In this review, the molecular events associated with central sensitization as well as their clinical implications are discussed. PMID:20461476
Ji, Ru-Rong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Gao, Yong-Jing
Current analgesics predominately modulate pain transduction and transmission in neurons and have limited success in controlling disease progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation, which is characterized by infiltration of immune cells, activation of glial cells and production of inflammatory mediators in the peripheral and central nervous system, has an important role in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. This review focuses on emerging targets such as chemokines, proteases and the Wnt pathway that promote spinal cord neuroinflammation and chronic pain. It also highlights the anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators that act on immune cells, glial cells and neurons to resolve neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and pain. Targeting excessive neuroinflammation could offer new therapeutic opportunities for chronic pain and related neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24948120
Chronic pelvic pain is a source of frustration to both the physician and the patient. Physicians have been ill equipped by their training to confront the multifaceted nature of the complaints of patients with chronic pelvic pain. Patients have experienced a repetitive dismissal of their complaints by physicians too busy in their practices to address their problems comprehensively. The approach to the patient with chronic pelvic pain must take into account six major sources of the origin of this pain: 1) gynecological, 2) psychological, 3) myofascial, 4) musculoskeletal, 5) urological, and 6) gastrointestinal. Only by addressing and evaluating each of these components by a very careful history and physical examination and by approaching the patient in a comprehensive manner can the source of the pain be determined and appropriate therapy be administered. This article was developed to provide the clinician with a set of tools and a methodology by which the patient with this complaint can be approached. PMID:10694069
Burns, Lindsay C; Ritvo, Sarah E; Ferguson, Meaghan K; Clarke, Hance; Seltzer, Ze’ev; Katz, Joel
Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis-à-vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant predictor of chronic pain persisting ≥3 months following TKA in five of the studies assessed. Limitations of studies included lack of large-scale data, absence of standardized pain measurements, inadequate multivariate adjustment, such as failure to control for analgesic use and other relevant covariates, and failure to report non-significant parameter estimates. Conclusion This study provides moderate-level evidence for pain catastrophizing as an independent predictor of chronic pain post-TKA. Directions for future research include
Kames, L D; Rapkin, A J; Naliboff, B D; Afifi, S; Ferrer-Brechner, T
Chronic pelvic pain has rarely been discussed in the pain management literature, although it is extremely common in general gynecological practice and often refractory to traditional medical and surgical therapy. A chronic pelvic pain program was developed to offer an alternative treatment approach for women for whom standard gynecological procedures were inappropriate or unsuccessful. Sixteen subjects completed the full 6-8 week interdisciplinary program, which included both somatic and behavioral therapies. Compared to a waiting list control the results showed a dramatic decrease in reported levels of pain following treatment. Anxiety and depression also decreased and psychosocial functioning improved, including return to work, increased social activities, and improved sexual activity. The outcome suggests that the interdisciplinary pain management approach is effective for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm, Standiford; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Datta, Sukdeb; Hayek, Salim M; Fellows, Bert; Boswell, Mark V
Interventional pain management, and the interventional techniques which are an integral part of that specialty, are subject to widely varying definitions and practices. How interventional techniques are applied by various specialties is highly variable, even for the most common procedures and conditions. At the same time, many payors, publications, and guidelines are showing increasing interest in the performance and costs of interventional techniques. There is a lack of consensus among interventional pain management specialists with regards to how to diagnose and manage spinal pain and the type and frequency of spinal interventional techniques which should be utilized to treat spinal pain. Therefore, an algorithmic approach is proposed, providing a step-by-step procedure for managing chronic spinal pain patients based upon evidence-based guidelines. The algorithmic approach is developed based on the best available evidence regarding the epidemiology of various identifiable sources of chronic spinal pain. Such an approach to spinal pain includes an appropriate history, examination, and medical decision making in the management of low back pain, neck pain and thoracic pain. This algorithm also provides diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to clinical management utilizing case examples of cervical, lumbar, and thoracic spinal pain. An algorithm for investigating chronic low back pain without disc herniation commences with a clinical question, examination and imaging findings. If there is evidence of radiculitis, spinal stenosis, or other demonstrable causes resulting in radiculitis, one may proceed with diagnostic or therapeutic epidural injections. In the algorithmic approach, facet joints are entertained first in the algorithm because of their commonality as a source of chronic low back pain followed by sacroiliac joint blocks if indicated and provocation discography as the last step. Based on the literature, in the United States, in patients without disc
Pandza, Haris; Custović, Samir; Cović, Ranko; Delibegovic, Samir
The appendicitis is one of the most common entities that could be met at surgical department. Chronic pelvic pain of right iliac fossa is common and it causes disability and distress and results in significant costs to health services. Often, investigation by laparoscopy reveals no obvious cause for pain. There are several possible explanations for chronic pelvic pain including undetected irritable bowel syndrome, the vascular hypothesis where pain is thought to arise from dilated pelvic veins in which blood flow is markedly reduced and altered spinal cord and brain processing of stimuli in women with chronic pelvic pain. As the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is not well understood, its treatment is often unsatisfactory and limited to symptom relief. We aimed to identify and review treatments for chronic pelvic pain related to appendicitis. Frequently ultrasound and CT scan cannot confirm the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis due to non significant swelling of vermiform appendix. The study excludes patients with a diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome, those with pain known to be caused by gynecological disorders or irritable bowel syndrome. Detailed history, clinical examination, and serological and radiological investigations failed to reveal the cause of the pain in all cases. We presumed that pain is caused by chronic appendicitis with appendicolithiasis and that removal of appendix will result in symptom relief. We performed study with 75 patients treated by laparoscopic appendectomy. Duration of symptoms ranged from 3 to 48 months, with a mean of 13.1 months. All patients included in this study had right iliac fossa pain lasting more than three months. We performed radiological contrast studies to verify appendicolithiasis of irregularity of appendicular wall. Patient with mild symptoms were excluded, only patients that have symptoms that cause disability were operated. We compared pain according to localization, duration and character. We evaluated
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Respiratory muscle strength is one parameter that is currently proposed to be affected in patients with chronic neck pain. This study was aimed at examining whether patients with chronic neck pain have reduced respiratory strength and with which neck pain problems their respiratory strength is associated. In this controlled cross-sectional study, 45 patients with chronic neck pain and 45 healthy well-matched controls were recruited. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed through maximal mouth pressures. The subjects were additionally assessed for their pain intensity and disability, neck muscle strength, endurance of deep neck flexors, neck range of movement, forward head posture and psychological states. Paired t-tests showed that patients with chronic neck pain have reduced Maximal Inspiratory (MIP) (r = 0.35) and Maximal Expiratory Pressures (MEP) (r = 0.39) (P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength (r > 0.5), kinesiophobia (r < -0.3) and catastrophizing (r < -0.3) were significantly associated with maximal mouth pressures (P < 0.05), whereas MEP was additionally negatively correlated with neck pain and disability (r < -0.3, P < 0.05). Neck muscle strength was the only predictor that remained as significant into the prediction models of MIP and MEP. It can be concluded that patients with chronic neck pain present weakness of their respiratory muscles. This weakness seems to be a result of the impaired global and local muscle system of neck pain patients, and psychological states also appear to have an additional contribution. Clinicians are advised to consider the respiratory system of patients with chronic neck pain during their usual assessment and appropriately address their treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh; Victor, Norbert; Foster, Nadine E.; Sherman, Karen J.; Witt, Claudia M.; Linde, Klaus
Background Although acupuncture is widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to its value. We aimed to determine the effect size of acupuncture for four chronic pain conditions: back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, chronic headache, and shoulder pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized trials of acupuncture for chronic pain where allocation concealment was determined unambiguously to be adequate. Individual patient data meta-analyses were conducted using data from 29 of 31 eligible trials, with a total of 17,922 patients analyzed. Results In the primary analysis including all eligible trials, acupuncture was superior to both sham and no acupuncture control for each pain condition (all p<0.001). After exclusion of an outlying set of trials that strongly favored acupuncture, the effect sizes were similar across pain conditions. Patients receiving acupuncture had less pain, with scores 0.23 (95% C.I. 0.13, 0.33), 0.16 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.25) and 0.15 (95% C.I. 0.07, 0.24) standard deviations lower than sham controls for back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache respectively; the effect sizes in comparison to no acupuncture controls were 0.55 (95% C.I. 0.51, 0.58), 0.57 (95% C.I. 0.50, 0.64) and 0.42 (95% C.I. 0.37, 0.46). These results were robust to a variety of sensitivity analyses, including those related to publication bias. Conclusions Acupuncture is effective for the treatment of chronic pain and is therefore a reasonable referral option. Significant differences between true and sham acupuncture indicate that acupuncture is more than a placebo. However, these differences are relatively modest, suggesting that factors in addition to the specific effects of needling are important contributors to the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. PMID:22965186
Argoff, Charles E
Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain.
Racine, Mélanie; Dion, Dominique; Dupuis, Gilles; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Choinière, Manon; Banner, Robert; Barton, Pamela M; Boulanger, Aline; Clark, Alexander J; Gordon, Allan; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Intrater, Howard M; Lefort, Sandra M; Lynch, Mary E; Moulin, Dwight E; Ong-Lam, May; Peng, Philip; Rashiq, Saifee; Shir, Yoram; Taenzer, Paul; Ware, Mark
The Canadian STOP-PAIN Project assessed the human and economic burden of chronic pain (CP) in individuals on waitlists of Canadian multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities. This article focuses on sex differences. Objectives were to (1) determine the pain characteristics and related biopsychosocial factors that best differentiated women and men with CP; and (2) examine whether public and private costs associated with CP differed according to sex. Sample consisted of 441 women and 287 men who were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires and a structured interview protocol. A subsample (233 women and 137 men) recorded all pain-related expenditures in a comprehensive diary over 3 months. Results revealed that the burden of illness associated with CP was comparable in both sexes for average and worst pain intensity, pain impact on daily living, quality of life, and psychological well-being. The same was true for pain-related costs. The results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, in which sex was treated as the dependent variable, showed that factors that differentiated men and women were: work status, certain circumstances surrounding pain onset, present pain intensity, intake of particular types of pain medication, use of certain pain management strategies, pain beliefs, and utilization of particular health care resources. This study suggests that women and men who are referred to multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities do not differ significantly in terms of their pain-related experience. However, the aspects that differ may warrant further clinical attention when assessing and managing pain.
Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa
Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level
Davies, K.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; McBeth, J.; Morriss, R.; Dickens, C.
Individuals with “insecure” adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2–50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8–3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1–1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2–2.3, Preoccupied: RRR = 1.8, 95%CI 0.98–3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.0–4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain. PMID:19345016
Davies, K A; Macfarlane, G J; McBeth, J; Morriss, R; Dickens, C
Individuals with "insecure" adult attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment, though results of previous studies have been inconsistent. We performed a cross-sectional study on a large population-based sample to investigate whether, compared to pain free individuals, subjects with chronic widespread pain were more likely to report insecure adult attachment style. Subjects in a population-based cross-sectional study completed a self-rated assessment of adult attachment style. Attachment style was categorised as secure (i.e., normal attachment style); or preoccupied, dismissing or fearful (insecure attachment styles). Subjects completed a pain questionnaire from which three groups were identified: pain free; chronic widespread pain; and other pain. Subjects rated their pain intensity and pain-related disability on an 11 point Likert scale. Subjects (2509) returned a completed questionnaire (median age 49.9 years (IQR 41.2-50.0); 59.2% female). Subjects with CWP were more likely to report a preoccupied (RRR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.7), dismissing (RRR 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-3.1) or fearful attachment style (RRR 1.4; 95%CI 1.1-1.8) than those free of pain. Among CWP subjects, insecure attachment style was associated with number of pain sites (Dismissing: RRR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.3, Preoccupied: RRR=1.8, 95%CI 0.98-3.5) and degree of pain-related disability (Preoccupied: RRR=2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.1), but not pain intensity. These findings suggest that treatment strategies based on knowledge of attachment style, possibly using support and education, may alleviate distress and disability in people at risk of, or affected by, chronic widespread pain.
Johnson, Alisa J; Kekecs, Zoltan; Roberts, R Lynae; Gavin, Russell; Brown, Kathleen; Elkins, Gary R
The authors investigated the feasibility and possible effects of hypnotic suggestion and music for chronic pain. Ten people completed the 2-week intervention that consisted of daily listening to hypnotic suggestions combined with music. Averaged subjective pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, overall distress, anxiety, and depression decreased from baseline to endpoint. Participants rated pre- and postlistening pain intensity and pain bothersomeness decreased for each session. Information provided during end-of-study interviews indicated all participants were satisfied with treatment and felt they benefited from being in the study. Means and standard deviations are reported for outcome measures and a case study is provided. This preliminary study supports the use of a combined hypnotic suggestion and music intervention for chronic pain.
Guzmán, Jaime; Esmail, Rosmin; Karjalainen, Kaija; Malmivaara, Antti; Irvin, Emma; Bombardier, Claire
Objective To assess the effect of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation on clinically relevant outcomes in patients with chronic low back pain. Design Systematic literature review of randomised controlled trials. Participants A total of 1964 patients with disabling low back pain for more than three months. Main outcome measures Pain, function, employment, quality of life, and global assessments. Results Ten trials reported on a total of 12 randomised comparisons of multidisciplinary treatment and a control condition. There was strong evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration improves function when compared with inpatient or outpatient non-multidisciplinary treatments. There was moderate evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration reduces pain when compared with outpatient non-multidisciplinary rehabilitation or usual care. There was contradictory evidence regarding vocational outcomes of intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial intervention. Some trials reported improvements in work readiness, but others showed no significant reduction in sickness leaves. Less intensive outpatient psychophysical treatments did not improve pain, function, or vocational outcomes when compared with non-multidisciplinary outpatient therapy or usual care. Few trials reported effects on quality of life or global assessments. Conclusions The reviewed trials provide evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration reduces pain and improves function in patients with chronic low back pain. Less intensive interventions did not show improvements in clinically relevant outcomes. What is already known on this topicDisabling chronic pain is regarded as the result of interrelating physical, psychological, and social or occupational factors requiring multidisciplinary interventionTwo previous systematic reviews of
Maruta, T; Swanson, D W; Finlayson, R E
Of 144 patients with chronic pain of nonmalignant cause, 35 (24%) were drug-dependent, 59 (41%) drug abusers, and 50 (35%) nonabusers. Codeine and oxycodone (Percodan) were most frequently abused. In regard to characteristics tested, differences between the groups were not great; but there was a significant difference in outcome between nonabuse and dependent groups. Early detection and treatment of drug abuse should minimize some of the difficulties involved in management of treatment-resistive patients with chronic pain.
Hung, Ching-Hsia; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Strichartz, Gary R
Chronic pain after surgery limits social activity, interferes with work, and causes emotional suffering. A major component of such pain is reported as resting or spontaneous pain with no apparent external stimulus. Although experimental animal models can simulate the stimulus-evoked chronic pain that occurs after surgery, there have been no studies of spontaneous chronic pain in such models. Here the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was used to reveal resting pain after experimental thoracotomy. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a thoracotomy with 1-hour rib retraction, resulting in evoked tactile hypersensitivity, previously shown to last for at least 9 weeks. Intraperitoneal injections of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or gabapentin (40 mg/kg) gave equivalent 2- to 3-hour-long relief of tactile hypersensitivity when tested 12 to 14 days postoperatively. In separate experiments, single trial CPP was conducted 1 week before thoracotomy and then 12 days (gabapentin) or 14 days (morphine) after surgery, followed the next day by 1 conditioning session with morphine or gabapentin, both versus saline. The gabapentin-conditioned but not the morphine-conditioned rats showed a significant preference for the analgesia-paired chamber, despite the equivalent effect of the 2 agents in relieving tactile allodynia. These results show that experimental thoracotomy in rats causes spontaneous pain and that some analgesics, such as morphine, that reduce evoked pain do not also relieve resting pain, suggesting that pathophysiological mechanisms differ between these 2 aspects of long-term postoperative pain. Perspective: Spontaneous pain, a hallmark of chronic postoperative pain, is demonstrated here in a rat model of experimental postthoracotomy pain, further validating the use of this model for the development of analgesics to treat such symptoms. Although stimulus-evoked pain was sensitive to systemic morphine, spontaneous pain was not, suggesting different mechanistic
McBeth, J.; Tomenson, B.; Chew-Graham, C.A.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Jackson, J.; Littlewood, A.; Creed, F.H.
Objective Chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue share common associated factors but these associations may be explained by the presence of concurrent depression and anxiety. Methods We mailed questionnaires to a randomly selected sample of people in the UK to identify participants with chronic widespread pain (ACR 1990 definition) and those with chronic fatigue. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic factors, health status, healthcare use, childhood factors, adult attachment, and psychological stress including anxiety and depression. To identify persons with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue; we examined participant's medical records to exclude medical illness that might cause these symptoms. Results Of 1443 participants (58.0% response rate) medical records of 990 were examined. 9.4% (N = 93) had unexplained chronic widespread pain and 12.6% (N = 125) had unexplained chronic fatigue. Marital status, childhood psychological abuse, recent threatening experiences and other somatic symptoms were commonly associated with both widespread pain and fatigue. No common effect was found for few years of education and current medical illnesses (more strongly associated with chronic widespread pain) or recent illness in a close relative, neuroticism, depression and anxiety scores (more strongly associated with chronic fatigue). Putative associated factors with a common effect were associated with unexplained chronic widespread pain or unexplained chronic fatigue only when there was concurrent anxiety and/or depression. Discussion This study suggests that the associated factors for chronic widespread pain and chronic fatigue need to be studied in conjunction with concurrent depression/anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the importance of concurrent anxiety or depression. PMID:26652592
Treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain syndromes has been largely suboptimal and the most debilitating conditions--such as LBP, arthritis, and neuropathic pain--continue to pose a significant burden to individuals and society. Although significant scientific advances in delineating pathophysiologic mechanisms have facilitated the development of targeted pharmacologic and interventional treatments, the integral role played by psychologic, behavioral, and social factors in generating, perpetuating, and individualizing the pain experience has been largely ignored. Consequently, adequate pain relief may still be an achievable goal, but one that is often realized only with a concomitant, cognitive, behaviorally based, functional restoration approach. A multidisciplinary integrative approach that places equal emphasis on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pain, as well as the multidimensional interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences is essential to improving outcomes. Although there are presently a paucity of data that identify specific characteristics that define which individuals will benefit from any particular modality, evidence clearly demonstrates that the MPC setting offers patients an opportunity to achieve both adequate pain relief and improved physical, behavioral, and psychologic function. A key challenge for clinicians lies in changing the approach to pain "treatment" and in bridging the gap between the current evolving understanding of pain mechanisms and clinical management. Physiatrists' focus on maximal functional restoration is a critical contribution to cost-effective pain medicine practice. Wisely combining effective pain management techniques within a functional restoration program has the best chance of improving the quality of life for patients with chronic pain disorders and diseases.
Wu, Peter I-Kung; Meleger, Alec; Witkower, Alan; Mondale, Timothy; Borg-Stein, Joanne
This article provides a broad overview of the clinical nonpharmacologic treatment options for managing acute and chronic pain. Physical therapy and modalities, interventional techniques, emerging regenerative medicine, and cognitive behavioral paradigms of treatment are presented. Recommendations are evidence-based and are a practical resource for the musculoskeletal pain and sports medicine practitioner.
Meyer, Genevieve Rogge
This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…
Sullivan, Arthur P.; Guglielmo, Robert
Argues that acute, chronic pain, whether arising from environmental or psychological contexts, is a necessary condition of addiction; conditioning and neurochemical changes are assigned a catalyzing role. Inadequate self-esteem is thought to be a common source of imperceptible pain, and therefore a cause of addiction. (Author/ABL)
O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary
This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…
O'Neill, Aimee; Moss, Hilary
This paper describes a community art therapy group for people living with chronic pain. Nine adults were offered 12 weekly group art therapy sessions that included art therapy activities such as guided imagery focusing on body scans followed by art responses and artistic expressions of the pain experience. This pilot group art therapy program is…
Carey, Erin T; Till, Sara R; As-Sanie, Sawsan
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a multifaceted condition that often has both peripheral and central generators of pain. An understanding of neurobiology and neuropsychology of CPP should guide management. Successful treatment of CPP is typically multimodal, and pharmacologic treatment strategies include analgesics, hormonal suppression, anesthetics, antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, and anxiolytics. Evidence for these and other emerging pharmacologic therapies is presented in this article.
Tompkins, D Andrew; Johnson, Patrick S; Smith, Michael T; Strain, Eric C; Edwards, Robert R; Johnson, Matthew W
Opioid therapy for pain is associated with an increased risk for substance use disorders. This study's purpose was to determine the association between opioid misuse propensity (Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised) and delay discounting (DD), a behavioral process linked to substance use disorders, which quantifies the extent to which outcomes are devalued because of their delay. Participants reporting chronic pain (N = 249) answered pain and opioid use questions and then completed 4 DD tasks. Each of these tasks assessed either money or pain consequences, framed as either rewards or punishments. Each task involved hypothetical choices between immediate smaller vs delayed larger consequences. The extant Monetary Choice Questionnaire assessed DD of money rewards, and a modified version assessed discounting of money losses (immediate smaller loss vs larger delayed loss). Based on the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, the novel Pain Relief Choice Questionnaire assessed choices between an immediate short duration of pain relief vs a longer duration of pain relief. Similarly, the novel Additional Pain Choice Questionnaire assessed choices between an immediate short duration of additional pain vs a longer duration of additional pain. Discounting of both additional pain and money losses were significantly associated with high Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised scores-indicating participants at greatest risk for opioid misuse discount future punishments rather than future rewards compared with those at low risk. Measures of DD may have promise in more accurately identifying individuals at highest risk for opioid misuse during chronic opioid therapy.
Baile, Walter F.; Myers, Daniel
The authors discuss the relationship between atypical facial pain and psychiatric disturbance. They present contemporary viewpoints and describe four cases that illustrate underlying psychodynamic mechanisms associated with pain in patients who had undergone various dental procedures and other treatments without success. They identify factors which might lead to the early detection of underlying psychological problems and discuss the role of learning, the family system and other factors in producing a chronic pain syndrome. PMID:3465263
Merskey, H.; Hester, R. A.
The treatment is described of thirty patients with chronic nervous system lesion causing intractable pain. Moderately good relief of pain was obtained with a combination of phenothiazines (especially pericyazine), antidepressant drugs and antihistamines. The theoretical implications of this are discussed and it is suggested that the drugs in question act partly by virtue of an effect on the multisynaptic neuronal systems whose activities are related to the experience of pain. PMID:4404064
Roth, R S; Punch, M R; Bachman, J E
This study examined the relationship of level of educational (LOE) achievement to pain experience, affective disturbance, and perceived disability among women with chronic pelvic pain presenting for pain treatment. 187 patients completed a battery of self-report inventories assessing pain, psychological status, and functional ability. Educational attainment was stratified across five levels from "less than high school" to "graduate/professional school." Significant inverse associations were found between lower educational achievement and more severe pain, somatic preoccupation, emotional suffering and guardedness, and functional impairment. No differences were obtained across the groups for age, duration of pain, or symptoms of depression. These data provide support for the importance of socioeconomic factors, particularly LOE, in furthering our understanding of the morbidity observed among women suffering chronic pelvic pain.
Lauretti, Gabriela Rocha; de Oliveira, Raquel
When an organ disease is ruled out as the origin of pelvic pain, the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) injury and consequent dysfunction could be the mechanism of visceral chronic pain perpetuation. As much as a dorsal discus herniation may harm the dorsal or ventral roots, a ventral discus herniation at L4-L5 or L5-S1 may result in direct physical trauma to the SHP, maintaining chronic visceral pain mediated by sympathetic dysfunction, conceivably also afferent fibers dysfunction. We propose that similarly to nociceptive somatic dysfunction named complex regional pain syndrome, the maintained sympathetic pelvic pain secondary to straight physical damage to the SHP characterize in fact the same disease, but in nociceptive visceral tissue, named visceral complex regional pain syndrome, a concept constructed based on the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria (1994).
Meltzer, Lisa J; Logan, Deirdre E; Mindell, Jodi A
This study examined sleep patterns in female adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Twenty-six participants with chronic musculoskeletal pain completed questionnaires during their clinic visit, and three 24-Hour Sleep Patterns Interviews during the following 2 weeks. Compared to normative data (Acebo & Carskadon, 2002), adolescents with chronic pain reported similar total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes. However, study participants reported significantly longer sleep onset latency, more night wakings, a later morning wake time, and more symptoms of daytime sleepiness. Pain improved after sleep for 27% of the study sample, and was associated with longer TST. Finally, depression and anxiety were related to daytime sleepiness, but not total sleep time or sleep onset latency. Female adolescents with chronic pain either may be more sensitive to the chronic sleep debt that is common in this age group, or they may experience underlying physiological sleep disrupters (e.g., periodic limb movement disorder) or sleep abnormalities (e.g., alpha-delta intrusions) not measured in this study. Additional research is needed to examine the complex relation between sleep and chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Background The extracellular matrix protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine) has been linked to degeneration of the intervertebral discs and chronic low back pain (LBP). In humans, SPARC protein expression is decreased as a function of age and disc degeneration. In mice, inactivation of the SPARC gene results in the development of accelerated age-dependent disc degeneration concurrent with age-dependent behavioral signs of chronic LBP. DNA methylation is the covalent modification of DNA by addition of methyl moieties to cytosines in DNA. DNA methylation plays an important role in programming of gene expression, including in the dynamic regulation of changes in gene expression in response to aging and environmental signals. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation down-regulates SPARC expression in chronic LBP in pre-clinical models and in patients with chronic LBP. Results Our data shows that aging mice develop anatomical and behavioral signs of disc degeneration and back pain, decreased SPARC expression and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. In parallel, we show that human subjects with back pain exhibit signs of disc degeneration and increased methylation of the SPARC promoter. Methylation of either the human or mouse SPARC promoter silences its activity in transient transfection assays. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that DNA methylation of a single gene plays a role in chronic pain in humans and animal models. This has important implications for understanding the mechanisms involved in chronic pain and for pain therapy. PMID:21867537
Dagenais, S; Yelland, M J; Del Mar, C; Schoene, M L
Prolotherapy involves repeated injections of irritant solutions to strengthen lumbosacral ligaments and reduce some types of chronic low-back pain; spinal manipulation and exercises are often used to enhance its effectiveness. To determine the efficacy of prolotherapy in adults with chronic low-back pain. We searched CENTRAL 2006, Issue 3 and MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED from their respective beginnings to October 2006, with no restrictions on language, and consulted content experts. We included randomised (RCT) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCT) that compared prolotherapy injections to control injections, alone or in combination with other treatments, which measured pain or disability before and after the intervention. Two review authors independently selected the trials and assessed methodological quality. Intervention protocols varied from study to study, making meta-analysis impossible. We identified five high quality studies with a total of 366 participants. All measured pain or disability levels at six months, and four measured the proportion of participants reporting a greater than 50% reduction in pain or disability scores. Three randomized controlled trials (206 participants) found that prolotherapy injections alone are no more effective than control injection for chronic low-back pain and disability. At six months, there was no difference between groups in mean pain or disability scores (2 RCTs; 184 participants) and no difference in proportions who reported over 50% improvement in pain or disability (3 RCTs; 206 participants). These trials could not be pooled due to clinical heterogeneity. Two RCTs (160 participants) found that prolotherapy injections, given with spinal manipulation, exercise, and other therapies, are more effective than control injections for chronic low-back pain and disability. At six months, one study reported a significant difference between groups in mean pain and disability scores, whereas the other study did not
Meeus, Mira; Roussel, Nathalie A; Truijen, Steven; Nijs, Jo
The aims of this study were to examine: (i) baseline pressure pain thresholds in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and those with chronic low back pain compared with healthy subjects; (ii) the change in mean pain threshold in response to exercise; and (iii) associations with exercise-induced increase in nitric oxide. Twenty-six patients with chronic fatigue syndrome suffering of chronic pain, 21 patients with chronic low back pain and 31 healthy subjects. Participants underwent a submaximal aerobic exercise protocol on a bicycle ergometer, preceded and followed by venous blood sampling (nitric oxide) and algometry (hand, arm, calf, low back). Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome presented overall lower pain thresholds compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between healthy subjects and patients with chronic low back pain. After submaximal aerobic exercise, mean pain thresholds decreased in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and increased in the others (p < 0.01). At baseline, nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in the chronic low back pain group. After controlling for body mass index, no significant differences were seen between the groups at baseline or in response to exercise. Nitric oxide was not related to pain thresholds in either group. The results suggest hyperalgesia and abnormal central pain processing during submaximal aerobic exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome, but not in chronic low back pain. Nitric oxide appeared to be unrelated to pain processing.
Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E
Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787
Mansour, Ali R; Baliki, Marwan N; Huang, Lejian; Torbey, Souraya; Herrmann, Kristi M; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Apkarian, A Vania
Neural mechanisms mediating the transition from acute to chronic pain remain largely unknown. In a longitudinal brain imaging study, we followed up patients with a single sub-acute back pain (SBP) episode for more than 1 year as their pain recovered (SBPr), or persisted (SBPp) representing a transition to chronic pain. We discovered brain white matter structural abnormalities (n=24 SBP patients; SBPp=12 and SBPr=12), as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), at entry into the study in SBPp in comparison to SBPr. These white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) differences accurately predicted pain persistence over the next year, which was validated in a second cohort (n=22 SBP patients; SBPp=11 and SBPr=11), and showed no further alterations over a 1-year period. Tractography analysis indicated that abnormal regional FA was linked to differential structural connectivity to medial vs lateral prefrontal cortex. Local FA was correlated with functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in SBPr. As we have earlier shown that the latter functional connectivity accurately predicts transition to chronic pain, we can conclude that brain structural differences, most likely existing before the back pain-inciting event and independent of the back pain, predispose subjects to pain chronification.
Duarte, Cassandra; Baird, Janette; Patry, Emily J.; Green, Traci C.
Background Digital health is an increasingly popular tool for patient engagement, having shown great success in arenas such as medication adherence, management of chronic conditions, and patient safety. Given the growth of chronic pain diagnoses, it is imperative to find new technologies to improve care for this particular population. Little research has catalogued the use of digital health in the chronic pain patient population. This manuscript’s objective was to describe current patterns of digital health usage among chronic pain patients and how digital health use correlates with health care utilization and health outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to patients with a self-identified chronic pain diagnosis participating in ‘Patients Like Me’® (PLM), an organization that directly collects data from patients experiencing chronic health conditions, with emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and experiences interacting with the health care system. Validated measures of healthcare utilization, chronic pain management, and digital health use were adapted for the survey. Digital health was defined as the use of online sites, social media, and mobile phone applications before, during, or after healthcare utilization. Descriptive statistics, chi square tests, logistic regression, and linear regression were used as appropriate for analysis. Results Among 565 respondents (mean age 51.3, 87.2% female, 45.7% publicly insured), most participants (89.5%) reported some digital health use. Females and users below the age of 50 were more likely to use multiple forms of digital health. Healthcare utilization, education level, and race/ethnicity did not correlate with digital health use. Patients using more types of digital health reported significantly higher levels of pain coping skills in the realms of social support, relaxation, and exercise. Conclusions Digital health use is common among a wide range of patients with chronic pain diagnoses. The
Ranney, Megan L; Duarte, Cassandra; Baird, Janette; Patry, Emily J; Green, Traci C
Digital health is an increasingly popular tool for patient engagement, having shown great success in arenas such as medication adherence, management of chronic conditions, and patient safety. Given the growth of chronic pain diagnoses, it is imperative to find new technologies to improve care for this particular population. Little research has catalogued the use of digital health in the chronic pain patient population. This manuscript's objective was to describe current patterns of digital health usage among chronic pain patients and how digital health use correlates with health care utilization and health outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was administered to patients with a self-identified chronic pain diagnosis participating in 'Patients Like Me'(®) (PLM), an organization that directly collects data from patients experiencing chronic health conditions, with emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and experiences interacting with the health care system. Validated measures of healthcare utilization, chronic pain management, and digital health use were adapted for the survey. Digital health was defined as the use of online sites, social media, and mobile phone applications before, during, or after healthcare utilization. Descriptive statistics, chi square tests, logistic regression, and linear regression were used as appropriate for analysis. Among 565 respondents (mean age 51.3, 87.2% female, 45.7% publicly insured), most participants (89.5%) reported some digital health use. Females and users below the age of 50 were more likely to use multiple forms of digital health. Healthcare utilization, education level, and race/ethnicity did not correlate with digital health use. Patients using more types of digital health reported significantly higher levels of pain coping skills in the realms of social support, relaxation, and exercise. Digital health use is common among a wide range of patients with chronic pain diagnoses. The use of multiple forms of digital health is
Williams, Kimberly Anne; Petronis, John; Smith, David; Goodrich, David; Wu, Juan; Ravi, Neelima; Doyle, Edward J; Gregory Juckett, R; Munoz Kolar, Maria; Gross, Richard; Steinberg, Lois
Low back pain is a significant public health problem and one of the most commonly reported reasons for the use of Complementary Alternative Medicine. A randomized control trial was conducted in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain comparing Iyengar yoga therapy to an educational control group. Both programs were 16 weeks long. Subjects were primarily self-referred and screened by primary care physicians for study of inclusion/exclusion criteria. The primary outcome for the study was functional disability. Secondary outcomes including present pain intensity, pain medication usage, pain-related attitudes and behaviors, and spinal range of motion were measured before and after the interventions. Subjects had low back pain for 11.2+/-1.54 years and 48% used pain medication. Overall, subjects presented with less pain and lower functional disability than subjects in other published intervention studies for chronic low back pain. Of the 60 subjects enrolled, 42 (70%) completed the study. Multivariate analyses of outcomes in the categories of medical, functional, psychological and behavioral factors indicated that significant differences between groups existed in functional and medical outcomes but not for the psychological or behavioral outcomes. Univariate analyses of medical and functional outcomes revealed significant reductions in pain intensity (64%), functional disability (77%) and pain medication usage (88%) in the yoga group at the post and 3-month follow-up assessments. These preliminary data indicate that the majority of self-referred persons with mild chronic low back pain will comply to and report improvement on medical and functional pain-related outcomes from Iyengar yoga therapy.
Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.
Henry, Stephen G; Chen, Meng; Matthias, Marianne S; Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L
To describe the development and initial application of the Chronic Pain Coding System. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. Six primary care clinics in northern California. Forty-five primary care visits involving 33 clinicians and 45 patients on opioids for chronic noncancer pain. The authors developed a structured coding system to accurately and objectively characterize discussions about pain and opioids. Two coders applied the final system to visit transcripts. Intercoder agreement for major coding categories was moderate to substantial (kappa = 0.5-0.7). Mixed effects regression was used to test six hypotheses to assess preliminary construct validity. Greater baseline pain interference was associated with longer pain discussions (P = 0.007) and more patient requests for clinician action (P = 0.02) but not more frequent negative patient evaluations of pain (P = 0.15). Greater clinician-reported visit difficulty was associated with more frequent disagreements with clinician recommendations (P = 0.003) and longer discussions of opioid risks (P = 0.049) but not more frequent requests for clinician action (P = 0.11). Rates of agreement versus disagreement with patient requests and clinician recommendations were similar for opioid-related and non-opioid-related utterances. This coding system appears to be a reliable and valid tool for characterizing patient-clinician communication about opioids and chronic pain during clinic visits. Objective data on how patients and clinicians discuss chronic pain and opioids are necessary to identify communication patterns and strategies for improving the quality and productivity of discussions about chronic pain that may lead to more effective pain management and reduce inappropriate opioid prescribing. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Coppieters, Iris; Meeus, Mira; Kregel, Jeroen; Caeyenberghs, Karen; De Pauw, Robby; Goubert, Dorien; Cagnie, Barbara
Compelling evidence has shown chronic widespread and exaggerated pain experience in chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSKP) conditions. In addition, neuroimaging research has revealed morphological and functional brain alterations in these patients. It is hypothesized that brain alterations play a role in the persistent pain complaints of patients with chronic MSKP. Nevertheless, lack of overview exists regarding the relations between brain alterations and clinical measures of pain. The present systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, to investigate the relations between structural or functional brain alterations, using magnetic resonance imaging scans, and clinical pain measures in patients with chronic MSKP. PubMed, Web of Science, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched. First, the obtained articles were screened according to title and abstract. Second, the screening was on the basis of full-text. Risk of bias in included studies was investigated according to the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Moderate evidence shows that higher pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity are related to decreased regional gray matter (GM) volume in brain regions encompassing the cingulate cortex, the insula, and the superior frontal and temporal gyrus. Further, some evidence exists that longer disease duration in fibromyalgia is correlated with decreased total GM volume. Yet, inconclusive evidence exists regarding the association of longer disease duration with decreased or increased regional GM volume in other chronic MSKP conditions. Inconclusive evidence was found regarding the direction of the relation of pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity with microstructural white matter and functional connectivity alterations. In conclusion, preliminary to moderate evidence demonstrates relations between clinical pain measures, and structural and
Kleinböhl, Dieter; Görtelmeyer, Roman; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Hölzl, Rupert
We investigated if established psychophysical measures of enhanced experimental sensitization in chronic musculoskeletal pain can be reduced by adjuvant treatment with a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, amantadine sulfate, and whether a reduction in sensitization might be accompanied by a concurrent improvement in clinical pain. Sensitization was evaluated by an experimental tonic heat model of short-term sensitization with concurrent subjective and behavioral psychophysical scaling. Twenty-six patients with chronic back pain were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received daily dosages of either placebo or 100 mg of amantadine sulfate during a 1-wk treatment. Participants completed quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds and experimental sensitization before and after treatment and clinical pain ratings before, during, and after treatment. Experimental sensitization and clinical pain were reduced in patients receiving verum. Initially, experimental sensitization was enhanced in patients, with early sensitization at nonpainful intensities of contact heat and enhanced sensitization at painful intensities, as shown previously. After 1 wk of treatment, experimental sensitization was reduced with amantadine sulfate but not with placebo. We conclude that adjuvant chronic pain treatment with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists might be beneficial for chronic pain if enhanced sensitization is involved and that the quantitative sensory test of temporal summation may be used to verify this.
Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G; Geck, Celia M; Henderson, Peter R; D'Eon, Joyce L
There is good support for the effectiveness of interdisciplinary chronic pain management programs in improving functional outcomes; however, relatively little is known about patients who report deterioration following participation in such programs. The present retrospective study investigated patients' reports of increased pain severity during participation in a cognitive-behaviourally oriented, outpatient treatment for chronic pain. Participants (n=280) completed a four-week, group-based, interdisciplinary chronic pain self-management program at a rehabilitation hospital. They completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires, which included global change ratings of pain severity and clinically-relevant measures, including pain intensity ratings, functional limitations, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy. Statistically significant pre-post improvements were observed for all study variables. Almost all patients reported global improvement overall. Nevertheless, a subset of patients (n=99) reported increased pain severity on global ratings. These individuals were characterized by lower self-efficacy at baseline. Participants endorsed significant pre- and post-treatment improvements in all domains. Nevertheless, some participants reported deterioration. The findings shed light on variables associated with negative treatment outcomes and have practical applications for interdisciplinary chronic pain management programs.
Gallinati, Jessica L.; Clark, Michael E.
The purpose of this paper is to review the rationale for concurrent, evidence-based treatment of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To meet this end, we review pertinent definitions and extant theories related to the two conditions and their correlations with each other. We then synthesize theoretical components into a proposal of a comprehensive conceptual framework for understanding the relationship and clinical complexity of overlapping chronic pain and PTSD. We conclude with an example of an integrated treatment model designed specifically to address a fundamental factor associated with pain and PTSD: avoidance. PMID:23819047
Kalu, Emmanuel; Richardson, Robert
Intrauterine retention of foetal bones is an uncommon but recognised complication of late termination of pregnancy. Secondary subfertility, abnormal uterine bleeding and vaginal discharge are the usual presenting complaints. We report a case of prolonged retention of foetal bones for 14 years in a woman who presented with chronic pelvic pain. Hysteroscopic examination was diagnostic and therapeutic. Retained foetal bones are an uncommon intrauterine cause of chronic pelvic pain that should be considered particularly when a woman with a history of late termination presents with pelvic pain. Hysteroscopic evacuation is curative.
Mao, Weiming; Liao, Xiujun; Wu, Wenjing; Yu, Yanyan; Yang, Guangen
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and psychological distress in patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain. The study was conducted on patients referred to Hangzhou Third Hospital for chronic anal pain from January, 2010 to December, 2014. Patient demographics, clinical history, anorectal physiology, and radiological imaging data were recorded for all patients. The treatment outcome was noted for patients treated and followed up for more than 6 month at the present unit. Ninety-six patients with mean age of 45.1 years (range, 17-82) were studied. Seventy-one patients (74.0%) had functional anorectal pain(FARP). The main complaints were dull, sharp, stabbing, or spasm pain. Among all patients, 34.3% reported that their pain radiated into other locations. Fifty-one patients (53.1%) had bowel dysfunction, while 28.1% patients had urinary dysfunction. The common factors associated with pain relief were day time, lying down and warm water baths; the factors that contributed to aggravated pain were night time, defecation or sitting. 92.7% (89/96) of patients reported symptoms of psychological disturbance. FARP patients exhibited increased depression than non-FARP patients(P<0.05). In addition, female patients were more likely to have depression than male patients (P<0.05). The overall pain treatment success rate was 55.2% (53/96). The pain treatment outcome was better in non-FARP patients than in FARP patients(χ2=3.85, P<0.05). Conclusively, chronic idiopathic anal pain is a complex clinical symptom, involving pelvic floor muscles, the nervous system, endocrine system, and the patients’ psychological conditions. Further research is needed to improve diagnosis and treatment for patients with chronic idiopathic anal pain. PMID:28730167
Nijs, Jo; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn
During the past decade, scientific research has provided new insight into the development from an acute, localised musculoskeletal disorder towards chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia (FM). Chronic widespread pain/FM is characterised by sensitisation of central pain pathways. An in-depth review of basic and clinical research was performed to design a theoretical framework for manual therapy in these patients. It is explained that manual therapy might be able to influence the process of chronicity in three different ways. (I) In order to prevent chronicity in (sub)acute musculoskeletal disorders, it seems crucial to limit the time course of afferent stimulation of peripheral nociceptors. (II) In the case of chronic widespread pain and established sensitisation of central pain pathways, relatively minor injuries/trauma at any locations are likely to sustain the process of central sensitisation and should be treated appropriately with manual therapy accounting for the decreased sensory threshold. Inappropriate pain beliefs should be addressed and exercise interventions should account for the process of central sensitisation. (III) However, manual therapists ignoring the processes involved in the development and maintenance of chronic widespread pain/FM may cause more harm then benefit to the patient by triggering or sustaining central sensitisation.
Levitt, Alexandra E; Galor, Anat; Chowdhury, Aneesa R; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D; Zhuang, Gerald Y; Patin, Dennis; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B; Martin, Eden R
Recent data suggest that corneal somatosensory dysfunction may be the underlying cause of severe dry eye symptoms in the absence of ocular surface pathology seen in a subset of patients diagnosed with “dry eye syndrome.” This subset of patients tends to demonstrate a unique constellation of symptoms that are persistent, more severe, and generally respond poorly to current dry eye therapies targeting inadequate or dysfunctional tears. A growing body of literature suggests that symptoms in these patients may be better characterized as neuropathic ocular pain rather than dry eye. In these patients, dry eye symptoms are often associated with numerous comorbid pain conditions and evidence of central pain processing abnormalities, where eye pain is just one of multiple overlapping peripheral manifestations. In this review, we discuss the concept and potential mechanisms of chronic overlapping pain conditions as well as evidence for considering neuropathic ocular pain as one of these overlapping pain conditions. PMID:28814146
Schütze, Robert; Rees, Clare; Preece, Minette; Schütze, Mark
The relationship between persistent pain and self-directed, non-reactive awareness of present-moment experience (i.e., mindfulness) was explored in one of the dominant psychological theories of chronic pain - the fear-avoidance model. A heterogeneous sample of 104 chronic pain outpatients at a multidisciplinary pain clinic in Australia completed psychometrically sound self-report measures of major variables in this model: Pain intensity, negative affect, pain catastrophizing, pain-related fear, pain hypervigilance, and functional disability. Two measures of mindfulness were also used, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale  and the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire . Results showed that mindfulness significantly negatively predicts each of these variables, accounting for 17-41% of their variance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that mindfulness uniquely predicts pain catastrophizing when other variables are controlled, and moderates the relationship between pain intensity and pain catastrophizing. This is the first clear evidence substantiating the strong link between mindfulness and pain catastrophizing, and suggests mindfulness might be added to the fear-avoidance model. Implications for the clinical use of mindfulness in screening and intervention are discussed.
Tompkins, D. Andrew; Johnson, Patrick S.; Smith, Michael T.; Strain, Eric C.; Edwards, Robert R.; Johnson, Matthew W.
Opioid therapy for pain is associated with an increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). This study’s purpose was to determine the association between opioid misuse propensity (Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients in Pain-Revised; SOAPP-R) and delay discounting, a behavioral process linked to SUD which quantifies the extent to which outcomes are devalued due to their delay. Participants reporting chronic pain (PRCP N=249) answered pain and opioid use questions, and then completed four delay discounting tasks. Each of these tasks assessed either money or pain consequences, framed as either rewards or punishments. Each task involved hypothetical choices between immediate smaller vs. delayed larger consequences. The extant Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) assessed delay discounting of money rewards, and a modified version assessed discounting of money losses (immediate smaller loss vs. larger delayed loss). Based on the MCQ, the novel Pain Relief Choice Questionnaire (PRCQ) assessed choices between an immediate short duration of pain relief vs. a longer duration of pain relief. Similarly, the novel Additional Pain Choice Questionnaire (APCQ) assessed choices between an immediate short duration of additional pain vs. a longer duration of additional pain. Discounting of both additional pain and money losses were significantly associated with high SOAPP-R scores – indicating participants at greatest risk for opioid misuse discount future punishments rather than future rewards compared to those at low risk. Measures of delay discounting may have promise in more accurately identifying individuals at highest risk for opioid misuse during chronic opioid therapy. PMID:27075431
Rost, Silke; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Koval, Peter; Sütterlin, Stefan; Vögele, Claus; Crombez, Geert
Affective instability, conceptualized as fluctuations in mood over time, has been related to ill-health and psychopathology. In this study, we examined the role of affective instability on daily pain outcomes in 70 patients with chronic pain (Mage = 49.7 years; 46 females) using an end-of-day diary. During a baseline phase, patients completed self-reported questionnaires of pain severity, pain duration, disability, depression, and anxiety. During a subsequent diary phase, patients filled out an electronic end-of-day diary over 14 consecutive days assessing daily levels of pain severity, disability, cognitive complaints, negative affect (NA) and positive affect. Affective instability was operationalized as the mean square of successive differences in daily mood (separately for NA and positive affect), which takes into account the size of affective changes over consecutive days. Results indicated that NA instability was positively associated with daily disability, beyond the effects of daily pain severity. Furthermore, NA instability moderated the relationship between daily pain severity and daily disability and the relationship between daily pain severity and daily cognitive complaints. Positive affect instability, however, showed to be unrelated to all outcomes. Current findings extend previous results and reveal the putative role of affective instability on pain-related outcomes and may yield important clinical implications. Indeed, they suggest that targeting NA instability by improving emotion regulation skills may be a strategy to diminish disability and cognitive complaints in patients with chronic pain.
Objective This study investigates associations between cortical thickness and pain duration, and central sensitization as markers of pain progression in painful knee osteoarthritis. Methods Whole brain cortical thickness and pressure pain thresholds were assessed in 70 participants; 40 patients with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis (age = 66.1± 8.5 years, 21 females, mean duration of pain = 8.5 years), and 30 healthy controls (age = 62.7± 7.4, 17 females). Results Cortical thickness negatively correlated with pain duration mainly in fronto-temporal areas outside of classical pain processing areas (p<0.05, age-controlled, FDR corrected). Pain sensitivity was unrelated to cortical thickness. Patients showed lower cortical thickness in the right anterior insula (p<0.001, uncorrected) with no changes surviving multiple test correction. Conclusion With increasing number of years of suffering from chronic arthritis pain we found increasing cortical thinning in extended cerebral cortical regions beyond recognised pain-processing areas. While the mechanisms of cortical thinning remain to be elucidated, we show that pain progression indexed by central sensitization does not play a major role. PMID:27658292
McKee, M. Diane; Kligler, Benjamin; Fletcher, Jason; Biryukov, Francesca; Casalaina, William; Anderson, Belinda; Blank, Arthur
Purpose To describe outcomes of the Acupuncture to Decrease Disparities in Outcomes of Pain Treatment (ADDOPT) trial, testing acupuncture as an adjunct to usual treatment for chronic pain in urban health centers. Method We conducted quasi-experimental trial. Primary care patients (>21 yrs) with chronic pain due to osteoarthritis, neck or back pain at four hospital owned safety net health centers in the Bronx, NY received weekly acupuncture treatments provided by supervised acupuncture students for up to 14 weeks. Pain and functional status were assessed during a 6-week run-in period before acupuncture, during treatment and post treatment. Results Of 495 referred patients, 226 (47%) initiated acupuncture. Back pain was the most common referring diagnosis (59.5%) followed by OA (16.3%). Patients were older (mean age 54.3), mostly Medicaid insured (60.4%), often on disability (38.3%), often (46.7%) in poor or fair overall health, and had high baseline levels of pain (mean BPI pain severity 6.8; mean days with pain, 12.3 of 14 days). The mean number of treatments was 9.7 (SD = 7.3). Pain severity improved from baseline (6.8 vs 5.6 at 12 wks and 5.5 at 24 wks) as did physical well-being (31.8 vs 35.7 at 12 wks and 35.3 at 24 wks). Using HLM methods, reduction in pain severity between baseline and treatment phase was significant (p <.001). Improvements in physical well-being were significant at 12 and 24 weeks post-baseline (p <.001). Conclusions Referred primary care patients experienced high levels of pain and pain-related disability. Weekly acupuncture was associated with short-term improvements in pain and quality of life. PMID:24204065
McKee, M Diane; Kligler, Benjamin; Fletcher, Jason; Biryukov, Francesca; Casalaina, William; Anderson, Belinda; Blank, Arthur
The purpose of this study was to describe outcomes of the Acupuncture to Decrease Disparities in Outcomes of Pain Treatment (ADDOPT) trial, testing acupuncture as an adjunct to usual treatment for chronic pain in urban health centers. We conducted a quasi-experimental trial. Primary care patients (>21 years old) with chronic pain caused by osteoarthritis or neck or back pain at 4 hospital-owned safety net health centers in the Bronx, New York, received weekly acupuncture treatments provided by supervised acupuncture students for up to 14 weeks. Pain and functional status were assessed during a 6-week run-in period before acupuncture, during treatment, and after treatment. Of 495 referred patients, 226 (47%) initiated acupuncture. Back pain was the most common referring diagnosis (59.5%) followed by osteoarthritis (16.3%). Patients were older (mean age, 54.3 years), mostly insured by Medicaid (60.4%), often receiving disability (38.3%), and often in poor or fair overall health (46.7%). They had high baseline levels of pain (mean severity per the Brief Pain Inventory, 6.8; mean days with pain, 12.3 of 14). The mean number of treatments was 9.7 (standard deviation, 7.3). Pain severity improved from baseline (6.8 vs. 5.6 at 12 weeks and 5.5 at 24 weeks), as did physical well-being (31.8 vs. 35.7 at 12 weeks and 35.3 at 24 weeks). Using hierarchical linear modeling methods, reduction in pain severity between baseline and the treatment phase was significant (P < .001). Improvements in physical well-being were significant at 12 and 24 weeks after baseline (P < .001). Referred primary care patients experienced high levels of pain and pain-related disability. Weekly acupuncture was associated with short-term improvements in pain and quality of life.
Nijs, Jo; Lluch Girbés, Enrique; Lundberg, Mari; Malfliet, Anneleen; Sterling, Michele
Even though nociceptive pathology has often long subsided, the brain of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain has typically acquired a protective (movement-related) pain memory. Exercise therapy for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain is often hampered by such pain memories. Here the authors explain how musculoskeletal therapists can alter pain memories in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, by integrating pain neuroscience education with exercise interventions. The latter includes applying graded exposure in vivo principles during exercise therapy, for targeting the brain circuitries orchestrated by the amygdala (the memory of fear centre in the brain). Before initiating exercise therapy, a preparatory phase of intensive pain neuroscience education is required. Next, exercise therapy can address movement-related pain memories by applying the 'exposure without danger' principle. By addressing patients' perceptions about exercises, therapists should try to decrease the anticipated danger (threat level) of the exercises by challenging the nature of, and reasoning behind their fears, assuring the safety of the exercises, and increasing confidence in a successful accomplishment of the exercise. This way, exercise therapy accounts for the current understanding of pain neuroscience, including the mechanisms of central sensitization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sturgeon, John A
Pain is a complex stressor that presents a significant challenge to most aspects of functioning and contributes to substantial physical, psychological, occupational, and financial cost, particularly in its chronic form. As medical intervention frequently cannot resolve pain completely, there is a need for management approaches to chronic pain, including psychological intervention. Psychotherapy for chronic pain primarily targets improvements in physical, emotional, social, and occupational functioning rather than focusing on resolution of pain itself. However, psychological therapies for chronic pain differ in their scope, duration, and goals, and thus show distinct patterns of treatment efficacy. These therapies fall into four categories: operant-behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The current article explores the theoretical distinctiveness, therapeutic targets, and effectiveness of these approaches as well as mechanisms and individual differences that factor into treatment response and pain-related dysfunction and distress. Implications for future research, dissemination of treatment, and the integration of psychological principles with other treatment modalities are also discussed. PMID:24748826
Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María
BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and AN