Science.gov

Sample records for chronomodulated treatment schedules

  1. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  2. [Successful treatment of an elderly patient with advanced gastric cancer using low-doses of 5-fluorouracil, levofolinate calcium, and cis-platinum with chronomodulation].

    PubMed

    Honma, Hideyuki

    2006-11-01

    An 83-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain and severe vomiting. Gastrography and gastric endoscopy revealed that the pylorus was obstructed by a giant type 2 cancer in the lower gastric body. Furthermore, computed tomography revealed multiple metastases in the para-aortic lymph nodes. The man was unable to consume any food or liquid, and could not take medicine orally. Paclitaxel was not effective in treating the lymph node metastases or vomiting; therefore a chronomodulated schedule was used, which involved the administration of low doses of 5-fluorouracil, levofolinate calcium and cis-platinum (FLP) each night. After four cycles of low-dose FLP therapy, the patient was able to consume food orally. The patient has partially responded to this regime over five months. In the current study, low-dose FLP therapy with chronomodulation was considered an effective treatment, and there were no severe adverse side effects. This case suggested that low-dose FLP therapy with chronomodulation is promising for the treatment of gastric cancer in elderly patients who can not take medicine orally, and further trials are warranted.

  3. Chronomodulated drug delivery system of urapidil for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sona S.; Patel, Hetal K.; Parejiya, Punit B.; Shelat, Pragna K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is a disease which shows circadian rhythm in the pattern of two peaks, one in the evening at about 7pm and other in the early morning between 4 am to 8 am. Conventional therapies are incapable to target those time points when actually the symptoms get worsened. To achieve drug release at two time points, chronomodulated delivery system may offer greater benefits. Materials and methods: The chronomodulated system comprised of dual approach; immediate release granules (IRG) and pulsatile release mini-tablets (PRM) filled in the hard gelatin capsule. The mini-tablets were coated using Eudragit S-100 which provided the lag time. To achieve the desired release, various parameters like coating duration and coat thickness were studied. The immediate release granules were evaluated for micromeritical properties and drug release, while mini-tablets were evaluated for various parameters such as hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, drug content, and disintegration time and in-vitro drug release. Compatibility of drug-excipient was checked by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry studies and pellets morphology was done by Scanning electron microscopy studies. Results: The in-vitro release profile suggested that immediate release granules gives drug release within 20 min at the time of evening attack while the programmed pulsatile release was achieved from coated mini-tablets after a lag time of 9hrs, which was consistent with the demand of drug during early morning hour attack. Pellets found to be spherical in shape with smooth surface. Moreover compatibility studies illustrated no deleterious reaction between drug and polymers used in the study. Conclusions: The dual approach of developed chronomodulated formulation found to be satisfactory in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:25838996

  4. Clinical experience with chronomodulated infusional 5-fluorouracil chemoradiotherapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, Kimberly S. . E-mail: Kimberlykeene@earthlink.net; Rich, Tyvin A.; Penberthy, David R.; Shepard, Robert C.; Adams, Reid; Jones, R. Scott

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy and chronic toxicities of concurrent radiotherapy and chronomodulated infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated between January 1997 and May 2000 with 5-FU chronomodulated chemoradiotherapy. Chronomodulated delivery of chemotherapy was chosen on the basis of a lower toxicity profile in the treatment of GI malignancies. The median age was 64 years. Of the 28 patients, 12 were men and 16 were women. Eight patients had unresectable disease and 20 were treated after pancreatic resection. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy given in 28 fractions. The median field length and width was 10.6 cm and 10.9 cm, respectively. Concurrent chemotherapy with 5-FU was administered 5 d/wk, with a median total dose of 8.4 g/m{sup 2} (300 mg/m{sup 2}/d). Chronomodulated 5-FU delivery consisted of a low basal infusion for 16 h followed by an 8-h escalating-deescalating infusion peaking at 10 PM. Survival and recurrence data were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier actuarial analysis. Toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading system. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (range, 4-68 months). The median overall survival for the 20 patients treated postoperatively was 34 months, with a 3- and 5-year actuarial survival rate of 40% and 21%, respectively. If the 3 patients with carcinoma of the ampulla were removed from the data set, the mean overall survival in the resected patients was 34 months, with a 3-year and 5-year actuarial survival rate of 40% and 17%, respectively. The 8 unresectable patients had a median overall survival of 14 months, and none lived past 2 years. No patient experienced Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity or weight loss. Five patients had nausea and dehydration requiring i.v. fluids; only one (4%) was hospitalized. Four patients required a dose

  5. Synergistic Effect of Combination Topotecan and Chronomodulated Radiation Therapy on Xenografted Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, YanLing; Chen, Xin; Ren, PeiRong; Su, Zhou; Cao, HongYing; Zhou, Jie; Zou, XiaoYan; Fu, ShaoZhi; Lin, Sheng; Fan, Juan; Yang, Bo; Sun, XiaoYang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Yue; Yang, LingLin; Wu, JingBo

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the in vivo chronomodulated radiosensitizing effect of topotecan (TPT) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its possible mechanisms. Methods and Materials: Xenografted BALB/c (nu/nu) NPC mice were synchronized with an alternation of 12 hours of light from 0 to 12 hours after light onset (HALO) and 12 hours of darkness to establish a unified biological rhythm. Chronomodulated radiosensitization of TPT was investigated by analysis of tumor regrowth delay (TGD), pimonidazole hydrochloride, histone H2AX phosphorylation, (γ-H2AX) topoisomerase I (Top I), cell cycle, and apoptosis after treatment with (1) TPT (10 mg/kg) alone; (2) radiation therapy alone (RT); and (3) TPT+RT at 3, 9, 15, and 21 HALO. The tumor-loaded mice without any treatment were used as controls. Results: The TPT+RT combination was more effective than TPT or RT as single agents. The TPT+RT combination at 15 HALO was best (TGD = 58.0 ± 3.6 days), and TPT+RT at 3 HALO was worst (TGD = 35.0 ± 1.5 days) among the 4 TPT+RT groups (P<.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a significantly increased histone H2AX phosphorylation expression and decreased pimonidazole hydrochloride expression in the TPT+RT group at the same time point. The results suggested that the level of tumor hypoxia and DNA damage varied in a time-dependent manner. The expression of Top I in the TPT+RT group was also significantly different from the control tumors at 15 HALO (P<.05). Cell apoptosis index was increased and the proportion of cells in S phase was decreased (P<.05) with the highest value in 15 HALO and the lowest in 3 HALO. Conclusions: This study suggested that TPT combined with chronoradiotherapy could enhance the radiosensitivity of xenografted NPC. The TPT+RT group at 15 HALO had the best therapeutic effect. The chronomodulated radiosensitization mechanisms of TPT might be related to circadian rhythm of tumor hypoxia, cell cycle redistribution, DNA damage, and expression of Top I.

  6. Chronomodulated delivery system: a tailored cap to fit different heads.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Bansal, Mayank

    2012-08-01

    "Blind race ends in a pit". A similar scenario is observed with the use of conventional dosage forms for different pathological conditions. Of late various disease states had regularly been reported to bear direct concurrence to the body's secretions that bear a constant rotationary cycle. Moreover the pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic responsiveness of various drugs had been reported to bear constant swings with the changing hours of the day. Thus, usage of the conventional zero order dosage form for every disease state or every active moiety developed, will only leave the researchers as well as the consumers in doldrums. Chronomodulated dosage forms are a silver lining in these overshadowed clouds. They are the dosage forms that spearhead the innovative researches because of their pre-programmed and pre-regulated pulsed release of the drug, at desired sites. Drug release pattern from these dosage forms considerably mimics the circadian timing of the body's secretion which are held responsible for the symptoms of the pathological irregularities arising in one's body. Thus, in a way these dosage forms are a shield against the inducers of the disease symptoms. Current review enlists the pathological states for which the chronomodulated delivery systems can prove to be a miraculous cure. This review emphasizes to summarize the patents granted as well as the novel researches undertaken by various researchers to upgrade the previously existing dosage form scenario. Moreover, this work is an attempt to summarize the various proprietary techniques and marketed formulations, thus trying to help the researchers to fabricate a better and novel dosage form from previously existing ones.

  7. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...” air until steam vapor escapes). 1 Normal atmospheric pressure. ... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period... packages. Load with adequate spacing. Large commercial steam facilities that operate at pressures up to...

  8. Optimized Treatment Schedules for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    He, Qie; Dingli, David; Foo, Jasmine; Leder, Kevin Zox

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, several targeted therapies (e.g. imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib) have been developed to treat Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). Despite an initial response to therapy, drug resistance remains a problem for some CML patients. Recent studies have shown that resistance mutations that preexist treatment can be detected in a substantial number of patients, and that this may be associated with eventual treatment failure. One proposed method to extend treatment efficacy is to use a combination of multiple targeted therapies. However, the design of such combination therapies (timing, sequence, etc.) remains an open challenge. In this work we mathematically model the dynamics of CML response to combination therapy and analyze the impact of combination treatment schedules on treatment efficacy in patients with preexisting resistance. We then propose an optimization problem to find the best schedule of multiple therapies based on the evolution of CML according to our ordinary differential equation model. This resulting optimization problem is nontrivial due to the presence of ordinary different equation constraints and integer variables. Our model also incorporates drug toxicity constraints by tracking the dynamics of patient neutrophil counts in response to therapy. We determine optimal combination strategies that maximize time until treatment failure on hypothetical patients, using parameters estimated from clinical data in the literature. PMID:27764087

  9. 7 CFR 305.8 - Sulfuryl fluoride treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulfuryl fluoride treatment schedules. 305.8 Section 305.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... fluoride treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Pressure Temperature ( °F) Dosage rate(lb/1000 cubic...

  10. 7 CFR 305.7 - Phosphine treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Phosphine treatment schedules. 305.7 Section 305.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Chemical Treatments § 305.7 Phosphine treatment schedules. Treatmentschedule...

  11. 7 CFR 305.29 - Vacuum heat treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum heat treatment schedule. 305.29 Section 305.29... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.29 Vacuum heat treatment schedule. T111-a-1. Place bay leaves in a vacuum chamber. Starting at 0 hour, gradually reduce to 0.133...

  12. Development and characterization of chronomodulated drug delivery system of captopril

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Archana S; Dandagi, Panchaxari M; Masthiholimath, Vinayak S; Gadad, Anand P; Najwade, Basavaraj K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertension shows circadian rhythm that there is a rise in pressure from the time of waking or before (about 4 to 8 a.m.), in most people. Conventional drug delivery system of captopril is inappropriate for the delivery of drug, as they cannot be administered just before the symptoms are worsened, because during this time the patients are asleep, bedtime dosing of captopril will not provide a therapeutic plasma drug concentration at the early hours of morning because of poor pharmacokinetic profile and shorter half-life of 1.9 hours. Thus, this study attempts to design and evaluate a chronomodulated pulsatile drug delivery system of captopril which was aimed to release the drug after a lag time of 6 hours. Materials and Methods: Present delivery system was prepared by rupturable coating method. The core containing captopril as a bioactive compound were prepared by direct compression method and then coated sequentially with an inner swelling layer containing hydrocolloid HPMC E5 and an outer rupturable layer consisted of Eudragit RL/RS (1 : 1). Total 12 formulations with different levels of inner swelling layer and outer polymeric layer were prepared and subjected to various processing and formulative parameters like the effect of core composition, level of swelling layer, and rupturable coating on lag time was investigated. In vitro drug release and rupture tests were performed using United States Pharmacopoeia paddle method at 50 rpm in 0.1N HCl and phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. Results: The results showed that as the amount of inner swelling layer increases, the lag time decreases and as the Eudragit coating level increases, the lag time increases and percent water uptake of time-dependent pulsatile release system decreases. The presence of an osmotic agent and effervescent agent helped in shortening of lag time. Conclusion: The system was found to be satisfactory in terms of release of the drug after the lag time of 6 hours. PMID:23071948

  13. 7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22... Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d. (1) Fruit must be grown and treated in Hawaii. (2) Fruit must be submerged at least 4 inches below the water's surface in a hot water immersion...

  14. 7 CFR 305.24 - Vapor heat treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vapor heat treatment schedules. 305.24 Section 305.24... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.24 Vapor heat treatment...) Vapor heat treatment for sweetpotatoes moved interstate from Hawaii. (1) Temperature probes must...

  15. Reinforcement schedule thinning following treatment with functional communication training.

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, G P; Iwata, B A; Thompson, R H

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated four methods for increasing the practicality of functional communication training (FCT) by decreasing the frequency of reinforcement for alternative behavior. Three participants whose problem behaviors were maintained by positive reinforcement were treated successfully with FCT in which reinforcement for alternative behavior was initially delivered on fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. One participant was then exposed to increasing delays to reinforcement under FR 1, a graduated fixed-interval (FI) schedule, and a graduated multiple-schedule arrangement in which signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction were alternated. Results showed that (a) increasing delays resulted in extinction of the alternative behavior, (b) the FI schedule produced undesirably high rates of the alternative behavior, and (c) the multiple schedule resulted in moderate and stable levels of the alternative behavior as the duration of the extinction component was increased. The other 2 participants were exposed to graduated mixed-schedule (unsignaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) and multiple-schedule (signaled alternation between reinforcement and extinction components) arrangements in which the durations of the reinforcement and extinction components were modified. Results obtained for these 2 participants indicated that the use of discriminative stimuli in the multiple schedule facilitated reinforcement schedule thinning. Upon completion of treatment, problem behavior remained low (or at zero), whereas alternative behavior was maintained as well as differentiated during a multiple-schedule arrangement consisting of a 4-min extinction period followed by a 1-min reinforcement period. PMID:11317985

  16. 7 CFR 305.25 - Dry heat treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry heat treatment schedules. 305.25 Section 305.25... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.25 Dry heat treatment... minutes. Spread soil in layers 0.5 inches in depth to ensure uniform heat penetration. T412-a 248...

  17. 7 CFR 305.42 - Miscellaneous treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Miscellaneous treatment schedules. (a) T102-b, T102-b-1, T102-b-2, soapy water and wax. (1) The fruit must be... must be retreated or destroyed. (c) Three alternative treatments for plant material not tolerant to fumigation. Treatments are based on the character of the plant material and the type of pests that may...

  18. 7 CFR 305.28 - Kiln sterilization treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kiln sterilization treatment schedule. 305.28 Section 305.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.28...

  19. 7 CFR 305.16 - Cold treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature ( °F) Exposure period T107-a 1 34 or below 14 days. 35 or below 16... 34 or below 14 days. 35 or below 16 days. 36 or below 18 days. T403-a-2-3 (for temperatures below 55.... T403-a-6-3 0 8 hours. 10 16 hours. 20 24 hours. 1 For Hawaiian-grown avocados only, a single...

  20. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21... Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a: (a) Fruit... the treatment. (c) Water in the treatment tank must be treated or changed regularly to...

  1. 7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled... Treatments § 305.26 Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products. Feeds and milled products may be treated for khapra beetle using schedule T307-a. The temperature must be 180 °F in any part...

  2. Treatment for Acquired Apraxia of Speech: Examination of Treatment Intensity and Practice Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambaugh, Julie L.; Nessler, Christina; Cameron, Rosalea; Mauszycki, Shannon C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors designed this investigation to extend the development of a treatment for acquired apraxia of speech (AOS)--sound production treatment (SPT)--by examining the effects of 2 treatment intensities and 2 schedules of practice. Method: The authors used a multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors with 4 speakers with…

  3. 76 FR 60359 - Phytosanitary Treatments; Location of and Process for Updating Treatment Schedules; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2010 (75 FR 4228-4253, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0022), and... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 305 RIN 0579-AC94 Phytosanitary Treatments; Location of and Process for Updating Treatment Schedules; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Animal and...

  4. Noncontingent Reinforcement: A Further Examination of Schedule Effects during Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to determine whether dense and thin NCR schedules exert different influences over behavior and whether these influences change as dense schedules are thinned. In Study 1, we observed that thin as well as dense NCR schedules effectively decreased problem behavior exhibited by 3 individuals. In Study 2, we compared the effects…

  5. 7 CFR 305.3 - Processes for adding, revising, or removing treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processes for adding, revising, or removing treatment... Processes for adding, revising, or removing treatment schedules. (a) Normal process for adding, revising, or removing treatment schedules. Unless there is a need to immediately add, revise, or remove a...

  6. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat...

  7. 7 CFR 305.9 - Aerosol spray for aircraft treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerosol spray for aircraft treatment schedule. 305.9 Section 305.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... spray for aircraft treatment schedule. (a) Military aircraft. Aerosol disinfection of U.S....

  8. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  9. Using a Progressive Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement as an Assessment Tool to Inform Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alyssa N; Gratz, Olivia H

    2016-09-01

    A handful of studies have examined the utility of progressive ratio schedules (PRs) of reinforcement in treatment development and treatment efficacy. The current case study explored the utility of PRs as an assessment tool to inform a differential reinforcement treatment package. A PRs assessment was used to identify the breaking point of a functional communicative response before and after treatment. The breaking point was used as the initial reinforcement schedule during treatment. Following treatment, the communicative response increased during a posttest PRs assessment, suggesting the efficacy of the treatment package. PMID:27622131

  10. Design of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery System of Valsartan: In Vitro Characterization.

    PubMed

    Sokar, M; Hanafy, A; Elkamel, A; El-Gamal, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a chronomodulated time-clock pulsatile tablets of valsartan to release it after a certain lag time, independent of the gastrointestinal pH, in its absorption window to cope with the circadian rhythm of human body for blood pressure elevation. Core tablets were prepared by direct compression of a homogenous mixture of valsartan, Avicel PH101, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The core tablets were then sprayed coated with a sealing layer formed of ethyl cellulose that was subsequently coated with a release-controlling layer. Three different aqueous dispersions namely; carnauba wax or beeswax or a mixture in a ratio of 2.5:1, respectively, were used to form five time-clock tablet formulations having the release controlling layer with different thickness {B5, B10, B20, BW5 and CW5}. Quality control testing were carried out to the core tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry was also performed to detect the possible drug excipient interaction in the core tablet formulation. The release was carried out, for the prepared time-clock tablet formulations, in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first 2 h, followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 4.5 h. The effect of pH on valsartan release was studied through a release study in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 6.5 h. Two phase dissolution study was performed to the selected time-clock tablet formulation to predict the drug permeation through the gastrointestinal tract. Stability study of the selected formula was performed at 25°/60% RH and at 40°/75% RH for 3 months. Results showed that a release-controlling layer composed of a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in a ratio of 2.5:1 showed a reasonable release lag time. The release lag time of the tablets increased with the increase of the coat thickness, thus B20>B10>B5 with corresponding lag time values of 4.5, 3 and 2.5 h, respectively. Selected B5 tablet formula exhibited a reasonable lag time

  11. Design of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery System of Valsartan: In Vitro Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sokar, M.; Hanafy, A.; Elkamel, A.; El-Gamal, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate a chronomodulated time-clock pulsatile tablets of valsartan to release it after a certain lag time, independent of the gastrointestinal pH, in its absorption window to cope with the circadian rhythm of human body for blood pressure elevation. Core tablets were prepared by direct compression of a homogenous mixture of valsartan, Avicel PH101, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The core tablets were then sprayed coated with a sealing layer formed of ethyl cellulose that was subsequently coated with a release-controlling layer. Three different aqueous dispersions namely; carnauba wax or beeswax or a mixture in a ratio of 2.5:1, respectively, were used to form five time-clock tablet formulations having the release controlling layer with different thickness {B5, B10, B20, BW5 and CW5}. Quality control testing were carried out to the core tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry was also performed to detect the possible drug excipient interaction in the core tablet formulation. The release was carried out, for the prepared time-clock tablet formulations, in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for the first 2 h, followed by phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) for 4.5 h. The effect of pH on valsartan release was studied through a release study in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid for 6.5 h. Two phase dissolution study was performed to the selected time-clock tablet formulation to predict the drug permeation through the gastrointestinal tract. Stability study of the selected formula was performed at 25°/60% RH and at 40°/75% RH for 3 months. Results showed that a release-controlling layer composed of a mixture of carnauba wax and beeswax in a ratio of 2.5:1 showed a reasonable release lag time. The release lag time of the tablets increased with the increase of the coat thickness, thus B20>B10>B5 with corresponding lag time values of 4.5, 3 and 2.5 h, respectively. Selected B5 tablet formula exhibited a reasonable lag time

  12. 7 CFR 305.3 - Processes for adding, revising, or removing treatment schedules in the PPQ Treatment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processes for adding, revising, or removing treatment schedules in the PPQ Treatment Manual. 305.3 Section 305.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  13. Eradication of scabies with a single treatment schedule.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Arrue, C; Walker, J G; Roth, W I; Rivera, A

    1983-10-01

    A single application (16 to 20 hours) of 1% gamma benzene hexachloride (GBH) lotion, when applied to a total island population of 178 persons in which seventy-four clinically had scabies, resulted in a cure rate of over 98%. Re-examination of the population at 10 and 21 weeks revealed only one remaining individual still having scabies. On a neighboring island, only those with clinical evidence of scabies were treated (140 persons). Applications of 1% GBH lotion were applied with the same methods used on the first island. When the population was re-examined at 10 weeks, the prevalence of scabies was reduced by only 50%. Successful eradication of scabies from a population should include treatment of all contacts, whether clinically infected or not. Treatment of the entire population at risk at one time is preferable. Coexistent pyoderma should be treated, and a second treatment for scabies may be needed when the pyoderma has cleared.

  14. [Antiangiogenic treatment of pediatric CNS tumors in Hungary with the Kieran schedule].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Péter; Vancsó, Ildikó; Pócza, Tímea; Schuler, Dezső; Garami, Miklós

    2013-12-01

    In Hungary a new oral antiangiogenic treatment was introduced in cases of primary chemoresistant or recurrent pediatric CNS tumors, called Kieran schedule. The early results of this treatment were analyzed. From 2010 at Semmelweis University on individual decisions a daily combined per oral treatment was introduced in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive CNS tumor (Kieran schedule: thalidomid, celecoxib, etoposid and cyclophosphamid). Efficacy of therapy was analyzed in terms of demographic data, histology, side effects and tolerability in a retrospective manner. From 2010 through 2013, twenty patients were treated with Kieran schedule (medulloblastoma: 3, ependymoma: 5, anaplastic astrocytoma: 2, GBM: 4, plexus choroideus carcinoma: 1, central primitive neuroectodermal tumor: 1, optic glioma: 2, brainstem tumor: 2). Median treatment time and median progression-free survival were 0.60 and 0.61 years, respectively. Based on the preliminary analysis of a limited cohort of patients, the therapy was efficient in those cases of medulloblastoma, ependymoma, high-grade and optic gliomas, where the expected survival time was more than 3 months at start of treatment. Side effects were slight myelosuppresion in terms of previous therapy, 16% transient ischemic attack (TIA)-like episodes. During therapy patients could live their everyday life. Kieran schedule was well-tolerable and efficient with good quality of life in certain cases of pediatric CNS tumors.

  15. 7 CFR 305.27 - Forced hot air treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and T103-d-2. (1)Temperature sensors must be inserted into the centers of the largest fruits. The number of sensors must be approved in advance by APHIS. Sensors must be physically placed in various... trays, bulk bins, or ventilated boxes) must be loaded into the treatment chamber, and sensors must...

  16. Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

  17. GnRH antagonist pre-treatment: one centre's experience for IVF-ICSI cycle scheduling.

    PubMed

    Viardot-Foucault, Veronique; Nadarajah, Sadhana; Lye, Weng Kit; Tan, Heng Hao

    2015-04-01

    Scheduling gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-ant) cycles for IVF intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients is a challenge because of unpredictable ovum retrieval procedures on weekends, when less manpower is available. Recently, the use of GnRH-ant pre-treatment to delay an IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle showed no negative effect on clinical pregnancy rates. An age-matched, case-control study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of such pre-treatment for scheduling purposes. Patients (n = 140) undergoing their first ovarian stimulation for IVF-ICSI were included. Patients starting their stimulation on Tuesdays or Wednesdays were most likely to have their ovum retrieval procedure on Saturdays. Seventy patients received a 3-day course of GnRH-ant before starting stimulation, and were compared with 70 age-matched controls not receiving pre-treatment. The main outcomes were the proportion of ovum retrieval procedures occurring on Saturdays, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rates. A five-fold reduction in the number of ovum retrievals occurred on Saturdays compared with controls (7.1% versus 34.3%; OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.42; P < 0.001), with no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (40.9% versus 37.5%) and live birth rate (27.3% versus 31.3%). GnRH-ant pre-treatment is an effective tool for scheduling of GnRH-ant cycles.

  18. Hitting the target: where do molecularly targeted therapies fit in the treatment scheduling of neuroendocrine tumours?

    PubMed

    Karpathakis, Anna; Caplin, Martyn; Thirlwell, Christina

    2012-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumours whose incidence is increasing and their prevalence is now greater than that of any other upper gastrointestinal tumour. Diagnosis can be challenging, and up to 25% of patients present with metastatic disease. Following the recent FDA approval of two new molecularly targeted therapies for the treatment of advanced pancreatic NETs (pNETs), the first in 25 years, we review all systemic therapies and suggest where these newer targeted therapies fit in the treatment schedule for these challenging tumours. Clinical trial data relating to the routine use of sunitinib and everolimus in low-intermediate-grade pNETs are summarised alongside newer molecularly targeted agents undergoing clinical assessment in NETs. We particularly focus on the challenge of optimal scheduling of molecularly targeted treatments around existing systemic and localised treatment such as chemotherapy or radiotargeted therapy. We also discuss application of current evidence to subgroups of patients who have not so far been directly addressed such as those with poorer performance status or patients receiving radical surgery who may benefit from adjuvant treatment.

  19. A WHO study of treatment schedules for early syphilis in use throughout the world

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R. R.

    1954-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed since penicillin was introduced in the treatment of syphilis. In order to appraise recent trends in syphilotherapy in the world, WHO carried out a detailed study of treatment practices in early syphilis. A questionnaire was circulated to leading venereologists and clinics in the world, and 277 replies were received from 55 countries giving particulars of 294 schedules. A total of 65.3% of the participants used penicillin alone and 28.9% used it in combination with other drugs. In North America all clinics relied solely on penicillin as against 52.2% in Europe; and procaine penicillin G in oil with aluminium monostearate (PAM) was used in 91% of clinics in the Americas and Asia and in 60.6% of European clinics. The most common dosage of penicillin in all stages of early syphilis was 4.8-6.0 million units; but appreciably larger doses were used in Europe than elsewhere, some 39.4% of schedules using 10.8 million units or more. There were single instances of 36 million units being given. Consolidation treatment was given in none of the North American clinics; seldom in Asia; by about one-third of the participants in Central and South America; and, for secondary syphilis, in 59% of European schedules. This study shows that with intensive treatment with PAM the saving in drug cost to clinics over the classical courses of arsenic and bismuth may be as much as £4 per case, but the overhead expenses are, of course, not reduced. PMID:13182588

  20. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  1. An Investigation of Treatment Scheduling for Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners Who Are at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Ross, Catherine L.; Harm, Heide M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined 2 schedules of treatment for phonemic awareness. Method: Forty-one 5- to 6-year-old kindergartners, including 22 English learners, with low letter-name and first-sound knowledge received 11 hr of phonemic awareness treatment: concentrated (CP, 3x/wk to December), dispersed (DP, 1x/wk to March), and dispersed vocabulary…

  2. A Telemedicine Application to Schedule Temperature in an In Vivo Sensor Network for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Rossi; Lee, Seok-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wireless communication has played a significant role in modern healthcare systems. However, the death toll from chronic diseases, such as cancer, continues to increase. Hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and temperature control is critical for the success of this intervention. In vivo sensors are an emerging technology in healthcare. Thermal awareness has also received attention in in vivo sensor research. In this context, we have been motivated to use in vivo sensors to regulate the temperature changes in cancer cells during combined treatment. Limitations in existing in vivo thermal-aware routing algorithms motivated us to use the in vivo “lightweight rendezvous routing” approach. However, smartphone-driven telemedicine applications are proliferating to provide remote healthcare and collaborative consultation, required in combined therapies. In this context, we have proposed a telemedicine application where a smartphone not only regulates temperature scheduling in in vivo sensors, but also communicates with local or remote clinicians to maintain collaborative efforts for combined therapies against cancer. PMID:23234425

  3. A comparison of immunotherapy schedules for injection treatment of ragweed pollen hay fever.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, T E; Adkinson, N F; Amodio, F J; Kagey-Sobotka, A; Lichtenstein, L M; Mardiney, M R; Norman, P S; Rosenberg, G L

    1982-02-01

    In 44 patients highly sensitive to ragweed, we compared weekly injections of single doses of ragweed extract (RW-Wk, 15 patients) with clustered doses of ragweed extract at 3-wk intervals (RW-Cl, 18 patients) for effects on ragweed hay fever symptom-medication scores and immunologic variates. Patients were matched and randomly assigned to treatment groups. Ragweed doses were advanced to the highest tolerated dose. Doses and number of visits were lower in the RW-Cl group than in the RW-Wk group. Despite lower doses, systemic reactions were not reduced and antiragweed IgE levels increased significantly more in the RW-Cl group than those in the RW-Wk group. Both the RW-Cl and RW-Wk groups had significant increases in antiragweed IgG levels, decreases in seasonal rise in antiragweed IgE levels, and lower symptom-medication scores (p less than 0.01) in comparison with the placebo group. We conclude that the RW-Cl regimen offered no important advantage over RW-Wk. Seventeen patients had previously received Rinkel-method immunotherapy with 0.5 ml of end-point dilution of ragweed extract for 1 to 2 yr without significant clinical improvement or immunologic changes. After adequate treatment with either RW-Wk or RW-Cl, these patients had significantly lower symptom-medication scores than those of the placebo groups and immunologic changes similar to those of the entire active-treatment group. Therefore, treatment failures on Rinkel immunotherapy respond well to adequate dose immunotherapy by either schedule.

  4. A comparative trial of three treatment schedules for the eradication of scabies.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Rivera, A; Walker, J G; Roth, W I; Reno, D; Meinking, T

    1983-10-01

    A trial of three treatment schedules, consisting of 1% gamma benzene hexachloride (GBH) lotion applied head to toe and left on the body for 2, 6, or 12 to 24 hours was conducted on an island of 2,076 persons, approximately 70% of whom had clinical evidence of scabies. The island is situated off the north coast of the Republic of Panama. Examination at 1 month after therapy showed that both the 6-hour and 12- to 24-hour cure rate was high (96% and 98%). There was a significantly lower cure rate in the 2-hour group, in which only 82% were cured. Eleven to twelve percent of the subjects became infested in all groups, presumably due to contact with untreated persons with scabies on the island. A single 6-hour application of 1% GBH lotion appears to be adequate therapy for scabies if properly applied. The entire population at risk should be treated at the same time if possible to reduce or eliminate the risk of infestation. No adverse reactions to 1% GBH lotion were observed.

  5. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  6. Combining noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement schedules as treatment for aberrant behavior.

    PubMed

    Marcus, B A; Vollmer, T R

    1996-01-01

    Research has shown that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) can be an effective behavior-reduction procedure when based on a functional analysis. The effects of NCR may be a result of elimination of the contingency between aberrant behavior and reinforcing consequences (extinction) or frequent and free access to reinforcers that may reduce the participant's motivation to engage in aberrant behaviors or mands. If motivation is momentarily reduced, behavior such as mands may not be sensitive to positive reinforcement. In this study, for 3 children with aberrant behavior maintained by tangible positive reinforcement, differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior schedules were superimposed on NCR schedules to determine if mands could be strengthened. Results for the participants indicated that NCR did not preclude reinforcement of mands.

  7. Comparative cardiac toxicity in two treatment schedules of 5-FU/LV for colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Najam, Rahila; Bano, Nusrat; Mateen, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the study is evaluation and assessment of parameters of cardiac toxicity in patients subjected to 5-FU based chemotherapy. Cardiac morbidity is a reported outcome in different 5FU/LV regimens; however none of them are definite or proximate. The bimonthly regimen of high dose leucovorin is reported to be less toxic and more effective as compared to the monthly regimen of low dose leucovorin. We report the detailed assessment of few cardiac parameter of toxicity in patients of advanced colorectal carcinoma subjected to two Schedules of high and low dose Folinic Acid, 5-Fluorouracil, bolus and continuous infusion. The correlation of elevated cardiac biomarkers, angina and hypertension is comparatively assessed in patients with normal general status, hyperglycemia and known cardiac disorders subjected to two different 5FU based chemotherapeutic regimen.

  8. Influence of the treatment schedule on the physicians’ decisions to refer bone metastases patients for palliative radiotherapy: a questionnaire survey of physicians in various specialties

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated whether the treatment schedule influences physicians’ decisions to refer their patients for radiotherapy. We presented a questionnaire to 104 physicians in various specialties at three hospitals. It included three hypothetical patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastasis: patients with an expected life span of one year (case 1), 6 months (case 2), and 2 months (case 3). The physicians were asked whether they would refer their patients for radiotherapy when a radiation oncologist presented three different treatment schedules: a short (8 Gy/1 fraction/1 day)-, a medium (20 Gy/5 fractions/1 week)-, and a long (30 Gy/10 fractions/2 weeks) schedule. We used Cochran’s Q-test to compare the percentage of physicians across the three schedules and a mixed-effect logistic model to identify predictors of the selection of only the one-day schedule. Of the 104 physicians, 68 (65%) responded. Of these, 37 (54%), 27 (40%), and 26 (38%) chose to refer patients for radiotherapy when the short-, medium-, and long schedules, respectively, were proposed in case 1 (p = 0.14). These numbers were 44 (65%), 29 (43%), and 15 (22%) for case 2 (p < 0.001), and 59 (87%), 12 (18%), and 1 (1%) for case 3 (p < 0.001). Hypothetical patient and the physicians’ years of practice and perspective regarding side effects were independently predictive of the selection of only the one-day schedule. In conclusion, the treatment schedule influenced the physicians’ decisions to refer patients for radiotherapy. PMID:27578911

  9. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  10. 40 CFR 141.713 - Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the bin classification for a filtered system changes following the second round of source water... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. (a) Following initial bin classification under § 141.710(c),...

  11. 40 CFR 141.713 - Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the bin classification for a filtered system changes following the second round of source water... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. (a) Following initial bin classification under § 141.710(c),...

  12. 40 CFR 141.713 - Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the bin classification for a filtered system changes following the second round of source water... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. (a) Following initial bin classification under § 141.710(c),...

  13. 40 CFR 141.713 - Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the bin classification for a filtered system changes following the second round of source water... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. (a) Following initial bin classification under § 141.710(c),...

  14. 40 CFR 141.713 - Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the bin classification for a filtered system changes following the second round of source water... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced... Cryptosporidium treatment requirements. (a) Following initial bin classification under § 141.710(c),...

  15. Impact of proton beam availability on patient treatment schedule in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric D; Derenchuk, Vladimir; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2012-11-08

    Proton beam therapy offers unique physical properties with potential for reduced toxicity and better patient care. There is an increased interest in radiation oncology centers to acquire proton therapy capabilities. The operation of a proton treatment center is quite different than a photon-based clinic because of the more complex technology involved, as well as the single proton beam source serving multiple treatment rooms with no backup source available. There is limited published data which investigates metrics that can be used to determine the performance of a proton facility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate performance metrics of Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO), including availability, mean time between failures, and mean time to repair, and to determine how changes in these metrics impact patient treatments. We utilized a computerized maintenance management system to log all downtime occurrences and servicing operations for the facility. These data were then used to calculate the availability as well as the mean time between failures and mean time to repair. Impact on patient treatments was determined by analyzing delayed and missed treatments, which were recorded in an electronic medical record and database maintained by the therapists. The availability of the IUCO proton beam has been increasing since beginning of operation in 2003 and averaged 96.9% for 2009 through 2011. The mean time between failures and mean time to repair were also determined and correlated with improvements in the maintenance and operating procedures of the facility, as well as environmental factors. It was found that events less than 15 minutes in duration have minimal impact on treatment delays, while events lasting longer than one hour may result in missed treatments. The availability of the proton beam was more closely correlated with delayed than with missed treatments, demonstrating the utility and limitations of the availability metric. In conclusion, we

  16. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  17. Making molehills out of a mountain: experience with a new scheduling strategy to diminish workload variations in response to increased treatment demands

    PubMed Central

    Waters, A.; Alizadeh, M.; Filion, C.; Ashbury, F.; Pun, J.; Chagnon, M.P.; Legrain, A.; Fortin, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A new scheduling strategy was implemented. Before implementation, treatments and planning computed tomography (ct) imaging were both scheduled at the same time. Maximal wait times for treatment are defined by the Quebec Ministry of Health’s plan of action according to treatment aim and site. After implementation, patients requiring rapid treatment (priorities 0–3) continued to have their treatments scheduled at the same time as their planning ct; treatments for priority 4 (P4) patients were scheduled only after the treatment plan was approved. That approach aims to compensate for unexpected increases in planning workload by relocating less delay-sensitive cases to other time slots. We evaluated the impact on the patient experience, workload in various sectors, the care team’s perception of care delivery, access to care, and the department’s efficiency in terms of hours worked per treatment delivered. Methods Three periods were defined for analysis: the pre-transitional phase, for baseline evaluation; the transitional phase, during which there was an overlap in the way patients were being scheduled; and the post-transitional phase. Wait times were calculated from the date that patients were ready to treat to the date of their first treatment. Surveys were distributed to pre- and post-transitional phase patients. Care team members were asked to complete a survey evaluating their perception of how the change affected workload and patient care. Operational data were analyzed. Results We observed a 24% increase in the number of treatments delivered in the post-transitional phase. Before implementation, priority 0–3 patients waited a mean of 7.9 days to begin treatments (n = 241); afterward, they waited 6.3 days (n = 340, p = 0.006). Before implementation, P4 patients waited a mean 15.1 days (n = 233); after implementation, they waited 16.1 days (n = 368, p = 0.22). Surveys showed that patients felt that the time it took to inform them of treatment

  18. Scheduling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Scheduling Environment is a software product designed and marketed by AVYX, Inc. to provide scheduling solutions for complex manufacturing environments. It can be adapted to specific scheduling and manufacturing processes and has led to substantial cost savings. The system was originally developed for NASA use in scheduling Space Shuttle flights and satellite activities. AVYX, Inc. is an offshoot of a company formed to provide computer-related services to NASA. TREES-plus, the company's initial product became the programming language for the advanced scheduling environment system.

  19. Chemotherapy drug scheduling for the induction treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pefani, E; Panoskaltsis, N; Mantalaris, A; Georgiadis, M C; Pistikopoulos, E N

    2014-07-01

    Leukemia is an immediately life-threatening cancer wherein immature blood cells are overproduced, accumulate in the bone marrow (BM) and blood and causes immune and blood system failure. Treatment with chemotherapy can be intensive or nonintensive and can also be life-threatening since only relatively few patient-specific and leukemia-specific factors are considered in current protocols. We have already presented a mathematical model for one intensive chemotherapy cycle with intravenous (i.v.) daunorubicin (DNR), and cytarabine (Ara-C). This model is now extended to nonintensive subcutaneous (SC) Ara-C and for a standard intensive chemotherapy course (four cycles), consistent with clinical practice. Model parameters mainly consist of physiological patient data, indicators of tumor burden and characteristics of cell cycle kinetics. A sensitivity analysis problem is solved and cell cycle parameters are identified to control treatment outcome. Simulation results using published cell cycle data from two acute myeloid leukemia patients are presented for a course of standard treatment using intensive and nonintensive protocols. The aim of remission-induction therapy is to debulk the tumor and achieve normal BM function; by treatment completion, the total leukemic population should be reduced to at most 10(9) cells, at which point BM hypoplasia is achieved. The normal cell number should be higher than that of the leukemic, and a 3-log reduction is the maximum permissible level of population reduction. This optimization problem is formulated and solved for the two patient case studies. The results clearly present the benefits from the use of optimization as an advisory tool for treatment design.

  20. Modeling and predicting optimal treatment scheduling between the antiangiogenic drug sunitinib and irinotecan in preclinical settings.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; Tod, M; Ouerdani, A; Emde, A; Yarden, Y; Adda Berkane, A; Kassour, S; Wei, M X; Freyer, G; You, B; Grenier, E; Ribba, B

    2015-12-01

    We present a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations used to quantify the complex dynamics of the interactions between tumor growth, vasculature generation, and antiangiogenic treatment. The primary dataset consists of longitudinal tumor size measurements (1,371 total observations) in 105 colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Mice received single or combination administration of sunitinib, an antiangiogenic agent, and/or irinotecan, a cytotoxic agent. Depending on the dataset, parameter estimation was performed either using a mixed-effect approach or by nonlinear least squares. Through a log-likelihood ratio test, we conclude that there is a potential synergistic interaction between sunitinib when administered in combination with irinotecan in preclinical settings. Model simulations were then compared to data from a follow-up preclinical experiment. We conclude that the model has predictive value in identifying the therapeutic window in which the timing between the administrations of these two drugs is most effective. PMID:26904386

  1. Effects of On-Demand Versus Fixed-Interval Schedules in the Treatment of Chronic Pain With Analgesic Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntzen, Dagfinn; Gotestam, K. Gunnar

    1987-01-01

    Compared the effects of fixed-interval and on-demand administration of analgesic medications in chronic pain patients. A fixed-interval analgesic schedule was found more effective than an on-demand schedule in reducing subjective pain and elevating mood. No differences were found between the two conditions on measures of physical activity.…

  2. A Comparison of Five Reinforcement Schedules for Use in Contingency Management-Based Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Huber, Alice; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Chudzynski, Joy E.; Moynier, Eugene; Shoptaw, Steve

    2006-01-01

    One variation of contingency management involves providing vouchers with monetary value for the provision of a biological sample indicating no recent drug use. These vouchers can be exchanged for goods or services. The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate…

  3. The Use of Descriptive Analysis to Identify and Manipulate Schedules of Reinforcement in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.; Rankin, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of a child diagnosed with failure to thrive were assessed using descriptive analysis methodology to identify the schedules of reinforcement provided by the child's parents. This analysis revealed that the child's appropriate feeding behaviors (i.e., bite acceptance, self-feeding) were on a lean schedule of positive…

  4. Scheduling game

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W

    1982-04-01

    Structuring a schedule - whether by Critical Path Method (CPM) or Precedence Charting System (PCS) - involves estimating the duration of one or more activities and arranging them in the most logical sequence. Given the start date, the completion date is relatively simple to determine. What is then so complicated about the process. It is complicated by the people involved - the people who make the schedules and the people who attempt to follow them. Schedules are an essential part of project management and construction contract administration. Much of the material available pertains to the mechanics of schedules, the types of logic networks, the ways that data can be generated and presented. This paper sheds light on other facets of the subject - the statistical and philosophical fundamentals involved in scheduling.

  5. Effect of treatment in fractionated schedules with the combination of x-irradiation and six cytotoxic drugs on the RIF-1 tumor and normal mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lelieveld, P.; Scoles, M.A.; Brown, J.M.; Phil, D.; Kallman, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    RIF-1 tumors, implanted syngeneically in the gastrocnemius muscles of the right hind legs of C3H/Km mice, were treated either with X ray alone, drug alone, or drug and X ray combined. The drugs tested were bleomycin, BCNU, cis-diamminedichloro platinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and actinomycin-D. All drugs were administered either in the maximum tolerated dose or a dose that causes minimal tumor growth delay. Both drugs and X rays were administered either as a single dose or in five daily fractions. In addition to the single modality controls, seven different schedules of combined modalities were tested. Tumors were measured periodically after treatment in order that the day at which each tumor reached 4 times its initial cross-sectional area, i.e., its size at the time of treatment, could be determined. The effect of treatment on tumors was based upon excess growth delay (GD), i.e., T400% (treated)-T400% (untreated control). Treatment effects for the same combined modality schedules were also determined for normal skin, using the early skin reaction as an endpoint. Dose effect factors (DEF) were computed for all combined modality schedules and were based upon calculated radiation dose equivalents. We also calculated supra-additivity ratios, SR/sub I/ and SR/sub II/, therapeutic gain factors and adjusted therapeutic gain factors. The only drugs to produce significant supra-additivity with X rays were cis-Pt and cyclo.

  6. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  7. Radiotherapy of bronchogenic carcinoma: analysis of a treatment schedule designed for use with hyperbaric oxygen. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Sause, W.T.; Sweeney, R.A.; Plenk, H.P.; Thomson, J.W.

    1981-07-01

    All cases of bronchogenic carcinoma treated with curative intent over an eight-year period were reviewed. Most were treated with 12 x 400 rad in 32 days using /sup 60/Co, a schedule designed to optimize the radiation-sensitizing properties of hyperbaric oxygen. While O/sub 2/ gave no obvious benefit, overall four-year survival was 10.6% and that of patients with good prognostic indicators was 18%. No radiation myelitis was observed. This protocol delivers an adequate tumor dose and appears to be tolerated well by most patients.

  8. A Prospective Cohort Study to Compare Treatment Results Between 2 Fractionation Schedules of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Hao; Lan, Jen-Hong; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu; Wang, Chong-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the treatment results of 2 fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2001 through January 2008, 267 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 4-field pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT. The median central and parametrial doses were 39.6 Gy and 45 Gy, respectively. Patient underwent either 6 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 (HDR-4) (n=144) or 4.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 6 (HDR-6) (n=123) to point A of ICBT using {sup 192}Ir isotope twice weekly. The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, proctitis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were compared between HDR-4 and HDR-6. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic data between HDR-4 and HDR-6 except for total treatment time. The 5-year proctitis rates were 23.0% and 21.5% in HDR-4 and HDR-6 (P=.399), respectively. The corresponding rates of grade 2-4 proctitis were 18.7% and 9.6% (P=.060). The corresponding rates of grades 3-4 proctitis were 5.2% and 1.3% (P=.231). Subgroup analysis revealed that HDR-4 significantly increased grade 2-4 proctitis in patients aged {>=}62 years old (P=.012) but not in patients aged <62 years (P=.976). The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were not significantly different between HDR-4 and HDR-6 schedules. Conclusion: The small fraction size of HDR-ICBT is associated with grade 2 proctitis without compromise of prognosis in elderly patients. This schedule is suggested for patients who tolerate an additional 2 applications of HDR-ICBT.

  9. Comparison of lime powder and caustic soda as a pre-treatment for ammonia-nitrogen removal from a scheduled waste leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurul Hanira M., L.; Hasfalina C., M.; Sani, A.; Rashid, M.

    2015-05-01

    Studies on leachate taken from scheduled waste landfill are limited. This might be due to the complex characteristics of the leachate from scheduled waste landfill compared to other types of landfills. Leachate is known as a strong wastewater in terms of its organic matter and ammonia content. In this study, a pre-treatment on the removal of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) by coagulation on a leachate sample taken from a Scheduled Waste Landfill (SWL) is reported. The coagulation was performed using lime (Ca (OH)2), and caustic soda (NaOH) with varying pH and amount of coagulant. A different dosage of Ca (OH)2, and NaOH was applied and the removal efficiency using both coagulants were investigated to find the most optimum dosage for NH3-N removal. Results showed that the percentage of NH3-N removal was relatively the same for both Ca (OH)2 and NaOH which was up to 45% and 48%, respectively. The optimum pH and dosage of coagulant for the removal process using Ca (OH)2 was pH=12.40±0.02 and 6gL-1, respectively while with NaOH was pH=12.83±0.02 and 8 gL-1, respectively. A small difference in the removal of NH3-N with a less dosage of coagulant used in the study suggests that lime (Ca(OH)2), is a better choice for the pre-treatment process.

  10. Scheduling the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Richard A.; Traverso, Henry P.

    This "how-to-do-it" manual on the intricacies of school scheduling offers both technical information and common sense advice about the process of secondary school scheduling. The first of six chapters provides an overview of scheduling; chapter 2 examines specific considerations for scheduling; chapter 3 surveys the scheduling models and their…

  11. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... 78 FR 36507-36508 on June 18, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Inder P.S. Gadh, Senior Risk.... ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The regulations in 7 CFR chapter III are intended, among other things, to prevent the... are described in Sec. 305.3(b)(1). They are: \\1\\ The Treatment Manual is available on the Internet...

  12. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Manual of the treatment described in the notice published at 77 FR 31564-31566 on May 29, 2012. FOR.... 305.3(b), we published a notice \\2\\ in the Federal Register on May 29, 2012 (77 FR 31564-31566, Docket... methyl bromide fumigation of cottonseed for the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f....

  13. Scheduling Reconsidered (Again!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Fowler, William J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer technicians bring to school scheduling a certain naivete regarding the operation of schools. School administrators play a fundamental role of informing technicians about education scheduling needs. (Author)

  14. Iterative refinement scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric

    1992-01-01

    We present a heuristics-based approach to deep space mission scheduling which is modeled on the approach used by expert human schedulers in producing schedules for planetary encounters. New chronological evaluation techniques are used to focus the search by using information gained during the scheduling process to locate, classify, and resolve regions of conflict. Our approach is based on the assumption that during the construction of a schedule there exist several disjunct temporal regions where the demand for one resource type or a single temporal constraint dominates (bottleneck regions). If the scheduler can identify these regions and classify them based on their dominant constraint, then the scheduler can select the scheduling heuristic.

  15. Robust telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Keith; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for building robust telescope schedules that tend not to break. The technique is called Just-In-Case (JIC) scheduling and it implements the common sense idea of being prepared for likely errors, just in case they should occur. The JIC algorithm analyzes a given schedule, determines where it is likely to break, reinvokes a scheduler to generate a contingent schedule for each highly probable break case, and produces a 'multiply contingent' schedule. The technique was developed for an automatic telescope scheduling problem, and the paper presents empirical results showing that Just-In-Case scheduling performs extremely well for this problem.

  16. [Experimental study on the optimal treatment schedule for combination of BRM (immunostimulators, cultured killer cells or interleukin-2) and chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kan, N; Okino, T; Satoh, K; Mise, K; Teramura, Y; Yamasaki, S; Harada, T; Ohgaki, K; Tobe, T

    1990-08-01

    In the present study we tried to reevaluate the optimal combination timing in the experimental treatment with BRM and chemotherapeutic agents. BALB/c mice with advanced malignant ascites tumor (MOPC 104 E) were treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA, 2 mg/kg) and BRM such as immunostimulator (OK-432, Lentinan or Bestatin), interleukin-2 (IL 2) or cultured killer cells. The survival of mice was prolonged when immunostimulators were given before CPA. However, no combined effect was seen when immunostimulators were administered after CPA. Treatment with cultured killer cells and in vivo IL 2 after immunochemotherapy (immunostimulator followed by CPA) was the most effective protocol in which immunostimulator, chemotherapy, killer cells and IL 2 respectively seemed to induce, regulate, supplement and amplify anti-tumor effector cells.

  17. Assessment of the effects of dalteparin on coagulation variables and determination of a treatment schedule for use in cats.

    PubMed

    Schönig, Jette C; Mischke, Reinhard H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine a treatment protocol for SC administration of dalteparin to cats on the basis of currently available detailed pharmacokinetic data and to assess the effect of SC administration of dalteparin to cats on coagulation variables such as activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time, and results for thromboelastometry, compared with effects on anti-activated coagulation factor X (anti-Xa) activity. ANIMALS 6 healthy domestic shorthair cats. PROCEDURES Cats received 14 injections of dalteparin (75 anti-Xa U/kg, SC) at 6-hour intervals. Blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after the first and second injections on days 1, 2, and 4. Anti-Xa activity was measured by use of a chromogenic substrate assay, aPTT and thrombin time were measured by use of an automated coagulometer, and viscoelastic measurements were obtained with thromboelastrometry. RESULTS 2 hours after the second injection, the target peak anti-Xa activity range of 0.5 to 1.0 U/mL was achieved in all cats, whereas median trough values remained below this range. Peak anti-Xa activity had only minimal effects on coagulation variables; the maximum median ratio for aPTT (in relationship to the value before the first dalteparin injection) was 1.23. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that this treatment protocol resulted in reproducible anti-Xa activity in cats that was mostly within the targeted peak range of anti-Xa activity recommended for humans. Treatment in accordance with this protocol may not require routine coagulation monitoring of cats, but this must be confirmed in feline patients. PMID:27347822

  18. Altered therapy schedules in postoperative treatment of patients with malignant gliomas. Twenty year experience of the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Center in Kraków, 1973-1993.

    PubMed

    Gliński, B; Dymek, P; Skołyszewski, J

    1998-01-01

    Results of altered therapy schedules obtained in postoperative treatment of 294 patients with malignant gliomas over last 20 years are presented. During this period 135 patients received Conventional Irradiation and Chemotherapy (CICH), 61 patients received Conventional Irradiation (CI), 59 patients received Split Course High Fractional Dose Irradiation (SCHFDI), and 39 patients received Twice a Day Accelerated Irradiation (TDAI). Actuarial survival rates at 2, 3 and 5 years were 19%, 7%, 0% respectively for patients treated with CICH, and they were 21%, 10%, 0% for CI group, 24%, 12%, 0% for SCHFDI option and 15%, 8%, 0% for TDAI schedule. According to the Cox proportional hazard model, only age was significant factor in prognosis.

  19. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  20. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  1. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  2. Evolution of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Act (NASPER): a public law for balancing treatment of pain and drug abuse and diversion.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Whitfield, Ed; Pallone, Frank

    2005-10-01

    In the United States, physicians are faced with two opposing dilemmas in the treatment of pain - the potential for drug abuse and diversion, and the possible undertreatment of pain. While controlled prescription drugs such as narcotic analgesics, anxiolytics, antidepressants, stimulants, and sedative-hypnotics, play a legitimate role in managing chronic pain and other conditions, the illicit use of prescribed medicines is increasing at epidemic proportions. Diversion and abuse of prescription drugs is costly in terms of addiction, overdose, death, and related criminal activities, but chronic pain carries significant economic, social, and health impact as well. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), as the introducing organization, was joined by several physician and nurse practitioner organizations in support of the National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting (NASPER) Act of 2005, legislation that not only will give physicians an information tool to aid in prescribing controlled substances but also will help identify illicit use and abuse. NASPER is the law that provides for the establishment of a controlled substances monitoring program in each state. The concept for NASPER originated with ASIPP and was modeled after the highly successful Kentucky All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting Program (KASPER). Legislation was introduced in the United States House of Representatives during three different Congresses, the 107th, 108th, and 109th, by Reps. Edward Whitfield (R-KY) and Frank Pallone (D-NJ). It was first introduced in the United States Senate in the 107th Congress by Sen. Tim Hutchinson (R-AK), and in the 108th and 109th by Sens. Jeff Sessions (R-AL) and Dick Durbin (D-IL), with multiple cosponsors in both chambers. NASPER passed the House on July 27, 2005, by voice vote and passed the Senate by unanimous consent on July 29, 2005. President George W. Bush signed NASPER on August 11, 2005, and it became Public Law

  3. 45 CFR 96.137 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment schedule. 96.137 Section 96.137 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.137 Payment schedule. (a) The Block Grant money that may be...

  4. 45 CFR 96.137 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment schedule. 96.137 Section 96.137 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.137 Payment schedule. (a) The Block Grant money that may be...

  5. 45 CFR 96.137 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment schedule. 96.137 Section 96.137 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.137 Payment schedule. (a) The Block Grant money that may be...

  6. 45 CFR 96.137 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment schedule. 96.137 Section 96.137 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.137 Payment schedule. (a) The Block Grant money that may be...

  7. 45 CFR 96.137 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment schedule. 96.137 Section 96.137 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.137 Payment schedule. (a) The Block Grant money that may be...

  8. An Evaluation of the "Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol" and Two Schedules of Treatment Integrity Self-Report: Impact on Implementation and Report Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence-based practice movement has focused on identifying, disseminating, and promoting the adoption of evidence-based interventions. Despite advances in this movement, numerous barriers, such as the lack of treatment integrity assessment methods, remain as challenges in implementation. Accurate teacher self-report could be an efficient…

  9. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  10. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Adults in Easy-to-read Formats ... previous immunizations. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Adults (19 Years and Older) by Age ...

  11. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  12. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  13. Block Scheduling. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2003-01-01

    What are the effects of block scheduling? Results of transitioning from traditional to block scheduling are mixed. Some studies indicate no change in achievement results, nor change in teachers' opinions about instructional strategies. Other studies show that block scheduling doesn't work well for Advanced Placement or Music courses, that "hard to…

  14. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  15. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 141.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water...

  16. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 141.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water...

  17. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 141.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water...

  18. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 141.702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water...

  19. Transit scheduling: Basic and advanced manuals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, R.; Niemeyer, J.; Chisholm, R.

    1998-12-01

    This manual will be of interest to new transit schedulers, experienced schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the scheduling process. The materials clearly describe all steps in the bus and light rail scheduling process, under TCRP Project A-11, Transit Scheduling: A Manual with Materials, research was undertaken by Transportation Management and Design of Solana Beach, California, to prepare a transit scheduling manual that incorporates modern training techniques for bus and light rail transit scheduling. The manual consists of two sections: a basic treatment and an advanced section. The basic-level section is in an instructional format designed primarily for novice schedulers and other transit staff. The advance section covers more complex scheduling requirements. Each section may be used sequentially or independently and is designed to integrate with agency apprenticeship and on-the-job training.

  20. DSN Scheduling Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  1. Prediction of nonresponsiveness to medium-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (1 g/kg) treatment: an effective and safe schedule of acute treatment for Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung Pil; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Kyu Jin; Oh, Jin Hee; Han, Ji Whan; Lee, Kyung Yil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Medium-dose (1 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is effective in the majority of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) but some patients who do not respond to medium-dose IVIG are at high risk for the development of coronary artery lesions (CALs). The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical predictors associated with unresponsiveness to medium-dose IVIG and the development of CALs. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 91 children with KD who were treated with medium-dose IVIG at our institution from January 2004 to December 2013. We classified the patients into responders (group 1; n=68) and nonresponders (group 2; n=23). We compared demographic, laboratory, and echocardiographic data between the 2 groups. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified 6 variables as predictors for resistance to medium-dose IVIG. We generated a predictive scoring system assigning 1 point each for percentage of neutrophils ≥65%, C-reactive protein≥100 mg/L, aspartate aminotransferase≥100 IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase≥100 IU/L, as well as 2 points for less than 5 days of illness, and serum sodium level≤136 mmol/L. Using a cutoff point of ≥4 with this scoring system, we could predict nonresponsiveness to medium-dose IVIG with 74% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Conclusion If a patient has a low-risk score in this system, medium-dose IVIG can be recommended as the initial treatment. Through this process, we can minimize the adverse effects of high-dose IVIG and incidence of CALs. PMID:27186228

  2. NASA scheduling technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  3. Integrated resource scheduling in a distributed scheduling environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David; Hall, Gardiner

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station era presents a highly-complex multi-mission planning and scheduling environment exercised over a highly distributed system. In order to automate the scheduling process, customers require a mechanism for communicating their scheduling requirements to NASA. A request language that a remotely-located customer can use to specify his scheduling requirements to a NASA scheduler, thus automating the customer-scheduler interface, is described. This notation, Flexible Envelope-Request Notation (FERN), allows the user to completely specify his scheduling requirements such as resource usage, temporal constraints, and scheduling preferences and options. The FERN also contains mechanisms for representing schedule and resource availability information, which are used in the inter-scheduler inconsistency resolution process. Additionally, a scheduler is described that can accept these requests, process them, generate schedules, and return schedule and resource availability information to the requester. The Request-Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) was designed to function either as an independent scheduler or as a scheduling element in a network of schedulers. When used in a network of schedulers, each ROSE communicates schedule and resource usage information to other schedulers via the FERN notation, enabling inconsistencies to be resolved between schedulers. Individual ROSE schedules are created by viewing the problem as a constraint satisfaction problem with a heuristically guided search strategy.

  4. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  5. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  6. Wave scheduling - Decentralized scheduling of task forces in multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tilborg, A. M.; Wittie, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Decentralized operating systems that control large multicomputers need techniques to schedule competing parallel programs called task forces. Wave scheduling is a probabilistic technique that uses a hierarchical distributed virtual machine to schedule task forces by recursively subdividing and issuing wavefront-like commands to processing elements capable of executing individual tasks. Wave scheduling is highly resistant to processing element failures because it uses many distributed schedulers that dynamically assign scheduling responsibilities among themselves. The scheduling technique is trivially extensible as more processing elements join the host multicomputer. A simple model of scheduling cost is used by every scheduler node to distribute scheduling activity and minimize wasted processing capacity by using perceived workload to vary decentralized scheduling rules. At low to moderate levels of network activity, wave scheduling is only slightly less efficient than a central scheduler in its ability to direct processing elements to accomplish useful work.

  7. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  8. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  9. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  10. Fundamentals of School Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroth, Gwen

    The ability of the school administrator to schedule teachers' and students' time so that each receives the most from each school day has become an essential skill. This book has been prepared for school administrators at the elementary and middle school levels who need appropriate management techniques for scheduling students into classes. Chapter…

  11. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  12. What's behind Block Scheduling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierke, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of block scheduling in secondary schools focuses on its impact on the school library media center. Discusses increased demand for library services, scheduling classes, the impact on librarians' time, teaching information technology, local area networks, and the increased pace of activity. (LRW)

  13. DSN Resource Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  14. Comparing Pictorial and Video Modeling Activity Schedules during Transitions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of two different visual schedule strategies. In the context of an alternating treatments design, static-picture schedules were compared to video based activity schedules as supports for three middle school aged students with autism. Students used the visual schedules to transition between activities in…

  15. Comparing Pictorial and Video-Modeling Activity Schedules during Transitions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of two different visual schedule strategies. In the context of an alternating treatments design, static-picture schedules were compared to video based activity schedules as supports for three middle school aged students with autism. Students used the visual schedules to transition between activities in…

  16. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  17. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  18. Quantitative analysis of performance on a progressive-ratio schedule: effects of reinforcer type, food deprivation and acute treatment with Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Olarte-Sánchez, C M; Valencia-Torres, L; Cassaday, H J; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2015-04-01

    Rats' performance on a progressive-ratio schedule maintained by sucrose (0.6M, 50 μl) and corn oil (100%, 25 μl) reinforcers was assessed using a model derived from Killeen's (1994) theory of schedule-controlled behaviour, 'Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement'. When the rats were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights, the parameter expressing incentive value, a, was greater for the corn oil than for the sucrose reinforcer; the response-time parameter, δ, did not differ between the reinforcer types, but a parameter derived from the linear waiting principle (T0), indicated that the minimum post-reinforcement pause was longer for corn oil than for sucrose. When the rats were maintained under free-feeding conditions, a was reduced, indicating a reduction of incentive value, but δ was unaltered. Under the food-deprived condition, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) increased the value of a for sucrose but not for corn oil, suggesting a selective enhancement of the incentive value of sucrose; none of the other parameters was affected by THC. The results provide new information about the sensitivity of the model's parameters to deprivation and reinforcer quality, and suggest that THC selectively enhances the incentive value of sucrose. PMID:25637881

  19. Quantitative analysis of performance on a progressive-ratio schedule: effects of reinforcer type, food deprivation and acute treatment with Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Olarte-Sánchez, C M; Valencia-Torres, L; Cassaday, H J; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2015-04-01

    Rats' performance on a progressive-ratio schedule maintained by sucrose (0.6M, 50 μl) and corn oil (100%, 25 μl) reinforcers was assessed using a model derived from Killeen's (1994) theory of schedule-controlled behaviour, 'Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement'. When the rats were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights, the parameter expressing incentive value, a, was greater for the corn oil than for the sucrose reinforcer; the response-time parameter, δ, did not differ between the reinforcer types, but a parameter derived from the linear waiting principle (T0), indicated that the minimum post-reinforcement pause was longer for corn oil than for sucrose. When the rats were maintained under free-feeding conditions, a was reduced, indicating a reduction of incentive value, but δ was unaltered. Under the food-deprived condition, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) increased the value of a for sucrose but not for corn oil, suggesting a selective enhancement of the incentive value of sucrose; none of the other parameters was affected by THC. The results provide new information about the sensitivity of the model's parameters to deprivation and reinforcer quality, and suggest that THC selectively enhances the incentive value of sucrose.

  20. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. H.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; McCarty, M. T.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

    2011-07-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope's (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in production use since September 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while maintaining the GBT's flexibility, improving data quality, and minimizing any undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria, observer availability and qualifications, three-dimensional weather forecasts, and telescope state, the DSS software is capable of optimally scheduling observers 24 to 48 hours in advance on a telescope having a wide-range of capabilities in a geographical location with variable weather patterns. Recent improvements for the GBT include an expanded frequency coverage (0.390-90 GHz), proper treatment of fully sampled array receivers, increasingly diverse observing criteria, the ability to account for atmospheric instability from clouds, and new tools for scheduling staff to control and interact with generated schedules and the underlying database.

  1. Reinforcement Schedule Thinning Following Functional Communication Training: Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends the Tiger, Hanley, and Bruzek (2008) review of functional communication training (FCT) by reviewing the published literature on reinforcement schedule thinning following FCT. As noted by Tiger et al. and others, schedule thinning may be necessary when the newly acquired communication response occurs excessively, to the extent that reinforcing it consistently is not practical in the natural environment. We provide a review of this literature including a discussion of each of the more commonly used schedule arrangements used for this purpose, outcomes obtained, a description of methods for progressing toward the terminal schedule, and a description of supplemental treatment components aimed at maintaining low levels of problem behavior during schedule thinning. Recommendations for schedule thinning are then provided. Finally, conceptual issues related to the reemergence of problem behavior during schedule thinning and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22532899

  2. Prototype resupply scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Steve; Hughes, Angi; Byrd, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Resupply scheduling for the Space Station presents some formidable logistics problems. One of the most basic problems is assigning supplies to a series of shuttle resupply missions. A prototype logistics expert system which constructs resupply schedules was developed. This prototype is able to reconstruct feasible resupply plans. In addition, analysts can use the system to evaluate the impact of adding, deleting or modifying launches, cargo space, experiments, etc.

  3. Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling. Optimization based prototype scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Surender

    1991-01-01

    Polynomial optimization techniques for activity scheduling (optimization based prototype scheduler) are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; need and viability of polynomial time techniques for SNC (Space Network Control); an intrinsic characteristic of SN scheduling problem; expected characteristics of the schedule; optimization based scheduling approach; single resource algorithms; decomposition of multiple resource problems; prototype capabilities, characteristics, and test results; computational characteristics; some features of prototyped algorithms; and some related GSFC references.

  4. A comparison of dense-to-lean and fixed lean schedules of alternative reinforcement and extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P; Toole, Lisa M; Long, Ethan S; Bowman, Lynn G; Lieving, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current investigation, two methods for thinning alternative reinforcement schedules were compared for 3 clients who exhibited severe problem behavior. In the dense-to-lean (DTL) condition, reinforcement was delivered on relatively dense schedules (using noncontingent reinforcement for 1 participant and functional communication training for 2 participants), followed by systematic schedule thinning to progressively leaner schedules. During the fixed lean (FL) condition, reinforcement was delivered on lean schedules (equivalent to the terminal schedule of the DTL condition). The FL condition produced a quicker attainment of individual treatment goals for 2 of the 3 participants. The results are discussed in terms of the potential utility of using relatively lean schedules at treatment outset. PMID:15529889

  5. Effects on nurse retention. An experiment with scheduling.

    PubMed

    Choi, T; Jameson, H; Brekke, M L; Podratz, R O; Mundahl, H

    1986-11-01

    Four randomly selected nursing groups were assigned to three experimental groups and one control group to test the relative impact of three experimental nursing schedules, using a before-after design. The three experimental treatments were straight shifts; regular schedule but with unlimited requests for changes; and individual station-designed schedules. Before treatment, score differences between the experimental and control groups were limited to one of 36 highly reliable scales specifically constructed and pretested to gauge effects of scheduling. This single difference was judged not to be significantly related to experimental outcomes. Because of a poor job market situation, retention was not affected significantly by any of the three treatments, but root causes of turnover were. Results of the experiment showed that individual station-designed schedules triggered the most changes that favor retention. In contrast, the other two treatments unexpectedly increased nurses' own sense of marketability and reduced teamwork among nurses. Reasons accounting for the results are discussed in the text.

  6. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  7. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  8. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  9. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  10. Online stochastic optimization of radiotherapy patient scheduling.

    PubMed

    Legrain, Antoine; Fortin, Marie-Andrée; Lahrichi, Nadia; Rousseau, Louis-Martin

    2015-06-01

    The effective management of a cancer treatment facility for radiation therapy depends mainly on optimizing the use of the linear accelerators. In this project, we schedule patients on these machines taking into account their priority for treatment, the maximum waiting time before the first treatment, and the treatment duration. We collaborate with the Centre Intégré de Cancérologie de Laval to determine the best scheduling policy. Furthermore, we integrate the uncertainty related to the arrival of patients at the center. We develop a hybrid method combining stochastic optimization and online optimization to better meet the needs of central planning. We use information on the future arrivals of patients to provide an accurate picture of the expected utilization of resources. Results based on real data show that our method outperforms the policies typically used in treatment centers.

  11. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  12. Intelligent retail logistics scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.; Jewers, K.; Codd, A.; Alcock, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Supply Chain Integrated Ordering Network (SCION) Depot Bookings system automates the planning and scheduling of perishable and non-perishable commodities and the vehicles that carry them into J. Sainsbury depots. This is a strategic initiative, enabling the business to make the key move from weekly to daily ordering. The system is mission critical, managing the inwards flow of commodities from suppliers into J. Sainsbury`s depots. The system leverages Al techniques to provide a business solution that meets challenging functional and performance needs. The SCION Depot Bookings system is operational providing schedules for 22 depots across the UK.

  13. Parent Interview Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    This 116-item interview schedule designed for parents who failed to respond to the Questionnaire for Parents, is individually administered to the mother of the child of elementary school age. It consists of scales measuring 14 parent variables plus a section devoted to demographic variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the child, (2)…

  14. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  15. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  16. Class Schedules--Computer Loaded or Student Self-Scheduled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Edward F.

    1979-01-01

    In the two-step process of student scheduling, the initial phase of course selection is the most important. At Chesterton High School in Indiana, student self-scheduling is preferred over computer loading. (Author/MLF)

  17. Completable scheduling: An integrated approach to planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervasio, Melinda T.; Dejong, Gerald F.

    1992-01-01

    The planning problem has traditionally been treated separately from the scheduling problem. However, as more realistic domains are tackled, it becomes evident that the problem of deciding on an ordered set of tasks to achieve a set of goals cannot be treated independently of the problem of actually allocating resources to the tasks. Doing so would result in losing the robustness and flexibility needed to deal with imperfectly modeled domains. Completable scheduling is an approach which integrates the two problems by allowing an a priori planning module to defer particular planning decisions, and consequently the associated scheduling decisions, until execution time. This allows a completable scheduling system to maximize plan flexibility by allowing runtime information to be taken into consideration when making planning and scheduling decision. Furthermore, through the criteria of achievability placed on deferred decision, a completable scheduling system is able to retain much of the goal-directedness and guarantees of achievement afforded by a priori planning. The completable scheduling approach is further enhanced by the use of contingent explanation-based learning, which enables a completable scheduling system to learn general completable plans from example and improve its performance through experience. Initial experimental results show that completable scheduling outperforms classical scheduling as well as pure reactive scheduling in a simple scheduling domain.

  18. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  19. The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness.

  20. Performance Improvement in Behavioral Health Care: Collateral Effects of Planned Treatment Integrity Observations as an Applied Example of Schedule-Induced Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Derek D.; Fienup, Daniel M.; Luiselli, James K.; Pace, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    With rising interest in the role of treatment integrity on student outcomes, research has primarily focused on isolating the techniques and procedures necessary to improve staff's acquisition and maintenance of adequate levels of integrity. Despite increasing numbers of publications on this topic, there has been little discussion of the variables…

  1. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  2. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  3. FlexMod Scheduling Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Flexible modular scheduling (flex mod)--a schedule philosophy and system that has been in place at Wausau West High School in Wausau, Wisconsin, for the last 35 years and aligns nicely with current research on student learning--is getting more and more attention from high school administrators across the country. Flexible modular scheduling was…

  4. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  5. Scheduling a C-Section

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill ... develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a problem? ...

  6. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books.... (Schedule K-1), Balance Sheets per Books (Schedule L), Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With...

  7. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed. PMID:26150349

  8. Revisiting conjugate schedules.

    PubMed

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T

    2015-07-01

    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  9. Effects of bright light treatment on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors of diurnal rodents maintained on a short daylight schedule.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Tal; Einat, Haim; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2009-08-12

    A possible relationship between circadian rhythms and affective disorders has been strongly implicated, but understanding of the biological basis of such a relationship demands the utilization of appropriate animal models. Most research is performed with nocturnal rodents while some of the effects of daylight cycles or melatonin levels in nocturnal animals may differ greatly from effects in diurnal species (including humans). Recent studies suggested the diurnal fat Sand rat as an appropriate model animal to study circadian mechanisms involvement in mood and anxiety disorders, especially seasonal affective disorder (SAD). These studies demonstrated that Sand rats chronically exposed to short daylight (SD), or to melatonin regimen mimicing short daylight, show anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. These findings established face and construct validity for the model. The present study evaluated predictive validity by testing the effects of bright light treatment in Sand rats exposed to chronic SD. Sand rats maintained on SD for 3 weeks were treated with 1h daily 3000lx light for 3 weeks, 1h after "lights on" (during the light phase of the light/dark cycle), and their behavior tested in the sweet solution preference test (SSP), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) and compared with control animals without treatment. Results indicate that bright light treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and depression-like behavior in the FST but not SSP. It is suggested that the results support the possibility that the diurnal Sand rat might be a preferred model animal for the study of SAD.

  10. Automated Platform Management System Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1990-01-01

    The Platform Management System was established to coordinate the operation of platform systems and instruments. The management functions are split between ground and space components. Since platforms are to be out of contact with the ground more than the manned base, the on-board functions are required to be more autonomous than those of the manned base. Under this concept, automated replanning and rescheduling, including on-board real-time schedule maintenance and schedule repair, are required to effectively and efficiently meet Space Station Freedom mission goals. In a FY88 study, we developed several promising alternatives for automated platform planning and scheduling. We recommended both a specific alternative and a phased approach to automated platform resource scheduling. Our recommended alternative was based upon use of exactly the same scheduling engine in both ground and space components of the platform management system. Our phased approach recommendation was based upon evolutionary development of the platform. In the past year, we developed platform scheduler requirements and implemented a rapid prototype of a baseline platform scheduler. Presently we are rehosting this platform scheduler rapid prototype and integrating the scheduler prototype into two Goddard Space Flight Center testbeds, as the ground scheduler in the Scheduling Concepts, Architectures, and Networks Testbed and as the on-board scheduler in the Platform Management System Testbed. Using these testbeds, we will investigate rescheduling issues, evaluate operational performance and enhance the platform scheduler prototype to demonstrate our evolutionary approach to automated platform scheduling. The work described in this paper was performed prior to Space Station Freedom rephasing, transfer of platform responsibility to Code E, and other recently discussed changes. We neither speculate on these changes nor attempt to predict the impact of the final decisions. As a consequence some of our

  11. Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Madanitsa, Mwayiwawo; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; van Eijk, Anna M.; Khairallah, Carole; Ali, Doreen; Pace, Cheryl; Smedley, James; Thwai, Kyaw-Lay; Levitt, Brandt; Kang’ombe, Arthur; Faragher, Brian; Taylor, Steve M.; Meshnick, Steve; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP. Methods and Findings This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP) arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk]) in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy) and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher). Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae). The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9%) and IPTp-SP (28.8%) arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI −3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90–1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92–1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71–1.20], p = 0.543). The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference

  12. Prospective randomized study of various irradiation doses and fractionation schedules in the treatment of inoperable non-oat-cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, C.A.; Stanley, K.; Rubin, P.; Kramer, S.; Brady, L.; Perez-Tamayo, R.; Brown, G.S.; Concannon, J.; Rotman, M.; Seydel, H.G.

    1980-06-01

    Analysis is presented of a prospective randomized study involving 365 patients with histologically proven unresectable non-oat-cell carcinoma of the lung treated with deffinitive radiotherapy. The patients were radomized to one of four treatment regimens: 4000 rad split course, or 4000, 5000, or 6000-rad continuous courses in five fractions per week. Ninety to 100 patients were accessioned to each group. The one-year survival rate is 50% and the two-year survival rate, 25%. The patients treated with the split course have the lowest survival rate in comparison with the other groups. The complete and partial local regression of tumor was 49% in patients treated with 4000 rad and 55% in the groups treated with 5000 and 6000 rad. For patients who achieved complete regression of the tumor following irradiation, the two-year survival rate is 40%, in contrast to 20% for those with partial regression, and no survivors among the patients with stable or progressive disease. The incidence of intrathoracic recurrence was 33% for patients treated with 6000 rad, 39% for those receiving 5000 rad, and 44 to 49% for those treated with a 4000-rad split or continuous course. At present, the data stongly suggest that patients treated with 5000 or 6000 rad have a better response, tumor control, and survival rate than those receiving lower doses. Patients with high performance status or with tumors in earlier stages have a two-year survival rate of approx. 40%, in comparison with 20% for other patients. The various irradiation regimens have been well tolerated, with complications being slightly higher in the 4000-rad split course group and in the 6000-rad continuous course group. The most frequent complications have been pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and dyspagia due to transient esophagitis. Further investigation will be necessary before the optimal management of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma by irradiation is established.

  13. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  14. Schedule-induced licking during multiple schedules1

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Yasuko Filby

    1972-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia was studied in rats bar pressing under two-component multiple schedules of food reinforcement. The first component of the multiple schedule was a variable-interval 1-min schedule throughout the experiment. The schedule comprising the second component was varied over blocks of sessions in terms of rate and magnitude of reinforcement, and was either variable-interval 3-min (one pellet), variable-interval 3-min (three pellets), variable-interval 1-min (one pellet), or extinction. Water intake per session varied with the rate of reinforcement in the schedule comprising the second component and was highest when the schedule was variable-interval 1-min. Both bar-pressing behavior and licking behavior showed behavioral interactions between the two components of the multiple schedules. With magnitude of reinforcement held constant, a matching relationship was observed between lick rate and reinforcement rate; the relative frequency of licks in the constant component matched the relative frequency of reinforcement in that component. Bar pressing, however, showed only a moderate degree of relativity matching. During the schedule-induced licking, a burst of licking followed each delivery of a pellet (post-prandial drinking). The duration of these bursts of licking was observed to be a function of the inter-reinforcement interval. PMID:16811598

  15. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  16. DTS: Building custom, intelligent schedulers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Mayer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    DTS is a decision-theoretic scheduler, built on top of a flexible toolkit -- this paper focuses on how the toolkit might be reused in future NASA mission schedulers. The toolkit includes a user-customizable scheduling interface, and a 'Just-For-You' optimization engine. The customizable interface is built on two metaphors: objects and dynamic graphs. Objects help to structure problem specifications and related data, while dynamic graphs simplify the specification of graphical schedule editors (such as Gantt charts). The interface can be used with any 'back-end' scheduler, through dynamically-loaded code, interprocess communication, or a shared database. The 'Just-For-You' optimization engine includes user-specific utility functions, automatically compiled heuristic evaluations, and a postprocessing facility for enforcing scheduling policies. The optimization engine is based on BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver (1,2), which introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems.

  17. The LSST OCS scheduler design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco; Schumacher, German

    2014-08-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a complex system of systems with demanding performance and operational requirements. The nature of its scientific goals requires a special Observatory Control System (OCS) and particularly a very specialized automatic Scheduler. The OCS Scheduler is an autonomous software component that drives the survey, selecting the detailed sequence of visits in real time, taking into account multiple science programs, the current external and internal conditions, and the history of observations. We have developed a SysML model for the OCS Scheduler that fits coherently in the OCS and LSST integrated model. We have also developed a prototype of the Scheduler that implements the scheduling algorithms in the simulation environment provided by the Operations Simulator, where the environment and the observatory are modeled with real weather data and detailed kinematics parameters. This paper expands on the Scheduler architecture and the proposed algorithms to achieve the survey goals.

  18. Minimizing metastatic risk in radiotherapy fractionation schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Leder, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Metastasis is the process by which cells from a primary tumor disperse and form new tumors at distant anatomical locations. The treatment and prevention of metastatic cancer remains an extremely challenging problem. This work introduces a novel biologically motivated objective function to the radiation optimization community that takes into account metastatic risk instead of the status of the primary tumor. In this work, we consider the problem of developing fractionated irradiation schedules that minimize production of metastatic cancer cells while keeping normal tissue damage below an acceptable level. A dynamic programming framework is utilized to determine the optimal fractionation scheme. We evaluated our approach on a breast cancer case using the heart and the lung as organs-at-risk (OAR). For small tumor α /β values, hypo-fractionated schedules were optimal, which is consistent with standard models. However, for relatively larger α /β values, we found the type of schedule depended on various parameters such as the time when metastatic risk was evaluated, the α /β values of the OARs, and the normal tissue sparing factors. Interestingly, in contrast to standard models, hypo-fractionated and semi-hypo-fractionated schedules (large initial doses with doses tapering off with time) were suggested even with large tumor α/β values. Numerical results indicate the potential for significant reduction in metastatic risk.

  19. COMPASS: An Ada based scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, Mary Beth; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    COMPASS is a generic scheduling system developed by McDonnell Douglas and funded by the Software Technology Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center. The motivation behind COMPASS is to illustrate scheduling technology and provide a basis from which custom scheduling systems can be built. COMPASS was written in Ada to promote readability and to conform to DOD standards. COMPASS has some unique characteristics that distinguishes it from commercial products. This paper discusses these characteristics and uses them to illustrate some differences between scheduling tools.

  20. Chemical Kiloton Experiment schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will conduct a large chemical explosion (CE) called the Chemical Kiloton Experiment (CKE) in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test site. The explosion will involve a 30/70 Emulsion-to-ANFO blend of 1,147,000 kg to supply 1 kt, and is scheduled for January 29. It will be heavily instrumented with close-in, free-field surface seismic and regional seismic measurements. The CKE is located near several DNA-sponsored nuclear explosions (NEs) and will provide a unique opportunity for fundamental studies on explosion phenomenology (for example, CE/NE equivalence), scaling with CEs and NEs, and integration of multiple monitoring methods. This experiment will also address some critical proliferation monitoring problems such as CE masking of NEs, CEs as false alarms, CEs for regional calibration, and on-site inspection.

  1. Optimum connection management scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2000-08-01

    Connection Management plays a key role in both distributed 'local' network-centric and 'globally' connected info- centric systems. The role of Connection Management is to provide seamless demand-based sharing of the information products. For optimum distributed information fusion performance, these systems must minimize communications delays and maximize message throughput, and at the same time take into account relative-sensors-targets geometrical constraints and data pedigree. In order to achieve overall distributed 'network' effectiveness, these systems must be adaptive, and be able to distribute data s needed in real- time. A system concept will be described which provides optimum capacity-based information scheduling. A specific example, based on a satellite channel, is used to illustrate simulated performance results and their effects on fusion systems performance.

  2. Visually Exploring Transportation Schedules.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Cesar; Guo, Zhan; Silva, Cláudio T; Freire, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Public transportation schedules are designed by agencies to optimize service quality under multiple constraints. However, real service usually deviates from the plan. Therefore, transportation analysts need to identify, compare and explain both eventual and systemic performance issues that must be addressed so that better timetables can be created. The purely statistical tools commonly used by analysts pose many difficulties due to the large number of attributes at trip- and station-level for planned and real service. Also challenging is the need for models at multiple scales to search for patterns at different times and stations, since analysts do not know exactly where or when relevant patterns might emerge and need to compute statistical summaries for multiple attributes at different granularities. To aid in this analysis, we worked in close collaboration with a transportation expert to design TR-EX, a visual exploration tool developed to identify, inspect and compare spatio-temporal patterns for planned and real transportation service. TR-EX combines two new visual encodings inspired by Marey's Train Schedule: Trips Explorer for trip-level analysis of frequency, deviation and speed; and Stops Explorer for station-level study of delay, wait time, reliability and performance deficiencies such as bunching. To tackle overplotting and to provide a robust representation for a large numbers of trips and stops at multiple scales, the system supports variable kernel bandwidths to achieve the level of detail required by users for different tasks. We justify our design decisions based on specific analysis needs of transportation analysts. We provide anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of TR-EX through a series of case studies that explore NYC subway service, which illustrate how TR-EX can be used to confirm hypotheses and derive new insights through visual exploration.

  3. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  4. Block Schedule: Breaking the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Mike

    As of 1996, Chaparral High School in Las Vegas, Nevada, was in the fourth year of a radical restructuring effort. The school changed from a 6-period day, composed of 51-minute periods, to an alternating day schedule, composed of 3 102-minute periods per day. This report describes how the school developed and implemented the new schedule. Faculty…

  5. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  6. The effects of repeated treatment with 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on the lever press responding of the rat under FI and DRL schedules of food reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Evenden, J; Ryan, C; Palejko, W

    1995-07-01

    In general, the effects of 8-OH-DPAT on the body temperature of rats or in inducing the 5-HT syndrome show rapid tolerance. However, in contrast, the 8-OH-DPAT-induced increase in the activity of rats in a two-way active avoidance task only occurs after repeated administration, i.e. there is sensitisation. The present study was conducted to examine whether this developing hyperactivity may also be expressed as increased rates of lever press responding, and if so, under which conditions it occurs. Rats were trained to press levers under fixed interval 60-s (FI 60) or differential reinforcement of low rates 20-s or 72-s (DRL20, DRL72) schedules of food reinforcement. Groups of trained rats were then treated daily 5 min before testing with doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg 8-OH-DPAT SC for 10-21 days. In all three procedures, in the first couple of days of drug treatment, 8-OH-DPAT generally suppressed lever pressing in a dose-dependent manner. Thereafter, tolerance to this effect was seen to a greater (DRL20, DRL72) or lesser (FI60) extent. Some evidence for stimulation of low rates of lever press responding was seen after 10 days treatment under FI60, but not in DRL20 or DRL72 during short 30 to 60 min long daytime tests although in the latter case, the rats responded to the stimulating effects of 0.8 mg/kg SC amphetamine administered once at the end of the experiment. However, when rats were allowed to respond under DRL72 testing for 12 h during the night, after 10 days treatment a clear stimulation of lever pressing was observed. This stimulation was not specific to lever pressing, however, since a stimulation of entries into the food tray and licking were also seen. From these results, it may be concluded that the stimulating effect of 8-OH-DPAT after repeated administration may be expressed as increased rates of lever pressing, but not under all conditions in which psychomotor stimulation by amphetamine is seen. The potential for 8-OH-DPAT and related compounds

  7. Scheduling Software for MS-DOS Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David H.; Prior, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Identifies four microcomputer-based software packages for scheduling and evaluates their usefulness for scheduling employees in a library setting. Evaluation criteria are applied to (1) Schedule Master, from Schedule Master Corporation; (2) Schedule Plus, from Cyclesoft, Inc.; (3) Who Works When, from Newport Systems; and (4) Working Hours, from…

  8. Solve Your Scheduling Puzzle without a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toy, Steve

    1982-01-01

    The small Lone Star school district in Otis (Colorado) developed a year-long process for creating its master course schedule. The scheduling process includes a needs assessment, a curriculum scheduling committee of teachers and students, a trial run of the schedule, and board approval of the master schedule. (RW)

  9. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  10. Radiosensitizing Properties of Bortezomib Depend on Therapeutic Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Labussiere, Marianne; Pinel, Sophie; Vandamme, Marc; Plenat, Francois; Chastagner, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of the bortezomib (BTZ) on malignant glioma radiosensitivity in two xenograft models. Methods and Materials: For TCG3 and U87 models, we evaluated the antitumor activity of BTZ, radiotherapy, and BTZ plus radiothearapy according to two therapeutic schedules: a 'nonfractionated' schedule corresponding to a single dose of treatment per week, and a 'fractionated' schedule corresponding to the same weekly dose divided into 5 fractions. Treatments influence on proliferation and apoptosis indexes, cell cycle distribution, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway were explored. Results: The radiosensitizing properties of BTZ observed with the nonfractionated schedule were lost with the fractionated schedule. Bortezomib-mediated radiosensitization was associated with an increased apoptosis response and major changes in cell proliferation, but the nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway was not involved. Most of the cellular effects induced by BTZ when tumors received a single irradiation were cancelled out if radiotherapy was fractionated. Conclusion: The influence of BTZ on glioma radiosensitivity seems to depend on the treatment fractionation schedule, emphasizing the need to clarify the mechanisms underlying BTZ's radiosensitizing effects before further clinical trials are initiated.

  11. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: A New Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, K.; Balser, D.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Condon, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; Shelton, A.; Braatz, J.; Harnett, J.; Maddalena, R.; Mello, M.; Sessoms, E.

    2009-09-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is implementing a new Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) designed to maximize the observing efficiency of the telescope while ensuring that none of the flexibility and ease of use of the GBT is harmed and that the data quality of observations is not adversely affected. To accomplish this, the GBT DSS is implementing a dynamic scheduling system which schedules observers, rather than running scripts. The DSS works by breaking each project into one or more sessions which have associated observing criteria such as RA, Dec, and frequency. Potential observers may also enter dates when members of their team will not be available for either on-site or remote observing. The scheduling algorithm uses those data, along with the predicted weather, to determine the most efficient schedule for the GBT. The DSS provides all observers at least 24 hours notice of their upcoming observing. In the uncommon (< 20%) case where the actual weather does not match the predictions, a backup project, chosen from the database, is run instead. Here we give an overview of the GBT DSS project, including the ranking and scheduling algorithms for the sessions, the scheduling probabilities generation, the web framework for the system, and an overview of the results from the beta testing which were held from June - September, 2008.

  12. Scheduling prioritized patients in emergency department laboratories.

    PubMed

    Azadeh, A; Hosseinabadi Farahani, M; Torabzadeh, S; Baghersad, M

    2014-11-01

    This research focuses on scheduling patients in emergency department laboratories according to the priority of patients' treatments, determined by the triage factor. The objective is to minimize the total waiting time of patients in the emergency department laboratories with emphasis on patients with severe conditions. The problem is formulated as a flexible open shop scheduling problem and a mixed integer linear programming model is proposed. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for solving the problem. Then, the response surface methodology is applied for tuning the GA parameters. The algorithm is tested on a set of real data from an emergency department. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of the emergency department by reducing the total waiting time of prioritized patients.

  13. Unintended effects of reimbursement schedules in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Douven, Rudy; Remmerswaal, Minke; Mosca, Ilaria

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the introduction of a reimbursement schedule for self-employed mental health care providers in the Netherlands in 2008. The reimbursement schedule follows a discontinuous discrete step function-once the provider has passed a treatment duration threshold the fee is flat until a next threshold is reached. We use administrative mental health care data of the total Dutch population from 2008 to 2010. We find an "efficiency" effect: on the flat part of the fee schedule providers reduce treatment duration by 2 to 7% compared to a control group. However, we also find unintended effects: providers treat patients longer to reach a next threshold and obtain a higher fee. The data shows gaps and bunches in the distribution function of treatment durations, just before and after a threshold. About 11 to 13% of treatments are shifted over a next threshold, resulting in a cost increase of approximately 7 to 9%. PMID:25974274

  14. Transportation Baseline Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

    2000-01-01

    The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

  15. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children Recommend on Facebook ... any questions. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Children (Birth through 6 years) Schedule for ...

  16. Effects of three anthelmintic schedules on the incidence of colic in horses.

    PubMed

    Uhlinger, C

    1990-07-01

    Four privately owned herds (25 to 49 animals per herd) were used in a five-year trial designed to evaluate the effect of anthelmintic schedules on the incidence of colic. These herds had been treated bi-monthly with non-ivermectin, non-benzimidazole drugs for two years before the trial. Prior parasitological studies showed that they had substantial pre-treatment faecal egg counts (900 to 2200 eggs per gramme), and that they were infected with benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomes. In Years 1 and 2 of the trial, all herds (A, B, C, D) were treated bi-monthly with non-ivermectin anthelmintics (Schedule I). In Years 3 to 5, Herd A received monthly non-ivermectin anthelmintics (Schedule II) and Herd C was treated with bi-monthly ivermectin (Schedule III). Herd B was treated with Schedule II in Years 3 and 4 and Schedule III in Year 5. Herd D was maintained on Schedule I throughout the study period. In each herd, the incidence of colic, while on Schedule I, was compared to the incidence while on Schedule II or III. The risk of colic for horses on Schedule I was 2.61 to 13.04 times that of the same horses while on Schedule II and 2.27 to 9.64 times that of the same horses while on Schedule III. In Herd D, treated according to Schedule I for five years, the incidence of colic did not vary significantly throughout the study period. More effective anthelmintic treatment schedules decreased the incidence of colic in these herds, supporting the conclusion that bimonthly treatment with non-ivermectin drugs may not maximise horses' health in all management conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. 5 CFR 532.254 - Special schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exist in the private sector that are incompatible with regular schedule practices, and serious... authorization for a special schedule shall include instructions for its construction, application,...

  19. Instantiating a mechatronic valve schedule for a hydrocephalus shunt.

    PubMed

    Momani, Lina; Alkharabsheh, Abdel Rahman; Al-Zuibi, Nayel; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2009-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is caused by blockage or reabsorption difficulty that upsets the natural balance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, resulting in a build-up of the fluid in the ventricles of the brain. One of the recent advances in the treatment of hydrocephalus is the invention of a mechatronic valve. The desirability of such valve lies in the potential of having shunt that not only control hydrocephalus but also seeks to treat it. In contrast to current valves, such a valve is regulated based on a time based schedule not on the differential pressure across the valve. Thus the effectiveness of such valve is highly dependant on selecting an appropriate valve schedule that delivers personal dynamic treatment for every individual patient. Providing such a schedule is likely to be one of the obstacles facing the implementation of the mechatronic valve. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to help in developing such a schedule that dynamically change based on the patients' own intracranial pressure data and a novel figure of merit, thus providing the physician with an easy tool that facilitate the use of the mechatronic valve. The algorithm was implemented in M ATLAB and Simulink. Real ICP data for three hydrocephalus patients (before shunting) were used to test this algorithm and the resulted schedules along with the resulted intracranial pressure data have illustrated the effectiveness of the algorithm in providing schedule that maintain ICP within the normal limits. PMID:19963474

  20. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  1. Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Posadas-Sanchez, Diana; Johansen, Espen Borgå; Thrailkill, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Pigeons’ pecks produced grain under progressive ratio (PR) schedules, whose response requirements increased systematically within sessions. Experiment 1 compared arithmetic (AP) and geometric (GP) progressions. Response rates increased as a function of the component ratio requirement, then decreased linearly (AP) or asymptotically (GP). Experiment 2 found the linear decrease in AP rates to be relatively independent of step size. Experiment 3 showed pausing to be controlled by the prior component length, which predicted the differences between PR and regressive ratio schedules found in Experiment 4. When the longest component ratios were signaled by different key colors, rates at moderate ratios increased, demonstrating control by forthcoming context. Models for response rate and pause duration described performance on AP schedules; GP schedules required an additional parameter representing the contextual reinforcement. PMID:19159161

  2. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, M. T.; Balser, D. S.; Braatz, J.; Clark, M. H.; Condon, J.; Creager, R. E.; Maddalena, R. J.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Sessoms, E.; Shelton, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS), in use since September, 2009, was designed to maximize observing efficiency while preserving telescope flexibility and data quality without creating undue adversity for the observers. Using observing criteria; observer availability and qualifications for remote observing; three-dimensional weather forecasts; and telescope state, the DSS software optimally schedules observers 24 to 48 hours in advance for a telescope that has a wide-range of capabilities and a geographical location with variable weather patterns. The DSS project was closed October 28, 2011 and will now enter a continuing maintenance and enhancement phase. Recent improvements include a new resource calendar for incorporating telescope maintenance activities, a sensitivity calculator that leverages the scheduling algorithms to facilitate consistent tools for proposal preparation, improved support for monitoring observations, scheduling of high frequency continuum and spectral line observations for both sparse and fully sampled array receivers, and additional session parameters for observations having special requirements.

  3. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  4. Planning and scheduling for success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzanera, Ignacio

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling programs are excellent management tools when properly introduced to the project management team and regularly maintained. Communications, creativity, flexibility and accuracy are substantially improved by following a simple set of rules. A planning and scheduling program will work for you if you believe in it, make others in your project team realize its benefits, and make it an extension of your project cost control philosophy.

  5. Non-clairvoyant Scheduling Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Christoph; Nguyen, Kim Thang

    In a scheduling game, each player owns a job and chooses a machine to execute it. While the social cost is the maximal load over all machines (makespan), the cost (disutility) of each player is the completion time of its own job. In the game, players may follow selfish strategies to optimize their cost and therefore their behaviors do not necessarily lead the game to an equilibrium. Even in the case there is an equilibrium, its makespan might be much larger than the social optimum, and this inefficiency is measured by the price of anarchy - the worst ratio between the makespan of an equilibrium and the optimum. Coordination mechanisms aim to reduce the price of anarchy by designing scheduling policies that specify how jobs assigned to a same machine are to be scheduled. Typically these policies define the schedule according to the processing times as announced by the jobs. One could wonder if there are policies that do not require this knowledge, and still provide a good price of anarchy. This would make the processing times be private information and avoid the problem of truthfulness. In this paper we study these so-called non-clairvoyant policies. In particular, we study the RANDOM policy that schedules the jobs in a random order without preemption, and the EQUI policy that schedules the jobs in parallel using time-multiplexing, assigning each job an equal fraction of CPU time.

  6. 77 FR 64848 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and Schedule M-3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120S, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, and... With Total Assets of $10 Million or More, and Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income... Losses and Built-in Gains, Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S), Shareholder's Share of Income, Credits,...

  7. E-Scheduling the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an operations concept for electronic scheduling and software interface for organizations to extract required views of the schedule. Advantages include widespread accessibility to a common schedule document, virtually instantaneous distribution of new schedule releases, and the ability of missions to perfom conflict resolution off-line without time-consuming meetings.

  8. The In Vitro Fertilization Scheduler at the University of North Carolina and Its Satellite Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Laurie; Bailey, Linda

    1988-01-01

    To facilitate scheduling of in vitro fertilization and gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (IVF-GIFT) patients, we developed a program (the IVF Scheduler) which uses the starting date of the last menstrual period, the number of days between starting dates of the last two menstrual periods (cycle length), and the month of requested treatment to calculate the date on which IVF-GIFT treatment should begin. Since cycle length is variable for each patient this calculation is performed for each of the three cycles prior to treatment so a multi-service, multi-site team can efficiently plan its operation. The program is menu-driven for ease of use. Benefits include allowing the nurse-coordinator to adjust treatment schedules easily; the development of the Scheduler into a pre-admission chart for nursing notes; and the delegation of primary scheduling duties from the nurse-coordinator to the IVF-GIFT secretary.

  9. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  11. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  12. The sleeping giant: Reinforcement schedules.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, M D

    1984-11-01

    Schedule research has been the core of operant conditioning, but it is no longer an active area, at least with respect to its traditional focus of describing and explaining moment-to-moment behavior. Yet schedules are central in psychology: Not only do they establish lawful behavior, but they also play a major role in determining the effects of other variables. The reason for the decline appears to be primarily theoretical, in that the work seems not to have led to meaningful integration. The search for controlling variables brought into play by schedule specification has proven unsuccessful, and a catalog of all possible schedule effects is of limited interest. The paper reviews the reasons for the contemporary state of affairs. One prediction about future developments is that instead of revealing component variables and their modes of interaction, schedule effects will be treated as basic empirical laws. Theory will take the form of abstract statements that integrate these separate laws by reference to higher-order principles rather than by reduction to supposedly simpler component variables.

  13. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  14. The sleeping giant: Reinforcement schedules

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Michael D.

    1984-01-01

    Schedule research has been the core of operant conditioning, but it is no longer an active area, at least with respect to its traditional focus of describing and explaining moment-to-moment behavior. Yet schedules are central in psychology: Not only do they establish lawful behavior, but they also play a major role in determining the effects of other variables. The reason for the decline appears to be primarily theoretical, in that the work seems not to have led to meaningful integration. The search for controlling variables brought into play by schedule specification has proven unsuccessful, and a catalog of all possible schedule effects is of limited interest. The paper reviews the reasons for the contemporary state of affairs. One prediction about future developments is that instead of revealing component variables and their modes of interaction, schedule effects will be treated as basic empirical laws. Theory will take the form of abstract statements that integrate these separate laws by reference to higher-order principles rather than by reduction to supposedly simpler component variables. PMID:16812403

  15. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  16. Computerized Schedule Effectiveness Technique /SET/ determines present and future schedule position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, D.; Birdsong, J.; Calva, R.

    1967-01-01

    Computerized scheduling system calculates an index of overall schedule-effectiveness. The schedule-effectiveness index is a measurement of actual overall performance against the existing schedule, and a series of schedule-effectiveness values indicates the trend of actual performance. This computer program is written in Fortran 4.

  17. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  19. [Fee schedules and cost containment].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, François R; Perneger, Thomas

    2009-11-11

    Medical fee schedules are controversial. In this paper we examine the reasons that justify the imposition of fee schedules in the presence of a socially financed health insurance system, and examine the ways of constructing a medical fee schedule. The weakness of fee-for-service tariffs is that they do not allow a control of health care costs if the volume of services is unchecked. Current solutions to this problem--audit of doctors' average cost per case, freeze on new medical practices, or the insurers' discretion in choosing the doctors they reimburse--have multiple drawbacks. Alternatives to fee-for-service payment--such as flat fees, or payment based on the quality of medical services--are discussed.

  20. A planning and scheduling lexicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jennifer W.; Eggemeyer, William C.

    1989-01-01

    A lexicon related to mission planning and scheduling for spacecraft is presented. Planning and scheduling work is known as sequencing. Sequencing is a multistage process of merging requests from both the science and engineering arenas to accomplish the objectives defined in the requests. The multistage process begins with the creation of science and engineering goals, continues through their integration into the sequence, and eventually concludes with command execution onboard the spacecraft. The objective of this publication is to introduce some formalism into the field of spacecraft sequencing-system technology. This formalism will make it possible for researchers and potential customers to communicate about system requirements and capabilities in a common language.

  1. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  2. Sleep and circadian schedule disorders.

    PubMed

    Labyak, Susan

    2002-12-01

    The timing and synchronization of human circadian rhythms is important for health and well-being. Some individuals, for reasons that remain unclear, display less resilience or flexibility in their ability to synchronize to the 24-hour world and are thus diagnosed with a circadian schedule disorder. The objective of this article is to briefly introduce concepts about human circadian timing and to review what is known about chronic, long-term circadian schedule disorders such as delayed sleep phase syndrome, advanced sleep phase syndrome, irregular sleep-wake patterns, and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. Practical considerations for the clinician caring for these individuals are discussed. PMID:12587363

  3. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: optimization of planning, scheduling, and manifesting; searching a discrete configuration space; heuristic algorithms used for optimization; use of heuristic methods on a sample scheduling problem; intelligent perturbation algorithms are iterative refinement techniques; properties of a good iterative search operator; dispatching examples of intelligent perturbation algorithm and perturbation operator attributes; scheduling implementations using intelligent perturbation algorithms; major advances in scheduling capabilities; the prototype ISF (industrial Space Facility) experiment scheduler; optimized schedule (max revenue); multi-variable optimization; Space Station design reference mission scheduling; ISF-TDRSS command scheduling demonstration; and example task - communications check.

  4. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  5. A Comparison of Dense-to-Lean and Fixed Lean Schedules of Alternative Reinforcement and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Toole, Lisa M.; Long, Ethan S.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Lieving, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current…

  6. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  7. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  10. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  11. User requirements for a patient scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W.

    1979-01-01

    A rehabilitation institute's needs and wants from a scheduling system were established by (1) studying the existing scheduling system and the variables that affect patient scheduling, (2) conducting a human-factors study to establish the human interfaces that affect patients' meeting prescribed therapy schedules, and (3) developing and administering a questionnaire to the staff which pertains to the various interface problems in order to identify staff requirements to minimize scheduling problems and other factors that may limit the effectiveness of any new scheduling system.

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  13. Block Scheduling: Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Edward L.

    This is a followup study of teacher perceptions regarding block scheduling. The original study was done in 1996 at a small city high school in a predominantly rural county in Ohio. At that time, lack of communication was found to be the central theme in the resistance that emerged. This paper is based on data from written responses to open-ended…

  14. A scheduling model for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solar, M.; Michelon, P.; Avarias, J.; Garces, M.

    2016-04-01

    Astronomical scheduling problem has several external conditions that change dynamically at any time during observations, like weather condition (humidity, temperature, wind speed, opacity, etc.), and target visibility conditions (target over the horizon, Sun/Moon blocking the target). Therefore, a dynamic re-scheduling is needed. An astronomical project will be scheduled as one or more Scheduling Blocks (SBs) as an atomic unit of astronomical observations. We propose a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solution to select the best SBs, favors SBs with high scientific values, and thus maximizing the quantity of completed observation projects. The data content of Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) projects of cycle 0 and cycle 1 were analyzed, and a synthetic set of tests of the real instances was created. Two configurations, one of 5000 SBs in a 3 months season and another 10,000 SBs a 6 months season were created. These instances were evaluated with excellent results. Through the testing it is showed that the MILP proposal has optimal solutions.

  15. 7 CFR 305.10 - Treatment schedules for combination treatments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 2 See footnote 1. 3 See footnote 1. 4 Following fumigation, the fruit must be aerated 2 hours before... mucilaginous material, such as pulp, is adhering to the seed, the seed must be washed to remove it. (2) The... of 6.0 to 7.5. (4) Seed from regions where citrus canker occurs must be drained, dried, and...

  16. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable.

  17. Adaptive Parallel Job Scheduling with Flexible CoScheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Frachtenberg, Eitan; Feitelson, Dror; Petrini, Fabrizio; Fernandez, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abstract—Many scientific and high-performance computing applications consist of multiple processes running on different processors that communicate frequently. Because of their synchronization needs, these applications can suffer severe performance penalties if their processes are not all coscheduled to run together. Two common approaches to coscheduling jobs are batch scheduling, wherein nodes are dedicated for the duration of the run, and gang scheduling, wherein time slicing is coordinated across processors. Both work well when jobs are load-balanced and make use of the entire parallel machine. However, these conditions are rarely met and most realistic workloads consequently suffer from both internal and external fragmentation, in which resources and processors are left idle because jobs cannot be packed with perfect efficiency. This situation leads to reduced utilization and suboptimal performance. Flexible CoScheduling (FCS) addresses this problem by monitoring each job’s computation granularity and communication pattern and scheduling jobs based on their synchronization and load-balancing requirements. In particular, jobs that do not require stringent synchronization are identified, and are not coscheduled; instead, these processes are used to reduce fragmentation. FCS has been fully implemented on top of the STORM resource manager on a 256-processor Alpha cluster and compared to batch, gang, and implicit coscheduling algorithms. This paper describes in detail the implementation of FCS and its performance evaluation with a variety of workloads, including large-scale benchmarks, scientific applications, and dynamic workloads. The experimental results show that FCS saturates at higher loads than other algorithms (up to 54 percent higher in some cases), and displays lower response times and slowdown than the other algorithms in nearly all scenarios.

  18. 40 CFR 52.825 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... schedule. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.825, see the List of CFR Sections... variances if source(s) is on an accepted and approved compliance schedule. Note 3: City of Des...

  19. A DSN optimal spacecraft scheduling model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model is described which uses mixed-integer linear programming to provide optimal DSN spacecraft schedules given a mission set and specified scheduling requirements. A solution technique is proposed which uses Bender's Method and a heuristic starting algorithm.

  20. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care. PMID:17238511

  1. Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedules for Preteens and Teens Recommend on Facebook ... on track. View or Print a Schedule Recommended Immunizations for Preteens and Teens (7-18 years) 2016 ...

  2. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  3. 11 CFR 9006.3 - Alphabetized schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCING REPORTS AND RECORDKEEPING § 9006.3 Alphabetized schedules. If the authorized committee(s) of a candidate file a schedule of itemized receipts, disbursements, or debts and obligations pursuant to 11...

  4. SORS: A New Software for the Simulation of Radiotherapy Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Pasquale; Simeone, Giovanni; Carioggia, Enza

    2010-10-01

    We present a software for choosing the best radiotherapy treatment schedule for head and neck cancers as a beginning radiotherapy plan or a temporarily interrupted plan. Its application occurs according to two modalities: the first adopts the best estimates for model parameters; the second takes into account the parameters' uncertainty too. In both cases, the choice becomes the schedule with the highest uncomplicated tumor control probability (UTCP). In the UTCP valuation, the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of each organ is related to the gravity of its possible late injury. For NTCP calculation, it has been adopted the empirical LKB (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman) model corrected for dose/fraction via linear-quadratic model and the incomplete repair effect. The tumor control probability (TCP) model is Poisson based and contains corrections for dose/fraction and regrowth effect; optionally, it can be accounted for the incomplete repair effect as well. At the end of processing, a detailed file with all informations about UTCP, TCP and single organ NTCP is furnished for every examined schedule. Moreover, a useful 3-D graphic representation of the schedule's UTCP is available, allowing the physician to easily understand the schedules with the highest radiotherapeutic efficacy. The open source characteristic allows the program to adapt to the individual clinical case as well as to be a valid support in radiobiological research.

  5. Real-time scheduling using minimum search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadepalli, Prasad; Joshi, Varad

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple model of real-time scheduling. We present a real-time scheduling system called RTS which is based on Korf's Minimin algorithm. Experimental results show that the schedule quality initially improves with the amount of look-ahead search and tapers off quickly. So it sppears that reasonably good schedules can be produced with a relatively shallow search.

  6. FIXED-TIME SCHEDULE EFFECTS IN COMBINATION WITH RESPONSE-DEPENDENT SCHEDULES

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, John C; Bartels-Meints, Jamie A; Sy, Jolene R; Francisco, Monica T

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of fixed-interval (FI), fixed-time (FT), and conjoint (combined) FI FT reinforcement schedules on the responding of 3 adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Responding on vocational tasks decreased for 2 of 3 participants under FT alone relative to FI alone. Responding under FI FT resulted in response persistence for 2 of 3 participants. Results have implications for the maintenance of desirable behavior, as well as for situations in which FT treatment has been implemented for problem behavior and problem behavior is nevertheless reinforced by caregivers. PMID:21541131

  7. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling schedules. 141.702 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the system...

  8. 9 CFR 390.6 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee schedule. 390.6 Section 390.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SAFETY AND... schedule. Department regulations provide for a schedule of reasonable standard charges for document...

  9. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 77 FR 32433. No comments were received in response to that notice, and the... Schedule Update went into effect on July 29, 2011. 76 FR 43819. Board Action Accordingly, the Board issues... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  10. 21 CFR 1308.49 - Emergency scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency scheduling. 1308.49 Section 1308.49 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.49 Emergency scheduling. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 811(h) and without regard to...

  11. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  12. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  13. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  14. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  15. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  16. Response Strength in Extreme Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Anthony P.; Grace, Randolph C.; Nevin, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a series of two-component multiple schedules. Reinforcers were scheduled with random-interval schedules. The ratio of arranged reinforcer rates in the two components was varied over 4 log units, a much wider range than previously studied. When performance appeared stable, prefeeding tests were conducted to assess…

  17. Models of ratio schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Bizo, L A; Killeen, P R

    1997-07-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engendered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter alpha (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter delta (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

  18. Fast Randomized STDMA Link Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sergio; Gras, Oriol; Friderikos, Vasilis

    In this paper a fast randomized parallel link swap based packing (RSP) algorithm for timeslot allocation in a spatial time division multiple access (STDMA) wireless mesh network is presented. The proposed randomized algorithm extends several greedy scheduling algorithms that utilize the physical interference model by applying a local search that leads to a substantial improvement in the spatial timeslot reuse. Numerical simulations reveal that compared to previously scheduling schemes the proposed randomized algorithm can achieve a performance gain of up to 11%. A significant benefit of the proposed scheme is that the computations can be parallelized and therefore can efficiently utilize commoditized and emerging multi-core and/or multi-CPU processors.

  19. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  20. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  1. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  2. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  3. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  4. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  5. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  8. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  9. Scheduled Peripheral Component Interconnect Arbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Scott Alan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for arbitrating access of a communication bus. In one embodiment, a method includes performing steps on one or more processors. The steps include: receiving an access request from a device of the communication bus; evaluating a bus schedule to determine an importance of the device based on the access request; and selectively granting access of the communication bus to the device based on the importance of the device.

  10. Obtaining schedules for digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagadish, H. V.; Kailath, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A systematic technique is presented to derive correct schedules for a synchronous digital system, given a signal flow graph for an algorithm. It is also shown how to use this technique to derive designs that are optimal in having the lowest latency, the highest throughput, or the smallest number of registers. The same technique can also be used to verify digital systems that have already been designed.

  11. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Philip E.

    1986-01-01

    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  12. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  13. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  14. Second-order schedules of drug self-administration in animals.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    On a second-order schedule, a subject responds according to one schedule (the unit schedule) for a brief presentation of a stimulus such as a light. Responding by the subject on this unit schedule is then reinforced according to another schedule of reinforcement. Second-order schedules of drug injection allow the study of more complex behavioral sequences than do simple schedules and may more accurately reflect the human drug-abuse situation. Much of the early work in this area used primates as subjects and focused on the behavioral variables controlling responding. It was shown that long sequences of behavior could be maintained on second-order schedules with relatively infrequent injections of drug and that the second-order, brief-stimulus presentations were critical to the acquisition and maintenance of responding. Also, the continued presentation of the brief stimulus in extinction often led to prolonged extinction behavior. These studies clearly showed that environmental stimuli greatly influence drug self-administration behavior under second-order schedules. The focus of much of the more recent work with second-order schedules has been on the evaluation of pharmacological treatments for drug addiction, both as antagonist and substitution therapies. Both types of potential therapies have shown promise in these preclinical models of addictive behavior. The recent extension of second-order self-administration studies to rats as subjects has facilitated the investigation of neural mechanisms involved in this behavior. While this use of second-order schedules is a relatively recent phenomenon, significant contributions have already been made in identifying neural mechanisms critical to second-order schedule drug self-administration. This active area of research holds great promise for delineating specific brain regions critical to different aspects of drug addiction.

  15. EOS distributed planning and scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.; Peters, Stephen F.; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    Some of the more significant lessons learned during the development of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Distributed Planning and Scheduling Prototype are presented. The need for a central scheduler is not demonstrated. A mapping of scheduling and conflict-resolution responsibility across the nodes of the EOS distributed scheduling system is developed and shown to be both feasible and appropriate. Complex instrument scheduling is mostly accomplished at the ICC/IST (instrument control center/instrumental support terminal) with 'slidable' flexibility for slews and some kinds of calibrations resolved at the EOS Operations Center (EOC). All nodes have full visibility interinstrument contention for resource and environmental rights, e.g., vibration, thermal, and electromagnetic. The EOC assigns, by activity, initial action responsibility for conflict resolution to a node which is party to the conflict. Most interinstrument conflicts are resolved by the ICCs and ISTs during an intermediate scheduling phase while the EOC is negotiating a TDRS schedule with the NCC.

  16. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  17. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  18. Intermittent High-Dose Scheduling of AZD8835, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of PI3Kα and PI3Kδ, Demonstrates Treatment Strategies for PIK3CA-Dependent Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Kevin; Hancox, Urs J; Trigwell, Cath; McEwen, Robert; Polanska, Urszula M; Nikolaou, Myria; Morentin Gutierrez, Pablo; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Delpuech, Oona; Dudley, Phillippa; Hanson, Lyndsey; Ellston, Rebecca; Jones, Alys; Cumberbatch, Marie; Cosulich, Sabina C; Ward, Lara; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Green, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    The PIK3CA gene, encoding the p110α catalytic unit of PI3Kα, is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancer. Hence, PI3Kα is a target subject to intensive efforts in identifying inhibitors and evaluating their therapeutic potential. Here, we report studies with a novel PI3K inhibitor, AZD8835, currently in phase I clinical evaluation. AZD8835 is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα and PI3Kδ with selectivity versus PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ, and other kinases that preferentially inhibited growth in cells with mutant PIK3CA status, such as in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cell lines BT474, MCF7, and T47D (sub-μmol/L GI50s). Consistent with this, AZD8835 demonstrated antitumor efficacy in corresponding breast cancer xenograft models when dosed continuously. In addition, an alternative approach of intermittent high-dose scheduling (IHDS) was explored given our observations that higher exposures achieved greater pathway inhibition and induced apoptosis. Indeed, using IHDS, monotherapy AZD8835 was able to induce tumor xenograft regression. Furthermore, AZD8835 IHDS in combination with other targeted therapeutic agents further enhanced antitumor activity (up to 92% regression). Combination partners were prioritized on the basis of our mechanistic insights demonstrating signaling pathway cross-talk, with a focus on targeting interdependent ER and/or CDK4/6 pathways or alternatively a node (mTOR) in the PI3K-pathway, approaches with demonstrated clinical benefit in ER(+) breast cancer patients. In summary, AZD8835 IHDS delivers strong antitumor efficacy in a range of combination settings and provides a promising alternative to continuous dosing to optimize the therapeutic index in patients. Such schedules merit clinical evaluation. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 877-89. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26839307

  19. Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Treatment 2003 U.S. Outbreak African Rodent Importation Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox ... Examining Animals with Suspected Monkeypox African Rodent Importation Ban Resources Related Links Poxvirus Molluscum Contagiosum Orf Virus ( ...

  20. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  1. Radiobiological modeling of interplay between accelerated repopulation and altered fractionation schedules in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Loredana G; Bezak, Eva

    2009-10-01

    Head and neck cancer represents a challenge for radiation oncologists due to accelerated repopulation of cancer cells during treatment. This study aims to simulate, using Monte Carlo methods, the response of a virtual head and neck tumor to both conventional and altered fractionation schedules in radiotherapy when accelerated repopulation is considered. Although clinical trials are indispensable for evaluation of novel therapeutic techniques, they are time-consuming processes which involve many complex and variable factors for success. Models can overcome some of the limitations encountered by trials as they are able to simulate in less complex environment tumor cell kinetics and dynamics, interaction processes between cells and ionizing radiation and their outcome. Conventional, hyperfractionated and accelerated treatment schedules have been implemented in a previously developed tumor growth model which also incorporates tumor repopulation during treatment. This study focuses on the influence of three main treatment-related parameters, dose per fraction, inter fraction interval and length of treatment gap and gap timing based on RTOG trial data on head and neck cancer, on tumor control. The model has shown that conventionally fractionated radiotherapy is not able to eradicate the stem population of the tumor. Therefore, new techniques such as hyperfractionated/ accelerated radiotherapy schedules should be employed. Furthermore, the correct selection of schedule-related parameters (dose per fraction, time between fractions, treatment gap scheduling) is crucial in overcoming accelerated repopulation. Modeling of treatment regimens and their input parameters can offer better understanding of the radiobiological interactions and also treatment outcome.

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  3. Steps Toward Optimal Competitive Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Crawford, James; Khatib, Lina; Brafman, Ronen

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of allocating a unit capacity resource to multiple users within a pre-defined time period. The resource is indivisible, so that at most one user can use it at each time instance. However, different users may use it at different times. The users have independent, se@sh preferences for when and for how long they are allocated this resource. Thus, they value different resource access durations differently, and they value different time slots differently. We seek an optimal allocation schedule for this resource. This problem arises in many institutional settings where, e.g., different departments, agencies, or personal, compete for a single resource. We are particularly motivated by the problem of scheduling NASA's Deep Space Satellite Network (DSN) among different users within NASA. Access to DSN is needed for transmitting data from various space missions to Earth. Each mission has different needs for DSN time, depending on satellite and planetary orbits. Typically, the DSN is over-subscribed, in that not all missions will be allocated as much time as they want. This leads to various inefficiencies - missions spend much time and resource lobbying for their time, often exaggerating their needs. NASA, on the other hand, would like to make optimal use of this resource, ensuring that the good for NASA is maximized. This raises the thorny problem of how to measure the utility to NASA of each allocation. In the typical case, it is difficult for the central agency, NASA in our case, to assess the value of each interval to each user - this is really only known to the users who understand their needs. Thus, our problem is more precisely formulated as follows: find an allocation schedule for the resource that maximizes the sum of users preferences, when the preference values are private information of the users. We bypass this problem by making the assumptions that one can assign money to customers. This assumption is reasonable; a

  4. A prototype combinatorial scheduler for space-borne observational instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilstrap, Lewey O.; Botten, Leroy H.; Strang, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype scheduler has been developed for observations to be carried out by the NASA Gamma Ray Observatory. The purpose of the scheduling system is to provide an automated method to determine optimized schedules conforming to all scheduling guidelines. Strategies used in creating COMPTEL/EGRET schedules and in scheduling OSSE targets are examined. It is concluded that the hybrid scheduler creates optimal schedules, or very nearly optimal schedules, and reduces the estimated scheduling time by 18 or 19 orders of magnitude, from about 10 to the 14th years to as few as 561 seconds.

  5. Dynamic Proportional Share Scheduling in Hadoop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholm, Thomas; Lai, Kevin

    We present the Dynamic Priority (DP) parallel task scheduler for Hadoop. It allows users to control their allocated capacity by adjusting their spending over time. This simple mechanism allows the scheduler to make more efficient decisions about which jobs and users to prioritize and gives users the tool to optimize and customize their allocations to fit the importance and requirements of their jobs. Additionally, it gives users the incentive to scale back their jobs when demand is high, since the cost of running on a slot is then also more expensive. We envision our scheduler to be used by deadline or budget optimizing agents on behalf of users. We describe the design and implementation of the DP scheduler and experimental results. We show that our scheduler enforces service levels more accurately and also scales to more users with distinct service levels than existing schedulers.

  6. Schedule tightness among tractor-trailer drivers.

    PubMed

    Beilock, Richard

    2003-06-01

    The extent to which schedules are sufficiently tight to encourage violations of Hours-of-Service Regulations, speed limits, or both was investigated through a survey of over 1,600 tractor-trailer drivers. The focus was on drivers with refrigerated trailers. The results indicate high incidence levels of tight schedules. For example, assuming average speed limits of 65 mph, 24% had violation-inducing schedules with regard to the movement they were making at the time of the interviews. Incorporating information about previous driving, the incidence of violation-inducing schedules rose to 40%. Comparison with an earlier study suggests that, despite increases in speed limits which would tend to loosen schedules, schedules have become tighter over the past decade. The implications of these findings for reforms of Hours-of-Service Regulations are briefly discussed.

  7. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  8. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  9. Improved health-related quality of life of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with a 2 weeks on and 1 week off schedule of sunitinib.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hideaki; Harada, Ken-ichi; Miyazaki, Akira; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of changes from the standard dosing schedule of sunitinib, which is 4 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks off (schedule 4/2), to an alternative schedule with 2 weeks of treatment and 1 week off (schedule 2/1), after encountering dose-limiting toxicity in 45 consecutive Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Despite a definitively improved relative dose intensity of sunitinib by changing from schedule 4/2 to 2/1, this difference was not significant. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in all patients on both schedules 4/2 and 2/1; however, the proportion of patients experiencing AEs ≥ grade 3 on schedule 2/1 was significantly lower than that on schedule 4/2. Quality of life (QOL) analysis using SF-36 revealed that all eight scores during schedule 2/1 were more favorable than those during schedule 4/2, and there were significant differences in 2 of the 8 scores between these two schedules. Furthermore, multivariate analyses, which were performed to evaluate the contribution of several AEs on schedule 2/1 to the improvement of each score in SF-36, revealed that fatigue had independent impacts on two scores, despite the lack of an independent association between any scores and the remaining AEs examined. These findings suggest that schedule 2/1 is the optimal dosing schedule of sunitinib against mRCC that balances efficacy and toxicity, since treatment on schedule 2/1 resulted in a markedly improved QOL compared with that on schedule 4/2 by relieving the profile of sunitinib-related AEs.

  10. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  11. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  12. Intelligent perturbation algorithms to space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    The limited availability and high cost of crew time and scarce resources make optimization of space operations critical. Advances in computer technology coupled with new iterative search techniques permit the near optimization of complex scheduling problems that were previously considered computationally intractable. Described here is a class of search techniques called Intelligent Perturbation Algorithms. Several scheduling systems which use these algorithms to optimize the scheduling of space crew, payload, and resource operations are also discussed.

  13. North Sea gas plants get process, scheduling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, A.

    1998-11-16

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. has installed an operator guidance tool at its SAGE gas-processing plant at St. Fergus, Scotland (SAGE: Scottish Area Gas Evacuation). The system, supplied by MDC Technology, Teesside, U.K., will aid process decision making at the plant under MDC Technology`s RTO+ software. In addition, Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell Expro) has installed a pipeline-scheduling system, also supplied by MDC Technology, at its Aberdeen control center. The system aids gas-movement scheduling through Shell Expro`s St. Fergus gas plant. The Northern Systems and Plant Scheduling (NSPS) system integrates MDC Technology`s RTO+ package with Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel. Mobil`s SAGE gas terminal at St. Fergus has two identical process trains (NGL recovery and acid-gas treatment), each with a capacity of 16.25 million std. cu m/day. The paper describes the guidance tool, the scheduling aid, and the installation of the NSPS.

  14. EMG reactivity and oral habits among facial pain patients in a scheduled-waiting competitive task.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, R A; Lakatos, C A; Gramling, S E

    1999-12-01

    For individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) it has been theorized that stressful events trigger oral habits (e.g., teeth grinding), thereby increasing masticatory muscle tension and subsequent pain. Recent research involving adjunctive behaviors found an increase in masseter surface EMG (sEMG) and oral habits when students with TMD symptomatology were placed on a fixed-time reinforcement schedule. The current study used a treatment-seeking community sample with TMD symptomatology in a competitive task designed to be a more naturalistic Fixed Time task. The experiment consisted of Adaptation, Free-Play, Scheduled-Play, and Recovery phases. During the Scheduled-Play phase participants played, and waited to play, an electronic poker game. Results indicated that masseter muscle tension in the Scheduled-Play phase was significantly higher (p < .001) than in any other phase. Moreover, during the Scheduled-Play phase masseter sEMG was higher (p < .001) when participants waited to play. Self-reported oral habits and overall affect were significantly higher (p's < .05) in the Free-Play and Scheduled-Play phases relative to Adaptation and Recovery. The observation that masseter sEMG was elevated during the Scheduled-Play phase relative to all other phases, and within the Scheduled-Play phase sEMG was highest while waiting, suggests that adjunctive oral habits may lead to TMD symptomatology.

  15. Dose-schedule finding in phase I/II clinical trials using a Bayesian isotonic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yisheng; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Ji, Yuan; Cook, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A dose-schedule-finding trial is a new type of oncology trial in which investigators aim to find a combination of dose and treatment schedule that has a large probability of efficacy yet a relatively small probability of toxicity. We demonstrate that a major difference between traditional dose-finding and dose-schedule-finding trials is that while the toxicity probabilities follow a simple nondecreasing order in dose-finding trials, those of dose-schedule-finding trials may adhere to a matrix order. We show that the success of a dose-schedule-finding method requires careful statistical modeling and a sensible dose-schedule allocation scheme. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model that jointly models the unordered probabilities of toxicity and efficacy, and apply a Bayesian isotonic transformation to the posterior samples of the toxicity probabilities, so that the transformed posterior samples adhere to the matrix order constraints. Based on the joint posterior distribution of the order-constrained toxicity probabilities and the unordered efficacy probabilities, we develop a dose-schedule-finding algorithm that sequentially allocates patients to the best dose-schedule combination under certain criteria. We illustrate our methodology through its application to a clinical trial in leukemia, and compare it to two alternative approaches. PMID:18563789

  16. Reducing barriers to timely MR imaging scheduling.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Brooke V; Moriarity, Andrew K; Ametlli, Vanda; Kastan, David J

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study at the authors' large health system in 2011 required considerable preparation before an appointment time was given to a patient. Difficulties in promptly scheduling appointments resulted from the varying time required for examinations, depending on the requested protocol, availability of appropriate MR imaging equipment, examination timing, prior insurance authorization verification, and proper patient screening. These factors contributed to a backlog of patients to schedule that regularly exceeded 300. A multidisciplinary process-improvement team was assembled to improve the turnaround time for scheduling an outpatient MR imaging examination (the interval between the time when the order was received and the time when the patient was informed about the MR imaging appointment). Process improvements targeted by the team included protocol turnaround time, schedule standardization, schedule intervals, examination timing, service standards, and scheduling redesign. Using lean methods and multiple plan-do-check-act cycles, the time to schedule an outpatient MR imaging examination improved from 117 hours to 33 hours, a 72% reduction, during the 9-month study period in 2011-2012. The number of patients in the scheduling queue was reduced by 90%. Overall MR imaging examinations within the specific patient population studied increased from 773 patient studies during the first month of intervention to 1444 studies the following month and averaged over 1279 patient studies per month throughout the study.

  17. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a)...

  18. Empowering nurses through an innovative scheduling model.

    PubMed

    Maxson-Cooper, Pamela A

    2011-03-01

    In 1980, Froedtert Hospital opened its doors using an innovative registered nurse scheduling model. The hospital has grown to 500 beds, with over 1,600 registered nurses, and continues to use the 7/70 staffing pattern as a core scheduling model. Registered nurses work a straight seven, 10-hour days, and then have 1 week off, or 26 weeks off a year. For professional registered nurses in acute care, the schedule is predictable and consistent for years. This scheduling pattern has resulted in excellent registered nurse satisfaction, increased retention, and consistency in care delivery teams since 1980.

  19. AVLIS production plant project schedule and milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    An AVLIS Production Plant Deployment Schedule for the engineering, procurement, and construction for both the Initial Increment of Production and the fully Activated Plant, has been developed by the project team consisting of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. with architect-engineer support from Bechtel National, Inc., Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, and Westinghouse Corporation. The initial deployment phase consists of six separators modules and the three laser power amplifier modules consistent with the FY84 reference design with a name plate capacity of 5 million separative work units/yr followed by a full plant activation to approximately 13 million separative work units/yr. The AVLIS Production Plant project team's strategy for deployment schedule analysis focused on three schedule options: engineering limited schedule; authorization limited schedule; and funding limited project schedule. The three deployment schedule options developed by AVLIS project team have been classified in ranges such as an optimistic, rapid/moderate, or moderate/pessimistic based on the probability of meeting the individual schedule option's major milestones or program objectives of enriching uranium by the AVLIS process in an effective cost and schedule manner. 47 figures, 7 tables.

  20. Payload crew training scheduler (PACTS) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of the payload specialist training scheduler (PACTS) is discussed in this user's manual which is used to schedule payload specialists for mission training on the Spacelab experiments. The PACTS program is a fully automated interactive, computerized scheduling program equipped with tutorial displays. The tutorial displays are sufficiently detailed for use by a program analyst having no computer experience. The PACTS program is designed to operate on the UNIVAC 1108 computer system, and has the capability to load output into a PDP 11/45 Interactive Graphics Display System for printing schedules. The program has the capacity to handle up to three overlapping Spacelab missions.

  1. Tool for Merging Proposals Into DSN Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Kwok, John; Call, Jared

    2008-01-01

    A Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (Perl) script called merge7da has been developed to facilitate determination, by a project scheduler in NASA's Deep Space Network, of whether a proposal for use of the DSN could create a conflict with the current DSN schedule. Prior to the development of merge7da, there was no way to quickly identify potential schedule conflicts: it was necessary to submit a proposal and wait a day or two for a response from a DSN scheduling facility. By using merge7da to detect and eliminate potential schedule conflicts before submitting a proposal, a project scheduler saves time and gains assurance that the proposal will probably be accepted. merge7da accepts two input files, one of which contains the current DSN schedule and is in a DSN-standard format called '7da'. The other input file contains the proposal and is in another DSN-standard format called 'C1/C2'. merge7da processes the two input files to produce a merged 7da-format output file that represents the DSN schedule as it would be if the proposal were to be adopted. This 7da output file can be loaded into various DSN scheduling software tools now in use.

  2. Experience-based demand scheduling: a more efficient model for radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Beitler, J J; Garcia, A; Vikram, B

    1999-12-01

    The supply of radiation therapists has increased, whereas reimbursements have decreased. One hypothesis is that if we choose to employ as permanent staff sufficient therapists to handle the low-volume periods and scheduled temporary staff as the demand for radiation therapy services warrants, we would increase efficiency. Using current economic assumptions and the treatments delivered during the past 12 months, we analyzed the labor expense and revenue consequences of both full staffing and a lower level of staffing with per diem supplementation based on the scheduled patient load. We then correlated the scheduled treatments with the actual treatments delivered and finally, reexamined both the full-staffing model and the per diem supplementation model based on the predictions of our scheduling model. The reduction in full-time therapists and per diem supplementation did not produce substantial incremental revenue. However, examining the relationship between patients scheduled for treatment on the next day and patients actually treated, revealed an 11% "no show" rate with a 95% confidence interval of 1%. Our new, experienced-based model demonstrated considerable revenues to be realized by using the no-show factor to better use therapists by more aggressive scheduling of outpatients, therapists, and more flexible transportation of inpatients. We conclude that the experience-based model predicts the marginal revenue, but is silent on the quality of the medical care provided.

  3. SO/ST/SRG - SCHEDULING PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Organizer contains a primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options as follows: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds 25 groups of up to 25 names for each group. The other file holds 25 records. Each 60-character-long record holds a task schedule title or it is a blank entry. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout. There is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the schedule title of the last schedule title file deleted by the user. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are "past due" and/or "near term". ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  5. CASSIUS: The Cassini Uplink Scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellinger, Earl

    2012-01-01

    The Cassini Uplink Scheduler (CASSIUS) is cross-platform software used to generate a radiation sequence plan for commands being sent to the Cassini spacecraft. Because signals must travel through varying amounts of Earth's atmosphere, several different modes of constant telemetry rates have been devised. These modes guarantee that the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network agree with respect to the data transmission rate. However, the memory readout of a command will be lost if it occurs on a telemetry mode boundary. Given a list of spacecraft message files as well as the available telemetry modes, CASSIUS can find an uplink sequence that ensures safe transmission of each file. In addition, it can predict when the two on-board solid state recorders will swap. CASSIUS prevents data corruption by making sure that commands are not planned for memory readout during telemetry rate changes or a solid state recorder swap.

  6. Variable-ratio schedules as variable-interval schedules with linear feedback loops.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J; Wixted, J T

    1986-11-01

    The mathematical theory of linear systems has been used successfully to describe responding on variable-interval (VI) schedules. In the simplest extension of the theory to the variable-ratio (VR) case, VR schedules are treated as if they were VI schedules with linear feedback loops. The assumption entailed by this approach, namely, that VR and VI-plus-linear-feedback schedules are equivalent, was tested by comparing responding on the two types of schedule. Four human subjects' lever pressing produced monetary reinforcers on five VR schedules, and on five VI schedules with linear feedback loops that reproduced the feedback properties of the VR schedules. Pressing was initiated by instructions in 2 subjects, and was shaped by successive approximation in the other 2. The different methods of response initiation did not have differential effects on behavior. For each of the 4 subjects, the VR and the comparable VI-plus-linear-feedback schedules generated similar average response rates and similar response patterns. The subjects' behavior on both types of schedule was similar to that of avian and rodent species on VR schedules. These results indicate that the assumption entailed by the VI-plus-linear-feedback approach to the VR case is valid and, consequently, that the approach is worth pursuing. The results also confute interresponse-time theories of schedule performance, which require interval and ratio contingencies to produce different response rates.

  7. 78 FR 26701 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin Into Schedule IV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... scheduling responsibilities under the CSA, with the concurrence of NIDA. 50 FR 9518. In addition, because the..., ``Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin into Schedule IV'' on December 19, 2012 (77 FR... referenced were zopiclone (70 FR 16935), pregabalin (70 FR 43633), and ezogabine (76 FR 77895). DEA...

  8. 78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Secretary's scheduling responsibilities under the CSA, with the concurrence of NIDA. 50 FR 9518. In addition... provisions of the CSA. 76 FR 55616. Following this, on October 21, 2011, DEA published a Final Order in the... Schedule I of the CSA pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of 21 U.S.C. 811(h). 76 FR...

  9. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  10. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  11. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  12. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  13. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  14. 23 CFR 140.604 - Reimbursable schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reimbursable schedule. 140.604 Section 140.604 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT... Interstate funds shall be subject to a 36-month reimbursable schedule upon conversion to regular...

  15. Evolutionary Scheduler for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seungwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Zheng, Hua; Chau, Savio; Tung, Yu-Wen; Terrile, Richard J.; Hovden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A computer program assists human schedulers in satisfying, to the maximum extent possible, competing demands from multiple spacecraft missions for utilization of the transmitting/receiving Earth stations of NASA s Deep Space Network. The program embodies a concept of optimal scheduling to attain multiple objectives in the presence of multiple constraints.

  16. A Heuristic Approach to Scheduling University Timetables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, E. H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Categories of facilities utilization and scheduling requirements to be considered when using a heuristic approach to timetabling are described together with a nine-step algorithm and the computerized timetabling system, Timetable Schedules System (TTS); TTS utilizes heuristic approach. An example demonstrating use of TTS and a program flowchart…

  17. 40 CFR 58.12 - Operating schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.12 Operating schedules. State and local... part. Area-specific PAMS operating schedules must be included as part of the PAMS network description... remains once every six days. No less frequently than as part of each 5-year network assessment, the...

  18. 16 CFR 1203.13 - Test schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test schedule. 1203.13 Section 1203.13... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.13 Test schedule. (a) Helmet sample 1 of the set of eight... conditioned in the ambient, high temperature, low temperature, and water immersion environments as...

  19. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there…

  20. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR 60.21(h) would be specified at that time; this is an acceptable procedure pursuant to 40 CFR 60.24(e)(2). However, the State must submit these schedules to EPA for approval; and these schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by...

  1. Dishabituation Produces Interactions during Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Frances K.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Murphy, Eric S.; Isava, Duane M.

    2004-01-01

    McSweeney and Weatherly (1998) argued that differential habituation to the reinforcer contributes to the behavioral interactions observed during multiple schedules. The present experiment confirmed that introducing dishabituators into one component of a multiple schedule increases response rate in the other, constant, component. During baseline,…

  2. 40 CFR 52.134 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.134 Section 52.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.134 Compliance schedules. (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 1952.351 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Arizona § 1952.351 Developmental schedule. The Arizona State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as provided by...) The formulation and approval of inter-agency agreements with the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission,...

  4. 29 CFR 1952.351 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Arizona § 1952.351 Developmental schedule. The Arizona State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as provided by...) The formulation and approval of inter-agency agreements with the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.134 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.134 Section 52.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.134 Compliance schedules. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.134 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.134 Section 52.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.134 Compliance schedules. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.134 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.134 Section 52.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.134 Compliance schedules. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.134 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.134 Section 52.134 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.134 Compliance schedules. (a)...

  9. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  10. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  11. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  12. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  13. 40 CFR 62.2354 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... schedules must meet the public hearing requirements of 40 CFR 60.23 or ones deemed equivalent by the... Florida has provided that the individual source compliance schedules would be developed and submitted by the affected sources to the State following plan adoption; and that the increments of...

  14. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Schedule, 76 FR 28194. In response to the notice, one comment was received regarding excessive fees. The... was published in the Federal Register and went into effect on June 15, 2010, 75 FR 39629. Board Action... SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  15. 75 FR 39629 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ..., 2010 the Board published for comment in the Federal Register its Proposed FOIA Fee Schedule, 75 FR... Federal Register and went into effect on May 1, 2009, 74 FR 20934. Board Action Accordingly, the Board... 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment...

  16. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  17. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  18. 42 CFR 412.610 - Assessment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assessment schedule. 412.610 Section 412.610 Public... Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.610 Assessment schedule. (a) General. For each Medicare Part A fee... must complete a patient assessment instrument as specified in § 412.606 that covers a time period...

  19. State Teacher Salary Schedules. Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the United States most teacher compensation issues are decided at the school district level. However, a group of states have chosen to play a role in teacher pay decisions by instituting statewide teacher salary schedules. Education Commission of the States has found that 17 states currently make use of teacher salary schedules. This education…

  20. Streams-C Scheduler and Library

    2001-12-04

    The scheduler accepts a preprocessed C program with optional Streams-C extensions. It translates it to a normalized form with additional information for scheduling it on a reconfigurable architecture. The resulting file is accepted by the Streams-C VHDL generator, not part of this package.

  1. Four-Day Week Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    What does research say about the four-day week as an alternative school schedule? More than 100 districts in at least 12 states currently use a four-day week alternative schedule. Most are located in rural areas, serve less than 1000 students, and made the move to a shorter school week with longer instructional days for financial reasons. Although…

  2. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  3. 11 CFR 9037.4 - Alphabetized schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alphabetized schedules. 9037.4 Section 9037.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY... candidate file a schedule of itemized receipts, disbursements, or debts and obligations pursuant to 11...

  4. 11 CFR 9037.4 - Alphabetized schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alphabetized schedules. 9037.4 Section 9037.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY... candidate file a schedule of itemized receipts, disbursements, or debts and obligations pursuant to 11...

  5. 29 CFR 4901.32 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... added to the search time cost. (3) Search in computerized records. Charges for information that is... schedule. (a) Charges for searching and review of records. Charges applicable under this subpart to the search for and review of records will be made according to the following fee schedule: (1) Search...

  6. How Block Scheduling Reform Effects Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Flinders, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Block scheduling has become an increasingly popular reform movement for schools, school districts, and principals to enact. Much of the decision making as to whether to implement some type of block scheduling has occurred without understanding the implications this type of reform has on teachers and their classroom practices. This paper reports on…

  7. 6 CFR 27.210 - Submissions schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submissions schedule. 27.210 Section 27.210 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.210 Submissions schedule. (a) Initial Submission....

  8. 49 CFR 665.21 - Scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Operations § 665.21 Scheduling. (a) To schedule a bus for testing, a manufacturer shall contact the operator of FTA's bus testing program. Contact information and procedures are available on the operator's bus testing Web site, http://www.altoonabustest.com. (b) Upon contacting...

  9. 49 CFR 665.21 - Scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BUS TESTING Operations § 665.21 Scheduling. (a) To schedule a bus for testing, a manufacturer shall contact the operator of FTA's bus testing program. Contact information and procedures are available on the operator's bus testing Web site, http://www.altoonabustest.com. (b) Upon contacting...

  10. 7 CFR 1.18 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee schedule. 1.18 Section 1.18 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.18 Fee schedule. Pursuant to § 2.28 of this title, the Chief Financial Officer is delegated authority to promulgate...

  11. Improved MLWDF scheduler for LTE downlink transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obinna Nnamani, Christantus; Anioke, Chidera Linda; Ikechukwu Ani, Cosmas

    2016-11-01

    In long-term evolution (LTE) downlink transmission, modified least weighted delay first (MLWDF) scheduler is a quality of service (QoS) aware scheduling scheme for real-time (RT) services. Nevertheless, MLWDF performs below optimal among the trade-off between strict delay and loss restraints of RT and non-RT traffic flows, respectively. This is further worsened with the implementation of hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ). As these restraints grow unabated with increasing number of user demands, the performance of MLWDF further reduces. In order to ameliorate this situation, there is a need to directly incorporate the variations in user demands and HARQ implementation as parameters to the MLWDF scheduler. In this work, an improvement to the MLWDF scheduler is proposed. The improvement entails adding two novel parameters that characterise user demand and HARQ implementation. The scheduler was tested using varying three classes of service in QoS class identifiers (QCIs) table standardised by Third Generation Partnership Project for LTE network to characterise different services. It was also tested on the basis of packet prioritisation. The proposed scheduler was simulated with LTE-SIM simulator and compared with the MLWDF and proportional fairness schedulers. In terms of delay, throughput and packet loss ratio; the proposed scheduler increased overall system performance.

  12. 5 CFR 293.511 - Retention schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention schedule. 293.511 Section 293.511 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL RECORDS Employee Medical File System Records § 293.511 Retention schedule. (a) Temporary EMFS records...

  13. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 58.12 - Operating schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.12 Operating schedules. State and local... part. Area-specific PAMS operating schedules must be included as part of the PAMS network description... remains once every six days. No less frequently than as part of each 5-year network assessment, the...

  18. 7 CFR 1.18 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fee schedule. 1.18 Section 1.18 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.18 Fee schedule. Pursuant to § 2.28 of this title, the Chief Financial Officer is delegated authority to promulgate...

  19. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on…

  20. 33 CFR 242.6 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... based on a Corps-wide average of estimated current costs for providing that level of service. (f) Review... most current cost data available. If necessary, the Fee Schedule will be revised after public notice... MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.6 Fee schedule. (a) General....

  1. Soil water monitoring equipment for irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equipment for monitoring soil water content and sometimes bulk electrical conductivity can be used for scheduling irrigations if the accuracy of the equipment is sufficient to avoid damanging plants and wasting water and fertilizer. Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when to irrigate a...

  2. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  3. 5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work schedules. (a... schedule the work of his or her employees to accomplish the mission of the agency. The head of an...

  4. 5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work schedules. (a... schedule the work of his or her employees to accomplish the mission of the agency. The head of an...

  5. 5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work schedules. (a... schedule the work of his or her employees to accomplish the mission of the agency. The head of an...

  6. 5 CFR 610.121 - Establishment of work schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment of work schedules. 610.121... DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work Work Schedules § 610.121 Establishment of work schedules. (a... schedule the work of his or her employees to accomplish the mission of the agency. The head of an...

  7. Integrated online job-shop scheduling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing; Chen, Kuan H.; Luh, Peter B.; Chiueh, T. D.; Chang, ShihChang; Thakur, Lakshman S.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology and e- commerce requires fast response form scheduling systems. Based on the Lagrangian relaxation approach for job shop scheduling, this paper present an integrated system that will generate schedules quickly. The Lagrangian relaxation approach is an iterative optimization process, where dynamic programming is solved in each iteration. Since dynamic programming is computational expensive especially for large problems, this paper develops the simplified dynamic programming, which will cut the computation time of each iteration by one order. Furthermore, a digital circuit to be embedded in PC is designed to implement the iterative optimization algorithm, leading to another order of speed improvement. The resulting integrated scheduling system consists of the hardware for optimization and the related software. It is estimated that two orders of magnitude gain in speed can be obtained, which will make on-line scheduling for practical job shops possible.

  8. NASA Instrument Cost/Schedule Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Mrozinski, Joe; Fox, George

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Office of Independent Program and Cost Evaluation (IPCE) has established a number of initiatives to improve its cost and schedule estimating capabilities. 12One of these initiatives has resulted in the JPL developed NASA Instrument Cost Model. NICM is a cost and schedule estimator that contains: A system level cost estimation tool; a subsystem level cost estimation tool; a database of cost and technical parameters of over 140 previously flown remote sensing and in-situ instruments; a schedule estimator; a set of rules to estimate cost and schedule by life cycle phases (B/C/D); and a novel tool for developing joint probability distributions for cost and schedule risk (Joint Confidence Level (JCL)). This paper describes the development and use of NICM, including the data normalization processes, data mining methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, regression analysis and bootstrap cross validation), the estimating equations themselves and a demonstration of the NICM tool suite.

  9. ISAPS: Intelligent Scheduling And Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.S.; Rutherford, W.C.; Grice, J.V. . Kansas City Div.); Kessel, K.L.; Orel, M. )

    1990-08-01

    ISAPS is a scheduling and planning tool for shop floor personnel working in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment. The ISAP system has two integrated components: the Predictive Scheduler (PS) and the Reactive Scheduler (RS). These components work cooperatively to satisfy the four goals of the ISAP system, which are: (G1) meet production due dates, (G2) maximize machining center utilization, (G3) minimize cutting tool migration, and (G4) minimize product flow time. The PS is used to establish schedules for new production requirements. The RS is used to adjust the schedules produced by the PS for unforeseen events that occur during production operations. The PS and RS subsystems have been developed using IntelliCorp's Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE), an expert system development shell, and Common LISP. Software Quality Assurance (SQA) techniques have been incorporated throughout the development effort to assure the ISAP system meets the manufacturing goals and end user requirements. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Scheduling nursing personnel on a microcomputer.

    PubMed

    Liao, C J; Kao, C Y

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that with the shortage of nursing personnel, hospital administrators have to pay more attention to the needs of nurses to retain and recruit them. Also asserts that improving nurses' schedules is one of the most economic ways for the hospital administration to create a better working environment for nurses. Develops an algorithm for scheduling nursing personnel. Contrary to the current hospital approach, which schedules nurses on a person-by-person basis, the proposed algorithm constructs schedules on a day-by-day basis. The algorithm has inherent flexibility in handling a variety of possible constraints and goals, similar to other non-cyclical approaches. But, unlike most other non-cyclical approaches, it can also generate a quality schedule in a short time on a microcomputer. The algorithm was coded in C language and run on a microcomputer. The developed software is currently implemented at a leading hospital in Taiwan. The response to the initial implementation is quite promising. PMID:10167872

  11. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelson, D.G.,; Jette, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Scheduling multicore workload on shared multipurpose clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templon, J. A.; Acosta-Silva, C.; Flix Molina, J.; Forti, A. C.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Starink, R.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of workloads containing explicit requests for multiple cores in a single grid job, grid sites faced a new set of challenges in workload scheduling. The most common batch schedulers deployed at HEP computing sites do a poor job at multicore scheduling when using only the native capabilities of those schedulers. This paper describes how efficient multicore scheduling was achieved at the sites the authors represent, by implementing dynamically-sized multicore partitions via a minimalistic addition to the Torque/Maui batch system already in use at those sites. The paper further includes example results from use of the system in production, as well as measurements on the dependence of performance (especially the ramp-up in throughput for multicore jobs) on node size and job size.

  13. Human choice under schedules of negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-12-01

    The generalized matching equation provides a good description of response allocation in concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement in nonhumans as well as in humans. The present experiment was conducted to further investigate the allocation of responding under concurrent schedules of negative reinforcement (i.e., timeouts from pressing a force cell) in humans. Each of three participants was exposed to different reinforcement ratios (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9) in the terminal links of a concurrent-chains schedule of negative reinforcement. The allocation of responding under this schedule was well described by the generalized matching equation, for each participant. These results replicate previous findings obtained with nonhumans and humans under concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement. In addition, they extend the results reported by Alessandri and Rivière (2013) showing that human behavior maintained by timeouts from an effortful response is sensitive to changes in relative reinforcement ratios as well as relative delays of reinforcement. PMID:26518610

  14. Human choice under schedules of negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X

    2015-12-01

    The generalized matching equation provides a good description of response allocation in concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement in nonhumans as well as in humans. The present experiment was conducted to further investigate the allocation of responding under concurrent schedules of negative reinforcement (i.e., timeouts from pressing a force cell) in humans. Each of three participants was exposed to different reinforcement ratios (9:1, 1:1 and 1:9) in the terminal links of a concurrent-chains schedule of negative reinforcement. The allocation of responding under this schedule was well described by the generalized matching equation, for each participant. These results replicate previous findings obtained with nonhumans and humans under concurrent schedules of positive reinforcement. In addition, they extend the results reported by Alessandri and Rivière (2013) showing that human behavior maintained by timeouts from an effortful response is sensitive to changes in relative reinforcement ratios as well as relative delays of reinforcement.

  15. Routine Operational Environmental Monitoring schedule, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This document provides Health Physics (HP) a schedule in accordance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) Program during calendar year (CY) 1994. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of EES and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive waste sites are scheduled to be surveyed annually at a minimum. Any newly discovered waste sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995. This schedule does not discuss the manpower needs nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines.

  16. Observation scheduling scheme for the Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki; Koura, Norikazu; Hawkins, Robert; Kramer, Laurence; Krueger, Anthony P.; Miller, Glenn E.

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We are now implementing scheduling software into the observation software system for Subaru telescope. The scheduling engine, SPIKE, developed at STScI is used with some modification for the Subaru telescope. An observation target list prepared by observers is converted to SPIKE Lisp codes. SPIKE output is inversely converted to Subaru commands to be executed with the observation software system. Real-time scheduling is planned to re-schedule observations by judging the weather and satisfaction conditions with the help of observation history. The scheduling software can be also used as support tools for observers to indicate an object good for the next observation.

  17. A simple neural network scheduler for real-time machine task scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of a new generation of automated radionuclide assay equipment in our facility requires embedded software at each machine for the scheduling of tasks. The execution time requirements of real-time embedded software limit the complexity of the scheduler design. By representing the scheduling problem properly, a simple backpropagation neural network performs the scheduling function within the imposed requirements. Operational tests have demonstrated that the neural network scheduler has met all development goals and is superior to the previous approaches. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Sildenafil accelerates reentrainment of circadian rhythms after advancing light schedules

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Patricia V.; Plano, Santiago A.; Golombek, Diego A.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and entrained by light-activated signaling pathways. In hamsters, the mechanism responsible for light-induced phase advances involves the activation of guanylyl cyclase, cGMP and its related kinase (PKG). It is not completely known whether interference with this pathway affects entrainment of the clock, including adaptation to changing light schedules. Here we report that cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 is present in the hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei, and administration of the inhibitor sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg, i.p.) enhances circadian responses to light and decreases the amount of time necessary for reentrainment after phase advances of the light–dark cycle. These results suggest that sildenafil may be useful for treatment of circadian adaptation to environmental changes, including transmeridian eastbound flight schedules. PMID:17519328

  19. The comparison of predictive scheduling algorithms for different sizes of job shop scheduling problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper a survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done in order to evaluate how the ability of prediction of reliability characteristics influences over robustness criteria. The most important reliability characteristics are: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time of Repair. Survey analysis is done for a job shop scheduling problem. The paper answers the question: what method generates robust schedules in the case of a bottleneck failure occurrence before, at the beginning of planned maintenance actions or after planned maintenance actions? Efficiency of predictive schedules is evaluated using criteria: makespan, total tardiness, flow time, idle time. Efficiency of reactive schedules is evaluated using: solution robustness criterion and quality robustness criterion. This paper is the continuation of the research conducted in the paper [1], where the survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done only for small size scheduling problems.

  20. Characteristics of HIV patients who missed their scheduled appointments

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Delsa; Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether sociodemographic characteristics, consultations and care in special services are associated with scheduled infectious diseases appointments missed by people living with HIV. METHODS This cross-sectional and analytical study included 3,075 people living with HIV who had at least one scheduled appointment with an infectologist at a specialized health unit in 2007. A secondary data base from the Hospital Management & Information System was used. The outcome variable was missing a scheduled medical appointment. The independent variables were sex, age, appointments in specialized and available disciplines, hospitalizations at the Central Institute of the Clinical Hospital at the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade de São Paulo, antiretroviral treatment and change of infectologist. Crude and multiple association analysis were performed among the variables, with a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS More than a third (38.9%) of the patients missed at least one of their scheduled infectious diseases appointments; 70.0% of the patients were male. The rate of missed appointments was 13.9%, albeit with no observed association between sex and absences. Age was inversely associated to missed appointment. Not undertaking anti-retroviral treatment, having unscheduled infectious diseases consultations or social services care and being hospitalized at the Central Institute were directly associated to missed appointments. CONCLUSIONS The Hospital Management & Information System proved to be a useful tool for developing indicators related to the quality of health care of people living with HIV. Other informational systems, which are often developed for administrative purposes, can also be useful for local and regional management and for evaluating the quality of care provided for patients living with HIV. PMID:26786472

  1. [Immunization schedule in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Berrut, Gilles; Jeandel, Claude

    2015-09-01

    Elderly people are more likely to develop severe infections diseases. Given the significant increase in the number of the elderly population, reducing the risk of infection by vaccination is a major preventive approach. The immunization schedule for 2014 in France yields, for the first time, vaccination recommendations for patients over 65 years. Tetanus-Diphtheria-Poliomyelitis vaccination is recommended to be given at the age of 65 years and then every 10 years, together with the pertussis vaccine to protect infants less than 6 months. Recommendation for vaccinations against seasonal influenza in autumn is maintained by the High Council for Public Health, which estimates that the population benefit persists despite the lower individual effectiveness in the elderly. The pneumococcal vaccine is recommended only in high-risk populations, and only once after the age 65. Zoster vaccine is recommended between 65 and 74, and the first year of its availability, can be proposed to elderly patients between 75 and 79 years. Vaccination in the elderly must be enhanced, and information about its advantages should be disseminated. PMID:26967928

  2. Eight Days a Week: The Art of Reference Desk Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelk, Roger; Lu, Suping

    1997-01-01

    Discusses philosophical issues and human elements in reference desk scheduling for public and academic libraries, highlighting institutionalization of a desk scheduling policy, the relationship between scheduler and schedulee (impartiality, consistency, flexibility, collegiality, diplomacy, dedication to reference service), and conflict management…

  3. Prediction of responsiveness or non-responsiveness to treatment of acute Kawasaki disease using 1 gram per kilogram of immunoglobulin--an effective and cost-saving schedule of therapy.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Ko; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Momoi, Mariko

    2009-06-01

    Standard treatment of acute Kawasaki disease involves giving 2 grams per kilogram of immunoglobulin intravenously along with aspirin. More than half of the patients with acute Kawasaki disease, nonetheless, can be cured by giving only 1 gram per kilogram of immunoglobulin, thus reducing this aspect of the cost of treatment by half. Our purpose was to predict those patients with acute Kawasaki disease who would respond to treatment with 1 gram per kilogram of immunoglobulin given intravenously on the basis of their clinical profiles and laboratory findings prior to the initial treatment. We performed a retrospective review of the clinical records of consecutive patients with acute Kawasaki disease treated in our hospital with intravenous immunoglobulin from January, 2001, to December, 2005.During this period, we treated in this fashion 98 patients with acute Kawasaki disease. 65% of these needing immunoglobulin therapy were cured by giving 1 gram per kilogram. The neutrophil count and the percentage of white blood cells representing neutrophils, along with aspirate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and C reactive protein, were all significantly lower, and sodium was significantly higher, in those responding to 1 gram per kilogram of immunoglobulin when compared to those who did not respond. The days of illness at the first intravenous treatment was later in those responding than in those failing to respond. We generated a score for prediction, assigning a point for each of C reactive protein equal to or greater than 10 mg/dl, sodium equal to or lower than 133 meq/l, alanine aminotransferase equal to or greater than 110 IU/l, and 2 points for the percentage of white blood cells representing neutrophils equal to or greater than 70%. Using a cut-off point of a score less than 2, we were able to identify those responding with 60% sensitivity, and 91% specificity.Thus, we are now able to predict those patients with acute Kawasaki disease who will

  4. Observing of chain-schedule stimuli.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Jonathan M; Anderson, Karen G

    2014-06-01

    A classical-conditioning account of the processes maintaining behavior under chained schedules entails a backward transmission of conditioned-reinforcement effects. Assessing this process in traditional chain schedules is limited because the response maintained by stimulus onset accompanied by each link in a chain schedule may also be maintained by the primary reinforcer. In the present experiment, an observing response was used to measure the conditioned-reinforcing effects of stimuli associated with a three-link chain variable-time (VT) food schedule, and resistance-to-change tests (extinction and prefeeding) were implemented to examine if a backward transmission of reinforcement effects occur. Four pigeons served as subjects. Observing was maintained by the production of stimuli correlated with links of a three-link chain VT schedule with the middle-link stimulus maintaining the highest rate of observing, followed by the initial-link stimulus and the terminal-link stimulus maintaining the lowest observing rate. Results from resistance-to-change tests of extinction and prefeeding were not supportive of a backward transmission of reinforcement effects and in general, the pattern of resistance-to-change was forward. Based on past and current research, it appears that a backward pattern of relative rate decreases in responses maintained by stimuli correlated with a chain schedule due to disruption (i.e., extinction and prefeeding) is not a ubiquitous process that is evident within different chain-schedule arrangements.

  5. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  6. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  7. SHRED: a CPU scheduler for heterogeneous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonian, Oveeyen; Coulson, Geoff

    2005-03-01

    General purpose workstations must support a wide variety of application characteristics; but it is hard to find a single CPU scheduling scheme that satisfactorily schedules processes from all types of applications. It is particularly difficult to get periodic deadline-driven continuous media processes to satisfactorily co-exist with others. A number of schemes have been proposed to address this issue, but these all suffer from one or more of the following limitations: i) unacceptable inefficiency, ii) non-determinism (i.e. introducing significant burstiness or jitter), iii) inability to explicitly support deadlines (so that deadlines may be missed even when the CPU is underloaded). This paper presents "SHRED (SHaretokens, Round-robin, Earliest-deadline-first, Deferred-processing)" -an efficient, proportional-share, deterministic, scheduling scheme that enables periodic deadline-driven processes to meet their explicit deadlines wherever possible, and degrades gracefully and adaptively when this is not possible. The scheme simultaneously ensures that non-deadline processes always obtain their fair share of CPU time whether in conditions of underload or overload. For experimental evaluation, a prototype of SHRED has been developed by replacing the Linux standard scheduler with the SHRED scheduler. The prototype has been evaluated against the standard Linux scheduler for various parameters and also against two proportional-share schemes, namely Stride and VTRR scheduling, for its overhead and its effect on jitter.

  8. Observation scheduling tools for Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Hawkins, Robert; Kawai, Jun A.; Kusumoto, Toyoaki

    2004-09-01

    Optimization of observation sequences is a function necessary to get high efficiency and reliability of observations. We have implemented scheduling software in the Subaru Telescope observatory software system. The scheduling engine, Spike, developed at STScI is used with some modification for Subaru Telescope. Since the last report at SPIE (Munich, 2000), new functions to Spike are implemented on 1) optimized arrangement of an observation dataset, which consists of a target object and related calibrations, and 2) flexible scheduling of standard stars selected out of a standard star list, which is fed to Spike as a part of observation datasets. Observation datasets with some necessary information, prepared by an observer, are input to the scheduling tools to be converted to Spike Lisp input forms. A schedule created by Spike is inversely converted to Subaru observation commands to be executed with the observation control system. These applications are operable with Web-based display. We present an overall structure of the scheduling tools with some samples of Subaru observation commands of target datasets and a resultant schedule.

  9. Schedule-Aware Workflow Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, Ronny S.; Russell, Nick C.; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.; Moleman, Arnold J.; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    Contemporary workflow management systems offer work-items to users through specific work-lists. Users select the work-items they will perform without having a specific schedule in mind. However, in many environments work needs to be scheduled and performed at particular times. For example, in hospitals many work-items are linked to appointments, e.g., a doctor cannot perform surgery without reserving an operating theater and making sure that the patient is present. One of the problems when applying workflow technology in such domains is the lack of calendar-based scheduling support. In this paper, we present an approach that supports the seamless integration of unscheduled (flow) and scheduled (schedule) tasks. Using CPN Tools we have developed a specification and simulation model for schedule-aware workflow management systems. Based on this a system has been realized that uses YAWL, Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, Outlook, and a dedicated scheduling service. The approach is illustrated using a real-life case study at the AMC hospital in the Netherlands. In addition, we elaborate on the experiences obtained when developing and implementing a system of this scale using formal techniques.

  10. Using Rapidly Alternating Multiple Schedules To Assess and Treat Aberrant Behavior in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolli, Kathleen; Daggett, Julie; Ortiz, Kristi; Mullins, Jo

    1999-01-01

    The validity of using rapidly alternating multiple schedules (RAMS) as a method for assessing and treating aggression was demonstrated by using the naturally occurring reinforcers identified in the RAMS to develop treatments that were experimentally tested. All treatments using the reinforcers identified in the RAMS were effective. Possible uses…

  11. Optimal radiotherapy dose schedules under parametric uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badri, Hamidreza; Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the effects of parameter uncertainty on the optimal radiation schedule in the context of the linear-quadratic model. Our interest arises from the observation that if inter-patient variability in normal and tumor tissue radiosensitivity or sparing factor of the organs-at-risk (OAR) are not accounted for during radiation scheduling, the performance of the therapy may be strongly degraded or the OAR may receive a substantially larger dose than the allowable threshold. This paper proposes a stochastic radiation scheduling concept to incorporate inter-patient variability into the scheduling optimization problem. Our method is based on a probabilistic approach, where the model parameters are given by a set of random variables. Our probabilistic formulation ensures that our constraints are satisfied with a given probability, and that our objective function achieves a desired level with a stated probability. We used a variable transformation to reduce the resulting optimization problem to two dimensions. We showed that the optimal solution lies on the boundary of the feasible region and we implemented a branch and bound algorithm to find the global optimal solution. We demonstrated how the configuration of optimal schedules in the presence of uncertainty compares to optimal schedules in the absence of uncertainty (conventional schedule). We observed that in order to protect against the possibility of the model parameters falling into a region where the conventional schedule is no longer feasible, it is required to avoid extremal solutions, i.e. a single large dose or very large total dose delivered over a long period. Finally, we performed numerical experiments in the setting of head and neck tumors including several normal tissues to reveal the effect of parameter uncertainty on optimal schedules and to evaluate the sensitivity of the solutions to the choice of key model parameters.

  12. Mixed-Integer Formulations for Constellation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valicka, C.; Hart, W.; Rintoul, M.

    Remote sensing systems have expanded the set of capabilities available for and critical to national security. Cooperating, high-fidelity sensing systems and growing mission applications have exponentially increased the set of potential schedules. A definitive lack of advanced tools places an increased burden on operators, as planning and scheduling remain largely manual tasks. This is particularly true in time-critical planning activities where operators aim to accomplish a large number of missions through optimal utilization of single or multiple sensor systems. Automated scheduling through identification and comparison of alternative schedules remains a challenging problem applicable across all remote sensing systems. Previous approaches focused on a subset of sensor missions and do not consider ad-hoc tasking. We have begun development of a robust framework that leverages the Pyomo optimization modeling language for the design of a tool to assist sensor operators planning under the constraints of multiple concurrent missions and uncertainty. Our scheduling models have been formulated to address the stochastic nature of ad-hoc tasks inserted under a variety of scenarios. Operator experience is being leveraged to select appropriate model objectives. Successful development of the framework will include iterative development of high-fidelity mission models that consider and expose various schedule performance metrics. Creating this tool will aid time-critical scheduling by increasing planning efficiency, clarifying the value of alternative modalities uniquely provided by multi-sensor systems, and by presenting both sets of organized information to operators. Such a tool will help operators more quickly and fully utilize sensing systems, a high interest objective within the current remote sensing operations community. Preliminary results for mixed-integer programming formulations of a sensor scheduling problem will be presented. Assumptions regarding sensor geometry

  13. Compiling Planning into Scheduling: A Sketch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrax-Weiss, Tania; Crawford, James M.; Smith, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Although there are many approaches for compiling a planning problem into a static CSP or a scheduling problem, current approaches essentially preserve the structure of the planning problem in the encoding. In this pape: we present a fundamentally different encoding that more accurately resembles a scheduling problem. We sketch the approach and argue, based on an example, that it is possible to automate the generation of such an encoding for problems with certain properties and thus produce a compiler of planning into scheduling problems. Furthermore we argue that many NASA problems exhibit these properties and that such a compiler would provide benefits to both theory and practice.

  14. Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  15. Proposed Schedule for Fenton Hill Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, James N.; Brown, Donald W.

    1990-10-22

    To help in planning Fenton Hill experimental operations in concert with preparations for the Long-Term Flow Test (LTFT) next summer, the following schedule is proposed. This schedule fits some of the realities of the next few months, including the Laboratory closure during the Holidays, the seismic monitoring tests in Roswell, and the difficulties of operating during the winter months. Whenever possible, cyclic pumping operations during the colder months will be scheduled so that the pump will be on during the late evening and early morning hours to prevent freezeup.

  16. Schedule Uncertainty Control: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun-yan, Liu

    Risk control on project schedule is one of the focus problems in the academic circle and the practical area all the time. Lots of research about risk control on project schedule have been fulfilled and many achievements have appeared in recent several decades. The literature on the techniques of schedule uncertainty control was reviewed. A summary analysis on those chievements is presented such as CPM, PERT, MC, BBN, and so on and in light of that summary analysis a deep discussion in terms of advantages and disadvantages of existing research has been analyzed, so that researchers can continue to refine their research.

  17. Bridging the Gap Between Planning and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planning research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has often focused on problems where there are cascading levels of action choice and complex interactions between actions. In contrast. Scheduling research has focused on much larger problems where there is little action choice, but the resulting ordering problem is hard. In this paper, we give an overview of M planning and scheduling techniques, focusing on their similarities, differences, and limitations. We also argue that many difficult practical problems lie somewhere between planning and scheduling, and that neither area has the right set of tools for solving these vexing problems.

  18. SRG - SCHEDULE REPORT GENERATOR COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Schedule Report Generator, SRG, are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are schedule for recent completion (near term). Schedule Reports Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. SRG enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff members on a weekly basis. SRG sorts three types of reports using one or more data fields as sort keys. One type is sorted using the calendar year as the primary key and the end date as the secondary key. Another type is sorted by flight number. A third type of report, Waterfall plots, is also generated by SRG using the end date as the sorting key. SRG requires as input a single file or two concatenated files with up to 400 single line entries. The user constructs the input file by using the LSE editor VAX utility prior to the execution of the program. The user is able to modify the current functional description text lines just displayed. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum

  19. Space communications scheduler: A rule-based approach to adaptive deadline scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straguzzi, Nicholas

    1990-01-01

    Job scheduling is a deceptively complex subfield of computer science. The highly combinatorial nature of the problem, which is NP-complete in nearly all cases, requires a scheduling program to intelligently transverse an immense search tree to create the best possible schedule in a minimal amount of time. In addition, the program must continually make adjustments to the initial schedule when faced with last-minute user requests, cancellations, unexpected device failures, quests, cancellations, unexpected device failures, etc. A good scheduler must be quick, flexible, and efficient, even at the expense of generating slightly less-than-optimal schedules. The Space Communication Scheduler (SCS) is an intelligent rule-based scheduling system. SCS is an adaptive deadline scheduler which allocates modular communications resources to meet an ordered set of user-specified job requests on board the NASA Space Station. SCS uses pattern matching techniques to detect potential conflicts through algorithmic and heuristic means. As a result, the system generates and maintains high density schedules without relying heavily on backtracking or blind search techniques. SCS is suitable for many common real-world applications.

  20. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  1. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of space operations is examined in the light of optimization heuristics for computer algorithms and iterative search techniques. Specific attention is given to the search concepts known collectively as intelligent perturbation algorithms (IPAs) and their application to crew/resource allocation problems. IPAs iteratively examine successive schedules which become progressively more efficient, and the characteristics of good perturbation operators are listed. IPAs can be applied to aerospace systems to efficiently utilize crews, payloads, and resources in the context of systems such as Space-Station scheduling. A program is presented called the MFIVE Space Station Scheduling Worksheet which generates task assignments and resource usage structures. The IPAs can be used to develop flexible manifesting and scheduling for the Industrial Space Facility.

  2. 40 CFR 52.825 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (explosive contaminated waste burning) Middletown, Iowa 400—4.2(1) June 14... schedule. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.825, see the List of CFR...

  3. 40 CFR 716.60 - Reporting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.60 Reporting schedule. (a) General requirements... Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC, ATTN: Section 8(d) Extension. The DCO is open from 8 a.m. to 4...

  4. 29 CFR 1952.173 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Inspection Scheduling System will be fully implemented and in operation March 31, 1975. ... implementation of the plan and enforcement rules and regulations will be promulgated, and an operations manual...

  5. Monitoring Building Systems for Schedule Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Andrew M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2013-02-19

    As Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) initiated a Core Business Hours program, it became a challenge to ensure that the hundreds of systems campus wide were operating within their programmed schedules. Therefore, a collaborative exchange between PNNL operations and PNNL researchers developing the Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) software package was initiated to create a tool to solve this problem. This new DSOM tool verifies systems are operating within scheduled operation times by polling Building Automation and Control Network (BACnet) identifiers of systems’ on/off or command statuses. The tool records the time spent in operation state (ON) and totalizes each system over a rolling 7-day period, highlighting systems that are running over the scheduled hours. This snapshot view allows building management to look quickly at the entire campus to ensure that systems are not operating beyond their scheduled hours.

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  7. Effect of Uncertainty on Deterministic Runway Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Jung, Yoon C.

    2012-01-01

    Active runway scheduling involves scheduling departures for takeoffs and arrivals for runway crossing subject to numerous constraints. This paper evaluates the effect of uncertainty on a deterministic runway scheduler. The evaluation is done against a first-come- first-serve scheme. In particular, the sequence from a deterministic scheduler is frozen and the times adjusted to satisfy all separation criteria; this approach is tested against FCFS. The comparison is done for both system performance (throughput and system delay) and predictability, and varying levels of congestion are considered. The modeling of uncertainty is done in two ways: as equal uncertainty in availability at the runway as for all aircraft, and as increasing uncertainty for later aircraft. Results indicate that the deterministic approach consistently performs better than first-come-first-serve in both system performance and predictability.

  8. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or storing property at the marine terminal contained in a terminal schedule must be consistent with... paragraph (b)(2) of this section, this part does not apply to bulk cargo, forest products, recycled...

  9. Job Scheduling in a Heterogeneous Grid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Smith, Warren; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  10. A synthesized heuristic task scheduling algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiangli

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance.

  11. Job scheduling in a heterogenous grid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Smith, Warren

    2004-02-11

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  12. Learning to improve iterative repair scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a general learning method for dynamically selecting between repair heuristics in an iterative repair scheduling system. The system employs a version of explanation-based learning called Plausible Explanation-Based Learning (PEBL) that uses multiple examples to confirm conjectured explanations. The basic approach is to conjecture contradictions between a heuristic and statistics that measure the quality of the heuristic. When these contradictions are confirmed, a different heuristic is selected. To motivate the utility of this approach we present an empirical evaluation of the performance of a scheduling system with respect to two different repair strategies. We show that the scheduler that learns to choose between the heuristics outperforms the same scheduler with any one of two heuristics alone.

  13. 78 FR 37246 - January 2013 Pay Schedules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... President signed Executive Order 13641 (78 FR 21503), which documented the January 2013 pay schedules... incorporated as part of this notice. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Elaine Kaplan, Acting...

  14. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  15. 40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of § 51.262(a) of this chapter are not met since the compliance schedules for sources of nitrogen oxides extend over a period of more than 18 months and periodic increments of progress are not...

  16. NASA Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enari, D. M.

    The functioning of the Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA is reviewed. The primary objectives of the Operations Scheduling are: to schedule the worldwide global allocation of ground communications, tracking facilities, and equipment; and to provide deep space telecommunications for command, tracking, telemetry, and control in support of flight mission operations and tests. Elements of the earth set are Deep Space Stations (DSS) which provide the telecommunications link between the earth and spacecraft; NASA Communications Network; Network Data Processing Area; Network Operations Control Area which provides operational direction to the DSS; Mission Control and Computing systems; and Mission Support areas which provide flight control of the spacecraft. Elements of the space set include mission priorities and requirements which determine the spacecraft queue for allocating network resources. Scheduling is discussed in terms of long-range (3 years), mid-range (8 weeks), and short-range (2 weeks).

  17. 40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of § 51.262(a) of this chapter are not met since the compliance schedules for sources of nitrogen oxides extend over a period of more than 18 months and periodic increments of progress are not...

  18. 40 CFR 52.778 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of § 51.262(a) of this chapter are not met since the compliance schedules for sources of nitrogen oxides extend over a period of more than 18 months and periodic increments of progress are not...

  19. 24 CFR 965.307 - Compliance schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.307 Compliance schedule. All energy conservation measures determined by energy audits to be...

  20. 24 CFR 965.307 - Compliance schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Energy Audits and Energy Conservation Measures § 965.307 Compliance schedule. All energy conservation measures determined by energy audits to be...

  1. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  2. Scheduling the future NASA Space Network: Experiences with a flexible scheduling prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Happell, Nadine; Moe, Karen L.; Minnix, Jay

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Space Network (SN) provides telecommunications and tracking services to low earth orbiting spacecraft. One proposal for improving resource allocation and automating conflict resolution for the SN is the concept of flexible scheduling. In this concept, each Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) will possess a Space Network User POCC Interface (SNUPI) to support the development and management of flexible requests. Flexible requests express the flexibility, constraints, and repetitious nature of the user's communications requirements. Flexible scheduling is expected to improve SN resource utilization and user satisfaction, as well as reduce the effort to produce and maintain a schedule. A prototype testbed has been developed to better understand flexible scheduling as it applies to the SN. This testbed consists of a SNUPI workstation, an SN scheduler, and a flexible request language that conveys information between the two systems. All three are being evaluated by operations personnel. Benchmark testing is being conducted on the scheduler to quantify the productivity improvements achieved with flexible requests.

  3. 49 CFR 10.75 - Fee schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fee schedule. 10.75 Section 10.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation MAINTENANCE OF AND ACCESS TO RECORDS PERTAINING TO INDIVIDUALS Fees § 10.75 Fee schedule. (a) Copies of documents by photocopy or similar method: Each page not larger than 11×17 inches: First page $.25...

  4. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  5. Coordinating, Scheduling, Processing and Analyzing IYA09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gipson, John; Behrend, Dirk; Gordon, David; Himwich, Ed; MacMillan, Dan; Titus, Mike; Corey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The IVS scheduled a special astrometric VLBI session for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA09) commemorating 400 years of optical astronomy and 40 years of VLBI. The IYA09 session is the most ambitious geodetic session to date in terms of network size, number of sources, and number of observations. We describe the process of designing, coordinating, scheduling, pre-session station checkout, correlating, and analyzing this session.

  6. New write-off schedules hasten paybacks

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1983-04-04

    Energy-conservation office-building projects eligible for the new Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) depreciation schedules can have a faster payback, according to tax analysts. To use the five-year write-off schedule, equipment must meet tests of removability and obsolescence, with decisions made on a case-by-case basis. Qualifying equipment must be classified as personal property rather than structural property. Examples include cogeneration systems, lighting fixtures, and energy-management systems. (DCK)

  7. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  8. Prescribed Travel Schedules for Fatigue Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Johnston, Smith; Lockley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Fatigue Management Team is developing recommendations for managing fatigue during travel and for shift work operations, as Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Circadian Desynchrony in ISS Operations. The Guidelines provide the International Space Station (ISS ) flight surgeons and other operational clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for mitigating fatigue and other factors related to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. As much international travel is involved both before and after flight, the guidelines provide recommendations for: pre-flight training, in-flight operations, and post-flight rehabilitation. The objective of is to standardize the process by which care is provided to crewmembers, ground controllers, and other support personnel such as trainers, when overseas travel or schedule shifting is required. Proper scheduling of countermeasures - light, darkness, melatonin, diet, exercise, and medications - is the cornerstone for facilitating circadian adaptation, improving sleep, enhancing alertness, and optimizing performance. The Guidelines provide, among other things, prescribed travel schedules that outline the specific implementation of these mitigation strategies. Each travel schedule offers evidence based protocols for properly using the NASA identified countermeasures for fatigue. This presentation will describe the travel implementation schedules and how these can be used to alleviate the effects of jet lag and/or schedule shifts.

  9. Chandra mission scheduling on-orbit experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Sabina; Williams, Brent; Pendexter, Misty; Balke, David

    2008-07-01

    Scheduling observatory time to maximize both day-to-day science target integration time and the lifetime of the observatory is a formidable challenge. Furthermore, it is not a static problem. Of course, every schedule brings a new set of observations, but the boundaries of the problem change as well. As spacecraft ages, its capabilities may degrade. As in-flight experience grows, capabilities may expand. As observing programs are completed, the needs and expectations of the science community may evolve. Changes such as these impact the rules by which a mission scheduled. In eight years on orbit, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Mission Planning process has adapted to meet the challenge of maximizing day-to-day and mission lifetime science return, despite a consistently evolving set of scheduling constraints. The success of the planning team has been achieved, not through the use of complex algorithms and optimization routines, but through processes and home grown tools that help individuals make smart short term and long term Mission Planning decisions. This paper walks through the processes and tools used to plan and produce mission schedules for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Nominal planning and scheduling, target of opportunity response, and recovery from on-board autonomous safing actions are all addressed. Evolution of tools and processes, best practices, and lessons learned are highlighted along the way.

  10. Schedule-induced locomotor activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Muller, P G; Crow, R E; Cheney, C D

    1979-01-01

    In two experiments, humans received tokens either on a fixed-interval schedule for plunger pulling or various response-nondependent fixed-time schedules ranging from 16 to 140 seconds. Locomotor activity such as walking, shifting weight, or pacing was recorded in quarters of the interreinforcement interval to examine the induced characteristics of that behavior in humans. While performance was variable, several characteristics were present that have counterparts in experiments with nonhumans during periodic schedules of food reinforcement: (a) first quarter rates, and sometimes overall rates, of locomotor activity were greater during intervals that terminated in a visual stimulus and token delivery than those without: (b) overall rates of locomotor activity were greater during fixed-time 16-second schedules than during fixed-time 80- or 140-second schedules; (c) rates of locomotor activity decreased during the interreinforcement intervals; (d) locomotor activity was induced by response-dependent and response-nondependent token delivery. These results showed that the rate and temporal pattern of locomotor activity can be schedule-induced in humans. PMID:429959

  11. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  13. Force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; McBee, Lindsey N

    2014-03-01

    Fixed-ratio schedules are widely used in behavioral research. Although fixed-ratio schedules often conjure up relationships to work and effort, little is known about effort-related measures in these schedules. Early research had shown that force and effort of operant behavior vary systematically during the execution of ratio schedules, and the goal of the present study was to revisit early research on force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules. Four rats earned sucrose by pressing an isometric force transducer. Presses produced sucrose after ten or twenty responses. In general, the force of responses increased then decreased systematically across the ratio. The possibility that decreases in force during ratio execution was due to a trade-off with the differential reinforcement of short inter-response times (IRT) was investigated in an additional condition where sucrose was made available according to a tandem fixed-ratio 19 inter-response (IRT)> t schedule. The tandem IRT requirement did not eliminate decreasing trends in force across the ratio; unexpectedly, the tandem requirement did eliminate increases in force early in the ratio, which may reflect sequence-level organization operating in the control of force dynamics. PMID:24315798

  14. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  15. Optimal Schedules in Multitask Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yoon; Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Sung Shin; Scheidt, Robert A; Schweighofer, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Although scheduling multiple tasks in motor learning to maximize long-term retention of performance is of great practical importance in sports training and motor rehabilitation after brain injury, it is unclear how to do so. We propose here a novel theoretical approach that uses optimal control theory and computational models of motor adaptation to determine schedules that maximize long-term retention predictively. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, we derived a control law that determines the trial-by-trial task choice that maximizes overall delayed retention for all tasks, as predicted by the state-space model. Simulations of a single session of adaptation with two tasks show that when task interference is high, there exists a threshold in relative task difficulty below which the alternating schedule is optimal. Only for large differences in task difficulties do optimal schedules assign more trials to the harder task. However, over the parameter range tested, alternating schedules yield long-term retention performance that is only slightly inferior to performance given by the true optimal schedules. Our results thus predict that in a large number of learning situations wherein tasks interfere, intermixing tasks with an equal number of trials is an effective strategy in enhancing long-term retention. PMID:26890347

  16. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  17. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  18. Schedule Matters: Understanding the Relationship between Schedule Delays and Costs on Overruns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majerowicz, Walt; Shinn, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between schedule delays and cost overruns on complex projects. It is generally accepted by many project practitioners that cost overruns are directly related to schedule delays. But what does "directly related to" actually mean? Some reasons or root causes for schedule delays and associated cost overruns are obvious, if only in hindsight. For example, unrealistic estimates, supply chain difficulties, insufficient schedule margin, technical problems, scope changes, or the occurrence of risk events can negatively impact schedule performance. Other factors driving schedule delays and cost overruns may be less obvious and more difficult to quantify. Examples of these less obvious factors include project complexity, flawed estimating assumptions, over-optimism, political factors, "black swan" events, or even poor leadership and communication. Indeed, is it even possible the schedule itself could be a source of delay and subsequent cost overrun? Through literature review, surveys of project practitioners, and the authors' own experience on NASA programs and projects, the authors will categorize and examine the various factors affecting the relationship between project schedule delays and cost growth. The authors will also propose some ideas for organizations to consider to help create an awareness of the factors which could cause or influence schedule delays and associated cost growth on complex projects.

  19. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called "tasks models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that they want to be done. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, another cadre further modifies the models to be compatible with the scheduling engine. This last cadre also submits the models to the scheduling engine or builds the timeline manually to accommodate requirements that are expressed in notes. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components. (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphics methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models

  20. The Effect of Different Dosing Schedules of Intravitreal Sirolimus, a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Non-Infectious Uveitis (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Do, Diana V.; Sepah, Yasir J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if two different doses of intravitreal sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, can decrease inflammation and is safe in eyes with non-infectious posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis: Protocol-2 (SAVE-2) Study. Methods: SAVE-2 is a prospective randomized, phase II, open-label interventional clinical trial conducted at 4 clinical centers in the United States. Eligible subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Group 1 received 440µg of intravitreal sirolimus in study eyes on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150; group 2 received 880µg of intravitreal sirolimus on days 0, 60, and 120. Fellow eyes were also eligible to receive sirolimus (of opposite dose to that of study eye). Primary endpoint of the study was at month 6 (M6). Results: 24 subjects have been randomized in SAVE-2 and are included in the analysis. Vitreous haze decreased by ≥2 steps in 63.6% and 50% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively at M6 (p=0.695). Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity for subjects was +3.66 and −2.91 ETDRS letters in group 1 and 2, respectively. Among subjects with macular edema at baseline (n=13), the mean change in foveal thickness was −89.42µm in group 1 and +81.5µm in group 2 at M6. Conclusions: Both low and high doses of intravitreal sirolimus were found to decrease vitreous haze in eyes with non-infectious uveitis. Low dose (440µg) sirolimus administered monthly may be more efficacious in reducing uveitic macular edema than high dose (880µg) administered every 2 months.

  1. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  2. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  3. 39 CFR 3020.11 - Initial Mail Classification Schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial Mail Classification Schedule. 3020.11 Section 3020.11 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.11 Initial Mail Classification Schedule. The initial Mail Classification Schedule...

  4. Single-Sample Discrimination of Different Schedules' Reinforced Interresponse Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanno, Takayuki; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Food-deprived rats in Experiment 1 responded to one of two tandem schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. The tandem schedules' initial links were different random-interval schedules. Their values were adjusted to approximate equality in time to completing each tandem schedule's response requirements. The…

  5. An Examination of the Balanced School Day Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Trisha; Fox, Susan; Hoskin, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    Principals are always looking for effective ways to enhance the learning environment. The Balanced School Day (BSD) schedule, an alternative to the traditional schedule, reframes the school day by eliminating recess and lunch breaks and providing two scheduled nutrition breaks. Advantages and disadvantages to the schedule have been anecdotally…

  6. 40 CFR 86.115-78 - EPA dynamometer driving schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA dynamometer driving schedules. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.115-78 EPA dynamometer driving schedules. (a) The driving schedules for the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, US06, SC03, and the New York City Cycles...

  7. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  8. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  9. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  10. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  11. Recent reinforcement-schedule research and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Neef, Nancy A.

    1996-01-01

    Reinforcement schedules are considered in relation to applied behavior analysis by examining several recent laboratory experiments with humans and other animals. The experiments are drawn from three areas of contemporary schedule research: behavioral history effects on schedule performance, the role of instructions in schedule performance of humans, and dynamic schedules of reinforcement. All of the experiments are discussed in relation to the role of behavioral history in current schedule performance. The paper concludes by extracting from the experiments some more general issues concerning reinforcement schedules in applied research and practice. PMID:16795888

  12. A heuristic approach to incremental and reactive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odubiyi, Jide B.; Zoch, David R.

    1989-01-01

    An heuristic approach to incremental and reactive scheduling is described. Incremental scheduling is the process of modifying an existing schedule if the initial schedule does not meet its stated initial goals. Reactive scheduling occurs in near real-time in response to changes in available resources or the occurrence of targets of opportunity. Only minor changes are made during both incremental and reactive scheduling because a goal of re-scheduling procedures is to minimally impact the schedule. The described heuristic search techniques, which are employed by the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE), a prototype generic scheduler, efficiently approximate the cost of reaching a goal from a given state and effective mechanisms for controlling search.

  13. Assessment of the Correlation between Appointment Scheduling and Patient Satisfaction in a Pediatric Dental Setup

    PubMed Central

    Katre, Amar N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The practice of modern pediatric dentistry requires delivery of quality care in combination with adherence to excellent business as well as time management principles. A definite appointment schedule should be presented to the parents on the first or second appointment. More importantly, the prescribed schedule should be followed to the best of the professional abilities of the pediatric dentist. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the co-relation between appointment scheduling and patient satisfaction in a pediatric dental setup with the objective of understanding the parameters related to appointment scheduling to increase patient satisfaction. Method. A total of 40 patients, who visited the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, YMT Dental College & Hospital, for dental treatment were selected on a random basis. A questionnaire with a set of 6 questions with a rating scale of 1–5 to assess the patient satisfaction related to appointment scheduling was prepared. Results. A significant number of the patients were happy with the existing appointment scheduling system barring a few exceptions. PMID:25610464

  14. A Practical Variation of a Multiple-Schedule Procedure: Brief Schedule-Correlated Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Larsen, Kylie M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple schedules using continuous discriminative stimuli have been used to minimize children's disruptive requesting for teacher attention (e.g., colored floral leis; Tiger & Hanley, 2004; Tiger, Hanley, & Heal, 2006). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of, and children's preferences for, two multiple-schedule arrangements in which…

  15. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  16. 76 FR 77895 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ezogabine Into Schedule V

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... 21, 2011 (76 FR 65424), which proposed placement of ezogabine into Schedule V of the CSA. The... substance ezogabine, including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into Schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)....

  17. 78 FR 72013 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Perampanel into Schedule III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... the CSA, with the concurrence of NIDA. 50 FR 9518, Mar. 8, 1995. In addition, because the Secretary of... Perampanel into Schedule III'' on October 22, 2013 (78 FR 62500), which proposed placement of perampanel in...) benzonitrile], including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, into schedule III of the...

  18. 77 FR 63766 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...- methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)) into Schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the CSA (76 FR 55616... FR 65371) amending 21 CFR 1308.11(g) to temporarily place these three synthetic cathinones into...-methylcathinone (methylone) including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of...

  19. 78 FR 62500 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Perampanel into Schedule III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., isomers, and salts of isomers, into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This proposed...) benzonitrile hydrate], including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, warrants control in Schedule III of... entities. The purpose of this proposed rule is to place perampanel, including its salts, isomers, and...

  20. Considerations for Using an Incremental Scheduler for Human Exploration Task Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks.

  1. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-09-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  2. The Probability of Small Schedule Values and Preference for Random-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreth, Michelle Ennis; Hineline, Philip N.

    2009-01-01

    Preference for working on variable schedules and temporal discrimination were simultaneously examined in two experiments using a discrete-trial, concurrent-chains arrangement with fixed interval (FI) and random interval (RI) terminal links. The random schedule was generated by first sampling a probability distribution after the programmed delay to…

  3. Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks are a new way of monitoring the environment. They comprise autonomous sensor nodes in the environment that record real-time data, which is retrieved, analyzed, integrated with other data sets (e.g. satellite images, GIS, process models) and ultimately lead to scientific discoveries. Sensor networks must operate within time and resource constraints. Sensors have limited onboard memory, energy, computational power, communications windows and communications bandwidth. The value of data will depend on when, where and how it was collected, how detailed the data is, how long it takes to integrate the data, and how important the data was to the original scientific question. Planning and scheduling of sensor networks is necessary for effective, safe operations in the face of these constraints. For example, power bus limitations may preclude sensors from simultaneously collecting data and communicating without damaging the sensor; planners and schedulers can ensure these operations are ordered so that they do not happen simultaneously. Planning and scheduling can also ensure best use of the sensor network to maximize the value of collected science data. For example, if data is best recorded using a particular camera angle but it is costly in time and energy to achieve this, planners and schedulers can search for times when time and energy are available to achieve the optimal camera angle. Planning and scheduling can handle uncertainty in the problem specification; planners can be re-run when new information is made available, or can generate plans that include contingencies. For example, if bad weather may prevent the collection of data, a contingent plan can check lighting conditions and turn off data collection to save resources if lighting is not ideal. Both mobile and immobile sensors can benefit from planning and scheduling. For example, data collection on otherwise passive sensors can be halted to preserve limited power and memory

  4. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    PubMed

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-09-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens. PMID:11599637

  5. Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons: effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, T A; Hackenberg, T D; Vaidya, M

    2001-01-01

    Pigeons' key pecks produced food under second-order schedules of token reinforcement, with light-emitting diodes serving as token reinforcers. In Experiment 1, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and were exchanged for food according to either fixed-ratio or variable-ratio exchange schedules, with schedule type varied across conditions. In Experiment 2, schedule type was varied within sessions using a multiple schedule. In one component, tokens were earned according to a fixed-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a variable-ratio schedule. In the other component, tokens were earned according to a variable-ratio 50 schedule and exchanged according to a fixed-ratio schedule. In both experiments, the number of responses per exchange was varied parametrically across conditions, ranging from 50 to 400 responses. Response rates decreased systematically with increases in the fixed-ratio exchange schedules, but were much less affected by changes in the variable-ratio exchange schedules. Response rates were consistently higher under variable-ratio exchange schedules than tinder comparable fixed-ratio exchange schedules, especially at higher exchange ratios. These response-rate differences were due both to greater pre-ratio pausing and to lower local rates tinder the fixed-ratio exchange schedules. Local response rates increased with proximity to food under the higher fixed-ratio exchange schedules, indicative of discriminative control by the tokens. PMID:11599637

  6. A procedure for thinning the schedule of time-out.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jeanne M; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated ways to thin punishment schedules. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using variable ratio (VR) schedules to thin the time-out schedule gradually. Warnings were used in some conditions to assist potentially with schedule thinning, but this analysis was limited. Participants were 3 young students who engaged in problem behavior during enriched time-in periods. Dense schedules of intermittent time-out were effective at reducing problem behavior.

  7. Hybrid Scheduling Model for Independent Grid Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Shanthini, J.; Kalaikumaran, T.; Karthik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Grid computing facilitates the resource sharing through the administrative domains which are geographically distributed. Scheduling in a distributed heterogeneous environment is intrinsically very hard because of the heterogeneous nature of resource collection. Makespan and tardiness are two different measures of scheduling, and many of the previous researches concentrated much on reduction of makespan, which measures the machine utilization. In this paper, we propose a hybrid scheduling algorithm for scheduling independent grid tasks with the objective of reducing total weighted tardiness of grid tasks. Tardiness is to measure the due date performance, which has a direct impact on cost for executing the jobs. In this paper we propose BG_ATC algorithm which is a combination of best gap (BG) search and Apparent Tardiness Cost (ATC) indexing algorithm. Furthermore, we implemented these two algorithms in two different phases of the scheduling process. In addition to that, the comparison was made on results with various benchmark algorithms and the experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the benchmark algorithms. PMID:26543897

  8. Hybrid Scheduling Model for Independent Grid Tasks.

    PubMed

    Shanthini, J; Kalaikumaran, T; Karthik, S

    2015-01-01

    Grid computing facilitates the resource sharing through the administrative domains which are geographically distributed. Scheduling in a distributed heterogeneous environment is intrinsically very hard because of the heterogeneous nature of resource collection. Makespan and tardiness are two different measures of scheduling, and many of the previous researches concentrated much on reduction of makespan, which measures the machine utilization. In this paper, we propose a hybrid scheduling algorithm for scheduling independent grid tasks with the objective of reducing total weighted tardiness of grid tasks. Tardiness is to measure the due date performance, which has a direct impact on cost for executing the jobs. In this paper we propose BG_ATC algorithm which is a combination of best gap (BG) search and Apparent Tardiness Cost (ATC) indexing algorithm. Furthermore, we implemented these two algorithms in two different phases of the scheduling process. In addition to that, the comparison was made on results with various benchmark algorithms and the experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the benchmark algorithms. PMID:26543897

  9. A flexible nurse scheduling support system.

    PubMed

    Ozkarahan, I

    1989-01-01

    Salaries paid to nursing personnel constitute the largest chunk of a hospital's budget. Therefore, this human resource must be utilized efficiently. Hospitals provide continuous service without the exception of holidays and personal preferences. This causes the nurses' discontent in shift scheduling. And the consequence of this discontent is the nurse shortage. This and the pressures on hospitals to limit costs increase the importance of the nurse scheduling problem. Scheduling nursing personnel in hospitals is very complex due to the variety of conflicting interests or objectives between hospitals and nurses. Also, the demand, which varies widely 24-h a day 7-day a week is skill specific and hard to forecast. In the face of this complexity, the present nurse scheduling models have met with little success. In this paper, we propose a more flexible decision support system that will satisfy the interests of both hospitals and nurses through alternative models that attempt to accommodate flexible work patterns as it integrates time of the day (TOD) and day of the week (DOW) scheduling problems. PMID:2582748

  10. Hybrid Scheduling Model for Independent Grid Tasks.

    PubMed

    Shanthini, J; Kalaikumaran, T; Karthik, S

    2015-01-01

    Grid computing facilitates the resource sharing through the administrative domains which are geographically distributed. Scheduling in a distributed heterogeneous environment is intrinsically very hard because of the heterogeneous nature of resource collection. Makespan and tardiness are two different measures of scheduling, and many of the previous researches concentrated much on reduction of makespan, which measures the machine utilization. In this paper, we propose a hybrid scheduling algorithm for scheduling independent grid tasks with the objective of reducing total weighted tardiness of grid tasks. Tardiness is to measure the due date performance, which has a direct impact on cost for executing the jobs. In this paper we propose BG_ATC algorithm which is a combination of best gap (BG) search and Apparent Tardiness Cost (ATC) indexing algorithm. Furthermore, we implemented these two algorithms in two different phases of the scheduling process. In addition to that, the comparison was made on results with various benchmark algorithms and the experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the benchmark algorithms.

  11. Scheduling Future Water Supply Investments Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertain hydrological impacts of climate change, population growth and institutional changes pose a major challenge to planning of water supply systems. Planners seek optimal portfolios of supply and demand management schemes but also when to activate assets whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Incorporation of scheduling into the planning under uncertainty problem strongly increases its complexity. We investigate some approaches to scheduling with many-objective heuristic search. We apply a multi-scenario many-objective scheduling approach to the Thames River basin water supply system planning problem in the UK. Decisions include which new supply and demand schemes to implement, at what capacity and when. The impact of different system uncertainties on scheme implementation schedules are explored, i.e. how the choice of future scenarios affects the search process and its outcomes. The activation of schemes is influenced by the occurrence of extreme hydrological events in the ensemble of plausible scenarios and other factors. The approach and results are compared with a previous study where only the portfolio problem is addressed (without scheduling).

  12. Quay crane scheduling with dual cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Li, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    In this article, the dual cycling quay crane scheduling problem (D-QCSP) with hatches is addressed to minimize the operation cycles of quay cranes. The problem is decomposed into two sub-problems: the intra-group stage (sequencing stacks within each hatch) and the inter-group stage (scheduling all hatches). A new stack sequencing method is constructed for stacks of each hatch, which is modelled as a two-machine non-permutation flow shop scheduling problem. By removing inner gaps using left-shifting, the adapted hatch scheduling sub-problem is modelled as a two-machine grouped flow shop scheduling problem, which contains more precise processing times. A composite heuristic is proposed for the D-QCSP. Based on the derived lower bound, the heuristic is compared with the best existing heuristics on a large number of instances. Experimental results illustrate that the proposal outperforms the existing methods on all instances and dual cycling needs many fewer quay crane operating cycles than single cycling.

  13. Integrated network design and scheduling problems :

    SciTech Connect

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.

  14. The effects of fixed-time and contingent schedules of negative reinforcement on compliance and aberrant behavior.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gregory K; Ringdahl, Joel E; Wacker, David P; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current investigation, we examined whether similar findings would occur with FT schedules of negative reinforcement. Schedule analyses were conducted with two participants following functional analyses that identified escape from task demands as the maintaining variable for problem behavior. Differential negative reinforcement of alternative behavior (DNRA) was implemented first to establish behavioral control (decreased problem behavior and increased compliance). Breaks (negative reinforcement) were then concurrently delivered on a FT basis under either dense (at a greater rate than that obtained during DNRA alone) or lean (at a lower rate than that obtained during DNRA) reinforcement schedules. In general, results showed that FT escape did not preclude compliance when the FT schedule was lean, but treatment gains were significantly disrupted when dense FT schedules were superimposed.

  15. Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA

    2016-01-01

    MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.

  16. Maglev guideway cost and construction schedule assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, D.; Kim, S.

    1997-05-01

    A summary of construction cost and scheduling information is presented for four maglev guideway designs on an example route from Baltimore, MD to Newark, NJ. This work results from the National Maglev Initiative (NMI), a government-industry effort from 1989 to 1994. The system design concepts used as a basis for developing cost and construction scheduling information, were submitted by four industry consortia solely for this analysis, and represent their own unpublished designs. The detailed cost and construction schedule analyses cover the main guideway only. A summary estimate was made for stations, power distribution systems, maintenance facilities, and other types of infrastructure. The results of the analyses indicate a number of design aspects which must receive further consideration by future designers. These aspects will affect the practical and economic construction and long-term maintenance of a high-speed maglev guideway.

  17. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  18. Religion as Schedule-Induced Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I argue that a class of religious behaviors exists that is induced, for prepared organisms, by specific stimuli that are experienced according to a response-independent schedule. Like other schedule-induced behaviors, the members of this class serve as minimal units out of which functional behavior may arise. In this way, there exist two classes of religious behavior: nonoperant schedule-induced behaviors and operant behaviors. This dichotomy is consistent with the distinction insisted upon by religious scholars and philosophers between “graceful” and “effortful” religious behaviors. Embracing the distinction allows an explanation of many aspects of religious experience and behavior that have been overlooked or disregarded by other scientific approaches to religion. PMID:22478521

  19. What is a "schedule of reinforcement"?

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N; Cole, B K

    1975-01-01

    Several ambiguities in the present terminology of behavior theory obscure some important theoretical assumptions and experimental details in current research. Left unclarified, such ambiguities impede the accurate analysis of laboratory procedures, and prevent reliable communication among researchers. This paper focuses on the term "schedule of reinforcement". It points out that two distinguishable operational rules are implicated in the term: in the case where reinforcement is of the so-called response contingent type, the "schedule" is really a rule to identify the response to be reinforced; in the case of non-contingent reinforcement, the "schedule" is truly a rule for delivery of reinforcement. Other terminological ambiguities that are encountered in a discussion of this term include "reinforcement" and "intermittency." A resolution of these problems will necessarily involve the procedures of non-contingent reinforcement, and the parameter of reinforcement probability.

  20. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions.

  1. Distributed job scheduling in MetaCentrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Šimon; Ruda, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    MetaCentrum - The Czech National Grid provides access to various resources across the Czech Republic. The utilized resource management and scheduling system is based on a heavily modified version of the Torque Batch System. This open source resource manager is maintained in a local fork and was extended to facilitate the requirements of such a large installation. This paper provides an overview of unique features deployed in MetaCentrum. Notably, we describe our distributed setup that encompasses several standalone independent servers while still maintaining full cooperative scheduling across the grid. We also present the benefits of our virtualized infrastructure that enables our schedulers to dynamically request ondemand virtual machines, that are then used to facilitate the varied requirements of users in our system, as well as enabling support for user requested virtual clusters that can be further interconnected using a private VLAN.

  2. Experiments with a decision-theoretic scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansson, Othar; Holt, Gerhard; Mayer, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes DTS, a decision-theoretic scheduler designed to employ state-of-the-art probabilistic inference technology to speed the search for efficient solutions to constraint-satisfaction problems. Our approach involves assessing the performance of heuristic control strategies that are normally hard-coded into scheduling systems, and using probabilistic inference to aggregate this information in light of features of a given problem. BPS, the Bayesian Problem-Solver, introduced a similar approach to solving single-agent and adversarial graph search problems, yielding orders-of-magnitude improvement over traditional techniques. Initial efforts suggest that similar improvements will be realizable when applied to typical constraint-satisfaction scheduling problems.

  3. Scheduling Earth Observing Satellites with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Crawford, James; Lohn, Jason; Pryor, Anna

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesize that evolutionary algorithms can effectively schedule coordinated fleets of Earth observing satellites. The constraints are complex and the bottlenecks are not well understood, a condition where evolutionary algorithms are often effective. This is, in part, because evolutionary algorithms require only that one can represent solutions, modify solutions, and evaluate solution fitness. To test the hypothesis we have developed a representative set of problems, produced optimization software (in Java) to solve them, and run experiments comparing techniques. This paper presents initial results of a comparison of several evolutionary and other optimization techniques; namely the genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, squeaky wheel optimization, and stochastic hill climbing. We also compare separate satellite vs. integrated scheduling of a two satellite constellation. While the results are not definitive, tests to date suggest that simulated annealing is the best search technique and integrated scheduling is superior.

  4. Expert system for scheduling simulation lab sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Chet

    1990-01-01

    Implementation and results of an expert system used for scheduling session requests for the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are discussed. Weekly session requests are received from astronaut crew trainers, procedures developers, engineering assessment personnel, software developers, and various others who wish to access the computers, scene generators, and other simulation equipment available to them in the SES lab. The expert system under discussion is comprised of a data acquisition portion - two Pascal programs run on a personal computer - and a CLIPS program installed on a minicomputer. A brief introduction to the SES lab and its scheduling background is given. A general overview of the system is provided, followed by a detailed description of the constraint-reduction process and of the scheduler itself. Results from a ten-week trial period using this approach are discussed. Finally, a summary of the expert system's strengths and shortcomings are provided.

  5. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  6. S-CHART - SCHEDULING CHART PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinkner, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Scheduling Chart Program (S-Chart) uses simple menu choices to produce high quality Gantt type scheduling and production time-line charts with minimal data entry requirements. The software produces high quality charts (20, 40, and 80 day options) in 10-20 minutes including start up, data entry, and printing. Reprints take less than one minute. Some of the more significant features are as follows: speed and ease of use with menu driven selections from start to finish, storage and catalogs of all data sets for rapid access and manipulation, compact program size to permit storage of dozens of data sets on the program disc, and creation of ASCII text files of graphs for rapid printing. The final product of the plot routine is an extended ASCII character file which shows the events scheduled and actual work dates. This file may be printed from the program, from DOS, or imported to a word processor for customizing. S-Chart is not intended to take the place of commercial scheduling/project management software. However, it is a simple, somewhat limited Gantt chart plotter and scheduling tracking program with an emphasis on straightforward data entry. There is no complex relationship building between the scheduled events. Dates are entered as dates, not as algebraic functions. All the files of S-Chart, except for the graph picture and the stand-alone executable, were written in 100% dBASE III compatible code. The executable code was created with CLIPPER and the graph picture files are written in ASCII code. S-Chart was implemented on an IBM PC series machine under DOS and requires 215k bytes of memory. The program was developed in 1988.

  7. Research on schedulers for astronomical observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colome, Josep; Colomer, Pau; Guàrdia, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Campreciós, Jordi; Coiffard, Thierry; Gesa, Lluis; Martínez, Francesc; Rodler, Florian

    2012-09-01

    The main task of a scheduler applied to astronomical observatories is the time optimization of the facility and the maximization of the scientific return. Scheduling of astronomical observations is an example of the classical task allocation problem known as the job-shop problem (JSP), where N ideal tasks are assigned to M identical resources, while minimizing the total execution time. A problem of higher complexity, called the Flexible-JSP (FJSP), arises when the tasks can be executed by different resources, i.e. by different telescopes, and it focuses on determining a routing policy (i.e., which machine to assign for each operation) other than the traditional scheduling decisions (i.e., to determine the starting time of each operation). In most cases there is no single best approach to solve the planning system and, therefore, various mathematical algorithms (Genetic Algorithms, Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, Multi-Objective Evolutionary algorithms, etc.) are usually considered to adapt the application to the system configuration and task execution constraints. The scheduling time-cycle is also an important ingredient to determine the best approach. A shortterm scheduler, for instance, has to find a good solution with the minimum computation time, providing the system with the capability to adapt the selected task to varying execution constraints (i.e., environment conditions). We present in this contribution an analysis of the task allocation problem and the solutions currently in use at different astronomical facilities. We also describe the schedulers for three different projects (CTA, CARMENES and TJO) where the conclusions of this analysis are applied to develop a suitable routine.

  8. Scheduling Operations for Massive Heterogeneous Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, John; Spagnoli, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) programming has become increasingly difficult with the advent of hybrid supercomputers consisting of multicore CPUs and accelerator boards such as the GPU. Manual tuning of software to achieve high performance on this type of machine has been performed by programmers. This is needlessly difficult and prone to being invalidated by new hardware, new software, or changes in the underlying code. A system was developed for task-based representation of programs, which when coupled with a scheduler and runtime system, allows for many benefits, including higher performance and utilization of computational resources, easier programming and porting, and adaptations of code during runtime. The system consists of a method of representing computer algorithms as a series of data-dependent tasks. The series forms a graph, which can be scheduled for execution on many nodes of a supercomputer efficiently by a computer algorithm. The schedule is executed by a dispatch component, which is tailored to understand all of the hardware types that may be available within the system. The scheduler is informed by a cluster mapping tool, which generates a topology of available resources and their strengths and communication costs. Software is decoupled from its hardware, which aids in porting to future architectures. A computer algorithm schedules all operations, which for systems of high complexity (i.e., most NASA codes), cannot be performed optimally by a human. The system aids in reducing repetitive code, such as communication code, and aids in the reduction of redundant code across projects. It adds new features to code automatically, such as recovering from a lost node or the ability to modify the code while running. In this project, the innovators at the time of this reporting intend to develop two distinct technologies that build upon each other and both of which serve as building blocks for more efficient HPC usage. First is the scheduling and dynamic

  9. Treatment of primary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, W C

    1976-12-01

    Reports in the English language of the treatment of primary syphilis are reviewed. Except for benzathine penicillin, the efficacy of the currently recommended dosage schedules are documented only by Schroeter et al. Although these investigators reported generally acceptable failure rates, further study is necessary to determine: (1) if differences in efficacy exist among regimes; (2) if the current schedules are equally effective in both primary and secondary syphilis; and (3) if increased dosages reduce failure rates. PMID:1010777

  10. Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1998-03-01

    Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

  11. Standardizing criteria for scheduling elective labor inductions.

    PubMed

    Durham, Laurel; Veltman, Larry; Davis, Peggy; Ferguson, Linda; Hacker, Margaret; Hooker, Debra; Larison, Kristine; Pribyl, Jennifer; Twilleager, Karen; Van Hout, Gretchen

    2008-01-01

    Induction of labor has become routine practice in perinatal units across the United States, with rates reaching a high of 21.2% of births in 2003-2004. This article describes the process our institution used to standardize the criteria for scheduling inductions. Specifically, we aimed to increase the consistency in practice for scheduling and performing elective inductions, including mandating gestational age of 39 completed weeks, ensuring cervical ripeness, and disallowing the use of cervical ripening agents. The nurses' participation, from planning to implementation, was critical in the success of this evidence-based practice change.

  12. Scheduling Projects with Multiskill Learning Effect

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost. PMID:24683355

  13. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  14. Temporal planning for transportation planning and scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, Robert E.; Muscettola, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we describe preliminary work done in the CORTES project, applying the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS) to a transportation planning and scheduling domain. First, we describe in more detail the transportation problems that we are addressing. We then describe the fundamental characteristics of HSTS and we concentrate on the representation of multiple capacity resources. We continue with a more detailed description of the transportation planning problem that we have initially addressed in HSTS and of its solution. Finally we describe future directions for our research.

  15. Planning, scheduling, and control for automatic telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Swanson, Keith; Philips, Andy; Levinson, Rich; Bresina, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for the appropriateness of Entropy Reduction Engine (ERE) technology to the planning, scheduling, and control components of Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) management. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we give a brief summary of the planning and scheduling requirements for APTs. Following this, in section 3, we give an ERE project precis, couched primarily in terms of project objectives. Section 4 gives a sketch of the match-up between problem and technology, and section 5 outlines where we want to go with this work.

  16. Scheduling and rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the GERRY scheduling and rescheduling system being applied to coordinate Space Shuttle Ground Processing. The system uses constraint-based iterative repair, a technique that starts with a complete but possibly flawed schedule and iteratively improves it by using constraint knowledge within repair heuristics. In this paper we explore the tradeoff between the informedness and the computational cost of several repair heuristics. We show empirically that some knowledge can greatly improve the convergence speed of a repair-based system, but that too much knowledge, such as the knowledge embodied within the MIN-CONFLICTS lookahead heuristic, can overwhelm a system and result in degraded performance.

  17. Shaping academic task engagement with percentile schedules.

    PubMed

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pipkin, Claire C St Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used.

  18. Workshop Scheduling in the MRO Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Benjamin; Pauli, Dirk; Feller, Sebastian; Skyttä, Manu

    2010-09-01

    Scheduling is an important task in production planning, as it can significantly increase the productivity of a workshop. In this paper we concentrate on a job-shop problem which arises at workshops of typical MRO service providers. An MRO does not only need to minimize the production time (the makespan) and maximize the plant utilization, it also needs to maximize the service and protection level of its stock. Hence, it has several objective functions which usually contradict each other. In this paper we present the novel CTO algorithm which helps to find a schedule regarding the mentioned objective functions.

  19. Shaping Academic Task Engagement with Percentile Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Elizabeth S; Vollmer, Timothy R; St. Peter Pipkin, Claire C

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percentile schedules as a method of quantifying the shaping procedure in an educational setting. We compared duration of task engagement during baseline measurements for 4 students to duration of task engagement during a percentile schedule. As a secondary purpose, we examined the influence on shaping of manipulations of the number of observations used to determine the criterion for reinforcement (the m parameter of the percentile formula). Results showed that the percentile formula was most effective when a relatively large m value (20 observations) was used. PMID:17970261

  20. The Probability of Small Schedule Values and Preference for Random-Interval Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Soreth, Michelle Ennis; Hineline, Philip N

    2009-01-01

    Preference for working on variable schedules and temporal discrimination were simultaneously examined in two experiments using a discrete-trial, concurrent-chains arrangement with fixed interval (FI) and random interval (RI) terminal links. The random schedule was generated by first sampling a probability distribution after the programmed delay to reinforcement on the FI schedule had elapsed, and thus the RI never produced a component schedule value shorter than the FI and maintained a rate of reinforcement half that of the FI. Despite these features, the FI was not strongly preferred. The probability of obtaining the smallest programmed delay to reinforcement on the RI schedule was manipulated in Experiment 1, and the interaction of this probability and initial link length was examined in Experiment 2. As the probability of obtaining small values in the RI increased, preference for the schedule increased while the discriminated time of reinforcer availability in the terminal link decreased. Both of these effects were attenuated by lengthening the initial links. The results support the view that in addition to the delay to reinforcement, the probability of obtaining a short delay is an important choice-affecting variable that likely contributes to the robust preferences for variable, as opposed to fixed, schedules of reinforcement. PMID:19230514

  1. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area quarantined for sapote fruit fly that are to be moved outside the quarantined area may be treated with...

  2. An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2…

  3. Evaluation of Fixed Momentary DRO Schedules under Signaled and Unsignaled Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Dempsey, Carrie M.

    2011-01-01

    Fixed momentary schedules of differential reinforcement of other behavior (FM DRO) generally have been ineffective as treatment for problem behavior. Because most early research on FM DRO included presentation of a signal at the end of the DRO interval, it is unclear whether the limited effects of FM DRO were due to (a) the momentary response…

  4. Decomposability and scalability in space-based observatory scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues of problem and model decomposition within the HSTS scheduling framework. HSTS was developed and originally applied in the context of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling problem, motivated by the limitations of the current solution and, more generally, the insufficiency of classical planning and scheduling approaches in this problem context. We first summarize the salient architectural characteristics of HSTS and their relationship to previous scheduling and AI planning research. Then, we describe some key problem decomposition techniques supported by HSTS and underlying our integrated planning and scheduling approach, and we discuss the leverage they provide in solving space-based observatory scheduling problems.

  5. 29 CFR 1952.123 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.123 Section 1952.123 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Washington § 1952.123...

  6. 29 CFR 1952.123 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.123 Section 1952.123 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Washington § 1952.123...

  7. 48 CFR 2908.404 - Using schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using schedules. 2908.404 Section 2908.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED... subcontracting goals to the DOL Office of Small Business Programs)....

  8. 76 FR 57683 - Regulatory Review Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Regulation of Class II Gaming; (b) A Sole Proprietary Interest regulation; and (c) Class III MICS. The... regulations and Class III MICS after completion of the Tribal Advisory Committee process. This document... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Chapter III Regulatory Review Schedule AGENCY: National...

  9. Evaluation of Scheduling Methods for Multiple Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolender, Michael A.; Slater, G. L.

    1996-01-01

    Several scheduling strategies are analyzed in order to determine the most efficient means of scheduling aircraft when multiple runways are operational and the airport is operating at different utilization rates. The study compares simulation data for two and three runway scenarios to results from queuing theory for an M/D/n queue. The direction taken, however, is not to do a steady-state, or equilibrium, analysis since this is not the case during a rush period at a typical airport. Instead, a transient analysis of the delay per aircraft is performed. It is shown that the scheduling strategy that reduces the delay depends upon the density of the arrival traffic. For light traffic, scheduling aircraft to their preferred runways is sufficient; however, as the arrival rate increases, it becomes more important to separate traffic by weight class. Significant delay reduction is realized when aircraft that belong to the heavy and small weight classes are sent to separate runways with large aircraft put into the 'best' landing slot.

  10. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  11. Group scheduling problems in directional sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Alok; Rossi, André

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses the problem of scheduling a set of groups of directional sensors arising as a result of applying an exact or a heuristic approach for solving a problem involving directional sensors. The problem seeks a schedule for these groups that minimizes the total energy consumed in switching from one group to the next group in the schedule. In practice, when switching from a group to the next one, active sensors in the new group have to rotate in order to face their working direction. These rotations consume energy, and the problem is to schedule the groups so as to minimize the total amount of energy consumed by all the sensor rotations, knowing the initial angular positions of all the sensors. In this article, it is assumed that energy consumption is proportional to the angular movement for all the sensors. Another problem version is also investigated that seeks to minimize the total time during which the sensor network cannot cover all the targets because active sensors are rotating. Both problems are proved to be ?-hard, and a lower bound for the first problem is presented. A greedy heuristic and a genetic algorithm are also proposed for addressing the problem of minimizing total rotation in the general case. Finally, a local search is also proposed to improve the solutions obtained through a genetic algorithm.

  12. 45 CFR 1801.52 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.52 Payment schedule. The Foundation will pay the Scholar a portion of the award of the Scholarship stipend (as described in the...

  13. 45 CFR 1801.52 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.52 Payment schedule. The Foundation will pay the Scholar a portion of the award of the Scholarship stipend (as described in the...

  14. 45 CFR 1801.52 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.52 Payment schedule. The Foundation will pay the Scholar a portion of the award of the Scholarship stipend (as described in the...

  15. 45 CFR 1801.52 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.52 Payment schedule. The Foundation will pay the Scholar a portion of the award of the Scholarship stipend (as described in the...

  16. 45 CFR 1801.52 - Payment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Payment Conditions and Procedures § 1801.52 Payment schedule. The Foundation will pay the Scholar a portion of the award of the Scholarship stipend (as described in the...

  17. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  18. 76 FR 10233 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... amendments appeared in the Federal Register on February 19, 2010 (75 FR 7411), as well as in the Delaware... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 420 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Final...--Water Supply Charges. Accordingly, the Commission's water charging rates for consumptive use and...

  19. 29 CFR 1952.351 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.351 Section 1952.351 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... the plan: (a) Development of a complete management information and control system by July 1, 1976....

  20. 29 CFR 1952.351 - Developmental schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.351 Section 1952.351 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... the plan: (a) Development of a complete management information and control system by July 1, 1976....