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Sample records for chronic thinner intoxication

  1. An interesting thinner intoxication case: intrathoracic injection.

    PubMed

    Solak, Ilhami; Cankayali, Ilkin; Aksu, Hasim; Moral, Ali Resat

    2006-01-01

    Thinners, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene, xylene, and N-hexane, are widely used in industry for the production of plastics, varnish, paint, and glue. Use of these toxic agents frequently leads to chronic intoxication caused by abuse or misuse of solvents, which are usually taken in through inhalation. Thinners may have neurotoxic, myotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and cardiotoxic systemic effects. The patient described in this report attempted to commit suicide by injecting 10 cc thinner into the left hemithorax. Acute chemical empyema developed at the left hemithorax. No bacterial growth was noted in empyema liquid and blood samples. Empyema was treated with tube thoracostomy, and full remission was observed after 33 d. No systemic toxic signs were noted, other than a low level of hepatotoxicity. Although pleural effusion, atelectasis, and pleural thickening were observed at the acute phase on computed tomography (CT) of the thorax, only pleural thickening persisted on CT of the thorax after 1 y. Investigators could not find a documented case of parenteral use of thinners in the medical literature.

  2. Chronic thinner intoxication: clinico-pathologic report of a human case.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, A; Aruffo, C

    1980-01-01

    A 27 year old Mexican male addicted for 12 years to glue-sniffing and thinner inhalation developed neurological and behavioural disturbances which led to hospital admission and death. Autopsy disclosed diffuse cerebral and cerebellar cortex atrophy and giant axonopathy both central and peripheral. The corpus callosum was atrophic secondarily to neuron loss in the neocortex. Images PMID:7441282

  3. Characteristic manifestations of acute paint thinner-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Agin, Khosrow; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin; Rahimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the acute clinical and para-clinical abnormalities arising from paint thinner (PT) poisoning in children. Data were collected from 2008 to 2013, and sourced from the medical records of PT-intoxicated children and through questionnaires. A total of 42 children were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 37.2±2.4 months. The participants ranged from10 to 96 months of age; with a median age of 3 months; and a modal age of 24 months. The sex ratio in the study was 22 males (64.9%) to 20 females (35.1%). Clinical biochemistry results of participants revealed the significant presence of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, 569.25±151.58U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 576.14±164.97 IU/L). Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was also carried out. Chest X-ray predominantly revealed right side alveolar air space consolidation. These results confirmed hepatotoxicity and pneumonia in PT-intoxicated children. The study also revealed that positive outcomes were achieved in patients with early treatment and management. In addition, the current finding confirmed the timely transfer of the victim to the poisoning center.

  4. Chronic manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. )

    1989-10-01

    We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.

  5. [Teratologic cranio-encephalic effects of chronic thinner inhalation in progenitors, in rats and humans].

    PubMed

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of thinner by youngsters and adolescents is an increasing drug abuse problem in Mexico. It presents serious repercussions upon socio-economic, cultural, legal and health (neurologic and psychiatric) problems. We report a comparative study in humans and rats which demonstrate the embryotoxic and craneo encephalic teratologic effects in the children and brood of progenitors who have chronically inhaled thinner (in the case of pregnant women, before, at the beginning and throughout pregnancy). Inhaled thinner passes directly to the blood stream and crosses the placentary barrier freely reaching the embryo. It may cause craneal bone and partial or total encephalon agenesia, added to macro and microscopic lesions secondary to direct aggression to the neuroepithelial germ cells. Abortions and premature labor with weight and size underdeveloped products and placentary hemorrhages occur. Usually these die, but if they survive they show trascendental mental retardation, as well as neurologic and psychiatric sequels.

  6. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kępka, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Płudowski, Paweł; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szulc, Agata; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-05-31

    Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell. The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period. The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6 ± 8.9) and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men) aged 22-60 years (39.8 ± 9.4). The patients' alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6 ± 7.5). Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9 ± 151.5). Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0), 30th (T30) and 49th (T49) day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC) and total (TC) carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student's t-test was used. At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05) in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01) as well as AC (p < 0.001) were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001)was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05), whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05). Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine after chronic alcohol intoxication is caused by the uptake of blood

  7. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A S; Prichard, J S; Freedman, M H

    1973-03-17

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale.

  8. Chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS).

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2017-08-31

    Arsenic and its compounds are well-established, potent, environmentally widespread and persistent toxicants with metabolic, genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, epigenetic and carcinogenic effects. Arsenic occurs naturally in the Earth's crust, but anthropogenic arsenic emissions have surmounted the emissions from important natural sources such as volcanism. Inorganic arsenicals exhibit acute and chronic toxicities in virtually all cell types and tissues, and hence arsenic intoxication affects multiple systems. Whereas acute arsenic intoxication is rare and relatively easy to diagnose, chronic arsenic intoxication (CAsI) is common but goes often misdiagnosed. Based on a review of the literature as well as our own clinical experience, we propose a chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS). A distinctive feature of CAsIDS is the use of bone arsenic load as an essential criterion for the individual risk assessment of chronic arsenic intoxication, combined with a systemic clinical assessment. We present clinical examples where CAsIDS is applied for the diagnosis of CAsI, review the main topics of the toxicity of arsenic in different cell and organ systems and discuss the therapy and prevention of disease caused or aggravated by chronic arsenic intoxication. CAsIDS can help physicians establish the diagnosis of CAsI and associated conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [STRUCTURE OF THE SPLEEN AT CHRONIC INTOXICATION OF THE ORGANISM BY SODIUM TETRABORATE AND AFTER INTOXICATION].

    PubMed

    Umbetov, T; Berdalinova, A; Koyshybayev, A; 2Umbetova, K; Sultanova, G

    2016-05-01

    The structure of a spleen of 110 white not purebred rats - males (10 intact, 50 control, 50 experimental) at chronic intoxication by sodium tetraborate and the after intoxication period - the 7, 14, 30 and 60 days were studied. Chronic impact of sodium tetraborate on an organism resulted into increase in the relative weight of a spleen in comparison with body weight that led to increase in weight coefficient of a spleen. Increase in the relative area of all functional zones (periarterial zone, the germinal center, mantle and marginal zones) of lymphoid slug of a white pulp is established. Decrease of an index a red/white pulp, as a result of increase of the area of a white pulp in response to chronic intoxication of an organism is revealed. During the after intoxication period as a result of decrease in immune tension there occured decrease of body weight and decrease in the area of a white pulp. During this period there was a reliable decrease of the area of lymphoid slug and decrease in the area of its functional zones (a periarterial zone, the center of manifolding, mantle and marginal zones).

  10. [Development of a prediabetic state under chronic alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voĭtenko, V V; Konopel'niuk, V V; Savchuk, O M; Ostapchenko, L I

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in key parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which correspond to the clinical picture that accompanies the development of prediabetic condition on the background of chronic alcohol intoxication. From the analysis of glycemic curves obtained during the insulin-glucose test, a speed of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues increased at the 1st day (1.5 fold) and the third day (1.3 fold) of administration of alcohol solution. At the later periods, at 7 and 11 days of ethanol administration, a decreased rate of glucose uptake in animals with chronic alcohol intoxication was detected. We also detected an increased content of serotonin in the blood serum and a decreased (1.2 fold) serotonin content in rat brain during the whole period of development of chronic alcohol intoxication.

  11. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, A. S.; Prichard, J. S.; Freedman, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4691106

  12. Evoked trigeminal nerve potential in chronic trichloroethylene intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Barret, L.; Arsac, P.; Vincent, M.; Faure, J.; Garrel, S.; Reymond, F.

    1982-06-01

    Results of a study of trigeminal nerve impairment resulting from trichloroethylene intoxication by the somatosensory-evoked potential method reveal three kinds of abnormalities: increased stimulation voltage, excessive latency delay with morphological abnormalities, and excessive graph amplitude. These abnormalities confirm clinical disturbance (hypesthesia of the trigeminal nerve area) and open debate about the real mechanism of trichloroethylene neurotoxicity. Industrial intoxication by solvents, particularly trichloroethylene, is common. We have conducted a study of 188 workers chronically exposed to trichloroethylene and have confirmed the selective neurological disturbances of this intoxication in the trigeminal nerve (20%) (3, 10). We utilized a new experimental method, developed for studies of chronic intoxications effecting the median nerve (5, 8), of recording the somatosensory evoked potential following stimulation of the trigeminal nerve (4, 6, 7). The workers in this study were selected following clinical evaluation of their facial sensitivity and trigeminal nerve reflexes. In this paper we present our preliminary results on 11 workers, 9 suffering effects of intoxication and 2 controls.

  13. Blood glucose in intoxicated chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed Central

    Kallas, P.; Sellers, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Chronic alcoholics may present with hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Because alcohol induces glycogenolysis, chronic alcoholics usually have higher blood glucose values than do nonalcoholic subjects. In a prospective study of blood glucose concentration in 201 chronic alcoholics, blood alcohol concentration, sex, weight, type of beverage consumed and time since last eating were not generally associated with lower blood glucose values. The infrequency of hypoglycemia in ambulatory chronic alcoholics may reflect the relatively ready availability of hostels, detoxification centres and hospitals in large cities. It is, however, important to be aware of the possible occurrence of hypoglycemia in chronic alcoholics, particularly when community facilities for the chronic alcoholic are not available. PMID:1116089

  14. [Exchange reactions in brain tissue under chronic ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Vinogradova, L N

    1982-01-01

    The paper deals with characterization of systems utilizing ethanol and reactions conjugated with its exchange in the brain tissue under chronic alcohol intoxication. The following is established: the absence of the alcoholdehydrogenase pathway of ethanol oxidation in rabbits, unbalanced splitting of carbohydrates under two-months ethanol load, disturbance of oxidative processes in the tricarboxylic acids cycle, a decrease in the pool of oxidized nicotin amide coenzymes.

  15. Cyanide intoxication--I. An oral chronic animal model.

    PubMed

    Buzaleh, A M; Vazquez, E S; Batlle, A M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of oral chronic cyanide administration to mice were studied. Cyanide intoxication was confirmed by the increased levels of this poison and the concomitant inhibition of cytochrome oxidase activity in liver, brain, heart and blood. The detoxifying enzyme rhodanese was measured. The state of the sulfane sulfur pool was investigated by determination of the cyanide labile-sulfur levels. A clear correlation between rhodanese activity and sulfur content was obtained as a consequence of cyanide action. These results support the belief that rhodanese plays a fundamental role in the detoxification process of cyanide, in preventing cyanide reaching the target tissues.

  16. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication.

  17. [Features of heart function and morphology in chronic organic solvents intoxication].

    PubMed

    Tret'iakov, S V; Shpagina, L A; Loseva, M I

    2004-01-01

    Patients with chronic organic solvents intoxication are characterized by left ventricle hyperfunction mostly isometric type, with left ventricle diastole disordered due to impaired both passive filling and active relaxation, given the chamber geometry is normal and hypokinetictype hemodynamics is prevalent. Phase analysis of left heart mechanic activity in patients with chronic organic solvents intoxication demonstrated I degree hypodinamia syndrome and left ventricle outlet stenosis.

  18. [Posturographic alterations in thinner abusers].

    PubMed

    Ishiwara-Niembro, K; Poblano-Luna, A; Pineda-Hernández, G; Ortega-Hernández, P

    Abuse of thinner is a recognized problem in underdeveloped countries, because is in increasing frequency and results in neurological impairments. The objective of this study is to describe the posturographic alterations present in a group of thinner abusers. Thirty patients were recruited from a toxicology center and controls were non exposed subjects age and gender matched; 28 males and 2 females in each group. Posturographic recordings were performed blind to group to study Sensory Organization (SO): visual, somatosensory and vestibular ratios and Strategy Analyses. In SO somatosensory, visual and vestibular systems showed lower values in the thinner abusers group (p= 0.003, 0.0007 and 0.000001 respectively). Significant negative correlation were disclosed between duration of thinner exposure and vestibular ratio performance in sensory analysis (r= 0.48, p= 0.01). In strategy analyses, visual (p= 0.005) and vestibular strategy (p= 0.02) also showed lower values in the thinner abusers group. Data from this study show that thinner abusers present posturographic alterations related to chronic thinner consumption.

  19. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  20. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.; Abu-Basha, Ehab A.; Youssef, Salah A. H.; Amer, Aziza M.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hauck, Catherine C.; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 µg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin. PMID:23820209

  1. [Optic neuropathy induced by thinner sniffing].

    PubMed

    Kohriyama, K; Hori, H; Murai, Y; Ninomiya, H; Tsukamoto, Y

    1989-12-01

    A case of optic neuropathy induced by thinner sniffing is reported. A 17-year-old girl, who had been sniffing a lacquer thinner for three months, suffered acute blindness followed by optic atrophy. Brain computed tomography revealed symmetrical low attenuation areas in the bilateral putamen. An analysis of the thinner by gas chromatography showed that its major components in a vaporized state were methyl alcohol and metyhl acetate. The optic neuropathy was induced by these solvents. In the diagnosis of the intoxication of mixed organic solvents, the measurement of each solvent in its vapor phase is considered to be quite important.

  2. [Characteristics of acute and chronic intoxication induced by rocket propellant nitrogen tetroxide].

    PubMed

    Yue, Mao-xing; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, Zheng-guo; Wang, De-wen; Yang, Zhi-huan; Yang, He-ming

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the characteristics of acute and chronic injuries of the nitrogen tetroxide, a kind of propellant of rocket. 128 male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: acute control group (56), acute nitrogen tetroxide intoxication group (56), long-term response group (8). The animals were killed sequentially at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Nitrogen tetroxide was administrated through inhalation at the concentration of 81 mg/m3 for 15 min. Chronic injuries and pathologic changes were also observed one year after the intoxication. Pulmonary edema was the main pathological changes after intoxication, complicated with partial haemorrhage. Data acquired from long-term observations showed 75% pulmonary fibrosis and one case of adenocarcinoma of lung. The first 2 to 6 h after intoxication is the most severe stage of the injury. During the long-term observation, we find that intoxication with nitrogen tetroxide can induce pulmonary fibrosis and adenocarcinoma.

  3. [Characteristics of affect in chronic intoxication by non-symmetrical dimethylhydrazine, hydrocarbons and nitroglycols].

    PubMed

    Filippov, V L; Filippova, O I; Fedotov, D D; Astaf'ev, O M; Gerasimenko, A N

    1997-01-01

    The authors analyze emotional features in workers with occupational exposure to hydrazines, hydrocarbons and nitroglycols. Chronic occupational poisoning with those chemicals induce numerous emotional symptoms that are specific and varying in severity. The materials presented by authors could be interesting for occupational therapist, internist and psychiatrist for early diagnosis of chronic occupational intoxications, treatment of emotional disorders in workers and better occupational safety.

  4. Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Thinners URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodthinners.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  6. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  7. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  8. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies.

    PubMed

    Doering, Stefan; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Berger, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical indicators and all four

  9. Energy metabolism disorders in rat salivary glands tissues in connection with chronic sodium nitrate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Avetikov, D; Bondarenko, V; Danylchenko, S; Pronina, E; Stavytskyi, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the research was the study of nitrite impact on energy metabolism in salivary gland tissues in connection with chronic nitrate intoxication. The study has been carried out on 100 Wistar rats, weighing 160-250 g, which were divided into following groups: the 1st group consisted of intact rodents (control); the 2nd group consisted of experimental rodents, where chronic nitrate intoxication has been reproduced during 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Intoxication leads to hypoxia, which complications cause tissue hypoxia. Has been established that prolonged intake of nitrates in low doses leads to their accumulation in salivary glands tissues all these result in derangement of metabolism at the intermembrane cellular level. At the same time energy metabolism in salivary glands is inhibited, resulting in their dysfunction at the excretory and endocrine levels.

  10. Unexpected Improvements of Spatial Learning and Memory Abilities in Chronic Rotenone Intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fengju; Song, Ning; Zhao, Chenyang; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The liposoluble insecticide rotenone is commonly used as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor to replicate Parkinson's disease (PD) pathological features. However, there was no assessment of the spatial learning and memory abilities in chronic rotenone-induced PD models. In the present study, by rotarod test and Thioflavine T staining, we first noted the impairment of motor coordination in rotenone-treated group for 3 months, as well as alpha-synuclein inclusions in the nigral dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6 mice with intragastrical delivery of rotenone (5 mg/Kg) for 3 months rather than 1 month. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory abilities by Morris water maze task in this model. The results showed escape latency reduced in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 3 months, indicating an improvement of learning ability. However, it was delayed slightly but not significantly in rotenone-intoxicated mice for 1 month. Similarly, we demonstrated that spatial memory ability was enhanced in 3-month-treatment group, but impaired in 1-month-treatment group. There were no proliferating cell nuclear antigen and doublecortin positive cells in the hippocampus by double immunofluorescent staining, indicating the absence of hippocampal neurogenesis in rotenone-intoxicated mice. These results suggest that spatial learning and memory abilities are disturbed in chronic rotenone-intoxicated PD model. PMID:24618574

  11. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Konarzewska, Beata; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Kowzan, Urszula; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-07-04

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A), and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C) with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index (GI) and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A), compared to the control group (C). Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or

  12. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Wojewódzka-Żelezniakowicz, Marzena; Konarzewska, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Supronowicz, Zbigniew Bronisław; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-10-08

    Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in the presence of H₂O₂, peroxidase catalyses the formation of bacteriocidic compounds such as hypothiocyanate.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase (OPO). A total of 37 volunteers participated in the study. This cohort consisted of 17 male alcohol-dependent smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS group, alcohol + smoking) (mean age: 42 years; range: 26-55) (100-700 g/day of alcohol; 10-20 cigarettes/day) and 20 control male social drinkers(CNS group, control non-smokers) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking (mean age: 42 years; range:30-53). Salivary peroxidase activity was measured by the colorimetric method. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. There was significantly higher activity of OPO (p = 0.00001)and significantly lower salivary flow (SF) (p = 0.007) in alcohol-dependent smokers after chronic alcohol intoxication compared to the control group. OPO activity significantly correlated with the number of days of alcohol intoxication, but not with smoking. Gingival index (GI) was significantly higher in smoking alcohol-dependent persons than in the control group, and correlated with OPO activity. The sensitivity of the OPO test was 70% in smoking alcoholics, while specificity was 95%. The increased activity of OPO suggests chronic oxidative stress is more likely due to ethanol action than to smoking. Smoking alcohol-dependent persons have a worse periodontal status than controls. OPO activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse may help in the diagnosis of alcoholism.

  13. Chronic elemental mercury intoxication: clinical and field studies in lampsocket manufacturers.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y J; Huang, C C; Shih, T S; Yang, S S

    1994-01-01

    Four workers chronically exposed to elemental mental mercury in a lampsocket manufacturing factory were studied. The clinical manifestations were severe in one, mild in another, and suspicious in the remaining two. Correlation between severity of clinical features and increased urinary mercury concentrations was found. The time weighted average mercury concentrations were 0.945 mg/m3 and 0.709 mg/m3 for two workers in one room and 0.225 mg/m3 in the other. After stopping exposure, the workers recovered spontaneously or with D-penicillamine treatment within six months. It is concluded that recovery from chronic elemental mercury intoxication may be complete when patients are removed early from the exposure environment. The hazard of mercury intoxication in recycling of waste substances is emphasised. PMID:8199670

  14. Clinical Observation of 12 Farmers Who Believe Themselves to Have Suffered from Chronic Pesticide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zoong-Rock; Hong, So-Young; Han, Mi-Jung; Lee, Hae-seung; Gil, Hyo-Ook; Yang, Jong-O; Lee, En-Yung

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims We assessed twelve cases of suspected chronic pesticide intoxication, with medically unexplained physical symptoms. Methods Complete blood cell count (CBC), blood chemistry, routine urinalysis, chest X-ray, ECG, gastrofiberscopy, abdominal ultrasonography, neuroselective sensory nerve conduction threshold, and psychological assessment were performed on 12 farmers who believe themselves to have suffered from chronic pesticide intoxication. Results No specific abnormalities were observed on CBC, routine urinalysis, chest X-ray, ECG, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasonography, or peripheral nerve conduction velocity test. They persistently manifested helplessness, depression, and anxiety. The results of both psychological assessment and general physical examination revealed the following clinical features: depression (8 cases), multiple chemical hypersensitivity syndrome (2 cases), alcoholism (1 case), and religious preoccupation (1 case). Conclusion In those living in the western rural area of South Korea, depression is a prominent ongoing presentation in pesticide-exposed farmers, in addition to unexplainable physical symptoms. PMID:18363272

  15. [Chronic toluene intoxication and hyperkinésie volitionnelle].

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Tokumaru, Y; Yagishita, T; Hirayama, K; Iwasaki, I

    1986-12-01

    Hyperkinésie volitionnelle is one of the involuntary movements discriminated from intention tremor. It occurs idiopathically and with cerebral infarction, head trauma, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, hepatolenticular degeneration and polyneuropathy. Here, we report a case of toluene intoxication presenting hyperkinésie volitionnelle. A 28-year-old painter noticed a tremor of the upper extremities on December 1979. The tremor occurred both in posture and in voluntary movements. The tremor gradually developed and appeared in the legs in May 1980. Slight titubation of the trunk and head was marked in sitting posture. He showed staggering of gait. On August 1980, he exhibited slurred speech. He was admitted to the Department of Neurology of Chiba University Hospital on January 19th, 1981. Neurological examination revealed slight mental deterioration, pendular nystagmus, bradylalia, 4-5 c/s violent postural tremor of the upper extremities, action myoclonus, head and truncal titubation, mild leg tremor in sitting posture. The tremor increased terminally on finger to nose testing, and showed fast, coarse, convulsive movement (movement oppositionniste). But there was no dysmetria. The involuntary movements, above mentioned, were summarized as hyperkinésie volitionnelle. Muscle tone was hypotonic. Muscle weakness and atrophy were not seen. Deep tendon reflexes were all exaggerated, but there was no pathological reflex. He showed wide-based ataxic gait. Sensory and autonomic functions were normal. Blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid analysis appeared normal. Electroencephalography showed 40-50 microV, 9-10 c/s alpha waves with a few fast waves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Chronic hypothermia and water intoxication associated with a neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, E. L.; Sisodiya, S.; Sarkar, D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a 71 year old man with a neurodegenerative condition who developed chronic inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and hypothermia resulting in recurrent episodes of impaired consciousness. This combination of abnormalities is attributable to hypothalamic disease and has not to our knowledge been previously reported with clearly documented antidiuretic hormone excess. Images Figure 1 PMID:8121871

  17. Fabrication of the Appalachian Thinner

    Treesearch

    Cleveland J. Biller

    1982-01-01

    The Appalachian Thinner, a prototype cable yarder, has proven capable of harvesting timber on steep slopes. Details of the fabrication of the prototype yarder are presented. An Appalachian Thinner can be built economically in a typical logger's repair shop.

  18. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the output of salivary immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Minarowska, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Wilamowska, Dorota; Waszkiel, Danuta; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the output of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) was studied in 37 volunteers: 17 male smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS) and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS). The DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. Concentration of IgA in saliva was determined by ELISA. Salivary flow (SF) and IgA output were significantly decreased in AS compared to CNS. There were no significant correlations between the amount of alcohol/cigarettes as well as the duration of alcohol intoxication/smoking, and SF or IgA output, nor between IgA level and SF. Gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in CNS, and was inversely correlated with IgA salivary level. The worsened periodontal state in smoking alcohol-dependent persons may result from diminished IgA protection of the oral tissues due to its decreased output.

  19. Structural and cognitive deficits in chronic carbon monoxide intoxication: a voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication may develop ongoing neurological and psychiatric symptoms that ebb and flow, a condition often called delayed encephalopathy (DE). The association between morphologic changes in the brain and neuropsychological deficits in DE is poorly understood. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests were conducted on 11 CO patients with DE, 11 patients without DE, and 15 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. Differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between the subgroups were assessed and further correlated with diminished cognitive functioning. Results As a group, the patients had lower regional GMV compared to controls in the following regions: basal ganglia, left claustrum, right amygdala, left hippocampus, parietal lobes, and left frontal lobe. The reduced GMV in the bilateral basal ganglia, left post-central gyrus, and left hippocampus correlated with decreased perceptual organization and processing speed function. Those CO patients characterized by DE patients had a lower GMV in the left anterior cingulate and right amygdala, as well as lower levels of cognitive function, than the non-DE patients. Conclusions Patients with CO intoxication in the chronic stage showed a worse cognitive and morphologic outcome, especially those with DE. This study provides additional evidence of gray matter structural abnormalities in the pathophysiology of DE in chronic CO intoxicated patients. PMID:24083408

  20. [Morphological signs of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence and chronic alcoholic intoxication in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system].

    PubMed

    Droblenkov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Forensic medical diagnostics of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system remains an unresolved problem and encounters difficulties. This situation is due not only to the marked vulnerability of the neurons of the dopaminergic system but also to the fact that its mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present work was to substantiate and develop diagnostic criteria for ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the neurons both in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and in other brain regions. The object of the study was the brain of healthy adult subjects who died from alcohol intoxication (in the period of ethanol resorption) and under conditions of alcohol abstinence (completion of the abstinence course). The purpose of the study was to elucidate factors responsible for the different degree of damage to the neurons of various identification groups (intact, hypochromic, picnomorphic, shadow) and macrogliocytes. The cells of all these types were counted at an area of 0.25 sq. mm within 4 squares each having a side of 250 mcm in length. The absolute and relative number of neurons in each group as well as the number of polyneuronal satellite cells per one intact neuron was determined. It was shown that alcohol intoxication is associated with acute swelling of and severe damage to brain neurons caused by the combination of such factors as toxic effect of ethanol, excessive production of catecholamines, and functional overstrain of dopaminergic neurons. The severity of acute alcohol damage to the neurons decreased with the distance from the mid-brain dopaminergic nuclei. Restoration of neurons during alcohol abstinence was due to compensatory activation of interactions between neurons and glial cells. It decreased in the sequence from the paranigral nucleus of the ventral portion of mesencephalic tegumentum to the medial portion of the

  1. Red wine polyphenols correct vascular function injured by chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Cačányiová, Soňa; Pecháňová, Oľga; Babál, Pavel; Cerná, Andrea; Janega, Pavol; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of red wine polyphenols extract Provinols™ on the development of cardiovascular injury in the model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. We followed the thoracic aorta vasoactivity and left ventricle nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in male Wistar rats. In the preventive experiment lasting for 12 weeks the control group, the group receiving CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg) two times a week subcutaneously, the group receiving Provinols™ (30 mg/kg/day) in drinking water and the group receiving CCl4+Provinols™ was used. In the recovery experiment, the initial 12 weeks of CCl4 treatment were followed by 3 weeks of spontaneous recovery or recovery with Provinols™. CCl4-intoxication resulted in the injury of vasoactivity which was demonstrated by the inhibition of acetylcholine-induced relaxation as well as noradrenaline-induced contraction. In the preventive as well as recovery experiment administration of polyphenols refreshed endothelium-dependent relaxant response and normalized inhibited contraction to adrenergic stimuli. Provinols™ treatment significantly increased NO-synthase activity in all groups. The results revealed beneficial effects of red wine polyphenols on vascular function injured by chronic CCl4 intoxication. The correction of endothelial function seems to be attributed to the activation of NO pathway by polyphenols.

  2. Chronic fructose intoxication after infancy in children with hereditary fructose intolerance. A cause of growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Mock, D M; Perman, J A; Thaler, M; Morris, R C

    1983-09-29

    In two unrelated boys, 5.3 and 3.8 years of age with hereditary fructose intolerance, apparently isolated growth retardation (-2.71 S.D. and -2.40 S.D.) occurred after infancy, even though acute symptomatic fructose intoxication was prevented by restriction of dietary fructose. When more stringent restriction of dietary fructose was instituted (approximately 40 mg per kilogram of body weight per day), growth velocity increased from the 25th to the 97th percentile in one child and from well below the 3d to above the 75th percentile in the other. When restriction of dietary fructose was experimentally relaxed (from 10 to 250 mg per kilogram per day), neither boy had symptoms, hypoglycemia, or evidence of hepatic or renal dysfunction, but both had sustained hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and increases in the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of magnesium. We conclude that in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, clinically important chronic fructose intoxication can occur after infancy without causing symptoms of acute fructose intoxication and can be expressed as an apparently isolated, reversible retardation of somatic growth with a continuing disorder of adenine nucleotide metabolism, characterized in part by recurrently increased rates of degradation of adenine nucleotides.

  3. [Encephalomyelopathy demonstrated on MRI in a case of chronic toluene intoxication].

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Honda, S; Kuzuhara, S

    2000-06-01

    Myelopathy in chronic toluene intoxication is rare. We present obvious lesions of the spinal cord on MRI in a 30-year-old Japanese man with chronic toluene intoxication. He had abused toluene for more than 10 years, and developed visual impairment, horizontal nystagmus, pyramidal tract signs, postural tremor, Romberg's sign, and sensory disturbance below the level of Th 2 dermatome. Anti-HTLV-1 antibody titer and vitamin B12 level in the serum were within normal limits. Biochemical analysis showed no increase of very long chain fatty acids. Cerebrospinal fluid showed no abnormal findings. Auditory brainstem response showed delay of I-V interpeak latency. Somatosensory evoked potential with the median nerve stimulation showed delay of N13-N20 central conduction time, which was later followed by absence of N14-N20 components. On MRI in T2 weighted image, marked high intensity was demonstrated in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule, and in the posterior columns and lateral tracts from the cervical through the upper thoracic cord. Cerebral lesions probably reflect demyelination and axonal degeneration produced by chronic toluene abuse. Spinal cord lesions seem to be secondary to nerve fiber changes more proximal to the nerve cell bodies.

  4. Bidirectional plasticity in the primate inferior olive induced by chronic ethanol intoxication and sustained abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, John P.; Han, Victor Z.; Rossi, David J.; Mohr, Claudia; Odagiri, Misa; Daunais, James B.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The brain adapts to chronic ethanol intoxication by altering synaptic and ion-channel function to increase excitability, a homeostatic counterbalance to inhibition by alcohol. Delirium tremens occurs when those adaptations are unmasked during withdrawal, but little is known about whether the primate brain returns to normal with repeated bouts of ethanol abuse and abstinence. Here, we show a form of bidirectional plasticity of pacemaking currents induced by chronic heavy drinking within the inferior olive of cynomolgus monkeys. Intracellular recordings of inferior olive neurons demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the tail current triggered by release from hyperpolarization (Itail). Both the slow deactivation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels conducting the hyperpolarization-activated inward current and the activation of Cav3.1 channels conducting the T-type calcium current (IT) contributed to Itail, but ethanol inhibited only the IT component of Itail. Recordings of inferior olive neurons obtained from chronically intoxicated monkeys revealed a significant up-regulation in Itail that was induced by 1 y of daily ethanol self-administration. The up-regulation was caused by a specific increase in IT which (i) greatly increased neurons’ susceptibility for rebound excitation following hyperpolarization and (ii) may have accounted for intention tremors observed during ethanol withdrawal. In another set of monkeys, sustained abstinence produced the opposite effects: (i) a reduction in rebound excitability and (ii) a down-regulation of Itail caused by the down-regulation of both the hyperpolarization-activated inward current and IT. Bidirectional plasticity of two hyperpolarization-sensitive currents following chronic ethanol abuse and abstinence may underlie persistent brain dysfunction in primates and be a target for therapy. PMID:21642533

  5. Blood thinners and gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-01-01

    As the number of diagnostic and therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopies is increasing, and there is an increase in number of patients taking blood thinners, we are seeing more and more patients on blood thinners prior to endoscopic procedures. Gastrointestinal bleeding or thromboembolism can occur in this category of patients in the periendoscopic period. To better manage these patients, endoscopists should have a clear concept about the various blood thinners in the market. Patients’ risk of thromboembolism off anticoagulation, and the risk of bleeding from endoscopic procedures should be assessed prior to endoscopy. The endoscopic procedure should be done when it is safe to do it. PMID:27668068

  6. Fall of zinc protoporphyrin levels in workers treated for chronic lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Hryhorczuk, D.O.; Hogan, M.M.; Mallin, K.; Hessl, S.M.; Orris, P.

    1985-11-01

    A temporal fall of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in whole blood was observed in 51 patients with occupational chronic lead intoxication who were removed from exposure, treated with intravenous calcium disodium edetate (EDTA), and followed for periods up to 2273 days. ZPP levels fell, with a mean half-life of 68 days, to a mean baseline level of 36 micrograms/dl of whole blood. The baseline ZPP level was positively associated with the length of exposure (p less than .01) and the blood lead half-life (p less than .001). The amount of EDTA received had no apparent effect on ZPP levels. These data suggest that the fall of ZPP levels is largely a function of red blood cell turnover. The baseline ZPP level appears to be a useful biologic index of the biologically active pool of lead for at least two years after removal from exposure.

  7. [Clinical and pathogenetic aspects of the chronic occupational intoxication with fluorine compounds in modern reality].

    PubMed

    Roslaia, N A; Likhacheva, E I; Oranskiĭ, I E; Odinokaia, V A; Plotko, É G; Zhovtiak, E P; Fedorov, A A; Riabko, E V

    2012-01-01

    Multi-year follow-up of 358 workers of aluminum pot rooms, including 165 individuals suffering from fluorosis, has shown significant changes in the clinical picture of the chronic occupational fluorine intoxication, developed under modern conditions of production, at lower concentrations of fluorine compounds in the air of working area. In this connection, the pathology of the musculoskeletal system plays the dominating role in this clinical picture and has the large variability of combinations of the individual sections destructions of the bone tissue. The main criterion to establish the phase of the disease is still the number and severity of the signs of this destruction. The visceral pathology in contemporary production circumstances is registered with less frequency and loses a number of the previously described clinical manifestations, however, is still of some importance to identify the early signs of the disease and to prevent the dental fluorosis on time.

  8. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3.

  9. The role of PON1 and CYP2D6 genes in susceptibility to organophosphorus chronic intoxication in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Tawfik Khattab, Amr Mohamed; Zayed, Abeer Ahmed; Ahmed, Asmaa Ismail; AbdelAal, Aly Gamaleldin; Mekdad, Alaa AbdelHamid

    2016-03-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity toward organophosphorus(OP) compounds shows inter-individual variations, rendering the identification of individuals' PON1 allozymes valuable in treating patients suffering from organophosphorus intoxication. One of the most important cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) is CYP2D6. The CYP2D6 G1934A polymorphism leads to good, poor or no enzyme activity. Genetic testing helps identification of high risk individuals as well as management of chronic intoxicated patients. to investigate a possible association between genetic polymorphisms of PON1 Q192R, and CYP2D6 G1934A as well as PON1 and pseudo-cholinesterase (PChE) enzyme activity levels and chronic organophosphate exposed patients, and hence, susceptibility for organophosphorus chronic poisoning. Thirty chronic organophosphate exposed farm workers were compared to 29 healthy controls as regards PON1 Q192R and CYP2D6 G1934A polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP technique. Also serum PON1 and PChE activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Serum PChE was significantly reduced in chronic intoxicated patients compared to the control group (p=0.02), while PON1 activity was increased, but just failed to reach significance (p=0.06). PON1 192 RR genotype and R allele were significantly increased in chronic OP intoxicated patients (p=0.005 &p=0.002 respectively). CYP2D6 1934A allele was significantly increased in chronic OP patients (p=0.045). combining the two SNPs showed a significant statistical difference between the two groups with PON1QQ and CYP2D6 GG genotypes being more represented in the healthy controls (p=0.001). Fatigue and motor weakness were the most prevalent neurological symptoms seen in chronic cases (56.7%), followed by headache and lacrimation (30% each), depression (23%), tingling and sensory symptoms (20%), sleep disorders and limb pain (13%). The mean duration of environmental exposure to organophosphates was 7.7±5.2years and no association was found between chronic

  10. Eugenol bloom thinner on peach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peaches must be thinned to obtain annual crops of marketable size fruit. Traditionally, peach thinning has been accomplished by hand in the absence of reliable chemical thinners. Peach thinning is a labor intensive, expensive cultural practice. Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that e...

  11. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting an acute opiate ingestion. No other drugs of misuse, such as cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines or derivatives, were detected in the baby's urine. Subsequently, hair samples from the baby and the parents were collected to evaluate the possibility of chronic exposure to drug misuse by segmental analysis. Opiates and cocaine metabolites were detected in hair samples from the baby boy and his parents. Conclusions In light of these and previous results, we recommend hair analysis in babies and children from risky environments to detect exposure to heroin and other drug misuse, which could provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:21729296

  12. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk.

  13. The burden of chronic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining in Zimbabwe: data availability and preliminary estimates.

    PubMed

    Steckling, Nadine; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Pinheiro, Paulo; Plass, Dietrich; Shoko, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Hornberg, Claudia

    2014-12-13

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a poverty-driven activity practiced in over 70 countries worldwide. Zimbabwe is amongst the top ten countries using large quantities of mercury to extract gold from ore. This analysis was performed to check data availability and derive a preliminary estimate of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to mercury use in ASGM in Zimbabwe. Cases of chronic mercury intoxication were identified following an algorithm using mercury-related health effects and mercury in human specimens. The sample prevalence amongst miners and controls (surveyed by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2004 and the University of Munich in 2006) was determined and extrapolated to the entire population of Zimbabwe. Further epidemiological and demographic data were taken from the literature and missing data modeled with DisMod II to quantify DALYs using the methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2004 update published by the World Health Organization (WHO). While there was no disability weight (DW) available indicating the relative disease severity of chronic mercury intoxication, the DW of a comparable disease was assigned by following the criteria 1) chronic condition, 2) triggered by a substance, and 3) causing similar health symptoms. Miners showed a sample prevalence of 72% while controls showed no cases of chronic mercury intoxication. Data availability is very limited why it was necessary to model data and make assumptions about the number of exposed population, the definition of chronic mercury intoxication, DW, and epidemiology. If these assumptions hold, the extrapolation would result in around 95,400 DALYs in Zimbabwe's total population in 2004. This analysis provides a preliminary quantification of the mercury-related health burden from ASGM based on the limited data available. If the determined assumptions hold, chronic mercury intoxication is likely to have been one of the top 20 hazards for population

  14. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline.

    PubMed

    Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Costa-Malaquias, Allan; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy.

  15. Carbohydrate tolerance in patients with tropical ataxic neuropathy--A human model of chronic cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Famuyiwa, O O; Akanji, A O; Osuntokun, B O

    1995-06-01

    Patients with tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) have been shown to have chronic cyanide intoxication. Glucose tolerance test data in a group of 88 patients with TAN and 88 matched controls who were studied several years ago were analysed. A standard glucose tolerance test (SGTT) with 50 gm dextrose preceded by 50 mgs cortisone acetate orally 8 1/2 and 2 hours before the tests were performed. The SGTT was considered abnormal if the capillary blood glucose at 0.60 and 120 were greater than 120, 200 and 140 mg/100 ml (6.6, 11.1, 7.8 mmol/l) respectively. Capillary blood glucose considered abnormal for CGTT were 205 and 155 mg/100 ml at 60 and 120 (113 and 8.6 mmol/I) respectively. The SGTT was abnormal in 1 of the TAN patients and 2 controls while CGTT was abnormal in 9 TAN patients and 7 controls. However, all controls with abnormal CGTT were older than 50 years while only 1 TAN patient was older than 50 and 6 were 30 years or younger (p = 0.0105), Fischer's probability test. The results suggest a greater statistical risk for subjects with TAN 30 years or younger to have an abnormal CGTT. While this does not predict the future development of diabetes, our observation indicates the need for better designed prospective studies among such patients in developing countries.

  16. [A clinical analysis of 102 cases of chronic n-hexane intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kuang, S; Huang, H; Liu, H; Chen, J; Kong, L; Chen, B

    2001-05-01

    Chronic n-hexane exposure can result in n-hexane intoxication which is mainly characterized by a series of manifestations of peripheral nerve lesions. The disease was sometimes misdiagnosed as "unknown multiple peripheral neuropathy". 102 cases of n-hexane intoxication were investigated and reported in order to call attention to the disease. All the 102 cases, male 30, female 72; age 17 - 29, mean (21 +/- 3) were n-hexane workers. During the hospitalization the following data were collected: medical history, neurological check up, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical analysis, ophthalmologic study and the metabolite of n-hexane- the urinary 2, 5-hexanedione level. The airborne n-hexane levels of the working environment were also measured. The average incubation period of the 102 cases was (8.3 +/- 2.6) months. The average course of the disease was (12.1 +/- 4.2) months. Airborne n-hexane concentration of the working places ranged from 188.0 to 7,848.6 mg/m(3). The most common prodromes were headache, anorexia, dizziness and weight loss. The main clinical manifestations of the disease were ascending abnormal sensation. Sensory loss and dyskinesia began from the distant parts of the limbs. The patient had reduction or disappearance of tendon reflexes, weakness and muscle atrophy in the limbs. Electromyography showed a neuropathic pattern, which was parallel to the clinical symptoms and signs. Delayed worsening of symptoms and signs after cessation of n-hexane exposure was observed in some cases. All the 102 cases recovered totally after treatment with Vitamin B, Chinese traditional medicine, physical therapy and training. The main lesion of the disease is multiple peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis should be made according to the history of n-hexane exposure, the typical clinical manifestations of peripheral neuropathy as well as the neuropathic changes on electromyography. Therapeutic measures for peripheral neuropathy of other etiologies may be used

  17. Effects of aflatoxin chronic intoxication in renal function of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de-Anda, A; Valdivia, A G; Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Reyes, J L; Ortiz, R; Quezada, T; de Luna, M C; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) have a high impact in both human and animal health, causing significant economic losses in the poultry industry, especially by diminution of avian growth, feed efficiency, and product quality. Aflatoxins affect the whole organism, particularly liver and kidney. The objective of this study was to evaluate renal function alterations in laying hens during chronic AF ingestion. Randomly, 84 Leghorn Hy-Line laying hens (13 wk old) were assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 21): 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg of AF/kg of feed. The AF (B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) was obtained from 2 toxicogenic local strains of Aspergillus flavus grown in corn grains; the grain was sterilized, ground, and added to basal diets to achieve the selected AF concentrations. Hens ingested, during 17 and 42 wk, feed contaminated with AF. Data were analyzed in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Hens were anesthetized, ureteral urine samples were collected, and arterial blood samples were taken. The renal functional tests were evaluated by spectrophotometric and flame photometric methods, including a) Na, K, Ca, and phosphate fractional excretions; b) renal hemodynamic studies, glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances, respectively; and c) identification of macroscopic and histopathologic lesions. The hens intoxicated at all levels of AF showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in Ca, Na, and phosphate fraction excretions. Sodium and phosphates were excreted in a pattern of response time-dose. However, glomerular filtration rate exhibited a significant reduction (P < 0.05). The K fractional excretion and renal plasma flow remained unchanged. These results suggest that AF chronic ingestion affects renal functions of laying hens and induces Ca(++), (-3)PO(4), and Na(+) losses, which are of great concern to the poultry industry.

  18. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage

  19. Study of hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Mahieu, Stella; Bazzoni, Graciela; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our work was to analyze the hemorheological parameters following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic Al-intoxication (Al). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (n=6 each one): Sham (rats subjected to simulated surgery); Al+Sham; Partial Hepatectomy (animals subjected to 65% liver resection) and Al+Partial Hepatectomy. Our results show that both Partial Hepatectomy and Al treatment produce a decrease of plasma cholesterol level, which showed a negative association with Rigidity Index increase (r(s)=-0.6475, p<0.05). The increase of Rigidity Index observed in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy could be related to the increase of the proportion of non-discocytic erythrocytes, particularly stomatocytes, which determines a diminution of the Morphological Index. In the Altreated groups, greater changes in Rigidity Index and Morphological Index were observed. The relative viscosity of blood at a standard haematocrit of 40% was increased in Partial Hepatectomy, Al+Sham and Al+Partial Hepatectomy as compared to Sham, due to erythrocyte rigidity. On the other hand, we observed that the increase of plasma fibrinogen concentration correlates with augmentation of plasma viscosity (r(s)=0.689, p=0.004) for all the experimental groups studied. The results indicate that both administration of Al and Partial Hepatectomy induce microcytic hypocromic anaemia in the rats reflected by a significant decrease of haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. From these results, we conclude that in partially hepatectomized, Al-overloaded rats the decrease in erythrocyte deformability may be an important factor leading to the installation of anaemia.

  20. Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases such as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Analyses of ecosystems supporting the most renowned MS clusters in Saskatchewan, Sardinia, Massachusetts, Colorado, Guam, NE Scotland demonstrated consistently elevated levels of Ba in soils (mean: 1428 ppm) and vegetation (mean: 74 ppm) in relation to mean levels of 345 and 19 ppm recorded in MS-free regions adjoining. The high levels of Ba stemmed from local quarrying for Ba ores and/or use of Ba in paper/foundry/welding/textile/oil and gas well related industries, as well as from the use of Ba as an atmospheric aerosol spray for enhancing/refracting the signalling of radio/radar waves along military jet flight paths, missile test ranges, etc. It is proposed that chronic contamination of the biosystem with the reactive types of Ba salts can initiate the pathogenesis of MS; due to the conjugation of Ba with free sulphate, which subsequently deprives the endogenous sulphated proteoglycan molecules (heparan sulfates) of their sulphate co partner, thereby disrupting synthesis of S-proteoglycans and their crucial role in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling which induces oligodendrocyte progenitors to maintain the growth and structural integrity of the myelin sheath. Loss of S-proteoglycan activity explains other key facets of MS pathogenesis; such as the aggregation of platelets and the proliferation of superoxide generated oxidative stress. Ba intoxications disturb the sodium-potassium ion pump--another key feature of the MS profile. The co-clustering of various neurodegenerative diseases in these Ba-contaminated ecosystems suggests that the pathogenesis of all of these diseases could pivot upon a

  1. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication Is Not Accompanied by an Increase in Calpain Proteolytic Activity in Cardiac Muscle of Rats.

    PubMed

    Gritsyna, Yu V; Salmov, N N; Bobylev, A G; Fadeeva, I S; Fesenko, N I; Sadikova, D G; Kukushkin, N I; Podlubnaya, Z A; Vikhlyantsev, I M

    2017-02-01

    Enzymatic activity of Ca2+-dependent calpain proteases as well as the content and gene expression of μ-calpain (activated by micromolar calcium ion concentrations), calpastatin (inhibitor of calpains), and titin (substrate for calpains) were investigated in cardiac muscles of rats subjected to chronic alcoholization for 3 and 6 months. There was no increase in the "heart weight/body weight" parameter indicating development of heart hypertrophy in the alcoholized rats, while a decreasing trend was observed for this parameter in the rats after 6-month modeling of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which indicated development of atrophic changes in the myocardium. Fluorometric measurements conducted using the Calpain Activity Assay Kit did not reveal any changes in total calpain activity in protein extracts of cardiac muscles of the rats alcoholized for 3 and 6 months. Western blot analysis did not show reliable changes in the contents of μ-calpain and calpastatin, and SDS-PAGE did not reveal any decrease in the titin content in the myocardium of rats after the chronic alcohol intoxication. Autolysis of μ-calpain was also not verified, which could indicate that proteolytic activity of this enzyme in myocardium of chronically alcoholized rats is not enhanced. Using Pro-Q Diamond staining, changes in phosphorylation level of titin were not detected in cardiac muscle of rats after chronic alcoholization during three and six months. A decrease in µ-calpain and calpastatin mRNA content (~1.3-fold, p ≤ 0.01 and ~1.9-fold, p ≤ 0.01, respectively) in the myocardium of rats alcoholized for 3 months and decrease in calpastatin mRNA (~1.4-fold, p ≤ 0.01) in animals alcoholized for 6 months was demonstrated using real-time PCR. These results indicate negative effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on expression of the abovementioned genes.

  2. [The morphometric characteristics of the main structural components of renal nephrons in the white rats with experimentally induced acute and chronic alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, V M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the morphometric characteristics of the main structural components of renal nephrons in the white rats with the experimentally induced acute and chronic alcohol intoxication. We undertook the morphometric examination of the structural elements of rat kidneys with the subsequent statistical analysis of the data obtained. The results of the study give evidence of the toxic action of ethanol on all structural components of the nephron in the case of both acute and chronic alcohol intoxication. The study revealed some specific features of the development of pathological process in the renal tissue structures at different stages of alcohol intoxication. The most pronounced morphological changes were observed in the renal proximal tubules and the least pronounced ones in the structure of the renal glomeruli. The earliest morphological changes become apparent in distal convoluted tubules of the nephron; in the case of persistent alcoholemia, they first develop in the renal corpuscles and thereafter in the distal proximal tubules. The maximum changes occur in the case of acute alcohol intoxication and between 2 weeks and 2 months of chronic intoxication; they become less conspicuous during a later period.

  3. [The morphofunctional features of the heart associated with acute morphine poisoning during the period of chronic drug intoxication].

    PubMed

    Altaeva, A Zh; Galitsky, F A; Zhakupova, T Z; Aidarkulov, A Sh; Selivokhina, N V; Zhunisov, S S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve forensic medical diagnostics of the cases of death associated with morphine poisoning based on the investigation into the biochemical changes in blood and pericardial fluid as well as morphological changes in the myocardial structures. The studies were carried out with the use of thin-layer chromatography, colorimetric and morphological methods including hematoxylin and eosin, Lee's methylene blue, and van Gieson's picrofuscin staining. These techniques were supplemented by light and polarization microscopy. The study has demonstrated the presence of morphine in 99.16% of the blood and pericardial samples obtained in the cases of poisoning. The comparison of the results of biochemical and pathomorphological studies of the myocardium made it possible to evaluate the functional and morphological conditions of the heart in the case of acute morphine poisoning during the period of chronic drug intoxication.

  4. [Pharmacological correction of nonspecific resistance and production of proinflammatory cytokines during chronic intoxication with organophosphorus compound VX].

    PubMed

    Zabrodskiĭ, P F; Grishin, V A

    2012-01-01

    It is established in experiments on noninbred rats that the use of imunofan (20 mg/kg daily) and polyoxidonium (150 mg/kg daily) for 7 days on the background of chronic intoxication with organophosphorus agent VX (0.01 LD50, single daily treatment for 30 days) resulted in almost complete recovery of phagocytic-metabolic activity of neutrophils, the content of lysozyme, cationic protein of platelet, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNFa, IL-1b and IL-6 in the blood. The administration of T-activin (20 mg/kg daily for 7 days) restores these parameters insignificantly. The maximum overall stimulatory effect was produced by polyoxidonium, while the minimum effect was observed for T-activin.

  5. [Chronic neurological syndrome resulting from intoxication with metallic uranium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Goasguen, J; Lapresle, J; Ribot, C; Rocquet, G

    1982-01-16

    In 1972, a male patient, then 44-year-old, developed foot cramps and leg pain together with increasing gait disorders and a tendency to fall backwards. In 1976, an extrapyramidal syndrome with ataxia, nystagmus and peripheral neuropathy was discovered on neurological examination. The symptoms persisted and remained of obscure origin until 1979, when a detailed aetiological enquiry disclosed that during at least the first three years of his illness the patient had had on his desk a bar of metallic uranium which he frequently handled. Stool analysis showed significant uranium levels. In the absence of any other cause, it would appear that the neurological syndrome was due to intoxication with uranium. Although this had not been previously described in man, there are occasional reports of uranium toxicity in laboratory animals.

  6. Distortion product oto-acoustic emissions in Andean children and adults with chronic lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, L H; Counter, S A; Ortega, F; Laurell, G

    1999-01-01

    Neuroauditory disorders and sensory-neural hearing loss have been suggested as possible etiologic factors in the neurodevelopmental learning disabilities attributed to lead (Pb) intoxication. However, studies relating hearing loss to Pb poisoning have presented disparate results, suggesting that auditory sensitivity may not be a reliable marker of Pb intoxication. Oto-acoustic emissions, sounds that can be recorded non-invasively from the ear canal and are preneural responses of the outer hair cells of the inner ear, have been found to be diminished in ears exposed to some toxic agents. In the current study, distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were obtained from 28 ears of 14 children and 10 ears of 5 adults living in a highly Pb-contaminated environment in remote villages in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador. Blood lead (PbB) levels for the children (ages: 5-14 years) ranged from 33.4 to 118.2 microg/dl (mean: 51.5; SD: 22.9 microg/dl), or 3-12 times higher than the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's toxic level of 10 microg/dl. The PbB levels for the adults ranged from 19.2 to 55.7 microg/dl. Despite the high PbB levels, the children had normal hearing thresholds, and DPOAEs were present for the children at the following f2 frequencies: 1187, 1500, 1906, 2406, 3031, 3812, 4812 and 6031 Hz. Although there was a tendency for the children to have diminished DPOAEs, no consistent correlation of DPOAEs with PbB level was found. The adults had diminished DPOAEs that were consistent with their observed, probably noise-related hearing loss. Contrary to some reports in the literature, the current results show no unequivocal clinical or subclinical evidence that high PbB levels have a toxic effect on the cochlea.

  7. [Carnitine: function, metabolism and value in hepatic failure during chronic alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kępka, Alina; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Płudowski, Paweł; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Rudy, Michał; Szulc, Agata; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2011-10-07

    Alcoholism is one of the most frequent dependences among people, leading to damage of the liver and death of the person. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with carnitine metabolism and citric acid cycle activity. Block in activity of the citric acid cycle caused by alcohol and its metabolites is partially compensated by increased ketone body production, which results in ketosis. Chronic administration of alcohol induces liver injury, inflammation, cirrhosis, focal necrosis and steatosis. L-carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-N, N, N-trimethylaminebutyric acid) is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism, which plays a major role in transport of activated long-chain fatty acids to sites of β-oxidation in mitochondria. Carnitine also stabilizes cell membranes by removing long-chain acyl-CoA and excess of the acyl group from the body. L-carnitine can be a useful and safe drug in the liver pathology induced by chronic ethanol exposure.

  8. Disability Weights for Chronic Mercury Intoxication Resulting from Gold Mining Activities: Results from an Online Pairwise Comparisons Survey.

    PubMed

    Steckling, Nadine; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Winkelnkemper, Julia; Fischer, Florian; Ericson, Bret; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia; Fuller, Richard; Plass, Dietrich; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    2017-01-10

    In artisanal small-scale gold mining, mercury is used for gold-extraction, putting miners and nearby residents at risk of chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI). Burden of disease (BoD) analyses allow the estimation of the public health relevance of CMMVI, but until now there have been no specific CMMVI disability weights (DWs). The objective is to derive DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI. Disease-specific and generic health state descriptions of 18 diseases were used in a pairwise comparison survey. Mercury and BoD experts were invited to participate in an online survey. Data were analyzed using probit regression. Local regression was used to make the DWs comparable to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Alternative survey (visual analogue scale) and data analyses approaches (linear interpolation) were evaluated in scenario analyses. A total of 105 participants completed the questionnaire. DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI were 0.368 (0.261-0.484) and 0.588 (0.193-0.907), respectively. Scenario analyses resulted in higher mean values. The results are limited by the sample size, group of interviewees, questionnaire extent, and lack of generally accepted health state descriptions. DWs were derived to improve the data basis of mercury-related BoD estimates, providing useful information for policy-making. Integration of the results into the GBD DWs enhances comparability.

  9. Disability Weights for Chronic Mercury Intoxication Resulting from Gold Mining Activities: Results from an Online Pairwise Comparisons Survey

    PubMed Central

    Steckling, Nadine; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Winkelnkemper, Julia; Fischer, Florian; Ericson, Bret; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia; Fuller, Richard; Plass, Dietrich; Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In artisanal small-scale gold mining, mercury is used for gold-extraction, putting miners and nearby residents at risk of chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI). Burden of disease (BoD) analyses allow the estimation of the public health relevance of CMMVI, but until now there have been no specific CMMVI disability weights (DWs). The objective is to derive DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI. Disease-specific and generic health state descriptions of 18 diseases were used in a pairwise comparison survey. Mercury and BoD experts were invited to participate in an online survey. Data were analyzed using probit regression. Local regression was used to make the DWs comparable to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Alternative survey (visual analogue scale) and data analyses approaches (linear interpolation) were evaluated in scenario analyses. A total of 105 participants completed the questionnaire. DWs for moderate and severe CMMVI were 0.368 (0.261–0.484) and 0.588 (0.193–0.907), respectively. Scenario analyses resulted in higher mean values. The results are limited by the sample size, group of interviewees, questionnaire extent, and lack of generally accepted health state descriptions. DWs were derived to improve the data basis of mercury-related BoD estimates, providing useful information for policy-making. Integration of the results into the GBD DWs enhances comparability. PMID:28075395

  10. Thermal injuries due to paint thinner.

    PubMed

    Ozgenel, Güzin Yeşim; Akin, Selçuk; Ozbek, Serhat; Kahveci, Ramazan; Ozcan, Mesut

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of burn injuries due to paint thinner in a local burn center. During a 10-year period, 32 patients were admitted to our Burn Unit for paint thinner thermal burn. Patients were reviewed regarding the age, sex, etiologic factors, extent and localization of burn, treatment methods, length of hospitalization, and results. There were 30 males and 2 females. The mean age of patients was 25.9 +/- 11 years. The most common etiologic factor was kindling a fire with paint thinner. The mean extent of burn was 33.6 +/- 24% of the total body surface area. All patients sustained burn injury on the face, arms, and hands and five patients among them had extended burn areas on the trunk and/or lower extremity. The mean length of hospitalization for the survivors was 34.5 +/- 21.6 days. Twenty-eight patients were treated by early excision and split-thickness skin grafting. In four patients, burn wounds were healed by conservative management. Five patients with burn size of over 75% of the total body surface area died. In conclusion, paint thinner may be the cause of a catastrophic thermal injury and should not be used for the purpose of kindling fire.

  11. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) intoxication in an infant chronically exposed to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Oscar; López, Nuria; Bonet, Mariona; Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona

    2005-08-01

    Accidental ingestion of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) was detected in an infant admitted at the Pediatric Emergency Department by drug testing in urine. Concentrations of MDMA and its principal metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) in the infant's hydrolyzed urine were 11.7 mg/L and 34.4 mg/L, respectively. Apparent febrile convulsions and cardiovascular side effects resolved within 1 day after treatment with benzodiazepines. Chronic exposure to cocaine was evidenced by segmental hair analysis. Continuous maternal denial of the presence of any drug in the household made diagnosis of accidental ingestion of MDMA and chronic exposure to cocaine problematic. Periodic clinical and laboratory follow-ups were requested to check eventual long-term effects of exposure to illicit drugs and discontinuation of the child from exposure to dangerous environments.

  12. Effect of Citrocard on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria during chronic alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Ostrovskii, O V; Verovskii, V E; Popova, T A; Lebedeva, S A; Dib, H

    2007-03-01

    Chronic administration of 50% ethanol in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a toxic effect on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria, which manifested in decreased rates of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Structural GABA analogue Citrocard (phenibut citrate) and reference preparation piracetam in doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, prevented the damaging effect of alcohol, which was seen from increased indexes of oxidative phosphorylation in treated animals compared to the control group.

  13. Differential effects of chronic cyanide intoxication on heart, lung and pancreatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Okolie, N P; Osagie, A U

    2000-06-01

    The histotoxic effects of chronic cyanide insult on heart, lung and pancreatic tissues, and some corroborative enzyme and metabolite changes were studied in New Zealand White rabbits using colorimetric, enzymatic and histochemical methods. Two groups of rabbits were fed for 10 months on either pure growers mash or grower mash +702 ppm inorganic cyanide. There were no significant differences in time-course profiles of serum amylase and fasting blood glucose between the cyanide-fed group and control. Pancreatic islet and heart histologies showed no pathological changes, and there were no significant differences in both serum and heart aspartate transaminase activities between the two groups. However, there were significant decreases (P<0.01) in alkaline phosphatase activity in the lungs of the cyanide-fed group, with corresponding significant (P<0.05) increases in the serum activity of the enzyme. Histological examination of lung tissue of the cyanide-treated rabbits revealed focal areas of pulmonary oedema and necrosis. These results suggest the existence of variabilities in tissue susceptibilities to the toxic effect of chronic cyanide exposure. It would appear that chronic cyanide exposure may not predispose to diabetes in the presence of adequate protein intake.

  14. [Intoxication with lithium].

    PubMed

    Fiegler, K; Liechti, M E; Bodmer, M; Bruggisser, M

    2009-06-24

    We report a case of a 75-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency room with arterial hypotension and impaired vigilance. The patient was on lithium therapy due to mood disorder. One month earlier medication with a betablocker, a loop-diuretic and an ACE-inhibitor had been started due to heart failure. Findings at admission included renal insufficiency, pneumonia and a slightly increased serum level of lithium. Three days later his Glasgow Coma Scale Score was 7, he showed gaze deviation, increased muscle tonus and cloni. The patient fully recovered after volume substitution and normalization of his renal function. Diagnosis of chronic intoxication with lithium was made due to the clinical picture and after exclusion of neurological pathologies. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of lithium is described and the risk factors leading to lithium intoxication and treatment of intoxication are discussed.

  15. Does the thrifty phenotype result from chronic glutamate intoxication? A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, Michael; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2003-01-01

    The thrifty phenotype hypothesis proposes that the epidemiological associations between poor fetal and infant growth and the subsequent development of the metabolic syndrome, result from the effects of poor nutrition in early life. The present review however, considers an opposite explanation. We hypothesize that fetal over-nutrition plays a major role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. We found evidence that the thrifty phenotype may be the consequence of fetal hyperglutamatemia. Maternal glutamate (GLU) reaches the fetal circulation, as part of the materno-fetal glutamine-glutamate exchange. Glutamine is absorbed from the maternal circulation, and deaminated for nitrogen utilization, resulting in a fetal production of GLU. GLU is extracted as it returns to the placenta. When the umbilical plasma flow is low, GLU may be trapped in the fetal circulation, and reaches neurotoxic levels. Administering GLU to newborn rodents completely destructs arcuate nucleus neurons, and results in permanently elevated plasma leptin levels that fail to adequately counter-regulate food intake. Chronic fetal exposure to elevated levels of GLU may be caused by chronic maternal over-nutrition or by reduced umbilical plasma flow. We strongly suggest abandoing the flavoring agent monosodium glutamate and reconsidering the recommended daily allowances of protein and amino acids during pregnancy.

  16. Effect of recombinant human IFNγ in the treatment of chronic pulmonary complications due to sulfur mustard intoxication.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa; Vahedi, Ensieh; Ghazvini, Ali; Parvin, Shahram; Madanchi, Nima; Bagheri, Mahsa; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary problems are among the most common chronic complications of sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication and adversely affect patients' quality-of-life. The present trial investigated the impact of immunotherapy with interferon (IFN)-γ on quality-of-life, respiratory symptoms, and circulating immunologic and oxidative parameters in patients suffering from chronic SM-induced complications. Patients (n = 15) were administered IFNγ (100 μg) every other day for a period of 6 months. Assessment of quality-of-life [using St. George respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) indices], the severity and frequency of respiratory symptoms, and serum levels of immunologic [including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α], oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as total and reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], and fibrogenic [transforming growth factor (TGF)-β] parameters were performed at baseline and at trial end. The results indicated that IFNγ therapy is associated with improvements in SGRQ (p < 0.001) and CAT (p < 0.001) scores, decreased severity of cough (p = 0.001), dyspnea (p < 0.001), and morning dyspnea (p < 0.001), reduced frequency of sputum production (p < 0.001) and hemoptysis (p < 0.001), and elevated FEV1 (p = 0.065). Serum levels of IL-4 (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p < 0.001), IL-10 (p < 0.001), CGRP (p < 0.001), MMP-9 (p = 0.001), TNFα (p < 0.001), TGFβ (p < 0.001) and MDA (p = 0.001) were decreased while those of IL-2 (p < 0.001), IFNγ (p < 0.001), and both total (p = 0.005) and reduced glutathione (p = 0.061) increased by the end of the trial. It was concluded that IFNγ has favorable effects on the quality-of-life and alleviates respiratory symptoms in patients suffering from chronic SM

  17. [Demyelinating polyneuropathies in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Kovrazhkina, E A

    2012-01-01

    Frequency and nosological attribution of demyelinating polyneuropathies in patients with diabetes mellitus and alcoholism were determined. Eighty-six inpatients with alcoholic (n=46) and diabetic (n=40) polyneuropathy were examined clinically and using electroneuromyography (ENMG). A demyelinating pathogenetic variant was identified by clinical and ENMG data in 27 (31%) patients. Nine patients (33%) had dysimmune polyneuropathies (acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy). Polyneuropathies were specified as toxic/metabolic with the prevalence of a demyelinating component within the main disease in 18 (67%) patients. Clinical and ENMG-signs of the demyelinating variant of alcoholic and diabetic neuropathy are presented. The efficacy of the antioxidant berlition was shown for toxic/metabolic polyneuropathies while the addition of immune modulators was needed for treatment of dysimmune polyneuropathy.

  18. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  19. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Yasuda, M; Kitagawa, M

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  20. Therapeutic potential of thiamine hydrochloride in experimental chronic lead intoxication in goats.

    PubMed

    Maiti, S K; Swarup, D; Chandra, S V

    1990-05-01

    The therapeutic potential of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) was evaluated in experimental chronic lead poisoning in goats. Eighteen goats divided into three groups were used. Goats of group A served as healthy controls while those of B1 and B2 received oral doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg lead acetate (5.43, 8.15 and 10.86 mg lead kg-1 body-weight) for 30, 30 and 31 days, respectively. At the end of the 91 days, thiamine hydrochloride was given at 20 mg kg-1 bodyweight subcutaneously for 15 days to group B2. Goats of group B1 served as lead exposed untreated controls. Significantly (P less than 0.05) higher lead concentrations were found in blood, liver, kidney and brain samples of lead exposed untreated goats than in healthy control or in lead exposed thiamine treated goats. The lead concentration, however, remained significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in all these tissues of thiamine treated goats than in healthy controls and no appreciable difference could be recorded in histopathological lesions between lead exposed untreated and thiamine treated goats.

  1. Study of iron homeostasis following partial hepatectomy in rats with chronic aluminum intoxication.

    PubMed

    Contini, María del Carmen; Ferri, Alejandro; Bernal, Claudio A; Carnovale, Cristina E

    2007-01-01

    Effects of both chronic aluminum (Al) exposure and partial hepatectomy on iron (Fe) homeostasis were studied. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally administered either 27 mg Al/kg body weight (as aluminum hydroxide) or the vehicle saline, three times a week for 3 mo. After this time, half of the rats of each group was sham operated (SH) and the other half was partially hepatectomized (PH). Animals of the four experimental groups (vehicle+SH [SH]; Al+SH; vehicle+PH [PH], and Al+PH) were killed 48 h after the surgical procedure. Serum, hepatic, and intestinal Al levels were found to be increased both for Al+SH and Al+PH. The serum Fe concentration and transferrin saturation percentage were significantly diminished in the rats of the Al+PH group, thus showing interaction between Al administration and PH. The 59Fe mucosal-to-serosal transport, studied in the intestinal loop in situ, was not affected by Al or PH. The malregulation of intestinal Fe absorption in Al exposure and/or PH when the serum Fe concentration was diminished could be the result of the increased lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) observed in this tissue. Mucosal TBARS were increased by Al exposure (+26%) and PH (+37%) and interaction between Al and PH was observed (+44%). These results show that when liver surgery is performed after prolonged Al exposure, it leads to impairment of Fe homeostasis. We underline the importance of the exposure to Al, a potentially toxic element, in the study of risk assessment in patients who must be submitted to major liver resection.

  2. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  3. Dysfunction of Th1 and th2 lymphocytes and change in blood cytokine concentration at various stages of chronic intoxication with organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Zabrodskii, P F; Gromov, M S; Yafarova, I Kh

    2014-04-01

    Experiments on noninbred albino rats showed that a chronic exposure to organophosphorus compounds (carbophos and metaphos, 30 days, total dose 0.3 LD50) is primarily followed by a decrease in the immune reactions and IFN-γ associated with Th1 lymphocyte function (in comparison with the immune response due to activation of Th2 cells by IL-4). The concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in the blood decreased after 30-day intoxication. The immune reactions associated with functional activity of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes were shown to decrease similarly after chronic treatment with organophosphorus compounds for 60 days (total dose 0.6 LD50). This exposure was accompanied by a decrease in the concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, and IL-6, but had no effect on the level of IL-10 in the blood.

  4. Pattern-visual evoked potentials in thinner abusers.

    PubMed

    Poblano, A; Lope Huerta, M; Martínez, J M; Falcón, H D

    1996-01-01

    Organic solvents cause injury to lipids of neuronal and glial membranes. A well known characteristic of workers exposed to thinner is optic neuropathy. We decided to look for neurophysiologic signs of visual damage in patients identified as thinner abusers. Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials was performed on 34 thinner abuser patients and 30 controls. P-100 wave latency was found to be longer on abuser than control subjects. Results show the possibility of central alterations on thinner abusers despite absence of clinical symptoms.

  5. [Metabolic effect of amaranth oil and impulse hypoxic training under chronic fluoride intoxication and small doses of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Konyk, U V; Hzhehots'kyĭ, M P; Koval'chuk, S M

    2002-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defence system in blood, liver and heart tissues, nitric oxide metabolites content in brain tissue of rats under binary action of small-doses of ionizing radiation and fluoride intoxication treated by amaranth oil and interval hypoxic training have been studied. Complex using of amaranth oil and interval hypoxic training result in increase both enzymatic, as nonezymatic links of antioxidant defence in all investigated tissues. It was revealed also enhance of NO system metabolites content in brain gomogenate. In this conditions lipid peroxidation processes in liver and heart tissues normalize comparison with essential increase level LPO under binary action influence. On the basis of obtained results LPO metabolites content we can suppossed that complex using of amaranth oil and interval hypoxic training result in increase of organism adaptative possibility. This complex can be using for binary action of ionizing radiation and fluoride intoxication correction.

  6. Short-term Curcuminoid Supplementation for Chronic Pulmonary Complications due to Sulfur Mustard Intoxication: Positive Results of a Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Y; Ghanei, M; Bashiri, S; Hajihashemi, A; Sahebkar, A

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary problems are among the most frequent chronic complications of sulfur mustard (SM) intoxication and are often accompanied by deregulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Curcuminoids, comprising curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are phytochemicals with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties that are derived from dried rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa L. (turmeric). The present pilot study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on markers of pulmonary function and systemic inflammation in SM-intoxicated subjects. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 89 male subjects who were suffering from chronic SM-induced pulmonary complications were recruited and assigned to either curcuminoids (500 mg TID per oral; n=45) or placebo (n=44) for a period of 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and serum levels of inflammatory mediators including interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). 78 subjects completed the trial. Although FEV1 and FVC remained comparable between the groups, there was a greater effect of curcuminoids vs. placebo in improving FEV1/FVC (p=0.002). Curcuminoids were also significantly more efficacious compared to placebo in modulating all assessed inflammatory mediators: IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-8 (p=0.035), TNFα (p<0.001), TGFβ (p<0.001), substance P (p=0.016), hs-CRP (p<0.001), CGRP (p<0.001) and MCP-1 (p<0.001). Curcuminoids were safe and well-tolerated throughout the trial. Short-term adjunctive therapy with curcuminoids can suppress systemic inflammation in patients suffering from SM-induced chronic pulmonary complications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Blood Thinners: Can I Still Get Blood Clots?

    MedlinePlus

    ... get blood clots? If you're taking a blood thinner, is it still possible to get a blood clot? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M.D. Yes. Medications that are commonly called blood thinners — such as aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), dabigatran ( ...

  8. Isopropyl alcohol intoxication in a neonate through chronic dermal exposure: a complication of a culturally-based umbilical care practice.

    PubMed

    Vivier, P M; Lewander, W J; Martin, H F; Linakis, J G

    1994-04-01

    A 21-day-old boy presented to our emergency department hypotonic, lethargic, and intermittently unresponsive to pain. A workup for ketoacidosis, sepsis, and central nervous system hemorrhage was negative. A urine drug screen collected eight hours after hospitalization showed 39 mg/dl of isopropyl alcohol and 76 mg/dl of acetone. The first serum drug analysis was not performed until 18 hours after admission, at a time when there had been clinical improvement. The isopropyl alcohol concentration was 8 mg/dl, and the acetone concentration was 203 mg/dl. Management was supportive, and the patient stabilized. He was discharged from the hospital in good health in three days. A further review of the history showed no evidence for an oral exposure to isopropyl alcohol. However, since leaving the maternity hospital the mother had been applying gauze pads or cotton balls soaked with isopropyl alcohol to the umbilicus with every diaper change. We conclude that the child suffered from an isopropyl alcohol intoxication that occurred by absorption through the umbilical area.

  9. A prospective study of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication versus chronic alcohol consumption on outcome following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Shewchuk, Jason R; Rauscher, Alexander; Jarrett, Michael; Heran, Manraj K S; Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to disentangle the relative contributions of day-of-injury alcohol intoxication and pre-injury alcohol misuse on outcome from TBI. Participants were 142 patients enrolled from a Level 1 Trauma Center (in Vancouver, Canada) following a traumatic brain injury (TBI; 43 uncomplicated mild TBI and 63 complicated mild-severe TBI) or orthopedic injury [36 trauma controls (TC)]. At 6-8 weeks post-injury, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the whole brain was undertaken using a Phillips 3T scanner. Participants also completed neuropsychological testing, an evaluation of lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC), and had blood alcohol levels (BALs) taken at the time of injury. Participants in the uncomplicated mild TBI and complicated mild-severe TBI groups had higher scores on measures of depression and postconcussion symptoms (d = 0.45-0.83), but not anxiety, compared with the TC group. The complicated mild-severe TBI group had more areas of abnormal white matter on DTI measures (all p < .05; d = 0.54-0.61) than the TC group. There were no difference between groups on all neurocognitive measures. Using hierarchical regression analyses and generalized linear modeling, LAC and BAL did provide a unique contribution toward the prediction of attention and executive functioning abilities; however, the variance accounted for was small. LAC and BAL did not provide a unique and meaningful contribution toward the prediction of self-reported symptoms, DTI measures, or the majority of neurocognitive measures. In this study, BAL and LAC were not predictive of mental health symptoms, postconcussion symptoms, cognition, or white-matter changes at 6-8 weeks following TBI.

  10. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  11. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen. PMID:6088100

  12. Chronic aluminum intoxication in rat induced both serotonin changes in the dorsal raphe nucleus and alteration of glycoprotein secretion in the subcommissural organ: Immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Laabbar, Wafaa; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Kissani, Najib; Gamrani, Halima

    2014-08-08

    Aluminum (Al) causes multiple impairments in several body systems including the central nervous system. In fact, Al exposure has been mostly associated with neurological dysfunctions that occur in some brain diseases. The effect of Al neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system is well documented, but this effect on the serotoninergic system is poorly studied. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of chronic Al intoxication (0.3% of aluminum chloride exposure from the intra-uterine age until 4 months of adult age) on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) which is the main source of serotonin, and also on the glycoprotein secretion of subcomissural organ (SCO), receiving important serotoninergic innervation. This will be executed using immunohistochemistry procedure, with both the anti serotonin and the anti Reissner's fiber antibodies in the rat. Our results showed a significant increase of serotonin immunoreactivity in the DRN, accompanied by a noticeable decrease of RF immunoreactivity in the SCO ependymocytes. This study provides further evidence confirming the toxic effect of Al exposure on serotonin neurotransmission in the brain likely through increased synthesis or decreased release. Al exposure was also shown to decrease RF glycoprotein which is involved in the detoxification of cerebrospinal fluid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports Latest available findings on quality of and access to health care Data Data Data Infographics Data ... reviewed September 2015 Page originally created September 2012 Internet Citation: Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using ...

  14. Are Blood Thinners Overused in Patients with Irregular Heartbeat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the heart rhythm disorder known as atrial fibrillation may be taking unneeded blood thinners, a new ... risk of stroke that can come with atrial fibrillation. But for many atrial fibrillation patients with a ...

  15. Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

  16. SORPTION CORRECTION OF NEPHRON SUB-MICROSCOPIC CHANGES CAUSED BY NEOPLASTIC CHRONIC INTOXICATION WITH THE APPLICATION OF CYTOSTATIC THERAPY.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Yu; Lisnychuk, N; Demkiv, I; Oleshchuk, O

    2017-01-01

    The electron microscopic changes of the nephron structural components under conditions of dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis with the development of colorectal adenocarcinoma in situ were evaluated. Destructive changes in epitheliocytes of proximal and distal tubules of the nephron, microcirculation disturbances in renal corpuscles and tubular structure are evidences of disorder in urine formation stages. Аdministration of cytostatics aggravates the degree of destructive changes in the kidney. The application of carbon enterosorbent of IV generation "Carboline" for chronic neoplastic endotoxemia correction in combination with chemotherapy components significantly reduces the structural changes of the cortical substance of the kidneys, activates processes of reparative regeneration. The normalization of the morphological structure of the nephron components is an indication of the recovery of the test organ functions.

  17. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Intoxication and violent women.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Putkonen, Hanna; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Eronen, Markku

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol and drugs have been linked to severe violent offending among women as well as men. The purpose of this study was to make a contribution to the limited knowledge of characteristics related to the state of intoxication in violent female offenders. The putative differences in the characteristics of female offenders and their violent offenses in relation to the state of intoxication at the time of the violent offending were examined. Of a nation-wide sample of 109 female offenders found guilty of homicide and other violent crimes and incarcerated in 1999-2000 in Finland, 60 offenders participated in the study. Of these offenders 49 (81.7%) had been intoxicated at the time the of index offenses. These were compared with 11 (18.3%) non-intoxicated offenders using a structured interview, the Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The prevalence of substance abuse or dependence (73.3% and 0%), personality disorder (89.6% and 36.4%), particularly antisocial personality disorder (66.7% and 0%), as well as a history of criminality (69.4% and 0%) were significantly higher among the intoxicated women than among the non-intoxicated. The PCL-R scores were also significantly higher among the intoxicated offenders than among non-intoxicated offenders. The victims of the intoxicated women (23.9%) were less often emotionally close to the perpetrator than were the victims of the non-intoxicated women (66.6%). No differences emerged between the groups in experiences of childhood and adulthood abuse or stressful life events prior to the index crime. The findings indicate that intoxicated violent female offenders exhibit more of the characteristics previously found in violent men, than do the non-intoxicated female offenders. Moreover, the non-intoxicated group comprises both psychotic non-responsible and non-psychotic, fairly well-adjusted women, who are educated, working or studying at the time of the offense

  19. [An unusual case of acute aminophylline intoxication].

    PubMed

    Manes, Massimo; Pellu, Valentina; Radin, Elisabetta; Molino, Andrea; Gabrielli, Danila; Caputo, Donatella; Paternoster, Giuseppe; Torti, Paola; Visetti, Enrico; Nebiolo, Pier Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Theophylline/aminophylline use for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has declined over time, as new and safer therapies developed. However, theophylline/aminophylline overdose can occur. Hereby it is described an unusual case of severe aminophylline intoxication due to mesodermic injections treated with CVVHDF session.

  20. [Acute intoxication by cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Nida, F

    1975-01-01

    Intoxications due to cosmetics are of various types, but certain substances may be particularly harmful, especially when the constituants include acetone, boric acid and borates, ethyl alcohol, bromates, formol, methyl alcohol, propylene glycol, thallium, thioglycolate.. Every cosmetic substance may induce accidental intoxications. Most often, fluid cosmetics are absorbed either by children or by feeble-minded subjects. In all intoxication, one must take account of the age and weight of the patient, of the quantity absorbed, of the toxicity and of the constituants of the substance.

  1. [Criminal clozapine intoxications].

    PubMed

    Sliundin, D G; Livanov, A S; Anuchin, V V; Bobrinskaia, I G; Gutova, E V

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the topical problem--study criminal clozapine intoxications that have recently ranked first in the total structure of criminal intoxications, by ousting poisoning by clofelin. Thus, in 2004 to 2006, the number of victims taken to the Prof. A. A. Ostroumov Moscow City Hospital No. 33 increased by 1.9 times, by amounting to 1120 cases in 2006. At the same time, its correct prehospital diagnosis was made only in 1.76% of the victims. Abundant clinical material (2720 cases) has been analyzed, by using the currently performed studies. The specific features of the development and clinical manifestations of these intoxications, including those concurrent with alcoholic intoxication, are described in detail. The characteristic manifestations of impaired consciousness, hypersalivation, and myosis in the absence of generally, respiratory failure and hemodynamic disorders, as well as altered clinical and biochemical blood parameters are shown. At the same time there were elevated ammonia levels within the first hours after intoxication, which, in the authors' opinion, may suggest the development of hepatic dysfunction. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the leading component in the complex of medical measures is the administration of central anticholinesterase agents (aminostigmine and galantamine hydrobromide) that may be used as an antidote and for the differential diagnosis of these intoxications.

  2. General characteristics of paint thinner burns: Single center experience.

    PubMed

    Haksal, Mustafa Celalettin; Tiryaki, Cağrı; Yazıcıoğlu, Murat Burç; Güven, Murat; Çiftci, Ali; Esen, Osman; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Yıldırım, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to present characteristic features and risk factors of paint thinner burns in order to raise awareness and help prevent these injuries. Records of patients admitted to the burn unit due to paint thinner burns were retrospectively reviewed, and patients with comprehensive data available were included in the study. Total of 48 patients (3 female and 45 male) with mean age of 27.79±11.49 years (range: 4-58 years) were included in the study. Mean total hospitalization period was 30.25±27.11 days (range: 3-110 days), and mean total burn surface area was 32.53±24.06% (range: 3.0-90.0%). In 31 cases (64.6%), intensive care unit admission was required. Among all 48 patients, 9 (18.8%) died in hospital and remaining 38 were discharged after treatment. Primary cause of death was septicemia (n=7) or respiratory failure (n=6). Inhalation injury was present in 12 of the patients, 6 of whom died (50%). Statistically significant differences were found between expired and discharged patients when compared for presence of inhalation injury (p=0.01) and septicemia (p=0.031). Ignition of paint thinner is an important cause of burn injuries that may result in very severe clinical picture. Patients require prompt and careful treatment. Clinicians should be aware that inhalation injury and sepsis are the 2 main factors affecting mortality rate in this group of patients. With increased awareness, preventive measures may be defined. Further studies are warranted to decrease mortality rate in this subgroup of burn patients.

  3. Tensile Strength of Polyester Composites Reinforced with Thinner Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; de Pontes, Lucas Almeida; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Ferreira, Jordana; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Margem, Jean Igor

    This study evaluated the tensile properties of polyester composites reinforced with ramie fibers with thinner diameters. Specimens with different ramie fibers percentages (0,10,20 and 30%) in continuous and aligned ramie stalk fibers volume, were tensile tested at room temperature to evaluate the ultimate strength, elastic modulus and total strain. The results indicated that the tensile properties tend to improve with increasing volume fraction of ramie fibers. The role played by the fiber/matrix interaction was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Driving While Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  5. Platelet aggregation associated with ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, S.; Walenga, J.; Fareed, J.; Schumacher, H. )

    1989-02-09

    Alcohol is known to produce profound effects on blood; during chronic intoxication, prolongation of bleeding time has been reported. Utilizing human platelet rich plasma, we have studied the effect of alcohol on epinephrine, arachidonic acid and ADP induced aggregation. Control responses were obtained with saline from which the relative inhibition by alcohol was calculated. These studies were carried out at a concentration of 1.25-5.0 mg/ml which represents 0.125-0.5% alcohol blood levels. From 25 normal male and female volunteers, without prior hemostatic defects or drug ingestion, a dose-dependent inhibition by alcohol of all three agonist induced aggregations was noted. Alcohol itself did not produce any aggregation response. These studies demonstrate that alcohol at levels which are reached during intoxication is capable of impairing platelet function. The implication of this finding on the bleeding complications in healthy intoxicated patients may be significant during traumatic events, and individuals taking antiplatelet drugs may present a more serious hemostatic deficit during alcohol intoxication.

  6. [Clinico-pathologic correlation of dementia produced by thinner and cocaine].

    PubMed

    Barroso Moguel, R; Méndez Armenta, M; Villeda Hernández, J

    1993-01-01

    Industrial solvents mixed from thinner, used in paints, leathers, rubber, varnishes, have neurotoxic action. By laboral inhalation or spontaneously these are absorbed from the lungs, transported by blood and because of this high lipophilic section are retained within the lipid rich nervous system. Euphoric effects appear accompanied with visual and additive halucinations. In chronic abusers it produce schizophrenic-paranoid consequences with encephalic and peripheral neuronal and nervous fibers destruction, accompanied of blindness and paralysis. Cocaine is another neurotoxic drug. At first it produces euphoria, arterial hypertension and symptoms suggestive of underlying psychiatric diseases. The cocaine addicts often suffer depression, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures and suicidal ideation. The morphological base of the symptomatology is the encephalic and peripheral neuronal and nerve fibers destruction.

  7. Caffeinated energy drink intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Trabulo, Daniel; Marques, Susana; Pedroso, Ermelinda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of different energy drinks have been introduced to provide an energy boost. They contain high levels of caffeine and other additives that act as stimulants. Several recent studies present that energy drinks could increase the risk of seizures, acid-base disorders and cardiovascular events. The authors report a 28-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room after sudden onset of tonic-clonic seizures and metabolic acidosis after drinking several cans of a caffeinated energy drink. The authors believe that this clinical picture was caused by caffeine intoxication from an energetic drink causing a syndrome of catecholamine excess. The patient was discharged within a week with no complaints and no neurological signs. Finally, recognising the features of caffeine intoxication and its potential health consequences may be especially relevant when treating younger persons who may be more likely to consume energy drinks. PMID:22714613

  8. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon.

  9. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication: an important cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.

  10. The effects of age at the onset of drinking to intoxication and chronic ethanol self-administration in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Helms, Christa M; Rau, Andrew; Shaw, Jessica; Stull, Cara; Gonzales, Steven W; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    Consumption of alcohol begins during late adolescence in a majority of humans, and the greatest drinking occurs at 18-25 years then decreases with age. The present study measured the differences in ethanol intake in relation to age at the onset of ethanol access among nonhuman primates to control for self-selection in humans and isolate age effects on heavy drinking. Male rhesus macaques were assigned first access to ethanol during late adolescence (n = 8), young adulthood (n = 8), or early middle age (n = 11). The monkeys were induced to drink ethanol (4 % w/v in water) in increasing doses (water then 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg ethanol) using a fixed-time (FT) 300-s schedule of food delivery, followed by 22 h/day concurrent access to ethanol and water for 12 months. Age-matched controls consumed isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution yoked to the late adolescents expected to be rapidly maturing (n = 4). Young adult monkeys had the greatest daily ethanol intake and blood-ethanol concentration (BEC). Only late adolescents escalated their intake (ethanol, not water) during the second compared to the first 6 months of access. On average, plasma testosterone level was consistent with age differences in maturation and tended to increase throughout the experiment more for control than ethanol-drinking adolescent monkeys. Young adulthood in nonhuman primates strongly disposes toward heavy drinking, which is independent of sociocultural factors present in humans. Ethanol drinking to intoxication during the critical period of late adolescence is associated with escalation to heavy drinking.

  11. The effects of age at the onset of drinking to intoxication and chronic ethanol self-administration in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christa M.; Rau, Andrew; Shaw, Jessica; Stull, Cara; Gonzales, Steven W.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Consumption of alcohol begins during late adolescence in a majority of humans, and the greatest drinking occurs at 18–25 years then decreases with age. Objectives The present study measured differences in ethanol intake in relation to age at the onset of ethanol access among non-human primates to control for self-selection in humans and isolate age effects on heavy drinking. Methods Male rhesus macaques were assigned first access to ethanol during late adolescence (n = 8), young adulthood (n = 8) or early middle age (n = 11). The monkeys were induced to drink ethanol (4% w/v in water) in increasing doses (water, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg) using a fixed-time (FT) 300-s schedule of food delivery, followed by 22 hours/day concurrent access to ethanol and water for 12 months. Age-matched controls consumed isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution yoked to the late adolescents, expected to be rapidly maturing (n = 4). Results Young adult monkeys had the greatest daily ethanol intake and blood-ethanol concentration (BEC). Only late adolescents escalated their intake (ethanol, not water) during the second compared to the first 6 months of access. On average, testosterone was consistent with age differences in maturation, and tended to increase throughout the experiment more for control than ethanol-drinking adolescent monkeys. Conclusions Young adulthood in non-human primates strongly disposes toward heavy drinking independently of sociocultural factors present in humans. Drinking ethanol to intoxication during the critical period of late adolescence is associated with escalation to heavy drinking. PMID:24448900

  12. [Intoxications with plants].

    PubMed

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  13. [Suicidal buflomedil intoxication].

    PubMed

    Babel, Bernward; Tatschner, Thomas; Patzelt, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal intoxication of a young woman following an overdose of buflomedil is reported. She died in a hospital 17 hours after ingestion. In various body fluids the following buflomedil concentrations were determined: heart blood 24.5 microg/ml, liquor 21.3 microg/ml, bile 39.1 mg/ml and urine 138.6 mg/ml. Additionally the results of autopsy and histology are presented. Anemia of the internal organs was conspicuous; this finding is attributed to the vasodilating effect of buflomedil on the peripheral vessels.

  14. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products. Ministry of Health, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen.

  15. Thinner inhalation effects on oxidative stress and DNA repair in a rat model of abuse.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Gallegos-Corona, Marco-Antonio; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Hernández-Chan, Nancy Georgina; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2010-04-01

    Humans can come into contact with thinner by occupational exposure or by intentional inhalation abuse. Numerous studies of workers for genotoxic effects of thinner exposure have yielded conflicting results, perhaps because co-exposure to variable other compounds cannot be avoided in workplace exposure studies. In contrast, there is no data concerning the genotoxic effects of intentional inhalation abuse. The aim of this project was to examine the genotoxic effects of thinner inhalation in an animal model of thinner abuse (rats exposed to 3000 ppm toluene, a high solvent concentration over a very short, 15 min time period, twice a day for 6 weeks). The data presented here provides evidence that thinner inhalation in our experimental conditions is able to induce weight loss, lung abnormalities and oxidative stress. This oxidative stress induces oxidative DNA damage that is not a characteristic feature of genotoxic damage. No significant difference in DNA damage and DNA repair (biomarkers of genotoxicity) in lymphocytes from thinner-treated and control rats was found. Lead treatment was used as a positive control in these assays. Finally, bone marrow was evaluated as a biomarker of cellular alteration associated with thinner inhalation. The observed absence of hemopoietic and genetic toxicity could be explained in part by the absence of benzene, the only carcinogenic component of thinner; however, benzene is no longer a common component of thinner. In conclusion, thinner did not cause genotoxic effects in an experimental model of intentional abuse despite the fact that thinner inhalation induces oxidative stress. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Blood purification for intoxication.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Blood purification is administered in cases of acute intoxication when the substance causing the intoxication is to be eliminated or when the substance leads to a case of organ dysfunction, such as in renal or hepatic failure. The causative substances cover a wide range, from medical drugs or agrichemicals to natural poisons (such as poisonous mushrooms). In removing these substances, gastric lavage, activated carbon administration, laxative administration or enema cleaning are the preferred methods, and blood purification is not routinely conducted. However, when the causative substance is unknown or when there are several causative substances, it is not easy to immediately grasp the disposition of the patient and so judge whether or not blood purification should be performed. In such cases, blood purification must be conducted in a timely manner and in accordance with the crisis management principle of 'prepare for the worst'. In general, substances whose molecular weight is within the removal spectrum, having a small distribution volume and a low protein-binding rate, are easier to remove. For substances with high protein-binding rates, albumin dialysis (MARS and Prometheus) is performed in order to remove albumin-binding substances. Since MARS and Prometheus have not been introduced in Japan, plasma diafiltration, employing selective plasma filtration with dialysis, is a practical alternative.

  17. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Self-induced water intoxication in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, J.

    1976-01-01

    Water intoxication occurred in a 53-year-old woman with chronic simple schizophrenia and poorly controlled diabetes. For several years she had had a compulsive habit of drinking excessive amounts of water. Coma, fever, convulsions and other neurologic signs appeared suddenly, and she had severe hyponatremia. Her condition improved rapidly when the electrolyte abnormality was corrected. PMID:943225

  19. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Swaran J.S.; Pachauri, Vidhu

    2010-01-01

    Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications. PMID:20717537

  20. Emergency approach to intoxications.

    PubMed

    Hackett, T

    2000-05-01

    Many compounds, when absorbed or ingested, can cause harm to animals and people. Veterinarians are commonly faced with companion animals that have been exposed to these harmful compounds. Most poisonings are the result of curious exploration by the pet and a quest to taste everything in their path. Some poisonings are the result of malice, and many simply result from owner ignorance when pets are given medications without regard to dose or compatibility. It is the responsibility of the emergency clinician encountering these cases to prevent further exposure to the poison, enhance its elimination, and provide supportive and antidotal care. Antidotes when available are of little value if the animal has lost any vital functions. It is the purpose of this article to focus on the emergency management of intoxications by reviewing the general principles of triage and emergency care, and to discuss available procedures to stop the exposure, prevent further absorption, and hasten elimination of poisons from the patients body.

  1. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  2. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese.

  3. [Acute water intoxication as complication of intravenous urography].

    PubMed

    López Del Val, T; Del Olmo, D; Diago, J; Alcazar, V; Hernández, E; Vázquez, C

    2001-05-01

    Physiologically, two complementary mechanisms regulate plasma osmolality: antduretic hormone ADH) and thirst. ADH release s supressed, thirst s inhbted and renal water loss occurs when plasma osmolality below a threshold level. The rise in plasma osmolalty causes ADH release, stimulation of thirst and water intake. Acute water intoxication is exceptional in patients without a chronic psychiatric disease. Herein, we describe a case of acute water intoxication in a previously healthy patient, after making an intravenous urography. The excessive water intake and the impossibility of renal water loss because of streee-induced ADH release originated t. Only nine cases have been previously described; almost they all were women preparing for diagnostic procedures.

  4. Disease profile and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the EuroQol (EQ-5D + C) questionnaire for chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication.

    PubMed

    Steckling, Nadine; Plass, Dietrich; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia

    2015-12-09

    Toxic mercury is still being used today for example by workers mining gold, resulting in diverse health symptoms in users and individuals in proximity. A considerable burden of disease (BoD) can be assumed, while previous analyses were limited by data scarcity. Besides limited epidemiological data, neither data about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) nor about the disease severity (disability weight, DW) is available. The aim of the project was to develop disease profiles of chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) by including the HRQoL to improve the data basis for BoD analyses of gold miners exposed to mercury. Disease profiles comprising the disease label [a], differentiation into disease stages [b], description of the cause of exposure [c], a list of common symptoms [d], and an assessment of the HRQoL [e] were developed using expert elicitation and literature search. The HRQoL was assessed by experts using the five EuroQol dimensions accompanied by the cognition add-on questionnaire (EQ-5D + C). The ten sources used for the analyses (interview transcript, presentation, and eight literature reviews) identified more than 250 terms describing 85 distinguishable health effects of CMMVI. The analysis revealed 29 common symptoms that were frequently mentioned. Moderate and severe CMMVI cases differ regarding their symptoms and/or symptom severity and HRQoL, resulting in the EQ-5D + C-3L codes 121222 and 233333, respectively. The profiles should be used to facilitate the ascertainment of CMMVI cases, to compare the HRQoL with other diseases, to derive DWs for improving BoD estimates, and to foster discussions about how to reduce the associated burden.

  5. Neurological manifestation of methyl bromide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Suwanlaong, Kanokrat; Phanthumchinda, Kammant

    2008-03-01

    Methyl bromide is a highly toxic gas with poor olfactory warning properties. It is widely used as insecticidal fumigant for dry foodstuffs and can be toxic to central and peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological manifestations of methyl bromide intoxication occur from inhalation. Acute toxicity characterized by headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and visual disturbances. Tremor, convulsion, unconsciousness and permanent brain damage may occur in severe poisoning. Chronic exposure can cause neuropathy, pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunction, as well as neuropsychiatric disturbances. The first case of methyl bromide intoxication in Thailand has been described. The patient was a 24-year-old man who worked in a warehouse of imported vegetables fumigated with methyl bromide. He presented with unstable gait, vertigo and paresthesia of both feet, for two weeks. He had a history of chronic exposure to methyl bromide for three years. His fourteen co-workers also developed the same symptoms but less in severity. Neurological examination revealed ataxic gait, decreased pain and vibratory sense on both feet, impaired cerebellar signs and hyperactive reflex in all extremities. The serum concentration of methyl bromide was 8.18 mg/dl. Electrophysilogical study was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) revealed bilateral symmetrical lesion of abnormal hypersignal intensity on T2 and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at bilateral dentate nuclei of cerebellum and periventricular area of the fourth ventricle. This incident stresses the need for improvement of worker education and safety precautions during all stages of methyl bromide fumigation.

  6. The neurological effects of methyl bromide intoxication.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Aaron; Narvencar, Kedareshwar P S; Sindhoora, K V

    2013-12-15

    Used primarily as a fumigant or as a substrate in chemical processes, methyl bromide is a highly toxic gas. The gas is usually absorbed by inhalation and effects on the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and brain are seen. Numerous instances of acute and chronic neurologic injury have been reported: acute poisoning results in seizures, myoclonus, ataxia or cerebral oedema beginning as early as 30 min after exposure while subacute or chronic intoxication presents with diverse slowly progressive neurological and neurobehavioral symptoms. Serum bromide levels may be elevated, but often return rapidly to normal. Electroencephalography may show frontally-predominant slow waves or polyspikes with following slow wave, and MRI reveals characteristic involvement in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, the brainstem, and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Symmetric and selective lesions in characteristic sites are observed on imaging and on histopathological examination. These are likely produced by methylation of intracellular lipids, protein and glutathione; production of toxic metabolites; defective neurotransmitter function; and abnormal oxidative phosphorylation. This article reviews the toxic effects of this gas, the pathophysiology and symptoms of its effects on the nervous system, and characteristic findings on MRI; and presents an illustrative case of methyl bromide intoxication due to exposure at a factory producing the compound commercially.

  7. Unintentional Cannabis Intoxication in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Claudet, Isabelle; Mouvier, Sébastien; Labadie, Magali; Manin, Cécile; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Eyer, Didier; Dufour, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort. All children aged <6 years admitted to a tertiary-level pediatric emergency department (PED) for proven cannabis intoxication (compatible symptoms and positive toxicological screening results) during the reference period were included. Twenty-four PEDs participated in our study; 235 children were included, and 71% of the patients were 18 months old or younger. Annual admissions increased by a factor of 13. Hashish resin was the main form ingested (72%). During the study period, the evolution was characterized by a national increase in intoxications, younger intoxicated children (1.28 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.7 years, P = .005), and more comas (n = 38) (P = .05, odds ratio 3.5 [1.02-11.8]). Compared with other intoxications, other PED admissions, and the same age population, cannabis-related admissions were greater. There was a potential link between the increased incidence of comas and increased THC concentration in resin seized in France over the period. Children are collateral victims of changing trends in cannabis use and a prevailing THC concentration. Intoxicated children are more frequent, are younger, and have intoxications that are more severe. This raises a real issue of public health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. A new illusion of height and width: taller people are perceived as thinner.

    PubMed

    Beck, Diane M; Emanuele, Barbara; Savazzi, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly said that tall people look thinner. Here, we asked whether an illusion exists such that the taller of two equally wide stimuli looks thinner, and conversely whether the thinner of two equally tall stimuli looks taller. In five experiments, participants judged the horizontal or vertical extents of two identical bodies, rectangles, or cylinders that differed only in their vertical or horizontal extents. Our results confirmed the folk wisdom that being tall makes you look thinner. We similarly found that being thin makes you look taller, although this effect was less pronounced. The same illusion was present for filled rectangles and cylinders, but it was consistently stronger for both photographs and silhouettes of the human body, raising the question of why the human form should be more prone to this illusion.

  9. One-Third with Common Irregular Heartbeat Don't Take Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of stroke," said study author Dr. Geoffrey Barnes, a cardiologist at the University of Michigan Frankel ... the patient on blood thinners after a procedure," Barnes said in a university news release. The study ...

  10. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

  11. Marine trauma, envenomations, and intoxications.

    PubMed

    Brown, C K; Shepherd, S M

    1992-05-01

    When humans encounter marine creatures a variety of maladies may occur, ranging from dermatitis to life-threatening trauma, allergy, envenomations, or intoxications. The emergency physician should be prepared to recognize quickly and address appropriately the potential life threats, which are primarily neurologic, respiratory, and cardiovascular. A high degree of suspicion for these illnesses is needed. Intoxications may be especially confusing. Although most of the syndromes are self-limited and treatment supportive, time is of the essence if neuromuscular paralysis, hypotension, or respiratory compromise is present. Much folklore exists regarding detection and prevention of these entities and should be regarded as such. The last several decades have seen a marked increase in our knowledge base regarding these fascinating envenomations and intoxications. Research in the next several decades probably will produce a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, which will further our understanding of, and ability to specifically manage, these syndromes.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Paint Thinner Alters Postnatal Development and Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Malloul, Hanaa; Mahdani, Ferdaousse M.; Bennis, Mohammed; Ba-M’hamed, Saadia

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure and sniffing of volatile organic solvents continue to be a worldwide health problem, raising the risk for teratogenic sequelae of maternal inhalant abuse. Real life exposures usually involve simultaneous exposures to multiple solvents, and almost all the abused solvents contain a mixture of two or more different volatile compounds. However, several studies examined the teratogenicity due to industrial exposure to a single volatile solvent but investigating the teratogenic potential of complex chemical mixture such as thinner remains unexplored. This study was undertaken to evaluate developmental neurotoxicity of paint thinner using a mouse model. Mated female mice (N = 21) were, therefore, exposed to repeated and brief inhalation episodes of 0, 300 or 600 ppm of thinner during the entire period of pregnancy. Females weigh was recorded and their standard fertility and reproductive parameters were assessed. After birth postnatal day 1 (PND1), offspring (N = 88) length and body weight were measured in a daily basis. At PND5, the pups were assessed for their postnatal growth, physical maturation, reflex development, neuromotor abilities, sensory function, activity level, anxiety, depression, learning and memory functions. At adulthood, structural changes of the hippocampus were examined by estimating the total volume of the dentate gyrus. Except one case of thinner induced abortion at the higher dose, our results showed that the prenatal exposure to the solvent did not cause any maternal toxicity or decrease in the viability of the offspring. Therefore, a lower birth weight, decrease in the litter size and delayed reflexes ontogeny were registered in prenatally exposed offspring to both 300 ppm and 600 ppm of thinner. In addition, prenatally exposure to thinner resulted in increased anxiolytic- and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, impaired learning and memory functions and decreased hippocampal dentate gyrus volume were revealed only in the

  13. [Water intoxication following oxytocin perfusion].

    PubMed

    Borg, G; Seligmann, G; Sournies, G; Thoulon, J M

    1983-01-01

    The authors report a case of water intoxication in a woman who received 140 I.U. of oxytocin in 3 litres of glucose serum in 15 hours to induce a therapeutic abortion. This water intoxication led to loss of consciousness with increase in weight and hyponatraemia. The treatment consisted in restricting fluid intake, giving sodium and 20% Mannitol. A short review of the literature with an explanation of the physiopathology is given. This is the antidiuretic action of oxytocin when it is given with too much fluid without electrolytes.

  14. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  15. [Succivil efficacy in endogenous intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, L I; Khazbievich, I S; Ageeva, G R

    2003-01-01

    Succivil, a drug based on the blood substitute succinasol and containing 1,4-naphthoquinone, was studied as a means of restoring the living activity of cells occurring under extremal conditions of alcohol, heliotrin, or combined intoxication. A thorough investigation of the role of the free-radical oxidation in the dynamics of cell damage, in combination with histological, morphological, and biochemical data, showed that the aforementioned extremal intoxication factors lead to disorders in the cell energetics and intracell detoxicant system and to more or less manifested changes in the hemodynamic, biochemical, and physiological parameters. Succivil is capable of reanimating the cells damaged by the extremal factors studied.

  16. [Chronic organophosphorus intoxication and aging in rats].

    PubMed

    Okuwaki, K

    1990-08-01

    Possible acceleration of aging due to the administration of organophosphorus pesticide (OP) was studied. Fenthion (6 mg/kg/day) was subcutaneously administered dorsally to rats over a period of 12 weeks. The amounts of fluorescent lipid peroxidation products (FLPP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in various tissues. Microscopic examination was added only in the lens. The amount of FLPP in the retina-choroid, lens, kidney and heart of the rats was found to be increased (lens; p less than 0.01, kidney; p less than 0.05). The activity of SOD in the retina-choroid, optic nerve, liver and heart increased temporarily, but eventually returned to control levels. The lens preparations at the end of the 12-week administration period showed irregular bow configuration and epithelial nuclear dislocation in the bow area. FLPP are fluorescent products produced by peroxide lipids and their amounts increase with aging. Increase in the amounts of these products and microscopic findings for the lens were indications of the progress of aging. There is thus the possibility that the inducement of SOD production may decrease with aging. It was concluded that the organophosphorus pesticide may accelerate the aging of rats.

  17. Coincidental Finding of Beta Thalassaemia Minor in a Patient of Lacquer Thinner Poisoning Presenting as Methaemoglobinemia

    PubMed Central

    Mohanpuria, Anisha; Buxi, Gurdeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain various aromatic hydrocarbons and naphtha; if ingested, may cause methaemoglobinemia. We report a case of 13-year-old girl who presented with episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain and numbness of limbs. Peripheral blood smear showed few fragmented erythrocytes and 10-12 nucleated red blood cells /100 white blood cells. Reticulocyte count was 15% with presence of Heinz bodies. There was a history of accidental ingestion of lacquer paint thinner. Levels of methaemoglobin were very high along with raised HbA2 levels. An impression of haemolytic anaemia, due to lacquer thinner paint poisoning, with methaemoglobinemia was given. Incidentally High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed increased HbA2 levels i.e., heterozygous inheritance of beta thalassaemia minor. Patient responded well to methylene blue. Blood transfusion was performed and symptomatic treatment was given. PMID:28050380

  18. Coincidental Finding of Beta Thalassaemia Minor in a Patient of Lacquer Thinner Poisoning Presenting as Methaemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Mohanpuria, Anisha; Buxi, Gurdeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-11-01

    Lacquer thinner, commonly used for removing household paints, is known to contain various aromatic hydrocarbons and naphtha; if ingested, may cause methaemoglobinemia. We report a case of 13-year-old girl who presented with episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain and numbness of limbs. Peripheral blood smear showed few fragmented erythrocytes and 10-12 nucleated red blood cells /100 white blood cells. Reticulocyte count was 15% with presence of Heinz bodies. There was a history of accidental ingestion of lacquer paint thinner. Levels of methaemoglobin were very high along with raised HbA2 levels. An impression of haemolytic anaemia, due to lacquer thinner paint poisoning, with methaemoglobinemia was given. Incidentally High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed increased HbA2 levels i.e., heterozygous inheritance of beta thalassaemia minor. Patient responded well to methylene blue. Blood transfusion was performed and symptomatic treatment was given.

  19. Hyponatraemia associated rhabdomyolysis following water intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Katsarou, Alexia; Singh, Suveer

    2010-01-01

    A young man with bipolar disorder was admitted in a coma. Cerebral oedema secondary to severe hyponatraemia was implicated. This was due to self-induced water intoxication. He developed rhabdomyolysis, a massive creatine kinase (out of proportion to longstanding antipsychotic medication) and acute renal failure. In the intensive care unit, hyponatraemia was corrected, and following appropriate fluid resuscitation, with forced alkaline diuresis, the rhabdomyolysis and renal function normalised, averting renal support. While a full recovery ensued, the persisting risk factors for hyponatraemia, that is polydipsia, and its association with rhabdomyolysis, increased the chances of a recurrence. Closely supervised regulation of his water intake, and monitoring of antipsychotic efficacy (for biochemical homeostatsis) are essential for secondary prevention. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatraemia. When associated with psychogenic polydipsia, the acute and chronic management are challenging. Vaptans, which are aquaretics, that preferentially prevent renal tubular water reabsorption, may be beneficial in this situation. PMID:22778200

  20. Hyponatraemia associated rhabdomyolysis following water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Alexia; Singh, Suveer

    2010-09-09

    A young man with bipolar disorder was admitted in a coma. Cerebral oedema secondary to severe hyponatraemia was implicated. This was due to self-induced water intoxication. He developed rhabdomyolysis, a massive creatine kinase (out of proportion to longstanding antipsychotic medication) and acute renal failure. In the intensive care unit, hyponatraemia was corrected, and following appropriate fluid resuscitation, with forced alkaline diuresis, the rhabdomyolysis and renal function normalised, averting renal support. While a full recovery ensued, the persisting risk factors for hyponatraemia, that is polydipsia, and its association with rhabdomyolysis, increased the chances of a recurrence. Closely supervised regulation of his water intake, and monitoring of antipsychotic efficacy (for biochemical homeostatsis) are essential for secondary prevention. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatraemia. When associated with psychogenic polydipsia, the acute and chronic management are challenging. Vaptans, which are aquaretics, that preferentially prevent renal tubular water reabsorption, may be beneficial in this situation.

  1. A case of Wernicke encephalopathy combined with disulfiram intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tartara, Elena; Fanucchi, Simona; D'Errico, Ignazio; Farina, Lisa M; Casoni, Francesca; Sinforiani, Elena; Micieli, Giuseppe; Costa, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    There have been several reports of disulfiram intoxication, but little evidence of neurologic conditions resulting from disulfiram-induced brain damage combined with Wernicke encephalopathy-associated lesions. We report a rare patient with both Wernicke encephalopathy and disulfiram intoxication. This 50-year-old woman, who was taking disulfiram for chronic alcohol abuse, presented with an acute confusional state, dysarthria, nystagmus, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and paraparesis. Biochemical serum and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were normal. An electromyogram detected a motor polyneuropathy. Cognitive assessment revealed severe impairment of memory, attention, and logical and executive abilities. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement showed brain lesions consistent with Wernicke encephalopathy, but also symmetric hyperintensities on T2-weighted images in the globus pallidus. Stopping the disulfiram and treating with hydration, high-dose thiamine supplements, and benzodiazepines significantly improved the patient's consciousness and oculomotor function. A magnetic resonance imaging scan after 1 month of treatment showed complete disappearance of the brain lesions and the hyperintensities in the globus pallidus. After a further month of intensive neurorehabilitation, the patient was able to interact with the medical staff, and her neuropsychological tests showed only mild memory impairment. Patients with alcoholism who present at emergency departments are at high risk for misdiagnosis, especially because there is no specific routine laboratory test for detecting asymptomatic disulfiram intoxication. Although uncommon, the combination of Wernicke encephalopathy and disulfiram intoxication should be suspected in patients with alcoholism. The disorder can be detected through a careful history and prompt clinical evaluation, together with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings.

  2. Sudden death from toluene intoxication: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Prayulsatien, Weerapong

    2013-09-01

    Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon (C7H8) found in gasoline, acrylic paints, varnishes, lacquers, paint thinners, adhesives, and shoe polish. Toluene toxicity can occur from unintentional or deliberate inhalation of fumes, ingestion, or transdermal absorption. Unintentional exposure to high concentrations of toluene results in severe toluene intoxication. This is a report of toluene poisoning in a middle-age man found dead at home after varnish application by spray. There was no obvious external and internal cause of death. The blood test revealed the presence of toluene. The cause of death was diagnosed as cardiopulmonary failure caused by toluene, which is a rare case report in Thailand.

  3. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... Counties Air Basin portion). (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  4. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... Counties Air Basin portion). (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  5. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... Counties Air Basin portion). (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  6. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... Counties Air Basin portion). (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  7. 40 CFR 52.253 - Metal surface coating thinner and reducer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metal surface coating thinner and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.253 Metal surface... Counties Air Basin portion). (iii) This section is rescinded for metal parts and products coaters which...

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy thickness measurements of films thinner than ablation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R. P.; Hollmann, E. M.; Miyamoto, M.

    2017-10-01

    A new laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is proposed to measure the thickness of films thinner than the ablation rate. The film thickness dependence of the signal intensity is used as a calibration curve. It is demonstrated that calibration curves are successfully made for thin W films and (Fe, Cr, Ni) mixed-material films produced in a magnetron sputtering device.

  9. Development and characterization of a thinner binary mask absorber for 22-nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Tom; Badger, Karen; Kindt, Louis; Kodera, Yutaka; Komizo, Toru; Kondo, Shinpei; Mizoguchi, Takashi; Nemoto, Satoru; Seki, Kazunori; Senna, Tasuku; Wistrom, Richard; Zweber, Amy; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Inazuki, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Hiroki

    2010-09-01

    The lithography challenges posed by the 22 nm node continue to place stringent requirements on photomasks. The dimensions of the mask features continue to shrink more deeply into the sub-wavelength scale. In this regime residual mask electromagnetic field (EMF) effects due to mask topography can degrade the imaging performance of critical mask patterns by degrading the common lithography process window and by magnifying the impact of mask errors or MEEF. Based on this, an effort to reduce the mask topography effect by decreasing the thickness of the mask absorber was conducted. In this paper, we will describe the results of our effort to develop and characterize a binary mask substrate with an absorber that is approximately 20-25% thinner than the absorber on the current Opaque MoSi on Glass (OMOG) binary mask substrate. For expediency, the thin absorber development effort focused on using existing absorber materials and deposition methods. It was found that significant changes in film composition and structure were needed to obtain a substantially thinner blank while maintaining an optical density of 3.0 at 193 nm. Consequently, numerous studies to assess the mask making performance of the thinner absorber material were required and will be described. During these studies several significant mask making advantages of the thin absorber were discovered. The lower film stress and thickness of the new absorber resulted in improved mask flatness and up to a 60% reduction in process-induced mask pattern placement change. Improved cleaning durability was another benefit. Furthermore, the improved EMF performance of the thinner absorber [1] was found to have the potential to relieve mask manufacturing constraints on minimum opaque assist feature size and opaque corner to corner gap. Based on the results of evaluations performed to date, the thinner absorber has been found to be suitable for use for fabricating masks for the 22 nm node and beyond.

  10. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  11. Arsenic: homicidal intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, E.W.; Wold, D.; Heyman, A.

    1984-07-01

    Arsenic-induced deaths have been known to occur from accidental poisoning, as a result of medical therapy, and from intentional poisonings in homicide and suicide. Twenty-eight arsenic deaths in North Carolina from 1972 to 1982 included 14 homicides and seven suicides. In addition, 56 hospitalized victims of arsenic poisoning were identified at Duke Medical Center from 1970 to 1980. Four case histories of arsenic poisoning in North Carolina are presented and clinical manifestations are discussed. In view of the continued widespread use of arsenic in industry and agriculture, and its ubiquity in the environment, arsenic poisoning will continue to occur. A need for knowledge of its toxicity and of the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning will also continue.

  12. Glycoconjugate histochemistry in the small and large intestine of normal and Solanum glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzi, C N; Barbeito, C G; Ortíz, M L; Lozza, F A; Fontana, P A; Portiansky, E L; Gimeno, E J

    2010-10-01

    Vitamin D participates in mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation, cell growth and differentiation. The leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum contain high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as glycoside derivatives and their chronic ingestion generates a hypervitaminosis D-like state. We analyzed changes on carbohydrate expression as a cell differentiation indicator on samples of the small and large intestine of S. glaucophyllum-intoxicated rabbits, using conventional and lectin histochemistry. Male New Zealand white rabbits were intoxicated with S. glaucophyllum during two or four weeks and killed the day after. A group of animals ("possibly recovered group") were intoxicated during 15 days and killed at day 45 of the beginning of the experiment. We found changes in the lectin binding pattern in the small and large intestine of the intoxicated rabbits. Some of these changes were reverted in the possibly recovered group. Vitamin D could be a new regulator factor of the intestinal glycosylation process.

  13. Bicycle trauma and alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Harada, Megan Y; Gangi, Alexandra; Ko, Ara; Liou, Douglas Z; Barmparas, Galinos; Li, Tong; Hotz, Heidi; Stewart, Donovan; Ley, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    As bicycling has become more popular, admissions after bicycle trauma are on the rise. The impact of alcohol use on bicycle trauma has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alcohol intoxication on injury burden following bicycle-related crashes. A retrospective review of trauma patients presenting to a Level I trauma center after bicycle-related crashes from January 2002 to December 2011 was conducted. Demographics, injury data, alcohol intoxication, helmet use, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Blood alcohol level (BAL) was considered positive if >0.01 g/dL. Variables were compared between patients based on BAL: negative, 0.01-0.16 g/dL, and >0.16 g/dL. During the 10 year study period, 563 patients met study criteria; mean age was 33.5 ± 16.5 years, 87% were male, and mortality was 1%. On average, bicycle crashes increased over the study period by 4.4 collisions per year. BAL was tested in 211 (38%) patients. Mean BAL was 0.24 g/dL, with 37% of these patients being intoxicated (BAL ≥ 0.010 g/dL). Intoxicated patients were significantly less likely to wear a helmet (4.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.002) and to be involved in motor vehicle crash (59.0% vs. 81.2%, p < 0.001). There was no difference noted in the injury burden including ISS ≥ 16 (14.3% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.335) and AIS Head ≥ 3 (17.9% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.502). When comparing patients according to their BAL, there was a decreasing risk of motor vehicle collision with increasing BAL (81.2% for undetected, 76.5% for BAL ≤ 0.16 g/dL and 54.1% for BAL >0.16 g/dL, p < 0.001). The risk for a severe head injury (AIS Head ≥ 3) was significantly lower in helmeted patients (8.4% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.035). The incidence of bicycle-related crashes is increasing and more than a third of patients tested for alcohol after bicycle-related crashes are found to be intoxicated. The injury burden in intoxicated patients, including head trauma, was not different compared to non-intoxicated

  14. [Drugs of abuse acute intoxication in paediatric emergencies].

    PubMed

    García-Algar, O; Papaseit, E; Velasco, M; López, N; Martínez, L; Luaces, C; Vall, O

    2011-06-01

    Documented cases show that acute drugs of abuse intoxication in children usually is the Fritz clinical evidence of a chronic exposure. Published clinical reports of drugs of abuse acute poisonings in children are reviewed, above all those with an underlying chronic exposure to the same or another substance. Biological matrices and exposure biomarkers useful in toxicology analysis in Paediatrics are reviewed. In toxicology, biomarkers refer to original parental substances and its metabolites and matrices refer to body substances where biomarkers are detected. In these matrices acute and chronic (previous days, weeks or months) exposures can be detected. Hair analysis has become the gold standard of drugs of abuse chronic exposure. Recommendation includes to confirm previous chronic exposure to drugs of abuse by hair analysis of children and their parents. This protocol must be applied in all cases with suspicion of acute drugs of abuse intoxication, parental consumption and/or children living in a risk environment. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Child abuse: acute water intoxication in a hyperactive child.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Tsau, Yong-Kwei

    2005-01-01

    A 4-year-8-month-old boy was brought to our emergency department with coma and seizure. Initial physical examination showed evidence of physical child abuse and sudden body weight gain of 3.4 kg in one day. The laboratory results showed normal renal function with severe hyponatremia and the MRI study showed diffuse brain swelling. All of these findings were compatible with the diagnosis of acute water intoxication. Careful history taking from the boy and his parents separately confirmed the course of chronic polydipsia with acute compulsive water drinking. After clinical assessment and follow-up by psychiatrist, the patient was diagnosed with hyperactivity disorder. We present this case and show the possibility of correlation between compulsive water drinking, child abuse and hyperactivity disorder on acute water intoxication.

  16. Intoxicated eyewitnesses: Better than their reputation?

    PubMed

    Compo, Nadja Schreiber; Evans, Jacqueline R; Carol, Rolando N; Villalba, Daniella; Ham, Lindsay S; Garcia, Tracy; Rose, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    According to law enforcement, many witnesses are intoxicated either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both (Evans et al., Public Policy Law 15(3):194-221, 2009). However, no study to date has examined whether intoxicated witnesses' recall is different from sober witnesses' and whether they are more vulnerable to misinformation using an ecologically valid experimental design. Intoxicated, placebo, and sober witnesses observed a live, staged theft, overheard subsequent misinformation about the theft, and took part in an investigative interview. Participants generally believed they witnessed a real crime and experienced a real interview. Intoxicated witnesses were not different from placebo or sober witnesses in the number of accurate details, inaccurate details, or "don't know" answers reported. All the participants demonstrated a misinformation effect, but there were no differences between intoxication levels: Intoxicated participants were not more susceptible to misinformation than sober or placebo participants. Results are discussed in the light of their theoretical and applied relevance.

  17. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    recover within 1 year. Neuropsychologic abnormalities with chronic CO exposure are found even when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are normal. White-matter damage in the centrum semiovale and periventricular area and abnormalities in the globus pallidus are most commonly seen on MRI following CO exposure. Though not as common, toxic or ischemic peripheral neuropathies are associated with CO exposure in humans and animals. The cornerstone for treatment for CO poisoning is 100% oxygen using a tight-fitting mask for greater than 6 hours. The indications for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen to decrease the half-life of COHb remain controversial.

  18. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  19. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  20. Choroid is thinner in inferior region of optic disks of normal eyes.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    To determine the thickness of the choroid across the posterior pole of normal eyes. Twenty-eight clinic-based normal eyes (54.1 ± 20.0 years, -3.6 ± 4.1 diopter) were studied. The macula and retina around the optic disk were scanned with a spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic instrument. The retinal mapping program with the enhanced depth imaging technique was used, and the borders of the choroid were drawn manually in each optical coherence tomographic image. A choroidal thickness map was constructed by the built-in program, and the choroidal thickness in the different sectors of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid was measured and compared. The choroid inferior to the optic disk was significantly thinner than that in the other sectors of the outer ring of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid (superior, 196 ± 62 μm; inferior, 146 ± 47 μm; nasal, 183 ± 80 μm; and temporal, 193 ± 64 μm, P < 0.001). The mean choroidal thickness at the nasal sector of the macular region was significantly thinner than other regions of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid (superior, 268 ± 74 μm; inferior, 245 ± 73 μm; nasal, 190 ± 68 μm; temporal, 268 ± 63 μm; and central, 258 ± 88 μm; P < 0.05). Choroidal thickness maps showed that the thinner choroidal area spreads around the optic disk and the inferior part of the posterior pole. The thinner choroid inferior to the optic disk may be a natural anatomical architecture of normal eyes, and this area may be more susceptible to hypoxia or to elevated intraocular pressures.

  1. Solution parameters for the fabrication of thinner silicone fibers by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Atsushi; Miki, Norihisa; Hishida, Koichi; Hotta, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    Silicone fibers were synthesized by electrospinning, where 17 solvents with different chemical properties (boiling point, conductivity, viscosity, dielectric constant, and solubility parameter) were used to dissolve the silicone polymer for the formation of fibers through electrospinning. Previous reports on the miniaturization of fibers of polymers dissolved in a solvent suggested that the low viscosity and the high conductivity of the polymer solution were the key parameters to form thinner fibers when using a single solvent. Here we have found a powerful way to search for good solvents to reduce the fiber diameters as well as to dissolve the polymers. By considering different types of solvents, it was found that the solubility parameters conclusively determined the smallest fiber diameters of the silicone polymers. The solubility parameter of the silicone polymer should be lower than those of the solvents to make thinner fibers. The results have revealed the strong relationship between the diameters of the fibers and the solubility parameters of the solvents, and they indicate that the solubility parameter could be a good indicative parameter in selecting solvents during the fabrication of thinner fibers by electrospinning, especially for siloxane polymers.

  2. Solution parameters for the fabrication of thinner silicone fibers by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Atsushi; Miki, Norihisa; Hishida, Koichi; Hotta, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    Silicone fibers were synthesized by electrospinning, where 17 solvents with different chemical properties (boiling point, conductivity, viscosity, dielectric constant, and solubility parameter) were used to dissolve the silicone polymer for the formation of fibers through electrospinning. Previous reports on the miniaturization of fibers of polymers dissolved in a solvent suggested that the low viscosity and the high conductivity of the polymer solution were the key parameters to form thinner fibers when using a single solvent. Here we have found a powerful way to search for good solvents to reduce the fiber diameters as well as to dissolve the polymers. By considering different types of solvents, it was found that the solubility parameters conclusively determined the smallest fiber diameters of the silicone polymers. The solubility parameter of the silicone polymer should be lower than those of the solvents to make thinner fibers. The results have revealed the strong relationship between the diameters of the fibers and the solubility parameters of the solvents, and they indicate that the solubility parameter could be a good indicative parameter in selecting solvents during the fabrication of thinner fibers by electrospinning, especially for siloxane polymers.

  3. A 4-year study of lithium intoxication reported to the Czech Toxicological Information Centre.

    PubMed

    Krenová, Martina; Pelclová, Daniela

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the frequency and severity of lithium intoxication in calls to the Czech Toxicological Information Centre (TIC). A 4-year retrospective study (2000-2003) of cases of lithium intoxication. Analysis of data from the database of the TIC and hospital discharge reports: sex, age, dose, blood level and biochemical markers of nephrotoxicity, symptoms, treatment and outcome of intoxication. The TIC received 70 calls concerning lithium intoxication, but only 27 discharge reports from hospitals were obtained and evaluated. Calls concerning women (16, median age 43.5 years) were more frequent than calls concerning men (11, median age 51.0 years). 16 patients had central nervous system or neurological symptoms. Signs of nephrotoxicity were present in 10 patients. Nine patients had cardiovascular symptoms. Possible interactions with other drugs during chronic overdoses were present in 14 patients. Six patients died due to lithium intoxication. Lithium intoxication remains a serious problem in calls to the TIC. Severe symptoms mainly developed in older patients. Drugs significantly potentiating toxic reactions to lithium should be avoided.

  4. Fenmetozole in acute alcholol intoxication in man.

    PubMed

    McNamee, H B; Mendelson, J H; Korn, J

    1975-06-01

    Forty healthy adult male volunteers were studied to determine the efficacy of fenmetozole to antagonize the effects of acute alcholol intoxication. Twenty subjects receive placebo and 20 fenmetozole in dosage of 100 mg and 200 mg in a double-blind paradigm. Pretreatment with fenmetozole failed to antogonize or attenuate cognitive, perceptual, motor and affective changes associated with acute alchol intoxication.

  5. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited. ...

  6. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited. ...

  7. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited. ...

  8. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited. ...

  9. 15 CFR 265.36 - Intoxicating beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages. 265.36 Section... beverages. Except as expressly authorized by the Director, the consumption or use on the site of intoxicating beverages is prohibited. ...

  10. Intoxication in cattle from Cestrum diurnum.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; Figueredo, J M; Mendoza, E

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six Holstein calves with clinical and pathological effects suggesting a toxic plant intoxication were studied. A view of the plants in the region and blood examination (hemogram, albumin, total protein, calcium and phosphorus) and determination of bone calcium were done. Five calves were slaughtered and pathological examinations were performed. Observed metabolic, pathological and clinical alterations were compatible with intoxication from Cestrum diurnum.

  11. [Intoxication with Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)].

    PubMed

    Tuinema, Rinske M; Uijlings, Ruben; Dijkman, Marieke A; van den Broek, Marcel P H; de Lange, Dylan W

    2009-01-01

    Three patients presented with an intoxication caused by Aconitum napellus, commonly known as Aconite, Monkshood or Wolfsbane. The first patient, a woman aged 24, was resuscitated after accidental ingestion of plant material 'from nature'. She experienced severe ventricular tachyarrhythmias. After discharge she returned with identical symptoms, which were now interpreted as intentional intoxication in a suicide attempt. She was referred to the Psychiatry department. The second patient was a 2-year-old boy who had cutaneous exposure to Aconite. Except for some red spots around his mouth there were no other symptoms. The third patient was a 34-year-old woman who ate Monkshood, which she mistook for parsley. Alarmed by the bitter taste she contacted the hospital. She was treated with stomach lavage which removed most of the ingested plant material, and with activated charcoal. She had no symptoms during observation in the hospital. Aconite alkaloids are known to cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because there is no antidote, treatment is largely supportive but serious arrhythmias and respiratory arrest need to be anticipated.

  12. Do thinner rigid gas permeable contact lenses provide superior initial comfort?

    PubMed

    Cornish, R; Sulaiman, S

    1996-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that thinner rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses provide superior initial comfort, RGP lenses of 3 center thicknesses, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.16 mm, in otherwise matched parameters, were worn for 30 min by 17 unadapted subjects in a controlled, double masked, randomized study. Comfort ratings (0 to 100) after 30 min of wear were 42 +/- 30, 55 +/- 27, and 57 +/- 28 for the 0.08-, 0.12-, and 0.16-mm thick lenses, respectively (p = 0.04, multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA)), and 93 +/- 13 for the hydrogel control lens. The thinnest RGP lens was significantly less comfortable than its thicker counterparts (p = 0.03, Univariate F-test). There were no differences among the test lenses in edge shape, front surface wettability, or static lens fittings, and small differences in movement, vertical decentration, and front surface geometry were not significantly related to comfort. We hypothesize that the greater flexibility of the thinnest lens resulted in greater deformation of the lens during a blink cycle, causing transient peripheral lens lifting and interaction with the upper eyelid, thereby reducing comfort. In conclusion we found that thinner RGP lenses do not provide an initial comfort advantage and that very thin and, as a corollary, very flexible, RGP lenses can actually be less comfortable initially than stiffer, but otherwise matched, designs.

  13. Large-scale Digitoxin Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Lely, A. H.; Van Enter, C. H. J.

    1970-01-01

    Because of an error in the manufacture of digoxin tablets a large number of patients took tablets that contained 0·20 mg. of digitoxin and 0·05 mg. of digoxin instead of the prescribed 0·25 mg. of digoxin. The symptoms are described of 179 patients who took these tablets and suffered from digitalis intoxication. Of these patients, 125 had taken the faultily composed tablets for more than three weeks. In 48 patients 105 separate disturbances in rhythm or in atrioventricular conduction were observed on the electrocardiogram. Extreme fatigue and serious eye conditions were observed in 95% of the patients. Twelve patients had a transient psychosis. Extensive ophthalmological observations indicated that the visual complaints were most probably caused by a transient retrobulbar neuritis. PMID:5273245

  14. Illicit opioid intoxication: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Fareed, A; Stout, S; Casarella, J; Vayalapalli, S; Cox, J; Drexler, K

    2011-01-01

    Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.

  15. Detoxifying emulsion for overdosed aspirin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Stambouli, Moncef; Pareau, Dominique

    2013-01-30

    Aspirin overdose could lead to intoxication, with the clinical manifestations of vomit, pulmonary edema and severe dyspnea. Stomach washing, emetics and activated charcoal are the common treatments with a limited efficiency for the intoxication. In this study, an active emulsion for aspirin intoxication was prepared with the detoxifying efficiency of 100% in less than 15 min, with the conditions of dodecane used as the oil phase, 8% Abil EM90 as the surfactant and 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide as the inner aqueous phase in a volume ratio of 2 between internal aqueous phase and the oil phase.

  16. Alcohol intoxication: Ion channels and genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.R.; Allan, A.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Acute in vitro exposure to ethanol and other intoxicant-anesthetics activates {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-stimulated chloride channels and inhibits voltage-dependent calcium and sodium channels of isolated brain membranes. The question of whether these neurochemical actions are responsible for intoxication in vivo has been addressed using animal populations displaying genetic differences in sensitivity to alcohol and benzodiazepine intoxication. These genetic approaches include inbred strains, selected lines, recombinant inbred strains, and heterogeneous stocks. Genetic differences in ion channel function provide strong evidence for a role of the GABA-stimulated chloride channel in ethanol and benzodiazepine intoxication; the role of calcium and sodium channels is less clear.

  17. Electrocardiographic findings after acute absinthe intoxication.

    PubMed

    Benezet-Mazuecos, Juan; de la Fuente, Adolfo

    2006-11-10

    A 29-year-old comatose patient was brought to Emergency Department with severe alcohol intoxication. No risk factors or cardiac abnormalities were documented. The analysis was negative for other drugs. Plasma electrolyte and cardiac enzymes were normal. The electrocardiogram showed Mobitz type-I atrioventricular block that developed to a rapid junctional rhythm. The patient was stabilized and recovered completely, electrocardiogram then showed sinus rhythm. He admitted important absinthe consumption. Although tachyarrhythmias are frequently developed in acute alcohol intoxication, bradyarrhythmias are exceptional in this context. We present a Wenckebach-type atrioventricular-block in severe alcohol intoxication with absinthe that developed to a rapid junctional rhythm, never described before.

  18. Evaluation of the visibility of a new thinner ¹²⁵I radioactive source for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gemma; Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Bownes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ¹²⁵I source currently used for prostate brachytherapy at St. James's Institute of Oncology is a standard size seed (≈4.5mm in length and 0.8mm in diameter). A new, thinner seed is under evaluation. This is designed to be implanted using narrower needles, potentially reducing edema and improving the dose distribution. This study investigated the visibility of the thinner source on multimodality images and compared it with that of standard size seeds. Images of dummy seeds of both thinner and standard size models were taken using ultrasound, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and CT images were acquired with the seeds inserted into phantoms positioned in a water tank. The MR images were acquired using phantoms containing single seeds. The images were analyzed visually and quantitatively. The resolution of closely spaced seeds on CT images was investigated. The visibility of both seeds was similar on ultrasound, fluoroscopy, and MR images. On CT images, the thinner seeds give reduced artifacts and better resolution. The use of the thinner seed would have minimal effect on ultrasound and fluoroscopy imaging during treatment. However on CT images, the use of the thinner seeds may improve seed identification for post-treatment dosimetry. Further study is required into the suitability of MR images alone for post-treatment dosimetry. Copyright © 2012 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Camphor intoxication treated by charcoal haemoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Mascie-Taylor, Brian H.; Widdop, Brian; Davison, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    A case of camphor intoxication in which lipid haemodialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion were applied is described. Although the patient recovered rapidly with no resultant sequelae, the analytical data indicated that extra-corporeal therapy was ineffective. PMID:7339609

  20. Water intoxication associated with oxytocin infusion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Audrey J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.; Jacobs, Howard S.

    1975-01-01

    During a mid-trimester abortion with high dose oxytocin infusion and intravenous fluids, a patient developed an acute dilutational hyponatraemia and coma. The relationship of water intoxication and synthetic oxytocin infusion is discussed and the literature reviewed. PMID:1197156

  1. Severe verapamil intoxication despite correct use of low-dose verapamil.

    PubMed

    Mandigers, Loes; Bollen, Pauline D J; Bijlstra, Peter J; Brands, Els

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of an adult patient using chronic low-dose verapamil who developed severe verapamil intoxication. A 57-year-old male patient was presented at the emergency room after a collapse of unknown etiology. The airway was compromised, and thus, an endotracheal tube was inserted. The patient deteriorated hemodynamically. Because of verapamil use and bradycardia, verapamil intoxication was suspected. The treatment was supported with intravenous fluids, calcium, inotropes, and a transvenous pacemaker. The patient progressively developed circulatory shock. Verapamil intoxication was confirmed, and therapy was adjusted accordingly. Insulin and calcium infusion were intensified, and glucagon and Intralipid® infusion were initiated. With this therapy, the patient's condition improved rapidly. We found different factors in this patient that could have precipitated this event such as diminished metabolism by cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes, a slightly diminished renal function with hypoalbuminemia, and interaction with other protein-binding drugs.

  2. Adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-04-01

    Inhalants are widely misused by adolescents and are among the most toxic of psychoactive substances. This investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication. Adolescent inhalant users (n = 279) in residential care completed structured interviews including assessments of the characteristics of their inhalant use. Multivariate logistic and linear regression and path analyses identified correlates of adverse inhalant intoxication-related experiences. Results of this study indicated that high-risk behaviors and adverse outcomes experienced during episodes of inhalant intoxication were common in this sample. High-frequency inhalant users were significantly more likely than moderate- and low-frequency users to experience adverse consequences of inhalant intoxication. Certain risky behaviors and consequences, such as engaging in unprotected sex or acts of physical violence while high on inhalants, were dramatically more common among high-frequency users than low-frequency users. Prior traumatic experiences, trait impulsivity, self-medication use of inhalants, and polydrug use were significant correlates of adverse inhalant-intoxication-related consequences. Adverse events and high-risk behaviors commonly occurred during episodes of inhalant intoxication in this sample of adolescents. High-frequency inhalant users and youth who used inhalants to medicate negative affective states were at elevated risk for such events.

  3. Effects of ethanol intoxication on speech suprasegmentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollien, Harry; Dejong, Gea; Martin, Camilo A.; Schwartz, Reva; Liljegren, Kristen

    2001-12-01

    The effects of ingesting ethanol have been shown to be somewhat variable in humans. To date, there appear to be but few universals. Yet, the question often arises: is it possible to determine if a person is intoxicated by observing them in some manner? A closely related question is: can speech be used for this purpose and, if so, can the degree of intoxication be determined? One of the many issues associated with these questions involves the relationships between a person's paralinguistic characteristics and the presence and level of inebriation. To this end, young, healthy speakers of both sexes were carefully selected and sorted into roughly equal groups of light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. They were asked to produce four types of utterances during a learning phase, when sober and at four strictly controlled levels of intoxication (three ascending and one descending). The primary motor speech measures employed were speaking fundamental frequency, speech intensity, speaking rate and nonfluencies. Several statistically significant changes were found for increasing intoxication; the primary ones included rises in F0, in task duration and for nonfluencies. Minor gender differences were found but they lacked statistical significance. So did the small differences among the drinking category subgroups and the subject groupings related to levels of perceived intoxication. Finally, although it may be concluded that certain changes in speech suprasegmentals will occur as a function of increasing intoxication, these patterns cannot be viewed as universal since a few subjects (about 20%) exhibited no (or negative) changes.

  4. Inhibition of renal Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange in cadmium-intoxicated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Do Whan; Chung, Jin Mo; Kim, Jee Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Ryong; Park, Yang Saeng . E-mail: yspark@ns.kosinmed.or.kr

    2005-04-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) results in bicarbonaturia, leading to metabolic acidosis. To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which renal bicarbonate reabsorption is inhibited, we investigated changes in renal transporters and enzymes associated with bicarbonate reabsorption in Cd-intoxicated rats. Cd intoxication was induced by subcutaneous injections of CdCl{sub 2} (2 mg Cd/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Cd intoxication resulted in a significant reduction in V{sub max} of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} antiport with no changes in K{sub Na} in the renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Western blotting of BBM proteins and indirect immunohistochemistry in renal tissue sections, using an antibody against Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchange-3 (NHE3), showed a diminished expression of NHE3 protein in the BBM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that NHE3 mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex. The activity of carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) in BBM was not changed. The protein abundance of Na{sup +}-HCO{sub 3}{sup -} cotransporter-1 (NBC1) in whole kidney membrane fractions was slightly attenuated, whereas that of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase {alpha}-subunit was markedly elevated in Cd-intoxicated animals. These results indicate that Cd intoxication impairs NHE3 expression in the proximal tubule, thereby reducing the capacity for bicarbonate reabsorption, leading to bicarbonaturia in an intact animal.

  5. Monosodium glutamate neonatal intoxication associated with obesity in adult stage is characterized by chronic inflammation and increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Roman-Ramos, Ruben; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Fortis-Barrera, Angeles; Jasso, Edgar I; Garcia-Lorenzana, Mario; Campos-Sepulveda, Alfonso E; Cruz, Miguel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J

    2011-06-01

    The monosodium glutamate (MSG) neonatal administration in mice provides a model of obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance. However, the inflammatory profile of cytokines produced from fat tissue and its relationship to the metabolic dysfunction induced by MSG have not yet been revealed. The aim of this study was to establish the inflammatory profile attributed to MSG by measuring the expression of adipokines in visceral fat and serum of 19-week-old mice as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma (PPARα and γ). Some metabolic and biochemical parameters were also quantified. The MSG increased mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), resistin and leptin, but adiponectin did not exhibit any changes. In addition, impaired glucose tolerance, increased levels of insulin, resistin and leptin were observed in serum. Both PPARα and PPARγ were activated in MSG-induced obese mice, which might explain its inflammatory profile. However, liver transaminases were severely depressed, indicating that MSG may also induce liver injury, contributing to inflammation. The MSG neonatal neuro-intoxication in mice may thus provide a model of obesity and inflammation characterized by the dual activation of PPARα and PPARγ, which might offer new insights into the mechanism of inflammatory diabetes in obesity leading to steatohepatitis, as well as a suitable model to study the role of new therapeutic agents to prevent or reduce insulin resistance, the inflammatory state and liver steatosis. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  6. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Perliveh; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status. PMID:25692049

  7. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  8. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Fatal intoxication with tianeptine (Stablon).

    PubMed

    Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-06

    Tianeptine (Stablon), although structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants, acts by enhancing the reuptake of serotonin. A fatal case is presented involving a 26-year-old man, found lying in bed with a "mushroom of foam" around his mouth. Empty blister packs of Stablon and a suicide note were found next to the body. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure with n-hexane: ethyl acetate and n-hexane: 2-propanol, followed by LC-DAD-MS analysis, using positive mode electrospray ionization was performed. The detection limit was 0.001 microg/mL. The toxicological results revealed the following tianeptine concentrations in the post-mortem samples: blood 5.1 microg/mL; urine 2.0 microg/mL; liver 23 microg/g; stomach contents 22 mg. Femoral blood analyses also revealed an ethanol concentration of 0.53 g/L. The present method was also developed and validated for the other post-mortem specimens, since no previous published data had confirmed the post-mortem distribution of tianeptine. The absence of other suitable direct causes of death (macroscopic or histological) and the positive results achieved with the toxicological analysis led the pathologist to rule that death was due to an intoxication caused by the suicidal ingestion of tianeptine in combination with alcohol.

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Regionally Thinner Cortex During the Preadolescent Period

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Frances C.; Narr, Katherine L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology, neurobehavioral deficits, and reduced brain volume. Studies of cortical thickness in FASD have yielded contradictory findings, with 3 reporting thicker cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal brain regions and 2 showing thinner cortex across multiple regions. All 5 studies included subjects spanning a broad age range, and none have examined continuous measures of prenatal alcohol exposure. We investigated the relation of extent of in utero alcohol exposure to cortical thickness in 78 preadolescent children with FASD and controls within a narrow age range. A whole-brain analysis using FreeSurfer revealed no significant clusters where cortical thickness differed by FASD diagnostic group. However, alcohol dose/occasion during pregnancy was inversely related to cortical thickness in 3 regions—right cuneus/pericalcarine/superior parietal lobe, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and supramarginal/postcentral gyrus. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on IQ was mediated by cortical thickness in the right occipitotemporal region. It is noteworthy that a continuous measure of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis and that the effect on cortical thickness was most evident in relation to a measure of maternal binge drinking. PMID:26088967

  11. Total gastrectomy due to ferric chloride intoxication.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, A Mesut; Abramson, Leonardo; Vera, Raúl A; Duza, Guillermo E; Palermo, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    The ferric chloride intoxication is frequently caused by accident. Its toxicity is generally underrated, which can lead to fatal evolution or irreversible consequences. In this case, the caustic condition of the substance is related to the toxic properties of iron. A 36-year-old male patient arrives by ambulance indicating sensory deterioration. He presents erosive injuries in the buccal cavity and in the oropharynx, brownish teeth and metabolic acidosis. Toxicology tests and ferritin blood dosage are requested, which show a result from 1400 mg/dl. The symptoms are interpreted as acute iron intoxication. Due to the unfavorable evolution of his condition, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan are performed, which show extensive pneumoperitoneum and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy, a total gastrectomy with esophagostomy and feeding jejunostomy, washing and drainage due to perforated gastric necrosis caused by caustic ingestion are performed. In our country, there is a high rate of intoxication caused by iron compounds, although it is not statistically measured. Nevertheless, the ferric chloride intoxication is extremely infrequent. The ingestion of this product leads to complications, which are associated with the iron concentration and its condition as a caustic agent. The surgical indications in the presence of intoxication caused by iron compounds are: stomach evacuation of iron, gastric necrosis, perforation or peritonitis and stenosis. Early or prophylactic gastrectomy is contraindicated. However, if complications that require immediate surgical intervention arise, there should be no hesitation and the corresponding procedure should be performed.

  12. PROTEOSE INTOXICATIONS AND INJURY OF BODY PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Van Slyke, Donald D.

    1918-01-01

    The acute intoxication following an injection of a toxic proteose is usually associated with a large increase (40 per cent or more) in the non-protein nitrogen of the blood. This increase is found chiefly in the blood urea nitrogen, but the amino and peptide nitrogens also may show small increases. The changes observed in the blood non-protein nitrogen are identical with those which follow the feeding of large amounts of meat (8). These facts indicate that the proteose intoxication causes an abnormally rapid autodigestion of tissue proteins, but that the nitrogenous end-products are, in chief part at least, the same that result from normal catabolism of food proteins. There is no evidence that the autolytic products play any part in causing the intoxication. The possibility of such a part and a resultant vicious circle is not excluded, but from the available facts the autolysis appears more as a result rather than cause of the intoxication. It appears possible that in disease or intoxication tissue catabolism may be enormously accelerated and yet yield the end-products of normal protein metabolism. PMID:19868251

  13. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  14. A successful management of aluminum phosphide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Abedi, Seyed Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aluminum Phosphide or rice tablet is one of the most common pesticides which leads to accidental or intentional acute intoxication and finally death. In this paper, we describe a successful management of intoxication with rice tablet in a young girl. Case Presentation: A 14-year-old girl was admitted due to consumption of rice tablet. Gastric washing with two vials of sodium bicarbonate and discharge suction was done. In the first 24 hours, the patient underwent recurrent hydration, dopamine infusion with sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium and amiodarone. On the second day of admission, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) and five days later, she was discharged without liver or renal complications. Conclusion: Short interval between consumption of this tablet and start of the treatment and on time rescue to the patient can be some of the important factors to prevent early death in intoxication with this tablet. PMID:24049589

  15. [Metabolic encephalopathy secondary to vitamin D intoxication].

    PubMed

    Herrera Martínez, Aura; Viñals Torràs, Montserrat; Muñoz Jiménez, Ma Concepción; Arenas de Larriva, Antonio Pablo; Molina Puerta, Ma José; Manzano García, Gregorio; Gálvez Moreno, Ma Ángeles; Calañas-Continente, Alfonso

    2014-10-25

    The association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of, among others, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases has lead in the last years to an enhanced interest in the usage of supplements to achieve the normalization of plasmatic values at 25(OH) D. Apparently this search for normalization is resulting in an higher incidence on vitamin D intoxication. We present the case of an 81 years old woman with metabolic encephalopathy and renal failure secondary to iatrogenic vitamin D intoxication. Calcium and vitamin D oral supplements were prescribed after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture. The patient improved clinically as well as analytically after receiving treatment with diuretics and hydration. We emphasize the importance of discarding hypercalcemia as a cause of metabolic encephalopathy; moreover we highly recommend keeping vitamin D intoxication in mind as an uncommon although always possible etiology of reversible hypercalcemia and renal failure.

  16. Pathophysiological effects of chronic toxicity with synthetic pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinated pesticides on bone health of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Garg, Umesh K; Pal, Asim K; Jha, Gautam J; Jadhao, Sanjay B

    2004-01-01

    This experiment evaluated effects following chronic toxicity with 20 ppm fenvalerate (synthetic pyrethroid), 2 ppm monocrotophos (organophosphate) and 2 ppm endosulfan (chlorinated hydrocarbon) on bone health of broiler chicks. A total of 120 chicks were divided equally into 4 groups and were fed poultry mash without (control) or mixed with different pesticides for 8 weeks. Body mass, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were unaffected due to pesticides treatment. However, increase an (p < 0.01) in serum alkaline phosphatase activity was noted and serum total protein decreased (p < 0.01) in all treated groups. Roentogenography revealed destructive changes in the upper part of the femur in the monocrotophos group. Endosulfan intoxicated chicks had increased numbers of trabeculae in the medullary cavity. Microscopic alterations of the costochondral junction in intoxicated chicks were similar. The zones of proliferating, maturing and degenerating, and calcifying cartilage cells were reduced in width and the metaphysis in treated birds showed a reduced number of cartilage cells and thinner trabeculae. Due to toxicity, the capillary scaffolding of the degenerating cartilage cells was reduced and a larger number of transverse trabeculae could be seen in the metaphysis. Appositional bone growth studied by the tetracyclicline labeling technique indicated decreased active osteons.

  17. Crisis management during anaesthesia: water intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, M; Szekely, S; Singleton, R; Helps, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Irrigation of closed body spaces may lead to substantial perioperative fluid and electrolyte shifts. A syndrome occurring during transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), and a similar syndrome described in women undergoing transcervical endometrial ablation (TCEA) are both characterised by a spectrum of symptoms which may range from asymptomatic hyponatraemia to convulsions, coma, and death. Such potentially serious consequences require prompt recognition and appropriate management of this "water intoxication" syndrome. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for water intoxication, in the management of this syndrome occurring in association with anaesthesia. Methods: The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: From the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS, 10 reports of water intoxication were identified, two from endometrial ablations under general anaesthesia and eight from male urological procedures under spinal anaesthesia. The "core" crisis management algorithm detected a problem in seven cases; however, it was deficient in dealing with neurological presentations. Diagnosis of the cause of the incident would have required a specific water intoxication sub-algorithm in eight cases and a hypotension algorithm in a further two cases. Corrective strategies also required a specific sub-algorithm in eight cases, while the hypotension and cardiac arrest sub-algorithms were required in conjunction with the water intoxication sub-algorithm in the remaining two. Conclusion: This relatively uncommon problem is managed poorly using the "core" crisis management sub-algorithm and requires a simple specific sub-algorithm for water

  18. Juxtapapillary choroid is thinner in normal-tension glaucoma than in healthy eyes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-12-01

    To measure the juxtapapillary choroidal thickness in eyes with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and to compare it with healthy eyes. Twelve radial B-scan images of the optic nerve head (ONH) were obtained from 96 patients with NTG and 48 healthy subjects matched by age using swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT). The juxtapapillary choroidal thickness was defined as the average choroidal thickness within 500 μm from the border tissue of Elschnig. Choroidal thinning in patients with NTG was assessed by calculating the relative choroidal thickness, defined as the ratio of the measured juxtapapillary choroidal thickness in each meridian to the corresponding value in age-matched healthy controls. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) damage as reflected by circumpapillary RNFL thickness (measured using spectral-domain OCT) was also assessed. The juxtapapillary choroid was significantly thinner in NTG eyes than in healthy control eyes in the inferotemporal and superotemporal sectors. The relative choroidal thinning was topographically associated with the hemispheric location of dominant RNFL damage. The average juxtapapillary choroidal thickness was not associated with either the global RNFL thickness or the visual field mean deviation. Age and untreated intraocular pressure were significantly associated with the juxtapapillary choroidal thickness in NTG eyes in both univariate and multivariate analyses (all p < 0.05). Decreased microvascular circulation in the ONH as a result of juxtapapillary choroidal thinning could be an important part of the pathogenesis of optic nerve damage in NTG. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Focusing by a single lens based on an optically thinner medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuo; Hu, Qi; Gao, Xiumin; Zhuang, Songlin

    2008-12-01

    This paper investigates the focusing properties by a single lens, based on the optically thinner medium (OTM). The lens model is of a plano-concave shape, made from the OTM with a refractive index of 0.5 at the wavelength λ=6.328e-4mm, named the plano-concave OTM thick lens. Any geometrical approximation is not included in the deducing process, which ensures that the full geometrical aberrations are included. The intensity distribution, in its focal region, can be calculated by the Huygens-Fresnel integral formula, using the phase and intensity distributions on the reference plane. The on-axis intensity distribution in the focal region of the plano-convex optically denser medium (ODM) thick lens is given correctly. The intensity distribution in the focal region of the plano-concave OTM thick lens is plotted in two dimensions, no symmetry about the focal plane. The plano-concave OTM thick lens has smaller on-axis spherical aberration than the plano-convex ODM thick lens has, when they have the same aperture radius, equal curvature radius (not including the sign), and equal medium index difference quantity (not including the sign also) from the environmental medium air. The radial resolution, around the near end peak in the focal region of the plano-concave OTM thick lens with its total spherical aberration, breaks down the traditional diffraction limit. Therefore the planoconcave OTM thick lens will exhibit its practical super resolution abilities, if the diffraction focused spot can be filtered off, or further more if the energy outside the near end peak can be moved into it.

  20. A fatal intoxication by chloroprene.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Annette; Hartung, Benno; Kardel, Bernd; Teloh, Johanna; Daldrup, Thomas

    2012-02-10

    Objective Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3 butadiene, is a volatile synthetic liquid. The chloroprene monomer is extremely reactive and is used for the production of latexes and synthetic rubber such as Neoprene. Up to now an acute lethal human exposure has been described only once in the literature [19]. The intoxication is associated with nervous system depression, pulmonary edema, narcosis, and respiratory arrest. Case report A 29-year-old chemistry company worker was found unconscious in an empty vessel (depth: 3m) used for chloroprene. The man was dressed in shoes, trousers, a helmet and a respiratory mask. The upper part of the body was unclothed. In spite of reanimation, the man died three hours later in a hospital. All analyses were performed by headspace gas chromatography (HS/GC/FID). In addition, brain, muscle and myocardial muscle were analysed by headspace GC-MS. Results and discussion Autopsy findings: The cause of death could not be determined as the macromorphological findings were unspecific. Toxicology findings The calibration curve of chloroprene in serum shows linearity from 1.0 to 200 μg/ml (r(2)=0.9999) using benzene as internal standard. The LOD is 0.28 μg/ml, the LLOQ is 0.99 μg/ml. Tissues and body fluids were stored at -20 °C till the analysis. Chloroprene was quantified after addition of benzene as the internal standard. It was found in nearly all tissues and body fluids except in the urine and lung. The highest concentrations were detected in the kidney, liver, myocardial muscle and especially in the brain. Furthermore, hexanal was found in all samples except in the urine. The amount of hexanal in some specimens is high, especially in the lung, bile, gastric content and myocardial muscle. Conclusion We assume that a significant amount of chloroprene was not only inhaled but also absorbed through the skin because the man wore a respiratory mask. Presumably the accident would not have happened if the works safety protocols had been followed

  1. Acute psychological stress-induced water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagarika; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Asaduzzaman, S; Peters, John R

    2005-01-01

    Excessive water drinking is a recognised feature of schizophrenia. We present here a case of excessive water drinking precipitated by acute psychological stress. A 52-year-old woman, with no previous mental health problems, was found in a state of altered consciousness and was profoundly hyponatraemic. She had consumed excess amount of water due to severe mental stress. She was treated with hypertonic saline followed by fluid restrictions. The water intoxication had caused brain damage which led to behavioural changes and impaired cognition. We describe the pathophysiology of water intoxication.

  2. Pulmonary macrophages activity in CO intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Maria; Giugliano, Pasquale; Vacchiano, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    The presence of macrophages and their activation on the pulmonary tissues of 21 subjects deceased after CO intoxication has been studied. A notable number of activated macrophages, especially in the interstitial level, have been evidenced, and such phenomenon supports the hypothesis of a possible association between CO intoxication and pulmonary macrophages activity. The highlighted association could be mediated by changes of the surfactant, by impairing of mitochondrial respiration and by release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Sudden death during arrest and phencyclidine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pestaner, Joseph P; Southall, Pamela E

    2003-06-01

    Deaths of individuals being arrested are important and complex medicolegal cases. Conclusions regarding the cause and manner of death for such cases must take into account multiple factors that may have played a role, as well as anticipate the forensic issues that will arise. In this article, we review the deaths of 2 individuals in which phencyclidine intoxication was a factor that contributed to death during arrest. Most cases of sudden death during arrest have involved cocaine intoxication; because phencyclidine's pharmacologic properties are quite different from those of cocaine, these cases allow for comparisons to those factors that may have greater importance.

  4. Methadone intoxication in a child: toxic encephalopathy?

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Marisol; Campos Rainho, António; do Carmo Vale, Maria; Estrada, João; Valente, Rosalina; Correia, Manuela; Vieira, José Pedro; Barata, Deolinda

    2006-07-01

    Methadone is used in the treatment of opioid addiction. Acute intoxication can lead to severe consequences and can even be lethal. In several case reports and small series, a presumably toxic leukoencephalopathy is described resulting from inhalation of heroin. We present the case of a 3-year-old boy who ingested methadone accidentally. In a coma with acute obstructive hydrocephalus owing to massive cerebellar edema and supratentorial lesions, he was successfully treated with methylprednisolone and cerebrospinal fluid external drainage. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an encephalopathy associated with synthetic opioid intoxication.

  5. Gangliosides, or sialic acid, antagonize ethanol intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, W.R.; Boyles, R.; Matthew, J.; Cherian, L.

    1988-01-01

    Because ethanol elicits a dose-dependent hydrolysis of brain sialogangliosides, the authors tested the possibility that injected gangliosides might antagonize intoxicating doses of ethanol. Clear anti-intoxication effects were seen at 24 hr post-injection of mixed mouse-brain gangliosides at 125-130 mg/kg, but not at lower or higher doses. Sleep time was reduced on the order of 50%, and roto-rod agility was significantly enhanced. Sialic acid (SA) similarly antagonized ethanol; however, the precursor of SA, N-acetyl-D-mannosamine, as well as ceramide and asialoganglioside did not.

  6. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  7. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug, hallucinogen...

  8. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  9. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug, hallucinogen...

  10. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  11. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  12. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug...

  13. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  14. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug, hallucinogen...

  15. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug, hallucinogen...

  16. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  17. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  18. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug...

  19. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug...

  20. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  1. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  2. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  3. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug...

  4. 7 CFR 501.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 501.7 Section... § 501.7 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering Research Center property or the operating of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug...

  5. 31 CFR 407.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic...

  6. 7 CFR 502.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 502.8 Section..., MARYLAND § 502.8 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Entering BARC property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of intoxicating beverages or narcotic drug, hallucinogen...

  7. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 57.20001... Miscellaneous § 57.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  9. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  10. 30 CFR 56.20001 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 56.20001... § 56.20001 Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. Intoxicating beverages and narcotics shall not be permitted or used in or around mines. Persons under the influence of alcohol or narcotics shall not be...

  11. Water intoxication presenting as a suspected contaminated urine sample for drug testing.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Kevin W

    2004-06-01

    A patient was evaluated medically after submitting a urine sample for drug screening that was considered inappropriately dilute. Although it was thought that the dilute urine was the result of purposely adding water, the medical evaluation revealed that the patient had chronic water intoxication from a very strict weight loss regimen. The effect of dietary solute intake on water metabolism by the kidneys and the development of hyponatremia are discussed.

  12. Acute intoxication with guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine.

    PubMed

    Wogoman, H; Steinberg, M; Jenkins, A J

    1999-06-01

    Mixed drug reactions are frequently encountered in emergency department overdose cases and also in fatal intoxications. Assessment of the relative contribution of each drug in producing adverse effects is often compounded by lack of case history and the paucity of cases reported in the literature. This report describes a fatal intoxication with three common over-the-counter medications: guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine. A 48-year-old woman was found dead in the attic bedroom of her residence. Specimens obtained at autopsy for toxicologic analysis included heart blood, urine, bile, gastric contents, vitreous humor, and cerebrospinal fluid. The over-the-counter drugs were identified and quantitated by acid/neutral or basic liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic analysis with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Concentrations of guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine detected in the heart blood were 27.4, 8.8, and 0.2 mg/L, respectively. The cause of death was determined to be acute intoxication by the combined effects of guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine, and the manner of death was determined to be suicide. To our knowledge, the blood guaifenesin concentration in this case is the highest reported concentration to date associated with an acute intoxication.

  13. Passive marijuana usage and water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, B. A.; Logan, S. J.; Ramdial, H. L.; Walton, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a case of a 3-month-old male presenting with hyponatremic seizure and hypothermia. The presence of marijuana in the infant's urine was remarkable. An etiologic role for the drug is questioned. A review of the literature is provided and the hypothesis of child neglect in the genesis of water intoxication is explored. PMID:8478974

  14. Phenytoin intoxication in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    De Schoenmakere, Gert; De Waele, Jan; Terryn, Wim; Deweweire, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain; Hoste, Eric; Rottey, Sylvie; Lameire, Norbert; Colardyn, Francis

    2005-01-01

    Phenytoin intoxication can result in major and possibly life-threatening disorders. Furthermore, the hepatic clearance can become saturated, thus, shifting the elimination from first- to zero-order kinetics. This results in a slow elimination of the compound in case of intoxication. The treatment modalities for phenytoin overdose are limited. Taking into account the high level of protein binding, the molecule is not easily eliminated from the body by means of extracorporal epuration. Although reports exist on the use of MARS (molecular adsorbents recirculating system) dialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and standard dialysis for the elimination, in practice, hemoperfusion, is the most often applied technique. The authors report the case of a hypoalbuminemic patient with severe neurologic signs of phenytoin intoxication (total concentration moderately elevated, free fraction high). A combination of high-flux dialysis and hemoperfusion resulted in a considerable extraction of the drug, accelerating the natural clearance from the body and ameliorating clinical signs of intoxication. In selected patients (with a high free fraction of phenytoin), high-flux dialysis may be a valuable alternative or adjuvant to hemoperfusion.

  15. Recognition of intoxication by alcohol counselors.

    PubMed

    Carroll, N; Rosenberg, H; Funke, S

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have found that police officers, bartenders, social drinkers, and trained interviewers are often unable to recognize when others are intoxicated. The present two studies were conducted to evaluate: (a) the recognition ability of alcohol counselors compared to mental health counselors, and (b) the recognition ability of less-experienced versus more-experienced alcohol counselors. Subjects viewed four videotapes of a 21-year-old male engaged in simulated counseling interviews after he was given drinks containing alcohol to achieve one of four target Blood Alcohol Level (BAL) goals: .00%, .05%, .10%, .15%. Results indicated that alcohol counselors were not uniformly more accurate than mental health therapists, nor were more-experienced alcohol counselors uniformly more accurate than less-experienced alcohol counselors at recognizing intoxication or estimating BAL. In addition, subjects generally underestimated the target's sober-intoxicated status and BAL when he was given alcohol, but almost every subject recognized that the target was at least moderately intoxicated when his BAL was .15%.

  16. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer.

    PubMed

    Brajković, Gordana; Babić, Gordana; Stosić, Jasna Jović; Tomasević, Gordana; Rancić, Dragana; Kilibarda, Vesna

    2016-02-01

    'Body packer' syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC) method with selective-ion monitoring. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  17. Evaluation of Cross-contamination of Nylon Bags with Heavy-loaded Gasoline Fire Debris and with Automotive Paint Thinner.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Filipa; Andrews, Stephen P

    2016-11-01

    Nylon bags are used for packaging fire debris in several countries, particularly in Europe. The possibility of cross-contamination during transport from the fire scene to the laboratory, in normal casework conditions in the U.K., was studied for two brands of nylon bags, using simulated heavy-loaded fire debris. Three experiments were carried out with each brand, using as sample a piece of cotton fabric soaked with gasoline. One experiment was carried out using automotive paint thinner (oxygenated solvent). Each sample was sealed in a nylon bag and stored in contact with eight empty bags. The empty bags were analysed at regular intervals for a period of time up to 8 weeks, using SPME and GC/MS. Cross-contamination was found for components of gasoline (toluene and C2 -alkylbenzenes) in the two brands of nylon bags used, after 4 days and 2 weeks. Cross-contamination using automotive topcoat thinner was detected after 2 days.

  18. Lead intoxication: a summary of the clinical presentation among Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2006-08-01

    Lead is an important toxic metal found in industrial communities. Due to the industrialization in the recent decade in Thailand, lead intoxication as a toxicant-related disorder becomes a new public health problem. A retrospective study on clinical presentation of hospitalized patients with diagnosis of lead intoxication during year 1990-1999 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial hospital, the largest Thai Red Cross Society Hospital, was performed. All 14 cases diagnosed with lead intoxication were identified in our series. Average age of the subjects was 25.55 +/- 21.93 years old. Male predominance was detected in our series (male:female = 12:2). Two main groups of subjects as; (1) childhood aged below 10 years old (male:female = 4:2) and (2) adult aged between 24 and 60 years old (n = 8, all male), can be identified. For the first group, the clinical presentations were convulsion (n = 3), unexplained anemia (n = 1), attention deficit (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. All of the subjects in this group presented the history of living at the old battery plant area. Five of the six cases came from the same village. For the second group, the clinical presentations were unexplained abdominal pain (n = 5), chronic renal failure (n = 1), unexplained anemia (n = 1) and asymptomatic (n = 1), respectively. Most of the subjects (75%) in this group presented the history of working in the battery plant for more than 10 years. Another case presented the history of gunshot and residual bullet in the bone marrow. The other one left is an interesting case with the history of prolonged usage of ritual pill and holy paper incineration. Like other studies, battery plant had strong relation with the lead intoxication. Although the total identified cases are rather few, there may be more undetected asymptomatic lead intoxication cases in the community. Specific control of lead resulted from battery plant and monitoring of the workers as public health strategies are still

  19. Acute barium nitrate intoxication treated by hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bahlmann, H; Lindwall, R; Persson, H

    2005-01-01

    A 22-year-old male was admitted to hospital with diarrhea and vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, severe hypokalemia and gradual onset of muscular weakness. A potassium infusion was started, but for several hours serum potassium remained low. Evidence of toxic ingestion was initially lacking. When it became clear -- after a considerable delay -- that the patient had ingested barium nitrate, hemodialysis was started. This resulted in rapid clinical improvement with correction of hypokalemia and restored muscular function. Intoxication with barium causes hypokalemia, arrhythmias, muscular weakness and paralysis, often requiring respiratory support. This patient presented with symptoms typical of severe barium intoxication, non-responsive to potassium supplementation. There are few published reports on the use of hemodialysis in barium poisoning. This case confirms the possible benefit of hemodialysis in severe cases, where potassium supplementation alone is insufficient.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046 ...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046 ...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II of... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II of Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046 ...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of...—Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density EC01MY92.046 ...

  4. Neuromuscular Functions on Experimental Acute Methanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Moral, Ali Reşat; Çankayalı, İlkin; Sergin, Demet; Boyacılar, Özden

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of accidental or suicidal ingestion of methyl alcohol is high and methyl alcohol intoxication has high mortality. Methyl alcohol intoxication causes severe neurological sequelae and appears to be a significant problem. Methyl alcohol causes acute metabolic acidosis, optic neuropathy leading to permanent blindness, respiratory failure, circulatory failure and death. It is metabolised in the liver, and its metabolite formic acid has direct toxic effects, causing oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and increased lipid peroxidation associated with the mechanism of neurotoxicity. Methanol is known to cause acute toxicity of the central nervous system; however, the effects on peripheral neuromuscular transmission are unknown. In our study, we aimed to investigate the electrophysiological effects of experimentally induced acute methanol intoxication on neuromuscular transmission in the early period (first 24 h). Methods After approval by the Animal Experiment Ethics Committee of Ege University, the study was carried out on 10 Wistar rats, each weighing about 200 g. During electrophysiological recordings and orogastric tube insertion, the rats were anaesthetised using intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of ketamine 100 mg kg−1 and IP injection of xylazine 10 mg kg−1. The rats were given 3 g kg−1 methyl alcohol by the orogastric tube. Electrophysiological measurements from the gastrocnemius muscle were compared with baseline. Results Latency measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 0.81±0.11 ms and 0.76±0.12 ms, respectively. CMAP amplitude measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.85±0.98 mV and 9.99±0.40 mV, respectively. CMAP duration measurements before and 24 h after methanol injection were 9.86±0.03 ms and 9.86±0.045 ms, respectively. Conclusion It was concluded that experimental methanol intoxication in the acute phase (first 24 h) did not affect neuromuscular function. PMID:27366524

  5. Emotion recognition during cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Steenbergen, L; Theunissen, E L; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2015-11-01

    Chronic or repeated cocaine use has been linked to impairments in social skills. It is not clear whether cocaine is responsible for this impairment or whether other factors, like polydrug use, distort the observed relation. We aimed to investigate this relation by means of a placebo-controlled experimental study. Additionally, associations between stressor-related activity (cortisol, cardiovascular parameters) induced by the biological stressor cocaine, and potential cocaine effects on emotion recognition were studied. Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. Participants were tested between 1 and 2 h after treatment with oral cocaine (300 mg) or placebo. Emotion recognition of low and high intensity expressions of basic emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was tested. Findings show that cocaine impaired recognition of negative emotions; this was mediated by the intensity of the presented emotions. When high intensity expressions of Anger and Disgust were shown, performance under influence of cocaine 'normalized' to placebo-like levels while it made identification of Sadness more difficult. The normalization of performance was most notable for participants with the largest cortisol responses in the cocaine condition compared to placebo. It was demonstrated that cocaine impairs recognition of negative emotions, depending on the intensity of emotion expression and cortisol response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Dihydromyricetin As A Novel Anti-Alcohol Intoxication Medication

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Lindemeyer, A. Kerstin; Gonzalez, Claudia; Shao, Xuesi M.; Spigelman, Igor; Olsen, Richard W.; Liang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) constitute the most common form of substance abuse. The development of AUD involves repeated alcohol use leading to tolerance, alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), physical and psychological dependence, with loss of ability to control excessive drinking. Currently there is no effective therapeutic agent for AUD without major side-effects. Dihydromyricetin (DHM, 1 mg/kg, i.p. injection), a flavonoid component of herbal medicines, counteracted acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication, and also withdrawal signs in rats including tolerance, increased anxiety and seizure susceptibility; DHM greatly reduced EtOH consumption in an intermittent voluntary EtOH intake paradigm in rats. GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are major targets of acute and chronic EtOH actions on the brain. At the cellular levels, DHM (1 μM) antagonized both acute EtOH-induced potentiation of GABAARs and EtOH exposure/withdrawal-induced GABAAR plasticity, including alterations in responsiveness of extra- and post-synaptic GABAARs to acute EtOH, and most importantly, increases in GABAAR α4 subunit expression in hippocampus and cultured neurons. DHM anti-alcohol effects on both behavior and CNS neurons were antagonized by flumazenil (10 mg/kg in vivo, 10 μM in vitro), the benzodiazepine (BZ) antagonist. DHM competitively inhibited BZ-site [3H]flunitrazepam binding (IC50, 4.36 μM), suggesting DHM interaction with EtOH involves the BZ-sites on GABAARs. In summary, we determined DHM anti-alcoholic effects on animal models, and determined a major molecular target and cellular mechanism of DHM for counteracting alcohol intoxication and dependence. We demonstrated pharmacological properties of DHM consistent with those expected to underlie successful medical treatment of AUD; therefore DHM is a therapeutic candidate. PMID:22219299

  7. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  8. Fatal intoxication with hydrocarbons in deltamethrin preparation.

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Zawadzki, Marcin; Merwid-Lad, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to high effectiveness and low toxicity to humans. We have described a case of a fatal oral intoxication with decis, the insecticide containing pyrethroid (deltamethrin) in a hydrocarbon base. Pyrethroids, including deltamethrin, undergo rapid biotransformation by liver enzymes, which limit their systemic toxicity. Thus, we assume that in the presented case, fatal outcome of poisoning with decis was rather connected with toxic effects of hydrocarbon base (solvent naphtha) than with deltamethrin action. In the described case, detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and lung tissue and their metabolites in urine confirms that these substances were absorbed from gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Predominant among the clinical outcomes in our patient was profound depression of CNS with apnea, which could be connected with narcotic action of organic solvents. The cardiac arrest was in mechanism of asystolia with prior non-responsive to catecholamines bradycardia and vascular collapse. We connect it with hydrocarbon-induced cardiotoxicity. It is worth remembering that many pyrethroid-containing insecticides are formulated in a hydrocarbon base. Intoxication with such preparations should always be considered not only as poisoning with pyrethroid alone but also as intoxication with hydrocarbons.

  9. Acute intoxication caused by synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB and MMB-2201: A case series.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Bernardino; Pichini, Simona; López-Corominas, Victoria; Gomila, Isabel; Yates, Christopher; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pellegrini, Manuela

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively new substances of abuse. Recently, abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has been increasingly reported in the lay press and medical literature. When new compounds are introduced, their use is initially not restricted by prohibition therefore their consumption cannot be verified by standard drug tests. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults is constantly growing, making it important for emergency services to be familiar with the signs and symptoms of intoxication present. Overdose and chronic use of these substances can cause adverse effects including altered mental status, tachycardia, and loss of consciousness. Here, we report five cases of acute intoxication by synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB and MMB-2201 with analytical confirmation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral and Neurological Foundations for the Moral and Legal Implications of Intoxication, Addictive Behaviors and Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Disinhibition and addictive behaviors are related and carry moral implications. Both typically involve diminished consideration of negative consequences, which may result in harm to oneself or others. Disinhibition may occur on state and trait levels, and addictive substances may elicit disinhibitory states, particularly when intoxication is reached. Data suggest that trait disinhibition and addictions may be conceptualized as involving misdirected motivation with underlying biological bases including genetic factors, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and differences in regional brain function. The influences of intoxication on the brain share similarities with cognitive impairments in individuals with chronic substance abuse and those with trait disinhibition related to frontal lobe injuries. These findings raise questions about volitional impairment and morality. Although impaired volition related to disinhibition and addictive behaviors has been studied from multiple perspectives, additional research is needed to further characterize mechanisms of impairment. Such findings may have important implications in multiple legal and psychiatric domains. PMID:19241397

  11. Spirituality, intoxication and addiction: six forms of relationship.

    PubMed

    Room, Robin

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers six connections between spirituality and intoxication or addiction. They are: intoxication as a means of communication with a spiritual world; intoxication as destroying spirituality; shared use and intoxication as creating and validating community; spirituality and religion as a means of collective sobering-up; spirituality in individual sobering up; and abstinence as a spiritual practice, a witness, or a badge of membership in a spiritual community. Intoxication can either enhance or impede spirituality, both at individual and collective levels. Spirituality is often important in sobering up, both individually and collectively, and abstinence is a part of spiritual or religious practice in some traditions. But a full account must acknowledge the diversity in the interactions of spirituality and intoxication or addiction.

  12. DUI histories in intoxicated injured bicyclists.

    PubMed

    Maximus, Steven; Figueroa, Cesar; Pham, Jacqueline; Kuncir, Eric; Barrios, Cristobal

    2016-10-01

    It has been well documented that the use of alcohol correlates with injury risk, especially in DUI (driving under the influence) and DWI (driving while intoxicated). Consumption of alcohol in patients presenting with bicycle-related injuries is associated with greater injury severity, longer hospitalization, and higher health care costs. We hypothesized that intoxicated patients operating a bicycle with traumatic injuries have previous DUI or DWI convictions and had lost their privilege to drive a motor vehicle, resorted to bicycling, and had continued alcohol consumption despite negative previous consequences. We retrospectively collected data on injured bicyclists older than 18 years with positive blood alcohol content levels treated from the period January 2009 to June 2014 at a large Level 1 urban trauma center. We then matched each patient by name and date of birth and were able to obtain public criminal records through the Superior Court of California for the local of county. A total of 149 injured bicyclists with positive blood alcohol levels were identified. Their average blood alcohol content was 236.0 mg/dL, and their average age was 41 years. Sixty-six (44.2%) of these patients had prior DUI/DWI convictions with suspension of driving privileges. Ninety-five patients in this group (63.8%) had no health insurance, and 51 patients (34.2%) tested positive for other drugs. Intoxicated bicyclists trended toward longer hospital length compared with nonintoxicated bicyclists (4.60 vs. 3.44 days; p = 0.07). Three (0.02%) of 149 patients were charged with bicycling while intoxicated. Intoxicated bicyclists involved in trauma are more likely to have a previous DUI/DWI, have other drug use, tend to have longer hospital stays, and are less likely to have insurance. Bicycle safety education and behavior modification targeting DUI/DWI offenders are warranted. In order to promote injury prevention, resources to increase awareness of this underestimated public health

  13. Mephedrone Concentrations in Cases of Clinical Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Papaseit, Esther; Olesti, Eulàlia; de la Torre, Rafael; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí

    2017-07-04

    Background Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a ring-substituted synthetic cathinone derivative has become established as a permanent illicit drug in the dynamic new psychoactive substances (NPS) scene. Objective This review summarizes current knowledge on mephedrone concentrations in biological samples from cases of acute intoxications (fatal and non-fatal), pharmacokinetics studies, wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis in order to provide an overview of the reliable scientific knowledge on toxicokinetics of mephedrone in humans. Method The PubMed® database complemented with Google Scholar® was systematically searched to find published cases of mephedrone intoxications. The searches were done using the keyword "mephedrone OR 4-methylmethcathinone" in association to each of the following strategies: i) "intoxication OR poisoning"; ii) "(blood OR serum OR plasma") OR "urine" OR ("saliva OR oral fluid") OR "hair"; iii) "forensic toxicology samples"; iv) "wastewater OR sewage OR pooled urine" and v) "toxicity OR death OR fatal". Results Since 2010, a total of 97 fatal cases and 57 non-fatal intoxication cases were identified that presented mephedrone concentrations in human biological matrices attributed directly or indirectly to mephedrone. Typical subjects involved were young male with concomitant use of other drugs (psychostimulants, cannabis, alcohol and other depressants). Mephedrone mean blood concentration from fatal cases was 2,663 ng/mL (range 51-22,000 ng/mL), from non-fatal cases was 166 ng/mL (range, 13-412 ng/mL), that resulted in a similar range from data found in controlled studies with no acute toxicity associated (135 ng/mL, range 52-218 ng/mL). Forensic epidemiology studies based on wastewater and anonymous pooled urine analysis point towards similar variations in use (nightclub scene) to those self-reported in surveys and questioners. Conclusion Mephedrone blood concentrations in cases of fatal intoxications were higher than in

  14. Methamphetamine intoxication in a dog: case report.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zengyang; Zhang, Xu

    2014-06-24

    Methamphetamine abuse has undergone a dramatic worldwide increase, and represents a significant and global issue for public health. Incidents of methamphetamine intoxication and death in humans are relatively commonplace. Because of its increasing illicit availability, together with legitimate use in human medicine, accidental or intentional exposure to methamphetamine in dogs is becoming a more likely scenario. A 3-year-old, 3.7 kg intact female Miniature Poodle who had been intentionally fed an unknown amount of a crystalline-like substance developed extreme agitation, seizures, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), bloody diarrhea, and dilated pupils. Blood work revealed leukocytosis, erythropenia, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, but all to a mild extent, together with mild elevation in both alanine aminotranferease (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and a mild decreased in glucose. Radiologic diagnosis revealed generalized, severe distension of the stomach and small intestinal tract with air. Immunochromatographic screening tests and gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis confirmed methamphetamine intoxication and revealed concentrations of methamphetamine in blood and urine of 0.32 μg/mL and 2.35 μg/mL respectively. The dog demonstrated progressive improvement after supportive care, with the high fever resolved over the initial 24 hours of hospitalization, and agitation was successfully controlled beyond 48 hours after initial hospitalization. Hemostatic abnormalities were progressive improved after heparin therapy and supportive care. By the sixth day of hospitalization the dog was clinically well, and all laboratory data had returned to normal with the exception of a mild elevateion of ALKP. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report of methamphetamine intoxication in dogs presented in veterinary practice in open literature so far. Although rare

  15. Propensity of alcohol establishments to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Erickson, Darin J

    2006-07-01

    Although it is illegal to sell alcohol to an individual who appears obviously intoxicated, several recent studies show that the propensity of these types of sales is high. Our study further assesses the propensity of alcohol establishments to sell alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons. In addition to providing more recent data (2001) on pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at Midwestern on-premise establishments, our study examines the association between establishment policies/practices and the likelihood of sales to intoxicated patrons. We hired professional actors to feign intoxication while attempting to purchase alcohol (pseudo-intoxicated patrons) at 231 bars and restaurants, and we conducted a phone survey of owners/managers of each establishment. Our dependent variable was purchase attempt outcome (alcohol sold vs not sold). Our independent variables included policies/practices of establishments and characteristics of buyers/servers, establishments, and neighborhoods. Pseudo-intoxicated patrons were able to purchase alcohol in 65% of their attempts. Multivariate analyses showed the following: (1) compared with establishments with beer- and/or wine-only licenses, establishments with full liquor licenses were less likely to sell to intoxicated patrons; (2) establishments with average length of employment among managers of at least 1 year were more likely to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons; and (3) establishments that held staff meetings at least once a month were less likely to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with our outcome in multivariate analyses. Our findings provide increased evidence of the need to address the illegal sale of alcohol to intoxicated patrons, particularly given that increased intoxication levels among patrons resulting from these types of sales can lead to alcohol-related problems.

  16. Thinner Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Very Preterm versus Term Infants and Relationship to Brain Anatomy and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Adam L.; Sevilla, Monica B.; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Laura; Cotten, C. Michael; Shimony, Joshua S.; Pizoli, Carolyn E.; El-Dairi, Mays A.; Freedman, Sharon F.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at term-equivalent age in very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) versus term-born infant cohorts, and compare very preterm infant RNFL thickness with brain anatomy and neurodevelopment. Design Cohort study. Methods RNFL was semi-automatically segmented (one eye per infant) in 57 very preterm and 50 term infants with adequate images from bedside portable, handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Bioptigen, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC) imaging at 37-42 weeks postmenstrual age. Mean RNFL thickness was calculated for the papillomacular bundle (−15° to + 15°) and temporal quadrant (−45° to +45°) relative to the fovea-optic nerve axis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans clinically obtained in 26 very preterm infants were scored for global structural abnormalities by an expert masked to data except for age. Cognitive, language, and motor skills were assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Pearson, San Antonio, TX) in 33 of the very preterm infants at 18-24 months corrected age. Results RNFL was thinner for very preterm versus term infants at the papillomacular bundle ([mean ± standard deviation] 61 ± 17 versus 72 ± 13 μm, p<0.001) and temporal quadrant (72 ± 21 versus 82 ± 16 μm, p=0.005). In very preterm infants, thinner papillomacular bundle RNFL correlated with higher global brain MRI lesion burden index (R2=0.35, p=0.001) and lower cognitive (R2=0.18, p=0.01) and motor (R2=0.17, p=0.02) scores. Relationships were similar for temporal quadrant. Conclusions Thinner RNFL in very preterm infants relative to term-born infants may relate to brain structure and neurodevelopment. PMID:26386157

  17. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-10-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident.

  18. GHB-involved crimes among intoxicated patients.

    PubMed

    Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Zacher, Gábor; Posta, János; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the involvement of GHB in drug facilitated sexual assaults has been one of the most frequently studied aspects of GHB in both clinical and non-clinical settings. GHB-involved acquisitory crimes, however, can be mentioned as understudied research topics, as well as the poisoning severity properties of GHB. The medical reports of Péterfy Sándor Street Hospital Clinic and Casualty Centre's 408 GHB-intoxication cases (352 patients) were reviewed and registered. Analyzed data consisted of epicrisis, serum and urine concentration of various substances (including GHB), scores of Glasgow Coma Scale and Poisoning Severity Score. Majority of the patients were males, in their twenties. GHB was detected in 34.1% and it was solely consumed in 27.7% of all the cases. Ethanol was found to be the most frequently co-ingested substance. A higher rate of severe poisonings was observed among males. We found significant difference in the frequency of enduring sexual assaults and acquisitory crimes between intentional and unintentional GHB intake cases. Among unintentional GHB intake cases, 6.5% endured GHB-involved sexual assaults, whereas 21.7% endured an acquisitory crime. Among recurrent GHB intoxication cases generated by the same patients, voluntary and sole GHB consumptions were more frequently observed, however, enduring any crime was less characteristic. Our results regarding demographic and substance use characteristics and the frequency of GHB-facilitated sexual assaults are in line with former findings. Enduring acquisitory crimes due to unintentional GHB intake was found to be more inherent than enduring sexual assaults. Authors emphasise that the victims of these acquisitory crimes were typically males. GHB's role in drug facilitated acquisitory crimes seems to be significant, although the decrease in GHB's popularity is observed among intoxicated patients as well. The need for further research on GHB's impact on cognitive impairment and on sexual

  19. Effect of chronic cyanide intoxication on memory in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Namasivayam, A

    2000-01-01

    Cyanide is a chemical widely used in industry, and is a major environmental pollutant. Its toxicity is caused by inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The effect of sublethal doses of cyanide on memory and hippocampal neurotransmitters was studied in male Wistar strain albino rats. Cyanide reduced the memory along with reduction in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hippocampus. Pre-existing malnutrition in the animals exaggerated these effects.

  20. Possible unaware intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticide

    PubMed Central

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Ghaffari, Saba; Nassiri-Toossi, Mohsen; Amini, Mohsen; Edalatifard, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Superwarfarin toxicity may be a serious problem. It needs high clinical suspicious in patients with bleeding diathesis without hematologic or liver diseases even in patients with apparent negative history of warfarin or other anticoagulant accessibility. Here we reported a patient with a negative history of any medical diseases or drug administration who was referred with generalized ecchymosis. Increased international normalized ratio and decreased vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors were detected in this patient. His hematologic and liver evaluations were normal. Clinical pharmacist emphasis in taking history revealed using anticoagulant rodenticide all over the farm the patient lived in that might result in unaware intoxication in this patient who suffered dementia. PMID:25535623

  1. Datura stramonium intoxication in two children.

    PubMed

    Rakotomavo, Falihery; Andriamasy, Caroline; Rasamoelina, Ndrantoniaina; Raveloson, Nasolotsiry

    2014-06-01

    Datura stramonium is a toxic plant member of the Solanaceae family. Its consumption may result in severe anticholinergic toxicity. We report the intoxication of 5- and 4-year-old brothers with Datura stramonium, which presented in two different manners. The first child presented agitation, hallucination and mydriasis that improved rapidly with benzodiazepine medication. The second presented comatose, mydriasis and Babinski signs. Gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration were performed. The child was intubated and mechanically ventilated until consciousness improvement. Datura stramonium poisoning may be considered by physicians in case of acute onset of decreased consciousness or behaviour trouble associated with anticholinergic signs and symptoms.

  2. Effects of Methemoglobin Versus Potassium Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    initial phase, two female dogs were administered a-ketoglutaric acid (800 mg/ml in 0.1 M phosphate buffer) via oral gavage at a dose of 4 g/kg body...the test solution. Two additional female dogs were administered a-ketoglutaric acid (285.7 mg/ml in 0.1 M phosphate buffer) via oral gavage at a dose of...effective as a possible antidote against lethal cyanide intoxication due to vomiting of the test solution. An acidic dosing solution caused gastric

  3. [Issues regarding alcoholic intoxication and driving].

    PubMed

    Lanzetta, B M

    2006-01-01

    After recalling the risks deriving from alcohol abuse at work, the paper discusses the complex problems (medical, social, juridical) related to drinking and driving. Acute intoxication may be adequately identified (also in the medico-legal setting) through direct or indirect measurement of blood ethanol concentration, whereas the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and binge drinking (useful to assess fitness to work and/or driving) is complicated by the scarce efficiency of the currently available biomarkers. Alcohol abuse control and prevention among Italian Police Forces are ruled by the Ministerial Decree 30 June 2003, n. 198.

  4. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case. PMID:27274523

  5. Peganum Harmala (Aspand) Intoxication; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sadr Mohammadi, Rezvan; Bidaki, Reza; Mirdrikvand, Fazlollah; Mostafavi Yazdi, Seyyed Nader; Yazdian Anari, Pouria

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological effects for peganum harmala or aspand such as sedative anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal. Some people believe that can be used for treatment of some organic or psychiatric disorders. We introduce a woman with history of long time constipation that was disappointed in novel medical treatment and decided to use comminuted Aspand to relieve her problem. Two hours after use, the intoxication symptoms manifested as blurred vision, phonophobia, floating feeling, and tinnitus ringing. Here we report the treatment process and outcome of this case.

  6. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon...

  7. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon...

  8. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon...

  9. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon...

  10. 7 CFR 500.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... USNA property is prohibited. (c) The sale of alcoholic beverages on the grounds of the USNA is... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 500.7 Section... Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. (a) Entering USNA property or the operation of a motor vehicle thereon...

  11. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  12. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  13. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  14. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on...

  15. Water intoxication by the oral route in an infant.

    PubMed Central

    Etzioni, A; Benderley, A; Levi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Symptomatic water intoxication is common when hypo-osmolar fluids are given therapeutically, usually intravenously, but it is rare after drinking voluntarily (Wynn and Rob, 1954). We report a case of water intoxication caused by voluntary drinking in an infant. PMID:485199

  16. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8 Intoxicating...

  17. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8 Intoxicating...

  18. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8 Intoxicating...

  19. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8 Intoxicating...

  20. 7 CFR 503.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 503.8 Section 503.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.8 Intoxicating...

  1. Clinical presentation of intoxication due to synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joanna; Morrison, Sephora; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Saidinejad, Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are relatively novel substances of abuse. The use of these compounds among adolescents and young adults has been increasing, making it important for pediatric providers to be familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of intoxication. We describe three case presentations of reported synthetic cannabinoid intoxication and provide a brief discussion of these compounds.

  2. Problematic College Drinking Behaviors as a Function of First Intoxication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Robert Q.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate students (n=152) to examine whether there is a relationship between an early first intoxication experience and development of alcohol or drug problems in later college life. Results indicated that those students who reported earliest experiences of intoxication also reported greatest frequency of substance abuse problems.…

  3. 32 CFR 1903.13 - Intoxicated on an Agency installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicated on an Agency installation. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.13 Intoxicated on an Agency installation. Presence on an...

  4. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.7 Intoxicating beverages and...

  5. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.7 Intoxicating beverages and...

  6. 36 CFR § 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. § 504.7 Section § 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.7 Intoxicating beverages and...

  7. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.7 Intoxicating beverages and...

  8. 36 CFR 504.7 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 504.7 Section 504.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.7 Intoxicating beverages and...

  9. Approach to the Treatment of Methanol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    Methanol intoxication is an uncommon but serious poisoning. Its adverse effects are due primarily to the impact of its major metabolite formic acid and lactic acid resulting from cellular hypoxia. Symptoms including abdominal pain and loss of vision can appear a few hours to a few days after exposure, reflecting the time necessary for accumulation of the toxic byproducts. In addition to a history of exposure, increases in serum osmolal and anion gaps can be clues to its presence. However, increments in both parameters can be absent depending on the nature of the toxic alcohol, time of exposure, and coingestion of ethanol. Definitive diagnosis requires measurement with gas or liquid chromatography, which are laborious and expensive procedures. Tests under study to detect methanol or its metabolite formate might facilitate the diagnosis of this poisoning. Treatment can include administration of ethanol or fomepizole, both inhibitors of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent formation of its metabolites, and hemodialysis to remove methanol and formate. In this Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, a patient with methanol intoxication due to ingestion of model airplane fuel is described, and the value and limitations of current and new diagnostic and treatment measures are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with paraquat intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ha Nee; Bae, Eun Jin; Hwang, Kyungo; Kang, Yeojin; Yun, Seongeun; Cho, Hyun Seop; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with paraquat intoxication resulting in the requirement for hemoperfusion, hemodialysis, and plasma exchange. His initial serum paraquat level was 0.24 µg/mL (0.0-0.1 µg/mL). Activated charcoal (50 g) was administered orally, and high-dose N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. In addition, immediate 4 h hemoperfusion was also performed for three consecutive days after admission. Hemodialysis was started on the 4th day after admission because of uremia. On the 9th day after admission, laboratory findings demonstrated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia, elevated reticulocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Plasma exchange was performed three times consecutively. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were improved, and LDH was normalized after plasma exchange. Urine output increased to 2240 mL/day on the 18th day after admission, and hemodialysis was discontinued. He is currently being observed at our follow-up clinic without renal impairment or pulmonary dysfunction for 1.5 years since discharge. We should suspect paraquat-associated HUS when thrombocytopenia and anemia are maintained for a long time after paraquat intoxication.

  11. Treatment of acute cyanide intoxication with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D E; Foley, R; Sabatini, S; Wharton, J; Kapusnik, J; Kurtzman, N A

    1985-01-01

    A dramatic response was noted in a patient at our hospital who received hemodialysis therapy for severe acidosis secondary to an unknown toxin, subsequently identified as cyanide. We were unable to find any information concerning the hemodialysis clearance and extraction ratio of cyanide; thus, we studied the effect of hemodialysis in dogs receiving a constant infusion of cyanide with and without a simultaneous infusion of thiosulfate. The hemodialysis clearance of cyanide in the presence of thiosulfate was 38.3 +/- 5.4 ml/min with an extraction ratio of 0.43 +/- 0.06 (n = 4). Hemodialysis was found to increase the lethal dose of cyanide without thiosulfate infusion, and a further increase was noted with the thiosulfate infusion. Thiosulfate promotes mitochondrial metabolism of cyanide to thiocyanate. The end product, thiocyanate, is quickly removed by hemodialysis. We believe that the demonstrated effectiveness of hemodialysis in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication is related not only to the hemodialysis clearance of cyanide, but also to the removal of its metabolic end product, thiocyanate. Based on our observations, we feel that hemodialysis is an effective adjunct in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication.

  12. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.01) in comparison to a control group. Data of the present study indicate that there might be an effect of acute alcohol intoxication on transaminase levels. The AST/ALT ratio seems to reflect the damage in hepatocytes

  13. Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

    2011-03-01

    In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo.

  14. Polyneuropathy induced by n-hexane intoxication in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Chang

    2008-03-01

    n-Hexane and methyl n-butyl ketone share a common metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione, a potent neurotoxin. Neurotoxic effects to both peripheral and central nervous systems may occur after occupational exposure or recreational abuse of n-hexane. Initial clinical manifestations include numbness and tingling sensation in the toes and fingers, followed by progressive weakness and areflexia, particularly in the distal limbs. Chronic low-dose n-hexane exposure, often observed in industrial workers, apparently causes axonal loss with sensory impairment. Subacute high-dose n-hexane exposure, often observed in glue-sniffers, can cause axonal swelling and secondary demyelination with muscle wasting and weakness. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate prominent prolongation of distal latencies, slowing of nerve conduction velocities, and conduction block with temporal dispersion particularly in severely intoxicated patients. Pathological hallmarks include giant axonal swelling with secondary demyelination and relative loss of large myelinated fibers. Giant axons are accumulated by 10 nm neurofilaments. The clinical course tends to be biphasic with "coasting" for 2-3 months, followed by a slow recovery for about 1-2 years after cessation of exposure to n-hexane. Prognosis is usually favorable. Severely affected patients may develop sequelae of muscle wasting, foot drop, and spasticity. Increased awareness of the n-hexane neurotoxicity in industrial workers and glue sniffers as well as use of safe solvents and adequate ventilation systems are important for preventing n-hexane toxicity.

  15. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p < 0.01). Contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between our groups (p > 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes.

  16. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Bellgowan, Patrick S.F.; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M.; Mayer, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p < 0.01). Contrary to our hypothesis, no differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between our groups (p > 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = −0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = −0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes. PMID:26061068

  17. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  18. Age-dependent time courses of recovery for motor functions following acute toluene intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Herter, Susan R; Slaght, Shelby L; McKay, Bruce E

    2014-05-01

    Toluene is a psychoactive chemical found in many household products including adhesives and thinners. Inhalation of these vapors can cause euphoria and impairments in motor control and neurological functioning. Misuse and abuse of toluene is most common in children, which may in part be due to an age-dependent neurobehavioral sensitivity to toluene. Here we assessed the effects of acute binge-like toluene inhalations (15 or 30 min; ∼5,000 ppm) on tasks that examine locomotion, exploration, balance, gait, and neurological functioning for adolescent (1 month), young adult (2-3 months), adult (5-6 months), and older adult (10-12 months) rats. Both motor and neurological functions were impaired following acute toluene inhalation at all ages. However, only the duration to recover from deficits in motor functions differed among age groups, with adolescent and young adult rats requiring notably longer recovery times than older rats. Our results are suggestive of an age-dependent vulnerability to the intoxicating effects of toluene. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Protective effects of desferrioxamine and deferiprone on the spleen tissue of aluminum intoxicated mice: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, S.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J.

    The present study was designed to examine the protective effects of the chelating agents desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP) in aluminum intoxicated spleen tissue of mice by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The finding revealed the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, phosphodiester and nucleic acids of the spleen tissue of mice at molecular level. The significant decreased in the peak areas of asymmetric and symmetric mode of the phosphodiester groups from control to aluminum intoxicated, but improved it by DFP and DFO + DFP treatments respectively for nearer control value. The bands ratio at I1081/I1232 significantly decreased from control to aluminum, but enhanced it by DFP and DFO + DFP respectively. This result suggests that DFO and DFP are the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, recovered from chronic growth of diseases in the spleen. Amide I and amide II peak area values decreased from control to aluminum intoxicated spleen tissue, but treated with DFP and DFO + DFP significantly improved. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of Olefinicdbnd CH stretching in aluminum intoxicated spleen suggests an altered lipid levels. Concentrations of trace elements were found by ICP-OES. Histopathological findings confirmed the biochemical observations of this study. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and demonstrated that FTIR can be used successfully applied to toxicological studies at molecular level.

  20. Drugs of abuse: management of intoxication and antidotes.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ivan D; McCann, David J

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug intoxications are an increasing public health problem for which, in most cases, no antidotes are clinically available. The diagnosis and treatment of these intoxications requires a trained clinician with experience in recognizing the specific signs and symptoms of intoxications to individual drugs as well as polydrug intoxications, which are more the rule than the exception. To make the diagnosis, the clinical observation and a urine toxicology test are often enough. Evaluating the blood levels of drugs is frequently not practical because the tests can be expensive and results may be delayed and unavailable to guide the establishment of a treatment plan. Other laboratory tests may be useful depending on the drug or drugs ingested and the presence of other medical complications. The treatment should be provided in a quiet, safe and reassuring environment. Vital signs should be closely monitored. Changes in blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature should be promptly treated, particularly respiratory depression (in cases of opiate intoxication) or hyperthermia (in cases of cocaine or amphetamine intoxication). Intravenous fluids should be administered as soon as possible. Other psychiatric and medical complication should receive appropriate symptomatic treatment. Research on immunotherapies, including vaccines, monoclonal and catalytic antibodies, seems to be a promising approach that may yield specific antidotes for drugs of abuse, helping to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications.

  1. Methylbromide intoxication: a clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Breeman, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is the world's largest container port. In 2006, one of these containers caused a chemical incident. Methylbromide is used in some countries as a pesticide for the fumigation of maritime containers. Because of an insufficiently performed detoxification, this insecticide intoxicated several employees and some of the ambulance crew and Mobile Medical Team (MMT). The victims displayed symptoms of sore throat, irritated eyes, and hypersalivation. One of the victims suffered from multiple epileptic seizures. Two victims were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support. Three other employees showed milder symptoms and received supportive care but were not admitted to the hospital. This complicated case shows that the safety of the ambulance crew and MMT must be guaranteed. It also demonstrates that healthcare providers cannot always oversee the accident scene and that there are some pitfalls that are almost impossible to prevent.

  2. Court procedures for handling intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Fisher, D A

    2001-01-01

    The courts have implemented numerous approaches to reduce the probability of recidivism among people apprehended for or convicted of driving while intoxicated. Although traditional punitive sanctions, such as fines and incarceration, are commonly used, they have not eliminated drinking and driving in the United States. Consequently, the court system has developed additional sanctioning procedures that show promise. For example, rehabilitative programs (e.g., alcohol education and alcoholism treatment) can reduce recidivism, at least marginally. These programs appear to be more effective when combined with license suspension. In addition to license suspension, several alternative methods for limiting driving opportunities of offenders have proven effective, including impounding offenders' vehicles or license plates, installing ignition interlocks, and requiring electronic home monitoring or house arrest. Effective court monitoring is a critical component in supporting recovery and compelling offenders to participate in rehabilitation programs. This role of the courts in monitoring offenders will likely increase as the use of intrusive, alternative sanctions grows.

  3. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  4. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  5. Acute cyanide intoxication and central transmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Persson, S A; Cassel, G; Sellström, A

    1985-12-01

    In rats treated with sodium cyanide (5-20 mg/kg, ip) dopamine was dose dependently decreased in the striatum within 60 sec. One of the main metabolites of dopamine in the central nervous system, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), was decreased in striatum, olfactory tubercle, and hippocampus. However, the oxidatively deaminated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), was not significantly altered in any of the brain regions studied. Naturally occurring levels of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-dopa), as well as L-dopa accumulated after inhibition of the neuronal L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, increased in cyanide-treated rats. The dopamine receptor antagonist spiperone (0.05 mg/kg, ip) slightly increased the survival in acute cyanide intoxication. Sodium cyanide increased the levels of glutamine in frontal cortex and striatum at all doses studied. Glutamic acid was increased in the cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus after sodium cyanide (5-10 mg/kg, ip). Higher doses decreased glutamic acid in the cerebellum, the frontal cortex, and the striatum. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were diminished at high doses in all regions studied. Cyanide increased the levels of cyclic GMP in the cerebellum. In the striatum cyclic GMP was decreased after sodium cyanide (10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant alterations in the concentrations of acetylcholine or choline were seen in the striatum of cyanide-treated rats. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine decreased the survival of mice given sodium cyanide. Acute cyanide intoxication thus produces rapid and fairly specific changes in central dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways.

  6. Alcohol Intoxication by Binge Drinking Impairs Neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Loheswaran, Genane; Barr, Mera S; Rajji, Tarek K; Blumberger, Daniel M; Le Foll, Bernard; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2016-01-01

    Binge drinking, resulting in acute alcohol intoxication, is considered an initial step in developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It has been suggested that alcohol intoxication may act on mechanisms of neuroplasticity to produce brain changes that contribute to the pathophysiology of AUDs. However, the effect of binge drinking on neuroplasticity has not been evaluated in humans. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a binge drinking episode on LTP-like neuroplasticity. In a within-subject randomized, cross-over design, fifteen otherwise healthy binge drinkers were administered paired associative stimulation (PAS) following consumption of alcohol or a placebo beverage. PAS is an experimental paradigm that allows for the induction of associative long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity. Subjects were administered alcohol at a dose of 1.5 g/l of body water, producing a peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 26.1 mM (0.120% BAC). PAS induced neuroplasticity was measured at Post 0 (immediately following PAS), Post 15 (15 minutes following PAS), Post 30 (30 minutes following PAS), Post 60 (60 minutes following PAS) and Post Day 1 (the next day following PAS). The binge drinking episode inhibited LTP-like neuroplasticity, which was significantly different from placebo at 30 and 60 min following the PAS administration. Examination of longitudinal effects revealed no differences between beverages on LTP-like neuroplasticity the following day. Findings suggest that binge drinking impairs neuroplasticity and while these effects are no longer evident the day after a single binge session, repetitive binging may produce long lasting changes in neuroplasticity that contribute to the development of AUDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic sequelae of foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade the complexity of foodborne pathogens, as well as their adaptability and ability to cause acute illness, and in some cases chronic (secondary) complications, have been newly appreciated. This overview examines long-term consequences of foodborne infections and intoxications to emphasize the need for more research and education. PMID:9366595

  8. Earwax: A clue to discover fluoroacetate intoxication in cattle.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Engy; Dos Santos, Fabrício Carrião; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Noronha Filho, Antônio Dionísio Feitosa; Pereira, Naiara Zedes; Antoniosi Filho, Nelson Roberto

    2017-10-01

    An innovative method was developed to detect fluoroacetate poisoning in cattle by headspace/gas chromatographic analysis of earwax samples of intoxicated cattle. Samples were collected from 2 groups of cattle subjected to induced fluoroacetate intoxication, each group receiving a different dose of acetamide (antidote). Monofluoroacetic acid was detected in samples of intoxicated cattle in concentrations inversely proportional to the dose of acetamide. Thus, earwax analysis represents a successful approach for detection and monitoring of fluoroacetate poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water intoxication induced by low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in a patient with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiko; Sugiura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Misaki, Taro; Tsuji, Takayuki; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Sakakima, Masaaki; Yasuda, Hideo; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Hishida, Akira

    2008-10-01

    We reported the case of a 70-year-old woman with moderate renal failure due to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related glomerulonephritis who developed symptomatic water intoxication (serum Na: 108 mEq/L) following treatment with oral low-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) (50mg/day). Estimated glomerular filtration rate was 29.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2). She had drunk >2 L of fluid in 12 h prior to the development of cerebral oedema. This rare case suggests that oral low-dose CY could be an occult cause of water intoxication in patients with chronic kidney disease taking large fluid volumes.

  10. [Protective effects of metaprot and ethomerzol in carbophos intoxications].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, V V; Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of protective action of thiobenzimidazole derivatives metaprot and ethomerzol (25 and 50 mg/kg) have been studied on a model of carbophos intoxication (256.0 +/- 8.7 mg/kg) in rats. Both compounds recovered the resistance to physical loads in forced swimming test, normalized the activity of aspartate and alanine transaminases, and reduced bilirubin, creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels in the blood serum. The intoxication was accompanied with increasing concentration of malonic dialdehyde and decreasing level of recovered glutation in the blood, as well as with the signs of endogenic intoxication. Metaprot and ethomerzol diminished disorders of both the lipid peroxidation and endogenic intoxication processes. Thus, the antihypoxic, antioxidant, actoprotective, energotropic, and reparative effects of metaprot and ethomerzol have been proved. Ethomerzol was more effective than metaprot in these tests.

  11. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  12. Intralipid emulsion treatment as an antidote in lipophilic drug intoxications.

    PubMed

    Eren Cevik, Sebnem; Tasyurek, Tanju; Guneysel, Ozlem

    2014-09-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a lifesaving treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. Not only does ILE have demonstrable efficacy as an antidote to local anesthetic toxicity, it is also effective in lipophilic drug intoxications. Our case series involved 10 patients with ingestion of different types of lipophilic drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion treatment improved Glasgow Coma Scale or blood pressure and pulse rate or both according to the drug type. Complications were observed in 2 patients (minimal change pancreatitis and probable ILE treatment-related fat infiltration in lungs). In our case series, ILE was used for different lipophilic drug intoxications to improve cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms. According to the results, it was found that ILE treatment is a lifesaving agent in lipophilic drug intoxications and it can be used in unconscious patients who have cardiac and/or neurologic symptoms but no history of a specific drug ingestion.

  13. Fatality due to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and heroin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Tedeschi, L; Frison, G; Rossi, A

    1995-05-01

    The first case of fatal intoxication due to ingestion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and intravenous use of heroin is reported. A 42-year-old man, known to have been a heroin addict and to have taken other psychoactive substances, who had been in treatment with GHB for several months, was found dead. Anatomohistopathologic examination showed generalized visceral congestion, edema and pulmonary anthracosis, chronic bronchitis and chronic active hepatitis. Toxicological findings included fluid and tissue distributions of GHB, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. GHB and morphine concentrations were respectively 11.5 and 0.77 micrograms/mL (blood), 84.3 and 0.3 micrograms/mL (vitreous humor), 258.3 and 1.35 micrograms/mL (urine), 57.0 and 14.3 micrograms/mL (bile), 40.0 and 0.43 micrograms/g (brain), 43.0 and 0.60 micrograms/g (liver), 47.0 and 0.68 micrograms/g (kidney). Blood and urine levels of 6-monoacetylmorphine were 28.5 and 12.1 ng/mL respectively. The presumed mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of GHB are briefly reviewed, with reference to its therapeutic use and to reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  14. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  15. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    PubMed

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute intoxications in two university hospitals in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, M; Yéré, S; Traoré, S; Guissou, I P

    2012-12-01

    Acute intoxications become more and more a serious problem in developing countries. However, epidemiologic data are very scarce in these countries. To describe the characteristics of acute intoxications in two University Hospitals of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). All cases admitted to the emergency services of the two sole University Hospitals of Ouagadougou from July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007, were included. We analysed the medical records for demographical and etiological characteristics of the acute poisoned-patients. Acute poisoned-patients (436) represented 1.9% of the patients admitted to these services. The majority of acute poisoned-patients were pre-school children followed by young adults. Accidental intoxications (70.8%) were more common than intentional (28.9) and suicidal attempts (0.3%). Among poisoned-patients, female patients represented a great majority. Pharmaceuticals were the most common cause of acute intoxication, followed by chemicals, animals' toxins, food, alcohol and addictive drugs. Our study revealed that pharmaceuticals were the most common cause of acute intoxications. The great majority of poisoned-patients were young. Female patients were the major poisoned-patients. Most admissions in the emergency services due to acute intoxications resulted from accidental poisoning.

  17. [Endogenous intoxication syndrome in patients in late stages of obliterating atherosclerosis in vessels of lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Dubikaĭtis, A Iu; Belotserkovskiĭ, M V; Koniukhova, S G; Strashnov, V I

    1993-02-01

    The composition of blood was evaluated (parameters of blood clinical analysis, figures of lipid peroxidation processes and system of antioxidant protection, traditional biochemical blood parameters, total proteolytic activity and peptides of blood plasma, quantity and activity of some parameters of humoral immunity) in patients with late stages of peripheral atherosclerosis. It was showed that chronic endotoxicosis appeared in these patients. The processes of chronic endotoxicosis are compensated in patients with the 3-d stage of low extremities ischemia. The quantity of endogenic toxins and markers of endogenic intoxication increased in patients with the 4-th stage of ischemia and loading on the system of detoxication was enlarged; and as a result, compensation reserves of detoxication system of organism decreased.

  18. Fatal methadone intoxication in an infant.

    PubMed

    Couper, Fiona J; Chopra, Kiran; Pierre-Louis, Marie Lydie Y

    2005-10-04

    Presented are the case history and toxicological findings of an infant fatality involving methadone. A mother found her 10-month-old infant unresponsive in a crib. The infant was taken to a hospital; however, she was cold and stiff on arrival and was pronounced dead. Few details regarding the case history were known at the time, and the autopsy findings were unremarkable. Specimens were submitted for a full toxicological analysis, including an alcohol analysis by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection; a screen for drugs of abuse and several prescription drug classes using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA); and a screen for basic compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Positive findings were confirmed and quantitated using GC-MS. Methadone was detected in subclavian blood at a concentration of 0.67 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be "methadone intoxication", and the manner of death was "homicide". A discussion of the case circumstances, the toxicology findings and methadone pharmacokinetics are presented.

  19. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  20. Chlorpromazine and ethanol intoxication: an underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Messiha, F S

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro effect of chlorpromazine on hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (L-ADH) was studied as a function of sex and species. The presence of chlorpromazine, 50 muMol, in reaction mixture noncompetitively inhibited rat L-ADH in a dose dependent fashion in the concentration range between 5 X 10(-5) Mol and 10(-4) Mol. This drug concentration also inhibited L-ADH of albino mice of both sexes, but chlorpromazine-produced a decrease in Km which was greater in the female than in the male mouse. Likewise, chlorpromazine, 50 muMol, noncompetitively inhibited mouse L-ADH of C57BL/6J, a mouse strain with ethanol preference, but without a concomitant change in the apparent Km. The KI50 determination indicates 3.5 fold lower concentration requirement of the drug in the C57BL mouse strain compared to that of the albino rat liver preparation. The results suggest that the inhibitory action of the drug on L-ADH and the genetic factor involved may influence the legal limit of serum ethanol concentration during alcohol intoxication in subjects under psychotropic medications. A medical forensic implication is suggested.

  1. Exposure (mAs) optimisation of a multi-detector CT protocol for hepatic lesion detection: Are thinner slices better?

    PubMed

    Dobeli, Karen Leigh; Lewis, Sarah Jane; Meikle, Steven Richard; Thiele, David Lewis; Brennan, Patrick Christopher

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the exposure-optimised slice thickness for hepatic lesion detection with CT. A phantom containing spheres (diameter 9.5, 4.8 and 2.4 mm) with CT density 10 HU below the background (50 HU) was scanned at 125, 100, 75 and 50 mAs. Data were reconstructed at 5-, 3- and 1-mm slice thicknesses. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), area under the curve (AUC) as calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis and sensitivity representing lesion detection were calculated and compared. Compared with the 125 mAs/5 mm slice thickness setting, significant reductions in AUC were found for 75 mAs (P < 0.01) and 50 mAs (P < 0.05) at 1- and 3-mm thicknesses, respectively; sensitivity for the 9.5-mm sphere was significantly reduced for 75 (P < 0.05) and 50 mAs (P < 0.01) at 1-mm thickness; sensitivity for the 4.8-mm sphere was significantly lower for 100, 75 and 50 mAs at all three slice thicknesses (P < 0.05). The 2.4-mm sphere was rarely detected. At each slice thickness, noise at 100, 75 and 50 mAs exposures was approximately 10, 30 and 50% higher, respectively, than that at 125 mAs exposure. CNRs decreased in an irregular manner with reductions in exposure and slice thickness. This study demonstrated no advantage to using slices below 5 mm thickness, and consequently thinner slices are not necessarily better. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  2. Forces and moments applied during derotation of a maxillary central incisor with thinner aligners: An in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Elkholy, Fayez; Schmidt, Falko; Jäger, Rudolf; Lapatki, Bernd G

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that therapeutic loads applied to individual teeth by aligners may substantially exceed recommended values. The primary purpose of this study was to quantify force and moment components during derotation of a maxillary central incisor when 0.3-mm-thick or 0.4-mm-thick polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners were used instead of conventional polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners with a minimum thickness of 0.5 mm. The test setup consisted of an acrylic model of a maxilla with a separated right central incisor mounted on a 3-dimensional force and moment sensor. The force and moment components were recorded for aligners with thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 0.75 mm during ±10° rotation and derotation of the separated incisor. Moments exerted by the thinnest aligner currently available, 0.5 mm, were 73.57 Nmm for the 10° mesiorotation. In comparison, the corresponding moments with the 0.4-mm and 0.3-mm aligners were 41.08 and 17.84 Nmm, respectively. Moment values for derotation of the maxillary right central incisor into neutral position showed nonlinear return curves indicating viscoelastic material behavior. A significant load reduction can be achieved with the new thinner aligners. Because of the form instability of the 0.3-mm aligner during handling, we suggest the novel sequence 0.4, 0.5, and 0.75 mm for aligner systems based on sequentially increased material thickness. This sequence combines sufficiently low initial aligner stiffness and steady load increases in single setup steps. The viscoelastic behavior of polyethylene terephthalate glycol aligners observed during incisor derotation should lead to a reduction of the high initial load exerted directly after intraoral aligner insertion. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. "I Would Rather Be Size 10 Than Have Straight A's": A Focus Study Group of Adolescent Girls' Wish To Be Thinner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Gardiner, Maria; Slater, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the body concerns of adolescent girls (N=67), together with the underlying motivations for wishes to be thinner. Results of focus group studies reveal that sociocultural influences exerted the strongest pressures to be thin. The girls displayed an unexpected sophistication in their conceptualization of the role of both media effects…

  4. Pathways for Disordered Eating Behaviors in Minority Girls: The Role of Adiposity, Peer Weight-Related Teasing, and Desire to Be Thinner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R.; Fisher, Felicia; Jones, Martinque; Flynn, Erika G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in predicting disordered eating behaviors in girls with overweight/obesity. A total of 135 Hispanic and African American girls ([x-bar][subscript age] = 11.13 ± 1.54 years) completed surveys assessing the desire to be thinner, peer…

  5. "I Would Rather Be Size 10 Than Have Straight A's": A Focus Study Group of Adolescent Girls' Wish To Be Thinner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Gardiner, Maria; Slater, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the body concerns of adolescent girls (N=67), together with the underlying motivations for wishes to be thinner. Results of focus group studies reveal that sociocultural influences exerted the strongest pressures to be thin. The girls displayed an unexpected sophistication in their conceptualization of the role of both media effects…

  6. Pathways for Disordered Eating Behaviors in Minority Girls: The Role of Adiposity, Peer Weight-Related Teasing, and Desire to Be Thinner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R.; Fisher, Felicia; Jones, Martinque; Flynn, Erika G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors in predicting disordered eating behaviors in girls with overweight/obesity. A total of 135 Hispanic and African American girls ([x-bar][subscript age] = 11.13 ± 1.54 years) completed surveys assessing the desire to be thinner, peer…

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart II to... - Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum Allowable Thinning Rates as a Function of As Supplied VOC Content and Thinner Density B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63 Protection of... Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, App. B Appendix B to Subpart II to Part 63...

  8. Role for apolipoprotein E in neurodegeneration and mercury intoxication.

    PubMed

    Arrifano, Gabriela de Paula Fonseca; de Oliveira, Marcus Augusto; Souza-Monteiro, Jose Rogerio; Paraense, Ricardo Oliveira; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea; Vieira, Jose Richardo Dos Santos; Silva, Artur Luis da Costa; Macchi, Barbarella de Matos; do Nascimento, Jose Luiz Martins; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodriguez; Crespo-Lopez, Maria Elena

    2018-01-01

    Mercury intoxication is a serious public health problem and a worldwide concern. The Minamata Convention on Mercury has been signed by 128 countries and endorsed by the World Health Organization with the recommendation of promoting the management of epidemiological information. The Central Nervous System is the main target organ for mercury. Symptoms of intoxication include altered motor coordination, visual and tactile dysfunction and paralysis, caused by neurodegeneration with a key role for oxidative damage. Recently, some studies have demonstrated a correlation between mercury intoxication and isoforms of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In this review, epidemiological data and hypotheses about the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the association between ApoE and mercury intoxication are assessed. Based on the evidence and the neuropathological changes that the presence of ApoE4 and mercury neurotoxicity have in common, we propose a convergent action of both factors. ApoE4 seems to potentiate the damage caused by mercury. Increased knowledge of this interaction using epidemiological and pre-clinical studies is essential to improve prevention strategies to adequately manage intoxicated patients.

  9. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2010-08-01

    We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.

  10. [3,5-dimethoxyfenol--marker intoxication with Taxus baccata].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Dogosi, M; Snupárek, Z; Toupalík, P; Baláz, P; Bartos, P

    2010-07-01

    Autopsy findings of fatal intoxication with yew (Taxus baccata) are nonspecific. A presence of plant residues in the digestive tract can signalize yew intoxication. If yew decoction is consumed, plant residues are not found. In such a case the intoxication can be signalized by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material. Authors of this article describe the proof and quantification of the 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in two cases of fatal intoxication with yew. In both cases the liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction was used. Extracts obtained from the acidic and basic environment were analysed. Extracts from the acidic environment were methylated and the extracts from the basic environment were acetylated. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the blood of both intoxicated persons the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was proved and its concentration 82 ng/ml and 417 ng/ml was quantificated. In both cases the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was also proved in the gastric contents and urine.

  11. Organophosphate and carbamate intoxication in La Paz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Exner, Christopher J; Ayala, Guillermo Urquizo

    2009-05-01

    Intoxication with organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) compounds is a common reason for presentation to the Emergency Department (ED) in La Paz, Bolivia. The objective of this study was to describe the demographics, presenting symptoms, and hospital course of patients presenting with OP or CM intoxication to the ED of the Hospital de Clinicas, La Paz, Bolivia, with the aim of determining which factors might predict a complicated hospital course. This was a retrospective chart review, using predefined criteria, of 300 patients who presented from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003. The intoxications were all oral, mostly intentional (97%), and in young patients (mean age 23.9 years, range 13-62 years). Females outnumbered males almost 2:1. The most common symptoms on presentation were abdominal pain (83%), nausea/vomiting (79%), miosis (72%), bronchorrhea (44%), diarrhea (41%), and fasciculations (31%). The most frequent complications were aspiration (18%), cardiopulmonary arrest (9%), and seizure (7%); mortality was 6%. Treatments included gastric lavage in 96% of patients, and atropine (median 5 mg per patient, range 0-48 mg). Miosis, bronchorrhea, diarrhea, and fasciculations at presentation were associated with a higher rate of complications. Although almost all intoxications were suicide attempts, less than half of patients received a psychiatric consultation. OP intoxication is a common cause of self-inflicted morbidity and mortality among young people in La Paz, Bolivia. Presence of miosis, bronchorrhea, diarrhea, and fasciculations at presentation suggest a higher likelihood of complications.

  12. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%.

  14. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Orquin, Jacob L.; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  15. Morphological changes in the liver of rats intoxicated with methanol.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Skrzydlewska, E

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of morphological examinations in light and electron microscope, the evaluation of methanol influence on the liver of rats was conducted. The examination was carried out in the group of 36 rats that were given a single dose of methanol (1.5 g/kg b.w.) into the stomach through a gastric tube. The liver was taken from rats under the ether anaesthesia after 6, 12, and 24 hours as well as after 2, 5, and 7 days of methanol administration. Results showed that methanol intoxication caused visible changes in the examined organ. Only 6 h after intoxication, lobular peripheral hepatocytes presented characteristic features of vacuolar degradation persisting up to 48 h. Since the second day of intoxication, many cells with double nuclei were found more frequently than in controls. Single hepatocytes or small hepatocytic clusters with the features of deliquescent necrosis could be seen after 5 and 7 days of examination. All animals intoxicated with methanol showed distinct weakness of glycogen reaction. The loss of glycogen resources was highest at 24 h after methanol administration. The results indicate, that methanol causes morphological changes in the rat liver and that intensification of these changes depends on the time after intoxication.

  16. Alcohol consumption and escalatory aggression in intoxicated and sober dyads.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K E

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that alcohol ingestion facilitates escalatory processes in aggressive interactions. The present study examined interaction patterns in intoxicated, sober and mixed dyads. Thirty pairs of men college students were randomly assigned to these conditions. Subjects who received alcohol received .964 g of absolute alcohol per kg of body weight. At the beginning of each trial in a reaction-time competition, each member of the dyad selected the shock level that he wanted his opponent to receive if the opponent was slower on the trial. Further, each member was informed by feedback lights of the shock level that his opponent had selected for him. The results indicated that the intoxicated dyads selected higher shock levels than did the sober dyads. Mixed dyads tended to select lower shock levels than intoxicated dyads but higher shock levels than sober dyads. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, intoxicated dyads escalated in aggression over the first block of six trials, whereas neither sober nor mixed dyads evidenced such an escalation. One interpretation of these findings is that the cognitive disruption caused by the alcohol interfered with the subjects' ability to evaluate the consequences of their behavior and to interpret the behavior of their opponents. A second interpretation is that, because of the expectancy effects associated with alcohol consumption, intoxicated dyads did not feel constrained to a nonaggressive stance. Finally, the value of the dyadic-interaction paradigm in the study of alcohol-related violence was discussed.

  17. Reducing intoxication among bar patrons: some lessons from prevention of drinking and driving.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Bellis, Mark A; Clapp, John D; Hughes, Karen; Toomey, Traci L; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Intoxication in and around licensed premises continues to be common, despite widespread training in the responsible service of alcohol and laws prohibiting service to intoxicated individuals. However, research suggests that training and the existence of laws are unlikely to have an impact on intoxication without enforcement, and evidence from a number of countries indicates that laws prohibiting service to intoxicated individuals are rarely enforced. Enforcement is currently hampered by the lack of a standardized validated measure for defining intoxication clearly, a systematic approach to enforcement and the political will to address intoxication. We argue that adoption of key principles from successful interventions to prevent driving while intoxicated could be used to develop a model of consistent and sustainable enforcement. These principles include: applying validated and widely accepted criteria for defining when a person is 'intoxicated'; adopting a structure of enforceable consequences for violations; implementing procedures of unbiased enforcement; using publicity to ensure that there is a perceived high risk of being caught and punished; and developing the political will to support ongoing enforcement. Research can play a critical role in this process by: developing and validating criteria for defining intoxication based on observable behaviour; documenting the harms arising from intoxication, including risk curves associated with different levels of intoxication; estimating the policing, medical and social costs from intoxicated bar patrons; and conducting studies of the cost-effectiveness of different interventions to reduce intoxication.

  18. Protective effect of naringenin on hepatic and renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in arsenic intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Mershiba, Sam Daniel; Dassprakash, M Velayutham; Saraswathy, Sundara Dhakshinamurthy

    2013-05-01

    Arsenic has a long history as a potent human poison, chronic exposure over a period of time may result in the manifestation of toxicity in practically all systems of the body. In the present investigation the efficacy of naringenin (NRG), a naturally occurring citrus flavanone against arsenic-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic manifestations have been studied in rats. Arsenic trioxide was administered orally at the dose of 2 mg/kg/day with or without combination of NRG (20 or 50 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. At the end of the experimental period the hepatic and renal dysfunction was evaluated by histological examination, serum biomarkers and markers of oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Arsenic intoxication increased serum bilirubin, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels, additionally enhanced the activities of hepatic marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Also, the hepatic and renal tissues showed a marked elevation in LPO levels with a decrease in GSH content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase on arsenic treatment. Simultaneous treatment with NRG restored the activities of serum biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes in the tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the histopathological studies confirmed the protective effect of NRG co-treatment by reducing the pathological changes due to arsenic intoxication in both liver and kidney. Thus, our present study demonstrates that NRG has a potential to protect arsenic-induced oxidative hepatic and renal dysfunction.

  19. S-adenosyl-L-methionine and lead intoxication: its therapeutic effect varying the route of administration

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, S.R.; Fukuda, H.; Kozicki, P.A.; Rossetti, M.V.; Conti, H.; Batlle, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    A comparative study on the effect of oral and subcutaneous (sc) or intravenous (iv) administration of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) in lead poisoning was carried out. SAM was given daily sc (20 mg/kg) and orally (80 mg/kg) to acute lead-intoxicated mice for 20 days. Chronic lead-poisoned patients received SAM, administered intravenously at a daily dose of 12 mg/kg or orally at a dose of 25-30 mg/kg. Independent of the method of administration in either animals or patients, GSH concentration in reduced lead intoxication was increased after SAM dosing. Corresponding blood lead content rapidly decreased and a significant recovery of hepatic and erythrocytic delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), initially reduced, was clearly produced in the groups receiving SAM, although the response was slightly slower when SAM was given orally. It was found that the bulk of body lead burden was excreted in the feces, showing a peak within the first 24-48 hr and being much greater in animals treated with SAM. In these cases, urinary lead excretion was very low. Lead ALA-D inhibition was also evidenced by elevated urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen (PBG), and porphyrins. During treatment, precursors and porphyrins elimination declined, reaching normal levels soon after therapy ended. A good correlation between the recovery of both GSH levels and ALA-D activity and decreased lead content was observed.

  20. The methods of committing and alcohol intoxication of suicides in Southwestern Croatia from 1996 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Coklo, Miran; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Drazen; Sosa, Ivan; Jerković, Romana; Bosnar, Alan

    2008-10-01

    Alcohol is the psychoactive substance most frequently associated with suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that the level of alcohol intoxication and the choice of specific methods of committing suicide are related. Suicides in the Southwestern Croatia in a 10-year period, especially regarding the method of committing and alcohol intoxication, were analyzed. Ten various methods of committing suicide were recorded. The average blood alcohol concentration at the moment of suicide was 0.68 g/kg with male, and 0.29 g/kg with female victims. The highest blood alcohol levels at the moment of suicide were recorded with suicides by explosive device (with the average blood alcohol concentration of 1.71 g/kg). This especially drastic method of suicide was rare in Croatia in a period prior to the Croatian Independence War (1991-1995), but its incidence significantly increased during the war and in a post-war period. These victims were not chronic alcoholics, but the excessive alcohol consumption occurred as a result of psychiatric disorders as a consequence of war stress they suffered.

  1. [Treatment of acute lithium intoxication with high-flux haemodialysis membranes].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Regidor, D; Peces, C; Sánchez, R; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2006-01-01

    Lithium carbonate is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders. However, because of its narrow therapeutic index an excessive elevation of serum lithium concentration, either during chronic maintenance therapy or after an acute overdose, can result in serious toxicity. In addition to supportive care, the established treatment of severe lithium toxicity is haemodialysis. Conventional haemodialysis can reduce serum lithium rapidly, but post-dialysis rebound elevations with recurrent toxicity have been documented in old publications. High-flux membranes should be capable of removing more lithium per hour of haemodialysis, but published values are not available. We report here three patients with acute lithium intoxication who were treated successfully with bicarbonate and high-flux haemodialysis membranes. Our patients presented with a severe degree of intoxication, based on the amount of drug ingested, the initial serum lithium level, the severity of neurologic symptoms and systemic manifestations. Two patients developed acute renal failure probably as a result of volume depletion since it was rapidly reversible by haemodialysis and infusion therapy. In addition, consecutive haemodialysis sessions and improvement of renal function allowed a rapid decrease in serum lithium levels without haemodynamic instability or rebound elevations in lithium concentration. The effectiveness of the procedure in these cases can be attributed to the use of bicarbonate dialysate and high-efficiency dialysers. This is the first report describing the effect of high-efficiency dialysers on lithium pharmacokinetic. Using this technique the elimination rate of lithium was found to be greater than previously reported with haemodialysis.

  2. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable except for elevated amylase/lipase levels (134/222 U/L), which were even higher 7 days later and remained elevated for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse pancreatic swelling. The patient improved with conservative care and was discharged to home 19 days after admission. This is the first reported case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication. We recommend early aggressive management in the emergency department and close monitoring in the intensive care unit to detect and treat potentially fatal deterioration after chlorfenapyr intoxication. PMID:27752575

  3. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-03-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable except for elevated amylase/lipase levels (134/222 U/L), which were even higher 7 days later and remained elevated for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse pancreatic swelling. The patient improved with conservative care and was discharged to home 19 days after admission. This is the first reported case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication. We recommend early aggressive management in the emergency department and close monitoring in the intensive care unit to detect and treat potentially fatal deterioration after chlorfenapyr intoxication.

  4. Fatal water intoxication during olanzapine treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sayaka; Yajima, Daisuke; Torimitsu, Suguru; Abe, Hiroko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-03-01

    A man in his twenties was diagnosed with schizophrenia in his late teens. The night before his death, his family reported he drank a large amount of water, vomited, collapsed, and snored loudly while sleeping, but they did not view the event seriously as he did it routinely. The following morning, he was found dead. Autopsy revealed hyponatremia by water intoxication as the cause of death. Water intoxication has various causes. In this case, 610 ng/mL olanzapine was detected in serum samples. Although this concentration is not as high as the fatal concentrations reported in past studies, it might have caused some adverse effects. Furthermore, the observation that excessive drinking behavior started after the dose of olanzapine was increased suggests a possibility that olanzapine aggravated water intoxication.

  5. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  6. [Extended hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute carbamazepine intoxication].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Azorín, S; Peces, C; Selgas, R

    2010-01-01

    Carbamazepine is used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed in neuralgic pain syndromes, and certain affective disorders. Carbamazepine intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively high molecular weight, elevated volume of distribution and intense protein-binding render it difficult to extracorporeal removal, but published experience with hemoperfusion or hemodialysis present variable results. We describe a case report involving carbamazepine intoxication who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of carbamazepine was reduced with rapid lowering of carbamazepine levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, extended charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious carbamazepine intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  7. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  8. [Intoxication due to pesticides in the central northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil - 2002 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Neves, Pedro Dias Mangolini; Bellini, Marcella

    2013-11-01

    This research is based on epidemiological records of toxicological occurrences in individual records of investigation into pesticide poisoning at the Maringá Intoxication Control Center at the Regional University Hospital of Maringá. The intoxications in patients poisoned from 2002 to 2011, in towns that comprise the Central Northern Paraná Geographic Mesoregion where Maringá is located, were taken into consideration in this study. As a result, it was established that approximately 67.12% of those poisoned were males, the age groups most affected are 20-29 years old and 30-39 years old. Suicide attempts appear as the main motivation for hospitalization (possibly disguising the chronic intoxication), and mainly insecticides and herbicides are involved in the poisonings, with 62.60% and 26%, respectively. Lastly, the urgent need for public health policies in to reduce this statistic immediately is self-evident, as these poisonings are the ones recorded, as those resulting from food poisoning are not being computed.

  9. Perinatal water intoxication due to excessive oral intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Johansson, S; Lindow, S; Kapadia, H; Norman, M

    2002-01-01

    The increased body water in pregnant women and the birth-related activation of water-sparing systems contribute to a high risk of perinatal water intoxication if the mother drinks too much water during labour. This study reports on four newborn term infants and one mother presenting with life-threatening symptoms due to hyponatraemia from excessive oral intake during labour. Awareness of this diagnosis in the delivery unit is very important, because the clinical picture may mimic that of pre-eclampsia or dehydration. Guidelines are proposed to prevent and treat perinatal water intoxication due to excessive oral intake during labour.

  10. Pulmonary oedema during treatment of acute water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, D.; Champion, M.; Trash, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Acute water intoxication with deepening coma and uncontrolled epileptiform seizures in a 25-year-old previously fit male schizophrenic was treated with hypertonic (2 N) saline and a 20% mannitol solution. This improved his neurological state but precipitated severe pulmonary oedema. Intravenous frusemide increased his urinary output sufficiently to clear the pulmonary oedema. In acute water intoxication the use of hypertonic solutions may thus precipitate left heart failure by expanding the intra-pulmonary blood volume beyond the capacity of even a healthy left ventricle to compensate. Simple water restriction will produce a slower but perhaps safer improvement. Images Fig. 1 PMID:981097

  11. [Acetaldehyde and some biochemical parameters in alcoholic intoxications].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E V; Morozov, Iu E; Lopatkin, O N; Zarubin, V V; Mamedov, V K

    2004-01-01

    The need in comprehensive gas chromatography and biochemistry examinations is grounded for cadaver expertise in order to cope with issues related with alcoholic intoxication. Descriptions of 3 examination methods of biological fluids are elucidated, i.e. gas chromatography, electrophoresis and fixing of a degree of endogenous intoxication. The concentration of acetaldehyde in 3 body media (blood, urine and liquor) are analyzed in detail; the isoenzyme spectra of lactate-, alcohol- and aldehyde dehydrogenase as well as the contents of medium molecules in death of alcohol poisonings and due to mechanical trauma are also in the focus of attention.

  12. Traumatic intracranial injury in intoxicated patients with minor head trauma.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Haukoos, Jason S; Claud, Jonathan; Wilbur, Lee; Hagstrom, Michelle Tartalgia; Cantrill, Stephen; Mestek, Michael; Symonds, David; Bakes, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Studies focusing on minor head injury in intoxicated patients report disparate prevalences of intracranial injury. It is unclear if the typical factors associated with intracranial injury in published clinical decision rules for computerized tomography (CT) acquisition are helpful in differentiating patients with and without intracranial injuries, as intoxication may obscure particular features of intracranial injury such as headache and mimic other signs of head injury such as altered mental status. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of intracranial injury following minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≥14) in intoxicated patients and to assess the performance of established clinical decision rules in this population. This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive intoxicated adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) following minor head injury. Historical and physical examination features included those from the Canadian CT Head Rule, National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS), and New Orleans Criteria. All patients underwent head CT. A total of 283 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 40 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 28 to 48 years) and median alcohol concentration of 195 mmol/L (IQR = 154 to 256 mmol/L). A total of 238 of 283 (84%) were male, and 225 (80%) had GCS scores of 15. Clinically important injuries (injuries requiring admission to the hospital or neurosurgical follow-up) were identified in 23 patients (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5% to 12%); one required neurosurgical intervention (0.4%, 95% CI = 0% to 2%). Loss of consciousness and headache were associated with clinically important intracranial injury on CT. The Canadian CT Head Rule had a sensitivity of 70% (95% CI = 47% to 87%) and NEXUS criteria had a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI = 61% to 95%) for clinically important injury in intoxicated patients. In this study, the prevalence of clinically important injury in intoxicated

  13. Comparing Technical Dexterity of Sleep-Deprived Versus Intoxicated Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Allison; Karreman, Erwin; Thiel, John

    2014-01-01

    Background: The evidence on the effect of sleep deprivation on the cognitive and motor skills of physicians in training is sparse and conflicting, and the evidence is nonexistent on surgeons in practice. Work-hour limitations based on these data have contributed to challenges in the quality of surgical education under the apprentice model, and as a result there is an increasing focus on competency-based education. Whereas the effects of alcohol intoxication on psychometric performance are well studied in many professions, the effects on performance in surgery are not well documented. To study the effects of sleep deprivation on the surgical performance of surgeons, we compared simulated the laparoscopic skills of staff gynecologists “under 2 conditions”: sleep deprivation and ethanol intoxication. We hypothesized that the performance of unconsciously competent surgeons does not deteriorate postcall as it does under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Nine experienced staff gynecologists performed 3 laparoscopic tasks in increasing order of difficulty (cup drop, rope passing, pegboard exchange) on a box trainer while sleep deprived (<3 hours in 24 hours) and subsequently when legally intoxicated (>0.08 mg/mL blood alcohol concentration). Three expert laparoscopic surgeons scored the anonymous clips online using Global Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills criteria: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, and efficiency. Data were analyzed by a mixed-design analysis of variance. Results: There were large differences in mean performance between the tasks. With increasing task difficulty, mean scores became significantly (P < .05) poorer. For the easy tasks, the scores for sleep-deprived and intoxicated participants were similar for all variables except time. Surprisingly, participants took less time to complete the easy tasks when intoxicated. However, the most difficult task took less time but was performed significantly worse compared with being sleep

  14. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence

  15. Atropine intoxication from the ingestion and smoking of jimson weed (Datura stramonium).

    PubMed

    Guharoy, S R; Barajas, M

    1991-12-01

    Anticholinergic effects occur due to jimson weed intoxication. The most common intoxication involves teenagers desiring mind-altering properties from the plant. We report 4 cases of jimson weed intoxication due to ingestion and inhalation (smoking) of jimson weed. Clinicians should be aware of the potential abuse of botanicals such as jimson weed.

  16. Prolonged neuropsychiatric effects following management of chloroquine intoxication with psychotropic polypharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Nicole M; Nevin, Remington L; Stahl, Stephen; Block, Jerald; Shugarts, Sarah; Wu, Alan H B; Dominy, Stephen; Solano-Blanco, Miguel Alonso; Kappelman-Culver, Sharon; Lee-Messer, Christopher; Maldonado, Jose; Maxwell, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Susceptibility to quinoline antimalarial intoxication may reflect individual genetic and drug-induced variation in neuropharmacokinetics. In this report, we describe a case of chloroquine intoxication that appeared to be prolonged by subsequent use of multiple psychotropic medications. This case highlights important new considerations for the management of quinoline antimalarial intoxication. PMID:26185633

  17. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  18. Assaying benzene, a parquet varnish, and a synthetic thinner with respect to induction of in vivo chromosome loss in wing primordial cells of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Soós, István; Szabad, János

    2014-03-15

    An assay detecting the in vivo loss of mwh(+)Y, a genetically engineered Y chromosome, in cells of the Drosophila wing primordia was published recently. Loss of the mwh(+)Y chromosome in any of the wing-disk cells - in a multiple wing hairs homozygous background - leads to the formation of an mwh mosaic spot (clone) in the emerging wing. The frequency and the size of the mwh clones allow detection and quantitative evaluation of environmental and/or genetic agents inducing chromosome loss. Using this novel technique, we analyzed the potential of vapors of benzene, a parquet varnish, and a synthetic thinner to induce chromosome loss. Exposure to 0.047μg/ml benzene vapor for one day or to 0.175μg/ml for four hours resulted in a significantly elevated mwh clone-frequency confirming the ability of benzene to induce chromosome loss. A one-day exposure to vapors of a parquet varnish or a 6-h exposure to vapors of a synthetic thinner slightly, yet significantly elevated the frequency of chromosome loss. Results of the present paper show the potential of vapors of the analyzed parquet varnish and synthetic thinner to induce chromosome loss, and illustrate the usefulness of the new technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart Rate Variability in Children with Tricyclic Antidepressant Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Kilic, Zubeyir; Sahin, Sabiha; Tutuncu-Toker, Rabia; Eren, Makbule; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Kosger, Pelin; Ucar, Birsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in children requiring intensive care unit stays due to TCA poisoning between March 2009 and July 2010. In the time-domain nonspectral evaluation, the SDNN (P < 0.001), SDNNi (P < 0.05), RMSDD (P < 0.01), and pNN50 (P < 0.01) were found to be significantly lower in the TCA intoxication group. The spectral analysis of the data recorded during the first 5 minutes after intensive care unit admission showed that the values of the nLF (P < 0.05) and the LF/HF ratio (P = 0.001) were significantly higher in the TCA intoxication group, while the nHF (P = 0.001) values were significantly lower. The frequency-domain spectral analysis of the data recorded during the last 5 minutes showed a lower nHF (P = 0.001) in the TCA intoxication group than in the controls, and the LF/HF ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the intoxication group. The LF/HF ratio was higher in the seven children with seizures (P < 0.001). These findings provided us with a starting point for the value of HRV analysis in determining the risk of arrhythmia and convulsion in TCA poisoning patients. HRV can be used as a noninvasive testing method in determining the treatment and prognosis of TCA poisoning patients. PMID:23533941

  20. Acute water intoxication as another unusual manifestation of child abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, J G

    1980-01-01

    A 4 1/2-year-old boy developed hyponatraemia with coma and convulsions as the result of acute water intoxication. Information subsequently obtained strongly suggested that the excessive water ingestion was enforced by a punitive foster father. PMID:7436477

  1. Long-term neurotoxic effects of dimethylamine borane intoxication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Lin, Kun-Ju; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the long-term neurotoxic effects in a patient with acute dimethylamine borane (DMAB) intoxication. A 38-year-old man, working in a semiconductor factory, with acute DMAB intoxication presented with confusion, and drowsiness, followed by cognitive impairments and motor-predominant axonal polyneuropathy. We performed serial neurobehavioral assessments and functional neuroimaging studies, including brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and brain positron emission tomography (PET) scan to monitor the long-term central nervous system (CNS) effects of DMAB intoxication. Neurobehavioral tests revealed a persistent impairment in episodic memory of visual retention semantic category retrieval and working memory of digit span (backward). Brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT SPECT scan showed a lower radioactivity uptake in the left striatum and F-18 FDG PET scan revealed a relatively decreased cerebral metabolism at the anterior cingulate gyrus and both frontal regions. Follow-up neurobehavioral tests showed that the cognitive improvements were mainly documented in intelligence, attention function, conceptual shift, perceptual motor speed, verbal learning and working memory but were limited in visual memory and executive functions. Patients with acute DMAB intoxication may have a long-lasting CNS toxicity on the cognitive dysfunction, parkinsonism, and an impaired metabolic activity of the brain. Clinical improvements may sustain during the long-term follow-up period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  3. Korean patients with superwarfarin intoxication and their outcome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junshik; Yhim, Ho-Young; Bang, Soo-Mee; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yuh, Young Jin; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Seung Taik; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2010-12-01

    This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested.

  4. Superwarfarin intoxication: hematuria is a major clinical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Feng; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Wang, Chuan-Cheng; Shen, Ming-Ching

    2009-09-01

    Since superwarfarin is popular and readily available in stores, it may cause intoxication or overexposure, which can result in coagulopathy or abnormal bleeding in humans and, thus, is an important public health problem. We report our clinical experience with superwarfarin intoxication. Nine patients, including eight patients who had histories of ingesting superwarfarin, were studied. Of the patients, hematuria occurred in eight. Laboratory tests among the nine patients showed extremely prolonged prothrombin times and activated partial thromboplastin times, which could be corrected to normal by mixing 1:1 with normal pooled plasma; they also had very low functional levels of factor II, VII, IX, X, and proteins C and S, but normal functional levels of factors V, VIII, fibrinogen, and anti-thrombin III. Large doses of vitamin K1 were needed for 3 months or more to treat and correct the coagulopathy among the patients. The majority of the patients presented with gross hematuria, suggesting that hematuria is probably a major clinical manifestation of superwarfarin intoxication. Prolonged use of large doses of vitamin K1 is needed for the treatment of superwarfarin intoxication.

  5. Korean Patients with Superwarfarin Intoxication and Their Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Junshik; Yhim, Ho-Young; Bae, Sung Hwa; Yuh, Young Jin; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Seung Taik; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This observational study aimed at evaluating recent superwarfarin intoxication of Korean patients. Ten patients were diagnosed as or highly suspicious for superwarfarin intoxication. Case report forms described by attending hematologists of the patients were collected and analyzed. Bleeding symptoms were varied among the patients. Patients uniformly showed prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (aPTT) with decreased activity of vitamin K dependent coagulation factors. Positive serum brodifacoum test results in 4 of 5 requested patients contributed to confirmatory diagnosis. Psychiatric interview revealed an attempted ingestion in one patient. High dose vitamin K1 therapy promptly corrected prolonged PT and aPTT, but hasty discontinuation caused repeated bleeding diathesis in 6 patients. Route of intoxication was unknown or not definite among 8 of 10 patients. Three patients had a possibility of environmental exposure considering their occupations: there might be intoxication by transdermal absorption or inhalation. Therefore, high dose and prolonged use of vitamin K1 therapy is necessary for effective detoxification. Further detailed investigation on environmental exposure and efforts to improve availability of the blood level test in clinic are requested. PMID:21165290

  6. The Impact of Behavioral Signs of Intoxication on Bartender Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsite, Billie; Klear, Lacey; Rosenberg, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether the serving practices of a sample of bartenders in an American university town would vary as a function of the number of behavioral cues of intoxication displayed by apparently real patrons (who were actually experimental confederates). Method: We trained two male and three female…

  7. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Program has been developed to provide the alcohol enforcement officer trainee with working knowledge and skills which will enable him to effectively carry out his alcohol enforcement tasks. The instructor's manual has been prepared to serve as a text to assist the instructor in…

  8. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.; And Others

    The student manual has been prepared to serve as a workbook to assist the student officer in successfully completing the Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It is organized under 16 subject headings (orientation, alcohol and highway safety, preparation for alcohol enforcement task, detection of the drinking…

  9. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  10. DWI [Driving While Intoxicated] Law Enforcement Training Project: Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, James E.

    The course guide has been designed as the basic planning document for the program director and instructional personnel in the organization and administration of a Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) Law Enforcement Training Course. It contains an explanation of the developmental effort of the DWI Law Enforcement Training Project and detailed…

  11. [Intentional Datura stramonium intoxication: an unknown etiology of mydriasis].

    PubMed

    Montcriol, A; Kenane, N; Delort, G; Asencio, Y; Palmier, B

    2007-09-01

    Two case reports of Datura stramonium intoxications are presented. The first one was a self poisoning, with a moderate anticholinergic syndrome and a spontaneous improvement. The second one was a recreational use of Datura stramonium for its hallucinogenic properties. The anticholinergic syndrome was marked and the improvement required orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, intraveinous rehydratation, and active cooling to prevent organ failure.

  12. Sudden onset unexplained encephalopathy in infants: think of cannabis intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Eran; Rekhtman, David; Berkun, Yackov; Wexler, Isaiah

    2016-03-01

    The use of cannabis as both a therapeutic agent and recreational drug is common, and its availability is increasing as a result of legalization in many countries. Among older children, the manifestations of cannabis intoxication are numerous and include both neurological and systemic manifestations that are frequently non-specific. There have been only a few reports detailing cannabis intoxication in infants and toddlers. We describe three infants who presented to the emergency department with encephalopathic signs without prominent systemic manifestations. During the initial interview of caregivers, no history of exposure to neurotoxic agents was obtained. All three patients were subsequently diagnosed with cannabis intoxication based on urine toxic screens for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The infants recovered with supportive care that included fluids and monitoring. The non-specific symptomatology of cannabis intoxication in infants together with the wide differential for unexplained acute onset encephalopathy may delay diagnosis and lead to inappropriate procedures and interventions such as antimicrobial treatments and imaging studies. Healthcare personnel of emergency rooms, urgent care centers, and general clinics should be aware of the potential risk of cannabis ingestion in young infants. A thorough medical history and toxic screen are warranted in all infants with unexplained decreased sensorium.

  13. A Systematic Review of Intervening to Prevent Driving While Intoxicated

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Rebekah L; Lewis, Ioni

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving while intoxicated (DWI) is a significant public health issue. The likelihood someone will intervene to prevent driving while intoxicated is affected by the characteristics of the individuals and the context of the potential driving scenario. Understanding such contexts may help tailor public health messages to promote intervening from those who are nearby to an intoxicated driver. Objective This systematic review investigates the behavior of those close to an intoxicated driver and factors associated with increasing the likelihood they will intervene in situations where driving while impaired may be likely. The review of the literature is guided by an orienting framework, namely the classic social psychology theory of decision-making proposed by Latané and Darley. Results Drawing upon this framework, the review examines the extent to which research has focused on factors which influence whether or not an individual identifies a need to intervene and identifies a serious/dangerous situation. In addition, consideration is given to perceived personal responsibility. The final two components of the model are then discussed; the perceived skill an individual who may intervene has (in their ability to intervene) and their actual enactment of the intervening behavior. Conclusions/Importance Drawing upon such a well-considered theoretical framework, this review provides guidance on key components likely to assist in the development of targeted, more effective public education messages/campaigns that dissuade individuals from drinking and then driving. PMID:26757349

  14. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  15. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  16. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION...

  17. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION...

  18. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION...

  19. 36 CFR § 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. § 520.8 Section § 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION...

  20. 36 CFR 520.8 - Intoxicating beverages and narcotics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intoxicating beverages and narcotics. 520.8 Section 520.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION...

  1. Sustained low-efficiency daily diafiltration with hemoperfusion as a therapy for severe star fruit intoxication: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication decreased in the Taiwanese society due to improved public education on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Various complications including hiccups, altered levels of consciousness, coma, and seizures have been reported in individuals with renal failure who ingested fresh star fruit or star fruit juice. A high mortality rate (from 33 to 80%) was observed in patients with altered levels of consciousness, despite prompt dialysis and supportive care. According to previous case reports, the proposed treatment of choice for severe star fruit intoxication may be continuous renal replacement therapy with or without hemoperfusion. We report two cases of star fruit intoxication with stage V CKD (one case is predialysis) presenting with coma and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The two patients were treated with sustained low-efficiency daily diafiltration (SLEDD-f) and charcoal hemoperfusion. Status epilepticus was controlled fairly quickly after treatment with SLEDD-f and hemoperfusion. However, the outcomes in this report are still poor (both remained comatose; one of two patients died). Currently, there are no data for the use of SLEDD-f with hemoperfusion for severe star fruit intoxication. SLEDD-f with charcoal hemoperfusion may play a role in managing refractory status epilepticus in patients with severe star fruit poisoning.

  2. Efficacy of chelation therapy to remove aluminium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    There is a distinct correlation between aluminium (Al) intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We demonstrated how patients affected by ND showing Al intoxication benefit from short-term treatment with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (chelation therapy). Such therapy further improved through daily treatment with the antioxidant Cellfood. In the present study we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment, using both EDTA and Cellfood. Slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (2 g/10 mL diluted in 500 mL physiological saline administered in 2 h) (chelation test) removed Al, which was detected (using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in urine samples collected from patients over 12 h. Patients that revealed Al intoxication (expressed in μg per g creatinine) underwent EDTA chelation therapy once a week for ten weeks, then once every two weeks for a further six or twelve months. At the end of treatment (a total of 22 or 34 chelation therapies, respectively), associated with daily assumption of Cellfood, Al levels in the urine samples were analysed. In addition, the following blood parameters were determined: homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate, as well as the oxidative status e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and glutathione. Our results showed that Al intoxication reduced significantly following EDTA and Cellfood treatment, and clinical symptoms improved. After treatment, ROS, oxLDL, and homocysteine decreased significantly, whereas vitamin B12, folate and TAC improved significantly. In conclusion, our data show the efficacy of chelation therapy associated with Cellfood in subjects affected by Al intoxication who have developed ND.

  3. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p < .001). Conclusions Internet videos depicting alcohol intoxication are heavily viewed. Nearly half of these videos involve a brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  4. Clinical pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: case reports and review of the treatment of intoxication.

    PubMed

    Blaho, K; Merigian, K; Winbery, S; Geraci, S A; Smartt, C

    1997-01-01

    Intoxication and overdose are common presenting complaints to the emergency department. Acute intoxication with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has become a relatively rare event, especially when compared with the incidence of ethanol and cocaine intoxication. We recently had an outbreak of presumed LSD intoxications occurring over one weekend. All patients had attended a performance by the musical group The Grateful Dead. At present, LSD intoxication or overdose can only be suspected based on clinical findings because there are no readily available rapid laboratory tests for detecting either the parent compound or the metabolites of the drug. The clinical findings and outcomes of five patients with suspected LSD intoxication are presented. The pharmacological effects of LSD and treatment modalities of intoxication are reviewed. All patients were treated conservatively based on clinical signs and symptoms. Only one patient required hospital admission for combative behavior that was initially refractory to pharmacological restraint.

  5. Fluoride-induced chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lantz, O; Jouvin, M H; De Vernejoul, M C; Druet, P

    1987-08-01

    Renal fluoride toxicity in human beings is difficult to assess in the literature. Although experimental studies and research on methoxyflurane toxicity have shown frank renal damage, observations of renal insufficiency related to chronic fluoride exposure are scarce. We report a case of fluoride intoxication related to potomania of Vichy water, a highly mineralized water containing 8.5 mg/L of fluoride. Features of fluoride osteosclerosis were prominent and end-stage renal failure was present. The young age of the patient, the long duration of high fluoride intake, and the absence of other cause of renal insufficiency suggest a causal relationship between fluoride intoxication and renal failure.

  6. Frequency of Acute Hepatitis Following Acute Paraphenylene Diamine Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Rizwan; Shafiq, Sadaf; Imran, Ali; Masroor Ali, Qazi; Khan, Raheel; Tariq, Hassan; Ishtiaq, Daniyal

    2017-04-21

    Paraphenylene diamine (PPD) ingestion is manifesting as one of the more common ways of committing suicide in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, especially Bahawalpur. PPD is an ingredient of a compound commonly known "Kala Pathar" which means "Black Stone" in Urdu. It is readily available in the market at low cost and is used to dye hair and fur. Its intoxication inhibits cellular oxidation and affects the muscles causing rhabdomyolysis. This leads to myoglobinuria followed by renal failure and edema of face and throat resulting in respiratory difficulty. Very little is known about the impact of PPD intoxication on liver tissue. The purpose of the study was to find out the frequency of acute hepatitis following PPD intoxication. We reviewed the medical records of 109 patients with PPD intoxication admitted to Medical Unit-2, Bahawalpur Victoria Hospital from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. We noted the frequency of acute hepatitis and other complications, and we recorded the demographic features, clinical features, and outcomes of these patients. Our study included 32 men (29%) and 77 women (71%). The mean age was 22 ± 3.4 years, and most patients were young women aged 15 to 24 years. Suicidal ingestion was the leading cause of admission for 101 patients (93%). The most common clinical presentation was cervicofacial edema (95%), throat pain (88%), dysphonia (95%), cola-colored urine (100%), and oliguria (95%). Rhabdomyolysis (86%), acute hepatitis (51%), and acute renal failure (63%) were the most common clinical conditions following poisoning. Overall mortality was noted in 39 patients (36%) while all other patients achieved complete clinical recovery (64%). In patients with mortality, 20 of 39 (51%) developed acute hepatitis. Most patients (95%) in our study underwent tracheostomy. The frequency of acute hepatitis in PPD intoxication is high in this population, especially in young women. Measures need to be instituted

  7. Water intoxication in epileptic patients receiving carbamazepine.

    PubMed Central

    Perucca, E; Garratt, A; Hebdige, S; Richens, A

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sodium and osmolality were determined in 80 adult epileptic patients receiving chronic treatment with carbamazepine and in 50 control patients treated with other anticonvulsant drugs. Mean plasma osmolality was significantly lower in the carbamazepine-treated patients but mean plasma sodium did not differ in the two groups. Hyponatraemia was found in five of the carbamazine-treated patients and hypo-osmolality in six. None of the control patients had hyponatraemia and only one had a borderline low osmolality. Three of the 13 patients receiving carbamazepine alone were hyponatraemic. Plasma sodium concentration correlated negatively with both daily carbamazepine dose and serum carbamazepine level. Free water clearance after an oral water load was determined in six patients on carbamazepine alone and in six normal subjects not receiving drug therapy. The capacity of some of the patients to excrete the water load was found to be grossly impaired. PMID:681958

  8. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  9. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  11. Preserved Ross-age(?) root beneath the Transantarctic Mountains and origin of the thinner crust beneath the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Tom; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Armadillo, Egidio; Bozzo, Emanuele

    2013-04-01

    The Wilkes Subglacial Basin, in the hinterland of the Transantarctic Mountains, represents one of the least understood continental-scale features in Antarctica. Aeromagnetic data suggests that this basin was imposed on a much earlier Ross age back arc region that developed along the former active margin of the East Antarctic Craton (Ferraccioli et al., 2009, Tectonophysics). However, the deeper crustal structure of the basin and its relation with tectonic evolution remains both disputed and poorly constrained. Here, we present new airborne gravity data that reveal the crustal architecture of the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Our gravity models indicate that the crust under the northern Wilkes Subglacial Basin is likely to be 30-35 km thick, i.e. 5-10 km thinner than imaged under the adjacent Transantarctic Mountains, and ~15 km thinner than predicted from some previous flexural and passive seismic models beneath the southern Wilkes Subglacial Basin region. We infer that crustal thickening under northern Victoria Land reflects Ross-age (ca 500 Ma) orogenic events and accretion, followed by partial preservation of the orogenic root since then, as opposed to reflecting the edge of a Mesozoic plateau, which has previously been inferred to have occupied West Antarctica (Bialas et al. 2007, Geology). Airy isostatic anomalies along both flanks of the Wilkes Basin reveal major inherited tectonic structures, which likely controlled the basin location and hence support aeromagnetic interpretations of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin as a structurally controlled basin. The positive anomaly along the western margin of the basin appears to define the tectonic boundary between the East Antarctic Craton and the Ross Orogen, and the anomaly along its eastern flank is interpreted as reflecting high-grade and denser rocks of the central Wilson Terran,e with respect to lower grade meta-sediments and magmatic arc rocks of the western Wilson Terrane and Wilkes Basin region. Our forward

  12. [Case report of butane intoxication with fatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Kirichek, A V; Rassinskaia, L A; Shirokova, L V; Simonov, E A

    2009-01-01

    Forensic medical examiners know numerous cases of non-occupational intoxication (e.g. suicide, drug intoxication, household poisoning) but rarely encounter cases of occupational poisoning with household gases. Collection of forensic chemical facts testifying to the presence of saturated hydrocarbons in blood and other tissues is a challenging task. It hampers evaluation of their toxic effect on human brain for the purpose of forensic medical examination. A method is proposed for the analysis of biological materials allowing for the detection of natural alkanes, such as butane, along with recommendations on taking samples for chemical analysis in suspected cases of poisoning with household gases. The method is designed to be employed in combination with up-to-date analytical techniques, such as capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  13. Acute water intoxication during military urine drug screening.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Molly A; Cotant, Casey L

    2011-04-01

    Random mandatory urine drug screening is a routine practice in the military. The pressure to produce a urine specimen creates a temptation to consume large volumes of water, putting those individuals at risk of acute water intoxication. This occurs when the amount of water consumed exceeds the kidney's ability to excrete it, resulting in hyponatremia owing to excess amount of water compared to serum solutes. The acute drop in serum osmolality leads to cerebral edema, causing headaches, confusion, seizures, and death. There has been increasing awareness of the danger of overhydration among performance athletes, but dangers in other groups can be underappreciated. We present the case of a 37-year-old male Air Force officer who developed acute water intoxication during urine drug screening. Our case demonstrates the need for a clear Air Force policy for mandatory drug testing to minimize the risk of developing this potentially fatal condition.

  14. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'].

    PubMed

    Kromhout, H E; Landstra, A M; van Luin, M; van Setten, P A

    2008-07-12

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial hypokalaemia and mild hyperglycaemia. Questioning revealed that they had taken 5 and 3 'herbal energy capsules' respectively and that these capsules supposedly contained 200 mg of caffeine each. Toxicological analysis showed a greatly increased serum caffeine concentration in both patients. The peak concentrations calculated were in the highly toxic range and could have led to severe acute complications such as convulsions. Pharmaceutical analysis demonstrated that these 'Supercap Xtreme'-capsules contained 700 mg caffeine or more. All symptoms presented were compatible with caffeine intoxication. The content of these capsules is not reliable and could lead to life-threatening intoxication.

  15. The role of therapeutic plasma exchange in poisonings and intoxications.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Robert Clark; Ronco, Claudio; Rosner, Mitchell H

    2012-01-01

    Poisonings, intoxications, and drug overdoses are common occurrences and rapid lowering of the toxin level is a cornerstone of all effective therapies. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has several unique characteristics that allow it to be a potentially effective therapy in rapidly achieving this goal. Specifically, TPE allows for the removal of large molecular weight, protein-bound molecules that have a small volume of distribution. Due to the nature of poisonings, intoxications, and drug overdoses, no randomized controlled trials studying the efficacy of TPE in these situations exist. Thus, careful interpretation and analysis of case reports and series are required to assess the potential efficacy of this therapy. Recent data suggest that TPE may also be effective in the therapy of patients receiving biologic treatments who develop life-threatening complications due to therapy.

  16. Water intoxication death following hypothalamic lesions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wishart, T B; Walls, E K

    1975-09-01

    Rats received large, bilateral lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus. Water or saline intakes, urine outputs and body temperatures were observed for up to 24 hr after surgery. Fifty percent of the operated animals drank excessively and died within 4-6 hr when permitted access to water. Urine outputs were low and symptoms of water intoxication were evident. When allowed access to saline, outputs rose and the number of animals which survived increased as the saline concentration increased. Body temperatures approached 40 degrees C during drinking, but did not differ from operated animals which refused to drink. It was concluded that the deposition of metallic ions strongly stimulates a hypothalamic drinking system which results in overhydration and water intoxication death.

  17. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers: severe intoxication in children.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are an alternative to hand washing with soap and water when water is unavailable. Their use has increased over the last decade. Cases of acute intoxication have been reported in children after accidental ingestion of alcohol-based hand sanitizers, sometimes leading to inebriation, agitation, drowsiness, impaired consciousness, and blood alcohol levels sometimes exceeding 2 g/I. In practice, alcohol-based hand sanitizers should be kept out of reach of children and should only be used when hand washing with soap and water is not possible. The possibility of alcohol intoxication should be borne in mind when a child suddenly presents with behaviour problems or altered consciousness.

  18. [Anticholinergic syndrome after intoxication by lupine seeds (Tourmos)].

    PubMed

    Awada, Adnan; Atallah, David; Zoghbi, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Yellow lupine seeds (Tourmos) are frequently used as snack in Lebanon but their potential toxicity is extremely rare (five published cases) and often undiagnosed. Two patients presented with anticholinergic syndrome (mydriasis, mouth dryness, palpitations, general malaise) after ingestion of 200-500 g of bitter lupine seeds (not soaked enough in water). No other cause of intoxication was found, and symptoms disappeared spontaneously in 24-36h. Yellow lupine seeds need a long preparation (boiling then soaking with several changes of water) to debitter before consumption. The spontaneous bitter taste is mainly due to the presence of a toxic substance with anticholinergic properties, lupanine. An insufficient preparation or a preference for bitter lupin can result in intoxication.

  19. Unintentional baclofen intoxication in the management of alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Philipp; Blanc, Anne-Laure; Tagan, Damien

    2015-09-22

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using baclofen for the management of alcohol use disorder. This off-label indication usually involves high doses of the medication. We report a case of severe baclofen overdose in a 66-year-old man. The patient was found severely agitated, and he presented with delirium and auditory hallucinations. At hospital admission, his daily dose was 180 mg baclofen. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for sedation and supportive care. When sedation was withdrawn, the patient presented with a normal neurological status. In this clinical context, baclofen intoxication was suspected. This was confirmed by measuring blood baclofen levels. This intoxication was probably mediated by a combination of risk factors including a high daily dose of baclofen and acute renal failure, conducive to drug accumulation.

  20. Plumbism or Lead Intoxication Mimicking an Abdominal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dedeken, Peter; Louw, Vernon; Vandooren, Ann-Karolien; Geert, Verstegen; Goossens, Willy; Dubois, Bénédicte

    2006-01-01

    The clinical presentation of lead intoxication may vary widely and in the absence of a high clinical index of suspicion, the diagnosis may be missed. The effects of lead on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and its interaction with calcium-mediated processes explain the heterogenous presentation. In this case report, the diagnosis was finally made when bilateral wrist drop developed on top of abdominal cramps and anemia. Before, ascites raised the suspicion of a tumor. Therefore, each element of the triad of unexplained anemia, abdominal cramps, and bilateral wrist (or foot) drop should lead any physician to consider the diagnosis of lead intoxication. This case also illustrates the importance of a careful and meticulous social history in patient management. PMID:16808730

  1. The case of intoxicated cells-an epidemiologic note.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D; Wanner, R G

    1981-03-01

    An episode is described in which tissue culture in a laboratory could have become intoxicated due to the recirculation of toxic exhaust fumes extruded from the roof of a research institution. A route of entry was found whereby a portion of fume hood exhaust was reintroduced into the building by means of large intake fans located on the roof near the exhaust ducts used to cool the elevator cables and motors at the top of the elevator shafts. The descending action of the elevator created a suction which pulled the polluted air down the elevated shafts and into the corridors. Such mechanisms for cooling elevator shafts are widely used in the modern architecture of commercial, industrial and laboratory buildings, and they should therefore be considered in epidemiologic investigations of airborne infections or intoxications of undetermined origin.

  2. Creativity on tap? Effects of alcohol intoxication on creative cognition.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Panzierer, Lisa; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2017-07-10

    Anecdotal reports link alcohol intoxication to creativity, while cognitive research highlights the crucial role of cognitive control for creative thought. This study examined the effects of mild alcohol intoxication on creative cognition in a placebo-controlled design. Participants completed executive and creative cognition tasks before and after consuming either alcoholic beer (BAC of 0.03) or non-alcoholic beer (placebo). Alcohol impaired executive control, but improved performance in the Remote Associates Test, and did not affect divergent thinking ability. The findings indicate that certain aspects of creative cognition benefit from mild attenuations of cognitive control, and contribute to the growing evidence that higher cognitive control is not always associated with better cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol Intoxication Impact on Outcome from Traumatic Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    of improving the hemodynamic counterregulatory response to HS in AAI. Our results show that ICV neostigmine stimulates SNS activation and improves...catecholaminergic and hemodynamic responses to hemorrhagic shock in alcohol-intoxicated animals, Progress: Research Objective 1a Central neostigmine administration...insufficient to improve MABP following AAI + HEM, In more recent studies, we have demonstrated that ICV neostigmine administered 10 minutes after the

  4. Acute T-2 Intoxication: Physiologic Consequences and New Therapeutic Approaches.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES RA 4; Mycotoxin ; Physiology; Therapy; Monoclonal antibody 16. PRICE COO( 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION I8 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19...intoxication with T-2 mycotoxin ; 2) to develop therapeutic modalities to reduce morbidity and mortality from severe T-2 toxin exposure. Specific Aim I To...characterize the cardiorespiratory hematological and general autonomic responses to mild, moderate or severe exposure to T-2 mycotoxin . These studies were

  5. Acute intoxication of lidocaine and chlorpheniramine: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yi-Ming; Hung, Chih-Hsing; Yuh, Yeong-Seng

    2005-01-01

    A case of acute intoxication involving lidocaine and chlorpheniramine (an antihistamine) in a 13-month-old child after ingestion of a commercial topical agent is presented. The major toxic reaction consisted of convulsion, coma, tachycardia, fever, and fatigue. This report shows that parents and physicians should be made aware of the hazards of lidocaine and overdose of other topical agents in infants and children.

  6. Alcohol Intoxication Impact on Outcome from Traumatic Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    response to an intratracheal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae (39). The differential response FIG 5. Top, Lung MPO activity in rodent model of...as well as following an intratracheal challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae during alcohol intoxication alone (Boe et al., 2001). Thus, while no...suppresses lung chemokine production following infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae . J Infect Dis 184:1134–1142. Boe DM, Nelson S, Zhang P, Quinton L

  7. Pseudolaminar necrosis in cyanide intoxication: a neuropathology case report.

    PubMed

    Riudavets, Miguel Angel; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Troncoso, Juan C

    2005-06-01

    We describe the gross and microscopic neuropathological changes in the brain of a 17-year-old male who died 4 days after being poisoned with cyanide. Previous reports indicate that following cyanide intoxication, the brain develops diffuse hypoxic/ischemic changes, predominantly of the basal ganglia. The case we describe here had similar features but in addition showed striking laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex. This finding in cyanide poisoning has been previously demonstrated by neuroimaging, but not pathologically.

  8. An undercovered health threat in Turkey: transdermal methanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Uca, Ali Ulvi; Kozak, Hasan Hüseyin; Altaş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colorless solvent used in antifreeze solutions, varnishes, cologne, copying machine fluids, perfume, spirit, paint, and fuel. Even small amounts of ingested methanol can cause acute permanent neurological dysfunction and irreversible blindness. Although there are many reports of methanol poisoning due to suicidal or accidental ingestion, reports of transdermal absorption are rare. We present a 68-year-old man with transdermal methanol intoxication applied to our hospital's emergency department with weakness, loss of vision, and altered state of consciousness.

  9. Are Reactive Oxygen Species Involved in Microcystin-LR Intoxication?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-12

    peroxidation in paracetamol intoxication, did not alter the effect of BHA pretreatment., -- 2-A 4" 4 2 - INTRODUCTION The toxic cyclic heptapeptide...changes, we hypothesized that compounds that alter the concentration N of reactive oxygen species would alter the toxic effects of the peptide...reactive oxygen species would alter the toxic effects of the peptide-hepatotoxin produced by Microcystis aeruginosa. We show here that pretreatment with a

  10. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  11. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs controlled search across the visual field.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, William J; Semenec, Silvie C; Buchler, Norbou E G

    2007-09-01

    The objective of the two experiments reported was to examine the effects of acute alcohol intoxication and of alcohol expectancies on controlled search across the visual field. After receiving an oral dose of 0.5 g/kg alcohol (Experiment 1), an oral dose of 0.7 g/kg alcohol (Experiment 2), or a placebo, participants searched for a target in large arrays of homogeneous distractors that were either highly similar or less similar to the target. Targets were systematically placed at fixation and at visual angles of 2.5 degrees , 5.0 degrees , 7.5 degrees , and 10.0 degrees . Target detection was less accurate in the placebo condition of both experiments than in the no-beverage control group, suggesting that alcohol expectancies had a negative effect on controlled search. The effects of alcohol at the lower dose and of the placebo on visual search were not different (Experiment 1). At the higher dose, the negative effects of target eccentricity on the accuracy of target detection were larger when targets appeared among highly similar distractors, compared with the placebo condition and with a no-beverage control group. Target eccentricity effects on accuracy or speed were not observed at either dose when targets and distractors were dissimilar. Acute alcohol intoxication at either a low or high dose and placebo-associated intoxication expectancies have a detrimental effect on controlled visual search in large arrays. Acute alcohol intoxication at a high dosage exaggerates the detrimental effects of target eccentricity and of task difficulty on controlled visual search.

  12. Drug Intoxicated Irregular Fighters: Complications, Dangers, and Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    norms offer that chance. Outside agencies, NGOs and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) should begin to put such...has argued, the desire to seek intoxication may be a “fourth drive” in human beings after hunger, thirst, and sex .2 Such a drive appears to have an...regional stability. For example, carnival activities in Yugoslavia sent waves of refugees throughout Europe and eventually led to a Western military

  13. The "Madness" of Friedrich Hölderlin: an iatrogenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Horowski, R

    2017-06-01

    The German poet Hölderlin, assumed to have suffered from schizophrenia, in fact has been the victim of a combined calomel and cantharidine intoxication administered by his physician Autenrieth. This new theory explains much better his behavioural changes and also his neurological and other concomitant symptoms; it can be tested by analysing a very few of his hairs for the presence of these compounds.

  14. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication.

  15. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  16. Use of haloperidol in PCP-intoxicated individuals.

    PubMed

    MacNeal, James J; Cone, David C; Sinha, Vinnita; Tomassoni, Anthony J

    2012-11-01

    Emergency medical workers often experience violence while performing their job functions. Phencyclidine (PCP)-intoxicated patients are often violent and difficult to control physically. A chemical restraint is frequently needed to assist in protecting both patients and staff from agitated persons. This study evaluated haloperidol as a chemical restraint in PCP-intoxicated patients. This is a retrospective case series of all PCP-positive patients who received haloperidol for behavioral control from April 2008 to April 2011 at a single large (944 bed), urban, tertiary-care hospital. All patients receiving haloperidol and having a toxicology screen positive for PCP were identified using an electronic medical record. Identified cases were then manually reviewed by investigators for adverse events. Subjects included 59 adult patients who were acutely agitated requiring chemical restraint or sedation with haloperidol, and who tested positive for PCP. There were 20 females and 39 males, ranging in age from 19 to 54 years. Patients received haloperidol via the PO, IM, or IV routes in doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg. There were two adverse events (mild hypoxia and mild hypotension) found during chart review; neither were serious nor required change in patient disposition. In this study, haloperidol does not seem to cause harm when used in the management of PCP-intoxicated patients. Caution must always be exercised in the use of chemical restraint; further prospective study is warranted.

  17. [Acute ethanol intoxication among children and adolescents in Hamburg, Germany].

    PubMed

    Stolle, M; Sack, P-M; Spieles, H; Thomasius, R

    2010-09-01

    By using an anonymous postcard reporting system, data of n=358 children, adolescents, and young adults who were treated in 26 emergency departments because of acute alcohol intoxication were collected. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acute alcohol intoxications in Hamburg, compare these data with the official hospital diagnosis register, and analyze the circumstances that led to the intoxication. A total of 358 cases were reported by the postcard system. Age ranged from 11-21 years, with 64.5% being 14-17 years old. Data were collected in the municipal area of Hamburg during the calendar year of 2008. The percentage of female patients was 65.6% in the age group from 11-17 years and decreased in the age group of patients being 18 years and older. A vast majority of patients were admitted by ambulance and were reported as being a"first offender". On average, male patients showed a higher level of blood alcohol when being admitted (2.02 ‰) than female patients (1.76 ‰). The older the age group, the higher the blood alcohol level. Among drinking circumstances, the situation"drank together with friends" was most frequently reported. In comparison with the official hospital diagnosis register, prevalence was 31.6% higher. This could mean that the prevalence reported in the official hospital diagnosis register is an underestimation of the actual case numbers.

  18. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  19. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  20. Cyanide intoxication induced exocytotic epinephrine release in rabbit myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kawada, T; Yamazaki, T; Akiyama, T; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Inagaki, M; Tatewaki, T; Yanagiya, Y; Sugimachi, M; Sunagawa, K

    2000-05-12

    Cyanide intoxication, which has been used as a model of energy depletion at cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, causes non-exocytotic release of norepinephrine (NE). However, the effect of cyanide intoxication on cardiac epinephrine (Epi) release remains unknown. Using cardiac microdialysis in the rabbit, we measured dialysate Epi and NE concentrations as indices of myocardial interstitial Epi and NE levels, respectively. Local administration of sodium cyanide (30 mM) through the dialysis probe increased both Epi and NE levels (from 11.3+/-2.3 to 32.3+/-4.4 pg/ml and from 33.6+/-6.1 to 389.0+/-71.8 pg/ml, respectively, mean+/-S.E., P<0.01). Local desipramine (100 microM) administration suppressed the cyanide induced NE response without affecting the Epi response. In contrast, local omega-conotoxin GVIA (10 microM) administration partially suppressed the cyanide induced NE response and totally abolished the Epi response. In conclusion, cyanide intoxication causes N-type Ca(2+) channel dependent exocytotic Epi release as well as inducing N-type Ca(2+) channel independent non-exocytotic NE release.

  1. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β -carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  2. Water intoxication induced by low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in a patient with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akihiko; Sugiura, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Misaki, Taro; Tsuji, Takayuki; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Sakakima, Masaaki; Yasuda, Hideo; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Hishida, Akira

    2008-01-01

    We reported the case of a 70-year-old woman with moderate renal failure due to anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related glomerulonephritis who developed symptomatic water intoxication (serum Na: 108 mEq/L) following treatment with oral low-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) (50mg/day). Estimated glomerular filtration rate was 29.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. She had drunk >2 L of fluid in 12 h prior to the development of cerebral oedema. This rare case suggests that oral low-dose CY could be an occult cause of water intoxication in patients with chronic kidney disease taking large fluid volumes. PMID:18795141

  3. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often. © 2016 APJPH.

  4. [Dosis sola facit venenum: outcome of intoxications in a Swiss university hospital].

    PubMed

    Muster, C; Exadaktylos, A; Haberkern, M

    2012-03-14

    Poisoning is a frequent disease in an emergency division. During four years we observed patients with poisoning related to there reason of intoxication, the degree of severity, age group and sex, and tried to make conclusions about lethal outcome on behalf of our data. The severity was defined by the «poison severity scale» (PSS). 1515 patients with intoxication in four years were documented. 152 (10%) of them had a severe intoxication or lethal outcome. In women suicide predominated as reason of severe intoxication, whereas in men an abuse of alcool and drugs was mostly seen. A multidisciplinary approach is important for handling intoxicated patients. Our investigation showed a good somatical outcome of patients with severe intoxication. Mortality was 5% (7/152 patients).

  5. A Systematic Review of Intervening to Prevent Driving While Intoxicated: The Problem of Driving While Intoxicated (DWI).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L; Lewis, Ioni

    2016-01-02

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) is a significant public health issue. The likelihood someone will intervene to prevent DWI is affected by the characteristics of the individuals and the context of the potential driving scenario. Understanding such contexts may help tailor public health messages to promote intervening from those who are nearby to an intoxicated driver. This systematic review investigates the behavior of those close to an intoxicated driver and factors associated with increasing the likelihood they will intervene in situations where driving while impaired may be likely. The review of the literature is guided by an orienting framework, namely the classic social psychology theory of decision-making proposed by Latané and Darley. Drawing upon this framework, the review examines the extent to which research has focused on factors which influence whether or not an individual identifies a need to intervene and identifies a seriously dangerous situation. In addition, consideration is given to perceived personal responsibility. The final two components of the model are then discussed; the perceived skill an individual who may intervene has (in their ability to intervene) and their actual enactment of the intervening behavior. Conclusions and Importance: Drawing upon such a well-considered theoretical framework, this review provides guidance on key components likely to assist in the development of targeted, more effective public education messages and campaigns that dissuade individuals from drinking and then driving.

  6. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources.

  7. Acute unintentional intoxication with paraffin in a 25-year old patient - clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa

    2014-08-01

    "Fire-breathing" or "fire-eating" is a special kind of street art where the acts are always stunning, spectacular and amazing. People exhibiting this kind of show are professionals, not rare amateurs, who use different kind of fuels, usually hydrocarbons, in order to produce a pillar of fire. Intoxications caused by ingestion or inhalation of liquid paraffin, used as a fuel while performing, are numerous and various. We present a clinical case report of a 25-year old, previously healthy, amateur "fire-breather". During October, 2010 this young men arrived at the Emergency Unit of the University Clinic for toxicology and Urgent Internal Medicine in a severe clinical condition, after his unsuccessful attempt to perform real "fire-breathing". He had fever, strong headaches, mild abdominal and chest pain and he also had difficulties breathing and persistent dry cough. The patient was extremely dyspneic with peripheral cyanosis and shortness of breath. "Fire-breathers" must be viewed as a population at risk of paraffin-induced pneumonia, which has low mortality rate, but still is related with numerous and various chronic complications. Our patient was first in a life threatening, extremely serious clinical condition which was urgently treated with appropriate vigorous and effective therapy. This therapeutic protocol led to successful full recovery of these young men, who luckily didn't exhibit any chronic complications.

  8. Reversal by phenytoin of carbamazepine-induced water intoxication: a pharmacokinetic interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Perucca, E; Richens, A

    1980-01-01

    The hypothesis that phenytoin may antagonise the antidiuretic effect of carbamazepine has been examined by comparing the free water clearance response to a standard water load in 36 patients stabilised on different drug regimes. The diuretic response to the water load was significantly greater in patients receiving chronic treatment with carbamazepine and phenytoin in combination than in matched control subjects receiving carbamazepine as a single drug. Acute administration of phenytoin (1,100 mg), however, had no significant influence on carbamazepine-induced antidiuresis. Evidence is presented that reversal of the antidiuretic effect of carbamazepine by chronic phenytoin administration is secondary to a marked reduction of the serum carbamazepine concentration during combined therapy. These results suggest that the risk of developing water intoxication is greater in patients receiving carbamazepine alone than in those receiving phenytoin in combination. Since the antidiuretic effect is correlated with the serum carbamazepine concentration rather than with the prescribed daily dose, monitoring the serum level of the drug is likely to provide the best rational approach to the prevention of excessive water retention. PMID:7205298

  9. [Thin layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy in the diagnosis of salicylic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tito, José Carlos; Clapé-Laffita, Oneyda; Marín-Sánchez, Dayana; Pérez-Garrido, Neyda; Bonne-Hernández, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    Drugs are the main causal agents in intoxications with suicidal purpose. Salicylates are few frequently related. In this paper we reported a patient with suspicion of acute exogenous intoxication with salicylates. The patient showed clinical symptoms of fever, hypoglycemia, low cardiac rhythm, hyperventilation, pulmonary edema and coma. We employed analytical toxicology to elucidate the drug involved in the intoxication, using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and infrared spectrometry to detect acetyl salicylic acid, as the cause agent of intoxication clinical pattern, in acids extracts from urine and gastric content. The analytical results corresponds with clinical symptoms showed by the patient and the information obtained by medical monitoring of him.

  10. Party Characteristics, Drinking Settings, and College Students’ Risk of Intoxication: A Multi-Campus Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Bavarian, Niloofar; Paschall, Mallie J.; Mair, Christina; Saltz, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We examined party characteristics across different college drinking settings, associations between party characteristics and likelihood of drinking to intoxication, and the mediating role of perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Students (N = 6903) attending 14 public universities in California during the 2010 and 2011 fall semesters completed surveys on individual and party characteristics in six unique settings (e.g., residence hall). We used descriptive statistics to examine party characteristics by setting. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models to identify party characteristics associated with drinking to intoxication, and we used RMediation to determine significance of mediating effects. Individual and party characteristics varied by drinking context. Greater time at a party was associated with drinking to intoxication at five of six settings, while larger party size was significant only for outdoor settings. Enforcing the legal drinking age and refusing to serve intoxicated patrons were associated with lower likelihood of intoxication at Greek and off-campus parties. The presence of a keg was associated with drinking to intoxication at Greek, off-campus and outdoor parties; at bars, cover charges and drink promotions were positively associated with drinking to intoxication. In four of six settings, we found evidence of significant mediating effects through perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Findings highlight risk and protective characteristics of parties by drinking setting, and have prevention implications. PMID:25976418

  11. The Defense of Involuntary Intoxication by Prescribed Medications: An Appellate Case Review.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    The defense of involuntary intoxication has long been an exception to the general notion that intoxication is not a defense to criminal liability. The consumption of medications prescribed by a physician can form the basis of an involuntary-intoxication defense. In this article, I review cases where defendants relied on the use of prescribed medications for an involuntary-intoxication defense. The medications most frequently implicated by defendants are listed by name and by class. From the case law, I provide a summary of the defense and a review of the pitfalls of the defense to serve as practice pointers for forensic evaluators.

  12. Party Characteristics, Drinking Settings, and College Students' Risk of Intoxication: A Multi-Campus Study.

    PubMed

    Marzell, Miesha; Bavarian, Niloofar; Paschall, Mallie J; Mair, Christina; Saltz, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    We examined party characteristics across different college drinking settings, associations between party characteristics and likelihood of drinking to intoxication, and the mediating role of perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Students (N = 6903) attending 14 public universities in California during the 2010 and 2011 fall semesters completed surveys on individual and party characteristics in six unique settings (e.g., residence hall). We used descriptive statistics to examine party characteristics by setting. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models to identify party characteristics associated with drinking to intoxication, and we used RMediation to determine significance of mediating effects. Individual and party characteristics varied by drinking context. Greater time at a party was associated with drinking to intoxication at five of six settings, while larger party size was significant only for outdoor settings. Enforcing the legal drinking age and refusing to serve intoxicated patrons were associated with lower likelihood of intoxication at Greek and off-campus parties. The presence of a keg was associated with drinking to intoxication at Greek, off-campus and outdoor parties; at bars, cover charges and drink promotions were positively associated with drinking to intoxication. In four of six settings, we found evidence of significant mediating effects through perceived prevalence of intoxicated partygoers. Findings highlight risk and protective characteristics of parties by drinking setting, and have prevention implications.

  13. The accuracy of the olfactory sense in detecting alcohol intoxication in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Shweta; Kasturi, Kannan; Abdelhak, Nachama; Paladino, Lorenzo; Sinert, Richard

    2013-11-01

    A common presentation to the emergency department (ED) is the trauma patient with altered sensorium who is presumed to be alcohol intoxicated by physicians based on their olfactory sense. ED physicians may often leave patients suspected of alcohol intoxication aside until the effects wear off, potentially missing trauma as the source of confusion. This often results in delays in diagnosing acute potentially life-threatening injuries in patients with presumed alcohol intoxication. This study aimed to determine the accuracy of a physician's olfactory sense for diagnosing alcohol intoxication. Patients suspected of major trauma in the ED underwent an evaluation by the examining physician for alcohol odour and a blood alcohol level. Alcohol intoxication was defined as a serum ethanol level ≥80 mg/100 ml. Data were reported as means with 95% CI or proportions with IQR 25-75%. 151 patients (70% men) were enrolled, with a median age of 45 years (IQR 33-56). The prevalence of alcohol intoxication was 43% (95% CI 35% to 51%). Physician assessment of alcohol intoxication: sensitivity 84% (95% CI 73% to 92%), specificity 87% (95% CI 78% to 93%), positive likelihood ratio 6.6 (95% CI 3.8 to 11.6), negative likelihood ratio 0.18 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.3) and accuracy 86% (95% CI 80% to 91%). 7.3% (95% CI 4% to 13%) of patients were falsely suspected of being intoxicated. Although the physicians had a high degree of accuracy in identifying patients with alcohol intoxication based on their olfactory sense, they still falsely overestimated intoxication in significant numbers of non-intoxicated trauma patients.

  14. Children presenting to hospital with acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L; Wyatt, J P

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the problem of children presenting to hospital with alcohol intoxication. An observational study was conducted over 18 months profiling children who presented to hospital with acute alcohol intoxication, proved by laboratory tests on blood alcohol levels (BALs). The study was part of a multicentre-funded injury prevention project based on the widely accepted Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Programme. 62 children (31 boys), mean age 14.5 years, presented with alcohol intoxication proved by BALs. The mean BAL was 203 mg/dl (standard deviation (SD) 80.7). As a point of reference, 56 (90%) children had BAL above the UK legal driving limit of 80 mg/dl. The most common type of alcohol consumed was spirits, in the form of whisky, gin, vodka and tequila. No significant association was seen between age and BAL. Children with high alcohol levels were much more likely to have lower Glasgow Coma Scores (p<0.001), but in contrast with conventional teaching, there was no association between blood glucose levels and BALs. The median Glasgow Coma Score on admission to the emergency department was 12. 15 (24%) children had a score < or = 8/15. Injuries were present in 21 (34%) children, most of which were minor injuries. Minor head injury was most common, accounting for 42% of the injuries. The most common cause of injury was a fall. The results of this study confirm the heavy use of alcohol by some young children. This highlights a definite problem, which needs to be dealt with by a variety of measures, giving particular consideration to the ease of access to alcohol by children.

  15. Circulatory Failure During Noninhaled Forms of Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe; Tubbs, Nicole; Rannals, Matthew D; Judenherc-Haouzi, Annick; Cabell, Larry A; McDonough, Joe A; Sonobe, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to determine how circulatory failure develops following systemic administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). We used a noninhaled modality of intoxication, wherein the change in breathing pattern would not influence the diffusion of CN into the blood, akin to the effects of ingesting toxic levels of CN. In a group of 300 to 400 g rats, CN-induced coma (CN i.p., 7 mg/kg) produced a central apnea within 2 to 3 min along with a potent and prolonged gasping pattern leading to autoresuscitation in 38% of the animals. Motor deficits and neuronal necrosis were nevertheless observed in the surviving animals. To clarify the mechanisms leading to potential autoresuscitation versus asystole, 12 urethane-anesthetized rats were then exposed to the lowest possible levels of CN exposure that would lead to breathing depression within 7 to 8 min; this dose averaged 0.375 mg/kg/min i.v. At this level of intoxication, a cardiac depression developed several minutes only after the onset of the apnea, leading to cardiac asystole as PaO2 reached value approximately 15 Torr, unless breathing was maintained by mechanical ventilation or through spontaneous gasping. Higher levels of KCN exposure in 10 animals provoked a primary cardiac depression, which led to a rapid cardiac arrest by pulseless electrical activity (PEA) despite the maintenance of PaO2 by mechanical ventilation. These effects were totally unrelated to the potassium contained in KCN. It is concluded that circulatory failure can develop as a direct consequence of CN-induced apnea but in a narrow range of exposure. In this "low" range, maintaining pulmonary gas exchange after exposure, through mechanical ventilation (or spontaneous gasping), can reverse cardiac depression and restore spontaneous breathing. At higher level of intoxication, cardiac depression is to be treated as a specific and spontaneously irreversible consequence of CN exposure, leading to a PEA.

  16. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  17. Children presenting to hospital with acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, L; Wyatt, J P

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate the problem of children presenting to hospital with alcohol intoxication. Methods An observational study was conducted over 18 months profiling children who presented to hospital with acute alcohol intoxication, proved by laboratory tests on blood alcohol levels (BALs). The study was part of a multicentre‐funded injury prevention project based on the widely accepted Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Programme. Results 62 children (31 boys), mean age 14.5 years, presented with alcohol intoxication proved by BALs. The mean BAL was 203 mg/dl (standard deviation (SD) 80.7). As a point of reference, 56 (90%) children had BAL above the UK legal driving limit of 80 mg/dl. The most common type of alcohol consumed was spirits, in the form of whisky, gin, vodka and tequila. No significant association was seen between age and BAL. Children with high alcohol levels were much more likely to have lower Glasgow Coma Scores (p<0.001), but in contrast with conventional teaching, there was no association between blood glucose levels and BALs. The median Glasgow Coma Score on admission to the emergency department was 12. 15 (24%) children had a score ⩽8/15. Injuries were present in 21 (34%) children, most of which were minor injuries. Minor head injury was most common, accounting for 42% of the injuries. The most common cause of injury was a fall. Discussion The results of this study confirm the heavy use of alcohol by some young children. This highlights a definite problem, which needs to be dealt with by a variety of measures, giving particular consideration to the ease of access to alcohol by children. PMID:16988304

  18. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications?

    PubMed

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis

    2013-12-01

    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  19. Lathyrus hirsutus (Caley Pea) intoxication in a herd of horses.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Stein, F P; Morgan, S E; Avery, A L; Confer, A W; Panciera, R J

    2015-01-01

    Caley Pea (Lathyrus hirsutus) is potentially toxic to horses, but large case series are not reported. To describe the clinical signs of horses intoxicated with Lathyrus hirsutus and speculate on the neuroanatomical lesion localization and pathogenesis based upon the observed clinical signs. Twenty-two of 25 horses ranging in age from 6 to 34 months were affected. Five affected horses were presented to the OSUCHVS for evaluation and treatment after having been attended at the ranch by a local veterinarian (ALA). An additional horse that had been euthanized was also presented for necropsy. A case series is presented. Diagnostic evaluation included: physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, CSF analysis, EMG, ERG, upper airway endoscopy, muscle biopsy, and serum vitamin E analysis. The grain ration consumed by the affected horses was analyzed for ionophores and cultured for fungi: the hay was examined for toxic plants. Bermuda grass hay consumed by the horses contained large quantities of mature Lathyrus hirsutus. Acute clinical signs conform to earlier descriptions of Lathyrus hirsutus intoxication in cattle. Residual neurologic signs were characterized by incoordination in the rhythmicity of multiple gaits. Evidence of mild neurogenic muscle atrophy was recognized in 1 of 5 horses biopsied. Caley Pea intoxication may occur within days of seed pod consumption. The neurologic signs are unique and suggest involvement of the upper motor neuron system and regions of the spinal cord influencing voluntary motor movement. Drought conditions during plant growth may increase the risk of toxicosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Hemodiafiltration: A Novel Approach for Treating Severe Amitriptyline Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Ozayar, Esra; Degerli, Semih; Gulec, Handan

    2012-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is one of the most common cause of serious drug poisonings. Sometimes amitriptyline intoxication can be difficult to treat with standard treatments. At that case hemodiafiltration (HD) can be an eligible choice. We report a successful treatment of severe case using hemodiafiltration in addition to the supportive measures. Management with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, alkalinization and supportive care is the common approach and not enough for patients in deep coma. We satisfied that HD may have a beneficial role in lethal doses of amitriptyline as an additional therapy. PMID:23293473

  1. Water Intoxication Following Low-Dose Intravenous Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Park, Joon Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa; Park, Moon Hyang; Kang, Chong Myung

    2007-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is frequently used for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis, but is very rarely associated with dilutional hyponatremia. Recently we experienced a case of water intoxication following low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Five hours after one dose of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide 750 mg, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Serum sodium concentration revealed 114 mEq/L and her hyponatremia was initially treated with hypertonic saline infusion. Then her serum sodium concentration rapidly recovered to normal with water restriction alone. During the course of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy, one must be aware of the possibility of significant water retention. PMID:24459501

  2. Fatal self-induced water intoxication among schizophrenic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Mercier-Guidez, E

    2002-10-01

    Between 1986 and 1998, a review of 61 records of patients who died before the age of 53 years in eight psychiatric departments whose catchment area had a total population of 559,429 inhabitants revealed that 24 (39.3%) of those patients had a schizophrenic disorder. Of those 24 patients, one (4.17%; 95% CI: 0-21%) died from complications of self-induced water intoxication (SIWIS). Among the 37 remaining patients, two (5.4%; 95% CI: 0-18%) died from complications of SIWIS.

  3. Water intoxication following low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Park, Joon Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa; Park, Moon Hyang; Kang, Chong Myung; Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2007-06-01

    Cyclophosphamide is frequently used for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis, but is very rarely associated with dilutional hyponatremia. Recently we experienced a case of water intoxication following low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Five hours after one dose of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide 750 mg, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Serum sodium concentration revealed 114 mEq/L and her hyponatremia was initially treated with hypertonic saline infusion. Then her serum sodium concentration rapidly recovered to normal with water restriction alone. During the course of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy, one must be aware of the possibility of significant water retention.

  4. [Intoxication from accidental ingestion of cannabis: analysis of eight cases].

    PubMed

    Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant.

  5. Hypothermia and undressing associated with non-fatal bromazepam intoxication.

    PubMed

    Michaud, K; Romain, N; Giroud, C; Brandt, C; Mangin, P

    2001-12-27

    A 42-year-old woman with a history of depression was found unconscious, lying near her car in an early autumn morning. The lower part of her body was undressed and there were multiple purple spots and excoriations on the body suggesting at first a sexual assault. On admission to the intensive care unit, she presented a hypothermia with a central temperature of 28.4 degrees C. The biological samples obtained at the hospital were analysed. Blood concentration of bromazepam was 7.7 mg/l, which is above the highest level reported till now in a case of fatal intoxication.

  6. Intranasal Fentanyl Intoxication Leading to Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ruzycki, Shannon; Yarema, Mark; Dunham, Michael; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Increasing rates of opioid abuse, particularly fentanyl, may lead to more presentations of unusual effects of opioid toxicity. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a rare complication of fentanyl overdose. A 45-year-old male presented in hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage requiring intubation. Comprehensive drug screening detected fentanyl without exposure to cocaine. Further history upon the patient's recovery revealed exposure to snorted fentanyl powder immediately prior to presentation. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potential, though rare, presentation of opioid intoxication. Recognition of less common complications of opioid abuse such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is important in proper management of overdoses.

  7. Self-reported acute pesticide intoxications in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigatu, Amare W; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide exposure is an important public health concern in Ethiopia, but there is limited information on pesticide intoxications. Residents may have an increased risk of pesticide exposure through proximity of their homes to farms using pesticides. Also the pesticide exposure might be related to employment at these farms. This study investigated the prevalence of acute pesticide intoxications (API) by residence proximity to a nearby flower farm and assessed if intoxications were related to working in these farms or not. A cross-sectional survey involving 516 persons was conducted. Participants were grouped according to their residence proximity from a large flower farm; living within 5 kilometers and 5-12 kilometers away, respectively. In a structured interview, participants were asked if they had health symptoms within 48 h of pesticide exposure in the past year. Those who had experienced this, and reported two or more typical pesticide intoxication symptoms, were considered as having had API. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Confounding variables were adjusted by using binomial regression model. The prevalence of API in the past year among the residents in the study area was 26 %, and it was higher in the population living close to the flower farm (42 %) compared to those living far away (11 %), prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.2, 95 % CI: 2.2-4.8, adjusted for age, gender & education. A subgroup living close to the farm & working there had significantly more API (56 %) than those living close & didn't work there (16 %), adjusted PR = 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.8-4.9. Flower farm workers reported more API (56 %) than those not working in the flower farm (13 %,), adjusted PR = 4.0, 95 % CI: 2.9-5.6. Our study indicates a 26 % prevalence of self-reported symptoms attributable to API. The residents living closer than 5 kilometers to the flower farm reported significantly higher

  8. Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L.; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P.; Lynch, Diane L.; Shore, Derek M.; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H.; Ross, Ruth A.; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones and its potential functional effects have been largely neglected. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via the activation of type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals an unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor over-activation that could open an unforeseen novel approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. PMID:24385629

  9. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group.

  10. Lidocaine intoxication in axillary block: similar pharmaceutical form, different concentration

    PubMed Central

    Erbesler, Zeynel Abidin; Karaoren, Gulsah; Dagli, Recai; Cakirtekin, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Local anesthetic intoxication is a medical emergency with high mortality. These drugs have not spesific antidotes, quick differential diagnosis and supportive treatment required in the case of exposure to toxic doses. We report the complications and anesthetic management of a patient who was scheduled for right carpal tunnel syndrome surgery under regional anesthesia, but mistakenly received injection of 140 mg procaine added to 10% 10 mL lidocaine (10 mL=1000mg) instead of 2% lidocaine (10mL=200 mg) as part of an axillary plexus blockade. PMID:28058328

  11. Perceived Danger while Intoxicated Uniquely Contributes to Driving after Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David H.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Niculete, Maria E.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that alcohol alters perceptions of risky behaviors such as drinking and driving. However, studies testing these perceptions as a predictor of drinking and driving typically measure these perceptions while participants are sober. The present study tested whether the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed while intoxicated was associated with increased willingness to drive and self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions assessed while sober. Additionally, we tested the effect of acute tolerance on the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed on the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve. Methods Eighty-two young adults attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions. In one session, participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (men: .72 g/kg, women: .65 g/kg) and reported the perceived danger of driving and their willingness to drive at multiple points across the BrAC curve. On a separate occasion, participants remained sober and appraised the dangerousness of driving at a hypothetical, illegal BrAC. Results Perceptions of the dangerousness of driving following alcohol administration were associated with increased willingness to drive and higher rates of self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions reported when sober. Furthermore, perceived danger was reduced on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, compared to the ascending limb, suggesting the occurrence of acute tolerance. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that intoxicated perceptions are uniquely associated with drinking-and-driving decisions and that the perceived danger of drinking and driving is lower on the descending limb of the BrAC curve. Efforts to prevent alcohol-impaired driving have focused on increasing awareness of the danger of driving after drinking. Prevention efforts may be enhanced by educating drivers about how intoxication

  12. Perceived danger while intoxicated uniquely contributes to driving after drinking.

    PubMed

    Morris, David H; Treloar, Hayley R; Niculete, Maria E; McCarthy, Denis M

    2014-02-01

    Previous findings suggest that alcohol alters perceptions of risky behaviors such as drinking and driving. However, studies testing these perceptions as a predictor of drinking and driving typically measure these perceptions while participants are sober. This study tested whether the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed while intoxicated was associated with increased willingness to drive and self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions assessed while sober. Additionally, we tested the effect of acute tolerance on the perceived danger of driving after drinking assessed on the ascending and descending limbs of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) curve. Eighty-two young adults attended 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions. In one session, participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol (men: 0.72 g/kg, women: 0.65 g/kg) and reported their perceived danger of driving and willingness to drive at multiple points across the BrAC curve. On a separate occasion, participants remained sober and appraised the dangerousness of driving at a hypothetical, illegal BrAC. Perceptions of the dangerousness of driving following alcohol administration were associated with increased willingness to drive and higher rates of self-reported drinking-and-driving behavior over and above perceptions reported when sober. Furthermore, perceived danger was reduced on the descending limb of the BrAC curve, compared with the ascending limb, suggesting the occurrence of acute tolerance. Results from this study suggest that intoxicated perceptions are uniquely associated with drinking-and-driving decisions and that the perceived danger of drinking and driving is lower on the descending limb of the BrAC curve. Efforts to prevent alcohol-impaired driving have focused on increasing awareness of the danger of driving after drinking. Prevention efforts may be enhanced by educating drivers about how intoxication can alter perceived danger, and interventions

  13. Pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-03

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.

  14. Treatment of Metformin Intoxication Complicated by Lactic Acidosis and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Prolonged Intermittent Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Fani, Filippo; Greco, Paolo; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Metformin intoxication with lactic acidosis, a potentially lethal condition, may develop in diabetic patients when the drug dose is inappropriate and/or its clearance is reduced. Diagnosis and therapy may be delayed due to nonspecific symptoms at presentation, with severe anion gap metabolic acidosis and elevated serum creatinine values being the most prominent laboratory findings. Confirmation requires measurement of serum metformin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, but this technique is available only at specialized institutions and cannot be relied on as a guide to immediate treatment. Thus, based on strong clinical suspicion, renal replacement therapy must be started promptly to achieve efficient drug clearance and correct the metabolic acidosis. However, because metformin accumulates in the intracellular compartment with prolonged treatment, a rebound in serum concentrations due to redistribution is expected at the end of dialysis. We report a case of metformin intoxication, severe lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury in a diabetic patient with pre-existing chronic kidney disease stage 3, treated effectively with sustained low-efficiency dialysis. We discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options and highlight specific pharmacokinetic issues that should be considered in selecting the appropriate modality of renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol intoxication may exacerbate the effects of blunt cranial trauma through changes in brain free magnesium levels.

    PubMed

    Vink, Robert; Byard, Roger W

    2012-07-01

    Moderate to high levels of alcohol decrease brain intracellular free magnesium concentration, a factor known to be critical in brain injury. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine changes to brain free magnesium concentration after blunt cranial trauma in alcohol-intoxicated rats. Rats exposed acutely or chronically to alcohol sufficient to increase blood alcohol levels to between 150 and 350 mg/dL demonstrated a brain free magnesium level that was 20-50% less than in nonintoxicated animals (p < 0.01). After injury, brain free magnesium levels declined more rapidly and to a greater extent in alcohol-affected animals than in nonintoxicated control animals (p < 0.001). As both preinjury depletion of magnesium and degree of magnesium decline after brain injury have been associated with poor recovery, these findings suggest that moderate to severe alcohol intoxication may predispose the brain to a worse outcome by reducing brain free magnesium levels, both before and after injury. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Xylazine intoxication in humans and its importance as an emerging adulterant in abused drugs: A comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Colón, Kazandra; Chavez-Arias, Carlos; Díaz-Alcalá, José Eric; Martínez, María A

    2014-07-01

    Xylazine is not a controlled substance; it is marketed as a veterinary drug and used as a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant. In humans, it could cause central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension, and even death. There have been publications of 43 cases of xylazine intoxication in humans, in which 21 (49%) were non-fatal scenarios and 22 (51%) resulted in fatalities. Most of the non-fatal cases required medical intervention. Over recent years xylazine has emerged as an adulterant in recreational drugs, such as heroin or speedball (a cocaine and heroin mixture). From the 43 reported cases, 17 (40%) were associated with the use of xylazine as an adulterant of drugs of abuse. Its chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration and skin ulceration. Literature shows some similar pharmacologic effects between xylazine and heroin in humans. These similar pharmacologic effects may create synergistic toxic effects in humans. Therefore, fatalities among drug users may increase due to the use of xylazine as an adulterant. Xylazine alone has proven harmful to humans and even more when it is combined with drugs of abuse. A comprehensive review of the literature of non-fatal and fatal xylazine intoxication cases including those in which the substance was used as adulterant is presented, in order to increase the awareness in the forensic community, law enforcement, and public health agencies.

  17. [Polonium-210 acute and chronic pathomorphology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Kvacheva, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed.

  18. [Hepatoprotective properties of balm Herbamarin and hydrolysates from marine invertebrates in toxic hepatitis and ethanol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Burtseva, T I; Semenova, N V; Popov, A M; Li, I A; Veselova, O B; Kozlovskaia, E P

    2005-01-01

    Protective properties of a syrup balm "Herbamarin" and food hydrolysates of scallop, octopus and crab were investigated using experimental toxic hepatitis and ethanol intoxication. Preventive administration of the balm and hydrolysates to animals subjected to an intoxications by 40% alcohol and CCl4 normalized clinical-diagnostic parameters of liver and blood plasma of experimental animals.

  19. Successful treatment of polydipsia, water intoxication, and delusional jealousy in an alcohol dependent patient with clozapine.

    PubMed

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Zarković-Palijan, Tija

    2006-09-30

    The beneficial effect of clozapine on polydipsia and water intoxication in patients with schizophrenia has been demonstrated many times. The authors report a successful clozapine treatment of polydipsia, intermittent water intoxication, and delusional jealousy of an alcoholic. This is a rare case of clozapine treatment of a non-schizophrenic patient affected by polydipsia.

  20. Water intoxication leading to hyponatremia and seizures: a rare complication of uroflowmetry.

    PubMed

    Vishwajeet, Singh; Aneesh, Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    Uroflowmetry is a standard non-invasive urodynamic test for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). For a reproducible study, the patients are asked to void after consuming enough oral fluids to have full bladder before the study. We report a case of water intoxication due to excessive oral fluid intake leading to water intoxication, hyponatremia and seizure.

  1. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  2. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  3. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  4. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  5. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  6. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  7. 32 CFR 634.36 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intoxicated drivers. 634.36 Section 634.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Supervision § 634.36 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. (a) Law enforcement personnel usually detect drivers under the influence of alcohol or other drugs by...

  8. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). 384.221 Section 384.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  9. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). 384.221 Section 384.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  10. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). 384.221 Section 384.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  11. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). 384.221 Section 384.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  12. 49 CFR 384.221 - Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). 384.221 Section 384.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Compliance by States § 384.221 Out-of-service regulations (intoxicating beverage). The State shall adopt, and...

  13. Acute care for alcohol intoxication. Be prepared to consider clinical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yost, David A

    2002-12-01

    The clinical assessment of an acutely intoxicated patient should be performed with meticulous care and include repetitive examinations to properly determine the patient's condition. Multiple factors, such as trauma and concomitant use of other drugs, can confuse the diagnostic picture and affect the choice of therapy. In this article, Dr Yost reviews the diagnostic considerations, appropriate treatment, and clinic discharge for the intoxicated patient.

  14. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  15. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.16 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated...

  16. 32 CFR 636.16 - Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated drivers. 636.16 Section 636.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.16 Detection, apprehension, and testing of intoxicated...

  17. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  18. Trends Across the Night in Patronage, Intoxication, and Licensed Venue Characteristics in Five Australian Cities.

    PubMed

    Coomber, Kerri; Droste, Nicolas; Pennay, Amy; Mayshak, Richelle; Martino, Florentine; Miller, Peter G

    2017-07-29

    While alcohol-related harm is reportedly greater on weekend evenings, research investigating trends in the intoxication levels of patrons and factors that increase risk of harm over the night is lacking. The aim was to observe trends over the course of the night for patron demographics, venue characteristics and patron intoxication. Observations of licensed venues and patrons in night-time entertainment districts of five Australian cities were conducted. In total, 798 observations occurred between 9 pm and 2 am on Friday and Saturday nights across 61 unique bars, nightclubs, and pubs. Patron characteristics such as gender and percentage of patrons under 25 years of age were estimated. Measures of venue characteristics included number of patrons, percentage venue capacity, ease of patron movement, bar crowding, and time to service. Measures of intoxication included the percentage of patrons showing any signs of alcohol intoxication, percentage of patrons too intoxicated to remain in the venue, overall level of intoxication, and percentage of patrons showing signs of drug use. Patron capacity increased across the night, peaking at 11 pm in bars, and 1 am in nightclubs. Patron intoxication measures increased for all venue types across the night. Patrons showed more signs of drug use in nightclubs than other venue types. Increasing intoxication and decreasing patron numbers later in the night provides support for restricted trading hours and improved responsible service of alcohol policies. Specific venue types should be targeted to reduce drug use in the night-time economy.

  19. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  20. Blood Thinners and Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ticlid (ticlopidine), and Plavix (clopidogrel) ] target the first phase of clot formation by preventing platelets from sticking to each other and to the blood vessel walls. Aspirin does this by creating permanent changes in the platelets which last throughout the lifetime ...

  1. Highwall miners pursue thinner seams

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-04-15

    OEMs have implemented design changes to reduce the machine's footprint and to mine more accurately. Three manufacturers offer highwall mining systems, American Highwall Systems (AMS), ICG Addcar and Superior Highwall Miners. Latest developments in their machines are reported. 3 photos.

  2. Drilling fluids and thinners therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, G.M. III

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid comprising water, finely divided solids and a first agent and a second agent. The first agent comprises a sulfoalkylated tannin containing no complexing heavy metal. The second agent comprises at least one at least partly water-soluble metal compound comprising tin. The weight ratio of the first agent to the second agent is in the range from about 100;1 to about 1:1.

  3. Methocarbamol CRI for symptomatic treatment of pyrethroid intoxication: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Draper, William E; Bolfer, Luiz; Cottam, Emily; McMichael, Maureen; Schubert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are popular for use in companion animals due to their relatively low mammalian toxicity and efficacy against arthropods. Nonetheless, pyrethroid intoxication has been reported in cats and dogs, and cats appear to be more susceptible due to difficulty in biotransformation and excretion of pyrethroids. Pyrethroid intoxications are generally due to either the improper use or accidental ingestion of approved products. Methocarbamol, given as intermittent injections, is a common first-line treatment choice for the tremors associated with pyrethroid intoxication. Two cats and one dog were treated with a methocarbamol continuous rate infusion (CRI) for pyrethroid intoxication. Clinical signs of toxicity resolved within a few hr in all three cases, with no adverse drug effects. A methocarbamol CRI can be considered in animals presenting with pyrethroid intoxication.

  4. Association Between Alcohol Intoxication and Alcohol-Related Problems: An Event-level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Dan J.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy drinking students experience a myriad of alcohol-related negative consequences. Use of event-level data permits predictions to be made regarding (a) the likelihood of alcohol-related consequences occurring after specific drinking events, and (b) moderators of the association between intoxication and consequences. College students (N = 183, 64% female) completed four consecutive 7-day drinking diaries and turned them in weekly. The diaries yielded prospective event-level data on daily drinks, time spent drinking, and negative consequences related to each drinking event. Alcohol intoxication on a given day was significantly associated with increased levels of risk, although this association was moderated by average level of intoxication. Furthermore, self-control was associated with increased likelihood of negative consequences at all levels of intoxication, and self-regulation and impulsivity moderated the event-level association between daily intoxication and likelihood of negative consequences. Results suggest that self-regulation subsumes impulsivity and self-control. PMID:17563139

  5. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  6. [Minoxidil intoxication, the pharmacological agent of a hair lotion].

    PubMed

    Aprahamian, A; Escoda, S; Patteau, G; Merckx, A; Chéron, G

    2011-12-01

    Accidental intoxications in children are frequent but most of them are without serious consequences. We describe herein the case of a young girl who drank 100 mg of a topical hair lotion with minoxidil. On arrival, she had no symptoms except flush on the face and ears. Four and half hours after ingestion, tachycardia appeared with a pulse above 170 beats per min with hypotension at 76/24 mmHg. The heart rate remained between 170 and 190 beats per min for 12 h and then lowered to between 140 and 160 beats per min. Thirty-six hours after ingestion, the heart beat was at 140 beats per min. Minoxidil is a strong vasodilator used first in the 1970s for severe hypertension. It produces hypotension by direct arteriolar vasodilatation. Only a few cases of minoxidil intoxication have been described in the literature, including only one pediatric case. This young boy had only tachycardia of 160 beats per min for 40 h. Most serious cases have been described in adults. They suffered long-lasting tachycardia, hypotension, and ECG changes. Most patients need a bolus of normal saline fluid and some with hemodynamic problems need vasoactive drugs such as dopamine and/or phenylephrine. All patients need to be under medical supervision for a long time because of the product's very long action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimuscarinic intoxication resulting from the ingestion of moonflower seeds.

    PubMed

    DeFrates, Lynn J; Hoehns, James D; Sakornbut, Ellen L; Glascock, Daniel G; Tew, Amanda R

    2005-01-01

    To report a case in which ingestion of moonflower seeds resulted in antimuscarinic intoxication. An 18-year-old man was found at a local convenience store hallucinating and incoherent. Upon presentation to the emergency department, his signs and symptoms included tachycardia, confusion, dilated pupils, and dry, flushed, hot skin. He was admitted to the intensive care unit. Hallucinations and symptoms resolved within 36-48 hours after hospitalization. The patient then reported that he had ingested moonflower seeds. He recovered and was released 4 days after admission. Based on the patient's description and clinical presentation, the moonflower seeds were believed to be Datura inoxia. This species of plant is similar to jimson weed, or Datura stramonium. These plants are known to contain high concentrations of anticholinergic substances; ingestion can result in anticholinergic intoxication. Signs and symptoms that commonly occur include hallucinations, tachycardia, dilated pupils, and disorientation. In our patient, use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a possible relationship between the moonflower seed ingestion and the patient's signs and symptoms. Ingestion of the Datura species can result in severe toxicity. Each plant varies in the concentrations of alkaloid substances. For this reason, it is very important for individuals to become educated on the toxicities and potential risks associated with recreational use of these plants.

  8. Combined dextromethorphan and chlorpheniramine intoxication in impaired drivers.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K

    2009-09-01

    Dextromethorphan is a nonprescription antitussive which has been gaining in popularity as an abused drug, because of the hallucinogenic, dissociative, and intoxicating effects it produces at high doses. This report describes a series of eight drivers arrested for driving under the influence of the combined effects of dextromethorphan and chlorpheniramine, and a further four drivers under the influence of dextromethorphan alone. In the combined dextromethorphan/chlorpheniramine cases, blood dextromethorphan concentrations ranged from 150 to 1220 ng/mL (n = 8; mean 676 ng/mL, median 670 ng/mL), and chlorpheniramine concentrations ranged from 70 to 270 ng/mL (n = 8; mean 200 ng/mL, median 180 ng/mL). The four cases without chlorpheniramine present had blood dextromethorphan concentrations between 190 and 1000 ng/mL (mean 570 ng/mL, median 545 ng/mL). Some drivers had therapeutic concentrations of other drugs present. Drivers generally displayed symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depressant intoxication, and there was gross evidence of impairment in their driving, including weaving, leaving the lane of travel, failing to obey traffic signals, and involvement in collisions. Drug Recognition Expert opinions confirmed that the subjects were under the influence of a drug in the CNS-depressant category.

  9. The delphic oracle and the ethylene-intoxication hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Foster, J; Lehoux, D

    2007-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists--including an archeologist, a geologist, a chemist, and a toxicologist--has argued that ethylene intoxication was the probable cause of the High Priestess of Delphi's divinatory (mantic) trances. The claim that the High Priestess of Delphi entered a mantic state because of ethylene intoxication enjoyed widespread reception in specialist academic journals, science magazines, and newspapers. This article uses a similar interdisciplinary approach to show that this hypothesis is implausible since it is based on problematic scientific and textual evidence, as well as a fallacious argument. The main issue raised by this counterargument is not that a particular scientific hypothesis or conjecture turned out to be false. (This is expected in scientific investigation.) Rather, the main issue is that it was a positivist disposition that originally led readers to associate the evidence presented in such a way that it seemed to point to the conclusion, even when the evidence did not support the conclusion. We conclude by observing that positivist dispositions can lead to the acceptance of claims because they have a scientific form, not because they are grounded in robust evidence and sound argument.

  10. AMPA receptor potentiation can prevent ethanol-induced intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas; Messenger, Marcus J; O'Neill, Michael J; Oldershaw, Anna; Gilmour, Gary; Simmons, Rosa M A; Iyengar, Smriti; Libri, Vincenzo; Tricklebank, Mark; Williams, Steve C R

    2008-06-01

    We present a substantial series of behavioral and imaging experiments, which demonstrate, for the first time, that increasing AMPA receptor-mediated neurotransmission via administration of potent and selective biarylsulfonamide AMPA potentiators LY404187 and LY451395 reverses the central effects of an acutely intoxicating dose of ethanol in the rat. Using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we observed that LY404187 attenuated ethanol-induced reductions in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) in the anesthetized rat brain. A similar attenuation was apparent when measuring local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) via C14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography in freely moving conscious rats. Both LY404187 and LY451395 significantly and dose-dependently reversed ethanol-induced deficits in both motor coordination and disruptions in an operant task where animals were trained to press a lever for food reward. Both prophylactic and acute intervention treatment with LY404187 reversed ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination. Given that LY451395 and related AMPA receptor potentiators/ampakines are tolerated in both healthy volunteers and elderly patients, these data suggest that such compounds may form a potential management strategy for acute alcohol intoxication.

  11. [Severe hydrogen sulfide intoxication: a pediatric case of survival].

    PubMed

    Claudet, I; Marcoux, M-O; Karsenty, C; Rittié, J-L; Honorat, R; Lelong-Tissier, M-C

    2012-03-01

    We report a paediatric case of survival following severe hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas intoxication. A 13-year-old boy was found submerged to the neck in a manure tank. He was hypothermic, unresponsive with bilateral mydriasis, and had poor oxygen saturation. After intubation, he was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high frequency percussive ventilation. Cardiac evaluation was significant for myocardial infarction and left ventricular function impairment. He completely recovered from the respiratory and cardiac failure. Neurological examinations showed abnormal signals on MRI in the semi-oval center and in the frontal cortex. Follow-up detected partial impairment of axonal fibers of the right external popliteal sciatic nerve. Paediatric cases of survival after H2S intoxication have been rarely reported. Such exposures can evolve to severe ARDS and benefit from high frequency percussive ventilation. Hypothermia and other metabolic abnormalities are now better explained thanks to actual knowledge about endogenous H2S function. Lessons learned from paediatric accidents should result in better information about this threat for farmers and families living in houses with septic tanks, reducing the risk to their own and their children's safety.

  12. Lead intoxication from an unexpected source. [Fruit drink dispensers

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfeld, M.J.

    1982-02-01

    A case of lead intoxication from an unexpected source is reported. An 18-year-old man came to the Divisin of Safety and Health, New York City, complaining of periodic cramping abdominal pain and weakness of several weeks' duration. In view of clinical laboratory findings, lead intoxication was considered in the differential diagnosis and determination of blood lead and urinary amino levulinic acid (ALA) were done. The blood lead value was 70 ..mu..g/100 g of whole blood. The urinary ALA value was 3.61 mg/100 of creatinine (normal, < 2.0 mg/100 mg of creatinine). A repeated urinary ALA test on the following day gave a value of 3.50 mg/100 mg of creatinine. An industrial hygiene survey was made to ascertain the patient's exposure to lead. The work place was a luncheonette that served flavored fruit drinks. The fruit drinks were dispensed from 12 tanks, and a sampling of these tanks showed that six of them were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. In one tank a chunk of lead was found. An analysis of this chunk of lead revealed that the lead content was 50.1%. Only two of the 12 tanks showed levels of lead that were excessively high; these were made of metal and had been soldered in the past. It was recommended to the owner that acid-containing drinks should be stored in tanks constructed of stainless steel,plastic, or other lead-free materials.

  13. Sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) for acute lithium intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Fiaccadori, Enrico; Maggiore, Umberto; Parenti, Elisabetta; Greco, Paolo; Cabassi, Aderville

    2008-01-01

    Acute lithium intoxication may cause serious neurologic and cardiac manifestations, up to the patient's death. Owing to its low molecular weight, relatively small volume of distribution close to that of total body water, and its negligible protein binding, lithium can be efficiently removed by any extracorporeal modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT). However, the shift from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment, with the inherent rebound phenomenon after the end of RRT, might limit the efficacy of the conventional, short-lasting haemodialysis. There have been no published studies up to now concerning the use of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) in lithium intoxication. This report describes a woman with a voluntary acute lithium ingestion of 40 tablets of lithium carbonate (8.12 mEq lithium each). The lithium concentration increased up to 4.18 mEq/l about 24 h after admission, notwithstanding treatment with intravenous crystalloids and gastric lavage. She developed mental status changes, oliguria, hypotension and bradycardia. We started SLED (8 h) with a blood flow of 200 ml/min and countercurrent dialysate flow of 300 ml/min. Lithium serum levels decreased by 86% during treatment, and the patient fully awoke recovering a normal mental status within the first 4 h of treatment. SLED was completed safely within the prescribed time. After the end of treatment, the rebound of lithium concentration was unremarkable. Renal function fully recovered, and the patient was transferred into a psychiatric facility 3 days after admission. PMID:25983926

  14. Intravenous lipid emulsion prolongs survival in rats intoxicated with digoxin.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Özbilgin, Şule; Yurtlu, Derya Arslan; Boztaş, Nilay; Kamacı, Gonca; Akaltun, Mahmut; Hancı, Volkan; Yılmaz, Osman

    2016-06-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion eliminates the toxicity-related symptoms of several drugs. We hypothesized that intravenous lipid emulsion prolongs the survival time in digoxin-intoxicated rats. Electrocardiograms of 14 anesthesized Wistar rats were monitored. All of the rats received digoxin infusion at a rate of 12 mL/h (0.25 mg/mL). Five minutes after the start of digoxin infusion, animals were treated either with 12.4 mL/kg intravenous lipid emulsion (group L) or saline (group C). The primary outcome variable was time elapsed until asystole development. Cumulative dose of digoxin required to induce asystole was also recorded. Mean time until asystole development in groups C and L were 21.28 ± 8.61 and 32.00 ± 5.41 minutes, respectively (P< .05). The mean lethal doses of digoxin in the groups C and L were 3.97 ± 1.54 and 6.09 ± 0.96 mg/kg, respectively (P< .05). Intravenous lipid emulsion prolonged the time until asystole development and increased cumulative lethal dose in rats intoxicated with digoxin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    PubMed

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Using a passive alcohol sensor to detect legally intoxicated drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Foss, R D; Voas, R B; Beirness, D J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We examined whether a passive alcohol sensor could be used for mass screening of motorists to accurately and quickly detect drivers whose blood alcohol concentration exceeded a variety of levels often established as per se evidence of legal intoxication. METHODS. In a voluntary roadside survey, 1181 late-night drivers in Minnesota were interviewed. Breath measurements were taken with both a passive alcohol sensor and an evidentiary quality portable breath-test device. RESULTS. Measurements could be taken much more easily and quickly with the passive sensor, whose readings correlated very strongly (r = .87) with the evidentiary device. Moreover, for criterion blood alcohol concentration levels ranging from 100 mg/dL to 20 mg/dL, a large proportion of motorists could be accurately identified as being above or below the criterion, with relatively few false-negative or false-positive identifications. CONCLUSIONS. The use of passive alcohol sensors at sobriety checkpoints should allow motorists to be processed very quickly with minimal inconvenience. At the same time, detection of legally intoxicated motorists will probably be substantially increased and the general deterrent value of per se alcohol-impaired driving laws enhanced. PMID:8460734

  17. Serial ricinine levels in serum and urine after ricin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Røen, Bent Tore; Opstad, Aase Mari; Haavind, Anniken; Tønsager, Janne

    2013-06-01

    Ricinine is an alkaloid present in the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) that can be used as a biomarker for ricin poisoning. Serial ricinine levels are reported in the serum and urine of a patient suffering from intentional ricin intoxication. The patient was brought to the hospital 4 h after injection and oral intake of a castor bean extract, but died 38 h later, despite intensive medical care. Ricinine was isolated from the samples by solid-phase extraction and quantitatively determined by isotopic dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ricinine level in serum declined from 33 to 23 ng/mL between 10 and 29 h post-exposure. Three urine samples collected from 12 to 41 h after ricin intoxication showed ricinine concentrations in the range of 20-58 ng/mL. The creatinine corrected values (21-30 µg/g) indicated a concentration-time profile with a maximum ricinine level in urine between 12 and 29 h after exposure.

  18. Can obviously intoxicated patrons still easily buy alcohol at on-premise establishments?

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption at licensed alcohol establishments (i.e., bars and restaurants) has been directly linked to alcohol-related problems such as traffic crashes and violence. Historically, alcohol establishments have had a high likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons (also referred to as “overservice”) despite laws prohibiting these sales. Given the risks associated with overservice and the need for up-to-date data, it is critical that we monitor the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Methods To assess the current likelihood of a licensed alcohol establishment selling alcohol to an obviously intoxicated patron, we conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (i.e., actors attempt to purchase alcohol while acting out obvious signs of intoxication) at 340 establishments in one Midwestern metropolitan area. We also measured characteristics of the establishments, the pseudo-intoxicated patrons, the servers, the managers, and the neighborhoods to assess whether these characteristics were associated with likelihood of sales of obviously intoxicated patrons. We assessed these associations with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Results Pseudo-intoxicated buyers were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. In the fully adjusted multivariate regression model, only one of the characteristics we assessed was significantly associated with likelihood of selling to intoxicated patrons–establishments owned by a corporate entity had 3.6 greater odds of selling alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated buyer compared to independently-owned establishments. Discussion Given the risks associated with overservice of alcohol, more resources should be devoted first to identify effective interventions for decreasing overservice of alcohol and then to educate practitioners who are working in their communities to address this public health problem. PMID:26891204

  19. Can Obviously Intoxicated Patrons Still Easily Buy Alcohol at On-Premise Establishments?

    PubMed

    Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nederhoff, Dawn M; Nelson, Toben F; Ecklund, Alexandra M; Horvath, Keith J; Erickson, Darin J

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption at licensed alcohol establishments (i.e., bars and restaurants) has been directly linked to alcohol-related problems such as traffic crashes and violence. Historically, alcohol establishments have had a high likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons (also referred to as "overservice") despite laws prohibiting these sales. Given the risks associated with overservice and the need for up-to-date data, it is critical that we monitor the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. To assess the current likelihood of a licensed alcohol establishment selling alcohol to an obviously intoxicated patron, we conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (i.e., actors attempt to purchase alcohol while acting out obvious signs of intoxication) at 340 establishments in 1 Midwestern metropolitan area. We also measured characteristics of the establishments, the pseudo-intoxicated patrons, the servers, the managers, and the neighborhoods to assess whether these characteristics were associated with likelihood of sales of obviously intoxicated patrons. We assessed these associations with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Pseudo-intoxicated buyers were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. In the fully adjusted multivariate regression model, only 1 of the characteristics we assessed was significantly associated with likelihood of selling to intoxicated patrons-establishments owned by a corporate entity had 3.6 greater odds of selling alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated buyer compared to independently owned establishments. Given the risks associated with overservice of alcohol, more resources should be devoted first to identify effective interventions for decreasing overservice of alcohol and then to educate practitioners who are working in their communities to address this public health problem. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

    2014-01-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases—the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds—they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067